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Sample records for adjacent body parts

  1. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature. PMID:27437018

  2. Flow and transport within a coastal aquifer adjacent to a stratified water body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oz, Imri; Yechieli, Yoseph; Eyal, Shalev; Gavrieli, Ittai; Gvirtzman, Haim

    2016-04-01

    The existence of a freshwater-saltwater interface and the circulation flow of saltwater beneath the interface is a well-known phenomenon found at coastal aquifers. This flow is a natural phenomenon that occurs due to density differences between fresh groundwater and the saltwater body. The goals of this research are to use analytical, numerical, and physical models in order to examine the configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interface and the density-driven flow patterns within a coastal aquifer adjacent to long-term stratified saltwater bodies (e.g. meromictic lake). Such hydrological systems are unique, as they consist of three different water types: the regional fresh groundwater, and low and high salinity brines forming the upper and lower water layers of the stratified water body, respectively. This research also aims to examine the influence of such stratification on hydrogeological processes within the coastal aquifer. The coastal aquifer adjacent to the Dead Sea, under its possible future meromictic conditions, serves as an ideal example to examine these processes. The results show that adjacent to a stratified saltwater body three interfaces between three different water bodies are formed, and that a complex flow system, controlled by the density differences, is created, where three circulation cells are developed. These results are significantly different from the classic circulation cell that is found adjacent to non-stratified water bodies (lakes or oceans). In order to obtain a more generalized insight into the groundwater behavior adjacent to a stratified water body, we used the numerical model to perform sensitivity analysis. The hydrological system was found be sensitive to three dimensionless parameters: dimensionless density (i.e. the relative density of the three water bodies'); dimensionless thickness (i.e. the ratio between the relative thickness of the upper layer and the whole thickness of the lake); and dimensionless flux. The results

  3. Body Parts and Early-Learned Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maouene, Josita; Hidaka, Shohei; Smith, Linda B.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the structure of associations among 101 common verbs and body parts. The verbs are those typically learned by children learning English prior to 3 years of age. In a free association task, 50 adults were asked to provide the single body part that came to mind when they thought of each verb. Analyses reveal highly systematic…

  4. Acceptable Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Tumors Adjacent to the Central Biliary System

    SciTech Connect

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Oku, Yohei; Aoki, Yousuke; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate biliary toxicity after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver tumors. Methods and Materials: Among 297 consecutive patients with liver tumors treated with SBRT of 35 to 50 Gy in 5 fractions, patients who were irradiated with >20 Gy to the central biliary system (CBS), including the gallbladder, and had follow-up times >6 months were retrospectively analyzed. Toxicity profiles, such as clinical symptoms and laboratory and radiologic data especially for obstructive jaundice and biliary infection, were investigated in relation to the dose volume and length relationship for each biliary organ. Results: Fifty patients with 55 tumors were irradiated with >20 Gy to the CBS. The median follow-up period was 18.2 months (range, 6.0-80.5 months). In the dose length analysis, 39, 34, 14, and 2 patients were irradiated with >20 Gy, >30 Gy, >40 Gy, and >50 Gy, respectively, to >1 cm of the biliary tract. Seven patients were irradiated with >20 Gy to >20% of the gallbladder. Only 2 patients experienced asymptomatic bile duct stenosis. One patient, metachronously treated twice with SBRT for tumors adjacent to each other, had a transient increase in hepatic and biliary enzymes 12 months after the second treatment. The high-dose area >80 Gy corresponded to the biliary stenosis region. The other patient experienced biliary stenosis 5 months after SBRT and had no laboratory changes. The biliary tract irradiated with >20 Gy was 7 mm and did not correspond to the bile duct stenosis region. No obstructive jaundice or biliary infection was found in any patient. Conclusions: SBRT for liver tumors adjacent to the CBS was feasible with minimal biliary toxicity. Only 1 patient had exceptional radiation-induced bile duct stenosis. For liver tumors adjacent to the CBS without other effective treatment options, SBRT at a dose of 40 Gy in 5 fractions is a safe treatment with regard to biliary toxicity.

  5. Diet and body mass of wintering ducks in adjacent brackish and freshwater habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.; Burns, E.G.; Wickland, B.E.; Eadie, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Field-collected and hunter-donated ducks obtained during September-January of 1997-98 and 1998-99 were used to determine if food habits and body mass of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) and Mallards (A. platyrhynchos) wintering in Suisun Marsh (Suisun), California, a managed estuarine brackish marsh, differed from values in the adjacent Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (the Delta), a freshwater region of grain fields flooded after harvest. Ducks in Suisun fed primarily on seeds of Sea Purslane (Sesuvium verrucosum), followed by Alkali Bulrush (Schoenoplectus maritimus) and Wild Millet (Echinochloa crusgalli), together forming 73-90% (aggregate % dry mass) of the diets. Ducks in the Delta fed primarily on seeds of Smartweed (Polygonum spp.), followed by corn (Zea mays) and tomato seeds (Lycopersicon esculentum), together forming 62-88% of the diets. Pintails and Mallards collected in Suisun each had similar (5 of 11 seasonal comparisons) or greater (6 of the 11 comparisons) body mass compared to their conspecifics collected from the Delta (90% confidence interval analyses), despite a composite diet in the Delta having about 39% greater metabolizable energy content (ME) and 24% greater protein content than in Suisun. Therefore, diet quality alone was not a predictor of body mass in these two areas. Other factors must have been involved, such as greater food abundance and density, lower waterfowl abundance and density, or lower daily energy costs in Suisun. Direct measurement of these factors should explain the apparent inconsistencies in body mass relative to food quality in these brackish and freshwater habitats.

  6. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  7. Geophysical observations on northern part of Georges Bank and adjacent basins of Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, R.N.; Hathaway, J.C.; Dillon, William P.; Hendricks, J.D.; Robb, James M.

    1974-01-01

    Continuous-seismic-reflection and magnetic-intensity profiles provide data for inferences about the geology of the northern part of Georges Bank and the basins of the Gulf of Maine adjacent to the bank. Basement is inferred to be mostly sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Paleozoic age that were metamorphosed and intruded locally by felsic and mafic plutons near the end of the Paleozoic Era. During Late Triassic time, large fault basins formed within the Gulf of Maine and probably beneath Georges Bank. The fault basins and a possible major northeast-trending fault zone beneath the northern part of the bank probably formed as a result of the opening Atlantic during the Mesozoic. Nonmarine sediments, associated with mafic flows and intrusive rocks, were deposited in the fault basins as they formed. The upper surface of the Triassic and pre-Triassic rocks that comprise basement is an unconformity that makes up much of the bottom of the Gulf of Maine. Depth to the basement surface beneath the gulf differ greatly because of fluvial erosion in Tertiary time and glacial erosion in Pleistocene time. Beneath the northern part of Georges Bank the basement surface is smoother and slopes southward. Prominent valleys, cut before Late Cretaceous time, are present beneath this part of the bank. Cretaceous, Tertiary, and possibly Jurassic times were characterized by episodes of coastal-plain deposition and fluvial erosion. During this time a very thick wedge of sediment, mostly of Jurassic(?) and Cretaceous ages, was deposited on the shelf. Major periods of erosion took place at the close of the Cretaceous and during the Pliocene. Fluvial erosion during the Pliocene removed much of the coastal-plain sedimentary wedge and formed the Gulf of Maine. Pleistocene glaciers eroded all but a few remnants of the coastal-plain sediments within the gulf and deposited a thick section of drift against the north slope of Georges Bank and a thin veneer of outwash on the bank. Marine sediments were

  8. Depositional and thermal history of Lower Triassic rocks in southwestern Montana and adjacent parts of Wyoming and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, R.K.; Paull, R.A.; Kraemer, B.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Forty-two stratigraphic sections in Montana and adjacent parts of Wyoming and Idaho provide the framework for a conodont biostratigraphic and carbonate sedimentologic analysis of Lower Triassic marine rocks. From oldest to youngest, these units are the Dinwoody, Woodside (Red Peak to the east), and Thaynes Formations. The Dinwoody disconformably overlies Upper Permian rocks with little or no physical evidence of a 1 to 6-m.y. hiatus. The initial Triassic transgression was extensive and geologically instantaneous across the study area, and it resulted in deposition of interbedded calcareous mudstone, siltstone, and limestone. The Dinwoody varies in thickness from zero on the northeast to greater than 270 m in the southwest. Maximum thicknesses of Woodside red beds and Thaynes carbonates and siltstones are 244 and 400 m, respectively. Post-Triassic erosion progressively truncated the Thaynes, Woodside, and Dinwoody from north to south across the region. The western margin of the Triassic seaway in the study area is obscured by erosion, structural complexities, igneous activity, and younger sedimentary deposits. The sparse and scattered exposures that remain provide an intriguing mosaic of depositional environments that range from shallow marine to basinal and represent most of Early Triassic time. Lower Triassic rocks produce gas in the Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt, and similar potential may exist in Montana. Conodonts recovered from surface exposures are thermally unaltered except in close proximity to intrusive bodies and within the Medicine Lodge thrust system. This establishes that subsurface units in much of the study area are within the temperature regime for dry gas generation.

  9. Dignity and the use of body parts.

    PubMed

    Foster, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This paper contends that the conventional ethical and legal ways of analysing the wrong involved in the misuse of human body parts are inadequate, and should be replaced with an analysis based on human dignity. It examines the various ways in which dignity has been understood, outlines many of the criticisms made of those ways (agreeing with many of the criticisms), and proposes a new way of seeing dignity which is exegetically consonant with the way in which dignity has been historically understood, and yet avoids the pitfalls which have led to dignity being dismissed by many as hopelessly amorphous or incurably theological. The account of dignity proposed is broadly Aristotelian. It defines dignity in terms of human thriving, and presupposes that it is possible, at least in principle, to determine empirically what makes humans thrive. It contends that humans are quintessentially relational animals, and that it is not possible (and certainly not ethically desirable) to define humans as atomistic entities. One important corollary of this is that when using dignity/thriving as a criterion for determining the ethical acceptability of a proposed action or inaction, one should ask not merely how the dignity interests of the patient (for instance) would be affected, but how the dignity interests of all stakeholders would be affected. The business of ethics is then the business of auditing all those interests, and determining the course of action which would maximise the amount of thriving in the world. PMID:22893572

  10. Body weight of hypersonic aircraft, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    The load bearing body weight of wing-body and all-body hypersonic aircraft is estimated for a wide variety of structural materials and geometries. Variations of weight with key design and configuration parameters are presented and discussed. Both hot and cool structure approaches are considered in isotropic, organic composite, and metal matrix composite materials; structural shells are sandwich or skin-stringer. Conformal and pillow-tank designs are investigated for the all-body shape. The results identify the most promising hypersonic aircraft body structure design approaches and their weight trends. Geometric definition of vehicle shapes and structural analysis methods are presented in appendices.

  11. Ambient seismic noise tomography of Canada and adjacent regions: Part I. Crustal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Honn; Behr, Yannik; Currie, Claire A.; Hyndman, Roy; Townend, John; Lin, Fan-Chi; Ritzwoller, Michael H.; Shan, Shao-Ju; He, Jiangheng

    2013-11-01

    paper presents the first continental-scale study of the crust and upper mantle shear velocity (Vs) structure of Canada and adjacent regions using ambient noise tomography. Continuous waveform data recorded between 2003 and 2009 with 788 broadband seismograph stations in Canada and adjacent regions were used in the analysis. The higher primary frequency band of the ambient noise provides better resolution of crustal structures than previous tomographic models based on earthquake waveforms. Prominent low velocity anomalies are observed at shallow depths (<20 km) beneath the Gulf of St. Lawrence in east Canada, the sedimentary basins of west Canada, and the Cordillera. In contrast, the Canadian Shield exhibits high crustal velocities. We characterize the crust-mantle transition in terms of not only its depth and velocity but also its sharpness, defined by its thickness and the amount of velocity increase. Considerable variations in the physical properties of the crust-mantle transition are observed across Canada. Positive correlations between the crustal thickness, Moho velocity, and the thickness of the transition are evident throughout most of the craton except near Hudson Bay where the uppermost mantle Vs is relatively low. Prominent vertical Vs gradients are observed in the midcrust beneath the Cordillera and beneath most of the Canadian Shield. The midcrust velocity contrast beneath the Cordillera may correspond to a detachment zone associated with high temperatures immediately beneath, whereas the large midcrust velocity gradient beneath the Canadian Shield probably represents an ancient rheological boundary between the upper and lower crust.

  12. Representational Similarity of Body Parts in Human Occipitotemporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Stefania; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-09-23

    Regions in human lateral and ventral occipitotemporal cortices (OTC) respond selectively to pictures of the human body and its parts. What are the organizational principles underlying body part responses in these regions? Here we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) of fMRI data to test multiple possible organizational principles: shape similarity, physical proximity, cortical homunculus proximity, and semantic similarity. Participants viewed pictures of whole persons, chairs, and eight body parts (hands, arms, legs, feet, chests, waists, upper faces, and lower faces). The similarity of multivoxel activity patterns for all body part pairs was established in whole person-selective OTC regions. The resulting neural similarity matrices were then compared with similarity matrices capturing the hypothesized organizational principles. Results showed that the semantic similarity model best captured the neural similarity of body parts in lateral and ventral OTC, which followed an organization in three clusters: (1) body parts used as action effectors (hands, feet, arms, and legs), (2) noneffector body parts (chests and waists), and (3) face parts (upper and lower faces). Whole-brain RSA revealed, in addition to OTC, regions in parietal and frontal cortex in which neural similarity was related to semantic similarity. In contrast, neural similarity in occipital cortex was best predicted by shape similarity models. We suggest that the semantic organization of body parts in high-level visual cortex relates to the different functions associated with the three body part clusters, reflecting the unique processing and connectivity demands associated with the different types of information (e.g., action, social) different body parts (e.g., limbs, faces) convey. Significance statement: While the organization of body part representations in motor and somatosensory cortices has been well characterized, the principles underlying body part representations in visual cortex

  13. Drainage modifications in southeastern Ohio and adjacent parts of West Virginia and Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tight, W.G.

    1903-01-01

    The field work upon which this paper is based was carried on intermittently for several years. During the season of 1899 the work in Washington County, Ohio, was conducted under the direction of the Ohio State Academy of Science, the expenses being covered by a grant from the Emerson McMillin special research fund. The field work of the season of 1900 was done under the direction of Dr. T. C. Chamberlin, chief of the Division of Pleistocene Geology of the United States Geological Survey, and to him the author is greatly indebted for many valuable suggestions in relation to the work, and for an extended correspondence concerning the interpretations, during the preparation of this report. The study of this particular region was the natural result of earlier studies of drainage modifications in Ohio, in the region more nearly adjacent to the glaciated area. Until a few years ago but very little systematic study of the drainage features of Ohio had been made. It is not intended at present to make a complete review of the early literature, but to refer only to such portions of it as bear directly on the problem in hand. On account of the lack of good maps of Ohio it has not been possible to make the maps which accompany this paper as accurate as might be desired. They have been constructed from various published maps and from personal observations in the field; and, while they are not strictly accurate, it is hoped that they will set forth the facts with reference to the drainage modifications with sufficient clearness to enable anyone to follow the features in the field, or to serve for purposes of correlation. The map of Flatwoods and Teays valleys has been constructed from four topographic sheets of the United States Geological Survey Ironton, Kenova, Huntington, and Charleston. The author is under obligations to Mr. H. M. Wilson, geographer of the Survey, for data furnished from the unpublished map of the Kenova quadrangle. The photographs illustrating the report

  14. Religious justifications for donating body parts.

    PubMed

    May, W F

    1985-02-01

    May discusses religious justifications for organ donation as alternatives to marketplace purchase, voluntary donation, and routine salvaging. He responds to Feinberg's proposal for a national system of salvaging and his criticism of the tendency to invest a dead body with symbolism that hampers organ donation. After exploring the implications for transplantation of the Christian Scientist, dualist, and Gnostic outlooks, May considers aspects of the Judeo-Christian tradition that influence attitudes toward organ donation and transplantation. He calls upon religious institutions to assume a leadership role in arousing conscience and in encouraging organized giving of organs. PMID:3980204

  15. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 560 - Eligible Procurement Bodies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligible Procurement Bodies C Appendix C to Part 560 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued..., App. C Appendix C to Part 560—Eligible Procurement Bodies This Appendix C sets forth...

  16. Categorical discrimination of human body parts by magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Misaki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Okamura, Yumiko; Fukuma, Ryohei; Hirata, Masayuki; Araki, Toshihiko; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Humans recognize body parts in categories. Previous studies have shown that responses in the fusiform body area (FBA) and extrastriate body area (EBA) are evoked by the perception of the human body, when presented either as whole or as isolated parts. These responses occur approximately 190 ms after body images are visualized. The extent to which body-sensitive responses show specificity for different body part categories remains to be largely clarified. We used a decoding method to quantify neural responses associated with the perception of different categories of body parts. Nine subjects underwent measurements of their brain activities by magnetoencephalography (MEG) while viewing 14 images of feet, hands, mouths, and objects. We decoded categories of the presented images from the MEG signals using a support vector machine (SVM) and calculated their accuracy by 10-fold cross-validation. For each subject, a response that appeared to be a body-sensitive response was observed and the MEG signals corresponding to the three types of body categories were classified based on the signals in the occipitotemporal cortex. The accuracy in decoding body-part categories (with a peak at approximately 48%) was above chance (33.3%) and significantly higher than that for random categories. According to the time course and location, the responses are suggested to be body-sensitive and to include information regarding the body-part category. Finally, this non-invasive method can decode category information of a visual object with high temporal and spatial resolution and this result may have a significant impact in the field of brain–machine interface research. PMID:26582986

  17. Macrobenthos of the southern part of St. Anna trough and the adjacent Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. V.; Vedenin, A. A.; Minin, K. V.; Rogacheva, A. V.; Molodtsova, T. N.; Rajskiy, A. K.; Kucheruk, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    Taxonomic composition and ecological structure of benthic communities of the southern part of St. Anna Trough were investigated during the 54th and 59th cruises of RV Akademik Mstislav Keldysh. Material was collected using Sigsbee trawl at 10 stations arranged in two transects (depth range 57-554 m). It was shown that benthic communities of the western arm of the St. Anna Trough differ considerably from the communities of the eastern arm. The western arm communities develop under the influence of active near-bottom hydrodynamics in conditions of rugged topography and a coarse-grained sediment or hard substrate. The wastern arm of the trough is characterized by the predomination of the soft sediment, smooth topography, and weak currents. In the western arm of the trough the influence of the Barents Sea fauna is traced down to the edge of the internal shelf (about 150 m depth). The community of the eastern arm of the trough situated out from the direct influence of the Barents Sea waters represents a continuation of the Ophiocten sericeum community, typical for external Kara Sea shelf. With increasing depth, Ophiopleura borealis becomes the dominant species of the community. In the greatest explored depths some deep-water High-Arctic species, such as echinoids Pourtalesia jeffreysi, were observed. The major factors determining the distribution of benthic communities in the investigated area are the microrelief pattern, the sediment structure, and near-bottom hydrodynamics.

  18. Body parts in property theory: an integrated framework.

    PubMed

    Nwabueze, Remigius Nnamdi

    2014-01-01

    The role of property theory as a framework for analysis and regulation of body parts has become a debate of topical importance because of the emergence of biomedical technologies that utilise body parts, and also because the application of the concept of property, even with respect to historically and traditionally accepted forms of property, raises serious challenges to the property analyst. However, there is another reason for the topicality of property in relation to body parts: a proprietary approach confers on a claimant the advantage of continuing control that is tellingly lacking in non-property frameworks underpinned, for instance, by consent, negligence, privacy and unjust enrichment rules. In some circumstances, such as an unauthorised blood test performed on a blood sample obtained with consent, the continuing control provided by property law might be the only chance a claimant has to obtain a remedy. Economy of space, however, requires that only a prolegomenon on body parts and property theory is given below. Thus, the analysis begins by providing in outline a framework for comprehensive analysis of body parts within the realm of property theory; thereafter, the author engages with the normative question of whether body parts or rights exercisable over body parts could be admitted into the category of property. PMID:23371312

  19. Heavy metals accumulation in parts of paddy Oryza sativa L. grown in paddy field adjacent to ultrabasic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadif, Waqeed Mahdi; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Sahid, Ismail; Bhuiyan, Atiqur Rahman; Ibrahim, Izyanti

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the accumulation and translocation of heavy metals from soil around the root zone to various parts of the paddy plant, namely the roots, stems, leaves and rice grains. This study was conducted in 2014 in paddy field adjacent to ultrabasic soil (field 1 and 2) located in Ranau, Sabah and one field (Field 3) taken as control located at the UKM experimental plot in peninsular of Malaysia. The plant species used in the present investigation is Paddy Batu. The heavy metals studied were Chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe) and Nickel (Ni). Heavy metals in soil and plant were extracted by wet digestion method. Heavy metals present in paddy plants and soils extract were measured using the ICP-MS. Heavy metals concentrations in the plant parts in descending order is the root > leaves > stem > rice grain. Lower concentration of all heavy metals in soils and plant parts was shown by the control site (Field 3) in UKM Bangi. Higher concentration of heavy metals occurred in the roots compared to other above ground parts (stem, leaves, and grains) of the paddy plant in all of the paddy field. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of heavy metals in all locations were recorded in descending order as Ni > Cr > Fe, the BAF values for all metals in the rice grains were low, whereas the BAF values were recorded high for Ni in all locations. The results also showed that Fe was the most predominant metal ion in the roots, followed by Ni then Cr.

  20. Altered disc pressure profile after an osteoporotic vertebral fracture is a risk factor for adjacent vertebral body fracture.

    PubMed

    Tzermiadianos, Michael N; Renner, Susan M; Phillips, Frank M; Hadjipavlou, Alexander G; Zindrick, Michael R; Havey, Robert M; Voronov, Michael; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of endplate deformity after an osteoporotic vertebral fracture in increasing the risk for adjacent vertebral fractures. Eight human lower thoracic or thoracolumbar specimens, each consisting of five vertebrae were used. To selectively fracture one of the endplates of the middle VB of each specimen a void was created under the target endplate and the specimen was flexed and compressed until failure. The fractured vertebra was subjected to spinal extension under 150 N preload that restored the anterior wall height and vertebral kyphosis, while the fractured endplate remained significantly depressed. The VB was filled with cement to stabilize the fracture, after complete evacuation of its trabecular content to ensure similar cement distribution under both the endplates. Specimens were tested in flexion-extension under 400 N preload while pressure in the discs and strain at the anterior wall of the adjacent vertebrae were recorded. Disc pressure in the intact specimens increased during flexion by 26 +/- 14%. After cementation, disc pressure increased during flexion by 15 +/- 11% in the discs with un-fractured endplates, while decreased by 19 +/- 26.7% in the discs with the fractured endplates. During flexion, the compressive strain at the anterior wall of the vertebra next to the fractured endplate increased by 94 +/- 23% compared to intact status (p < 0.05), while it did not significantly change at the vertebra next to the un-fractured endplate (18.2 +/- 7.1%, p > 0.05). Subsequent flexion with compression to failure resulted in adjacent fracture close to the fractured endplate in six specimens and in a non-adjacent fracture in one specimen, while one specimen had no adjacent fractures. Depression of the fractured endplate alters the pressure profile of the damaged disc resulting in increased compressive loading of the anterior wall of adjacent vertebra that predisposes it to wedge fracture. This data suggests that correction of

  1. Intellectual property rights and detached human body parts.

    PubMed

    Pila, Justine

    2014-01-01

    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same. PMID:22844029

  2. The commerce of human body parts: an Eastern Orthodox response.

    PubMed

    Reardon, P H

    2000-08-01

    The Orthodox Church teaches that the bodies of those in Christ are to be regarded as sanctified by the hearing of the Word and faithful participation in the Sacraments, most particularly the Holy Eucharist; because of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit the consecrated bodies of Christians do not belong to them but to Christ; with respect to the indwelling Holy Spirit there is no difference between the bodies of Christians before and after death; whether before or after death, the Christian body is also to receive the same veneration; and notwithstanding the physical corruptions that the body endures by reason of death, there remains a strict continuity between the body in which the Christian dies and the body in which the Christian will rise again. That is to say, it is the very same reality that is sown in corruption and will be raised in incorruption. Given such consideration, the notion of "selling" and integral part of a human being is simply outside the realm of rational comprehension. Indeed, it is profoundly repugnant to those Orthodox Christian sentiments that are formed and nourished by the Church's sacramental teaching and liturgical worship. One does not sell or purchase that which has been consecrated in those solemn ways that the Church consecrates the human body. PMID:12171078

  3. The commodification of the body and its parts.

    PubMed

    Sharp, L A

    2000-01-01

    The human body--and its parts--has long been a target for commodification within myriad cultural settings. A discussion of commodification requires that one consider, first, the significance of the body within anthropology and, second, what defines a body "part." After exploring these initial questions, this article outlines dominant theoretical approaches to commodification within anthropology, with Mauss and Marx figuring prominently. The discussion then turns to historically well-documented forms of body commodification: These include slavery and other oppressive labor practices; female reproduction; and the realms of sorcery and endocannibalism. An analysis here uncovers dominant established approaches that continue to drive current studies. The remainder of this article concerns emergent biotechnologies, whose application in clinical and other related scientific arenas marks a paradigmatic shift in anthropological understandings of the commodified, fragmented body. The following contexts are explored with care: reproductive technologies; organ transplantation; cosmetic and transsexual surgeries; genetics and immunology; and, finally, the category of the cyborg. The article concludes with suggestions for an integrated theoretical vision, advocating greater cross-fertilization of analytical approaches and the inclusion of an ethics of body commodification within anthropology. PMID:15977341

  4. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 560 - Eligible Procurement Bodies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eligible Procurement Bodies C Appendix C to Part 560 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... affiliated with the coercive organs of the state. See § 560.531(e). Government Trading Corporation...

  5. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 560 - Eligible Procurement Bodies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligible Procurement Bodies C Appendix C to Part 560 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... affiliated with the coercive organs of the state. See § 560.531(e). Government Trading Corporation...

  6. Practice perspectives: fat injection in different parts of the body.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, E

    1998-04-01

    Fat injection may be successfully performed in almost all parts of the body, including the face, hands, female breasts, buttocks, calves, and genitals. A review of the steps necessary for obtaining better cosmetic results with this procedure are presented. PMID:9697445

  7. Body Parts Removed during Surgery: A Useful Training Source

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Tiengo, Cesare; Parenti, Anna; Cestrone, Adriano; De Caro, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    Current undergraduate medical curricula provides relatively little time for cadaver dissection. The Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology at the University of Padova has organized a pilot project with the University Hospital for the donation of body parts that are surgically removed for therapeutic purposes and destined under Italian law for…

  8. Detecting and tracking people and their body parts in infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jüngling, Kai; Arens, Michael

    2011-06-01

    In most of today's surveillance tasks, people's actions are the focus of attention. A prerequisite for action interpretation is a stable tracking of people to build meaningful trajectories. Specifically in surveillance applications, not only trajectories on agent level are of interest, but also interpretation on the level of limbs provides important information when it comes to more sophisticated action recognition tasks. In this paper, we present an integrated approach to detect and track people and their body parts in thermal imagery. For that, we introduce a generic detection and tracking strategy that employs only local image features and thus works independently of underlying video data specifics like color information - making it applicable to both, visible and infrared data. In addition, we show how this approach serves to detect a person's body parts and extract trajectories which can be input for further interpretation purposes.

  9. Changes in chemical contaminant body burden and biological effects in mussels adjacent to a marine remediation site

    SciTech Connect

    Kagley, A.N.; Snider, R.G.; Inouye, L.S.; Casillas, E.

    1995-12-31

    Eagle Harbor is a creosote-polluted marine site currently undergoing initial environmental remediation. Highly contaminated sediments were capped with a layer of sediment from a minimally contaminated area. Mussels (Mytilus edulis complex) in the vicinity of the creosote plant were collected before, during, and after the initial remediation process, for monitoring body burdens of PAHs as well as cellular effects indicative of biological damage. Mussels from this area have previously been shown to exhibit an elevated body burden of high molecular weight PAHs, as well as substantial changes in subcellular structures and functions, characteristic of mussels from chemically contaminated environments. Following capping, the body burden of high molecular weight PAHs was substantially reduced early in the restoration process yet mussel contaminant body burdens were approaching pre-cap levels one year after the end of the remediation project. Changes in mussel health were assessed by measuring selected aspects of lysosomal function as well as levels of enzymes and anti-oxidants involved in detoxifying organic chemical contaminants. Substantial improvement throughout capping occurred in lysosomal stability and cytochrome P450 reductase activity in digestive gland, and anti-oxidant status in gill tissue when compared to initial findings. In contrast, increased levels of neutral lipid and lipofuscin in digestive glands indicated that mussels were still suffering biological impairment as a result of chemical contaminant exposure. Overall, indigenous mussels near the marine remediation project showed temporary improvement in tissue body burden of chemical contaminants and some decrease in biological effects.

  10. Geohydrology of the Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River Basin, south-central Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torak, Lynn J.; Painter, Jaime A.; Peck, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Major streams and tributaries located in the Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee (ASO) River Basin of south-central Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida drain about 8,000 square miles of a layered sequence of clastic and carbonate sediments and carbonate Coastal Plain sediments consisting of the surficial aquifer system, upper semiconfining unit, Upper Floridan aquifer, and lower confining unit. Streams either flow directly on late-middle Eocene to Oligocene karst limestone or carve a dendritic drainage pattern into overlying Miocene to Holocene sand, silt, and clay, facilitating water exchange and hydraulic connection with geohydrologic units. Geologic structures operating in the ASO River Basin through time control sedimentation and influence geohydrology and water exchange between geohydrologic units and surface water. More than 300 feet (ft) of clastic sediments overlie the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Gulf Trough-Apalachicola Embayment, a broad area extending from the southwest to the northeast through the center of the basin. These clastic sediments limit hydraulic connection and water exchange between the Upper Floridan aquifer, the surficial aquifer system, and surface water. Accumulation of more than 350 ft of low-permeability sediments in the Southeast Georgia Embayment and Suwannee Strait hydraulically isolates the Upper Floridan aquifer from land-surface hydrologic processes in the Okefenokee Basin physiographic district. Burial of limestone beneath thick clastic overburden in these areas virtually eliminates karst processes, resulting in low aquifer hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient despite an aquifer thickness of more than 900 ft. Conversely, uplift and faulting associated with regional tectonics and the northern extension of the Peninsular Arch caused thinning and erosion of clastic sediments overlying the Upper Floridan aquifer southeast of the Gulf Trough-Apalachicola Embayment near the Florida-Georgia State line. Limestone dissolution in

  11. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year

  12. Body part-centered and full body-centered peripersonal space representations

    PubMed Central

    Serino, Andrea; Noel, Jean-Paul; Galli, Giulia; Canzoneri, Elisa; Marmaroli, Patrick; Lissek, Hervé; Blanke, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Dedicated neural systems represent the space surrounding the body, termed Peripersonal space (PPS), by integrating visual or auditory stimuli occurring near the body with somatosensory information. As a behavioral proxy to PPS, we measured participants’ reaction time to tactile stimulation while task-irrelevant auditory or visual stimuli were presented at different distances from their body. In 7 experiments we delineated the critical distance at which auditory or visual stimuli boosted tactile processing on the hand, face, and trunk as a proxy of the PPS extension. Three main findings were obtained. First, the size of PPS varied according to the stimulated body part, being progressively bigger for the hand, then face, and largest for the trunk. Second, while approaching stimuli always modulated tactile processing in a space-dependent manner, receding stimuli did so only for the hand. Finally, the extension of PPS around the hand and the face varied according to their relative positioning and stimuli congruency, whereas the trunk PPS was constant. These results suggest that at least three body-part specific PPS representations exist, differing in extension and directional tuning. These distinct PPS representations, however, are not fully independent from each other, but referenced to the common reference frame of the trunk. PMID:26690698

  13. [Contributions for a statute of parts separated from the body].

    PubMed

    Darío Bergel, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author reflects on the ethical and legal implications arising from the treatment that should be conferred on the separate parts of the human body. Thus, the status of the body is changing so rapidly, due to the new developments in biotechnology, that raises unprecedented dilemmas for the Law. Also noteworthy the relevant issues brought by the incessant progress of biomedical science, claiming regulations consistent with its implications in various fields. The following issues will be highlighted by the author: the achievements in the fields of molecular biology and genetics, the proliferation and diversification of biobanks, and the commercialization and patenting of genes, gene sequences and other biological materials, which generates a series of ethical and legal problems. PMID:22984750

  14. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. Part I. Gravity survey

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.A.; Cook, K.L.

    1983-04-01

    During 1980 and 1981 a total of 569 new gravity stations were taken in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. The new stations were combined with 530 other gravity stations taken in previous surveys which resulted in a compilation of 1099 stations which were used in this study. The additional surveys were undertaken to assist in the evaluation of the area for the possible development of geothermal resources by providing an interpreted structural framework by delineating faults, structural trends, intrusions, thickness of valley fill, and increased density of host rock. The gravity data are presented as (1) a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map with a 2 mgal contour interval on a scale of 1:100,000 and (2) five generally east-trending gravity profiles. A geologic interpretation of the study area was made from the gravity map and from the interpretive geologic cross sections which were modeled along the gravity profiles.

  15. Comprehension and production of body part labels in 2- to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Camões-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J

    2011-09-01

    This study examined which body part labels children could (i) produce when the experimenter touched different locations on her own body, asking each time 'What's this?' and (ii) comprehend by touching the correct locations on their own bodies in response to the experimenter asking 'Where's the [body-part label]?'. Seventeen children aged between 26 and 41 months, tested in a repeated measures procedure, were presented with 50 different body part stimuli in 200 test trials per child. Overall, the children produced fewer body part labels than they could comprehend. The accuracy of children's responses depended on (i) the location or extent of each body part (facial and broad body features were better known; joints and features in or attached to broad body parts the least well known); (ii) the amount of sensory (but not motor) representation each body part has in the human cortex; and (iii) whether a body part was commonly named by caregivers. These results present a precise mapping of the body parts that young children are able to name and locate on their own bodies in response to body part names; they suggest several possible determinants of lexical-semantic body knowledge and add to the understanding of how it develops in childhood. PMID:21848746

  16. Children's Monetary Evaluations of Body Parts as a Function of Sex, Grade, and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Sandra L.; And Others

    The present study reports ratings of seven body parts as a function of sex, age, and race of child. Subjects were 320 public school children. They were given a sheet of paper with pictures of seven different body parts, and were asked to select from a list of numbers a dollar value for each body part. The instructions suggested that they imagine a…

  17. Turning Configural Processing Upside Down: Part and Whole Body Postures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Catherine L.; Stone, Valerie E.; Grubb, Jefferson D.; McGoldrick, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Like faces, body postures are susceptible to an inversion effect in untrained viewers. The inversion effect may be indicative of configural processing, but what kind of configural processing is used for the recognition of body postures must be specified. The information available in the body stimulus was manipulated. The presence and magnitude of…

  18. Entanglement between noncomplementary parts of many-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichterich, H. C.

    This thesis investigates the properties of entanglement in strongly correlated quantum systems, more specifically that between regions of a many-body system which may be separated spatially giving rise to a part of the system which is disregarded. The focus of the first part of this thesis is the response of a collection of spins, arranged on a one dimensional lattice, to a global quench, i.e. a rapid change in the interaction characteristics. Such a quench is seen to produce a significant amount of entanglement between distant spins. The robustness of the scheme towards random disorder is detailed and it is shown that the entanglement is sufficiently high to be distilled into almost pure Bell pairs. In a similar model system, it is explored how a von Neumann measurement with post-selection (i.e., discarding certain measurements based on the outcome) performed locally on two possibly well separated regions of spins, may give rise to a pure and entangled state of these regions, assuming the system is in its ground state. Later chapters are concerned with entanglement between noncomplementary groups of spins at quantum critical points, a situation where at zero temperature quantum fluctuations become pronounced. For spin chain models it is observed that this entanglement (as measured by negativity) assumes a finite value depending only on the ratio of the size of the regions to their separation and is further seen to be universal, i.e. independent of the microscopic details of the interaction. Universality of this form of entanglement is finally explored in a collective spin model. By casting the problem into the language of a few bosonic modes a closed form expression for the negativity in the thermodynamic limit for the entire phase diagram of the model is derived. At the quantum critical point this measure is explicitly universal in the aforementioned sense.

  19. Development of Body Part Vocabulary in Toddlers in Relation to Self-Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Celia

    2014-01-01

    To better understand young children’s ability to communicate about their bodies, toddlers’ comprehension and production of 27 common body part words was assessed using parental report at 20 and 30 months (n = 64), and self-awareness was assessed using mirror self-recognition. Children at both ages comprehended more body part words that referred to themselves than to others’ bodies, and more words referring to locations that they could see on themselves than to those they could not see. Children with more advanced mirror self-recognition comprehended and produced more body part words. These findings suggest that with age and better understanding of the self, children also possess a better understanding of the body, and they provide new information about factors that affect how young children begin to talk about their own and others’ bodies. They should be useful for practitioners who need to ask children about their bodies and body parts. PMID:26195850

  20. Moving human full body and body parts detection, tracking, and applications on human activity estimation, walking pattern and face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a new way for detection and tracking of human full-body and body-parts with color (intensity) patch morphological segmentation and adaptive thresholding for security surveillance cameras. An adaptive threshold scheme has been developed for dealing with body size changes, illumination condition changes, and cross camera parameter changes. Tests with the PETS 2009 and 2014 datasets show that we can obtain high probability of detection and low probability of false alarm for full-body. Test results indicate that our human full-body detection method can considerably outperform the current state-of-the-art methods in both detection performance and computational complexity. Furthermore, in this paper, we have developed several methods using color features for detection and tracking of human body-parts (arms, legs, torso, and head, etc.). For example, we have developed a human skin color sub-patch segmentation algorithm by first conducting a RGB to YIQ transformation and then applying a Subtractive I/Q image Fusion with morphological operations. With this method, we can reliably detect and track human skin color related body-parts such as face, neck, arms, and legs. Reliable body-parts (e.g. head) detection allows us to continuously track the individual person even in the case that multiple closely spaced persons are merged. Accordingly, we have developed a new algorithm to split a merged detection blob back to individual detections based on the detected head positions. Detected body-parts also allow us to extract important local constellation features of the body-parts positions and angles related to the full-body. These features are useful for human walking gait pattern recognition and human pose (e.g. standing or falling down) estimation for potential abnormal behavior and accidental event detection, as evidenced with our experimental tests. Furthermore, based on the reliable head (face) tacking, we have applied a super-resolution algorithm to enhance

  1. Development of Body-Part Vocabulary in Toddlers in Relation to Self-Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Whitney E.; Brownell, Celia A.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand young children's ability to communicate about their bodies, toddlers' comprehension and production of 27 common body-part words was assessed using parental report at 20 and 30 months (n?=?64), and self-awareness was assessed using mirror self-recognition. Children at both ages comprehended more body-part words that referred to…

  2. ["In vivo" body composition assessment; part I: a historic overview].

    PubMed

    Carnero, Elvis A; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Giráldez García, Manuel Avelino; Sardinha, Luis B

    2015-01-01

    The study of body composition (BC) has gained in relevance over the last decades, mainly because of its important health- and disease- related applications within both the clinical and the sports setting. It is not a new area, and its especial relevance as an area of biology dates from the second half of the nineteenth century. In this paper, we have reviewed the three historic periods of BC, with special reference to the most important advances in in vivo assessment. Even though the earliest findings about human BC date from antiquity, the first (or 'early') stage of discovery began in 1850. Said early stage was mainly characterized by data obtained from the dissection of cadavers and by the application of biochemical methods in vivo. Longitudinal changes in body composition were also a concern. The second (so called 'recent') stage, in the second half of the twentieth century, was marked by milestones such as the formulation of the first mathematical models for the estimation of body components, and technological advances. Within the third ('contemporary' or 'current') stage of research, several groups have focused on validating the classical BC models in specific populations, on analysis of the genetic determinants (i.e. phenotypes and, more recently genotypes) of body composition, and on re-instigating the study of dynamic BC. PMID:25929363

  3. Body-part-specific representations of semantic noun categories.

    PubMed

    Carota, Francesca; Moseley, Rachel; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2012-06-01

    Word meaning processing in the brain involves ventrolateral temporal cortex, but a semantic contribution of the dorsal stream, especially frontocentral sensorimotor areas, has been controversial. We here examine brain activation during passive reading of object-related nouns from different semantic categories, notably animal, food, and tool words, matched for a range of psycholinguistic features. Results show ventral stream activation in temporal cortex along with category-specific activation patterns in both ventral and dorsal streams, including sensorimotor systems and adjacent pFC. Precentral activation reflected action-related semantic features of the word categories. Cortical regions implicated in mouth and face movements were sparked by food words, and hand area activation was seen for tool words, consistent with the actions implicated by the objects the words are used to speak about. Furthermore, tool words specifically activated the right cerebellum, and food words activated the left orbito-frontal and fusiform areas. We discuss our results in the context of category-specific semantic deficits in the processing of words and concepts, along with previous neuroimaging research, and conclude that specific dorsal and ventral areas in frontocentral and temporal cortex index visual and affective-emotional semantic attributes of object-related nouns and action-related affordances of their referent objects. PMID:22390464

  4. Searching for the Elusive Neural Substrates of Body Part Terms: A Neuropsychological Study

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, David; Tranel, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Previous neuropsychological studies suggest that, compared to other categories of concrete entities, lexical and conceptual aspects of body part knowledge are frequently spared in brain-damaged patients. To further investigate this issue, we administered a battery of 12 tests assessing lexical and conceptual aspects of body part knowledge to 104 brain-damaged patients with lesions distributed throughout the telencephalon. There were two main outcomes. First, impaired oral naming of body parts, attributable to a disturbance of the mapping between lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological structures, was most reliably and specifically associated with lesions in the left frontal opercular and anterior/inferior parietal opercular cortices, and in the white matter underlying these regions (8 patients). Also, one patient with body part anomia had a left occipital lesion that included the “extrastriate body area” (EBA). Second, knowledge of the meanings of body part terms was remarkably resistant to impairment, regardless of lesion site; in fact, we did not uncover a single patient who exhibited significantly impaired understanding of the meanings of these terms. In the 9 patients with body part anomia, oral naming of concrete entities was evaluated, and this revealed that 4 patients had disproportionately worse naming of body parts relative to other types of concrete entities. Taken together, these findings extend previous neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies of body part knowledge, and add to our growing understanding of the nuances of how different linguistic and conceptual categories are operated by left frontal and parietal structures. PMID:18608319

  5. Male Body Satisfaction: Factorial and Construct Validity of the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale for Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Michael B.; Petrie, Trent A.

    2012-01-01

    Given the centrality of body dissatisfaction in the manifestation of eating, exercise, and affective disturbances in men, measurement of this construct becomes essential. Across 2 studies with male undergraduates (Ns = 189 and 188), the psychometric properties, including incremental validity and factor structure, of the 25-item Body Parts…

  6. The relationship between dental occlusion/temporomandibular joint status and general body health: part 2. Fascial connection of TMJ with other parts of the body.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyung-Joo; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2011-12-01

    In part 1 of this study, it was discussed that dental occlusion/temporomandibular joint (TMJ) status is functionally connected to general body health. The purpose of this part of the study was to attempt to formulate a conceptual account, the "fascial connection theory for TMJ and other parts of the body," to explain the functional connection between TMJ and other parts of the body. The first hypothesis that was studied is that TMJ and other parts of body are connected through the fascia as asserted by the myofascial-release schools, and the second one is that they are connected through the meridian system constituted of fascia (connective tissue). The fascial connection theory proposed here can explain the functional connection between dental occlusion/TMJ and other parts of the body based on either myofascial release or the qi and meridian system, or a combination of the two. Therefore, dental occlusion should be built up and maintained in a normal natural condition, and causes of deterioration of TMJ status should be treated in an effort to restore the natural condition. Other possible mechanisms that can account for these connections require elucidation, and additional experimental investigation should be undertaken. PMID:22082433

  7. Gelatinous zooplankton in the Belgian part of the North Sea and the adjacent Schelde estuary: Spatio-temporal distribution patterns and population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vansteenbrugge, Lies; Van Regenmortel, Tina; De Troch, Marleen; Vincx, Magda; Hostens, Kris

    2015-03-01

    Many ocean ecosystems are thought to be heading towards a dominance of gelatinous organisms. However, gelatinous zooplankton has been largely understudied and the absence of quantitative long-term data for the studied area impedes drawing conclusions on potential increasing densities. This study gives a comprehensive overview of the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of gelatinous zooplankton in terms of diversity and density in the Belgian part of the North Sea and the adjacent Schelde estuary, based on monthly and seasonal samples between March 2011 and February 2012. Three Scyphozoa, three Ctenophora and 27 Hydrozoa taxa were identified, including three non-indigenous species: Mnemiopsis leidyi, Nemopsis bachei and Lovenella assimilis. In general, one gelatinous zooplankton assemblage was found across locations and seasons. Average gelatinous zooplankton densities reached up to 18 ind·m-3 near the coast, gradually declining towards the open sea. In the brackish Schelde estuary, average densities remained below 3 ind·m-3. Highest gelatinous zooplankton densities were recorded in summer and autumn. Overall, hydromedusae were the most important group both in terms of diversity and density. The ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus and the hydromedusa Clytia sp. were present in every season and at every location. Gelatinous zooplankton densities never outnumbered the non-gelatinous zooplankton densities recorded from the WP3 samples. The spatial and temporal distribution patterns seemed to be mainly driven by temperature (season) and salinity (location). Other environmental parameters including (larger) non-gelatinous zooplankton densities (as an important food source) were not retained in the most parsimonious DistLM model.In terms of population dynamics, Beroe sp. seemed to follow the three reproductive cycles of its prey P. pileus and the presence of M. leidyi, which were abundant in a broad size spectrum in summer and autumn. In general, gelatinous zooplankton

  8. Mapping of lithologic and structural units using multispectral imagery. [Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent areas (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronberg, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS imagery covering the Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent regions (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabi) was applied to the mapping of lithologic and structural units of the test area at a scale 1:1,000,000. Results of the geological evaluation of the ERTS-1 imagery of the Afar have proven the usefullness of this type of satellite data for regional geological mapping. Evaluation of the ERTS images also resulted in new aspects of the structural setting and tectonic development of the Afar-Triangle, where three large rift systems, the oceanic rifts of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the continental East African rift system, seem to meet each other. Surface structures mapped by ERTS do not indicate that the oceanic rift of the Gulf of Aden (Sheba Ridge) continues into the area of continental crust west of the Gulf of Tadjura. ERTS data show that the Wonji fault belt of the African rift system does not enter or cut through the central Afar. The Aysha-Horst is not a Horst but an autochthonous spur of the Somali Plateau.

  9. Embodying animals: Body-part compatibility in mammalian, reptile and aves classes.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Sandra M; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine how humans code homologous body parts of nonhuman mammal, reptilian, and aves animals with respect to the representation of the human body. To this end, participants completed body-part compatibility tasks in which responses were executed to colored targets that were superimposed over the upper limbs, lower limbs or head of different animals in different postures. In Experiment 1, the images were of meekats and lizards in bipedal and quadrupedal postures. In Experiment 2, the images were of a human, a penguin, and an owl in a bipedal posture with upper limbs stretched out. Overall, the results revealed that the limbs of nonhuman mammals (meerkat and human) were consistently mapped onto the homologous human body parts only when the mammals were in a bipedal posture. Specifically, body-part compatibility effects emerged for the human and the meerkat in a bipedal posture, but not the meerkat in the quadrupedal posture. Further, consistent body-part compatibility effects were not observed for the lizard in the quadrupedal posture or for the lizard, penguin, or owl in a bipedal posture. The pattern of results suggests that the human bipedal body representation may distinguish taxonomical classes and is most highly engaged when viewing homologous body parts of mammalian animals. PMID:26233729

  10. Whole-body and body-part-specific bioconcentration of explosive compounds in sheepshead minnows.

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Guilherme R

    2011-03-01

    Sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were exposed to radiolabeled isotopes of the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), exahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (commonly known as RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (commonly known as HMX), yielding the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of 3.3, 0.7, and 0.1 L kg(-1), respectively. For TNT, the body residue of transformation product exceeded that of the parent compound by factors of 1, 8, and 16 for total aminonitrotoluenes, total extractable compounds, and total transformation products, respectively, with substantial bioaccumulation of both non-identified extractable and unextractable (i.e., tissue-bound), compounds. In comparison, the sum body residues of RDX and HMX transformation products were <4 times higher than for parent compounds. The concentrations of RDX and HMX and their transformation products were similar among liver, viscera (excluding liver), gills, and body remains (integument and muscles), while 46% of the TNT transformation products resided in the liver, and 64% of the parent compound was in the viscera. PMID:21255837

  11. Evidence that the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron chondroitin lyase II gene is adjacent to the chondro-4-sulfatase gene and may be part of the same operon.

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, E P; Salyers, A A

    1987-01-01

    The chondroitin lyase II gene from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron has previously been cloned in Escherichia coli on a 7.8-kilobase (kb) fragment (pA818). In E. coli, the chondroitin lyase II gene appeared to be expressed from a promoter that was about 0.5 kb from the beginning of the gene. However, when a subcloned 5-kb fragment from pA818 which contained the chondroitin lyase II gene and the promoter from which the gene is expressed in E. coli was introduced into B. thetaiotaomicron on a multicopy plasmid (pEG800), the chondroitin lyase specific activity of B. thetaiotaomicron was not altered. Further evidence that the promoter that is recognized in E. coli may not be the promoter from which the chondroitin lyase II gene is transcribed in B. thetaiotaomicron was obtained by making an insertion in the B. thetaiotaomicron chromosome at a point which is 1 kb upstream from the chondroitin lyase II gene. This insertion stopped synthesis of the chondroitin lyase II gene product, as would be predicted if the gene was part of an operon and was transcribed in B. thetaiotaomicron from a promoter that was at least 1 kb upstream from the chondroitin lyase II gene. A region of pA818 which was adjacent to the chondroitin lyase II gene and which included the region used to make the insertional mutation was found to code for chondro-4-sulfatase, an enzyme that breaks down one of the products of the chondroitin lyase reaction. The upstream insertion mutant of B. thetaiotaomicron which stopped synthesis of chondroitin lyase II had no detectable chondro-4-sulfatase activity. This mutant was still able to grow on chondroitin sulfate, although the rate of growth was slower than that of the wild type. Images PMID:3029024

  12. Cognitive Analysis of Chinese-English Metaphors of Animal and Human Body Part Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Meiying

    2009-01-01

    Metaphorical cognition arises from the mapping of two conceptual domains onto each other. According to the "Anthropocentrism", people tend to know the world first by learning about their bodies including Apparatuses. Based on that, people begin to know the material world, and the human body part metaphorization emerges as the times…

  13. The venality of human body parts and products in French law and common law.

    PubMed

    Haoulia, Naima

    2012-03-01

    The successive bioethics laws in France have constantly argued that the human body is not for sale and consecrated an absolute principle of free and anonymous donations, whether of semen, ova, blood, tissues or organs. Nonetheless, this position is not shared by all countries. These legal divergences upset today our moral principles and the development of these practices leads us to question the legal status of human biological material and its gradual commodification. This paper outlines the current law principles that protect people's interests in their bodies, excised body parts and tissues without conferring the rights of full legal ownership in French law and in Common law. Contrary to what many people believe, people do not legally 'own' their bodies, body parts or tissues. However, they do have some legal rights in relation to their bodies and excised body material. For lawyers, the exact relationship people have with their bodies has raised a host of complex questions and long debates about the status we should grant to human body parts. The significance of this issue is due to two reasons:first, because of the imperative protection we have to assure to human dignity and then, because of the economic value which is attached to human products. PMID:22530322

  14. Machine learning for the automatic localisation of foetal body parts in cine-MRI scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, Christopher; Nowlan, Niamh C.; Hayat, Tayyib T. A.; Malamateniou, Christina; Rutherford, Mary; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Rueckert, Daniel; Kainz, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Being able to automate the location of individual foetal body parts has the potential to dramatically reduce the work required to analyse time resolved foetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (cine-MRI) scans, for example, for use in the automatic evaluation of the foetal development. Currently, manual preprocessing of every scan is required to locate body parts before analysis can be performed, leading to a significant time overhead. With the volume of scans becoming available set to increase as cine-MRI scans become more prevalent in clinical practice, this stage of manual preprocessing is a bottleneck, limiting the data available for further analysis. Any tools which can automate this process will therefore save many hours of research time and increase the rate of new discoveries in what is a key area in understanding early human development. Here we present a series of techniques which can be applied to foetal cine-MRI scans in order to first locate and then differentiate between individual body parts. A novel approach to maternal movement suppression and segmentation using Fourier transforms is put forward as a preprocessing step, allowing for easy extraction of short movements of individual foetal body parts via the clustering of optical flow vector fields. These body part movements are compared to a labelled database and probabilistically classified before being spatially and temporally combined to give a final estimate for the location of each body part.

  15. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Svaldi, Jennifer; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Ivanova, Viliana; Mies, Nina; Fleischhaker, Christian; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation. Method In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12) and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12) were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded. Results After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants’ attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive) mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG. Discussion The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients’ body image disturbance. PMID:27123587

  16. Active deformation in the frontal part of the Northern Apennines: insights from the lower Metauro River basin area (northern Marche, Italy) and adjacent Adriatic off-shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bucci, D.; Mazzoli, S.; Nesci, O.; Savelli, D.; Tramontana, M.; De Donatis, M.; Borraccini, F.

    2003-09-01

    An integration of seismological data with geological and geomorphological information aided by seismic interpretation was performed to characterise the Quaternary tectonic evolution of the Metauro River basin area (northern Marche) and adjacent off-shore sector of the external Northern Apennines. On-shore, along the Adriatic coast, the youngest age of thrusting and folding post-dates the Early-Middle Pliocene, while Pleistocene deposits appear to be, at least in part, not involved in the deformation. Recent (i.e. post-thrusting) tectonic structures have been recognised both in pre-Quaternary substratum rocks and in Upper Quaternary continental deposits (Upper Pleistocene terrace alluvium, Upper Pleistocene-Holocene slope deposits). These faults are all compatible with a WSW-ENE oriented extension. In the Metauro River basin area, preserved flights of stream terraces have been categorised according to the presence or absence of alluvial suites in relationship to each terrace level. Here, based on both the heights above the valley floor and the areal distribution of stream terraces, a generalised vertical tectonic uplift can be inferred, particularly during the Middle-Late Pleistocene. Moreover, the along-valley distribution of stream terraces provides further constraints on the age of thrusting and folding. In fact, the reconstructed terrace-levels are substantially parallel, and no evidence for any significant deformation by fold activity has been recognised. Local deformation displayed by both terrace surfaces and alluvial/slope-waste deposits suggests, instead, the intervening of some minor differential movements associated with the generalised uplift and/or to Middle-Late Pleistocene normal faulting. Their occurrence appears anyhow to be unrelated with the pattern of folds and associated thrusts. The present-day seismic activity of the study area was considered by analysing 83 seismic events that occurred from 1987 to 2000. The epicentre distribution is very

  17. Gunther von Hagens and Body Worlds part 2: The anatomist as priest and prophet.

    PubMed

    Moore, Charleen M; Brown, C Mackenzie

    2004-03-01

    Part 1 of this two-part series highlighted tensions between the anatomical quest for scientific knowledge about the human interior and artistic representations of the anatomized body, contrasting the roles of Goethe's scientific Prosektor and humanistic Proplastiker-roles disturbingly fused in Gunther von Hagens. Part 2 first examines religious interpretations of the human body that fuel the tensions manifest in anatomy art. The body in Western cultures is a sacred text amenable to interpretation as handiwork of God, habitation for the soul, and vehicle for resurrection. As handiwork of God the body beckons the anatomist's scalpel, helping establish dissection as the hallmark of Western medicine. The body as divinely designed machine encompasses the idea of an indwelling soul expressing its will in actions mediated through the intricate network of muscles-an understanding reflected in the oft occurring muscle men of early anatomical textbooks. Interconnections of body and soul in medieval somatic spirituality are examined with reference to ideas of resurrection and their impact on anatomical illustration. Part 2 concludes with consideration of von Hagens as priest and prophet, culminating in the Promethean impulse that recognizes not God but ourselves as proper owners and molders of our destiny, embodied in the plastinator's visionary quest to create the superhuman. PMID:15052650

  18. Space-time dynamics of carbon and environmental parameters related to carbon dioxide emissions in the Buor-Khaya Bay and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiletov, I. P.; Shakhova, N. E.; Pipko, I. I.; Pugach, S. P.; Charkin, A. N.; Dudarev, O. V.; Kosmach, D. A.; Nishino, S.

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to improve understanding of carbon cycling in the Buor-Khaya Bay (BKB) and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea by studying the inter-annual, seasonal, and meso-scale variability of carbon and related hydrological and biogeochemical parameters in the water, as well as factors controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Here we present data sets obtained on summer cruises and winter expeditions during 12 yr of investigation. Based on data analysis, we suggest that in the heterotrophic BKB area, input of terrestrially borne organic carbon (OC) varies seasonally and inter-annually and is largely determined by rates of coastal erosion and river discharge. Two different BKB sedimentation regimes were revealed: Type 1 (erosion accumulation) and Type 2 (accumulation). A Type 1 sedimentation regime occurs more often and is believed to be the quantitatively most important mechanism for suspended particular matter (SPM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) delivery to the BKB. The mean SPM concentration observed in the BKB under a Type 1 regime was one order of magnitude greater than the mean concentration of SPM (~ 20 mg L-1) observed along the Lena River stream in summer 2003. Loadings of the BKB water column with particulate material vary by more than a factor of two between the two regimes. Higher partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), higher concentrations of nutrients, and lower levels of oxygen saturation were observed in the bottom water near the eroded coasts, implying that coastal erosion and subsequent oxidation of eroded organic matter (OM) rather than the Lena River serves as the predominant source of nutrients to the BKB. Atmospheric CO2 fluxes from the sea surface in the BKB vary from 1 to 95 mmol m-2 day-1 and are determined by specific features of hydrology and wind conditions, which change spatially, seasonally, and inter-annually. Mean values of CO2 emission from the shallow Laptev Sea were similar in September 1999 and 2005 (7.2 and 7.8 mmol m-2 day-1

  19. Does the ethical appropriateness of paying donors depend on what body parts they donate?

    PubMed

    Malmqvist, Erik

    2016-09-01

    The idea of paying donors in order to make more human bodily material available for therapy, assisted reproduction, and biomedical research is notoriously controversial. However, while national and international donation policies largely oppose financial incentives they do not treat all parts of the body equally: incentives are allowed in connection to the provision of some parts but not others. Taking off from this observation, I discuss whether body parts differ as regards the ethical legitimacy of incentives and, if so, why. I distinguish two approaches to this issue. On a "principled" approach, some but not all body parts are inherently special in a way that proscribes payment. On a "pragmatic" approach, the appropriateness of payment in relation to a specific part must be determined through an overall assessment of e.g. the implications of payment for the health and welfare of providers, recipients, and third parties, and the quality of providers' consent. I argue that the first approach raises deep and potentially divisive questions about the good life, whereas the second approach invokes currently unsupported empirical assumptions and requires difficult balancing between different values and the interests of different people. This does not mean that any attempt to distinguish between body parts in regard to the appropriateness of payment necessarily fails. However, I conclude, any plausible such attempt should either articulate and defend a specific view of the good life, or gather relevant empirical evidence and apply defensible principles for weighing goods and interests. PMID:27115404

  20. Body condition of the deep water demersal resources at two adjacent oligotrophic areas of the western Mediterranean and the influence of the environmental features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, L.; Moranta, J.; Abelló, P.; Balbín, R.; Barberá, C.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; Olivar, M. P.; Ordines, F.; Ramón, M.; Torres, A. P.; Valls, M.; Massutí, E.

    2014-10-01

    Body condition indices not only are often used as reliable indicators of the nutritional status of individuals but also can they be utilized to provide insights regarding food availability and habitat quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the connection between the body condition of the demersal species and the environmental features in the water column (i.e. the hydrographic conditions and the potential trophic resources) in two proximate areas, the north and south regions of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean), viz., the Balearic sub-basin (BsB) and the Algerian sub-basin (AsB), respectively, with different geomorphological and hydrodynamic features. Body condition indices were calculated for individuals of 21 demersal species including 11 teleosts, 4 elasmobranchs, 3 cephalopods and 3 crustaceans, which represented > 70-77% of the deep water resources, captured by bottom trawling. The morphometric indices, viz., Relative Condition Index (Kn) and Standardised Residuals (SR) from the length-weight relationship, were used. The results for each one of the 21 species indicated a significantly better condition in terms of Kn and SR in the BsB, for 7 and 9 species, respectively. In addition, a general model, including the 21 species together, showed better body condition in the BsB, and during the summer. The spatial and temporal differences in the body condition are discussed in the context of the environmental variables characterising both the study areas, which showed significant variations, for some of the hydrographic features (chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, salinity, potential density and temperature), as well as for some of the potential trophic resources (mesopelagic and epibenthic fauna). These findings suggest an environmental effect on the body condition of the deep-water resources in the Balearic Islands, one of the most oligotrophic areas of the western Mediterranean, and reveal more suitable environmental conditions for these species

  1. Audiotactile interactions beyond the space and body parts around the head.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Wataru; Nozoe, Yukiomi; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2013-08-01

    Recent research has reported that spatial modulation effects of audiotactile interactions tend to be limited to the space and body parts around the head. The present study investigated the generality of this finding by manipulating body parts stimulated and spatial relationships between the body parts and sounds. In Experiment 1, tactile stimuli were presented randomly to either left or right cheek, hand (palm or back) placed near the head, and knee while auditory stimuli were presented to either the same or opposite side from loudspeakers close to the head. Participants made speeded spatial discrimination responses regarding the side (left versus right) of the tactile stimulation. For any body part stimulated, the performance was worse when the auditory stimuli were presented from the opposite side rather than from the same side. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the spatial modulation effects for the palm or the back of the hand occurred irrespective of hand position (near or far from the head) and sound position (near or far from the head). The sounds delivered from near the head exerted a greater influence on tactile spatial discrimination performance as compared with the sound delivered from far from the head. Furthermore, the back of the hand was more influenced by the auditory stimuli than the palm when the hands were placed near the sounds. These results suggest that the spatial modulation effects of audiotactile interactions can occur beyond the space and body surface around the head. PMID:23700131

  2. The spatial encoding of body parts in patients with neglect and neurologically unimpaired participants.

    PubMed

    Sposito, Ambra V; Bolognini, Nadia; Vallar, Giuseppe; Posteraro, Lucio; Maravita, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Body parts are represented in the brain in a very specific fashion, as compared to other three-dimensional objects, with reference to their prototypic shape and multisensory coding. However, evidence is lacking about the spatial representation of body parts. To address this issue, in Experiment 1 we first compared the metric representation of body parts and of non-bodily objects in 14 right-brain-damaged patients with left unilateral spatial neglect (USN), and in 14 neurologically unimpaired control participants. Participants bisected, by manual pointing, a three-dimensional object, or their own left forearm. Patients showed the well-known ipsilesional rightward displacement of the subjective midpoint, in both forearm and solid bisection. Both USN patients and control participants were overall more accurate in the bisection of their own forearm, relative to the extracorporeal object. In four patients this advantage of the forearm was significant in a single-case analysis, while two patients showed the opposite dissociation, being more accurate with the solid object. In Experiment 2 neurologically unimpaired participants were more accurate in the bisection of a fake forearm, as well as of their own forearm, as compared to the extrapersonal object. Overall, the results indicate that the representation of the metric of the body is more reliable than that of extrapersonal objects, and also more resistant to the disruption of spatial representations brought about by USN, possibly due to the prototypical shape of body parts. Furthermore, the double dissociation found in USN patients suggests that the metrics of body parts and of extrapersonal objects are supported by independent spatial processes. PMID:19800899

  3. Temporal and preparation effects in the magnetic nanoparticles of Apis mellifera body parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambarelli, L. L.; Pinho, M. A.; Abraçado, L. G.; Esquivel, D. M. S.; Wajnberg, E.

    Magnetic nanoparticles in the Apis mellifera abdomens are well accepted as involved in their magnetoreception mechanism. The effects of sample preparation on the time evolution of magnetic particles in the honeybee body parts (antennae, head, thorax and abdomen) were investigated by Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) at room temperature (RT), for about 100 days. Three preparations were tested: (a) washed with water (WT); (b) as (a), kept in glutaraldehyde 2.5% in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) for 24 h and washed with cacodylate buffer (C); (c) as (a), kept in glutaraldehyde 2.5% for 24 h and washed with glutaraldehyde 2.5% in cacodylate buffer (GLC). The four body parts of young and adult worker presented magnetic nanoparticles. The Mn 2+ lines are observed except for the antennae spectra. The high field (HF) and low field (LF) components previously observed in the spectra of social insects, are confirmed in these spectra. The HF line is present in all spectra while the LF is easily observed in the spectra of the young bee and it appears as a baseline shift in spectra of some adult parts. The HF intensity of the abdomen is commonly one order of magnitude larger than any other body parts. This is the first systematic study on the conservation of magnetic material in all body parts of bees. The results show that the time evolution of the spectra depends on the body part, conserving solution and bee age. Further measurements are necessary to understand these effects and extend it to other social insects.

  4. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-4 - Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... with chasis, bodies, etc. 48.4061(a)-4 Section 48.4061(a)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc. (a) In general. The tax attaches... parts or accessories which are not sold on or in connection with the sale of a taxable chassis, body,...

  5. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-4 - Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... with chasis, bodies, etc. 48.4061(a)-4 Section 48.4061(a)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc. (a) In general. The tax attaches... parts or accessories which are not sold on or in connection with the sale of a taxable chassis, body,...

  6. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-4 - Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... with chasis, bodies, etc. 48.4061(a)-4 Section 48.4061(a)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc. (a) In general. The tax attaches... parts or accessories which are not sold on or in connection with the sale of a taxable chassis, body,...

  7. Experimenter's Pantomimes Influence Children's Use of Body Part as Object and Imaginary Object Pantomimes: A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Robert W.; Clark, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Young children asked to pretend to use a series of absent objects typically pantomime by using a body part as the object (BPO) rather than by acting as if using an imaginary object (IO). This replication of Lyons's work (1983, 1986) examines whether different pretend contexts when requesting pantomimes influence children's use of IO and BPO…

  8. Four-Month-Old Infants' Categorization of Animals: Does Any Body Part Hold Privileged Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidic, Janice M.; Haaf, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of body parts on 4-month-olds' categorization of cats and dogs was examined using a visual preference procedure. Infants were familiarized with pictures of exemplars from one of two categories, cat or dog. In test, looking time to an out-of-category exemplar was compared to looking time to a novel within-category exemplar with one…

  9. Recognition and Mental Manipulation of Body Parts Dissociate in Locked-In Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conson, Massimiliano; Pistoia, Francesca; Sara, Marco; Grossi, Dario; Trojano, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Several lines of evidence demonstrate that the motor system is involved in motor simulation of actions, but some uncertainty exists about the consequences of lesions of descending motor pathways on mental imagery tasks. Moreover, recent findings suggest that the motor system could also have a role in recognition of body parts. To address these…

  10. Self-Recognition of the Body and Its Parts during Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and female student volunteers were photographed nude in three orientations and asked to identify bodily parts from an array of photographs grouped according to height and linearity. Results are discussed in terms of ego involvement, narcissism, and the increased attention given to the body during adolescence. (Author/GK)

  11. Dynamic Simulation and Static Matching for Action Prediction: Evidence from Body Part Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Accurately predicting other people's actions may involve two processes: internal real-time simulation (dynamic updating) and matching recently perceived action images (static matching). Using a priming of body parts, this study aimed to differentiate the two processes. Specifically, participants played a motion-controlled video game with…

  12. Physical modeling of sedimentation adjacent to diapirs and comparison with late precambrian Oratunga Breccia body in central Flinders Ranges, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, N.M.

    1985-09-01

    The interaction of sedimentation with the change in shape of a developing diapir is modeled in a series of simple sandbox experiments. This model replicates the pillow, diapir, and postdiapir stages of salt movement. Modeling produced rim synclines, crestal unconformities, and turtle-structure anticlines-all features known to be associated with diapirs. By changing experimental parameters such as diapir shape, sedimentation was simulated around various diapiric situations. One experiment closely matches the sediment distribution around the Oratunga diapir one of the controversial breccia bodies in the late Precambrian-Cambrian Adelaide geosyncline exposed in the Flinders Ranges of South Australia. Rim synclines, unconformities, and bedding attitude around Oratunga resemble those described around salt domes. In addition, the distribution, size, orientation, and lithology of breccia within the Oratunga diapir resemble breccia associated with active salt diapirs in Iran. These data suggest the breccia was emplaced as a salt diapir.

  13. Flocculation on a muddy intertidal flat in Willapa Bay, Washington, Part II: Observations of suspended particle size in a secondary channel and adjacent flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, P. S.; Newgard, J. P.; Law, B. A.; Milligan, T. G.

    2013-06-01

    During the last week of February and first week of March in 2010, instruments for measuring current speed and suspended particle size and concentration were placed in a secondary channel and on an adjacent intertidal mudflat at the southern end of Willapa Bay on the Pacific coast of Washington State. Observations show that during spring tides, flood-tide velocity pulses occurred in the channel as water rose above the level of the banks. These pulses resuspended flocs from the channel and advected them over the adjacent flat. During transport, there was some evidence of aggregation of resuspended flocs into larger flocs. As current speeds decreased after the flood pulses, flocs that had advected over the flat deposited quickly. Freshly deposited flocs were resuspended as water levels fell over the flat, with suspended concentrations peaking as water from the flat drained back into the channel. Flocs returning to the channel deposited as currents waned after the ebb pulse. In the channel, the more energetic ebb pulses were strong enough to cause floc breakup. Resuspension and transport of flocs were reduced significantly during neap tides. During periods with high winds, seabed stresses generated by waves limited the deposition of flocs on the seabed. These observations indicate that the floors and flanks of secondary channels as well as the flats surrounding them are the sites of floc deposition and, therefore, are the most likely locations for low-strength, high-water-content muds that contain large fractions of silt and clay. The observations also provide a mechanistic explanation for why deposition rates are typically observed to be reduced at higher elevations on tidal flats and on areas of the flats remote from secondary channels.

  14. A new approach using the Pierce two-node model for different body parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foda, Ehab; Sirén, Kai

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a new approach, in applying the Pierce two-node model, to predict local skin temperatures of individual body parts with good accuracy. In this study, local skin temperature measurements at 24 sites on the bodies of 11 human subjects were carried out in a controlled environment under three different indoor conditions (i.e. neutral, warm and cold). The neutral condition measurements were used to adjust the local skin set-points in the model for each body part. Additional modifications to the calculation algorithm were introduced corresponding to different body parts. The local core set-points were then calculated, using a line search method, as the input values that allow the model to predict the skin temperatures with maximum deviation of ±0.1°C for the neutral condition. The model predictability was verified for the other two indoor conditions, and the results show that the modified model predicts local skin temperatures with average deviation of ±0.3°C.

  15. A new approach using the Pierce two-node model for different body parts.

    PubMed

    Foda, Ehab; Sirén, Kai

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a new approach, in applying the Pierce two-node model, to predict local skin temperatures of individual body parts with good accuracy. In this study, local skin temperature measurements at 24 sites on the bodies of 11 human subjects were carried out in a controlled environment under three different indoor conditions (i.e. neutral, warm and cold). The neutral condition measurements were used to adjust the local skin set-points in the model for each body part. Additional modifications to the calculation algorithm were introduced corresponding to different body parts. The local core set-points were then calculated, using a line search method, as the input values that allow the model to predict the skin temperatures with maximum deviation of ±0.1°C for the neutral condition. The model predictability was verified for the other two indoor conditions, and the results show that the modified model predicts local skin temperatures with average deviation of ±0.3°C. PMID:21053025

  16. "That part of the body is just gone": understanding and responding to dissociation and physical health.

    PubMed

    Haven, Terri J

    2009-01-01

    The past 2 decades have brought a significant surge in interest and research regarding the ways in which psychological trauma relates to the physical body. Researchers now understand a great deal about how the brain and the body process traumatic experiences, as well as the increased likelihood of an array of physical health consequences associated with both childhood and adult trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. Experts are increasingly challenging mind-body dualism through solid theoretical and clinical bases for the central importance of listening to and communicating with trauma clients' bodies as part of reducing the suffering and long-lasting consequences of trauma. This article integrates this growing body of knowledge through a particular focus on trauma-induced dissociation and the implications of the physical and neurological processes and consequences of dissociation on clients' ability to participate in caring for their own bodies. The author utilizes an in-depth clinical example of expanding relational trauma psychotherapy to include a focus on working directly with trauma-related sensorimotor and physiological sensations and patterns. PMID:19333849

  17. Beyond the corporeal: Extending propertisation of body parts to derivative information.

    PubMed

    Bonython, Wendy; Arnold, Bruce Baer

    2016-03-01

    Jurisprudential consideration of property in the human body has typically conceptualised it as tangible, of finite lifespan, with limited end uses. This article offers an alternative conceptualisation: the body as information--intangible, infinite, and perpetual. Global markets in health "big data"--including population genomic data--trade this information. Emerging jurisprudence on source rights in this information are derived from jurisprudence based on the traditional, tangible, finite conceptualisation of the body--itself controversial--criticised in part for disregarding property rights vesting in the self, while recognising them in strangers. As such, it provides an uncertain foundation for extension to govern rights over derivatives, enabling disregard of legitimate concerns about health, commercialisation and genetic privacy, concerns compounded by the intergenerational nature of genetic information. A more nuanced approach, recognising that donors and strangers alike hold only weak custodial rights over access, use, and dissemination of tissues and derivative information, is required. PMID:27323644

  18. Estimating Three-Dimensional Orientation of Human Body Parts by Inertial/Magnetic Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2011-01-01

    User-worn sensing units composed of inertial and magnetic sensors are becoming increasingly popular in various domains, including biomedical engineering, robotics, virtual reality, where they can also be applied for real-time tracking of the orientation of human body parts in the three-dimensional (3D) space. Although they are a promising choice as wearable sensors under many respects, the inertial and magnetic sensors currently in use offer measuring performance that are critical in order to achieve and maintain accurate 3D-orientation estimates, anytime and anywhere. This paper reviews the main sensor fusion and filtering techniques proposed for accurate inertial/magnetic orientation tracking of human body parts; it also gives useful recipes for their actual implementation. PMID:22319365

  19. Addition of flexible body option to the TOLA computer program. Part 2: User and programmer documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, J. W.; Benda, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    User and programmer oriented documentation for the flexible body option of the Takeoff and Landing Analysis (TOLA) computer program are provided. The user information provides sufficient knowledge of the development and use of the option to enable the engineering user to successfully operate the modified program and understand the results. The programmer's information describes the option structure and logic enabling a programmer to make major revisions to this part of the TOLA computer program.

  20. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  1. Geology of the Cape Mendocino, Eureka, Garberville, and Southwestern Part of the Hayfork 30 x 60 Minute Quadrangles and Adjacent Offshore Area, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Ellen, S.D.; Blake, M.C., Jr.; Jayko, Angela S.; Irwin, W.P.; Aalto, K.R.; Carver, G.A.; Clarke, S.H., Jr.; Barnes, J.B.; Cecil, J.D.; Cyr, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction These geologic maps and accompanying structure sections depict the geology and structure of much of northwestern California and the adjacent continental margin. The map area includes the Mendocino triple junction, which is the juncture of the North American continental plate with two plates of the Pacific ocean basin. The map area also encompasses major geographic and geologic provinces of northwestern California. The maps incorporate much previously unpublished geologic mapping done between 1980 and 1995, as well as published mapping done between about 1950 and 1978. To construct structure sections to mid-crustal depths, we integrate the surface geology with interpretations of crustal structure based on seismicity, gravity and aeromagnetic data, offshore structure, and seismic reflection and refraction data. In addition to describing major geologic and structural features of northwestern California, the geologic maps have the potential to address a number of societally relevant issues, including hazards from earthquakes, landslides, and floods and problems related to timber harvest, wildlife habitat, and changing land use. All of these topics will continue to be of interest in the region, as changing land uses and population density interact with natural conditions. In these interactions, it is critical that the policies and practices affecting man and the environment integrate an adequate understanding of the geology. This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (ceghmf.ps, ceghmf.pdf, ceghmf.txt), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The

  2. Event-related potentials reveal early activation of body part representations in action concept comprehension.

    PubMed

    Lu, Aitao; Liu, Jing; Zhang, John X

    2012-03-01

    With tasks involving action concept comprehension, many fMRI studies have reported brain activations in sensori-motor regions specific to effectors of the referent action. There is relatively less evidence whether such activations reflect early semantic access or late conceptual re-processing. Here we recorded event-related potentials when participants recognized noun-verb pairs. For Congruent pairs, the verb was the one most commonly associated with the noun (e.g., football-kick). Compared with a control condition, verbs in Congruent pairs showed priming effects in the time windows of 100-150 ms and 210-260 ms. Such activation seems to be specific to body part but not other aspects of the action as similar priming effect was also found when the noun and verb involved different actions though sharing the same body part (e.g., football-jump), documenting for the first time the early activation of body part representations in action concept comprehension. PMID:22306088

  3. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 1926 - Designations for General Industry Standards Incorporated Into Body of Construction Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Into Body of Construction Standards A Appendix A to Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... Standards Incorporated Into Body of Construction Standards New Designations for General Industry Standards Incorporated Into Body of Construction Standards 1926 Designations for Applicable 1910 Standards New § no....

  4. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 1926 - Designations for General Industry Standards Incorporated Into Body of Construction Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Into Body of Construction Standards A Appendix A to Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... Standards Incorporated Into Body of Construction Standards New Designations for General Industry Standards Incorporated Into Body of Construction Standards 1926 Designations for Applicable 1910 Standards New § no....

  5. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 1926 - Designations for General Industry Standards Incorporated Into Body of Construction Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Into Body of Construction Standards A Appendix A to Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... Standards Incorporated Into Body of Construction Standards New Designations for General Industry Standards Incorporated Into Body of Construction Standards 1926 Designations for Applicable 1910 Standards New § no....

  6. Is access to the body structural description sensitive to a body part's significance for action and cognition? A study of the sidedness effect using feet.

    PubMed

    Tessari, Alessia; Ottoboni, Giovanni; Baroni, Giulia; Symes, Ed; Nicoletti, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    There is evidence suggesting that viewing hands triggers automatic access to the Body Structural Description, a visual-spatial representation of human body parts configuration. Hands, however, have a special representational status within the brain because of their significance for action and cognition. We tested whether feet, less important in gestural and object-directed action, would similarly show automatic access to the Body Structural Description. Positive evidence of that would be finding a Sidedness effect (Ottoboni et al. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 31:778-789, 2005), a Simon-like paradigm previously used to study automatic hand recognition. This effect demonstrates that processing hands generates spatial codes corresponding to the side of the body on which the hand would be located within the Body Structural Description map. Feet were shown with toes pointing upwards (Experiment 1), without any connection to the ankle and the leg (Experiment 2) and with toes pointing downwards (Experiment 3). Results revealed a Sidedness effect in both Experiments 1 and 3: spatial compatibility occurred according to the side of the body that each foot would assume within the Body Structural Description. In Experiment 2, as already found in stimuli similarly featured, no effect emerged, due to the lack of the necessary anatomical links connecting the foot to a body. Results suggest that body parts with variable degrees of significance for action and cognition can access automatically the Body Structural Description hence reinforcing the hypothesis of its pure visuo-spatial nature. PMID:22402752

  7. Human Body Parts Tracking and Kinematic Features Assessment Based on RSSI and Inertial Sensor Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Blumrosen, Gaddi; Luttwak, Ami

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of patient kinematics in different environments plays an important role in the detection of risk situations such as fall detection in elderly patients, in rehabilitation of patients with injuries, and in the design of treatment plans for patients with neurological diseases. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) measurements in a Body Area Network (BAN), capture the signal power on a radio link. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of utilizing RSSI measurements in assessment of human kinematic features, and to give methods to determine these features. RSSI measurements can be used for tracking different body parts' displacements on scales of a few centimeters, for classifying motion and gait patterns instead of inertial sensors, and to serve as an additional reference to other sensors, in particular inertial sensors. Criteria and analytical methods for body part tracking, kinematic motion feature extraction, and a Kalman filter model for aggregation of RSSI and inertial sensor were derived. The methods were verified by a set of experiments performed in an indoor environment. In the future, the use of RSSI measurements can help in continuous assessment of various kinematic features of patients during their daily life activities and enhance medical diagnosis accuracy with lower costs. PMID:23979481

  8. Is the whole the sum of its parts? Configural processing of headless bodies in the right fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Soria Bauser, Denise; Suchan, Boris

    2015-03-15

    The current study aimed to explore the functional magnetic resonance (fMR)-adaption effect by presenting intact and scrambled headless bodies and faces. This fMR-adaption paradigm allows investigating processing specificity in distinct brain areas by comparing the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal related to the presentation of same or different pairs of bodies. There is clear evidence that we prefer whole bodies compared to the sum of their parts. This effect refers to a subtype of configural processing termed first-order relational information. The preference for whole bodies seems to be associated with activation pattern in body-sensitive brain regions. However, it remains unclear until now, which cortical area exactly mediates this preference. In the present study, we investigated whether there are neuronal populations that show a selective adaption to whole bodies compared to the sum of their parts. The right fusiform body area (FBA) showed a preference for whole bodies compared to the sum of their parts as the right and left fusiform face area showed a preference for whole faces compared to the sum of their parts. Thus, the present data support the idea that configural body and face processing is mediated by the fusiform gyrus. The current data further support the view that bodies are a special stimulus class with specific characteristics which are processed in body-sensitive brain areas. PMID:25510195

  9. Parting Shots: eighteenth-century displacements of the male body at war.

    PubMed

    Rabb, Melinda

    2011-01-01

    "Parting Shots" views eighteenth-century literature from across the body-strewn battlefields of the English Civil Wars, and analyzes the transformation of shattered men into cultural embodiments of meaning. The essay analyzes the processes of indirection and displacement through which texts, over several generations, negotiate conflicts and problems too difficult to be confronted whole and entire. In order to develop an argument about lingering anxiety over civil conflict, the essay draws on Defoe's Memoirs of a Cavalier and Robinson Crusoe, soldier's manuals and examples from works by Swift, Manley, Sterne, Pope, and Smollett. PMID:21688451

  10. Single body parts are processed by individual neurons in the mouse dorsolateral striatum.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Kevin R; Nader, Miles; West, Mark O

    2016-04-01

    Interest in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) has generated numerous scientific studies of its neuropathologies, as well as its roles in normal sensorimotor integration and learning. Studies are informed by knowledge of DLS functional organization, the guiding principle being its somatotopic afferent projections from primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices. The potential to connect behaviorally relevant function to detailed structure is elevated by mouse models, which have access to extensive genetic neuroscience tool kits. Remaining to be demonstrated, however, is whether the correspondence between S1/M1 corticostriatal terminal distributions and the physiological properties of DLS neurons demonstrated in rats and non-human primates exists in mice. Given that the terminal distribution of S1/M1 projections to the DLS in mice is similar to that in rats, we studied whether firing rates (FRs) of DLS neurons in awake, behaving mice are related to activity of individual body parts. MSNs exhibited robust, selective increases in FR during movement or somatosensory stimulation of single body parts. Properties of MSNs, including baseline FRs, locations, responsiveness to stimulation, and proportions of responsive neurons were similar to properties observed in rats. Future studies can be informed by the present demonstration that the mouse lateral striatum functions as a somatic sensorimotor sector of the striatum and appears to be a homolog of the primate putamen, as demonstrated in rats (Carelli and West, 1991). PMID:26827625

  11. Real-Time Control of Humanoid Robots Considering External Forces on Upper Part of the Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Kentaro; Shigemori, Yo; Uchimura, Yutaka

    Recently, the demand for the practical use of service robots has risen significantly because of acceleration of demographic aging, and a humanoid robot is one of the promising form factors of service robots. When a humanoid robot is used by a human in a real environment, the robot needs to be designed by taking into account the various external forces that act on the robot. Thus far, most of the walking humanoid robots have been mainly controlled by the conventional ZMP method to maintain a stable walking posture. However, the conventional ZMP method can not be used to handle the various external forces that act on the upper part of the humanoid robot body. To overcome these problems, in this paper, we propose a novel control method, which we called 3DZMP and pZMP, for a humanoid robot to react to the external force on the upper part of the body. The 3DZMP is defined as the point in three-dimensional space at which the moment about all axes is zero. 3DZMP can prevent the rotation of a humanoid robot. The pZMP is defined as the point corresponding to the orthographic projection of the 3DZMP on a plane. pZMP is used to evaluate the stability of 3DZMP. We implemented the proposed method on a prototype robot and verified that the robot gained the capability to react to external forces that could not be handled by the conventional ZMP method.

  12. Development of low postural tone compensatory patterns - predicted dysfunction patterns in lower part of the body.

    PubMed

    Gogola, Anna; Saulicz, Edward; Kuszewski, Michał; Matyja, Małgorzata; Myśliwiec, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Lower postural tone is not always associated with central nervous system structural damage. There is such kind of tone that stays within the broadly defined normal range, but is characterized by distinct decrease of tone of the deep muscles responsible for stabilization. External syndromes are features of active or passive compensation observed in the postural and motor patterns. Active compensation of the lower muscle tone is associated with excessive use of the superficial muscles for stabilization that leads to limitation of motion in the joints and to functional shortening of some muscles. Active compensation mechanisms in the lower part of the body cause decreased anterior pelvic tilt, functional shortening of the hamstring muscles and pes cavus (spastoidal type). Passive compensation is initiated in case of decreased tone of both deep and superficial muscles. Stabilization is kept with considerable participation of the spatial shape of bones, ligaments, meniscus and passive properties of the muscles. Tendency to hypermobility of the periarthritis elements is observed, which is manifested by increase of the physiological range of motion in the joints. As a result in the lower part of the body postural faults develop, which are characterized by increased lumbar lordosis, anterior pelvic tilt, valgus knee and feet (atetoidal type). Observations indicate that lower tone of the muscles responsible for stabilization triggers off the sequence of compensatory mechanisms that ultimately lead to specific postural faults. PMID:25182405

  13. Development of low postural tone compensatory patterns - predicted dysfunction patterns in upper part of the body.

    PubMed

    Gogola, Anna; Saulicz, Edward; Kuszewski, Michał; Matyja, Małgorzata; Myśliwiec, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Lower postural tone is not always associated with central nervous system structures damage. There is a such kind of tone that stays within the broadly defined normal range, but is characterized by distinct decrease of tone of the deep muscles responsible for stabilization. External syndromes are features of active or passive compensation observed in the postural and motor patterns. Active compensation of the lower muscle tone is associated with excessive use of the superficial muscles for stabilization that leads to limitation of motion in the joints and to functional shortening of some muscles. Active compensation mechanisms in the upper part of the body cause translation of the head before the line of the shoulders, high alignment of the shoulder girdle and increase of the thoracic kyphosis (spastoidal type). Passive compensation is initiated in case of decreased tone of both deep and superficial muscles. Stabilization is kept with considerable participation of the spatial shape of bones, ligaments, meniscus and passive properties of the muscles. Tendency to hypermobility of the periarthritis elements is observed, which is manifested by the increase of the physiological range of motion in the joints. As a result in the upper part of the body postural faults develop, which are characterized by decreased thoracic kyphosis and sunken chest (atetoidal type). These observations indicate that lower tone of the muscles responsible for stabilization triggers off the sequence of compensatory mechanisms that ultimately lead to specific postural faults. PMID:25182404

  14. The Girl Shedding Glass Pieces from Her Body Parts: Unfolding the Mystery Behind Dermatitis Artefacta.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harpreet; Tripathi, Adarsh; Kar, Sujita Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with unusual symptoms are uncommon. Unusual symptoms often catch the attention of the public including the health professionals. Atypicality in the symptoms is usually seen in patients with factitious disorder. In patients with factitious disorder, there occurs conscious production of symptoms with an unconscious motive, irrespective of the fact whether they are ill or not. Self-inflicted injuries to skin often give rise to typical skin lesions known as dermatitis artefacta, which many a times simulate other dermatological conditions. Patients with factitious disorder often have a narrow line of demarcation from malingering. We present a case of an adolescent girl presenting with spontaneous extrusion of glass pieces from her body parts with focus on diagnostic dilemma and management. PMID:27057021

  15. The Girl Shedding Glass Pieces from Her Body Parts: Unfolding the Mystery Behind Dermatitis Artefacta

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harpreet; Tripathi, Adarsh; Kar, Sujita Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with unusual symptoms are uncommon. Unusual symptoms often catch the attention of the public including the health professionals. Atypicality in the symptoms is usually seen in patients with factitious disorder. In patients with factitious disorder, there occurs conscious production of symptoms with an unconscious motive, irrespective of the fact whether they are ill or not. Self-inflicted injuries to skin often give rise to typical skin lesions known as dermatitis artefacta, which many a times simulate other dermatological conditions. Patients with factitious disorder often have a narrow line of demarcation from malingering. We present a case of an adolescent girl presenting with spontaneous extrusion of glass pieces from her body parts with focus on diagnostic dilemma and management. PMID:27057021

  16. Stimulus-response compatibility with body parts: a study with hands.

    PubMed

    Lameira, Allan Pablo; Pereira, Antônio; Fraga-Filho, Roberto Sena; Gawryszewski, Luiz G

    2015-07-01

    Stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) effects are classified depending on the way that the elements of the stimulus and response sets interact, influencing both the speed and accuracy of the motor response. This is particularly important for social stimuli, such as hands. However, the stimuli used in most SRC studies are often simple or abstract figures. Our main goal in the present work was to investigate how task ensembles containing body parts (hands) as stimuli fit into Kornblum's taxonomy expressed in the dimensional overlap model. Specifically, we test whether hand stimuli elicit Simon or spatial Stroop effects in a SRC task. We set up two experiments using either hands or arrows as stimuli. Our results demonstrate that hands elicit a Simon effect in a SRC task. However, different from arrows, which constitute Type 8 Kornblum's ensembles, hands do not elicit a spatial Stroop effect and form Type 3 ensembles. PMID:25893910

  17. Why does it matter how we regulate the use of human body parts?

    PubMed

    Goold, Imogen

    2014-01-01

    Human tissue and body parts have been used in one way or another for millennia. They have been preserved and displayed, both in museums and public shows. Real human hair is used for wigs, while some artists even use human tissue in their works. Blood, bone marrow, whole organs and a host of other structures and human substances are all transplanted into living persons to treat illness. New life can be created from gametes through in vitro fertilisation (IVF), while the creation of cell lines keeps tissue alive indefinitely. These uses create significant challenges for the legal system in the UK. The major challenge for the law is to balance the competing demands of those groups who have vested interests in human tissue-researchers, medical practitioners, patients, families, the community and the police, among many others. It must provide sufficient control to users of tissue, but also take account of the fact that our bodies hold psychological importance for us while we live and, after we die, for those we leave behind. To some degree the law has been successful, but we still lack a comprehensive, coherent approach to the regulation of human tissue. Partially as a reaction to this lack of a comprehensive approach, some commentators have turned to applying the concept of property to human tissue means to achieve regulatory outcomes they support. PMID:24336398

  18. Documentation of program AFTBDY to generate coordinate system for 3D after body using body fitted curvilinear coordinates, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, D.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program AFTBDY generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for a wedge curved after body. This wedge curved after body is being used in an experimental program. The coordinate system generated by AFTBDY is used to solve 3D compressible N.S. equations. The coordinate system in the physical plane is a cartesian x,y,z system, whereas, in the transformed plane a rectangular xi, eta, zeta system is used. The coordinate system generated is such that in the transformed plane coordinate spacing in the xi, eta, zeta direction is constant and equal to unity. The physical plane coordinate lines in the different regions are clustered heavily or sparsely depending on the regions where physical quantities to be solved for by the N.S. equations have high or low gradients. The coordinate distribution in the physical plane is such that x stays constant in eta and zeta direction, whereas, z stays constant in xi and eta direction. The desired distribution in x and z is input to the program. Consequently, only the y-coordinate is solved for by the program AFTBDY.

  19. On density differences of some parts of body of men living on hypsometrically contrasting tectonic blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    In microgravity conditions in cosmos above the Earth s surface 100 and more km man diminishes density of its bones losing Ca This phenomenon appears instantaneously after arriving man in orbit If an abrupt hundred km vertical change produces very sharp and prompt result then a smaller vertical difference in terrestrial habitation 1 to 5 km but during thousand and thousand years should have some steady and noticeable results Let us compare some characteristics of man living in two tectonic segments the higher eastern and lower western hemispheres in two tectonic sectors the lower Eurasian and higher Asian sectors in two tectonic granules of Africa Pygmy of the Congolese lowlands and Bushman of the South-African highlands Polynesians of Pacific and Indians of America the western hemisphere have on average higher the Rohrer s index the ratio of body weight to the cube of its height than population of the eastern hemisphere A calf of a Polynesian is 25 longer in circumference than that of Hottentot Hand contraction of a Polynesian on average is stronger than that of a Breton fisherman Crania of the Changos - past Indians of the Atakama desert a very low part of the American continent -- are very strong with thick-bones and with cartilage joining skull bones thickness of skull bones is also a characteristic of other Indians So if an astronaut above loses his calcium an Indian below acquires additional calcium for his bones Composition and quantity of human hairs characteristically changes from uplifted to subsided -

  20. Distribution of the myrmecoparasitic fungus Rickia wasmannii (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) across colonies, individuals, and body parts of Myrmica scabrinodis.

    PubMed

    Markó, Bálint; Csata, Enikő; Erős, Katalin; Német, Enikő; Czekes, Zsolt; Rózsa, Lajos

    2016-05-01

    The ant species Myrmica scabrinodis plays a markedly important ecological role through much of the humid grasslands of Eurasia. It hosts a species-rich community of pathogens and parasites, including Rickia wasmannii, an enigmatic member of entomoparasitic laboulbenialean fungi. This study provides a descriptive ecology of R. wasmannii by characterizing its prevalence and distribution across several hierarchical levels: colonies, individuals, and anatomic body parts. Infections were restricted to a single ant species, M. scabrinodis, and infected colonies occurred predominantly in wet habitats. Infections tended to be highly prevalent within infected colonies, often reaching 100% sample prevalence among workers. Individual infections exhibited an aggregated distribution typical to host-parasite systems. Workers from the aboveground part of nests (presumably older ones acting as foragers) were more infected than those from the belowground part. Fungal thalli could be found all over the body of the hosts, the head and the abdomen being the most infected parts of the body. The fungi's distribution among host body parts statistically differed between low versus high-intensity infections: the initial dominance of the head decreased with advancing infection. These findings may provide baseline data for future comparative or monitoring studies. PMID:26970261

  1. Real-time two-level foreground detection and person-silhouette extraction enhanced by body-parts tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, Rada; Desserée, Elodie; Bouakaz, Saida

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss foreground detection and human body silhouette extraction and tracking in monocular video systems designed for human motion analysis applications. Vision algorithms face many challenges when it comes to analyze human activities in non-controlled environments. For instance, issues like illumination changes, shadows, camouflage and occlusions make the detection and the tracking of a moving person a hard task to accomplish. Hence, advanced solutions are required to analyze the content of video sequences. We propose a real-time, two-level foreground detection, enhanced by body parts tracking, designed to efficiently extract person silhouette and body parts for monocular video-based human motion analysis systems. We aim to find solutions for different non-controlled environment challenges, which make the detection and the tracking of a moving person a hard task to accomplish. On the first level, we propose an enhanced Mixture of Gaussians, built on both chrominanceluminance and chrominance-only spaces, which handles global illumination changes. On the second level, we improve segmentation results, in interesting areas, by using statistical foreground models updated by a high-level tracking of body parts. Each body part is represented with a set of template characterized by a feature vector built in an initialization phase. Then, high level tracking is done by finding blob-template correspondences via distance minimization in feature space. Correspondences are then used to update foreground models, and a graph cut algorithm, which minimizes a Markov random field energy function containing these models, is used to refine segmentation. We were able to extract a refined silhouette in the presence of light changes, noise and camouflage. Moreover, the tracking approach allowed us to infer information about the presence and the location of body parts even in the case of partial occlusion.

  2. The Mallory body: morphological, clinical and experimental studies (Part 1 of a literature survey).

    PubMed

    Jensen, K; Gluud, C

    1994-10-01

    To aid understanding of markers of disease and predictors of outcome in alcohol-exposed systems, we undertook a literature survey of more than 700 articles to view the morphological characteristics and the clinical and experimental epidemiology of the Mallory body. Mallory bodies are filaments of intermediate diameter that contain intermediate filament components (e.g., cytokeratins) observable by conventional light microscopy or immunohistochemical methods, identical in structure regardless of initiating factors or putative pathogenesis. Although three morphological types can be identified under electron microscopy (with fibrillar structure parallel, random or absent), they remain stereotypical manifestations of hepatocyte injury. A summary of the conditions associated with Mallory bodies in the literature and their validity and potential etiological relationships is presented and discussed, including estimates on the combined light microscopic and immunohistochemical prevalences and kinetics. Emphasis is placed on proper confounder control (in particular, alcohol history), which is highly essential but often inadequate. These conditions include (mean prevalence of Mallory bodies in parentheses): Indian childhood cirrhosis (73%), alcoholic hepatitis (65%), alcoholic cirrhosis (51%), Wilson's disease (25%), primary biliary cirrhosis (24%), nonalcoholic cirrhosis (24%), hepatocellular carcinoma (23%), morbid obesity (8%) and intestinal bypass surgery (6%). Studies in alcoholic hepatitis strongly suggest a hit-and-run effect of alcohol, whereas other chronic liver diseases show evidence of gradual increase in prevalence of Mallory bodies with severity of hepatic pathology. Mallory bodies in cirrhosis do not imply alcoholic pathogenesis. Obesity, however, is associated with alcoholism and diabetes, and Mallory bodies are only present in diabetic patients if alcoholism or obesity complicates the condition. In addition, case studies on diseases in which Mallory bodies

  3. Development of Land Segmentation, Stream-Reach Network, and Watersheds in Support of Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) Modeling, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, and Adjacent Parts of Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martucci, Sarah K.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Hopkins, Katherine J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Chesapeake Bay Program Office, Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin, Maryland Department of the Environment, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, and the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science are collaborating on the Chesapeake Bay Regional Watershed Model, using Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN to simulate streamflow and concentrations and loads of nutrients and sediment to Chesapeake Bay. The model will be used to provide information for resource managers. In order to establish a framework for model simulation, digital spatial datasets were created defining the discretization of the model region (including the Chesapeake Bay watershed, as well as the adjacent parts of Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia outside the watershed) into land segments, a stream-reach network, and associated watersheds. Land segmentation was based on county boundaries represented by a 1:100,000-scale digital dataset. Fifty of the 254 counties and incorporated cities in the model region were divided on the basis of physiography and topography, producing a total of 309 land segments. The stream-reach network for the Chesapeake Bay watershed part of the model region was based on the U.S. Geological Survey Chesapeake Bay SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) model stream-reach network. Because that network was created only for the Chesapeake Bay watershed, the rest of the model region uses a 1:500,000-scale stream-reach network. Streams with mean annual streamflow of less than 100 cubic feet per second were excluded based on attributes from the dataset. Additional changes were made to enhance the data and to allow for inclusion of stream reaches with monitoring data that were not part of the original network. Thirty-meter-resolution Digital Elevation Model data were used to delineate watersheds for each

  4. Design, revision, and application of ground-water flow models for simulation of selected water-management scenarios in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Krause, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water flow models of the Floridan aquifer system in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida, were revised and updated to ensure consistency among the various models used, and to facilitate evaluation of the effects of pumping on the ground-water level near areas of saltwater contamination. The revised models, developed as part of regional and areal assessments of ground-water resources in coastal Georgia, are--the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) model, the Glynn County area (Glynn) model, and the Savannah area (Savannah) model. Changes were made to hydraulic-property arrays of the RASA and Glynn models to ensure consistency among all of the models; results of theses changes are evidenced in revised water budgets and calibration statistics. Following revision, the three models were used to simulate 32 scenarios of hypothetical changes in pumpage that ranged from about 82 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) lower to about 438 Mgal/d higher, than the May 1985 pumping rate of 308 Mgal/d. The scenarios were developed by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division and the Chatham County-Savannah Metropolitan Planning Commission to evaluate water-management alternatives in coastal Georgia. Maps showing simulated ground-water-level decline and diagrams presenting changes in simulated flow rates are presented for each scenario. Scenarios were grouped on the basis of pumping location--entire 24-county area, central subarea, Glynn-Wayne-Camden County subarea, and Savannah-Hilton Head Island subarea. For those scenarios that simulated decreased pumpage, the water level at both Brunswick and Hilton Head Island rose, decreasing the hydraulic gradient and reducing the potential for saltwater contamination. Conversely, in response to scenarios of increased pumpage, the water level at both locations declined, increasing the hydraulic gradient and increasing the potential for saltwater contamination

  5. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 1926 - Designations for General Industry Standards Incorporated Into Body of Construction Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designations for General Industry Standards Incorporated... REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Pt. 1926, App. A Appendix A to Part 1926—Designations for General Industry Standards Incorporated Into Body of Construction Standards New Designations for General Industry...

  6. Voluntary movement affects simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to a non-moving body part.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qiao; Ora, Hiroki; Ogawa, Ken-Ichiro; Ogata, Taiki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal sensory information has a crucial role for effective reactions to the external environment. Voluntary movements are known to occasionally affect simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the moving body part. However, little is known about spatial limits on the effect of voluntary movements on simultaneous perception, especially when tactile stimuli are presented to a non-moving body part. We examined the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the non-moving body part. We considered the possible mechanism using a temporal order judgement task under three experimental conditions: voluntary movement, where participants voluntarily moved their right index finger and judged the temporal order of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to their non-moving left index finger; passive movement; and no movement. During voluntary movement, the auditory stimulus needed to be presented before the tactile stimulus so that they were perceived as occurring simultaneously. This subjective simultaneity differed significantly from the passive movement and no movement conditions. This finding indicates that the effect of voluntary movement on simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli extends to the non-moving body part. PMID:27622584

  7. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-4 - Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tractor, see § 48.4061(b)-1. (b) Essential equipment. If taxable chassis, bodies, or tractors are sold by... taxable tractor and the fifth wheel and attachments, the tax applies to such parts or accessories at the same rate as on the chassis or tractor regardless of the method of billing or the time at which...

  8. Body Part Terms as a Semantic Basis for Grammaticalization: A Mordvin Case Study into Spatial Reference and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Pareren, Remco

    2013-01-01

    Body parts have played an important role in the development of theories describing grammaticalization processes (Heine and Kuteva, 2002, pp. 62-63 and 165-171). Within Uralic linguistics, this particular area of study has not yet received a great deal of attention, although the agglutinative character of most of these languages is known to have…

  9. Hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and parts of the Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River basins in Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and Alabama during drought conditions, July 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Peck, Michael F.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of the Interior sustainable water strategy, WaterSMART, the U.S. Geological Survey documented hydrologic and water-quality conditions in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and western and central Aucilla-Suwannee-Ochlockonee River basins in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia during low-flow conditions in July 2011. Moderate-drought conditions prevailed in this area during early 2011 and worsened to exceptional by June, with cumulative rainfall departures from the 1981-2010 climate normals registering deficits ranging from 17 to 27 inches. As a result, groundwater levels and stream discharges measured below median daily levels throughout most of 2011. Water-quality field properties including temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH were measured at selected surface-water sites. Record-low groundwater levels measured in 12 of 43 surficial aquifer wells and 128 of 312 Upper Floridan aquifer wells during July 2011 underscored the severity of drought conditions in the study area. Most wells recorded groundwater levels below the median daily statistic, and 7 surficial aquifer wells were dry. Groundwater-level measurements taken in July 2011 were used to determine the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Groundwater generally flows to the south and toward streams except in reaches where streams discharge to the aquifer. The degree of connection between the Upper Floridan aquifer and streams decreases east of the Flint River where thick overburden hydraulically separates the aquifer from stream interaction. Hydraulic separation of the Upper Floridan aquifer from streams located east of the Flint River is shown by stream-stage altitudes that differ from groundwater levels measured in close proximity to streams. Most streams located in the study area during 2011 exhibited below normal flows (streamflows less than the 25th percentile), substantiating the severity of drought conditions that year. Streamflow

  10. Mental rotation of letters, body parts and scenes during whole-body tilt: role of a body-centered versus a gravitational reference frame.

    PubMed

    Bock, Otmar L; Dalecki, Marc

    2015-04-01

    It is known that in mental-rotation tasks, subjects mentally transform the displayed material until it appears "upright" and then make a judgment. Here we evaluate, by using three typical mental rotation tasks with different degrees of embodiment, whether "upright" is coded to a gravitational or egocentric reference frame, or a combination of both. Observers stood erect or were whole-body tilted by 60°, with their left ear down. In either posture, they saw stimuli presented at different orientation angles in their frontal plane: in condition LETTER, they judged whether the stimuli were normal or mirror-reversed letters, in condition HAND whether they represented a left or a right hand, and in condition SCENE whether a weapon laid left or right in front of a displayed person. Data confirm that reaction times are modulated by stimulus orientation angle, and the modulation curve in LETTER and HAND differs from that in SCENE. More importantly, during 60° body tilt, the modulation curve shifted 12° away from the gravitational towards the egocentric vertical reference; this shift was comparable in all three conditions and independent of the degree of embodiment. We conclude that mental rotation in all conditions relied on a similar spatial reference, which seems to be a weighted average of the gravitational and the egocentric vertical, with a higher weight given to the former. PMID:25682375

  11. Unsteady Newton-Busemann flow theory. Part 2: Bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, W. H.; Tobak, M.

    1981-01-01

    Newtonian flow theory for unsteady flow past oscillating bodies of revolution at very high Mach numbers is completed by adding a centrifugal force correction to the impact pressures. Exact formulas for the unsteady pressure and the stability derivatives are obtained in closed form and are applicable to bodies of revolution that have arbitrary shapes, arbitrary thicknesses, and either sharp or blunt noses. The centrifugal force correction arising from the curved trajectories followed by the fluid particles in unsteady flow cannot be neglected even for the case of a circular cone. With this correction, the present theory is in excellent agreement with experimental results for sharp cones and for cones with small nose bluntness; gives poor agreement with the results of experiments in air for bodies with moderate or large nose bluntness. The pitching motions of slender power-law bodies of revulution are shown to be always dynamically stable according to Newton-Busemann theory.

  12. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part II: N-body simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Okumura, Teppei; Seljak, Uroš; McDonald, Patrick; Desjacques, Vincent E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu E-mail: dvince@physik.uzh.ch

    2012-02-01

    Measurement of redshift-space distortions (RSD) offers an attractive method to directly probe the cosmic growth history of density perturbations. A distribution function approach where RSD can be written as a sum over density weighted velocity moment correlators has recently been developed. In this paper we use results of N-body simulations to investigate the individual contributions and convergence of this expansion for dark matter. If the series is expanded as a function of powers of μ, cosine of the angle between the Fourier mode and line of sight, then there are a finite number of terms contributing at each order. We present these terms and investigate their contribution to the total as a function of wavevector k. For μ{sup 2} the correlation between density and momentum dominates on large scales. Higher order corrections, which act as a Finger-of-God (FoG) term, contribute 1% at k ∼ 0.015hMpc{sup −1}, 10% at k ∼ 0.05hMpc{sup −1} at z = 0, while for k > 0.15hMpc{sup −1} they dominate and make the total negative. These higher order terms are dominated by density-energy density correlations which contributes negatively to the power, while the contribution from vorticity part of momentum density auto-correlation adds to the total power, but is an order of magnitude lower. For μ{sup 4} term the dominant term on large scales is the scalar part of momentum density auto-correlation, while higher order terms dominate for k > 0.15hMpc{sup −1}. For μ{sup 6} and μ{sup 8} we find it has very little power for k < 0.15hMpc{sup −1}, shooting up by 2–3 orders of magnitude between k < 0.15hMpc{sup −1} and k < 0.4hMpc{sup −1}. We also compare the expansion to the full 2-d P{sup ss}(k,μ), as well as to the monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole integrals of P{sup ss}(k,μ). For these statistics an infinite number of terms contribute and we find that the expansion achieves percent level accuracy for kμ < 0.15hMpc{sup −1} at 6-th order, but breaks down

  13. (234)U/(238)U signatures associated with uranium ore bodies: part 2 Manyingee.

    PubMed

    Lowson, Richard T; McIntyre, Mark G

    2013-04-01

    The Manyingee ore body is a roll-front U ore body located at depth in the Cretaceous sandstone sediments of a Proterozoic palaeo valley. It is located in a confined aquifer. The aquifer is recharged 4 km upstream by the Ashburton River. Groundwater samples were collected at and up to 4.7 km downstream of the ore body. The ground water (234)U/(238)U activity ratios (AR) were elevated to 1.86 in the vicinity of the ore body and then declined to 1.06 over the 4.7 km transect. The elevated (234)U/(238)U ARs are attributed to selective leaching of (234)U sites by oxidising waters, with α recoil as a necessary precursor to produce activated (234)U sites. Direct ejection into another phase following α recoil is considered to be a minor contributor to (234)U -(238)U disequilibrium in this environment. The profile is considered to be typical of the (234)U/(238)U AR profile at and down gradient of the redox front of a U ore body. PMID:23182403

  14. Effects of spinal cord injury on body composition and metabolic profile – Part I

    PubMed Central

    Gorgey, Ashraf S.; Dolbow, David R.; Dolbow, James D.; Khalil, Refka K.; Castillo, Camilo; Gater, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Several body composition and metabolic-associated disorders such as glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and lipid abnormalities occur prematurely after spinal cord injury (SCI) and at a higher prevalence compared to able-bodied populations. Within a few weeks to months of the injury, there is a significant decrease in total lean mass, particularly lower extremity muscle mass and an accompanying increase in fat mass. The infiltration of fat in intramuscular and visceral sites is associated with abnormal metabolic profiles. The current review will summarize the major changes in body composition and metabolic profiles that can lead to comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases after SCI. It is crucial for healthcare specialists to be aware of the magnitude of these changes. Such awareness may lead to earlier recognition and treatment of metabolic abnormalities that may reduce the co-morbidities seen over the lifetime of persons living with SCI. PMID:25001559

  15. The Advanced Part of a Treatise on the Dynamics of a System of Rigid Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routh, Edward John

    2013-03-01

    Preface; 1. Moving axes and relative motion; 2. Oscillations about equilibrium; 3. Oscillations about a state of motion; 4. Motion of a body under no forces; 5. Motion of a body under any forces; 6. Nature of the motion given by linear equations and the conditions of stability; 7. Free and forced oscillations; 8. Determination of the constants of integration in terms of the initial conditions; 9. Calculus of finite differences; 10. Calculus of variations; 11. Precession and nutation; 12. Motion of the moon about its centre; 13. Motion of a string or chain; 14. Motion of a membrane; Notes.

  16. Addition of flexible body option to the TOLA computer program, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, J. W.; Benda, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    This report describes a flexible body option that was developed and added to the Takeoff and Landing Analysis (TOLA) computer program. The addition of the flexible body option to TOLA allows it to be used to study essentially any conventional type airplane in the ground operating environment. It provides the capability to predict the total motion of selected points on the analytical methods incorporated in the program and operating instructions for the option are described. A program listing is included along with several example problems to aid in interpretation of the operating instructions and to illustrate program usage.

  17. Body Size of Contemporary Youth in Different Parts of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Howard V.

    1969-01-01

    Based on body size measurements accumulated between 1950-1960, comparisons were made of 13-year-old girls and 15-year-old boys from North and South America, northern, central, and southwest Asia, Oceania, Australia, Africa, the Near East, and Europe. (DO)

  18. (234)U/(238)U signatures associated with uranium ore bodies: part 3 Koongarra.

    PubMed

    Lowson, Richard T

    2013-04-01

    The Koongarra ore body is an early Proterozoic U ore body in the Alligator Rivers U province, Northern Territory, Australia. It has surface expression with a redox front located ∼30 m below the surface. The (234)U/(238)U activity ratios (AR) for the ground water and the amorphous phase of the solid have been analysed for the ore zone and dispersion halo as a function of depth. The results display a (234)U/(238)U AR signature with depth which may be common to all U ore bodies. The (234)U/(238)U AR is depressed below secular equilibrium in the weathered material above the redox front; rises significantly above secular equilibrium in the vicinity of the redox front; and is followed by a gradual decrease with depth below the redox front. The amplitude of the profile is a function of local conditions. A model is proposed for the signature in which oxidising waters preferentially leach the (234)U sites at the redox front due to preconditioning of the (234)U sites by α recoil during the decay of (23)(8)U to (23)(4)U. Mass balance requires the solid material left behind the redox front to have a (234)U/(238)U AR reduced below 1. Local second order effects may be superimposed on the signature. The signature may have application to calibrating scenarios for nuclear waste repositories, assisting in understanding historical climates, economic evaluation of U ore bodies and U exploration. PMID:23142336

  19. Attractiveness of volatiles from different body parts to the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii is affected by deodorant compounds

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, Niels O.; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; Menger, David; Takken, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes display biting preferences among different sites of the human body. In addition to height or convection currents, body odour may play a role in the selection of these biting sites. Previous studies have shown that skin emanations are important host-finding cues for mosquitoes. In this study, skin emanations were collected from armpits, hands and feet; the volatile profiles were analysed and tested for their attractiveness to the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii. Skin emanations collected from armpits were less attractive to An. coluzzii compared to hands or/and feet. The difference may have been caused by deodorant residues, which were found in the armpit samples and not in those of hands and feet. In a subsequent experiment, volunteers were asked to avoid using skincare products for five days, and thereafter, no differences in attractiveness of the body parts to mosquitoes were found. The detected deodorant compound isopropyl tetradecanoate inhibited mosquito landings in a repellent bioassay. It is concluded that the volatiles emanated from different body parts induced comparable levels of attraction in mosquitoes, and that skincare products may reduce a person’s attractiveness to mosquitoes. PMID:27251017

  20. Attractiveness of volatiles from different body parts to the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii is affected by deodorant compounds.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Niels O; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Menger, David; Takken, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes display biting preferences among different sites of the human body. In addition to height or convection currents, body odour may play a role in the selection of these biting sites. Previous studies have shown that skin emanations are important host-finding cues for mosquitoes. In this study, skin emanations were collected from armpits, hands and feet; the volatile profiles were analysed and tested for their attractiveness to the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii. Skin emanations collected from armpits were less attractive to An. coluzzii compared to hands or/and feet. The difference may have been caused by deodorant residues, which were found in the armpit samples and not in those of hands and feet. In a subsequent experiment, volunteers were asked to avoid using skincare products for five days, and thereafter, no differences in attractiveness of the body parts to mosquitoes were found. The detected deodorant compound isopropyl tetradecanoate inhibited mosquito landings in a repellent bioassay. It is concluded that the volatiles emanated from different body parts induced comparable levels of attraction in mosquitoes, and that skincare products may reduce a person's attractiveness to mosquitoes. PMID:27251017

  1. inertial orientation tracker having automatic drift compensation using an at rest sensor for tracking parts of a human body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foxlin, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A self contained sensor apparatus generates a signal that corresponds to at least two of the three orientational aspects of yaw, pitch and roll of a human-scale body, relative to an external reference frame. A sensor generates first sensor signals that correspond to rotational accelerations or rates of the body about certain body axes. The sensor may be mounted to the body. Coupled to the sensor is a signal processor for generating orientation signals relative to the external reference frame that correspond to the angular rate or acceleration signals. The first sensor signals are impervious to interference from electromagnetic, acoustic, optical and mechanical sources. The sensors may be rate sensors. An integrator may integrate the rate signal over time. A drift compensator is coupled to the rate sensors and the integrator. The drift compensator may include a gravitational tilt sensor or a magnetic field sensor or both. A verifier periodically measures the orientation of the body by a means different from the drift sensitive sate sensors. The verifier may take into account characteristic features of human motion, such as stillness periods. The drift compensator may be, in part, a Kalman filter, which may utilize statistical data about human head motion.

  2. "Oh, that I might be parted from my body": mirror perplexity and the nonrelational self.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexander H

    2014-06-01

    Psychoanalytic models have a commonly held view of necessary and accurate mirroring in the dialectic of emergent and already formed aspects of the self. Mirroring-perplexity, however, is a cognitive and affective state found in a group of patients for whom reflective mirroring results in a dissociative rather than a unifying experience of body and mind. A review of the myth of Narcissus reveals that mirroring requires a relational mediation of self and mirror image through another. This ontological organization affectively links the simultaneous sense of being in the body and in the reflected image after experiencing a state of dyadic union. Clinical vignettes illustrate the effects of missing maternal relational response initially made evident in unmirrored self-representations in the transference. PMID:24866162

  3. Mantises exchange angular momentum between three rotating body parts to jump precisely to targets.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm; Cullen, Darron A; Dorosenko, Marina; Sutton, Gregory P

    2015-03-16

    Flightless animals have evolved diverse mechanisms to control their movements in air, whether falling with gravity or propelling against it. Many insects jump as a primary mode of locomotion and must therefore precisely control the large torques generated during takeoff. For example, to minimize spin (angular momentum of the body) at takeoff, plant-sucking bugs apply large equal and opposite torques from two propulsive legs [1]. Interacting gear wheels have evolved in some to give precise synchronization of these legs [2, 3]. Once airborne, as a result of either jumping or falling, further adjustments may be needed to control trajectory and orient the body for landing. Tails are used by geckos to control pitch [4, 5] and by Anolis lizards to alter direction [6, 7]. When falling, cats rotate their body [8], while aphids [9] and ants [10, 11] manipulate wind resistance against their legs and thorax. Falling is always downward, but targeted jumping must achieve many possible desired trajectories. We show that when making targeted jumps, juvenile wingless mantises first rotated their abdomen about the thorax to adjust the center of mass and thus regulate spin at takeoff. Once airborne, they then smoothly and sequentially transferred angular momentum in four stages between the jointed abdomen, the two raptorial front legs, and the two propulsive hind legs to produce a controlled jump with a precise landing. Experimentally impairing abdominal movements reduced the overall rotation so that the mantis either failed to grasp the target or crashed into it head first. PMID:25754643

  4. A study of coal particle shape and three-body wear: Part 1, Design and development of a new three-body wear testing machine: Part 2, Particle shape and three-body wear

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, N.N.; Means, K.H.; James, R.; Thompson, T.

    1991-01-01

    Three-body wear involves two surfaces and an intermediate particle trapped between the two surfaces. A machine has been constructed to measure normal and frictional forces due to three-body wear. This machine accurately positions specimens a predetermined distance apart from each other and introduces particles to the interface between the specimens. Different types of specimen combinations have been tested to give a variety of data. Loads that result from the wear test are sampled and stored. Wear coefficients and rates of wear have been calculated for all specimens. (VC)

  5. Psychologically induced cooling of a specific body part caused by the illusory ownership of an artificial counterpart

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, G. Lorimer; Olthof, Nick; Venema, Annemeike; Don, Sanneke; Wijers, Marijke; Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The sense of body ownership represents a fundamental aspect of our self-awareness, but is disrupted in many neurological, psychiatric, and psychological conditions that are also characterized by disruption of skin temperature regulation, sometimes in a single limb. We hypothesized that skin temperature in a specific limb could be disrupted by psychologically disrupting the sense of ownership of that limb. In six separate experiments, and by using an established protocol to induce the rubber hand illusion, we demonstrate that skin temperature of the real hand decreases when we take ownership of an artificial counterpart. The decrease in skin temperature is limb-specific: it does not occur in the unstimulated hand, nor in the ipsilateral foot. The effect is not evoked by tactile or visual input per se, nor by simultaneous tactile and visual input per se, nor by a shift in attention toward the experimental side or limb. In fact, taking ownership of an artificial hand slows tactile processing of information from the real hand, which is also observed in patients who demonstrate body disownership after stroke. These findings of psychologically induced limb-specific disruption of temperature regulation provide the first evidence that: taking ownership of an artificial body part has consequences for the real body part; that the awareness of our physical self and the physiological regulation of self are closely linked in a top-down manner; and that cognitive processes that disrupt the sense of body ownership may in turn disrupt temperature regulation in numerous states characterized by both. PMID:18725630

  6. Effect of Whole-Body Vibration on Speech. Part 2; Effect on Intelligibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect on speech intelligibility was measured for speech where talkers reading Diagnostic Rhyme Test material were exposed to 0.7 g whole body vibration to simulate space vehicle launch. Across all talkers, the effect of vibration was to degrade the percentage of correctly transcribed words from 83% to 74%. The magnitude of the effect of vibration on speech communication varies between individuals, for both talkers and listeners. A worst case scenario for intelligibility would be the most sensitive listener hearing the most sensitive talker; one participant s intelligibility was reduced by 26% (97% to 71%) for one of the talkers.

  7. Bones, body parts, and sex appeal: An analysis of #thinspiration images on popular social media.

    PubMed

    Ghaznavi, Jannath; Taylor, Laramie D

    2015-06-01

    The present study extends research on thinspiration images, visual and/or textual images intended to inspire weight loss, from pro-eating disorder websites to popular photo-sharing social media websites. The article reports on a systematic content analysis of thinspiration images (N=300) on Twitter and Pinterest. Images tended to be sexually suggestive and objectifying with a focus on ultra-thin, bony, scantily-clad women. Results indicated that particular social media channels and labels (i.e., tags) were characterized by more segmented, bony content and greater social endorsement compared to others. In light of theories of media influence, results offer insight into the potentially harmful effects of exposure to sexually suggestive and objectifying content in large online communities on body image, quality of life, and mental health. PMID:25880783

  8. Clinical distinctions of radiation sickness with exposure of different parts of the human body to radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nevskaya, G.F.; Abramova, G.M.; Volkova, M.A.; Kavlycheva, Y.V.; Skorik, A.S.; Yurogov, V.V.

    1982-01-12

    The clinical picture of radiation sickness of 139 radiological patients exposed to local irradition of the head, chest, and stomach with efficient doses of 210 rad was examined. It was found that at fractionated local irraditions the clinical symptom-complex of radiation sickness was identifical to that seen as a result of total-body irradiation. During head irradiation the major symptom was headache and during stomach irradiation nausea. The severity level of radiation damage measured with respect to the clinical symptom-complex as a whole with the aid of the bioinformation model was similar during irradiations of the head and stomach, much higher during irradiation of the chest. During head and stomach irradiations the severity level of radiation damage was proportional to the efficient dose. During chest irradiation there was no correlation between the severity level and the exposure to doses of 210 rad.

  9. Numerical computation of two dimensional viscous blunt body flows with an impinging shock, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, T. L.; Tannehill, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Two-dimensional viscous blunt body flows with an impinging shock have been computed using a time-dependent finite-difference method which solves the complete set of Navier-Stokes equations for a compressible flow. For low Reynolds number flows, the entire flow field, including the bow shock and impinging shock, has been captured in the computation. For higher Reynolds number flows, the bow shock is treated as a discontinuity across which the Rankine-Hugoniot equations are applied, while the boundary layer and interaction regions are captured as before. Using this latter shock-fitting approach, a Type III shock interaction flow field has been computed with flow conditions corresponding to the space shuttle orbiter freestream conditions at 61 km (200,000 ft).

  10. Effects of garments on photoanthropometry of body parts: application to stature estimation.

    PubMed

    Scoleri, Tony; Lucas, Teghan; Henneberg, Maciej

    2014-04-01

    Person identification from images is an important task in many security applications and forensic investigations. The essence of the problem comes down to measuring key observable anatomical features which can help describing similarities or differences between two or more individuals. In this paper, we examine how different types of garments affect the placement of body markers that enable precise anatomical human description. We focus in particular on landmark positioning errors on the upper limb. Closed-form formulae are provided to compute the maximum likelihood estimate of upper limb length from an image. Subject stature is then predicted from the limb length through a regression model and used as identification criterion. Following initial laboratory experiments, the technique is demonstrated to be invariant to posture and applicable to uninformed subjects in unconstrained environments. Seven technical errors of measurement and statistical tests are quantified empirically from statures obtained by three assessors. Results show that thicker garments produce higher inaccuracies in landmark localisation but errors decrease as placement is repeated, as expected. Overall, comparison to truth reveals that on average statures are predicted with accuracy in excess of 96% for the worst assessor. PMID:24582408

  11. Delirium and dementia with Lewy bodies: distinct diagnoses or part of the same spectrum?

    PubMed

    Gore, Rachel L; Vardy, Emma R L C; O'Brien, John T

    2015-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is recognised as the second most common form of dementia in older people. Delirium is a condition of acute brain dysfunction for which a pre-existing diagnosis of dementia is a risk factor. Conversely delirium is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. The reasons for this bidirectional relationship are not well understood. Our aim was to review possible similarities in the clinical presentation and pathophysiology between delirium and DLB, and explore possible links between these diagnoses. A systematic search using Medline, Embase and Psychinfo was performed. References were scanned for relevant articles, supplemented by articles identified from reference lists and those known to the authors. 94 articles were selected for inclusion in the review. Delirium and DLB share a number of clinical similarities, including global impairment of cognition, fluctuations in attention and perceptual abnormalities. Delirium is a frequent presenting feature of DLB. In terms of pathophysiological mechanisms, cholinergic dysfunction and genetics may provide a common link. Neuroimaging studies suggest a brain vulnerability in delirium which may also occur in dementia. The basal ganglia, which play a key role in DLB, have also been implicated in delirium. The role of Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum biomarkers for both diagnoses is an interesting area although some results are conflicting and further work in this area is needed. Delirium and DLB share a number of features and we hypothesise that delirium may, in some cases, represent early or 'prodromal' DLB. Further research is needed to test the novel hypothesis that delirium may be an early marker for future DLB, which would aid early diagnosis of DLB and identify those at high risk. PMID:24860139

  12. The contribution of primary and secondary somatosensory cortices to the representation of body parts and body sides: an fMRI adaptation study.

    PubMed

    Tamè, Luigi; Braun, Christoph; Lingnau, Angelika; Schwarzbach, Jens; Demarchi, Gianpaolo; Li Hegner, Yiwen; Farnè, Alessandro; Pavani, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Although the somatosensory homunculus is a classically used description of the way somatosensory inputs are processed in the brain, the actual contributions of primary (SI) and secondary (SII) somatosensory cortices to the spatial coding of touch remain poorly understood. We studied adaptation of the fMRI BOLD response in the somatosensory cortex by delivering pairs of vibrotactile stimuli to the finger tips of the index and middle fingers. The first stimulus (adaptor) was delivered either to the index or to the middle finger of the right or left hand, and the second stimulus (test) was always administered to the left index finger. The overall BOLD response evoked by the stimulation was primarily contralateral in SI and was more bilateral in SII. However, our fMRI adaptation approach also revealed that both somatosensory cortices were sensitive to ipsilateral as well as to contralateral inputs. SI and SII adapted more after subsequent stimulation of homologous as compared with nonhomologous fingers, showing a distinction between different fingers. Most importantly, for both somatosensory cortices, this finger-specific adaptation occurred irrespective of whether the tactile stimulus was delivered to the same or to different hands. This result implies integration of contralateral and ipsilateral somatosensory inputs in SI as well as in SII. Our findings suggest that SI is more than a simple relay for sensory information and that both SI and SII contribute to the spatial coding of touch by discriminating between body parts (fingers) and by integrating the somatosensory input from the two sides of the body (hands). PMID:22849401

  13. Deceived by stripes: conspicuous patterning on vital anterior body parts can redirect predatory strikes to expendable posterior organs.

    PubMed

    Murali, Gopal; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa

    2016-06-01

    Conspicuous coloration, which presumably makes prey more visible to predators, has intrigued researchers for long. Contrastingly coloured, conspicuous striped patterns are common among lizards and other animals, but their function is not well known. We propose and test a novel hypothesis, the 'redirection hypothesis', wherein longitudinal striped patterns, such as those found on the anterior body parts of most lacertilians, redirect attacks away from themselves during motion towards less vulnerable posterior parts, for example, the autotomous tail. In experiments employing human 'predators' attacking virtual prey on a touchscreen, we show that longitudinal striped patterns on the anterior half of prey decreased attacks to the anterior and increased attacks to the posterior. The position of stripes mattered-they worked best when they were at the anterior. By employing an adaptive psychophysical procedure, we show that prey with striped patterning are perceived to move slower, offering a mechanistic explanation for the redirective effect. In summary, our results suggest that the presence of stripes on the body (i.e. head and trunk) of lizards in combination with caudal autotomy can work as an effective anti-predator strategy during motion. PMID:27429765

  14. Deceived by stripes: conspicuous patterning on vital anterior body parts can redirect predatory strikes to expendable posterior organs

    PubMed Central

    Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa

    2016-01-01

    Conspicuous coloration, which presumably makes prey more visible to predators, has intrigued researchers for long. Contrastingly coloured, conspicuous striped patterns are common among lizards and other animals, but their function is not well known. We propose and test a novel hypothesis, the ‘redirection hypothesis’, wherein longitudinal striped patterns, such as those found on the anterior body parts of most lacertilians, redirect attacks away from themselves during motion towards less vulnerable posterior parts, for example, the autotomous tail. In experiments employing human ‘predators’ attacking virtual prey on a touchscreen, we show that longitudinal striped patterns on the anterior half of prey decreased attacks to the anterior and increased attacks to the posterior. The position of stripes mattered—they worked best when they were at the anterior. By employing an adaptive psychophysical procedure, we show that prey with striped patterning are perceived to move slower, offering a mechanistic explanation for the redirective effect. In summary, our results suggest that the presence of stripes on the body (i.e. head and trunk) of lizards in combination with caudal autotomy can work as an effective anti-predator strategy during motion. PMID:27429765

  15. Molecular Body Imaging: MR Imaging, CT, and US. Part I. Principles

    PubMed Central

    Kircher, Moritz F.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular imaging, generally defined as noninvasive imaging of cellular and subcellular events, has gained tremendous depth and breadth as a research and clinical discipline in recent years. The coalescence of major advances in engineering, molecular biology, chemistry, immunology, and genetics has fueled multi- and interdisciplinary innovations with the goal of driving clinical noninvasive imaging strategies that will ultimately allow disease identification, risk stratification, and monitoring of therapy effects with unparalleled sensitivity and specificity. Techniques that allow imaging of molecular and cellular events facilitate and go hand in hand with the development of molecular therapies, offering promise for successfully combining imaging with therapy. While traditionally nuclear medicine imaging techniques, in particular positron emission tomography (PET), PET combined with computed tomography (CT), and single photon emission computed tomography, have been the molecular imaging methods most familiar to clinicians, great advances have recently been made in developing imaging techniques that utilize magnetic resonance (MR), optical, CT, and ultrasonographic (US) imaging. In the first part of this review series, we present an overview of the principles of MR imaging-, CT-, and US-based molecular imaging strategies. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22623690

  16. Prevalence of sulfonamide-resistant bacteria, resistance genes and integron-associated horizontal gene transfer in natural water bodies and soils adjacent to a swine feedlot in northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jih-Tay; Chen, Chia-Yang; Young, Chu-Wen; Chao, Wei-Liang; Li, Mao-Hao; Liu, Yung-Hsin; Lin, Chu-Ming; Ying, Chingwen

    2014-07-30

    Antibiotics are commonly used in swine feed to treat and prevent disease, as well as to promote growth. Antibiotics released into the environment via wastewater could accelerate the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes in the surrounding environment. In this study, we quantified the occurrence of sulfonamides, sulfonamide-resistant microorganisms and resistance genes in the wastewater from a swine farm in northern Taiwan and its surrounding natural water bodies and soils. Sulfonamide levels were similar in the receiving downstream and upstream river water. However, the prevalence of sulfonamide-resistant bacteria and resistance genes, as analyzed by cultivation-dependent and -independent molecular approaches, was significantly greater in the downstream compared to the upstream river water samples. Barcoded-pyrosequencing revealed a highly diverse bacterial community structure in each sample. However, the sequence identity of the sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 in the wastewater and downstream environment samples was nearly identical (99-100%). The sul1 gene, which is genetically linked to class 1 integrons, was dominant in the downstream water bodies and soils. In conclusion, the increased prevalence of sulfonamide resistance genes in the wastewater from a swine farm, independent of the persistent presence of sulfonamides, could be a potential source of resistant gene pools in the surrounding environment. PMID:24637153

  17. The Impact of Body-Part-Naming Training on the Accuracy of Imitative Performances in 2- to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camoes-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of three experiments explored the relationship between 3-year-old children's ability to name target body parts and their untrained matching of target hand-to-body touches. Nine participants, 3 per experiment, were presented with repeated generalized imitation tests in a multiple-baseline procedure, interspersed with step-by-step training…

  18. "Yes, I worry about my weight... but for the most part I'm content with my body": older women's body dissatisfaction alongside contentment.

    PubMed

    Liechty, Toni

    2012-01-01

    The majority of body image research has studied younger women and girls, ignoring older age groups. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore body image among retirement-age women. The sample included 13 women aged 60 to 69. Data collection occurred in two phases. Participants completed individual in-depth interviews and attended follow-up focus groups. Transcripts from both phases of data collection were analyzed thematically using the constant comparison method. Themes emerged regarding the participants' definitions of body image, their attitudes about appearance, and their current perceptions of their bodies. Findings highlighted the complexity of older women's body image as characterized by the dual existence of contentment and desire for physical change. Participants offered explanations for this seeming contradiction, including consideration of age, prioritization of preferred aspects of the body or the self, and focus on aspects of appearance that are perceived to be within the individual's control. PMID:22256879

  19. "We don't wear it on our sleeve": Sickle cell disease and the (in)visible body in parts.

    PubMed

    Ciribassi, Rebekah M; Patil, Crystal L

    2016-01-01

    This paper approaches the lived experiences of patients with a genetically inherited chronic disease, sickle cell disease (SCD), through the lens of (in)visibility. SCD has been referred to as an "invisible" disease for a variety of interrelated reasons, including the difficulty of objectively measuring its characteristic symptoms, the lack of popular or specialist attention, and its characterization as a "black" disease. By mobilizing "invisibility" as a way of probing the day-to-day reinforcements of marginality, this article delves into how structural forces are experienced, interpreted, and negotiated by individual actors. To this end, we present ethnographic data collected from November 2009 until November 2013 with SCD patients and healthcare workers in Chicago. These data emphasize that rendering (in)visible is not a totalizing act, but rather meaningfully breaks the body into differentially visible and ideology-laden parts. More broadly, this indicates the need to rigorously question sources and effects of authority in biomedicine. PMID:26692094

  20. Numerical modeling of landfill gas and heat transport in the deformable MSW landfill body. Part 1. Development of the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsyi, D. V.

    2015-06-01

    The article is devoted to studying the parameters of wells that are used as part of vertical gas extraction systems for degassing landfills. To this end, approaches to modeling the main processes occurring in the landfill's porous medium are considered. The considered approaches served as a basis for elaborating a thermophysical gas and heat transport model that takes into account variation in the hydrodynamic properties of wastes resulting from their secondary settlement. The adequacy of the results obtained using the developed model is confirmed by the data of classic works. The effect the secondary settlement of wastes has on the distribution of pressure and temperature in the landfill body is determined. It is shown that compaction of wastes due to their secondary settlement results in a growth of pressure by 40% on the average.

  1. Micro-X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry of the Surface Elemental Composition of Vegetative Parts and Fruiting Bodies of Lichenized Teloschistaceae Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biazrov, L. G.; Pelgunova, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    The elemental composition and atomic mass ratios (%) on the surface of vegetative and generative parts of crustose Caloplaca cerina and foliose Xanthoria parietina lichen thalli collected from the same tree trunk were measured using micro-x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The atomic mass fractions for half of the elements (of 21 identified) were significantly higher on the surfaces of fruiting bodies (apothecia) than on vegetative parts of thalli of both species. The atomic mass fractions of most elements were much greater on the surfaces of fruiting bodies and vegetative parts of the foliose species than on the crustose species.

  2. Body Size of Contemporary Groups of One-Year-Old Infants Studied in Different Parts of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Howard V.

    1970-01-01

    Infants living in various geographic locations are found to differ as much as 9 pounds in average body weight, 5.5 inches in average body length, and 2.5 inches in average chest circumference. (Author/WY)

  3. 50 CFR Table 21 to Part 679 - Eligible Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Area Location, Community Governing Body That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Community Association X X X 4 Yakutat 3A City of Yakutat X X X 7 3 N/A means there is not a governing body... Regulatory Area Location, Community Governing Body That Recommends the CQE, and the Fishing Programs and..., Community Governing Body That Recommends the CQE, and the Fishing Programs and Associated Areas Where a...

  4. 50 CFR Table 21 to Part 679 - Eligible GOA Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Use Areas, and Community Governing Body that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulatory Use Areas, and Community Governing Body that Recommends the Community Quota Entity 21 Table 21 to... Governing Body that Recommends the Community Quota Entity Eligible GOA Community Community Governing Body... City of Klawock Metlakatla Metlakatla Indian Village Meyers Chuck N/A Pelican City of Pelican...

  5. 50 CFR Table 21 to Part 679 - Eligible GOA Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Use Areas and Community Governing Body that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulatory Use Areas and Community Governing Body that Recommends the Community Quota Entity 21 Table 21 to... Governing Body that Recommends the Community Quota Entity Eligible GOA community Community governing body.... Klawock City of Klawock. Metlakatla Metlakatla Indian Village. Meyers Chuck N/A. Pelican City of...

  6. 50 CFR Table 21 to Part 679 - Eligible GOA Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Use Areas and Community Governing Body that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulatory Use Areas and Community Governing Body that Recommends the Community Quota Entity 21 Table 21 to... Governing Body that Recommends the Community Quota Entity Eligible GOA community Community governing body.... Klawock City of Klawock. Metlakatla Metlakatla Indian Village. Meyers Chuck N/A. Pelican City of...

  7. 50 CFR Table 21 to Part 679 - Eligible Communities, Halibut IFQ Regulatory Area Location, Community Governing Body That...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Yakutat X X X 7 3 N/A means there is not a governing body recognized in the community at this time. CHPs... Regulatory Area Location, Community Governing Body That Recommends the CQE, and the Fishing Programs and..., Community Governing Body That Recommends the CQE, and the Fishing Programs and Associated Areas Where a...

  8. Osteochondroma of the hip with adjacent bursal chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Gould, Elaine S; Baker, Kevin S; Huang, Mingqian; Khan, Fazel; Hoda, Syed

    2014-12-01

    It is well established that irregular bursae can form adjacent to an osteochondroma (bursa exostotica) as a result of mechanical irritation and that these bursae can be complicated by inflammation, hemorrhage, or infection. Bursal chondromatosis is a rare complication, with only seven published cases in the literature according to our searches. We present the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with slowly progressive left hip/thigh pain and was found to have an osteochondroma arising from the lesser trochanter with numerous ossified bodies in the adjacent soft tissues. MRI demonstrated osteochondral bodies in a fluid-filled bursa adjacent to the osteochondroma, with several of the bodies noted to be fairly displaced from the osteochondroma cartilaginous cap. At surgery, the osteochondroma was removed and numerous bodies of varying sizes were excised, some of which were noted to be adherent to the bursal lining and others that were separated/distant from the cartilage cap. The question arises as to whether this process represents bursal chondromatosis resulting from benign neoplasia of cells lining the abnormal bursa, "cartilage shedding" from the osteochondromatous cap, or both. The purpose in presenting this case is to introduce a rare complication of an osteochondroma, demonstrate that soft tissue calcification and osteochondral densities displaced from an underlying osteochondroma are not always the result of sarcomatous degeneration, and provide support for the theory that cells lining a bursa in a nonphysiologic location can undergo benign neoplasia with subsequent formation of osteochondral bodies. PMID:25001874

  9. The Grenvillian Namaqua-Natal fold belt adjacent to the Kaapvaal Craton: 1. Distribution of Mesoproterozoic collisional terranes deduced from results of regional surveys and selected profiles in the western and southern parts of the fold belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliston, W. P.; Schoch, A. E.; Cole, J.

    2014-12-01

    Sixteen tectonic terranes of the Namaqua-Natal metamorphic complex are distinguished (the Aggeneys, Agulhas, Bladgrond, Gamka, Grootdrink, Grünau, Fraserburg, Upington, Margate, Mossel, Mzumbe, Okiep, Olifantshoek, Steinkopf, Pofadder, and Tugela terranes). Evidence obtained from field investigations in the outcrop regions of Namaqualand and Natal are correlated with the geophysical data, enabling recognition of terrane suboutcrops in the regions covered by Phanerozoic deposits in the south. This is illustrated by nine selected profiles over the western and southern parts of the metamorphic complex. Four terranes that have not been observed in outcrop are postulated (Agulhas, Fraserburg, Gamka and Mossel terranes) and may represent extensions of some of the Natal terranes (Mzumbe and Margate terranes). The depth to Moho is generally about 40 km, diminishing dramatically at the present continental edge to as little as 15 km. Listric thrust ramps may originate on rises of the gently undulating topography of the Moho zone. Zones of thrusting and later shearing often exploit older structures and fabrics. The terranes that participated in the Grenvillian Namaqua-Natal Orogeny exhibit a dichotomy of vergences regionally. Those that moved to the northeast and north accreted onto the Archaean Kaapvaal Craton before becoming part of the Kalahari Craton. Terranes with vergences to the south and southwest were amalgamated onto other Archaean cratons. All of the composite cratons took part in the assembly of Rodinia.

  10. Blood Products and the Commodification Debate: The Blurry Concept of Altruism and the 'Implicit Price' of Readily Available Body Parts.

    PubMed

    Dufner, Annette

    2015-12-01

    There is a widespread consensus that a commodification of body parts is to be prevented. Numerous policy papers by international organizations extend this view to the blood supply and recommend a system of uncompensated volunteers in this area--often, however, without making the arguments for this view explicit. This situation seems to indicate that a relevant source of justified worry or unease about the blood supply system has to do with the issue of commodification. As a result, the current health minister of Ontario is proposing a ban on compensation even for blood plasma--despite the fact that Canada can only generate 30 % of the plasma needed for fractionation into important plasma protein products and has to purchase the rest abroad. In the following, I am going to suggest a number of alternative perspectives on the debate in order to facilitate a less dogmatic and more differentiated debate about the matter. Especially in light of the often over-simplified notions of altruism and commodification, I conclude that the debate has not conclusively established that it would be morally objectionable to provide blood plasma donors with monetary compensation or with other forms of explicit social recognition as an incentive. This is especially true of donations for fractionation into medicinal products by profit-oriented pharmaceutical companies. PMID:25471706

  11. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body proton-irradiation on lymphocyte blastogenesis and hematological variables: part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecaut, Michael J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Smith, Anna L.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of part II of this study was to evaluate functional characteristics of leukocytes and circulating blood cell parameters after whole-body proton irradiation at varying doses and at low- and high-dose-rates (LDR and HDR, respectively). C57BL/6 mice (n=51) were irradiated and euthanized at 4 days post-exposure for assay. Significant radiation dose- (but not dose-rate-) dependent decreases were observed in splenocyte responses to T and B cell mitogens when compared to sham-irradiated controls (P<0.001). Spontaneous blastogenesis, also significantly dose-dependent, was increased in both blood and spleen (P<0.001). Red blood cell counts, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit were decreased in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05), whereas thrombocyte numbers were only slightly affected. Comparison of proton- and gamma-irradiated groups (both receiving 3 Gy at HDR) showed a higher level of spontaneous blastogenesis in blood leukocytes and a lower splenocyte response to concanavalin A following proton irradiation (P<0.05). There were no dose rate effects. Collectively, the data demonstrate that the measurements in blood and spleen were largely dependent upon the total dose of proton radiation and that an 80-fold difference in the dose rate was not a significant factor. A difference, however, was found between protons and gamma-rays in the degree of change induced in some of the measurements.

  12. The "spare parts person"? Conceptions of the human body and their implications for public attitudes towards organ donation and organ sale

    PubMed Central

    Schweda, Mark; Schicktanz, Silke

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing debate on financial incentives for organ donation raises concerns about a "commodification of the human body". Philosophical-ethical stances on this development depend on assumptions concerning the body and how people think about it. In our qualitative empirical study we analyze public attitudes towards organ donation in their specific relation to conceptions of the human body in four European countries (Cyprus, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden). This approach aims at a more context-sensitive picture of what "commodification of the body" can mean in concrete clinical decisions concerning organ donation. Results We find that moral intuitions concerning organ donation are rooted in various conceptions of the human body and its relation to the self: a) the body as a mechanical object owned by the self, b) the body as a part of a higher order embodying the self, and c) the body as a hierarchy of organs constitutive of the self. Conclusion The language of commodification is much too simple to capture what is at stake in everyday life intuitions about organ donation and organ sale. We discuss how the plurality of underlying body-self conceptions can be taken into account in the ethical debate, pointing out consequences for an anthropologically informed approach and for a liberal perspective. PMID:19226449

  13. Part-body and multibody effects on absorption of radio-frequency electromagnetic energy by animals and by models of man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gandhi, O. P.; Hagmann, M. J.; Dandrea, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fine structure in the whole-body resonant curve for radio-frequency energy deposition in man can be attributed to part-body resonances. As for head resonance, which occurs near 350 MHz in man, the absorptive cross section is nearly three times the physical cross section of the head. The arm has a prominent resonance at 150 MHz. Numerical solutions, antenna theory, and experimental results on animals have shown that whole-body energy deposition may be increased by 50 percent or more because of multiple bodies that are strategically located in the field. Empirical equations for SARs are also presented along with test data for several species of laboratory animals. Barbiturate anesthesia is sufficiently disruptive of thermoregulation that delta Ts of colonic temperature yield energy dose values in several mammals that compare quite favorably with those based on whole-body calorimetry.

  14. Clothing resultant thermal insulation determined on a movable thermal manikin. Part II: effects of wind and body movement on local insulation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Wan, Xianfu; Song, Guowen; Zhang, Chengjiao; Shi, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Part II of this two-part series study was focused on examining the effects of wind and body movement on local clothing thermal insulation. Seventeen clothing ensembles with different layers (i.e., 1, 2, or 3 layers) were selected for this study. Local thermal insulation with different air velocities (0.15, 1.55, and 4.0 m/s) and walking speeds (0, 0.75, and 1.17 m/s) were investigated on a thermal manikin. Empirical equations for estimating local resultant clothing insulation as a function of local insulation, air velocity, and walking speed were developed. The results showed that the effects of wind and body movement on local resultant thermal resistance are complex and differ distinctively among different body parts. In general, the reductions of local insulation with wind at the chest, abdomen, and pelvis were greater than those at the lower leg and back, and the changes at the body extremity such as the forearm, thigh, and lower leg were higher than such immobile body parts as the chest and back. In addition, the wind effect interacted with the walking effect. This study may have important applications in human local thermal comfort modeling and functional clothing design. PMID:25605409

  15. Clothing resultant thermal insulation determined on a movable thermal manikin. Part II: effects of wind and body movement on local insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Wan, Xianfu; Song, Guowen; Zhang, Chengjiao; Shi, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Part II of this two-part series study was focused on examining the effects of wind and body movement on local clothing thermal insulation. Seventeen clothing ensembles with different layers (i.e., 1, 2, or 3 layers) were selected for this study. Local thermal insulation with different air velocities (0.15, 1.55, and 4.0 m/s) and walking speeds (0, 0.75, and 1.17 m/s) were investigated on a thermal manikin. Empirical equations for estimating local resultant clothing insulation as a function of local insulation, air velocity, and walking speed were developed. The results showed that the effects of wind and body movement on local resultant thermal resistance are complex and differ distinctively among different body parts. In general, the reductions of local insulation with wind at the chest, abdomen, and pelvis were greater than those at the lower leg and back, and the changes at the body extremity such as the forearm, thigh, and lower leg were higher than such immobile body parts as the chest and back. In addition, the wind effect interacted with the walking effect. This study may have important applications in human local thermal comfort modeling and functional clothing design.

  16. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  17. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  18. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  19. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  20. HCMM imagery for the discrimination of rock types, the detection of geothermal energy sources and the assessment of soil moisture content in western Queensland and adjacent parts of New South Wales and South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Day-visible and day-IR imagery of northwest Queensland show that large scale geological features like the Mitakoodi anticlinorium, which involves rocks of contrasting lithological type, can be delineated. North of Cloncurry, the contrasting lithological units of the Knapdale quartzite and bedded argillaceous limestones within the Proterozoic Corella sequence are clearly delineated in the area of the Dugald River Lode. Major structural features in the Mount Isa area are revealed on the day-visible cover. Which provides similar but less detailed information than the LANDSAT imagery. The day-IR cover provides less additional information for areas of outcropping bedrock than had been expected. Initial studies of the day-IR and night-IR cover for parts of South Australia suggest that they contain additional information on geology compared with day-visible cover.

  1. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  2. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body proton irradiation on leukocyte populations and lymphoid organs: part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gridley, Daila S.; Pecaut, Michael J.; Dutta-Roy, Radha; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of part I of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole-body proton irradiation on lymphoid organs and specific leukocyte populations. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the entry region of the proton Bragg curve to total doses of 0.5 gray (Gy), 1.5 Gy, and 3.0 Gy, each delivered at a low dose rate (LDR) of 1 cGy/min and high dose rate (HDR) of 80 cGy/min. Non-irradiated and 3 Gy HDR gamma-irradiated groups were included as controls. At 4 days post-irradiation, highly significant radiation dose-dependent reductions were observed in the mass of both lymphoid organs and the numbers of leukocytes and T (CD3(+)), T helper (CD3(+)/CD4(+)), T cytotoxic (CD3(+)/CD8(+)), and B (CD19(+)) cells in both blood and spleen. A less pronounced dose effect was noted for natural killer (NK1.1(+) NK) cells in spleen. Monocyte, but not granulocyte, counts in blood were highly dose-dependent. The numbers for each population generally tended to be lower with HDR than with LDR radiation; a significant dose rate effect was found in the percentages of T and B cells, monocytes, and granulocytes and in CD4(+):CD8(+) ratios. These data indicate that mononuclear cell response to the entry region of the proton Bragg curve is highly dependent upon the total dose and that dose rate effects are evident with some cell types. Results from gamma- and proton-irradiated groups (both at 3 Gy HDR) were similar, although proton-irradiation gave consistently lower values in some measurements.

  3. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. Part 1: Aspects of lithospheric evolution on Venus. Part 2: Thermal and collisional histories of chondrite parent bodies. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimm, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    The geological evolution of distinctly different kinds of solar system objects is addressed. Venus has been observed over the past decade by orbital radars on both American and Soviet spacecraft. These surface measurements provide clues to the structure and evolution of the lithosphere. The parent bodies of chondritic meteorites, thought to resemble asteroids, represent the other end of the size spectrum of terrestrial objects. Their early thermal and collisional histories may be constrained by the chemical and textural record preserved in meteorite samples. Impact craters on Venus have been observed by the Soviet Venera 15/16 spacecraft. A formalism is presented by which the size-frequency distribution of impact craters may be used to estimate upper bounds on the mean global rates of volcanic resurfacing and lithospheric recycling on that planet over the past several hundred million years. The impact crater density reported from Venera observations, if valid for the entire Venus surface, indicates a mean volcanic flux no greater than 2 cu km/y, corresponding to a maximum average rate of resurfacing of about 4 km/b.y. For the lowest estimated mean crater retention age of the surface of Venus imaged by Venera 15/16, the rate of lithospheric recycling on Venus does not exceed 1.5 sq km/y. Ordinary chondrite meteorites show textural and chemical patterns indicative of varying intensities of thermal metamorphism. The conventional onion-shell model, which envisions highly metamorphosed material in the core and less intensely heated rocks near the surface, predicts an inverse relation between peak temperature and cooking rate, but none has been observed. A metamorphosed-planetesimal model is devised to explain this discrepancy, whereby heating occurs in planetesimals a few kilometers in radius which then accrete to form 100-km-radius parent bodies. Cooling rates are then randomly controlled by burial depth. Thermal and collisional constraints are examined, and the model

  5. Size relationships of different body parts in the three dipteran species Drosophila melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata and Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Siomava, Natalia; Wimmer, Ernst A; Posnien, Nico

    2016-06-01

    Body size is an integral feature of an organism that influences many aspects of life such as fecundity, life span and mating success. Size of individual organs and the entire body size represent quantitative traits with a large reaction norm, which are influenced by various environmental factors. In the model system Drosophila melanogaster, pupal size and adult traits, such as tibia and thorax length or wing size, accurately estimate the overall body size. However, it is unclear whether these traits can be used in other flies. Therefore, we studied changes in size of pupae and adult organs in response to different rearing temperatures and densities for D. melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata and Musca domestica. We confirm a clear sexual size dimorphism (SSD) for Drosophila and show that the SSD is less uniform in the other species. Moreover, the size response to changing growth conditions is sex dependent. Comparison of static and evolutionary allometries of the studied traits revealed that response to the same environmental variable is genotype specific but has similarities between species of the same order. We conclude that the value of adult traits as estimators of the absolute body size may differ among species and the use of a single trait may result in wrong assumptions. Therefore, we suggest using a body size coefficient computed from several individual measurements. Our data is of special importance for monitoring activities of natural populations of the three dipteran flies, since they are harmful species causing economical damage (Drosophila, Ceratitis) or transferring diseases (Musca). PMID:27116604

  6. Unsteady aerodynamic flow field analysis of the space shuttle configuration. Part 3: Unsteady aerodynamics of bodies with concave nose geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the unsteady aerodynamics of bodies with concave nose geometries was performed. The results show that the experimentally observed pulsating flow on spiked bodies and in forward facing cavities can be described by the developed simple mathematical model of the phenomenon. Static experimental data is used as a basis for determination of the oscillatory frequency of spike-induced flow pulsations. The agreement between predicted and measured reduced frequencies is generally very good. The spiked-body mathematical model is extended to describe the pulsations observed in forward facing cavities and it is shown that not only the frequency but also the pressure time history can be described with the accuracy needed to predict the experimentally observed time average effects. This implies that it should be possible to determine analytically the impact of the flow pulsation on the structural integrity of the nozzles for the jettisoned empty SRM-shells.

  7. Comparison of total body irradiation vs chlorambucil and prednisone for remission induction of active chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an ECOG study. Part I: total body irradiation-response

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P.I.; Bennett, J.M.; Begg, C.; Bozdech, M.J.; Silber, R.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty-six evaluable patients were entered into two fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) programs; 11 patients received a course of 150 rad TBI (x 3 if tolerated) and 15 patients received a lower dose course of 50 rad (x 3 if tolerated). Complete remissions (CR) were not produced by either course; however, the higher dose course (Plan I) yielded a partial response (PR) rate of 73%, while the lower dose course yielded a PR of 47%. Although fraction size seemed trivial in both TBI plans, an unexpected high degree of hematologic toxicity was encountered, and was parallel to the response rates: in Plan I 73% of patients experienced severe to life-threatening depression of platelets or granulocytes, whereas in Plan II this rate was 47%. This was of short duration with rapid return of blood counts to normal levels. One death can be attributed to TBI. The chemotherapy arm of the study demonstrated superiority in terms of complete responses. Twenty-three percent of patients treated by cholrambucil and prednisone attained CR, in contrast to 0% of TBI patients. PR for chemotherapy was similar to that obtained with TBI. Chemotherapy also proved superior in terms of overall response rate, number of patients in remission, and in the median duration of response, but not in the median duration of survival. Fractional TBI techniques for active chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) should be interrupted when the platelet count dips below 100,000 and the granulocyte count is lower than 2,000. Future studies should combine TBI radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  8. Bodily ownership modulation in defensive responses: physiological evidence in brain-damaged patients with pathological embodiment of other's body parts.

    PubMed

    Fossataro, C; Gindri, P; Mezzanato, T; Pia, L; Garbarini, F

    2016-01-01

    Do conscious beliefs about the body affect defensive mechanisms within the body? To answer this question we took advantage from a monothematic delusion of bodily ownership, in which brain-damaged patients misidentify alien limbs as their own. We investigated whether the delusional belief that an alien hand is their own hand modulates a subcortical defensive response, such as the hand-blink reflex. The blink, dramatically increases when the threated hand is inside the defensive peripersonal-space of the face. In our between-subjects design, including patients and controls, the threat was brought near the face either by the own hand or by another person's hand. Our results show an ownership-dependent modulation of the defensive response. In controls, as well as in the patients' intact-side, the response enhancement is significantly greater when the threat was brought near the face by the own than by the alien hand. Crucially, in the patients' affected-side (where the pathological embodiment occurs), the alien (embodied) hand elicited a response enhancement comparable to that found when the threat is brought near the face by the real hand. These findings suggest the existence of a mutual interaction between our conscious beliefs about the body and the physiological mechanisms within the body. PMID:27292285

  9. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  10. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  11. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will...

  12. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  13. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  14. The Impact of Body-Part-Naming Training on the Accuracy of Imitative Performances in 2- to 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Camões-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J

    2011-01-01

    A series of three experiments explored the relationship between 3-year-old children's ability to name target body parts and their untrained matching of target hand-to-body touches. Nine participants, 3 per experiment, were presented with repeated generalized imitation tests in a multiple-baseline procedure, interspersed with step-by-step training that enabled them to (i) tact the target locations on their own and the experimenter's bodies or (ii) respond accurately as listeners to the experimenter's tacts of the target locations. Prompts for on-task naming of target body parts were also provided later in the procedure. In Experiment 1, only tact training followed by listener probes were conducted; in Experiment 2, tacting was trained first and listener behavior second, whereas in Experiment 3 listener training preceded tact training. Both tact and listener training resulted in emergence of naming together with significant and large improvements in the children's matching performances; this was true for each child and across most target gestures. The present series of experiments provides evidence that naming —the most basic form of self-instructional behavior—may be one means of establishing untrained matching as measured in generalized imitation tests. This demonstration has a bearing on our interpretation of imitation reported in the behavior analytic, cognitive developmental, and comparative literature. PMID:22084492

  15. The impact of body-part-naming training on the accuracy of imitative performances in 2- to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Camões-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J

    2011-11-01

    A series of three experiments explored the relationship between 3-year-old children's ability to name target body parts and their untrained matching of target hand-to-body touches. Nine participants, 3 per experiment, were presented with repeated generalized imitation tests in a multiple-baseline procedure, interspersed with step-by-step training that enabled them to (i) tact the target locations on their own and the experimenter's bodies or (ii) respond accurately as listeners to the experimenter's tacts of the target locations. Prompts for on-task naming of target body parts were also provided later in the procedure. In Experiment 1, only tact training followed by listener probes were conducted; in Experiment 2, tacting was trained first and listener behavior second, whereas in Experiment 3 listener training preceded tact training. Both tact and listener training resulted in emergence of naming together with significant and large improvements in the children's matching performances; this was true for each child and across most target gestures. The present series of experiments provides evidence that naming--the most basic form of self-instructional behavior--may be one means of establishing untrained matching as measured in generalized imitation tests. This demonstration has a bearing on our interpretation of imitation reported in the behavior analytic, cognitive developmental, and comparative literature. PMID:22084492

  16. Postmortem Body and Organ Measurements in Neonates and Infants: A Review of Reference Resources Used by Ontario Pathologists (Part 1).

    PubMed

    Evetts, Audrey-Ann Marie; Shkrum, Michael J; Tugaleva, Elena

    2016-09-01

    It is common practice in pediatric autopsies to compare the body and organ measurements of the deceased child against the existing reference data. Although a number of resources are available, many are outdated and have significant limitations. The goal of this study was to assess the reference sources currently used by the Ontario pathologists in pediatric autopsies. A survey of 14 Ontario pathologists, who do coroners' pediatric autopsies, identified 20 publications commonly referenced for body and organ measurements. Of all the cited sources, only a few had all the features regarded by the pathologists as ideal for a reference source. These features included accessibility to the source, large sample size, defined control populations, statistical analyses, and sex distinctions. The results of this study will be used to guide the development of a new reference, based on Ontario data, that will enhance measurement standards in pediatric autopsy practice. PMID:27438787

  17. Separated flow over bodies of revolution using an unsteady discrete-vorticity cross wake. Part 2: Computer program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, F. J.; Deffenbaugh, F. D.

    1974-01-01

    A method is developed to determine the flow field of a body of revolution in separated flow. The computer was used to integrate various solutions and solution properties of the sub-flow fields which made up the entire flow field without resorting to a finite difference solution to the complete Navier-Stokes equations. The technique entails the use of the unsteady cross flow analogy and a new solution to the two-dimensional unsteady separated flow problem based upon an unsteady, discrete-vorticity wake. Data for the forces and moments on aerodynamic bodies at low speeds and high angle of attack (outside the range of linear inviscid theories) such that the flow is substantially separated are produced which compare well with experimental data. In addition, three dimensional steady separated regions and wake vortex patterns are determined. The computer program developed to perform the numerical calculations is described.

  18. Separated flow over bodies of revolution using an unsteady discrete-vorticity cross wake. Part 1: Theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, F. J.; Deffenbaugh, F. D.

    1974-01-01

    A method is developed to determine the flow field of a body of revolution in separated flow. The technique employed is the use of the computer to integrate various solutions and solution properties of the sub-flow fields which made up the entire flow field without resorting to a finite difference solution to the complete Navier-Stokes equations. The technique entails the use of the unsteady cross flow analogy and a new solution to the required two-dimensional unsteady separated flow problem based upon an unsteady, discrete-vorticity wake. Data for the forces and moments on aerodynamic bodies at low speeds and high angle of attack (outside the range of linear inviscid theories) such that the flow is substantially separated are produced which compare well with experimental data. In addition, three dimensional steady separation regions and wake vortex patterns are determined.

  19. Groundwater recharge to the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Montgomery and Adjacent Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, Timothy D.; Delin, Geoffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Simply stated, groundwater recharge is the addition of water to the groundwater system. Most of the water that is potentially available for recharging the groundwater system in Montgomery and adjacent counties in southeast Texas moves relatively rapidly from land surface to surface-water bodies and sustains streamflow, lake levels, and wetlands. Recharge in southeast Texas is generally balanced by evapotranspiration, discharge to surface waters, and the downward movement of water into deeper parts of the groundwater system; however, this balance can be altered locally by groundwater withdrawals, impervious surfaces, land use, precipitation variability, or climate, resulting in increased or decreased rates of recharge. Recharge rates were compared to the 1971–2000 normal annual precipitation measured Cooperative Weather Station 411956, Conroe, Tex.

  20. Clothing resultant thermal insulation determined on a movable thermal manikin. Part I: effects of wind and body movement on total insulation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Wan, Xianfu; Song, Guowen; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Chengjiao

    2015-10-01

    In this serial study, 486 thermal manikin tests were carried out to examine the effects of air velocity and walking speed on both total and local clothing thermal insulations. Seventeen clothing ensembles with different layers (i.e., one, two, or three layers) were selected for the study. Three different wind speeds (0.15, 1.55, 4.0 m/s) and three levels of walking speed (0, 0.75, 1.2 m/s) were chosen. Thus, there are totally nine different testing conditions. The clothing total insulation and local clothing insulation at different body parts under those nine conditions were determined. In part I, empirical equations for estimating total resultant clothing insulation as a function of the static thermal insulation, relative air velocity, and walking speed were developed. In part II, the local thermal insulation of various garments was analyzed and correction equations on local resultant insulation for each body part were developed. This study provides critical database for potential applications in thermal comfort study, modeling of human thermal strain, and functional clothing design and engineering. PMID:25597033

  1. Clothing resultant thermal insulation determined on a movable thermal manikin. Part I: effects of wind and body movement on total insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Wan, Xianfu; Song, Guowen; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Chengjiao

    2015-10-01

    In this serial study, 486 thermal manikin tests were carried out to examine the effects of air velocity and walking speed on both total and local clothing thermal insulations. Seventeen clothing ensembles with different layers (i.e., one, two, or three layers) were selected for the study. Three different wind speeds (0.15, 1.55, 4.0 m/s) and three levels of walking speed (0, 0.75, 1.2 m/s) were chosen. Thus, there are totally nine different testing conditions. The clothing total insulation and local clothing insulation at different body parts under those nine conditions were determined. In part I, empirical equations for estimating total resultant clothing insulation as a function of the static thermal insulation, relative air velocity, and walking speed were developed. In part II, the local thermal insulation of various garments was analyzed and correction equations on local resultant insulation for each body part were developed. This study provides critical database for potential applications in thermal comfort study, modeling of human thermal strain, and functional clothing design and engineering.

  2. Use of solid phase microextraction to estimate toxicity: relating fiber concentrations to body residues--part II.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuping; Landrum, Peter F; You, Jing; Harwood, Amanda D; Lydy, Michael J

    2012-09-01

    In the companion paper, solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber concentrations were used as a dose metric to evaluate the toxicity of hydrophobic pesticides, and concentration-response relationships were found for the hydrophobic pesticides tested in the two test species. The present study extends the use of fiber concentrations to organism body residues to specifically address biotransformation and provide the link to toxic response. Test compounds included the organochlorines p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE); two pyrethroids, permethrin and bifenthrin; and an organophosphate, chlorpyrifos. Toxicity, body residues, and biotransformation of the target compounds were determined for the midge Chironomus dilutus and the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Significant regression relationships were found without regard to chemical, extent of biotransformation, or whether the chemical reached steady state in the organisms. The equilibrium SPME fiber concentrations correlated with the parent compound concentration in the biota; however, the regressions were duration specific. Furthermore, the SPME fiber-based toxicity values yielded species-specific regressions with the parent compound-based toxicity values linking the use of SPME fiber as a dose metric with tissue residues to estimate toxic response. PMID:22786796

  3. Body Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  4. The effects of electrical stimulation on body composition and metabolic profile after spinal cord injury – Part II

    PubMed Central

    Gorgey, Ashraf S.; Dolbow, David R.; Dolbow, James D.; Khalil, Refka K.; Gater, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Diet and exercise are cornerstones in the management of obesity and associated metabolic complications, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and disturbances in the lipid profile. However, the role of exercise in managing body composition adaptations and metabolic disorders after spinal cord injury (SCI) is not well established. The current review summarizes evidence about the efficacy of using neuromuscular electrical stimulation or functional electrical stimulation in exercising the paralytic lower extremities to improve body composition and metabolic profile after SCI. There are a number of trials that investigated the effects on muscle cross-sectional area, fat-free mass, and glucose/lipid metabolism. The duration of the intervention in these trials varied from 6 weeks to 24 months. Training frequency ranged from 2 to 5 days/week. Most studies documented significant increases in muscle size but no noticeable changes in adipose tissue. While increases in skeletal muscle size after twice weekly training were greater than those trials that used 3 or 5 days/week, other factors such as differences in the training mode, i.e. resistance versus cycling exercise and pattern of muscle activation may be responsible for this observation. Loading to evoke muscle hypertrophy is a key component in neuromuscular training after SCI. The overall effects on lean mass were modest and did not exceed 10% and the effects of training on trunk or pelvic muscles remain unestablished. Most studies reported improvement in glucose metabolism with the enhancement of insulin sensitivity being the major factor following training. The effect on lipid profile is unclear and warrants further investigation. PMID:25001669

  5. Five-year-olds are willing, but 4-year-olds refuse, to trust informants who offer new and unfamiliar labels for parts of the body.

    PubMed

    Luu, Betty; Rosnay, Marc de; Harris, Paul L

    2013-10-01

    This study employed the selective trust paradigm to examine how children interpret novel labels when compared with labels they already know to be accurate or inaccurate within the biological domain. The participants--3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (N=144)--were allocated to one of three conditions. In the accurate versus inaccurate condition, one informant labeled body parts correctly, whereas the other labeled them incorrectly (e.g., calling an eye an "arm"). In the accurate versus novel condition, one informant labeled body parts accurately, whereas the other provided novel labels (e.g., calling an eye a "roke"). Finally, in the inaccurate versus novel condition, one informant labeled body parts incorrectly, whereas the other offered novel labels. In subsequent test trials, the two informants provided conflicting labels for unfamiliar internal organs. In the accurate versus inaccurate condition, children sought and endorsed labels from the accurate informant. In the accurate versus novel condition, only 4- and 5-year-olds preferred the accurate informant, whereas 3-year-olds did not selectively prefer either informant. In the inaccurate versus novel condition, only 5-year-olds preferred the novel informant, whereas 3- and 4-year-olds did not demonstrate a selective preference. Results are supportive of previous studies suggesting that 3-year-olds are sensitive to inaccuracy and that 4-year-olds privilege accuracy. However, 3- and 4-year-olds appear to be unsure as to how the novel informant should be construed. In contrast, 5-year-olds appreciate that speakers offering new information are more trustworthy than those offering inaccurate information, but they are cautious in judging such informants as being "better" at providing that information. PMID:23872524

  6. Free Body Dynamics of a Spinning Cylinder with Planar Restraint-(a.k.a. Barrel of Fun). Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moraru, Laurentiu; Dimofte, Florin; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic motion of a cylinder is analyzed based on rotation about its center of mass and is restrained by a plane normal to the axis passing through its center of mass at an angle. The first part of this work presented an analysis of the stability of the motion. In the current report, the governing equations are numerically integrated in time and the steady state is obtained as a limit of the transient numerical solution. The calculated data are compared with observed behaviors.

  7. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis heats brain and body as part of the brain-coordinated ultradian basic rest-activity cycle (BRAC)

    PubMed Central

    Ootsuka, Youichirou; de Menezes, Rodrigo C.; Alimoradian, Abbas; Zaretsky, Dmitry V.; Hunt, Joseph; Stefanidis, Aneta; Oldfield, Brian J.; Blessing, William W.

    2009-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT), body and brain temperatures, as well as behavioral activity, arterial pressure and heart rate, increase episodically during the waking (dark) phase of the circadian cycle in rats. Phase-linking of combinations of these ultradian (<24 hour) events has previously been noted, but no synthesis of their overall interrelationships has emerged. We hypothesized that they are coordinated by brain central command, and that BAT thermogenesis, itself controlled by the brain, contributes to increases in brain and body temperature. We used chronically implanted instruments to measure combinations of BAT, brain and body temperatures, behavioral activity, tail artery blood flow, and arterial pressure and heart rate, in conscious freely moving Sprague-Dawley rats during the 12 hour dark active period. Ambient temperature was kept constant for any particular 24 hour day, varying between 22°C and 27°C on different days. Increases in BAT temperature (≥0.5°C) occurred in an irregular episodic manner every 94±43 min (mean±SD). Varying the temperature over a wider range (18–30°C) on different days did not change the periodicity, and neither body nor brain temperature fell before BAT temperature episodic increases. These increases are thus unlikely to reflect thermoregulatory homeostasis. Episodic BAT thermogenesis still occurred in food-deprived rats. Behavioral activity, arterial pressure (18±5 mmHg every 98±49 min) and heart rate (86±31 beats/min) increased approximately 3 min before each increase in BAT temperature. Increases in BAT temperature (1.1±0.4°C) were larger than corresponding increases in brain (0.8±0.4°C) and body (0.6±0.3°C) temperature and the BAT episodes commenced 2–3 min before body and brain episodes, suggesting that BAT thermogenesis warms body and brain. Hippocampal 5–8 Hz theta rhythm, indicating active engagement with the environment, increased before the behavioral and autonomic events, suggesting coordination

  8. Evidence for direct cellular protective effect of PL-10 substances (synthesized parts of body protection compound, BPC) and their specificity to gastric mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Bódis, B; Karádi, O; Németh, P; Dohoczky, C; Kolega, M; Mózsik, G

    1997-01-01

    The direct gastric mucosal cellular effect of four PL-10 substances (a synthesized part of human body protection compound, BPC containing 14 or 15 amino acids) was studied on freshly isolated rat gastric mucosal cells and on a mouse myeloma cell line (Sp2/0-Ag14) in an ethanol-induced cell injury model. The examined substances were not toxic for the cells. Two of them proved to be significantly protective against the direct cellular damaging effect of ethanol (PL 10.1.15AK-3 in 5 microg/ml dose and PL 10.1.AK14-2 dose-dependently, ED50=50 ng/ml) on gastric mucosal cells. This cytoprotective effect was failured on mouse myeloma cells. Based on these results a part of the in vivo protection induced by BPC seems to be a direct cellular protective effect to gastric mucosal cells. PMID:9353174

  9. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  10. Computer code for scattering from impedance bodies of revolution. Part 3: Surface impedance with s and phi variation. Analytical and numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uslenghi, Piergiorgio L. E.; Laxpati, Sharad R.; Kawalko, Stephen F.

    1993-01-01

    The third phase of the development of the computer codes for scattering by coated bodies that has been part of an ongoing effort in the Electromagnetics Laboratory of the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at the University of Illinois at Chicago is described. The work reported discusses the analytical and numerical results for the scattering of an obliquely incident plane wave by impedance bodies of revolution with phi variation of the surface impedance. Integral equation formulation of the problem is considered. All three types of integral equations, electric field, magnetic field, and combined field, are considered. These equations are solved numerically via the method of moments with parametric elements. Both TE and TM polarization of the incident plane wave are considered. The surface impedance is allowed to vary along both the profile of the scatterer and in the phi direction. Computer code developed for this purpose determines the electric surface current as well as the bistatic radar cross section. The results obtained with this code were validated by comparing the results with available results for specific scatterers such as the perfectly conducting sphere. Results for the cone-sphere and cone-cylinder-sphere for the case of an axially incident plane were validated by comparing the results with the results with those obtained in the first phase of this project. Results for body of revolution scatterers with an abrupt change in the surface impedance along both the profile of the scatterer and the phi direction are presented.

  11. Epithelial dysplasia immediately adjacent to oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wright, A; Shear, M

    1985-08-01

    A number of workers have attempted to identify dysplastic features which may be predictors of malignant change, by prospective studies of dysplastic lesions. In the present study we have looked at dysplastic changes immediately adjacent to established squamous carcinomas in an attempt to determine whether any predictors can be identified in this way. Eighty cases were included in the study for whom information on tobacco usage was known. Clinical details were recorded. Histological features in epithelium immediately adjacent to the carcinoma were studied in representative sections. Eighteen specific histological characteristics were noted as present or absent. Data were transferred by Conversational Monitoring System (CMS) terminal, processed and analyzed by the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Computer package. Only 8 patients were non-smokers (10%). Dysplastic changes in adjacent epithelium were frequently multicentric. Changes appear to occur first in the basal layer in the form of disturbance of polarity or basal cell hyperplasia, while other dysplastic features are absent. The feature referred to as basal cell hyperplasia appears, in fact, to represent disturbed epithelial maturation. In 80% of cases increased nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appears to result from a decrease in cytoplasmic volume rather than increased nuclear size. A defect in RNA synthesis may be a factor. A sharp decrease in inflammatory cells in the lamina propria of adjacent epithelium, compared with that of the carcinoma, was observed. Russell bodies were noted in 5 of the 8 lesions in non-smokers (63%) and in 16 of 72 lesions in smokers (22%) (p less than 0.001; Chi2 17.65). PMID:3928850

  12. Illuminating heterogeneous anisotropic upper mantle: testing a new anisotropic teleseismic body-wave tomography code - part II: Inversion mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munzarova, Helena; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Kissling, Edi

    2015-04-01

    Considering only isotropic wave propagation and neglecting anisotropy in teleseismic tomography studies is a simplification obviously incongruous with current understanding of the mantle-lithosphere plate dynamics. Furthermore, in solely isotropic high-resolution tomography results, potentially significant artefacts (i.e., amplitude and/or geometry distortions of 3D velocity heterogeneities) may result from such neglect. Therefore, we have undertaken to develop a code for anisotropic teleseismic tomography (AniTomo), which will allow us to invert the relative P-wave travel time residuals simultaneously for coupled isotropic-anisotropic P-wave velocity models of the upper mantle. To accomplish that, we have modified frequently-used isotropic teleseismic tomography code Telinv (e.g., Weiland et al., JGR, 1995; Lippitsch, JGR, 2003; Karousova et al., GJI, 2013). Apart from isotropic velocity heterogeneities, a weak hexagonal anisotropy is assumed as well to be responsible for the observed P-wave travel-time residuals. Moreover, no limitations to orientation of the symmetry axis are prescribed in the code. We allow a search for anisotropy oriented generally in 3D, which represents a unique approach among recent trials that otherwise incorporate only azimuthal anisotopy into the body-wave tomography. The presented code for retrieving anisotropy in 3D thus enables its direct applications to datasets from tectonically diverse regions. In this contribution, we outline the theoretical background of the AniTomo anisotropic tomography code. We parameterize the mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere with an orthogonal grid of nodes with various values of isotropic velocities, as well as of strength and orientation of anisotropy in 3D, which is defined by azimuth and inclination of either fast or slow symmetry axis of the hexagonal approximation of the media. Careful testing of the new code on synthetics, concentrating on code functionality, strength and weaknesses, is a

  13. Biomechanics of the Sensor–Tissue Interface—Effects of Motion, Pressure, and Design on Sensor Performance and the Foreign Body Response—Part I: Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Helton, Kristen L; Ratner, Buddy D; Wisniewski, Natalie A

    2011-01-01

    The importance of biomechanics in glucose sensor function has been largely overlooked. This article is the first part of a two-part review in which we look beyond commonly recognized chemical biocompatibility to explore the biomechanics of the sensor–tissue interface as an important aspect of continuous glucose sensor biocompatibility. Part I provides a theoretical framework to describe how biomechanical factors such as motion and pressure (typically micromotion and micropressure) give rise to interfacial stresses, which affect tissue physiology around a sensor and, in turn, impact sensor performance. Three main contributors to sensor motion and pressure are explored: applied forces, sensor design, and subject/patient considerations. We describe how acute forces can temporarily impact sensor signal and how chronic forces can alter the foreign body response and inflammation around an implanted sensor, and thus impact sensor performance. The importance of sensor design (e.g., size, shape, modulus, texture) and specific implant location on the tissue response are also explored. In Part II: Examples and Application (a sister publication), examples from the literature are reviewed, and the application of biomechanical concepts to sensor design are described. We believe that adding biomechanical strategies to the arsenal of material compositions, surface modifications, drug elution, and other chemical strategies will lead to improvements in sensor biocompatibility and performance. PMID:21722578

  14. Aeroelastic effects in multirotor vehicles. Part 2: Methods of solution and results illustrating coupled rotor/body aeromechanical stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1987-01-01

    This report is a sequel to the earlier report titled, Aeroelastic Effects in Multi-Rotor Vehicles with Application to Hybrid Heavy Lift System, Part 1: Formulation of Equations of Motion (NASA CR-3822). The trim and stability equations are presented for a twin rotor system with a buoyant envelope and an underslung load attached to a flexible supporting structure. These equations are specialized for the case of hovering flight. A stability analysis, for such a vehicle with 31 degrees of freedom, yields a total of 62 eigenvalues. A careful parametric study is performed to identify the various blade and vehicle modes, as well as the coupling between various modes. Finally, it is shown that the coupled rotor/vehicle stability analysis provides information on both the aeroelastic stability as well as complete vehicle dynamic stability. Also presented are the results of an analytical study aimed at predicting the aeromechanical stability of a single rotor helicopter in ground resonance. The theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results, thereby validating the analytical model for the dynamics of the coupled rotor/support system.

  15. Illuminating heterogeneous anisotropic upper mantle: testing new anisotropic teleseismic body wave tomography code - part I: Forward mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munzarova, Helena; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Kissling, Eduard

    2014-05-01

    Considering only isotropic wave propagation in teleseismic tomography studies and neglecting anisotropy is a simplification obviously incongruent with current understanding of the mantle-lithosphere plate dynamics. Furthermore, in solely isotropic high-resolution tomography results, potentially significant artefacts (i.e., amplitude and/or geometry distortions of 3D velocity heterogeneities) may result from such neglect. We have undertaken to develop an anisotropic version of frequently used isotropic teleseismic tomography code (TELINV), which will allow us to invert simultaneously for coupled isotropic-anisotropic P-wave velocity models. In the first step, we test the forward mode of the new code by calculating travel times of teleseismic body waves propagating through an anisotropic heterogeneous model of the upper mantle. The forward mode itself shows how specific heterogeneous anisotropic structure projects into P-wave travel times, particularly into directional variations of travel time residuals, which are presented by P-residual spheres showing the directional terms of relative residuals. This step further allows to investigate the trade-off between effects of P-wave anisotropy and isotropic heterogeneities. We present plots of synthetic P-residual spheres calculated for P waves propagating through several synthetic models of the upper mantle. The models are designed to represent schematically different structures of the upper mantle. We approximate the mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere by cells with various values of isotropic velocities as well as of strength and orientation of anisotropy in 3D, which is defined by azimuths and inclinations of symmetry axes of the hexagonal approximations of the media. We compare the synthetic P-residual spheres with observation examples from tectonically different regions which were subjected to anisotropy studies earlier. Modelling the P-residual spheres confirms that anisotropy is a significant source of directional

  16. New paleomagnetic pole from Precambrian magmatic bodies of the Kotuy river basin (northwestern part of the Siberian platform)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskiy, R.; Pavlov, V.

    2009-04-01

    Apparent polar wander paths are powerful means for deciphering of tectonic history of the Earth lithosphere and its structural elements. At the same time APWP's can be used as a tool for dating of different geological events and objects. Importance of APWP's especially increases when dealing with Precambrian where possibilities of many other methods of dating become limited. Whereas Proterozoic APWP's of North American, East European and Australian ancient platforms are more or less developed, Siberian Apparent Polar Wander Path is at the first stage of its elaboration. Proterozoic and, especially, Meso- and Paleoproterozoic paleomagnetic poles are scarce and for long time intervals are practically absent. Thus every new reliable Siberian paleomagnetic pole of Proterozoic age is of paramount importance for elaboration of Proterozoic APWP of the Siberian platform. To obtain such the pole we have carried out paleomagnetic investigation of Late Precambrian magmatic complex of northwestern part of the Anabar Uplift (Siberian platform). In total, six dolerite subvolcanic intrusions (dykes and sills) exposed along the Kotuy, Kotuykan and Djogdjo rivers have been studied. Clear paleomagnetic record was found in 5 intrusions. Thermal demagnetization isolates two magnetic components. The first of them is parallel to the recent geomagnetic field at the site and is removed in the low to middle temperature range. The second one (HTC) is isolated at higher temperatures (up to 600°C) and has dual magnetic polarities. Intrusions means form relatively tight cluster, which average direction corresponds to paleomagnetic poles with coordinates: Plat=-23.4°N, Plong=70.0°E, dp/dm = 3.4°/6.7°. Two polarity distribution of HTC vectors, no resemblance to paleomagnetic poles of younger age, and relative proximity to poles of close age (Ernst et al., 2000; Veselovskiy et al., 2006, 2009) - all these allow us to consider the paleomagnetic pole as reflecting the direction of geomagnetic

  17. SOLIDS TRANSPORT BETWEEN ADJACENT CAFB FLUIDIZED BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an experimental investigation of a pulsed, dense-phase pneumatic transport system for controlled circulation between adjacent fluidized beds. A model was developed to predict performance. The program provides technical support for EPA's program to demo...

  18. Border separation for adjacent orthogonal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, B.L.; Khan, F.M.; Sharma, S.C.; Lee, C.K.; Kim, T.H. )

    1991-06-01

    Field border separations for adjacent orthogonal fields can be calculated geometrically, given the validity of some important assumptions such as beam alignment and field uniformity. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements were used to investigate dose uniformity across field junctions as a function of field separation and, in particular, to review the CCSG recommendation for the treatment of medulloblastoma with separate head and spine fields.

  19. Changes of skin temperature of parts of the body and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in type-2 diabetes mellitus Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Anburajan, M; Sivanandam, S; Bidyarasmi, S; Venkatraman, B; Menaka, M; Raj, Baldev

    2011-01-01

    In India, number of people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) would be 87 million by the year 2030. DM disturbs autonomic regulation of skin micro-circulation, and causes decrease in resting blood flows through the skin. The skin blood flow has a major effect on its temperature. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes of skin temperature of all parts of the body and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine, ADMA (μmol/L) in type-2 DM Indian patients. Group-I: Normal (n = 17; M/F: 10/15, mean ± SD = 43.2 ± 9.4 years); Group-II: Type-2 DM without cardiovascular (CV) complications (n = 15; M/F: 10/7, mean ± SD = 46.3 ± 14.0 years); Thermograms of all parts of the body were acquired using a non-contact infrared (IR) thermography camera (ThermaCAM T400, FLIR Systems, Sweden). Blood parameters and thyroid hormone were measured biochemically. Indian diabetic risk score (IDRS) was calculated for each subject. In type-2 DM patients without CV group (n = 15), there was a statistically significant (p = 0.01) negative correlations between HbA(1c) and skin temperature of eye and nose (r = -0.57 and r = -0.55 respectively). ADMA was correlated significantly (p = 0.01) with HbA(1c) (r = 0.65) and estimated average glucose, eAG (r = 0.63). In normal subjects, mean minimum and maximum values of skin temperatures were observed at posterior side of sole (26.89 °C) and ear (36.85 °C) respectively. In type-2 DM without CV, mean values of skin temperature in different parts of the body from head to toe were lesser than those values in control group; but this decreases were statistically significant in nose (32.66 Vs 33.99 °C, p = 0.024) as well as in tibia (32.78 Vs 33.13 °C, p = 0.036) regions. PMID:22255768

  20. Anatomical and biomechanical traits of broiler chickens across ontogeny. Part II. Body segment inertial properties and muscle architecture of the pelvic limb

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Peter G.; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Codd, Jonathan R.; Hutchinson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    In broiler chickens, genetic success for desired production traits is often shadowed by welfare concerns related to musculoskeletal health. Whilst these concerns are clear, a viable solution is still elusive. Part of the solution lies in knowing how anatomical changes in afflicted body systems that occur across ontogeny influence standing and moving. Here, to demonstrate these changes we quantify the segment inertial properties of the whole body, trunk (legs removed) and the right pelvic limb segments of five broilers at three different age groups across development. We also consider how muscle architecture (mass, fascicle length and other properties related to mechanics) changes for selected muscles of the pelvic limb. All broilers used had no observed lameness, but we document the limb pathologies identified post mortem, since these two factors do not always correlate, as shown here. The most common leg disorders, including bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis and rotational and angular deformities of the lower limb, were observed in chickens at all developmental stages. Whole limb morphology is not uniform relative to body size, with broilers obtaining large thighs and feet between four and six weeks of age. This implies that the energetic cost of swinging the limbs is markedly increased across this growth period, perhaps contributing to reduced activity levels. Hindlimb bone length does not change during this period, which may be advantageous for increased stability despite the increased energetic costs. Increased pectoral muscle growth appears to move the centre of mass cranio-dorsally in the last two weeks of growth. This has direct consequences for locomotion (potentially greater limb muscle stresses during standing and moving). Our study is the first to measure these changes in the musculoskeletal system across growth in chickens, and reveals how artificially selected changes of the morphology of the pectoral apparatus may cause deficits in

  1. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  2. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  3. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  4. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  5. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 3, Results, Variability, and Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-02-25

    This paper is part three of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. The radionuclides of interest are the 238U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by 235U; 11 nuclides), and the 232Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides 87Rb and 40K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides 14C and 3H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs-137mBa, 129I and 90Sr-90Y. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. Part one reviewed, summarized, characterized, and grouped all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Part two described the methods used to organize the data collected in part one and segregate it into the ages and genders defined by the study, imputed missing values from the existing data, apportioned activity in bone, and imputed activity in hollow organ contents and the remainder of the body. This paper estimates equivalent doses to target tissues from source regions and maps target tissues to lists of tissues with International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) tissue-weighting factors or to surrogate tissue regions when there is no direct match. Effective doses, using ICRP tissue-weighting factors recommended in 1977, 1990, and 2007, are then calculated, and an upper bound of variability of the effective dose is estimated by calculating the average coefficients of variation (CV), assuming all variance is due to variability. Most of the data were for adult males, whose average annual effective dose is estimated to be 337 μSv (CV = 0.65, geometric mean = 283 μSv, geometric

  6. Reconstructing genome mixtures from partial adjacencies.

    PubMed

    Mahmoody, Ahmad; Kahn, Crystal L; Raphael, Benjamin J

    2012-01-01

    Many cancer genome sequencing efforts are underway with the goal of identifying the somatic mutations that drive cancer progression. A major difficulty in these studies is that tumors are typically heterogeneous, with individual cells in a tumor having different complements of somatic mutations. However, nearly all DNA sequencing technologies sequence DNA from multiple cells, thus resulting in measurement of mutations from a mixture of genomes. Genome rearrangements are a major class of somatic mutations in many tumors, and the novel adjacencies (i.e. breakpoints) resulting from these rearrangements are readily detected from DNA sequencing reads. However, the assignment of each rearrangement, or adjacency, to an individual cancer genome in the mixture is not known. Moreover, the quantity of DNA sequence reads may be insufficient to measure all rearrangements in all genomes in the tumor. Motivated by this application, we formulate the k-minimum completion problem (k-MCP). In this problem, we aim to reconstruct k genomes derived from a single reference genome, given partial information about the adjacencies present in the mixture of these genomes. We show that the 1-MCP is solvable in linear time in the cases where: (i) the measured, incomplete genome has a single circular or linear chromosome; (ii) there are no restrictions on the chromosomal content of the measured, incomplete genome. We also show that the k-MCP problem, for k ≥ 3 in general, and the 2-MCP problem with the double-cut-and-join (DCJ) distance are NP-complete, when there are no restriction on the chromosomal structure of the measured, incomplete genome. These results lay the foundation for future algorithmic studies of the k-MCP and the application of these algorithms to real cancer sequencing data. PMID:23282028

  7. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disposal site adjacent to the Sanctuary off of the Golden Gate: Point ID No. Latitude Longitude 1 37.76458... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites... Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National...

  8. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disposal site adjacent to the Sanctuary off of the Golden Gate: Point ID No. Latitude Longitude 1 37.76458... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites... Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National...

  9. Roof Deformation, Failure Characteristics, and Preventive Techniques of Gob-Side Entry Driving Heading Adjacent to the Advancing Working Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jian-biao; Shen, Wen-long; Guo, Guan-long; Wang, Xiang-yu; Yu, Yang

    2015-11-01

    In mining excavation, the roof bending subsidence of gob-side entry driving heading adjacent to the advancing working face (HAWF) can be considerable. Influenced by the original rock pressure, the front and lateral abutment pressure of the adjacent working face, and the front abutment pressure of the current working face, the support body can easily fail, leading to serious instability of the rock mass surrounding the tunnel. To study the stress state and the deformation failure mechanism of the HAWF roof structure, we use on-site survey data, numerical simulation, and theoretical calculations to fit the spatial distribution law of mining abutment pressure piecewise, and establish a dynamic mechanical model of the roof structure. We then propose a roof failure criterion and examine the roof flexure deformation behavioral pattern. We found that the central part of the roof is the main point that controls the surrounding rock. To prevent the deformation and collapse of the roof and rock surrounding the tunnel, we propose techniques that can be applied to HAWF gob-side entry driving, including setting the coal pillar width, the driving stop and restart timing, and other control concepts.

  10. Historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas: What is revisited?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakhanian, A.; Jrbashyan, R.; Trifonov, V.; Philip, H.; Arakelian, S.; Avagyan, A.; Baghdassaryan, H.; Davtian, V.

    2006-07-01

    The validity of some data in Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62] that are revisited by R. Haroutiunian is considered. A conclusion is made that the revisions suggested by Haroutiunian concern unessential parts of the content of work by Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62]. This article presents new evidence and re-proves the earlier conclusions that are disputed or revised by R. Haroutiunian.

  11. Radiation doses to members of the U.S. population from ubiquitous radionuclides in the body: Part 3, results, variability, and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Watson, David J; Strom, Daniel J

    2011-04-01

    This paper is Part 3 of a three-part series investigating effective dose rates to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. The radionuclides of interest are the (238)U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by (235)U; 11 nuclides), and the (232)Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides (87)Rb and (40)K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides (14)C and (3)H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides (137)Cs-(137m)Ba, (129)I and (90)Sr-(90)Y. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling (222)Rn, (220)Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. In this work, it is assumed that instantaneous dose rates in target organs are proportional to steady-state radionuclide concentrations in source regions. Part 1 reviewed, summarized, characterized, and grouped all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Part 2 described the methods used to organize the data collected in Part 1 and segregate it into the ages and genders defined by the study, including imputed missing values from the existing data, apportioned activity in bone, and imputed activity in hollow organ contents and the remainder of the body. This paper estimates equivalent dose rates to target tissues from source regions and maps target tissues to lists of tissues with International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) tissue-weighting factors or to surrogate tissue regions when there is no direct match. Effective dose rates using ICRP tissue-weighting factors recommended in 1977, 1990, and 2007, are then calculated, and an upper bound of variability of the effective dose rate is estimated by calculating the average coefficients of variation (CV

  12. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Dey, H; Csaba, G; Bernstein, G H; Porod, W

    2016-09-30

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing. PMID:27535227

  13. Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1974-01-01

    Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

  14. Seismic responses of two adjacent buildings. II. Interaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1993-01-01

    Presented in this part of the two-part paper is a study of the relations between earthquake motions recorded from two, adjacent, seven-story buildings, from a downhole below the foundation of one of the buildings and from three free-field sites, all within one city block. This unique data set was obtained during the Whittier-Narrows, Calif. earthquake of Oct. 1, 1987, Part I includes background information on the two buildings, the site, and the data set. Building response characteristics of a code-type instrumented building (A) and an extensively instrumented building (B) are also studied. In this part, spectral analysis techniques are used to study the relationships between the motions of the roofs and basements, the downhole and the free-field sites. It is asserted that there is building-soil-building interaction between the two buildings at a frequency of 2.35 Hz. Furthermore, the free-field motions are shown to be influenced by the presence of the buildings.

  15. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  16. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  17. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  18. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  19. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  4. Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Arising Adjacent to a Breast Implant.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Ciara; Ged, Yasser; Quinn, Fiona; Walker, Jan; Kennedy, John; Gillham, Charles; Pittaluga, Stefania; McDermott, Ronan; Vandenberghe, Elisabeth; Grant, Cliona; Flavin, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Breast implant-associated lymphoma has recently gained wide recognition. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is the most frequently diagnosed subtype in this setting but the spectrum is broadening. A 66-year-old woman developed swelling and itch around her saline implant 6 years after its insertion. Imaging revealed a fluid collection surrounding the implant with an adjacent mass. Microscopy showed sclerotic tissue punctuated by discrete cellular nodules comprising small lymphocytes, eosinophils and interspersed large atypical Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS)-like cells. The HRS-like cells stained positively for CD30 and CD15 by immunohistochemistry. Small T-lymphocytes formed rosettes around HRS-like cells. Appearances were consistent with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction demonstrated no clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes, however, a t(14;18)(q32;q21)BCL2-JH translocation involving the major breakpoint region of the bcl2 gene was present. Staging positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan revealed FDG-avid masses in the right axilla and pelvis. Subsequent pathological examination identified low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) with a t(14;18) translocation at these sites. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HL arising adjacent to a breast implant. An awareness of this diagnosis is important as classical HL, with its prominent mixed inflammatory background, may be overlooked as a reactive process when histologically assessing capsulectomy specimens. It is also important in the differential diagnosis for implant-associated ALCL as both contain large atypical CD30-positive cells highlighting the need for full immunohistochemical and molecular workup in such cases. This case also adds to the large body of literature regarding the association between HL and FL. PMID:26888955

  5. Notes on the history of the Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie in Frankfurt/Main. Part II. The Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie during the Third Reich and its body supply.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Thomas Theo; Korf, Horst-Werner; Benzenhöfer, Udo; Schomerus, Christof; Wicht, Helmut

    2015-09-01

    In order to be able to understand how body supply was maintained at the Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie from 1933 to 1945 - with special emphasis on victims of the National Socialist regime - we have collected information from various and often fragmentary sources. The documents reveal that during this period at least 474 bodies were brought to the anatomical institute. Among them were the bodies of at least 71 prisoners, 51 of whom had been executed, and the bodies of 8 inmates of (labor-) camps. 356 unclaimed bodies were received, some of them may stem from victims of "euthanasia" programs. The sources of 39, as of yet, unnamed bodies could not be verified. The current collections and the catalogs were screened for remains of victims of the National Socialist regime, but none were found. The vast majority of the bodies were used for teaching purposes. Hans Schreiber, one of the directors of the institute, whose biography is provided here, used at least 9 additional executed individuals for his research. Wherever possible, we have identified the victims of the National Socialist regime, executed persons and the inmates of (labor-) camps, whose bodies were used by the anatomists in Frankfurt, by name. Among the victims was Georg Fröba, a communist philanthropist, whose biography is provided. PMID:26198687

  6. Assessment of fish health in Ashumet and Johns Ponds adjacent to the Massachusetts Military Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Adams, S.M.; Hinton, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Ashumet and Johns Ponds are located adjacent to the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) on Cape Cod, and lie in or near the paths of several plumes of groundwater contamination flowing from the MMR. This study had the objective of documenting the present status of fish in both ponds in efforts to establish base-line conditions for any future biological monitoring activities and to determine whether evidence exists for current contaminant impacts. This objective was addressed through three complimentary approaches, including the determination of Health Assessment Index (HAI) scores for fish sampled from Ashumet and Johns Ponds and several reference ponds in the area, measurement of various biochemical and physiological indicators in fish tissues and fluids and histopathological examinations of fish organs. For each of the three primary fish species examined in this study, largemouth bass, brown bullhead catfish, and yellow perch, many similarities were noted in the physiological, biochemical and histopathological condition of fish in all the study ponds. However, mean HAIs tended to be slightly higher (indicative of poorer health) in Ashumet and Johns Ponds, due in part to pathologies related to a higher incidence of parasitic infection at these sites. The most striking differences between the ponds were very high prevalences of oral and body surface papillomas in brown bullhead catfish from Johns Pond (59%) and Ashumet Pond (34%). Although pesticides, PCBs, and other chemical contaminants were present in fish from all of ponds, there was no obvious relationship between chemical body burdens and the responses of any of the measured indicator parameters, nor was there any conclusive evidence of current impacts on fish from the contaminant plumes.

  7. Seismic responses of two adjacent buildings. I. Data and analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1993-01-01

    In this two-part paper, responses of two, adjacent, seven-story buildings in Norwalk, California, to the Whittier-Narrows, Calif, earthquake of Oct. 1, 1987 are studied. Building A, instrumented according to code recommendations, and building B, extensively instrumented, are offset by 16.3 m from one another. The data set includes motions from the superstructure of both buildings, from a downhole below the foundation of building B, and from three free-field sites. Part I of the paper includes descriptions of the buildings, site, instrumentation, and analysis of the data of each building. System identification and spectral analysis techniques are employed in part I. Building A has identical first-mode frequencies of 0.65 Hz for both building axes. The strong-motion response characteristics of building A are considerably different than those determined from low-amplitude tests. Building B has fundamental modes at 0.76 Hz and 0.83 Hz in the major and minor axes, respectively. Torsional and diaphragm effects in building B are negligible.

  8. Interaction between adjacent lightning discharges in clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanhui; Zhang, Guangshu; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yajun; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Tinglong

    2013-07-01

    Using a 3D lightning radiation source locating system (LLS), three pairs of associated lightning discharges (two or more adjacent lightning discharges following an arbitrary rule that their space-gap was less than 10 km and their time-gap was less than 800 ms) were observed, and the interaction between associated lightning discharges was analyzed. All these three pairs of associated lightning discharges were found to involve three or more charge regions (the ground was considered as a special charge region). Moreover, at least one charge region involved two lightning discharges per pair of associated lightning discharges. Identified from electric field changes, the subsequent lightning discharges were suppressed by the prior lightning discharges. However, it is possible that the prior lightning discharge provided a remaining discharge channel to facilitate the subsequent lightning discharge. The third case provided evidence of this possibility. Together, the results suggested that, if the charges in the main negative charge region can be consumed using artificial lightning above the main negative charge regions, lightning accidents on the ground could be greatly reduced, on the condition that the height of the main negative charge region and the charge intensity of the lower positive charge region are suitable.

  9. Non-Adjacent Dependency Learning in Infants at Familial Risk of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Annemarie; de Bree, Elise; de Klerk, Maartje; Wijnen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that developmental dyslexia is (partly) caused by a deficit in implicit sequential learning, by investigating whether infants at familial risk of dyslexia can track non-adjacent dependencies in an artificial language. An implicit learning deficit would hinder detection of such dependencies, which mark grammatical…

  10. 78 FR 14411 - Notice of Proposed Policy Clarification Concerning Designation of Adjacent Coastal States for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... provided.\\23\\ \\22\\ 40 FR 52401 (Nov. 10, 1975). \\23\\ See 33 CFR 2.1(a) (``The purpose of this part is to... internal waters, to a belt of sea adjacent to its coast, described as a territorial sea.'' \\10\\ Article...

  11. 75 FR 65278 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... of Engineers, Department of the Army 33 CFR Part 334 Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger... its regulations to establish one new danger zone in Pamlico Sound near Marine Corps Air Station Cherry... existing 1.8 mile Danger Zone [as described in Sec. 334.420(b)(1)(i)] in the Pamlico Sound and...

  12. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits plant... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...

  13. 77 FR 53164 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... 76 FR 74586. In response, FRA received two petitions for reconsideration (Petitions) that raised... order to permit interested parties an opportunity to respond to the Petitions. See 77 FR 13978. FRA... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 214 RIN 2130-AC37 Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track...

  14. Research on the sonic boom problem. Part 1: Second-order solutions for the flow field around slender bodies in supersonic flow for sonic boom analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landahl, M.; Loefgren, P.

    1973-01-01

    A second-order theory for supersonic flow past slender bodies is presented. Through the introduction of characteristic coordinates as independent variables and the expansion procedure proposed by Lin and Oswatitsch, a uniformly valid solution is obtained for the whole flow field in the axisymmetric case and for far field in the general three-dimensional case. For distances far from the body the theory is an extension of Whitham's first-order solution and for the domain close to the body it is a modification of Van Dyke's second-order solution in the axisymmetric case. From the theory useful formulas relating flow deflections to the Whitham F-function are derived, which permits one to determine the sonic boom strength from wind tunnel measurements fairly close to the body.

  15. Petroleum basins of Sakhalin and adjacent shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Mavrinski, Y.; Koblov, E. )

    1993-09-01

    Sixty-seven oil and gas fields have been discovered on Sakhalin and the adjacent shelf but the distribution of fields is uneven in north Sakhalin, south Sakhalin, and the Tatar basins. The sedimentary cover is composed of sandy, clayey, and siliceous rocks, with volcanogenic and coal-bearing deposits of Upper Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene 8-12 km thick. Marine clayey and siliceous oil source rocks are regionally developed in the section at different stratigraphic levels; the organic matter is of mixed type and the content varies from 0.5 to 1.5%. The upper Oligocene and middle-upper Miocene source rocks in the north Sakhalin basin are typical, and the organic carbon content ranges from 1 to 5%. The level of organic matter catagenesis and conversion into hydrocarbons is high because of the high differential geothermal gradient in the basins, 30-50[degrees]C per km. Porous sandstones in the Miocene form the reservoirs in all fields with the exception of Okruzhnoye, where the pay zone is a siliceous claystone. Growth-fault rollovers and anticlines form the main traps ranging in area from 5 to 300 km[sup 2], with amplitudes between 100 and 600 m. both stratigraphic and structural traps have been identified. Considerable volumes of reserves are associated with the Miocene deposits of north Sakhalin, which are characterized by an optimum combination of oil source rocks, focused migration paths, and thick sequences of reservoirs and cap rocks. Six large fields have been discovered in the past 15 yr. Oil and condensate reserves stand at over 300 million MT, and gas reserves are about 900 billion m[sup 3].

  16. Notes on the history of the Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie in Frankfurt/Main. Part I. Development of student numbers, body procurement, and gross anatomy courses from 1914 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Thomas Theo; Korf, Horst-Werner; Benzenhöfer, Udo; Schomerus, Christof; Wicht, Helmut

    2015-09-01

    Until recently, it was believed that all internal documentation regarding student affairs and body procurement of the Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie concerning the time before March 1944 - when the building was destroyed during an Allied air raid - was lost. A few years ago, however, we discovered stacks of old documents in the current anatomy building. These documents permitted a reconstruction (1) of the history of body procurement, student numbers and course management from 1914 to 1944, as well as (2) some aspects of the building's history in the time immediately after its destruction that have hitherto not been documented. In this paper (Part I), we will deal with the organizational history of the Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie from 1914 to 2013, placing special emphasis on the development of the student population and body procurement, as well as on the major changes that occurred in the gross anatomy labs of the last century. More than 30,000 students were trained in the Dr. Senckenbergische Anatomie over the last 100 years, and more than 3000 bodies have been received. The number of incoming bodies has remained quite stable in all these years and is, on average, approximately 32 per year. The number of students entering the gross anatomy lab during that period, however, rose from less than 100 to more than 600. A companion paper (Part II) deals with the years of the Third Reich (1933-1945) in more detail. PMID:26234698

  17. Mount Hood Wilderness and adjacent areas, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted in 1980. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain, where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in three areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  18. Macrobenthos of Yenisei Bay and the adjacent Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. V.; Vedenin, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Trawl samples were collected in the northern region of Yenisei Bay and adjacent parts of the Kara Sea shelf. A total of eight stations were taken. We found more than 200 species of benthic organisms. A consecutive replacement of benthic communities is observed when going to the north from the Ob and Yenisei estuaries to the open parts of the sea. We could distinguish four different species complexes in the investigated area: a brackish-water complex where Saduria entomon is dominant; an intermediate complex where S. sibirica, S. sabini and Portlandia aestuariorum are dominant; a transitional complex with P. arctica as a dominant species and with a small amount of Ophiocten sericeum; a marine complex where O. sericeum is dominant. When salinity increased, some brackish-water species were replaced by related euryhaline species. One such example was the replacement of brackish-water Saduria entomon isopods by two euryhaline species: S. sibirica and S. sabini. The consecutive replacement of benthic communities showed a break near Sverdrup Island. In this area the marine complex was replaced by a transitional complex with P. arctica.

  19. Design Concepts for Zero-G Whole Body Cleansing on ISS Alpha. Part 2; Individual Design Project; Degree awarded by International Space Univ., 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohanty, Susmita

    2001-01-01

    This document was originally published in 1997 as a International Space University Master of Space Studies student's project. While the specifics may be a little dated, the results gleaned are still relevant and valid. Johnson Space Center is now abuzz with preparations for the International Space Station. The work on the various systems for the U.S. Habitation Module will begin in 1998. As a prelude, the Flight Crew Support Division perceived the need to take a closer, more critical took at planning the Whole Body Cleansing function for ISS. This report is an endeavour to retrieve all data available on whole body cleansing mechanisms used, past and present, by the Russians and the Americans, analyze it and create design concepts for products/product systems for zero-g whole body cleansing on ISS Alpha, for typical duration of about 90 days. This report takes a close look at the Skylab collapsible shower, the Mir shower/sauna, the full body cleansing methods currently in use onboard the Space Shuttle and Mir and at the Whole Body Shower designed and tested for Space Station Freedom. It attempts to "listen" carefully to what the Mir astronauts (Norm Thagard, Shannon Lucid and John Blaha) have to say about their personal hygiene experiences during their recent stays on Mir. The findings in the report call for a change in paradigm. What is good for Earth conditions is not necessarily good for Zero-g! It concludes that a shower is not a good idea for the ISS. The final concept that is proposed reflects very strongly what the Mir astronauts would like to have and to use onboard a station like the ISS, The report concludes with directions of how to take the "idea" further and realize it in the form of a product system for Whole Body Cleansing onboard the ISS.

  20. Further comments on the application of the method of averaging to the study of the rotational motions of a triaxial rigid body, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, J. J. F.; Fitzpatrick, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    Variational equations were applied to the case of a rapidly spinning triaxial body moving in an elliptic orbit, in which the orbital plane is regressing at a constant rate. The explicit differential equations obtained in this application were integrated by the method of averaging to develop secular analytical expressions, which, to first-order in a small parameter, describe the complete space motions of the rigid body under the influence of nonresonant gravity-gradient perturbations. The effects of aerodynamic torque on the rotational motion of an orbiting satellite are studied, as another example of the application of the variational equations derived and the method of averaging.

  1. Irradiation of Spinal Metastases: Should We Continue to Include One Uninvolved Vertebral Body Above and Below in the Radiation Field?

    SciTech Connect

    Klish, Darren S.; Grossman, Patricia; Allen, Pamela K.; Rhines, Laurence D.; Chang, Eric L.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Historically, the appropriate target volume to be irradiated for spinal metastases is 1-2 vertebral bodies above and below the level of involvement for three reasons: (1) to avoid missing the correct level in the absence of simulation or (2) to account for the possibility of spread of disease to the adjacent level, and (3) to account for beam penumbra. In this study, we hypothesized that isolated failures occurring in the level adjacent to level treated with stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRS) were infrequent and that with improved localization techniques with image-guided radiation therapy, treatment of only the involved level of spinal metastases may be more appropriate. Methods and Materials: Patients who had received SBRS treatments to only the involved level of the spine as part of a prospective trial for spinal metastases comprised the study population. Follow-up imaging with spine MRI was performed at 3-month intervals following initial treatment. Failures in the adjacent (V{+-}1, V{+-}2) and distant spine were identified and classified accordingly. Results: Fifty-eight patients met inclusion criteria for this study and harbored 65 distinct spinal metastases. At 18-month median follow-up, seven (10.7%) patients failed simultaneously at adjacent levels V{+-}1 and at multiple sites throughout the spine. Only two (3%) patients experienced isolated, solitary adjacent failures at 9 and 11 months, respectively. Conclusion: Isolated local failures of the unirradiated adjacent vertebral bodies may occur in <5% of patients with isolated spinal metastasis. On the basis of the data, the current practice of irradiating one vertebral body above and below seems unnecessary and could be revised to irradiate only the involved level(s) of the spine metastasis.

  2. Tsien's method for generating non-Keplerian trajectories. Part 2: The question of thrust to orbit a sphere and the restricted three-body problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murad, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Tsien's method is extended to treat the orbital motion of a body undergoing accelerations and decelerations. A generalized solution is discussed for the generalized case where a body undergoes azimuthal and radial thrust and the problem is further simplified for azimuthal thrust alone. Judicious selection of thrust could generate either an elliptic or hyperbolic trajectory. This is unexpected especially when the body has only enough energy for a lower state trajectory. The methodology is extended treating the problem of vehicle thrust for orbiting a sphere and vehicle thrust within the classical restricted three-body problem. Results for the latter situation can produce hyperbolic trajectories through eigen value decomposition. Since eigen values for no-thrust can be imaginary, thrust can generate real eigen values to describe hyperbolic trajectories. Keplerian dynamics appears to represent but a small subset of a much larger non-Keplerian domain especially when thrust effects are considered. The need for high thrust long duration space-based propulsion systems for changing a trajectory's canonical form is clearly demonstrated.

  3. Bodily ownership modulation in defensive responses: physiological evidence in brain-damaged patients with pathological embodiment of other’s body parts

    PubMed Central

    Fossataro, C.; Gindri, P.; Mezzanato, T.; Pia, L.; Garbarini, F.

    2016-01-01

    Do conscious beliefs about the body affect defensive mechanisms within the body? To answer this question we took advantage from a monothematic delusion of bodily ownership, in which brain-damaged patients misidentify alien limbs as their own. We investigated whether the delusional belief that an alien hand is their own hand modulates a subcortical defensive response, such as the hand-blink reflex. The blink, dramatically increases when the threated hand is inside the defensive peripersonal-space of the face. In our between-subjects design, including patients and controls, the threat was brought near the face either by the own hand or by another person’s hand. Our results show an ownership-dependent modulation of the defensive response. In controls, as well as in the patients’ intact-side, the response enhancement is significantly greater when the threat was brought near the face by the own than by the alien hand. Crucially, in the patients’ affected-side (where the pathological embodiment occurs), the alien (embodied) hand elicited a response enhancement comparable to that found when the threat is brought near the face by the real hand. These findings suggest the existence of a mutual interaction between our conscious beliefs about the body and the physiological mechanisms within the body. PMID:27292285

  4. Rendering of Names of Corporate Bodies. Subject Analysis, With Special Reference to Social Sciences. Documentation Systems for Industry (8th Annual Seminar). Part 1: Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Documentation Research and Training Centre, Bangalore (India).

    The four sections of the report cover the topics of cataloging, subject analysis, documentation systems for industry and the Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) research report for 1970. The cataloging section covers the conflicts of cataloging, recall, corporate bodies, titles, publishers series and the entity name. The subject…

  5. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  6. Body Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  7. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  9. Delayed Acquisition of Non-Adjacent Vocalic Distributional Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to compute non-adjacent regularities is key in the acquisition of a new language. In the domain of phonology/phonotactics, sensitivity to non-adjacent regularities between consonants has been found to appear between 7 and 10 months. The present study focuses on the emergence of a posterior-anterior (PA) bias, a regularity involving two…

  10. Chronic maternal vitamin B12 restriction induced changes in body composition & glucose metabolism in the Wistar rat offspring are partly correctable by rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n = 24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  11. Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n = 24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  12. [Intracardial fungal multiplication of order Mucor in an almost totally carbonised part of a male body found after ten days missing].

    PubMed

    Iannaccone, Silvia Farkašová; Klán, Jaroslav; Lamps, Laura W; Farkaš, Daniel; Švajdler Ml, Marián; Szabo, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Determination of time of death belongs to the most difficult and also the most important issues for the medical examiners, especially those who deal with violent death. Besides the most frequently evaluated postmortal changes it is sometimes possible to perform the evaluation on the basis of less frequently observed findings. One of such findings is for example the fungal multiplication on the body or in the very close vicinity. Knowledge of moulds as well as information about their speed of growth should contribute to confirmation or negation of some information gained during police investigation. In this case report authors describe the macroscopically visible fungal intracardiac multiplication in heart chambers and aorta in an almost totally carbonised body which was missing for only ten days. Based on the molecular examination it was detected that the body belonged to the 64-year-old man who was repeatedly hospitalised in psychiatry for depression with suicidal tendencies. The last hospitalisation was six weeks before death and there was no organic disability. The cause of fire was a naked flame. The cause of death was burn injury or asphyxia. The almost total carbonisation did not allow to perform toxicological investigation. By histological investigation we found the presence of wide long non-septate moulds growing in the heart muscle, which belonged to the order Mucor. Since there was no obvious inflammatory response, we suppose their growth started on the congealed blood after death. PMID:27526266

  13. On the possibility of silicon nitride as a ceramic for structural orthopaedic implants. Part II: chemical stability and wear resistance in body environment.

    PubMed

    Mazzocchi, Mauro; Gardini, Davide; Traverso, Pier Luigi; Faga, Maria Giulia; Bellosi, Alida

    2008-08-01

    In Part I, the processing, microstructure and mechanical properties of three silicon nitride-based ceramics were examined and their non-toxicity was demonstrated. In this Part II, some features critical to biomedical applications were investigated: (i) the wetting behaviour against aqueous media, including physiological solutions; (ii) the chemical stability in water and in physiological solutions; and (iii) the wear resistance, measured under experimental procedures that simulate the conditions typical of the hip joint prosthesis. The results confirmed that silicon nitride may serve as a biomaterial for bone substitution in load bearing prosthesis. PMID:18415002

  14. Electrostatically Induced Voltage Generated in a Metal Box When a Charged Body Moves—Relation Between the Ratio of Conducting Parts in the Box and the Induced Voltage—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Norimitsu

    When charged bodies such as a human body and a tool wagon etc. move near an electronic equipment of a partially opened metal box, an electrostatically induced voltage appears in the metal box. The induced voltage causes a breakdown of a device or a malfunction of the equipment. In this study, the author measured the induced voltage in the box using a sphere gap and an electromagnetic wave sensor. This paper presents that the author measures the induced voltage with changing the area of two metal foils in the box. As the results, the author clears that the induced voltage increases up to 1.6 times when the area of induction electrode is 10 times (100cm2) larger than that of 10cm2, and the induced voltage doesn't change so far as the area of an ungrounded metal foil is not changed. The fruit will be useful for designing the printed circuit board as a basic study for preventing the malfunction or the failure of the electronic equipment of the partially opened metal box.

  15. Diamond-like carbon films for polyethylene femoral parts: Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy before and after incubation in simulated body liquid.

    PubMed

    Dorner-Reisel, A; Gärtner, G; Reisel, G; Irmer, G

    2008-03-01

    In artificial prosthetics for knee, hip, finger or shoulder joints, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) is a significant material. Several attempts to reduce the wear rate of UHMW-PE, i.e. the application of suitable coatings, are in progress. A surface modification of polyethylene with wear-resistant hydrogenated diamond-like carbon is favourable, owing to the chemical similarity of polyethylene (-C-H(2)-)(n) and C:H or amorphous C:H (a-C:H) coatings with diamond-like properties. In the present study, the microstructure of a-C:H coatings on UHMW-PE substrates was investigated by Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. FT-IR spectroscopy shows very broad absorption lines, which point to the disorder and diversity of different symmetric, asymmetric aromatic, olefin sp(2)-hybridized or sp(3)-hybridized C-H groups in the amorphous diamond-like carbon coating. Following a long incubation of 12 months in a simulated body liquid, the structural investigations were repeated. Furthermore, fractured cross-sections and the wetting behaviour with polar liquids were examined. After incubation in simulated body liquid, Raman spectroscopy pointed to a reduction of the C-H bonds in the diamond-like carbon coatings. On the basis of these findings, one can conclude that hydrogenated diamond-like carbon is able to interact with salt solutions by substituting the hydrogen with appropriate ions. PMID:18157668

  16. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  17. Aberrant gene expression in mucosa adjacent to tumor reveals a molecular crosstalk in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A colorectal tumor is not an isolated entity growing in a restricted location of the body. The patient’s gut environment constitutes the framework where the tumor evolves and this relationship promotes and includes a complex and tight correlation of the tumor with inflammation, blood vessels formation, nutrition, and gut microbiome composition. The tumor influence in the environment could both promote an anti-tumor or a pro-tumor response. Methods A set of 98 paired adjacent mucosa and tumor tissues from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and 50 colon mucosa from healthy donors (246 samples in total) were included in this work. RNA extracted from each sample was hybridized in Affymetrix chips Human Genome U219. Functional relationships between genes were inferred by means of systems biology using both transcriptional regulation networks (ARACNe algorithm) and protein-protein interaction networks (BIANA software). Results Here we report a transcriptomic analysis revealing a number of genes activated in adjacent mucosa from CRC patients, not activated in mucosa from healthy donors. A functional analysis of these genes suggested that this active reaction of the adjacent mucosa was related to the presence of the tumor. Transcriptional and protein-interaction networks were used to further elucidate this response of normal gut in front of the tumor, revealing a crosstalk between proteins secreted by the tumor and receptors activated in the adjacent colon tissue; and vice versa. Remarkably, Slit family of proteins activated ROBO receptors in tumor whereas tumor-secreted proteins transduced a cellular signal finally activating AP-1 in adjacent tissue. Conclusions The systems-level approach provides new insights into the micro-ecology of colorectal tumorogenesis. Disrupting this intricate molecular network of cell-cell communication and pro-inflammatory microenvironment could be a therapeutic target in CRC patients. PMID:24597571

  18. Biomechanics of the Sensor–Tissue Interface—Effects of Motion, Pressure, and Design on Sensor Performance and Foreign Body Response—Part II: Examples and Application

    PubMed Central

    Helton, Kristen L; Ratner, Buddy D; Wisniewski, Natalie A

    2011-01-01

    This article is the second part of a two-part review in which we explore the biomechanics of the sensor–tissue interface as an important aspect of continuous glucose sensor biocompatibility. Part I, featured in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, describes a theoretical framework of how biomechanical factors such as motion and pressure (typically micromotion and micropressure) affect tissue physiology around a sensor and in turn, impact sensor performance. Here in Part II, a literature review is presented that summarizes examples of motion or pressure affecting sensor performance. Data are presented that show how both acute and chronic forces can impact continuous glucose monitor signals. Also presented are potential strategies for countering the ill effects of motion and pressure on glucose sensors. Improved engineering and optimized chemical biocompatibility have advanced sensor design and function, but we believe that mechanical biocompatibility, a rarely considered factor, must also be optimized in order to achieve an accurate, long-term, implantable sensor. PMID:21722579

  19. My Body Had a Mind of Its Own: On Teaching, the Illusion of Control, and the Terrifying Limits of Governmentality (Part 2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koza, Julia Eklund

    2010-01-01

    In the final installment of her two-part essay, Julia Eklund Koza analyzes prevalent control and management discourse in education, specifically, music education. Arguing that dominant understandings are hierarchical, gendered, illusory, and integrally related to projects and practices largely unrelated to schooling, she invites teachers and…

  20. Body development in sows, feed intake and maternal capacity. Part 1: performance, pre-breeding and lactation feed intake traits of primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C R G; Bunter, K L

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the genetic and phenotypic associations between finisher performance, pre-breeding body condition of the gilt, subsequent lactation feed intake and survival of the primiparous sow to farrow in the second parity. Complete data were available on ~2200 sows, along with additional cohort and historical performance data. Genetic variation was observed for average lactation feed intake (heritability: 0.18 ± 0.04), with a significant proportion of observed variation in average intake attributable to variation in lactation length. Weight and body condition (fatness) at finishing were very highly correlated genetically (0.89 ± 0.03 and 0.90 ± 0.02) and moderately correlated phenotypically (0.58 ± 0.01 and 0.58 ± 0.01) with weight and body condition before mating. Estimates of genetic (r(g)) and phenotypic (r(p)) correlations between feed intake recorded at finishing and average lactation feed intake (LADI) were moderate (r(g) = 0.26 ± 0.16 and 0.42 ± 0.22) and low (r(p) = 0.07 ± 0.02 and 0.08 ± 0.03), with r(g) dependent on the models and data subsets used for lactation intake. Non-unity genetic correlations imply that different genetic control mechanisms regulate feed intake during growth and lactation. Moderate genetic correlations between lactation feed intake with live weight (TWT) or growth rate (TADG) recorded at selection and live weight before mating (0.42 ± 0.11, 0.42 ± 0.11 and 0.37 ± 0.15) were considerably higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlations for LADI with TADG or 29WT (0.09 ± 0.02 and 0.08 ± 0.02). Correlations between fatness at selection (TFAT) or mating (29FT) and LADI were negative but not significantly different from 0. Overall, these data suggest that there is exploitable genetic variation for feed intake during lactation, and that selection is possible if lactation feed intakes are recorded. However, genetic correlations suggest that early growth seems to be related to lactation feed intake capacity

  1. Documentation of program COORDC to generate and coordinate system for 3D corners with or without fillet using body fitted curvilinear coordinates, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, D.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program COORDC generates a body fitted curvilinear coordinate system for corner geometry with or without corner fillets. It is assumed that at any given xi, x remains constant; consequently the only variation is in y and z. It is also assumed that for all xi's in the physical plane the coordinate system in y-z plane is similar. This enables solution of coordinate system for one particular xi = 1 (x for xi = 1 is arbitrarily chosen to be 0.0) and the solution for all other xi plane can be easily specified once the coordinates in the physical plane on the line 1 or = to xi or = to IMAX, eta = 1, zeta = 1 are specified.

  2. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  4. 1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 193.75. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 195.55. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  7. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  8. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 2. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS AND NORTHWEST APPROACH SPANS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Red River Bridge, Spanning Red River at U.S. Highway 82, Garland, Miller County, AR

  10. 1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  11. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  12. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  13. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  14. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Complications in exodontia--accidental dislodgment to adjacent anatomical areas.

    PubMed

    Grandini, S A; Barros, V M; Salata, L A; Rosa, A L; Soares, U N

    1993-01-01

    The authors report 4 cases of accidental dislodgement of teeth to adjacent anatomical areas during extraction. The causes and their prevention are discussed and solutions for the problem are suggested. PMID:8241759

  16. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  17. VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION CAMP ROCK FEATURE WITH OVER, ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION CAMP ROCK FEATURE WITH OVER, ADJACENT TO THE COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL. LOOKING NORTHWEST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  18. Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west end of the complex near Highway 101. Detail of Holloshaft pump. View to the south. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  19. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 24. INTERIOR VIEW, WILLIAM GRAY AT SIZING GUAGE ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR VIEW, WILLIAM GRAY AT SIZING GUAGE ADJACENT TO BRADLEY HAMMER; NOTE THIS IS THE SAME TOOL AS BEING FORGED ABOVE - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  1. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  2. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen he designed and installed in the Congdon Canal, facing southeast. Photo dates ca. late 1920's. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  4. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  5. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  6. VIEW OF CONCRETE CHANNEL ADJACENT TO TUMALO FEED CANAL INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONCRETE CHANNEL ADJACENT TO TUMALO FEED CANAL INTAKE STRUCTURE (DOWNSTREAM SIDE). LOOKING EAST/NORTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  7. Comparison of total body irradiation vs chlorambucil and prednisone for remission induction of active chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an ECOG study. Part I: total body irradiation-response and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P.; Bennent, J.M.; Begg, C.; Bozdech, M.J.; Silber, R.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty-six evaluable patients were entered into two fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) programs; 11 patients received a course of 150 rad TBI (x 3 if tolerated) and 15 patients received a lower dose course of 50 rad (x 3 if tolerated). Complete remissions (CR) were not produced by either course; however, the higher dose course (Plan I) yielded a partial response (PR) rate of 73%, while the lower dose course yielded a PR of 47%. Although fraction size seemed trivial in both TBI plans, an unexpected high degree of hematologic toxicity was encountered, and was parallel to the response rates: in Plan I 73% of patients experienced severe to life-threatening depression of platelets, or granulocytes, whereas in Plan II this rate was 47%. This was of short duration with rapid return of blood counts to normal levels. One death can be attributed to TBI. The chemotherapy arm of the study demonstrated superiority in terms of complete responses. Twenty-three percent of patients treated by cholrambucil and prednisone attained CR, in contrast to 0% of TBI patients. PR for chemotherapy was similar to that obtained with TBI. Chemotherapy also proved superior in terms of overall response rate, number of patients in remission, and in the median duration of response, but not in the median duration of survival. Fractional TBI techniques for active chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) should be interrupted when the platelet count dips below 100,000 and the granulocyte count is lower than 2,000. Future studies should continue TBI radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

  8. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 1, Autopsy and In Vivo Data

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-02-25

    This paper is part one of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. The goal of part one of this work was to review, summarize, and characterize all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Forty-five papers and reports were obtained and their data reviewed, and three data sets were obtained via private communication. The 45 radionuclides of interest are the 238U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by 235U; 11 nuclides), and the 232Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides 87Rb and 40 K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides 14C and 3H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs-137mBa, 129I, and 90Sr-90Y. Measurements judged to be relevant were available for only 15 of these radionuclides: 238U, 235U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 137Cs, 87Rb, 40K, 14C, and 3H. Recent and relevant measurements were not available for 129I and 90Sr-90Y. A total of 11,714 radionuclide concentration measurements were found in one or more tissues or organs from 14 States. Data on age, sex, geographic locations, height, and weight of subjects were available only sporadically. Too often authors did not provide meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements so that variability in data sets is confounded with measurement uncertainty. The following papers detail how these shortcomings are overcome to achieve the goals of the three-part series.

  9. Hydrologic Connection Between Geysers and Adjacent Thermal Pools, Two Examples: El Tatio, Chile and Yellowstone, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Saez, C.; Fauria, K.; Manga, M.; Hurwitz, S.; Namiki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Geyser eruption cycles can be influenced by adjacent and distant thermals sources, suggesting a hydraulic connection through permeable pathways. Diffusion of fluid pressure can be responsible for the communication between geysers. In this study we examine the processes linking two different geysers with adjacent thermal pools. The first was Vega Rinconada, located at El Tatio geyser field, Chile, where we measured temperature inside the conduit between the ground surface and a depth of seven meters, at one-meter intervals. The second was Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, where we measured temperature of the overflow water at the base of the cone. Concurrently, we measured temperature and the water level in pools adjacent to both geysers. We found common elements in both geyser - pool systems: First, water temperature in both adjacent pools was below the boiling point and cooler than water in the geysers. Second, changes in pool water levels were correlated with eruptions of the geysers. During the quiescent period of the geysers, the water level increased in adjacent pools, while water level in the pools deceased during eruptions. Additionally, measurements inside of the conduit in Vega Rinconada Geyser showed that water temperature increased in the deepest part of the conduit during eruptions, while water temperature decreased in the shallow part of the geyser conduit (~1 to 2 m). These drops in temperature in the shallow conduit were coincident with the drop in water level in the adjacent pool. This suggests that after the initiation of an eruption, water may drain from the pool to the geyser. Furthermore, we observed a temperature drop of 3oC in the shallow conduit immediately preceding the end of an eruption. This suggests that flow from the pool to geyser contributes to eruption shut off. Our observations of geyser-pool systems indicate a hydrologic connection between the geysers and their adjacent pools. In the case of Vega Rinconada, cold water

  10. Adjacent Segment Disease Perspective and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Pozo, Fanor M.; Deusdara, Renato A. M.; Benzel, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease has become a common topic in spine surgery circles because of the significant increase in fusion surgery in recent years and the development of motion preservation technologies that theoretically should lead to a decrease in this pathology. The purpose of this review is to organize the evidence available in the current literature on this subject. Methods For this literature review, a search was conducted in PubMed with the following keywords: adjacent segment degeneration and disease. Selection, review, and analysis of the literature were completed according to level of evidence. Results The PubMed search identified 850 articles, from which 41 articles were selected and reviewed. The incidence of adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine is close to 3% without a significant statistical difference between surgical techniques (fusion vs arthroplasty). Authors report the incidence of adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine to range from 2% to 14%. Damage to the posterior ligamentous complex and sagittal imbalances are important risk factors for both degeneration and disease. Conclusion Insufficient evidence exists at this point to support the idea that total disc arthroplasty is superior to fusion procedures in minimizing the incidence of adjacent segment disease. The etiology is most likely multifactorial but it is becoming abundantly clear that adjacent segment disease is not caused by motion segment fusion alone. Fusion plus the presence of abnormal end-fusion alignment appears to be a major factor in creating end-fusion stresses that result in adjacent segment degeneration and subsequent disease. The data presented cast further doubt on previously established rationales for total disc arthroplasty, at least with regard to the effect of total disc arthroplasty on adjacent segment degeneration pathology. PMID:24688337

  11. Approximating the largest eigenvalue of network adjacency matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan G.; Ott, Edward; Hunt, Brian R.

    2007-11-01

    The largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of a network plays an important role in several network processes (e.g., synchronization of oscillators, percolation on directed networks, and linear stability of equilibria of network coupled systems). In this paper we develop approximations to the largest eigenvalue of adjacency matrices and discuss the relationships between these approximations. Numerical experiments on simulated networks are used to test our results.

  12. Radiation doses to members of the U.S. population from ubiquitous radionuclides in the body: Part 1, autopsy and in vivo data.

    PubMed

    Watson, David J; Strom, Daniel J

    2011-04-01

    This paper is Part 1 of a three-part series investigating steady-state effective dose rates to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling (222)Rn, (220)Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. In this work, it is assumed that instantaneous dose rates in target organs are proportional to steady-state radionuclide concentrations in source regions. The goal of Part 1 of this work was to review, summarize, and characterize all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Forty-five papers and reports were obtained and their data reviewed, and three data sets were obtained via private communication. The 45 radionuclides of interest are the (238)U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by (235)U; 11 nuclides), and the (232)Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides (87)Rb and (40)K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides (14)C and (3)H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides (137)Cs-(137m)Ba, (129)I, and (90)Sr-(90)Y. Measurements judged to be relevant were available for only 15 of these radionuclides: (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (232)Th, (230)Th, (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (137)Cs, (87)Rb, (40)K, (14)C, and (3)H. Recent and relevant measurements were not available for (129)I and (90)Sr-(90)Y. A total of 11,741 radionuclide concentration measurements were found in one or more tissues or organs from 14 states. Data on age, gender, geographic locations, height, and weight of subjects were available only sporadically. Too often authors did not provide meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements, so that variability in data sets is confounded with

  13. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 2, Methods and Dose Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-02-25

    This paper is part two of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. Part one reviewed, summarized, characterized, and grouped all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Assumptions about equilibrium with long-lived parents are made for the 28 other radionuclides in these series lacking data. This paper describes the methods developed to group the collected data into source regions described in the Radiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) dosimetric methodology. Methods for converting the various units of data published over 50 years into a standard form are developed and described. Often, meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements were not published so that variability in data sets is confounded with measurement uncertainty. A description of the methods developed to estimate variability is included in this paper. The data described in part one are grouped by gender and age to match the RADAR dosimetric phantoms. Within these phantoms, concentration values are grouped into source tissue regions by radionuclide, and they are imputed for source regions lacking tissue data. Radionuclide concentrations are then imputed for other phantoms’ source regions with missing concentration values, and the uncertainties of the imputed values are increased. The content concentrations of hollow organs are calculated, and activities are apportioned to the bone source regions using assumptions about each radionuclide’s bone-seeking behavior. The data sets are then ready

  14. Calculation of the Pressure Distribution on Bodies of Revolution in the Subsonic Flow of a Gas. Part 1; Axially Symmetrical Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilharz, Herbert; Hoelder, Ernst

    1947-01-01

    The present report concerns a method of computing the velocity and pressure distributions on bodies of revolution in axially symmetrical flow in the subsonic range. The differential equation for the velocity potential Phi of a compressible fluid motion is linearized tn the conventional manner, and then put in the form Delta(Phi) = 0 by affine transformation. The quantity Phi represents the velocity potential of a fictitious incompressible flow, for which a constant superposition of sources by sections is secured by a method patterned after von Karman which must comply with the boundary condition delta(phi)/delta(n) = 0 at the originally specified contour. This requirement yields for the "pseudo-stream function" psi a differential equation which must be fulfilled for as many points on the contour as source lengths are assumed. In this manner, the problem of defining the still unknown source intensities is reduced to the solution of an inhomogeneous equation system. The pressure distribution is then determined with the aid of Bernoulli's equation and adiabatic equation of state. Lastly, the pressure distributions in compressible and incompressible medium are compared on a model problem.

  15. Heat transfer distributions induced by elevon deflections on swept wings and adjacent surfaces at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Kaufman, L. G., II

    1978-01-01

    Surface heat transfer distributions are presented for swept wing semispan models having trailing edge elevon ramp angles of 0, 10, 20, and 30 degrees. The wing sweepback angles are 0, 50, and 70 degrees. The models have attachable cylindrical and flat plate center bodies and various attachable wing-tip fins. The data, obtained for a 0 degree angle of attack, a free stream Mach number of 6, and a wing root chord Reynolds number of about 17,000,000, reveal considerably larger regions of elevon induced thermal loads on adjacent surfaces than would be suggested by fully attached flow analyses.

  16. Numerical modeling of landfill gas and heat transport in the deformable MSW landfill body. Part 2. Verification and application of the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsyi, D. V.

    2015-07-01

    The article is devoted to studying the parameters of wells that are used as part of vertical landfill gas collection systems for degassing landfills. To this end, the thermophysical model developed in the first part of this work is considered. The model is constructed using the initial data obtained at real dump and landfill with subsequently comparing the calculation results with the data of experimental measurements. A method for determining the average hydrodynamic properties of wastes is proposed, using which the heterogeneity of wastes can be taken into account. The effect the operating and design parameters of the well have on its performance is investigated on the basis of these properties. It has been determined that increasing the suction pressure, drilling diameter, and perforation height allows the well production rate to be increased by around 10%. The effect the increase of the well production rate has on the landfill gas collection project's payback period is demonstrated taking typical dump and landfill as an example.

  17. CT -- Body

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Computed tomography (CT) of the body uses special x-ray ... Body? What is CT Scanning of the Body? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  18. Spatial distribution and controlling factors of sedimentary bodies in Jiaozhou Bay and Adjacent Sea Areas, Qingdao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Heping; Li, Guangxue; Li, Shuanglin; Li, Shaoquan; Li, Chun

    2011-06-01

    The distributions of thickness of unconsolidated Quaternary sedimentary layers in Jiaozhou Bay and Qingdao offshore area were studied by using 1079-km high-resolution shallow seismic profiles and drilling core data, and the factors controlling the Quaternary evolution were discussed. The results show that such thickness distributions resulted from the coactions of geologic structures and marine hydrodynamic conditions since the Holocene. The geologic structures controlled the slope deposit, proluvial and fluvial fillings since the late Pleistocene. Holocene marine hydrodynamics eroded away sediments at the bay mouth, and tides carried these eroded materials to the sides of the bay mouth and released them there, forming channel-ridge-alternating geomorphic features. During transgressive processes, the sea level rose rapidly, and insufficient sediment supply and tidal actions yielded the relict sediments in the east of Qingdao offshore area.

  19. A moderate fat, low-energy dry expanded diet reduces gain in body condition score when fed as part of a post neutering weight-control regimen in growing pet cats.

    PubMed

    Spofford, Nathaniel; Mougeot, Isabelle; Elliott, Denise A; Addleman, Ashlee; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Wang, Mansen; Yang, Mingyin; Feugier, Alexandre; Biourge, Vincent; Lund, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    Neutering of cats has been associated with significant weight gain in the weeks following surgery. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a moderate fat, low-energy dry expanded diet in reducing weight gain in growing pet cats when fed as part of a weight-control regimen over the 6 months post-neutering. Cats in participating primary care veterinary hospitals were enrolled at neutering and assigned to receive one of the two dietary treatments based on the hospital of origin. Owners of cats in the treatment group were instructed to feed the trial diet at maintenance (324·7 kJ/kg BW(0·711) per d). Instructions for the control group were to feed the cat's regular diet according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Body weight and condition were evaluated by veterinarians at enrolment, 2-weeks, and 1-4 and 6 months after surgery. Body condition score (five-point scale) was compared between enrolment and each subsequent visit, controlling for enrolment age and sex. Percentage change in body weight was evaluated via multivariate mixed modelling to account for repeated measures. A total of 187 cats (eighty-seven females and 100 males) with a mean age of 5·2 (sd 0·8) months and mean weight of 2·8 (sd 0·6) kg from fifty-one hospitals completed the trial. The odds of being scored as overweight were 4·1 times as great for cats in the control v. treatment groups (95 % CI 2·1, 8·2). Percentage change in body weight differed significantly with enrolment age (P = 0·007) and approached significance between diet groups (P = 0·08). Cats fed the trial diet had a significantly reduced incidence of overweight in the 6 months following neutering. PMID:26101609

  20. Sediment transport off the Huanghe (Yellow River) delta and in the adjacent Bohai Sea in winter and seasonal comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zuosheng; Ji, Youjun; Bi, Naishuang; Lei, Kun; Wang, Houjie

    2011-07-01

    Based on the data on the current velocity, water temperature, salinity, turbidity and concentration of suspended sediment collected in November 2006 along three survey transects at three time-series, ship-based stations off the Huanghe (Yellow River) delta, and at twenty-four grid survey stations in the adjacent Bohai Sea, sediment transport off the Huanghe delta and in the adjacent Bohai Sea under winter regime were studied and compared with those from the summer season. The homogeneous distribution of salinity, temperature and sediment in the water column indicated a well-mixed body of water. A zone of high suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) >100 mg l -1 with a width of 35 km was identified along the delta coast. Two highest SSC centers were found in the surface and middle water layers around the abandoned Diaokou Huanghe river mouth and the present Huanghe river mouth, and the third one in the bottom layer around the abandoned Qingshuigou Huanghe river mouth. These three highest SSC centers become major sediment source areas in winter. Based on the location of the high bottom shear stress zone, the prevailing wave directions and the protuberant topography of the river mouths, we identified the resuspension origin of the three highest SSC centers caused mostly by the winter storm waves, partially by tidal currents. Suspended sediment flux (SSF) along the three coastal transects indicated that the sediment in the northwest part of the delta was transported northeastward and southeastward along the coast of the recent delta lobe. The SSC and SSF were higher in winter than summer by 1.7-27.1 and 2-122.5 times, respectively, except around the present river mouth. This indicates that the intensity of sediment transport in winter is much stronger than in summer due to the powerful effect of winter storms although the river water and sediment discharges to the sea were much greater in summer. The massive Huanghe sediment to the sea was accumulated in a narrow

  1. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  2. On the Adjacent Eccentric Distance Sum Index of Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hui; Cao, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    For a given graph G, ε(v) and deg(v) denote the eccentricity and the degree of the vertex v in G, respectively. The adjacent eccentric distance sum index of a graph G is defined as ξsv(G)=∑v∈V(G)ε(v)D(v)deg(v), where D(v)=∑u∈V(G)d(u,v) is the sum of all distances from the vertex v. In this paper we derive some bounds for the adjacent eccentric distance sum index in terms of some graph parameters, such as independence number, covering number, vertex connectivity, chromatic number, diameter and some other graph topological indices. PMID:26091095

  3. Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.

  4. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica D.; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  5. Body Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, K. Allen

    1989-01-01

    Described are activities for measuring the human body. The activities include measurements and calculations, calculating volume and density, problems related to body measurement, and using a nomogram. Several charts, illustrations, and a nomogram are provided. (YP)

  6. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and... SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D...

  7. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.710 The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to... part 329, including the waters of The Narrows and the Gulf of Mexico easterly of the periphery of...

  8. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.710 The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to... part 329, including the waters of The Narrows and the Gulf of Mexico easterly of the periphery of...

  9. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.710 The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to... part 329, including the waters of The Narrows and the Gulf of Mexico easterly of the periphery of...

  10. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  11. Colposcopy of vaginal and vulvar human papillomavirus and adjacent sites.

    PubMed

    Hatch, K

    1993-03-01

    Human papillomaviral infections can affect the entire lower female genital tract as multifocal or multicentric disease as well as the surrounding anatomic and adjacent sites. The traditional colposcopic methods are necessary to assist in the diagnosis and help differentiate these infections from other disease mimics. PMID:8392676

  12. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  13. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  14. 2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  15. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  16. Effects on stink bugs of field edges adjacent to woodland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers face significant crop losses from stink bug species in the southeastern USA, but the high mobility and polyphagy of the bugs make predictions of their presence in crops difficult. While there is some evidence that they colonize crops from adjacent crops, there are no studies of their colo...

  17. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  2. 45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, WALL ON LEFT DIVIDING CLOTH ROOM ADDED LATER (PROBABLY C. 1970s). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  3. Detail of north intermediate abutment pylon showing proximity of adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north intermediate abutment pylon showing proximity of adjacent 1001-1007 East First Street (James K. Hill and Sons Pickle Works Building), facing east - First Street Bridge, Spanning Los Angeles River at First Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  5. 4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN BUILDING PERIODS 1 AND 3. NOTE REUSED WOOD STRIP NAILED TO BUILDING PERIOD 1 POST INSCRIBED 'ST. LEONARD'. THERE ARE NO NAIL HOLES IN THE PERIOD 3 POST, THE FARRING STRIPS ADJUST FOR CLADDING - Charles' Gift, State Routes 2 & 4, Lusby, Calvert County, MD

  6. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side of bridge, taken from river level. Note entire east side and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  8. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points. 236.404 Section 236.404 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  9. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  10. Ultrastructural study on dynamics of lipid bodies and plastids during ripening of chili pepper fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin

    2013-03-01

    Dynamics of lipid bodies and plastids in chili pepper fruits during ripening were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. Mesocarp of chili pepper fruits consists of collenchyma, normal parenchyma, and huge celled parenchyma. In mature green fruits, plastids contain numerous thylakoids that are well organized into grana in collenchyma, a strikingly huge amount of starch and irregularly organized thylakoids in normal parenchyma, and simple tubes rather than thylakoids in huge celled parenchyma. These morphological features suggest that plastids are chloroplasts in collenchyma, chloroamyloplasts in normal parenchyma, proplastids in huge celled parenchyma. As fruits ripen to red, plastids in all cell types convert to chromoplasts and, concomitantly, lipid bodies accumulate in both cytoplasm and chromoplasts. Cytosolic lipid bodies are lined up in a regular layer adjacent to plasma membrane. The cytosolic lipid body consists of a core surrounded by a membrane. The core is comprised of a more electron-dense central part enclosed by a slightly less electron-dense peripheral layer. Plastidial lipid bodies in collenchyma, normal parenchyma, and endodermis initiate as plastoglobuli, which in turn convert to rod-like structures. Therefore, plastidial lipid bodies are more dynamic than cytosolic lipid bodies. Both cytosolic and plastidial lipid bodies contain rich unsaturated lipids. PMID:23290710

  11. Blending in with the Body.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Andrew L.; Driver, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Explains the basics of the biocompatibility of products that are used to replace body parts and mimic the biology of the human body. Describes where phosphorylcholine coating technology is used commercially in the body and discuses the use of phosphorylcholine in lenses and blood. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)

  12. Corpectomy with Adjacent-Level Kyphoplasty to Treat Metastatic Lung Cancer in Three Contiguous Cervical Vertebrae Causing Focal Neurologic Compromise

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Antony H.; Way, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objectives Decompression of metastatic spinal cord compression has been shown to improve quality of life and prolong ambulation in patients undergoing palliative treatment. We report a case of metastatic cervical myelopathy treated with a combined approach using corpectomy and stabilization together with balloon kyphoplasty to allow adequate decompression and immediate stability in a patient with significant destruction of adjacent vertebral bodies. Methods The cervical spine was approached anteriorly and decompressed with a C7 corpectomy. Subsequent stability was achieved with insertion of a trabecular metal cage. Balloon kyphoplasty was used to treat lytic lesions within the posterior body of the adjacent vertebrae for pain relief and increased stability. Additional stability was achieved through the application of an anterior plate. Results Full limited decompression and stabilization were successfully achieved. The patient had no further neurologic deterioration and made modest improvements that allowed a return to independent ambulation. Conclusion This limited approach may be an option for patients with metastatic spinal cord compression, lytic destruction of adjacent vertebral bodies, and limited life expectancy. PMID:25844288

  13. Field Guide to the Geology of Parts of the Appalachian Highlands and Adjacent Interior Plains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Garry D.; Utgard, Russell O.

    This field guide is the basis for a five-day, 1000-mile trip through six states and six geomorphic provinces. The trip and the pre- and post-trip exercises included in the guide constitute a three credit course at The Ohio State University entitled "Field Geology for Science Teachers." The purpose of the trip is to study the regional geology,…

  14. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  15. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  16. The Early Stage Adjacent Disc Degeneration after Percutaneous Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty in The Treatment of Osteoporotic VCFs

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jun; Yang, Huilin; Jing, Juehua; Zhao, Hong; Ni, Li; Tian, Dasheng; Wang, Zhengfei

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to determine the early incidence of disc de- generation adjacent to the vertebral body of osteoporotic fracture treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty or balloon kyphoplasty and whether adjacent disc degeneration is accelerated by this two procedures. Methods 182 patients with painful vertebral compression fractures were treated. A total of 97 patients were enrolled in this prospective study. 97 patients with a mean age of 65.3 years were classified into control group and surgical treatment group of non-random. 35 patients were in contol group and 62 patients who were performed percutaneous vertebroplasty or balloon kyphoplasty in treatment group. X-ray and Magnetic resonance imaging were done at the first and final visit. The grade of disc degeneration above the fractured vertebral was confirmed by evaluation of bony oedema in the fat suppressed sequences and T2-weighted image of magnetic resonance imaging. The height of degenerative disc was measured on X-ray film. Results All patients were followed up two years after the first visit and the follow-up rate was 90.7% (88/97). The incidence of degeneration of adjacent disc above the fractured vertebral was 29.0% (9/31) in control group and 52.6% (30/57) in treatment group. It presented a statistically significant difference between two groups about the incidence of adjacent disc degeneration (P = 0.033). The percentage of adjacent disc height reduction in control group was 13.5% and 17.6% in treatment group. Statistically significant difference of VAS score and ODI was not found between the first evaluation postoperatively and the final follow-up in treatment group (P>0.05). Conclusions Disc degeneration adjacent to the fractured vertebral is accelerated by VP and BK procedures in the early stage, but clinical outcomes has not been weakened even in the presence of accelerated disc degeneration. PMID:23056283

  17. Body Piercing

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Laura M; Carnes, Molly

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the current information on medical complications, psychological implications, and legislative issues related to body piercing, a largely unregulated industry in the United States. METHODS We conducted a MEDLINE search of English language articles from 1966 until May 1998 using the search terms “body piercing” and “ear piercing.” Bibliographies of these references were reviewed for additional citations. We also conducted an Internet search for “body piercing” on the World Wide Web. MAIN RESULTS: In this manuscript, we review the available body piercing literature. We conclude that body piercing is an increasingly common practice in the United States, that this practice carries substantial risk of morbidity, and that most body piercing in the United States is being performed by unlicensed, unregulated individuals. Primary care physicians are seeing growing numbers of patients with body pierces. Practitioners must be able to recognize, treat, and counsel patients on body piercing complications and be alert to associated psychological conditions in patients who undergo body piercing. PMID:10354260

  18. 38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER. THIS UNIT GENERATED A MAGNETIC PULSE WHICH WAS TRANSMITTED TO THE COLLECTION PLATES IN THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. THESE PERIODIC PULSES VIBRATE THE PLATES AND CAUSE PRECIPITATED ARTICLES OF SMOKE AND FLY ASH TO FALL TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  19. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  20. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  1. FMRI evidence of acupoints specificity in two adjacent acupoints.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Xu, Jian-Yang; Li, Lin; Shan, Bao-Ci; Nie, Bin-Bin; Xue, Jing-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Acupoint specificity is the foundation of acupuncture treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the acupoint specificity exists in two adjacent acupoints. Design and Setting. Two adjacent real acupoints, LR3 (Taichong) and ST44 (Neiting), and a nearby nonacupoint were selected. Thirty-three health volunteers were divided into three groups in random order, and each group only received acupuncture at one of the three points. While they received acupuncture, fMRI scan was performed. Results. The common cerebral activated areas responding to LR3 and ST44 included the contralateral primary somatosensory area (SI) and ipsilateral cerebellum. Acupuncture at LR3 specifically activated contralateral middle occipital gyrus, ipsilateral medial frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobe, middle temporal gyrus, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), lentiform nucleus, insula, and contralateral thalamus. Stimulation at ST44 selectively activated ipsilateral secondary somatosensory area (SII), contralateral middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, lingual gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Conclusions. Acupuncture at adjacent acupoints elicits distinct cerebral activation patterns, and those specific patterns might be involved in the mechanism of the specific therapeutic effects of different acupoints. PMID:23762172

  2. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S; Dipersio, John F; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  3. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  4. Using BRDFs for accurate albedo calculations and adjacency effect corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the authors discuss two uses of BRDFs in remote sensing: (1) in determining the clear sky top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo, (2) in quantifying the effect of the BRDF on the adjacency point-spread function and on atmospheric corrections. The TOA spectral albedo is an important parameter retrieved by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR). Its accuracy depends mainly on how well one can model the surface BRDF for many different situations. The authors present results from an algorithm which matches several semi-empirical functions to the nine MISR measured BRFs that are then numerically integrated to yield the clear sky TOA spectral albedo in four spectral channels. They show that absolute accuracies in the albedo of better than 1% are possible for the visible and better than 2% in the near infrared channels. Using a simplified extensive radiosity model, the authors show that the shape of the adjacency point-spread function (PSF) depends on the underlying surface BRDFs. The adjacency point-spread function at a given offset (x,y) from the center pixel is given by the integral of transmission-weighted products of BRDF and scattering phase function along the line of sight.

  5. Functional angiocoupling between follicles and adjacent corpus luteum in heifers.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Siddiqui, M A R; Baldrighi, J M

    2016-07-15

    In single ovulating cattle, ipsilateral versus contralateral interovarian relationships refer to a dominant follicle (DF) and CL in the same versus opposite ovaries. The ipsilateral relationship consists of the DF-CL and the devoid (no DF or CL) intraovarian pattern, and the contralateral relationship consists of the DF pattern and the CL pattern. The DF-CL pattern involves positive effects on both the DF and CL when adjacent (≤3-mm apart) versus separated as follows: greater diameter of DF (e.g., 10.5 ± 0.4 vs. 9.0 ± 0.4 mm), greater percentage of the DF wall with color Doppler signals of blood flow (40.2% ± 2.0% vs. 24.5% ± 1.9%), greater cross-sectional area of the CL (2.2 ± 0.1 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 cm(2)), and greater percentage of the entire CL with blood flow signals (51.8% ± 1.2% vs. 42.5% ± 3.1%). Additional examples of positive coupling are (1) future DF on Day 0 (day of ovulation) is closer to the CL than the future largest subordinate and (2) diameter of growing follicles on Day 0 and the growth rate on Days 0 to 2 are greater for follicles that are adjacent than separated from the CL. An example of a negative intraovarian effect is decreasing diameter and loss of future DF status of a largest follicle when adjacent to a regressing CL. The impact of the continuity of ovarian angioarchitecture during the periovulatory follicular wave was exemplified in 17 of 18 waves by conversion of an ovary with only the preovulatory follicle to the postovulatory DF-CL pattern. Functional angiocoupling from commonality in angioarchitecture of the DF and adjacent CL would account for both the positive two-way coupling between DF and CL during the luteal phase and the negative effect of a regressing CL on an adjacent follicle during luteolysis. PMID:27056414

  6. The ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Strandzha Mountain and adjacent coastal territories (Bulgaria and Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Guéorguiev, Borislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The knowledge of the ground-beetle fauna of Strandzha is currently incomplete, and is largely based on data from the Bulgarian part of the region and on records resulting from casual collecting. This study represents a critical revision of the available literature, museum collections and a three years field study of the carabid beetles of the Bulgarian and Turkish parts of Strandzha Mountain and the adjacent Black Sea Coast territories. New information A total of 328 species and subspecies of Carabidae, belonging to 327 species from the region of Strandzha Mountain and adjacent seacoast area, have been listed. Of these, 77 taxa represent new records for the Bulgarian part of the region, and 110 taxa new records for Turkish part of the studied region. Two taxa, one subgenus (Haptotapinus Reitter, 1886) and one species (Pterostichus crassiusculus), are new to the fauna of Bulgaria. Based on a misidentification, the species Apotomus testaceus is excluded from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. Seven species (Carabus violaceus azurescens, Apotomus rufus, Platynus proximus, Molops alpestris kalofericus, M. dilatatus angulicollis, Pterostichus merklii, and Calathus metallicus) are treated as doubtful for the regional fauna, and one (Apotomus rufus) also for the Bulgarian fauna. Altogether, 43 taxa collected in the Turkish part of the region are new for European Turkey. New taxa for Turkey are the genera Myas and Oxypselaphus, the subgenus Feronidius, and nine species and subspecies (Carabus granulatus granulatus, Dyschirius tristis, Bembidion normannum apfelbecki, B. subcostatum vau, Acupalpus exiguus, Myas chalybaeus, Oxypselaphus obscurus, Pterostichus leonisi, Pt. melas). In addition, there are a further seven species that are here confirmed for Turkey. PMID:27099564

  7. The carbonate system of the amur estuary and the adjacent marine aquatic areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltunov, A. M.; Tishchenko, P. Ya.; Zvalinskii, V. I.; Chichkin, R. V.; Lobanov, V. B.; Nekrasov, D. A.

    2009-10-01

    In July 2007, integrated studies of the Amur Estuary and the adjacent aquatic areas were performed on board R/V Professor Gagarinskii within the project of the Amur River basin exploration. On the basis of the data obtained during the cruise, the carbonate system of the Amur Estuary in the summer period was considered. It was shown that the distribution of the carbonate parameters in the Amur Estuary and the adjacent aquatic areas points to the high intensity of the bio-geochemical processes of production and mineralization of organic matter. It was found that the organic matter destruction is prevailing over the photosynthesis in the riverine part of the estuary. This aquatic area is a source of carbon dioxide for the atmosphere and rates as a heterotrophic basin. On the contrary, the surface waters at the outer boundaries of the estuary (the Gulf of Sakhalin and the Tatar Strait) act as a sink of the atmospheric carbon dioxide, which is caused by the intense photosynthesis in this area. This part of the estuary is treated as an autotrophic basin.

  8. Highly condensed chromatins are formed adjacent to subtelomeric and decondensed silent chromatin in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Chikashige, Yuji; Ding, Da-Qiao; Ohtsuki, Chizuru; Mori, Chie; Asakawa, Haruhiko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    It is generally believed that silent chromatin is condensed and transcriptionally active chromatin is decondensed. However, little is known about the relationship between the condensation levels and gene expression. Here we report the condensation levels of interphase chromatin in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe examined by super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. Unexpectedly, silent chromatin is less condensed than the euchromatin. Furthermore, the telomeric silent regions are flanked by highly condensed chromatin bodies, or ‘knobs'. Knob regions span ∼50 kb of sequence devoid of methylated histones. Knob condensation is independent of HP1 homologue Swi6 and other gene silencing factors. Disruption of methylation at lysine 36 of histone H3 (H3K36) eliminates knob formation and gene repression at the subtelomeric and adjacent knob regions. Thus, epigenetic marks at H3K36 play crucial roles in the formation of a unique chromatin structure and in gene regulation at those regions in S. pombe. PMID:26205977

  9. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico within a circle one nautical... defined at 33 CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico, surrounding the... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.......

  10. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico within a circle one nautical... defined at 33 CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico, surrounding the... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.......

  11. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico within a circle one nautical... defined at 33 CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico, surrounding the... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.......

  12. Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Voegtly, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

  13. Body lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... off the body. Your provider may prescribe a skin cream or a wash that contains permethrin, malathione, or benzyl alcohol. If your case is severe, the provider may prescribe medicine that you take by mouth.

  14. Body Image

    MedlinePlus

    ... spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Over-exercising ... conditions? Visit our Mental health section. Fact sheets Anorexia nervosa Binge eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Cosmetics and ...

  15. Body Signals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurley-Dilger, 'Laine

    1986-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students observe pairs of students engaged in conversation. Observations of "body language" are made, shifts in stance, and duration of stance. Discusses the application of this type of study to other species. (TW)

  16. Body lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... also get lice from infected clothing, towels, or bedding. Body lice are bigger than other types of ... last if you: Bathe regularly Wash clothes and bedding at least once a week Placing clothes in ...

  17. Impact of adjacent land use on coastal wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Jurasinski, Gerald; Peticzka, Robert; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-15

    Coastal wetlands link terrestrial with marine ecosystems and are influenced from both land and sea. Therefore, they are ecotones with strong biogeochemical gradients. We analyzed sediment characteristics including macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Ni) of two coastal wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis at the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain, a lagoon system at the Southern Baltic Sea, to identify the impact of adjacent land use and to distinguish between influences from land or sea. In the wetland directly adjacent to cropland (study site Dabitz) heavy metal concentrations were significantly elevated. Fertilizer application led to heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of the adjacent wetland zones. In contrast, at the other study site (Michaelsdorf), where the hinterland has been used as pasture, heavy metal concentrations were low. While the amount of macronutrients was also influenced by vegetation characteristics (e.g. carbon) or water chemistry (e.g. sulfate), the accumulation of heavy metals is regarded as purely anthropogenic influence. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on the sediment data showed that the wetland fringes of the two study sites are not distinguishable, neither in their macronutrient status nor in their concentrations of heavy metals, whereas the interior zones exhibit large differences in terms of heavy metal concentrations. This suggests that seaside influences are minor compared to influences from land. Altogether, heavy metal concentrations were still below national precautionary and action values. However, if we regard the macronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the wetland fringes as the natural background values, an accumulation of trace elements from agricultural production in the hinterland is apparent. Thus, coastal wetlands bordering croplands may function as effective pollutant buffers today, but the future development has to be monitored closely to avoid

  18. Exophytic Atheroma Mimicking Papillary Fibroelastoma Adjacent to the Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Cho, Tomoki; Tokunaga, Shigehiko; Yasuda, Shota; Izubuchi, Ryo; Masuda, Munetaka

    2015-09-01

    Follow-up echocardiography in a 69-year-old man with alcoholic cardiomyopathy showed a mass above the aortic valve near the left coronary ostium. Transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography suggested a papillary fibroelastoma with a high risk of embolism. At operation we found an exophytic atheroma adjacent to the left coronary artery orifice. The atheroma was removed, and the patient made an uneventful recovery. We describe this very rare case of an exophytic atheroma mimicking a papillary fibroelastoma situated at the left coronary orifice. PMID:26354633

  19. Compression of adjacent anatomical structures by pulmonary artery dilation.

    PubMed

    Dakkak, Wael; Tonelli, Adriano R

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is the commonest condition leading to dilated pulmonary artery. We describe three different types of compression of adjacent anatomical structures by dilated pulmonary arteries. We included involvement of the left main coronary artery, left recurrent laryngeal nerve and tracheobronchial tree. Compression of these structures can cause major complications such as myocardial ischemia, hoarseness and major airway stenosis. We present a case for each scenario and review the literature for each of these complications, focusing on patients' characteristics and contemporary management. PMID:26898826

  20. Synthesis of a Molecule with Four Different Adjacent Pnictogens.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Alexander; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-08-22

    The synthesis of a molecule containing four adjacent different pnictogens was attempted by conversion of a Group 15 allyl analogue anion [Mes*NAsPMes*](-) (Mes*=2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl) with antimony(III) chloride. A suitable precursor is Mes*N(H)AsPMes* (1) for which several syntheses were investigated. The anions afforded by deprotonation of Mes*N(H)AsPMes* were found to be labile and, therefore, salts could not be isolated. However, the in situ generated anions could be quenched with SbCl3 , yielding Mes*N(SbCl2 )AsPMes* (4). PMID:27377437

  1. Stereoselective Organocatalytic Synthesis of Oxindoles with Adjacent Tetrasubstituted Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Engl, Oliver D; Fritz, Sven P; Wennemers, Helma

    2015-07-01

    Oxindoles with adjacent tetrasubstituted stereocenters were obtained in high yields and stereoselectivities by organocatalyzed conjugate addition reactions of monothiomalonates (MTMs) to isatin-derived N-Cbz ketimines. The method requires only a low catalyst loading (2 mol %) and proceeds under mild reaction conditions. Both enantiomers are accessible in good yields and excellent stereoselectivities by using either Takemoto's catalyst or a cinchona alkaloid derivative. The synthetic methodology allowed establishment of a straightforward route to derivatives of the gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist AG-041R. PMID:26033441

  2. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  3. Bog bodies.

    PubMed

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-06-01

    In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma. Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp and shrink, leading to potential pitfalls in paleopathological diagnostics. Bog bodies have in several instances been crucial in determining the last meal, as gut contents may be preserved, and thus augment our knowledge on pre-historic diet by adding to, for example, stable isotope analyses. This article presents an overview of our knowledge about the taphomic processes as well as the methods used in bog body research. PMID:25998635

  4. The Hox-4.8 gene is localized at the 5' extremity of the Hox-4 complex and is expressed in the most posterior parts of the body during development.

    PubMed

    Dollé, P; Izpisúa-Belmonte, J C; Boncinelli, E; Duboule, D

    1991-12-01

    We report the isolation and expression pattern of a novel mouse homeobox gene, Hox-4.8. Hox-4.8 is the most 5'-located homeobox gene in the HOX-4 complex. Sequence analysis confirmed that Hox-4.8 is a member of the subfamily of AbdominalB-related Hox-4 genes and revealed strong interspecies conservation. As for the human locus, Hox-4.8 is probably the last Hox gene in this part of the HOX-4 complex. During development, Hox-4.8 transcripts are restricted to the extremities of the embryonic anteroposterior axis and limbs as well as in the developing tail bud and to the most posterior segment of the gut (the rectum). Within the limb mesenchyme, Hox-4.8 is expressed in more posterodistal regions than those of its neighbour Hox-4.7. Hence, Hox-4.8 expression appears to be related to the last significant phenotypic changes towards the extremities of the embryonic body and limb axes. PMID:1685889

  5. Body Parties: Les parties du corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Marilyn

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity for middle school learners of French called "body parties, or giant body part people. It is an arts and crafts project that students do mostly at home. The activity will help students understand and manipulate body part vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

  6. Image registration using a weighted region adjacency graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hasan, Muhannad; Fisher, Mark

    2005-04-01

    Image registration is an important problem for image processing and computer vision with many proposed applications in medical image analysis.1, 2 Image registration techniques attempt to map corresponding features between two images. The problem is particularly difficult as anatomy is subject to elastic deformations. This paper considers this problem in the context of graph matching. Firstly, weighted Region Adjacency Graphs (RAGs) are constructed from each image using an approach based on watershed saliency. 3 The vertices of the RAG represent salient regions in the image and the (weighted) edges represent the relationship (bonding) between each region. Correspondences between images are then determined using a weighted graph matching method. Graph matching is considered to be one of the most complex problems in computer vision, due to its combinatorial nature. Our approach uses a multi-spectral technique to graph matching first proposed by Umeyama4 to find an approximate solution to the weighted graph matching problem (WGMP) based on the singular value decomposition of the adjacency matrix. Results show the technique is successful in co-registering 2-D MRI images and the method could be useful in co-registering 3-D volumetric data (e.g. CT, MRI, SPECT, PET etc.).

  7. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  8. Adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection.

    PubMed

    Ying, Binbin

    2012-03-01

    Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lip. It is a common benign lesion in the oral region. Although there are many conservative treatments such as the creation of a pouch (marsupialization), freezing (cryosurgery), micromarsupialization, and CO2 laser vaporization, surgical resection is the most commonly used means. Generally speaking, an elliptic incision was made to fully enucleate the lesion along with the overlying mucosa and the affected glands, then direct suturing is adequate. However, in some cases, direct suturing could cause lower lip deformity, and adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection might be quite necessary. Based on our experience, adjacent mucosal flaps could be used when lesions were close to or even break through the vermilion border or their diameters were much more than 1 cm. A-T advancement flaps and transposition flaps were the mostly applied ones. Follow-up showed that all patients realized primary healing after 1 week postoperatively with satisfactory lower lip appearance, and there was no sign of increasing incidence of relapse. PMID:22421867

  9. Correlation of sea level falls interpreted from atoll stratigraphy with turbidites in adjacent basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, J.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Past sea levels can be derived from any atoll subsurface sediments deposited at or near sea level by determining the ages of deposition and correcting the present depths to the sediments for subsidence of the underlying edifice since the times of deposition. A sea level curve constructed by this method consists of discontinuous segments, each corresponding to a period of rising relative sea level and deposition of a discrete sedimentary package. Discontinuities in the sea level curve derived by this method correspond to relative sea level falls and stratigraphic hiatuses in the atoll subsurface. During intervals of relative sea level fall an atoll emerges to become a high limestone island. Sea level may fluctuate several times during a period of atoll emergence to become a high limestone island. Sea level may fluctuate several times during a period of atoll emergence without depositing sediments on top of the atoll. Furthermore, subaerial erosion may remove a substantial part of the depositional record of previous sea level fluctuations. For these reasons the authors must look to the adjacent basins to complement the incomplete record of sea level change recorded beneath atolls. During lowstands of sea level, faunas originally deposited near sea level on an atoll may be eroded and redeposited as turbidites in deep adjacent basins. Three such turbidites penetrated during deep-sea drilling at Sites 462 and 315 in the central Pacific correlate well with a late Tertiary sea level curve based on biostratigraphic ages and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr chronostratigraphy for core from Enewetak Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands. Further drilling of the archipelagic aprons adjacent to atolls will improve the sea level history that may be inferred from atoll stratigraphy.

  10. Self-Attributed Body-Shadows Modulate Tactile Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavani, Francesco; Galfano, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Our body-shadows are special stimuli in the visual world. They often have anatomical resemblance with our own body-parts and move as our body moves, with spatio-temporal correlation. Here, we show that self-attributed body-shadows cue attention to the body-part they refer to, rather than the location they occupy. Using speeded spatial…

  11. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images. In this photograph, a patient undergoes an open MRI.

  12. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  13. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computer-aided Tomography (CT) images are often complementary. In most cases, MRI is good for viewing soft tissue but not bone, while CT images are good for bone but not always good for soft tissue discrimination. Physicians and engineers in the Department of Radiology at the University of Michigan Hospitals are developing a technique for combining the best features of MRI and CT scans to increase the accuracy of discriminating one type of body tissue from another. One of their research tools is a computer program called HICAP. The program can be used to distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue in body images.

  14. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands.

    PubMed

    Matalin, Andrey V; Chikatunov, Vladimir I

    2016-01-01

    Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided. PMID:27110198

  15. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands

    PubMed Central

    Matalin, Andrey V.; Chikatunov, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided. PMID:27110198

  16. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  17. An engineered dimeric protein pore that spans adjacent lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Shiksha; Sapra, K. Tanuj; Cheley, Stephen; Sharp, Thomas H.; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-01-01

    The bottom-up construction of artificial tissues is an underexplored area of synthetic biology. An important challenge is communication between constituent compartments of the engineered tissue and between the engineered tissue and additional compartments, including extracellular fluids, further engineered tissue and living cells. Here we present a dimeric transmembrane pore that can span two adjacent lipid bilayers and thereby allow aqueous compartments to communicate. Two heptameric staphylococcal α-hemolysin (αHL) pores were covalently linked in an aligned cap-to-cap orientation. The structure of the dimer, (α7)2, was confirmed by biochemical analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-channel electrical recording. We show that one of two β barrels of (α7)2 can insert into the lipid bilayer of a small unilamellar vesicle, while the other spans a planar lipid bilayer. (α7)2 pores spanning two bilayers were also observed by TEM. PMID:23591892

  18. 38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A MOVABLE TIRE BENDER FOR SHAPING ELI WINDMILL WHEEL RIMS. AT THE CENTER IS A FLOOR-MOUNTED CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER OF THE TYPE USED FOR SMOOTHING ROUGH CASTINGS. ON THE WHEELED WORK STATION IS A SUNNEN BUSHING GRINDER, BEHIND WHICH IS A TRIPOD CHAIN VICE. IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND IS A WOODEN CHEST OF DRAWERS WHICH CONTAINS A 'RAG DRAWER' STILL FILLED WITH CLOTH RAGS PLACED IN THE FACTORY BUILDING AT THE INSISTENCE OF LOUISE (MRS. ARTHUR) KREGEL FOR THE CONVENIENCE AND CLEANLINESS OF WORKERS. IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND IS A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  19. Preventing Proximal Adjacent Level Kyphosis With Strap Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, Khaled M; Matoian, Brett J; Denardin, Nicholas B; Patel, Vikas V

    2016-07-01

    A substantial proportion of patients develop proximal junctional kyphosis following spinal surgery. To combat this postoperative change, several techniques have focused on maintaining the structural integrity of adjacent spinal levels and adapting the proximal end of the fusion construct to accommodate the increased mechanical stressors produced by long spinal fusion. The use of Mersilene tape (Ethicon, Somerville, New Jersey) for spine and orthopedic surgery is well documented, although considerably less is known about its use for preventing proximal junctional kyphosis. This article describes a proposed technique using Mersilene tape to provide a check-rein strap stabilization at the proximal end of fusion constructs. Initial data suggest that use of this technique may prevent formation of proximal junctional kyphosis. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e794-e799.]. PMID:27158827

  20. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  1. Geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Dilamarter, R.C.

    1982-07-01

    The geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas in Indiana, Illinois and Tennessee is presented as a background for interpreters evaluating the present land surface using remotely sensed imagery. Eight physiographic units were analyzed and are briefly discussed with reference to topography and surface deposits. Great diversity was found to be characteristic of the region, the result of different structural influences and geomorphic processes. The landscape bears the marks of fluvial, glacial, eolian, lacustrine and karstic environments, so a regional geomorphic history was compiled from the literature as an aid to understanding the land surface. Three smaller zones in Kentucky were analyzed in greater detail regarding topography and geomorphic development because of their potential importance in subsurface exploration.

  2. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  3. Scolopendromorpha of New Guinea and adjacent islands (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A; Stoev, Pavel E

    2016-01-01

    The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20th century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings. The old and doubtful record of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844 from New Guinea is referred to S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and the species is here excluded from the present day list of New Guinean scolopendromorphs. Cryptops nepalensis Lewis, 1999 is here recorded from New Guinea for the first time. An annotated list and an identification key to the scolopendromorphs of the studied region are presented. PMID:27515618

  4. Body Levers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappetta, Eugene L.

    1987-01-01

    Explains how the muscle and bone arrangement of the human body can be used in teaching the principles of simple machines. Presents an activity that investigates the lever system of the forearm. Includes background information on levers and suggests questions for classroom discussion. (ML)

  5. Increased apoptosis in gastric mucosa adjacent to intestinal metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    van Grieken, N C T; Meijer, G A; zur Hausen, A; Meuwissen, S G M; Baak, J P A; Kuipers, E J

    2003-01-01

    Background: The biological processes involved in the development of gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia are still incompletely understood. Reports testing the hypothesis that apoptosis leads to atrophy have yielded conflicting results. The availability of new antibodies for the detection of apoptotic cells in tissue sections has facilitated the analysis of the role of apoptosis in the gastritis–atrophy–intestinal metaplasia sequence. Methods: Archival material from 40 gastric resection specimens with normal mucosa (n = 5), chronic active gastritis (n = 17), or intestinal metaplasia (n = 18) was studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies directed against cleaved cytokeratin 18 and active caspase 3. Slides were scored on a 0–3 scale for the presence of apoptotic cells. Results: Normal gastric mucosa contained low numbers of apoptotic cells at the surface epithelium (mean score, 0.20). This number was significantly increased in cases with chronic gastritis (mean score, 1.06) and in those with intestinal metaplasia (mean score, 2.56). Within the intestinal metaplasia cases, 44 different foci of intestinal metaplasia were identified. In 39 of these 44 areas, concentrations of apoptotic cells were seen immediately adjacent to the foci of intestinal metaplasia, but not in the metaplastic epithelium itself. Conclusions: Apoptosis is uncommon in normal gastric mucosa. Chronic inflammation and intestinal metaplasia are associated with increased apoptosis, but occur mainly at the mucosal surface and not in the deeper layers. These findings do not support the concept that apoptosis underlies the loss of gastric glands and leads to atrophy, but the observed concentration of apoptotic epithelial cells adjacent to foci of intestinal metaplasia could be related to heterogeneity of epithelial damage, causing apoptosis, to which intestinal metaplasia is a response. PMID:12719456

  6. Effect of Fluoridated Sealants on Adjacent Tooth Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cagetti, M.G.; Carta, G.; Cocco, F.; Sale, S.; Congiu, G.; Mura, A.; Strohmenger, L.; Lingström, P.; Campus, G.

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed in 6- to 7-yr-old schoolchildren to evaluate, in a 30-mo period, whether the caries increment on the distal surface of the second primary molars adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with fluoride release compounds would be lower with respect to those adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with a nonfluoridated sealant. In sum, 2,776 subjects were enrolled and randomly divided into 3 groups receiving sealants on sound first molars: high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (GIC group); resin-based sealant with fluoride (fluoride-RB group); and a resin-based sealant without fluoride (RB group). Caries (D1 – D3 level) was recorded on the distal surface of the second primary molar, considered the unit of analysis including only sound surfaces at the baseline. At baseline, no differences in caries prevalence were recorded in the 3 groups regarding the considered surfaces. At follow-up, the prevalence of an affected unit of analysis was statistically lower (p = .03) in the GIC and fluoride-RB groups (p = .04). In the GIC group, fewer new caries were observed in the unit of analysis respect to the other 2 groups. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.68; p < .01) for GIC vs. RB and 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.04; p = .005) for fluoride-RB vs. RB. Caries incidence was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status (IRR = 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.42; p = .05). Dental sealant high-viscosity GIC and fluoride-RB demonstrated protection against dental caries, and there was evidence that these materials afforded additional protection for the tooth nearest to the sealed tooth (clinical trial registration NCT01588210). PMID:24846910

  7. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 35744, June 20, 2011. (a... adjacent waters, Mass. (a) * * * (2) Anchorage B. All waters bounded by a line beginning at 41°36′42.3″...

  8. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  9. Metal speciation in agricultural soils adjacent to the Irankuh Pb-Zn mining area, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza; Roshani Rodsari, Parisa; Cohen, David R.; Emami, Adel; Dehghanzadeh Bafghi, Ali Akbar; Khodaian Ghegeni, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    Mining activities are a significant potential source of metal contamination of soils in surrounding areas, with particular concern for metals dispersed into agricultural area in forms that are bioavailable and which may affect human health. Soils in agricultural land adjacent to Pb-Zn mining operations in the southern part of the Irankuh Mountains contain elevated concentrations for a range of metals associated with the mineralization (including Pb, Zn and As). Total and partial geochemical extraction data from a suite of 137 soil samples is used to establish mineralogical controls on ore-related trace elements and help differentiate spatial patterns that can be related to the effects of mining on the agricultural land soils from general geological and environmental controls. Whereas the patterns for Pb, Zn and As are spatially related to the mining operations they display little correlation with the distribution of secondary Fe + Mn oxyhydroxides or carbonates, suggesting dispersion as dust and in forms with limited bioavailability.

  10. Comparative quantitative study of 'signature' pathological lesions in the hippocampus and adjacent gyri of 12 neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Richard A; Cairns, Nigel J

    2015-10-01

    The hippocampus (HC) and adjacent gyri are implicated in dementia in several neurodegenerative disorders. To compare HC pathology among disorders, densities of 'signature' pathological lesions were measured at a standard location in eight brain regions of 12 disorders. Principal components analysis of the data suggested that the disorders could be divided into three groups: (1) Alzheimer's disease (AD), Down's syndrome (DS), sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in which either β-amyloid (Aβ) or prion protein deposits were distributed in all sectors of the HC and adjacent gyri, with high densities being recorded in the parahippocampal gyrus and subiculum; (2) Pick's disease, sporadic frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions, and neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease in which relatively high densities of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions were present in the dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells; and (3) Parkinson's disease dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and multiple system atrophy in which densities of signature lesions were relatively low. Variation in density of signature lesions in DG granule cells and CA1 were the most important sources of neuropathological variation among disorders. Hence, HC and adjacent gyri are differentially affected in dementia reflecting either variation in vulnerability of hippocampal neurons to specific molecular pathologies or in the spread of pathological proteins to the HC. Information regarding the distribution of pathology could ultimately help to explain variations in different cognitive domains, such as memory, observed in various disorders. PMID:25929331

  11. SEISMIC RESPONSE PREDICTION OF NUPEC'S FIELD MODEL TESTS OF NPP STRUCTURES WITH ADJACENT BUILDING EFFECT.

    SciTech Connect

    XU,J.COSTANTINO,C.HOFMAYER,C.ALI,S.

    2004-03-04

    As part of a verification test program for seismic analysis computer codes for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) structures, the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has conducted a series of field model tests to address the dynamic cross interaction (DCI) effect on the seismic response of NPP structures built in close proximity to each other. The program provided field data to study the methodologies commonly associated with seismic analyses considering the DCI effect. As part of a collaborative program between the United States and Japan on seismic issues related to NPP applications, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to perform independent seismic analyses which applied common analysis procedures to predict the building response to recorded earthquake events for the test models with DCI effect. In this study, two large-scale DCI test model configurations were analyzed: (1) twin reactor buildings in close proximity and (2) adjacent reactor and turbine buildings. This paper describes the NUPEC DCI test models, the BNL analysis using the SASSI 2000 program, and comparisons between the BNL analysis results and recorded field responses. To account for large variability in the soil properties, the conventional approach of computing seismic responses with the mean, mean plus and minus one-standard deviation soil profiles is adopted in the BNL analysis and the three sets of analysis results were used in the comparisons with the test data. A discussion is also provided in the paper to address (1) the capability of the analysis methods to capture the DCI effect, and (2) the conservatism of the practice for considering soil variability in seismic response analysis for adjacent NPP structures.

  12. Human breast cancer biopsies induce eosinophil recruitment and enhance adjacent cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Szalayova, Gabriela; Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Spencer, Brianna; Wade, Jacqueline; Bunn, Janice; Ambaye, Abiy; James, Ted; Rincon, Mercedes

    2016-06-01

    Chronic inflammation is known to facilitate cancer progression and metastasis. Less is known about the effect of acute inflammation within the tumor microenvironment, resulting from standard invasive procedures. Recent studies in mouse models have shown that the acute inflammatory response triggered by a biopsy in mammary cancer increases the frequency of distal metastases. Although tumor biopsies are part of the standard clinical practice in breast cancer diagnosis, no studies have reported their effect on inflammatory response. The objective of this study is to (1) determine whether core needle biopsies in breast cancer patients trigger an inflammatory response, (2) characterize the type of inflammatory response present, and (3) evaluate the potential effect of any acute inflammatory response on residual tumor cells. The biopsy wound site was identified in the primary tumor resection tissue samples from breast cancer patients. The inflammatory response in areas adjacent (i.e., immediately around previous biopsy site) and distant to the wound biopsy was investigated by histology and immunohistochemistry analysis. Proliferation of tumor cells was also assayed. We demonstrate that diagnostic core needle biopsies trigger a selective recruitment of inflammatory cells at the site of the biopsy, and they persist for extended periods of time. While macrophages were part of the inflammatory response, an unexpected accumulation of eosinophils at the edge of the biopsy wound was also identified. Importantly, we show that biopsy causes an increase in the proliferation rate of tumor cells located in the area adjacent to the biopsy wound. Diagnostic core needle biopsies in breast cancer patients do induce a unique acute inflammatory response within the tumor microenvironment and have an effect on the surrounding tumor cells. Therefore, biopsy-induced inflammation could have an impact on residual tumor cell progression and/or metastasis in human breast cancer. These findings

  13. [Body contouring].

    PubMed

    Krüger, N; Lübberding, S; Sattler, G

    2015-10-01

    In our contemporary postmodern society, a modified perception of the human body is accompanied by an increasing demand for body shaping procedures. The treatment needs to be effective but it is just as important that they are safe and can be easily integrated into the daily working and routine schedule. While the options for minimally invasive volume addition are largely limited to injectable implants based on hyaluronic acid or autologous fat, a multitude of options are available for volume reduction. Before deciding on the method of choice, the following needs to be considered: which indications need to be treated, the extent of the reduction in volume and how much pain and possible undesired reactions the patient is prepared to accept. PMID:26349684

  14. The Current Tectonics of the Yukon and Adjacent Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyndman, R. D.; Leonard, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    The current tectonics across the Yukon and adjacent areas of western Northwest Territories (NWT) and northern British Columbia appear to be driven primarily by the Yakutat Terrane collision, an "indenter" in the corner of the Gulf of Alaska. GPS data show 1-10 mm/yr northward and eastward, decreasing inland. The rates from earthquake statistics are similar although there are important discrepancies. The eastern Cordillera earthquake mechanisms are mainly thrust in the Mackenzie Mountains of southwestern NWT where the Cordillera upper crust is overthrusting the craton. To the north, the mechanisms are mainly strike-slip in the Richardson Mountains that appear to lie along the edge of the craton. The deformation appears to be limited to the hot and weak Cordillera with the strong craton providing an irregular eastern boundary. For example, there is an eastward bow in the craton edge and the deformation in the Mackenzie Mountains. On the Beaufort Sea margin in the region of the Mackenzie Delta there appears to be a type of "subduction zone" with the continent very slowly overthrusting the oceanic plate, a process that has continued since at least the Cretaceous. A northward moving continental margin block is bounded by left lateral faulting in the west (Canning Displacement Zone of eastern Alaska) and right lateral faulting in the east (Richardson Mountains in eastern Yukon). There is almost no seismicity on this thrust belt but as for some other subduction zones such as Cascadia there is the potential for very infrequent great earthquakes.

  15. [Comparative proteomic analysis of cancerous and adjacent normal lung tissues].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Beom; Pi, Kyung Bae

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in industrialized countries. Unfortunately, most lung cancers are found too late for a cure, therefore early detection and treatment is very important. We have applied proteomic analysis by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques for examination of cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous lung tissues from the same patient. The aim of the study was to find proteins, which could be used as biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of this disease. Indeed, we found differences in expression of several proteins, related to various cellular activities, such as, chaperoning (e.g., GRP96, GRP78, HSP27), metabolism and oxidation stress (e.g., L-fucose, GST), cytoskeleton (e.g., tubulin beta 2/3, beta actin), cell adhesion (e.g., annexin A5/3), binding proteins (e.g., 14-3-3 theta) and signal transduction. These changes may be important for progression of carcinogenesis; they may be used as the molecular-support for future diagnostic markers. PMID:21395069

  16. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  17. Snow Distribution Patterns in Clearings and Adjacent Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Douglas L.; Swanson, Robert H.

    1986-12-01

    Snow accumulation patterns were determined for clearings and adjacent forest at Marmot Creek experimental watershed and James River, Alberta. At maximum accumulation snow water equivalent (SWE) was greater in clearings than in forest whether clearings were large, as in 8- to 13-ha blocks where SWE averaged 20% more than in the forest, or small as in the ¼ to 6-H (height) diameter circular clearings where SWE was 13-45% greater than in the forest. SWE was 42 to 52% less in north than in south sectors of 2-6 H clearings. These differences increased with clearing size and time since beginning of accumulation period and are caused by snow ablation (melt and evaporation), a function of direct solar radiation reaching the snowpack. In such situations the snow that has accumulated on the ground cannot be considered a measure of the snow that has actually fallen there. For water balances and hydrologic modeling, snow measurements in partially cleared watersheds must be adjusted for temporal and spatial factors specific to the watershed.

  18. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  19. The Thermomagnetic Instability in Superconducting Films with Adjacent Metal Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestgården, J. I.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dendritic flux avalanches is a frequently encountered consequence of the thermomagnetic instability in type-II superconducting films. The avalanches, which are potentially harmful for superconductor-based devices, can be suppressed by an adjacent normal metal layer, even when the two layers are not in thermal contact. The suppression of the avalanches in this case is due to so-called magnetic braking, caused by eddy currents generated in the metal layer by propagating magnetic flux. We develop a theory of magnetic braking by analyzing coupled electrodynamics and heat flow in a superconductor-normal metal bilayer. The equations are solved by linearization and by numerical simulation of the avalanche dynamics. We find that in an uncoated superconductor, even a uniform thermomagnetic instability can develop into a dendritic flux avalanche. The mechanism is that a small non-uniformity caused by the electromagnetic non-locality induces a flux-flow hot spot at a random position. The hot spot quickly develops into a finger, which at high speeds penetrates into the superconductor, forming a branching structure. Magnetic braking slows the avalanches, and if the normal metal conductivity is sufficiently high, it can suppress the formation of the dendritic structure. During avalanches, the braking by the normal metal layer prevents the temperature from exceeding the transition temperature of the superconductor. Analytical criteria for the instability threshold are developed using the linear stability analysis. The criteria are found to match quantitatively the instability onsets obtained in simulations.

  20. Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.; Squillace, P.

    1994-01-01

    Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer and quantification of herbicide bank storage during high streamflow were investigated at a research site on the Cedar River flood plain, 10 km southeast of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. During high streamflow in March 1990, alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background in water from wells as distant as 20, 50, and 10 m from the river's edge, respectively. During high streamflow in May 1990, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background as distant as 20, 50, 10, and 20 m from the river's edge, respectively. Herbicide bank storage took place during high streamflow when hydraulic gradients were from the river to the alluvial aquifer and the laterally infiltrating river water contained herbicide concentrations larger than background concentrations in the aquifer. The herbicide bank storage can be quantified by multiplying herbicide concentration by the "effective area" that a well represented and an assumed porosity of 0.25. During March 1990, herbicide bank storage values were calculated to be 1.7,79, and 4.0 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor, respectively. During May 1990, values were 7.1, 54, 11, and 19 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor, respectively. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  1. Apical infection spreading to adjacent teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Jiang, Jin; Zhu, Qiang

    2011-06-01

    This case report describes apical infection on tooth number 24 that spread to adjacent teeth, resulting in devitalized teeth numbers 23 and 25. The 25-year-old Caucasian female patient was referred to the endodontic resident clinic because of uncontrolled apical infection. Root-end surgery and root-end filling of teeth numbers 23, 24, and 25 were performed. The histopathological diagnosis was a periapical cyst; however, the clinical surgical finding of a purulence-filled bone cavity also revealed a periapical abscess. After root-end surgery and regenerative therapy using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Bio-Oss xenograft material, and Bio-Gide resorbable collagen membrane, the patient had no symptoms. Radiographs showed the apical lesion had healed satisfactorily at the 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year follow-ups. The clinical implication of this rare case suggests the importance of standard endodontic diagnostic procedures for pulpal and apical diagnosis, prevention of apical periodontitis exacerbation by reducing bacterial factors, and the effectiveness of healing large bone defects using regenerative materials. PMID:21458327

  2. Concentric network symmetry grasps authors' styles in word adjacency networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Silva, Filipi N.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2015-06-01

    Several characteristics of written texts have been inferred from statistical analysis derived from networked models. Even though many network measurements have been adapted to study textual properties at several levels of complexity, some textual aspects have been disregarded. In this paper, we study the symmetry of word adjacency networks, a well-known representation of text as a graph. A statistical analysis of the symmetry distribution performed in several novels showed that most of the words do not display symmetric patterns of connectivity. More specifically, the merged symmetry displayed a distribution similar to the ubiquitous power-law distribution. Our experiments also revealed that the studied metrics do not correlate with other traditional network measurements, such as the degree or the betweenness centrality. The discriminability power of the symmetry measurements was verified in the authorship attribution task. Interestingly, we found that specific authors prefer particular types of symmetric motifs. As a consequence, the authorship of books could be accurately identified in 82.5% of the cases, in a dataset comprising books written by 8 authors. Because the proposed measurements for text analysis are complementary to the traditional approach, they can be used to improve the characterization of text networks, which might be useful for applications based on stylistic classification.

  3. Parasites of two native fishes in adjacent Adirondack lakes.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eric F; Whipps, Christopher M

    2013-08-01

    This survey of parasites in 2 adjacent lakes is the first of its kind in the Adirondack Park of New York State. Wolf Lake is designated as a heritage lake whereas nearby Deer Lake is limnologically similar but has at least 5 introduced fish species. Both lakes have 2 native species, i.e., white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus), which were the focus of this study. Parasite communities of both hosts were surveyed and compared between each lake and were statistically evaluated for differences in species similarity, prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance. Between lakes, white suckers had significant differences in the prevalence of 4 parasite species (Myxobolus sp. 2, Myxobolus bibulatus, Octospinifer macilentis, and Pomphorhynchus bulbocoli) and mean abundances of 4 parasites (neascus larvae, Octospinifer macilentis, Pomphorhynchus bulbocoli, and Glaridacris confusus). Redbreast sunfish had significant differences in the prevalence of 3 species (Myxobolus uvuliferis, a coccidian species, and Spinitectus carolini) and differences in parasite mean abundance of 5 species (neascus larvae, Clinostomum marginatum , Leptorhynchoides thecatus, Spinitectus carolini, and Eustrongylides sp.). Differences in component communities between lakes were found and, although the exact causes cannot be determined by this study, we speculate on several possible explanations. PMID:23384764

  4. The lithosphere of Ellesmere Island and adjacent northwestern Greenland (CALE 'A' transect onshore)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, R.; Schiffer, C.; Oakey, G. N.

    2013-12-01

    Ellesmere Island, in Canada's Arctic, comprises a series of ~SW-NE trending tectonic provinces, the crustal structure and geological expression of which represent a combination of interplate, accretionary orogenesis in the Palaeozoic (Caledonian equivalent and Ellesmerian orogenies) and intraplate orogenesis in the Cenozoic (Eurekan Orogeny). The present-day topography of Ellesmere Island is closely related to the crustal architecture of these tectonic provinces, which includes the adjacent polar continental margin. A two-dimensional lithosphere-scale model is presented that crosses Ellesmere Island from northern Baffin Bay to the Arctic Ocean, part of Transect 'A' of the Circum-Arctic Lithosphere Evolution (CALE) project. The model is based on gravity and magnetic data constrained by mapped geological structure as well as a not yet unpublished Receiver Function study, based on teleseismic data acquired between 2010 and 2012 by a passive seismological array on Ellesmere Island called 'ELLITE'. In northern Baffin Bay and on parts of the polar margin of Ellesmere Island (and adjacent northwestern Greenland), published crustal scale seismic refraction velocity models also provide some constraint to the lithosphere model. The most recent tectonic event governing the geological and physiographic character of Ellesmere Island is the Eurekan Orogeny, an intraplate orogeny that developed as a consequence of North Atlantic-Arctic plate reorganisations and the resulting convergence of Greenland against Ellesmere Island in the Palaeogene. The basement of the Eurekan orogen comprises Precambrian-aged lithosphere in its northernmost (Pearya terrane) and southeasternmost (Greenland-Canada craton) parts as well as possibly younger lithosphere accreted during Palaeozoic orogenesis in central Ellesmere Island. Its southern margin, marking the southern terminus of the constructed lithosphere model, comprises the late Precambrian-Early Palaeozoic passive continental margin of

  5. Depositional history and seismic stratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Molenaar, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Lower Cretaceous rocks, which are widespread throughout the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) and adjacent areas north of the Brooks Range, make up the major part of the thick sedimentary fill of the Colville basin. Much seismic and well information obtained since 1974 has aided considerably in understanding these rocks. These data include about 20,000 km of seismic lines, covering much of the NPRA with a grid spacing of 10-20 km, and 28 exploratory wells that bring the total to more than 50 wells in and adjacent to the NPRA. The purpose of this chapter is to interpret the depositional history of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the NPRA and adjacent areas on the basis of the latest seismic and well data and well data and on information from outcrops in the southern part of the Colville basin. The basin geometry and depositional history described in earlier reports are repeated here in the context of the overall Lower Cretaceous depositional history. Well data (including paleontology) and seismic data are used almost exclusively to interpret relations in the northern foothills and coastal plain areas. Surface data and some well data are used in the southern parts of the northern foothills, and surface data are used exclusively to interpret the depositional history in the southern foothills and Brooks Range. The quality of seismic data is fair to good in most of the coastal plain, where the structure is simple. In the northern foothills, tracing seismic reflections is more difficult, especially in the shallower part of the section because of structural complications in the thrust-faulted anticlines. The quality of seismic data across the structurally complex southern foothills area is inadequate to correlate stratigraphic units of the outcrop area of the southern foothills with subsurface units to the north.

  6. Sporomorphs from the Jackson Group (upper Eocene) and adjacent strata of Mississippi and western Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederiksen, Norman O.

    1980-01-01

    This palynological study is based on 71 outcrop and core samples of the Jackson Group and adjacent strata from the type area of the group in western Mississippi and also from eastern Mississippi and western Alabama. The Jackson Group consists entirely of marine strata in the region of study. It includes the fossiliferous greensands of the Moodys Branch Formation at the base and the calcareous Yazoo Clay at the top. One hundred seventy-four sporomorph (spore and pollen) types are known from the Jackson Group and adjacent strata in the area of study; all but four of them were observed by the writer. The 174 types are assigned to 74 form genera, 37 modern genera, and 25 new species. Eleven species of pollen grains appear to have accurately determined restricted stratigraphic ranges within the sequence studied. Parsonsidites conspicuus Frederiksen and Ericipites aff. E. ericius (Potonie) Potonie have first occurrences (range bottoms) at the base of the Jackson Group. Aglaoreidia pristina Fowler has its first occurrence near the top of the Jackson. Eight species have last occurrences at or just below the top of the Jackson Group. These are Casuarinidites cf. C. granilabratus (Stanley) Srivastava, Chrysophyllum brevisulcatum (Frederiksen) n. comb., Cupanieidites orthoteichus Cookson and Pike, Symplocos gemroota n. sp., Nudopollis terminalis (Pflug and Thomson) Elsik, Sabal cf. S. granopollenites Rouse, Caprifoliipites tantulus n. sp., and Nypa echinata (Muller) n. comb. From the upper part of the Claiborne Group up through most of the Jackson, the dominant sporomorph types are Cupuliferdipollenites spp., Momipites coryloides Wodehouse, Cupuliferoidaepollenites liblarensis (Thomson) Potonie, Momipites micTofoveolatus (Stanley) Nichols, Quercoidites microhenricii (Potonie) Potonie, and Araliaceoipollenites granulatus (Potonie) n. comb. All these were probably produced by trees of the Juglandaceae and Fagaceae. Relative frequencies of each of these pollen types fluctuate

  7. Terrigenous Sedimentation Patterns at Reefs Adjacent to the Guanica Bay Watershed, Southwest Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, C.; Whitall, D.

    2014-12-01

    Guanica Bay is an estuary on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico with numerous nearshore reefs located in adjacent coastal waters. As part of the multi-agency Guanica Bay Watershed Project, a study was undertaken to establish baseline levels of terrigenous sedimentation reaching reefs adjacent to the Guanica Bay watershed as well as establish spatial and temporal patterns in its delivery. To characterize and quantify sedimentation patterns, sediment traps were established at nine reef sites occurring along an ~ 14 km stretch of coastline centered on the outlet of the bay. Sites were located at shallow reefs within 2 km of the shore at depths of ~ 10 m. Two additional sites were located at the mouth of the Rio Loco where it empties into Guanica Bay and at the mouth of the bay where it opens into adjacent coastal waters. Traps were collected monthly from August 2009 through July 2012 to determine both the amount of sediment accumulation (mg cm-2 day-1) and its composition. Composition is expressed in terms of relative amounts of calcium carbonate (in situ production), organic material and terrigenous material. Average trap accumulation rates among the reef sites ranged from ~ 3 to 28 mg cm-2 day-1. Average percent terrigenous material within reef accumulation ranged from ~ 20% to 30%. While trap accumulation rates are highly variable on both spatial and temporal scales, the composition of sediments and relative amount of terrigenous material is fairly uniform. Similar temporal patterns in accumulation rates among the sites without corresponding changes in composition of sediments point to resuspension of bottom sediments by wave action as a primary driver of sedimentary dynamics at these reefs. Sites closest to Guanica Bay display the highest degree of terrigenous influence in terms of trap accumulation rates and percent terrigenous material, which is consistent with Guanica Bay serving as a local source of terrigenous material to coastal waters. However, the lack of

  8. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ∼150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (∼1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  9. Rayleigh wave tomography of China and adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhongxian; Su, Wei; Peng, Yanju; Zheng, Yuejun; Li, Hongyi

    2003-02-01

    This paper presents a tomographic study on the S wave velocity structure of China and adjacent regions. Group velocity dispersions of fundamental Rayleigh waves along more than 4000 paths were determined with frequency-time analysis. The study region was divided into a 1° × 1° grid, and velocities in between grid nodes were calculated by bilinear interpolation. The Occam's inversion scheme was adopted to invert for group velocity distributions. This method is robust and allows us to use a fine grid in model parameterization and thus helps to restore a more realistic velocity pattern. Checkerboard tests were carried out, and the lateral resolution was estimated to be 4°-6° in China and its eastern continental shelves. The resulting group velocity maps from 10 to 184 s showed good correlation with known geological and tectonic features. The pure path dispersion curves at each node were inverted for shear wave velocity structures. The three-dimensional velocity model indicates thick lithospheres in the Yangtze and Tarim platforms and hot upper mantles in Baikal and western Mongolia, coastal area and continental shelves of eastern China, and Indochina and South China Sea regions. The Tibetan Plateau has a very thick crust with a low-velocity zone in its middle. Beneath the crust a north dipping high-velocity zone, mimicking a subducting plate, reaches to 200 km in depth and reaches to the Kunlun Mountains northward. In northern Tibet a low-velocity zone immediately below the Moho extends eastward then turns southward along the eastern edge of the plateau until it connects to the vast low-velocity area in Indochina and the South China Sea.

  10. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-03-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ˜150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (˜1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  11. Seismotectonics of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Aggarwal, Y.P.

    1981-06-10

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2< or =m/sub b/< or =5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970--1979) with historical earthquakes (1534--1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada.

  12. Evaluation of heavy metal enrichment in Cochin estuary and its adjacent coast: multivariate statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Bindu, K R; Deepulal, P M; Gireeshkumar, T R; Chandramohanakumar, N

    2015-08-01

    Temporal and spatial variations of heavy metals in the Cochin estuary and its adjacent coastline during three seasons were studied to investigate the impact of anthropogenic heavy metal pollution. Total organic carbon, sand, silt, clay and 10 metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg and Fe) in the surface sediments were analysed. Multivariate statistical analyses like canonical correspondence analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used for source identification, integration of geochemical data and clustering of stations based on similarities. Enrichment factor, contamination factor and geoaccumulation index were used to assess the contamination level. From the study, it can be understood that estuary and coast are highly polluted especially with Cd, Zn, Pb and Ni. Anthropogenic influence of heavy metals was evidenced from both the principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Finer fractions (mud) of the sediment and the associated Fe oxy hydroxides might be playing major role in the transport of heavy metals in the system. Very high enrichment factor value observed suggested high anthropogenic pressure in the study area. All the stations in the northern part of the estuary showed very high enrichment factors indicating heavy load of Zn and Cd in this area which might have reached from the industrial area lying to the north side of the Cochin estuary. Pollution indices suggested that both the estuary and its adjacent coast were showing low contamination with respect to Cr, Mg, Mn and Fe; all other metals were causing low to extremely high levels of pollution in the study area. PMID:26205283

  13. Trends in trace organic and metal concentrations in the Pechora and Kara Seas and adjacent rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.M.; Champ, M.A.; Wade, T.L.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Chambers, L.; Davis, T.

    1995-12-31

    Trace organic (pesticides, PCBs, PAHs and dioxin/furan) and trace metal concentrations have been measured in surficial sediment and tissue (i.e., clam, fish liver and flesh) samples from the Pechora and Kara Seas and their adjacent rivers -- Pechora, Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Total PAH, PCB and total DDT and chlordane concentrations ranged in surficial sediments from n.d. to 810 ppb, n.d.--8.7 ppb, n.d.--1.2 ppb, and n.d.--1.2 ppb, respectively, in a suite of 40 samples from the Kara Sea and its adjacent rivers. The highest concentrations of many of the trace organic and metal contaminants were found in the lower part of the Yenisey River below the salt wedge. Some trace metals (As for example) were elevated in the Pechora River dispositional plume region. Dioxin ranged from 1.36 to 413 ppt in a subset of 20 sediment samples. Higher trace organic contaminant concentrations compared to sediments were found in tissue samples from the region, especially fish liver samples. Concentrations as high as 1,114 ppb total PAHs, 89 ppb chlordane, 1,011 ppb for total DDT and 663 ppb PCBs were found in some fish liver samples. Dioxin concentrations in tissue samples ranged from 11.7 to 61 ppt. Concentrations of many trace organic and metal contaminants in these Russian marginal seas are influenced by inputs from these large Arctic rivers. Many organic contaminant concentrations in sediments are low, however detecting these compounds in tissue show they are bioavailable.

  14. Body Integrity Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Rianne M.; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. Methods Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation) were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. Results Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. Conclusions The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience. PMID:22514657

  15. Identification guide to skates (Family Rajidae) of the Canadian Atlantic and adjacent regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; MacWhirter, P. D.; Luke, K.E.; Norem, A.D.; Miller, J.M.; Cooper, J.A.; Harris, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management requires sound information on the distribution and abundance of species both common and rare. Therefore, the accurate identification for all marine species has assumed a much greater importance. The identification of many skate species is difficult as several are easily confused and has been found to be problematic in both survey data and fisheries data collection. Identification guides, in combination with training and periodic validation of taxonomic information, improve our accuracy in monitoring data required for ecosystem-based management and monitoring of populations. This guide offers a comparative synthesis of skate species known to occur in Atlantic Canada and adjacent regions. The taxonomic nomenclature and descriptions of key morphological features are based on the most up-to-date understanding of diversity among these species. Although this information will aid the user in accurate identification, some features vary geographically (such as colour) and others with life stage (most notably the proportion of tail length to body length; the presence of spines either sharper in juveniles or in some cases not yet present; and also increases in the number of tooth rows as species grow into maturity). Additional information on juvenile features are needed to facilitate problematic identifications (e.g. L. erinacea vs. L. ocellata). Information on size at maturity is still required for many of these species throughout their geographic distribution.

  16. Late Quaternary history of the southwestern St. Lawrence Lowlands and adjacent Adirondack Highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Pair, D.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The reconstruction of Late Wisconsinan ice retreat, proglacial lakes, and Champlain Sea history from the northwest Adirondack slope and adjacent St. Lawrence Lowlands is critical to the synthesis of a regional picture of deglacial events in the eastern Great Lakes region. Unfortunately, these same areas are well known for their limited exposures, landforms covered by thick forest, large tracts of land inaccessible to detailed field mapping, and the overall paucity of glacial materials preserved on upland surfaces. Despite these limitations, a model which utilizes multiple and field-truthed evidence has been used to designate areas where ice border deposits indicate a substantial recessional position. It employs the following criteria in this analysis: sedimentology and morphostratigraphy of morainal landform segments and related sediments; orientation and continuity of ice border drainage channels; and the relationship of ice borders and drainage systems to well documented local and regional water bodies which accompanied ice retreat. The results of this approach have provided a unique regional picture of deglaciation. Despite the inherent limitations of working in upland areas to reconstruct glacial events, detailed morphostratigraphic correlations based on multiple lines of evidence can yield important information. The positions of five former ice borders have been reconstructed from the available data. These ice margins correspond closely with those documented previously by others adjoining areas. This type of study, utilizing multiple and field-truthed lines of evidence, constitutes a tangible step towards understanding the nature and history of ice retreat along this portion of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  17. Minor and trace element concentrations in adjacent kamacite and taenite in the Krymka chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, N.; Mostefaoui, S.; Jambon, A.; Guedda, E. H.; Pont, S.

    2016-04-01

    We report in situ NanoSIMS siderophile minor and trace element abundances in individual Fe-Ni metal grains in the unequilibrated chondrite Krymka (LL3.2). Associated kamacite and taenite of 10 metal grains in four chondrules and one matrix metal were analyzed for elemental concentrations of Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Rh, Ir, and Pt. The results show large elemental variations among the metal grains. However, complementary and correlative variations exist between adjacent kamacite-taenite. This is consistent with the unequilibrated character of the chondrite and corroborates an attainment of chemical equilibrium between the metal phases. The calculated equilibrium temperature is 446 ± 9 °C. This is concordant with the range given by Kimura et al. (2008) for the Krymka postaccretion thermal metamorphism. Based on Ni diffusivity in taenite, a slow cooling rate is estimated of the Krymka parent body that does not exceed ~1K Myr-1, which is consistent with cooling rates inferred by other workers for unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Elemental ionic radii might have played a role in controlling elemental partitioning between kamacite and taenite. The bulk compositions of the Krymka metal grains have nonsolar (mostly subsolar) element/Ni ratios suggesting the Fe-Ni grains could have formed from distinct precursors of nonsolar compositions or had their compositions modified subsequent to chondrule formation events.

  18. Gut microbiome compositional and functional differences between tumor and non-tumor adjacent tissues from cohorts from the US and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Allali, Imane; Delgado, Susana; Marron, Pablo Isidro; Astudillo, Aurora; Yeh, Jen Jen; Ghazal, Hassan; Amzazi, Saaïd; Keku, Temitope; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the US and Spain. The molecular mechanisms involved in the etiology of CRC are not yet elucidated due in part to the complexity of the human gut microbiota. In this study, we compared the microbiome composition of 90 tumor and matching adjacent tissue (adjacent) from cohorts from the US and Spain by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing in order to determine the impact of the geographic origin on the CRC microbiome. Data showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher Phylogenetic Diversity (PD) for the US (PD Adjacent = 26.3 ± 5.3, PD Tumor = 23.3 ± 6.2) compared to the Spanish cohort (PD Adjacent = 18.9 ± 5.9, PD Tumor = 18.7 ± 6.6) while no significant differences in bacterial diversity were observed between tumor and adjacent tissues for individuals from the same country. Adjacent tissues from the Spanish cohort were enriched in Firmicutes (SP = 43.9% and US = 22.2%, P = 0.0001) and Actinobacteria (SP = 1.6% and US = 0.5%, P = 0.0018) compared to US adjacent tissues, while adjacent tissues from the US had significantly higher abundances of Fusobacteria (US = 8.1% and SP = 1.5%, P = 0.0023) and Sinergistetes (US = 0.3% and SP = 0.1%, P = 0.0097). Comparisons between tumor and adjacent tissues in each cohort identified the genus Eikenella significantly over represented in US tumors (T = 0.024% and A = 0%, P = 0.03), and the genera Fusobacterium (T = 10.4% and A = 1.5%, P = <0.0001), Bulleida (T = 0.36% and A = 0.09%, P = 0.02), Gemella (T = 1.46% and A = 0.19%, P = 0.03), Parvimonas (T = 3.14% and A = 0.86%, P = 0.03), Campylobacter (T = 0.15% and A = 0.008%, P = 0.047), and Streptococcus (T = 2.84% and A = 2.19%, P = 0.05) significantly over represented in Spanish tumors. Predicted metagenome functional content from 16S rRNA surveys showed that bacterial motility proteins and proteins involved in flagellar assembly were over represented in adjacent tissues

  19. Seismotectonics of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jih-Ping; Aggarwal, Yash Pal

    1981-06-01

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2 ≤ mb ≤ 5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970-1979) with historical earthquakes (1534-1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada. Highangle reverse or thrust faulting on N to NE trending planes

  20. 19. ROYAL WALNUT. STORAGE SHED PART OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENT. WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. ROYAL WALNUT. STORAGE SHED PART OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENT. WEST PROPERTY LINE ADJACENT TO TREE AND RUNS ALONG SIDE OF SHED. LOOKING NORTH AND SLIGHTLY EAST FROM ADJOINING PROPERTY. - Gold Ridge Farm, 7777 Bodega Avenue, Sebastopol, Sonoma County, CA

  1. Results of en bloc resection for hepatocellular carcinoma extending to adjacent organs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan-Ming; Sui, Cheng-Jun; Li, Bin; Xu, Feng; Kan, Tong; Yang, Jia-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Background To curatively resect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with adjacent organ extension, the combined resection of these organs is inevitable. We analyzed the safety and effectiveness of en bloc resection for HCC extending to adjacent organs. Methods From December 2002 to May 2006, we compared the surgical outcomes of patients with HCC extending to adjacent organs with those of closely matched, randomly selected patients with HCC without adjacent organ extension. Results We included 42 patients whose HCC extended to adjacent organs and 126 patients whose HCC did not extend to adjacent organs. There was no significant difference in survival, operative morbidity or mortality between the groups. In patients with HCC extending to adjacent organs, histopathological examination of the specimen revealed true tumour invasion in 13 and adhesion in 29 patients. Those with tumour invasion were more likely to have a high incidence of capsule infiltration, microvascular invasion and early intrahepatic recurrence (≤ 1 yr after hepatectomy). The 5-year overall survival of patients with tumour invasion was 11.5%, whereas that of patients with tumour adhesion was 38.1% (p = 0.033). Conclusion En bloc resection is a safe and effective therapy for HCC extending to adjacent organs. Tumour invasion to adjacent organs exhibits a more aggressive clinical behaviour and is associated with worse survival than tumour adhesion. PMID:22617536

  2. Adult Competency Education Kit. Basic Skills in Speaking, Math, and Reading for Employment. Part F. ACE Competency Based Job Descriptions: #20--Body Fender Mechanic; #21--New Car Get-Ready Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. Career Preparation Centers.

    This third of sixteen sets of Adult Competency Education (ACE) Based Job Descriptions in the ACE kit contains job descriptions for Body Fender Mechanic and New Car Get-Ready Person. Each begins with a fact sheet that includes this information: occupational title, D.O.T. code, ACE number, career ladder, D.O.T. general educational developmental…

  3. [The ideal body: media pedagogy].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rubia Guimarães; da Silva, Karen Schein; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2009-03-01

    We present enunciations that circulate in the media regarding the body, discussing the ways in which the speeches related with the maintenance of health and aesthetics invest in its improvement. Therefore, we used the Caderno Vida, a weekly insert of Zero Hora, for we understand it as owner of a proper speech that has the power of subjectivate people The analysis is part of Cultural Studies and it is based on the ideas of Michel Foucault. The methodological strategy used was the speech analysis of subjects about body care. The periodical questions its readers using speeches that point to beauty health and success The constructed categories were: how is the ideal body, what to do to have such body and why we must have this body Balanced feeding, practice of regular physical activities and the accomplishment of plastic surgeries are recommendations recurrently found in weekly inserts. PMID:19653558

  4. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-05-01

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  5. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  6. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  7. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  8. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  9. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  10. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  11. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  12. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    SciTech Connect

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-05-15

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  13. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  14. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  15. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  16. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  17. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  18. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  19. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  20. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  1. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  2. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  3. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  4. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  5. 33 CFR 110.168 - Hampton Roads, Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... explosives, as defined in 49 CFR 173.50. Dangerous cargo means “certain dangerous cargo” as defined in § 160... adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83). 110.168 Section 110.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83). (a) Anchorage Grounds—(1) Anchorage A . The waters bounded...

  6. Stabilities of ant nests and their adjacent soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echezona, B. C.; Igwe, C. A.

    2012-10-01

    Nests habour ants and termites and protect them from harsh environmental conditions. The structural stabilities of nests were studied to ascertain their relative vulnerability to environmental stresses. Arboreal-ant nests were pried from different trees, while epigeous-termite nests were excavated from soil surface within the sample area. Soils without any visible sign of ant or termite activity were also sampled 6 m away from the nests as control. Laboratory analysis result showed that irrespective of the tree hosts, the aggregate stabilities of the ant nests were lower than those of the ground termite, with nests formed on Cola nitida significantly showing lower aggregate stability (19.7%) than other antnest structures. Clay dispersion ratio, moisture content, water stable aggregate class <0.25mm and sand mass were each negatively correlated with aggregate stability, while water stable aggregate class1.00-0.50 mm gave a positive correlation. Nest structures were dominated more by water stable aggregate class >2.00 mm but path analysis demonstrated that water stable aggregate class <0.25 mm contributed most to the higher aggregate stability of the termite nest than the other nest. Nest aggregates had greater structural stability compared to the control soil. The higher structural stability of termite nests over other nest and soil was considered a better adaptive mechanism against body desiccation.

  7. Can Nomenclature for the Body be Explained by Embodiment Theories?

    PubMed

    Majid, Asifa; van Staden, Miriam

    2015-10-01

    According to widespread opinion, the meaning of body part terms is determined by salient discontinuities in the visual image; such that hands, feet, arms, and legs, are natural parts. If so, one would expect these parts to have distinct names which correspond in meaning across languages. To test this proposal, we compared three unrelated languages-Dutch, Japanese, and Indonesian-and found both naming systems and boundaries of even basic body part terms display variation across languages. Bottom-up cues alone cannot explain natural language semantic systems; there simply is not a one-to-one mapping of the body semantic system to the body structural description. Although body parts are flexibly construed across languages, body parts semantics are, nevertheless, constrained by non-linguistic representations in the body structural description, suggesting these are necessary, although not sufficient, in accounting for aspects of the body lexicon. PMID:26466949

  8. Optimization of tuned mass damper for adjacent buildings with equal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekdaş, Gebrail; Nigdeli, Sinan Melih

    2013-10-01

    During earthquakes, adjacent structures may collide to each other because of insufficient seismic gap. By using tuned mass dampers (TMD), the sway of adjacent buildings be reduced and pounding of structures is prevented. In this case, TMDs must be tuned according to the properties of adjacent structures in order to reduce seismic gap (maximum difference of displacements). Also, adjacent structures with equal properties may collide because live-loads on structures is not constant. Change of live-load affects seismic behavior of structures. In this paper, TMDs for adjacent structures with equal properties are optimized by using harmony search algorithm. The approach is effective to reduce the value of seismic gap needed for protection of structures.

  9. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  10. Body as subject1

    PubMed Central

    MEIR, IRIT; PADDEN, CAROL A.; ARONOFF, MARK; SANDLER, WENDY

    2011-01-01

    The notion of subject in human language has a privileged status relative to other arguments. This special status is manifested in the behavior of subjects at the morphological, syntactic, semantic and discourse levels. Here we bring evidence that subjects have privileged status at the lexical level as well, by analyzing lexicalization patterns of verbs in three different sign languages. Our analysis shows that the sublexical structure of iconic signs denoting state of affairs in these languages manifests an inherent pattern of form–meaning correspondence: the signer’s body consistently represents one argument of the verb, the subject. The hands, moving in relation to the body, represent all other components of the event – including all other arguments. This analysis shows that sign languages provide novel evidence in support of the centrality of the notion of subject in human language. It also solves a typological puzzle about the apparent primacy of object in sign language verb agreement, a primacy not usually found in spoken languages, in which subject agreement ranks higher. Our analysis suggests that the subject argument is represented by the body and is part of the lexical structure of the verb. Because it is always inherently represented in the structure of the sign, the subject is more basic than the object, and tolerates the omission of agreement morphology. PMID:23066169

  11. Geology of the area adjacent to the Free Enterprise uranium-silver Mine, Boulder District, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, W.A.; Gude, A.J., III

    1952-01-01

    Uranium minerals.occur in pods associated with cryptocrystalline silica, silver minerals, and scattered sulfide mineral grains in a hydrothermal vein that cuts quartz monzonite and alaskite at the Free Enterprise mine, 2 miles west of Boulder, Mont. The Free Enterprise vein is one of many silicified reef-like structures in this area, most of which trend about N. 60° E. The cryptocrystalline silica zones of the area are lenticular and are bordered by an altered zone where quartz monzonite is the wall rock. No alteration was noticed where alaskite is adjacent to silica zones. No uranium minerals were observed at the surface, but radioactivity anomalies were noted at 57 outcrops. Underground mining has shown that leaching by downward percolating waters has removed most of the uranium from the near-surface part of the Free Enterprise vein and probably has enriched slightly, parts of the vein and the adjacent wall rock from the bottom of the leached zone to the ground-water level. It is possible that other veins that show low to moderate radioactivity at the surface may contain significant concentrations of uranium minerals at relatively shallow depth. The quartz monzonite appears to be a more favorable host rock for the cryptocrystalline silica and associated uranium minerals than the alaskite. The alaskite occurs as vertical_dikes plug-like masses, and as irregularly shaped, gently dipping masses that are believed to have been intruded into open fractures formed during the cooling of the quartz monzonite.

  12. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in thin ferromagnetic films adjacent to high-k oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Meng; Bi, Chong; Rosales, Marcus; Newhouse-Illige, Ty; Almasi, Hamid; Wang, Weigang

    2015-03-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in thin ferromagnetic films has attracted a great deal of attention due to interesting physics and promising application in spintronic devices. The strength of PMA is often found to be strongly influenced by the adjacent heavy metal layer and oxide layer. A strong interest has emerged recently to control the PMA of these ultra-thin films by electric fields. Here we report the fabrication and characterization of perpendicularly magnetized 3d transitional metal films next to high-k oxides such as HfO2 and ZrO2. We have investigated structural, magnetic and transport properties of these films. The PMA strongly depends on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layers and the interfacial oxidation level of the bilayers. We will also discuss electric field controlled magnetic properties in these systems. This work was supported in part by NSF (ECCS-1310338) and by C-SPIN, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  13. Tidal modulation of the hypoxia adjacent to the Yangtze Estuary in summer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Shen, Zhenyao; Li, Yangyang; Yang, Ye

    2015-11-15

    The influence of tide on the distribution of hypoxia adjacent to the Yangtze Estuary was investigated using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic eutrophication model. In the absence of tide, the hypoxic areal extent increased from 5226.75km(2) in the base model run to 19,514.25km(2), and it mainly occurred in the inner shelf region near the mouth of the Yangtze Estuary and in the inner part of Hangzhou Bay. During neap tide, the hypoxic areal extent further increased to cover 20,704.50km(2). Hypoxia first appeared to the southeast of Hangzhou Bay. During the neap to spring tide transition, the hypoxic areal extent decreased to 2430.00km(2) due to reduced stratification (2.65×10(-3)S(-2)) and the direction of the current. The hypoxic areal extent further decreased to 2319.75km(2) during spring tide along with increased current and reduced stratification. Also, hypoxia mainly appeared in the submarine valley. PMID:26330017

  14. Ocean tides in the northern North Atlantic and adjacent seas from ERS 1 altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    1994-11-01

    Twenty months of ERS 1 35-day repeat altimeter data containing 18 repeat cycles have been used to estimate the major diurnal and semidiurnal ocean tide signals in the northern parts of the North Atlantic and adjacent seas. ERS 1 provides valuable information when investigating ocean tides, owing to the repeated dense spatial sampling. However, several tidal constituents are extremely difficult to resolve using conventional harmonic analysis with the chosen sun syncronous orbit. Instead, temporal analysis at each crossover location is applied using a modified form of the orthotide formulation, which simultaneously solves for the diurnal and semidiurnal species as well as for the annual signal. The use of the response formalism ensures that the sun syncronous component S2 can be resolved, although this component is "frozen" in the orbit. Maps of the M2, S2 and K1 tidal amplitudes and phases in 0.5°×0.5° grids are presented and are seen to compare favorably with measurements at 68 pelagic tide gauges provided by the International Association for Physical Sciences of the Ocean. The major tidal constituents of the ERS 1 derived model are also in close agreement with the improved Flather (1981) ocean tide model for the northwest European continental shelf area, as well as a numerical model for the Arctic and Nordic Seas by Gjevik and Straume (1989).

  15. Water and solute transfer between a prairie wetland and adjacent uplands, 1. Water balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masaki; van der Kamp, Garth; Rudolph, Dave L.

    1998-06-01

    The hydrology and water quality of lakes and wetlands are controlled by the exchange of water and solutes with adjacent uplands. We studied a small catchment in Saskatchewan, Canada, to evaluate the mechanisms of water and solute transfer between the wetland and the surrounding upland. Detailed measurements of hydrologic processes (precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, and subsurface flow) and chloride distribution are combined to improve the estimate of the transfer flux. This paper describes hydrologic processes and Part 2 describes the solute transport processes. Large snowmelt runoff occurs in the catchment, which transfer 30-60% of winter precipitation on the upland into the wetland to form a pond in the center. Snowmelt water and summer precipitation infiltrate under the central pond. Infiltration accounts for 75% of water leaving the central pond and evapotranspiration accounts for 25%. Most of the infiltrated water flows laterally in the shallow subsurface to the wet margin of the pond and further to the upland, where it is consumed by evapotranspiration without recharging deep groundwater. The net recharge rate of the aquifer underlying the catchment is only 1-3 mm year -1. Snowmelt runoff transfers water from the upland to the wetland, and shallow subsurface flow transfers water in the opposite direction. When the two processes are combined, they provide the paths for cyclic transport of solutes.

  16. Differential energy costs of winter acclimatized common spiny mice Acomys cahirinus from two adjacent habitats.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, Michael; Shanas, Uri; Kupshtein, Hagai; Speakman, John R; Haim, Abraham

    2004-02-01

    The common spiny mouse Acomys cahirinus, of Ethiopian origin, has a widespread distribution across arid, semi-arid and Mediterranean parts of the Arabian sub-region. We compared the daily energy expenditure (DEE), water turnover (WTO) and sustained metabolic scope (SusMS=DEE/resting metabolic rate) of two adjacent populations during the winter. Mice were captured from North- and South- facing slopes (NFS and SFS) of the same valley, comprising mesic and xeric habitats, respectively. Both DEE and SusMS winter values were greater in NFS than SFS mice and were significantly greater than values previously measured in the summer for these two populations in the same environments. However, WTO values were consistent with previously established values and were not significantly different from allometric predictions for desert eutherians. We suggest that physiological plasticity in energy expenditure, which exists both temporally and spatially, combined with stable WTO, perhaps reflecting a xeric ancestry, has enabled A. cahirinus to invade a wide range of habitats. PMID:15123215

  17. Hydrogeologic data for the Coconino Plateau and adjacent areas, Coconino and Yavapai counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Donald J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2002-01-01

    Data on geology, topography, hydrology, climate, land use, and vegetation were compiled between October 2000 and September 2001 and assembled into a database for use by local and regional waterresource managers and for future water-resource investigations. The hydrologic data include information on wells, springs, streamflow, water chemistry, and water use. Limitations of the data and additional data needs also were prepared. The roughly 5,000-square-mile Coconino Plateau contains a complex regional aquifer that has become increasingly important as a source of water supply for domestic, municipal, and in-stream uses owing to population growth and development. The flow characteristics of the regional aquifer are poorly understood because the aquifer is deeply buried, which limits exploratory drilling and testing, and because the geologic structure, which controls the occurrence and movement of ground water, is complex. The study area is about 10,300 square miles and, besides containing the entire Coconino Plateau, includes parts of adjacent areas where ground water from the Coconino Plateau discharges. Selected data are presented in tabular or graphical form. All data are available in electronic form.

  18. An assessment of transport timescales and return coefficient in adjacent tropical estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andutta, Fernando P.; Helfer, Fernanda; de Miranda, Luiz Bruner; Deleersnijder, Eric; Thomas, Christopher; Lemckert, Charles

    2016-08-01

    Transport timescales (TTS), namely residence time and exposure time, were computed for adjacent shallow meso-tidal tropical estuarines system using the Lagrangian model D-Waq Part coupled with the hydrodynamic model Delft3D-Flow, and the Constituent-oriented Age and Residence time Theory, CART. The main results are threefold: (a) The TTS differs more between releases at high or low tide than between those at spring and neap tides. The exposure time was also calculated and found to be larger than the residence time by a few days. (b) The exposure and residence times were used to evaluate the return coefficient (r) for different scenarios. As with residence and exposure times, the return coefficient was found to differ more between releases at high or low tide than between those at spring and neap tides. (c) For the Caravelas Estuary, where the river inflow was low (~4 m3 s-1), the residence time was found to be much larger than for the Peruípe Estuary, where the river discharge was greater and nearly constant during the sampling period (~20 m3 s-1). These results shows the importance of advection in decreasing TTS in the Peruípe Estuary compared to the Caravelas Estuary. The influence of the advection and dispersion agrees with previous simple estimates obtained using the newly modified Land Ocean Interaction Coastal Zone (LOICZ) model by Andutta et al. (2014).

  19. Relative changes in eelgrass density following the capping of adjacent marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, P.B.; Karna, D.W.

    1994-12-31

    As part of a study to evaluate potential impacts from capping marine sediments in a harbor, eelgrass density was measured during both the early stages of capping and following completion of the cap. Three eelgrass beds were studied, a bed potentially subject to sedimentation from migrating cap materials (HS), a reference bed inside the harbor (HR), and a reference bed in an adjacent cove (CR). Initial mean densities in these beds in October/November were 8, 16, and 30 stalks/0.1 m{sup 2}, respectively, and these declined to 5, 10, and 28 stalks/0.1 M{sup 2} the following March. The declines were greatest within the harbor. Compared with the other two beds, bed HS had an increased incidence of patches devoid of eelgrass following capping. The strength of the association of these changes with capping activity relies on interpretation of ongoing studies to measure the movement of cap materials within the harbor and evaluation of other sources of stress to the harbor eelgrass beds.

  20. Archaeoseismological Study of Prehistoric Earthquakes in Anhui Province, China and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, D.; Shen, X.; Gong, X.; Wu, W.; Hu, Z.; Zheng, H.; Chen, A.; Zhao, P.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Damaging earthquakes on faults typically recur at intervals of centuries to millennia but the seismographs that record them have only been around for about hundred years. Complete records of earthquakes of Ms5 or above for Anhui Province of China and its adjacent areas began in 1336 and most previous records were lost. To reduce the hazard from earthquakes we need a longer record of them than can be provided from such instruments. Archaeoseismological evidence has the potential to determine earthquake activity over millennial time spans, especially when integrated with historical documents and geological evidence. In recent years, taking advantage of large-scale civil excavations, our research team including earthquake and archaeological scientists have cataloged, identified, and analyzed deformation relics of the late-Quaternary period, especially the Neolithic Age. Prehistoric earthquake traces were found in the cultural layers of the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring and Autumn Period in Southwest Anhui, the late Dawenkou cultural period in North Anhui, and the Eastern Zhou in South Henan. Along the segment of the Tanlu Fault Zone on the border of Jiangsu-Anhui Provinces, several rapid deformation events mainly in the form of oblique translational thrust had occurred since Late Pleistocene, which was confirmed by microscopic studies. The research findings have partly filled the gap of earthquake records in the area and enriched research methodologies in archaeology, prehistoric earthquakes and earthquake prediction. The project was sponsored by China Earthquake Science Special Research Funding Program (#201308012)

  1. Bedrock geology of the northern Columbia Plateau and adjacent areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, D. A.; Wright, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    The Columbia Plateau is surrounded by a complex assemblage of highly deformed Precambrian to lower Tertiary continental and oceanic rocks that reflects numerous episodes of continental accretion. The plateau itself is comprised of the Columbia River basalt group formed between about 16.5 x 1 million years B.P. and 6 x 1 million years B.P. Eruptions were infrequent between about 14 and 6 x 1 million years B.P., allowing time for erosion and deformation between successive outpourings. The present-day courses of much of the Snake River, and parts of the Columbia River, across the plateau date from this time. Basalt produced during this waning activity is more heterogeneous chemically and isotopically than older flows, reflecting its prolonged period of volcanism.

  2. Phaneorozoic sequence stratigraphy of Bolivia and adjacent regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sempere, T. )

    1993-02-01

    Phaneorozoic sequence stratigraphy of the Pacific margin of western South America, particularly the Bolivian section, has been completed and new interpretations and hypotheses have been proposed as a result of data analyses of this information. The Paleozoic margin was initially passive (late Cambrian-Llanvirn, [open quotes]Puna aulacogen[close quotes]), but became active during a middle Ordovician compressional episode. Most of late Cambrian to early Triassic Bolivian rocks are of marine origin, with dark shale units recording sea level rises, whereas middle Triassic to Recent rocks were mainly deposited in continental environments (except six restricted-marine ingressions in the late Cretaceous-Danian, and one in the late Miocene, all with hydrocarbon potential). A noteworthy similarity exists between the Devonian to Jurassic stratigraphies of Bolivia and the Parana basin, suggesting that Bolivia behaved as part of the Brazilian craton from late Cambrian to late Jurassic, when it was captured into the Pacific margin geotectonic system. Organic-rich units correlate with Paleozoic highstand deposits and younger ingressions. The Bolivian Phanerozoic strata is characterized by thick layers, partly due to middle Ordovician-Carboniferous and late Cretaceous-Cenozoic foreland basins. Paleozoic foreland geometries include northeastern onlaps and, potentially, stratigraphic traps. Hydrocarbon generation, migration and trapping mainly depended on Cenozoic structural loading and burial and on propagation of Andean deformation which are comprised of Paleozoic shale decollements. Precise knowledge of the evolution of the Phanerozoic geodynamic contexts and basin geometries through sedimentation and subsequent deformations is crucial for hydrocarbon exploration strategies in these regions.

  3. The body fades away: investigating the effects of transparency of an embodied virtual body on pain threshold and body ownership

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Matteo; Kilteni, Konstantina; Maselli, Antonella; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V.

    2015-01-01

    The feeling of “ownership” over an external dummy/virtual body (or body part) has been proven to have both physiological and behavioural consequences. For instance, the vision of an “embodied” dummy or virtual body can modulate pain perception. However, the impact of partial or total invisibility of the body on physiology and behaviour has been hardly explored since it presents obvious difficulties in the real world. In this study we explored how body transparency affects both body ownership and pain threshold. By means of virtual reality, we presented healthy participants with a virtual co-located body with four different levels of transparency, while participants were tested for pain threshold by increasing ramps of heat stimulation. We found that the strength of the body ownership illusion decreases when the body gets more transparent. Nevertheless, in the conditions where the body was semi-transparent, higher levels of ownership over a see-through body resulted in an increased pain sensitivity. Virtual body ownership can be used for the development of pain management interventions. However, we demonstrate that providing invisibility of the body does not increase pain threshold. Therefore, body transparency is not a good strategy to decrease pain in clinical contexts, yet this remains to be tested. PMID:26415748

  4. The body fades away: investigating the effects of transparency of an embodied virtual body on pain threshold and body ownership.

    PubMed

    Martini, Matteo; Kilteni, Konstantina; Maselli, Antonella; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2015-01-01

    The feeling of "ownership" over an external dummy/virtual body (or body part) has been proven to have both physiological and behavioural consequences. For instance, the vision of an "embodied" dummy or virtual body can modulate pain perception. However, the impact of partial or total invisibility of the body on physiology and behaviour has been hardly explored since it presents obvious difficulties in the real world. In this study we explored how body transparency affects both body ownership and pain threshold. By means of virtual reality, we presented healthy participants with a virtual co-located body with four different levels of transparency, while participants were tested for pain threshold by increasing ramps of heat stimulation. We found that the strength of the body ownership illusion decreases when the body gets more transparent. Nevertheless, in the conditions where the body was semi-transparent, higher levels of ownership over a see-through body resulted in an increased pain sensitivity. Virtual body ownership can be used for the development of pain management interventions. However, we demonstrate that providing invisibility of the body does not increase pain threshold. Therefore, body transparency is not a good strategy to decrease pain in clinical contexts, yet this remains to be tested. PMID:26415748

  5. Complete ostectomy of middle phalanx and partial ostectomy of proximal phalanx in a Brown Swiss calf for treatment of purulent arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint and adjacent severe osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Burgstaller, Johann; Kofler, Johann

    2016-01-01

    A five month old Brown Swiss heifer calf (212 kg body mass) with severe left hind limb lameness, caused by a wound of the lateral digit was referred to the veterinary teaching hospital. The calf showed a score 4 of 5 lameness on the left hind limb. A scarified skin lesion with a fistula formation and purulent exudate was observed at the level of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIJ) of the lateral digit of the left hind. The PIJ region and the lateral digit were severely swollen and painful. Ultrasonography showed a moderate anechoic effusion of the lateral digital flexor tendon sheet (DFTS) and a severe heterogeneous hypoechoic effusion with some small hyperechoic areas of the plantar and dorsal pouch of the PIJ. In addition, a highly irregular contour of the dorsal and abaxial surface of the phalanx media (P2) and the distal aspect of the proximal phalanx (P1) were imaged. Based on physical examination and ultrasonographic findings, the diagnosis was chronic purulent arthritis of the PIJ, osteitis of P2 and the distal end of P1 with suspected adjacent osteomyelitis. Complete ostectomy of P2 and ostectomy of the distal part of the P1 of the lateral digit was performed with an oscillating saw through the extended debrided wound. The lameness improved subsequently and 21 days post-surgery the calf was discharged from the clinic without lameness, and with a wooden block attached to the healthy claw. A year later the heifer was pregnant and still in the herd, during this period it did not exhibit lameness. The described surgical technique resulted in an excellent long-term outcome and may be considered in cases of severe purulent joint infection of the PIJ with osteolytic processes in adjacent bones, as a digit salvage procedure especially for young cattle. PMID:27169151

  6. In ovo gene manipulation of melanocytes and their adjacent keratinocytes during skin pigmentation of chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Murai, Hidetaka; Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Sakai, Ken-Ichiro; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2015-04-01

    During skin pigmentation in avians and mammalians, melanin is synthesized in the melanocytes, and subsequently transferred to adjacently located keratinocytes, leading to a wide coverage of the body surface by melanin-containing cells. The behavior of melanocytes is influenced by keratinocytes shown mostly by in vitro studies. However, it has poorly been investigated how such intercellular cross-talk is regulated in vivo because of a lack of suitable experimental models. Using chicken embryos, we developed a method that enables in vivo gene manipulations of melanocytes and keratinocytes, where these cells are separately labeled by different genes. Two types of gene transfer techniques were combined: one was a retrovirus-mediated gene infection into the skin/keratinocytes, and the other was the in ovo DNA electroporation into neural crest cells, the origin of melanocytes. Since the Replication-Competent Avian sarcoma-leukosis virus long terminal repeat with Splice acceptor (RCAS) infection was available only for the White leghorn strain showing little pigmentation, melanocytes prepared from the Hypeco nera (pigmented) were back-transplanted into embryos of White leghorn. Prior to the transplantation, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)(+) Neo(r+) -electroporated melanocytes from Hypeco nera were selectively grown in G418-supplemented medium. In the skin of recipient White leghorn embryos infected with RCAS-mOrange, mOrange(+) keratinocytes and transplanted EGFP(+) melanocytes were frequently juxtaposed each other. High-resolution confocal microscopy also revealed that transplanted melanocytes exhibited normal behaviors regarding distribution patterns of melanocytes, dendrite morphology, and melanosome transfer. The method described in this study will serve as a useful tool to understand the mechanisms underlying intercellular regulations during skin pigmentation in vivo. PMID:25739909

  7. Body Shell Alignment; Auto Body Repair and Refinishing 2: 9035.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course provides skills in the use of tools and procedures for the alignment of automotive body damage. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, orientation, service tools and bench skills, and body construction. Also studied are collision damage, aligning body shell and components, and replacement of sheet metal parts. A…

  8. The Body and Pedagogy: Beyond Absent, Moving Bodies in Pedagogic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivinson, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    Following the corporeal turn in social theory, this paper explores how the body is implicated in pedagogic practice and leaning. Focusing on the body has usually been recognised as part of the regulative rather than instructional discourse in schools. Work has begun to redress the mind-body imbalance through the "corporeal device" developed from…

  9. Postcambrian stratified rocks of the northern part of the Baikal-Vitim fold area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldygerov, V. V.; Krainov, M. A.

    2012-09-01

    The Ordovician stratified rocks previously referred to Riphean or Vendian are widespread in the northern part of the Baikal-Vitim fold area. They include volcanosedimentary rocks which accumulated in continental riftlike troughs after Vendian-Cambrian platform regime and were accompanied by subvolcanic bodies. The coarse-clastic facies, frequently olistostromes with olistoplaques, are abundant in the marginal parts of the troughs. The sandy-silty-clay rocks dominate in the centre. The volcanic rocks represent the contrast rhyolite-basaltic series and compose paleovolcanoes of the central type, locally, complicated by calderas. Tuffaceous material is nearly almost present in synchronous sedimentary rocks. In the Ordovician, the northern part of the Baikal-Vitim fold area was an uplift of island arc type complicated by the riftlike troughs. It occupied the central part of the Baikal-Vitim arc. The location of the troughs was subjected to its structural plan. They were formed successively after the Riphean-Vendian Baikal-Muya volcano-plutonic belt. The uplift existed within a shallow basin occupying nearly the entire Siberian Platform and Baikal-Vitim fold area. The data obtained confirm that marine sedimentary basin with islands sometimes existed within the Baikal-Vitim fold area and was a part of the basin occupying the adjacent part of the Siberian Platform. The effect of pulsating plume in the northern part of the Baikal-Vitim fold area periodically, including Ordovician, led to the origination of the uplift and to renewal of tectonic and volcano-plutonic activity.

  10. Interactions of bluff-body obstacles with turbulent airflows affecting evaporative fluxes from porous surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighi, Erfan; Or, Dani

    2015-11-01

    Bluff-body obstacles interacting with turbulent airflows are common in many natural and engineering applications (from desert pavement and shrubs over natural surfaces to cylindrical elements in compact heat exchangers). Even with obstacles of simple geometry, their interactions within turbulent airflows result in a complex and unsteady flow field that affects surface drag partitioning and transport of scalars from adjacent evaporating surfaces. Observations of spatio-temporal thermal patterns on evaporating porous surfaces adjacent to bluff-body obstacles depict well-defined and persistent zonation of evaporation rates that were used to construct a simple mechanistic model for surface-turbulence interactions. Results from evaporative drying of sand surfaces with isolated cylindrical elements (bluff bodies) subjected to constant turbulent airflows were in good agreement with model predictions for localized exchange rates. Experimental and theoretical results show persistent enhancement of evaporative fluxes from bluff-rough surfaces relative to smooth flat surfaces under similar conditions. The enhancement is attributed to formation of vortices that induce a thinner boundary layer over part of the interacting surface footprint. For a practical range of air velocities (0.5-4.0 m/s), low-aspect ratio cylindrical bluff elements placed on evaporating sand surfaces enhanced evaporative mass losses (relative to a flat surface) by up to 300% for high density of elements and high wind velocity, similar to observations reported in the literature. Concepts from drag partitioning were used to generalize the model and upscale predictions to evaporation from surfaces with multiple obstacles for potential applications to natural bluff-rough surfaces.

  11. The swim force as a body force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wen; Brady, John

    2015-11-01

    Net (as opposed to random) motion of active matter results from an average swim (or propulsive) force. It is shown that the average swim force acts like a body force - an internal body force [Yan and Brady, Soft Matter, DOI:10.1039/C5SM01318F]. As a result, the particle-pressure exerted on a container wall is the sum of the swim pressure [Takatori et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 028103] and the `weight' of the active particles. A continuum mechanical description is possible when variations occur on scales larger than the run length of the active particles and gives a Boltzmann-like distribution from a balance of the swim force and the swim pressure. Active particles may also display `action at a distance' and accumulate adjacent to (or be depleted from) a boundary without any external forces. In the momentum balance for the suspension - the mixture of active particles plus fluid - only external body forces appear.

  12. Contrasting rainfall generated debris flows from adjacent watersheds at Forest Falls, southern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Douglas M.; Alvarez, Rachel M.; Ruppert, Kelly R.; Goforth, Brett

    2008-04-01

    Debris flows are widespread and common in many steeply sloping areas of southern California. The San Bernardino Mountains community of Forest Falls is probably subject to the most frequently documented debris flows in southern California. Debris flows at Forest Falls are generated during short-duration high-intensity rains that mobilize surface material. Except for debris flows on two consecutive days in November 1965, all the documented historic debris flows have occurred during high-intensity summer rainfall, locally referred to as 'monsoon' or 'cloudburst' rains. Velocities of the moving debris range from about 5 km/h to about 90 km/h. Velocity of a moving flow appears to be essentially a function of the water content of the flow. Low velocity debris flows are characterized by steep snouts that, when stopped, have only small amounts of water draining from the flow. In marked contrast are high-velocity debris flows whose deposits more resemble fluvial deposits. In the Forest Falls area two adjacent drainage basins, Snow Creek and Rattlesnake Creek, have considerably different histories of debris flows. Snow Creek basin, with an area about three times as large as Rattlesnake Creek basin, has a well developed debris flow channel with broad levees. Most of the debris flows in Snow Creek have greater water content and attain higher velocities than those of Rattlesnake Creek. Most debris flows are in relative equilibrium with the geometry of the channel morphology. Exceptionally high-velocity flows, however, overshoot the channel walls at particularly tight channel curves. After overshooting the channel, the flows degrade the adjacent levee surface and remove trees and structures in the immediate path, before spreading out with decreasing velocity. As the velocity decreases the clasts in the debris flows pulverize the up-slope side of the trees and often imbed clasts in them. Debris flows in Rattlesnake Creek are relatively slow moving and commonly stop in the channel

  13. Contrasting rainfall generated debris flows from adjacent watersheds at Forest Falls, southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, D.M.; Alvarez, R.M.; Ruppert, K.R.; Goforth, B.

    2008-01-01

    Debris flows are widespread and common in many steeply sloping areas of southern California. The San Bernardino Mountains community of Forest Falls is probably subject to the most frequently documented debris flows in southern California. Debris flows at Forest Falls are generated during short-duration high-intensity rains that mobilize surface material. Except for debris flows on two consecutive days in November 1965, all the documented historic debris flows have occurred during high-intensity summer rainfall, locally referred to as 'monsoon' or 'cloudburst' rains. Velocities of the moving debris range from about 5??km/h to about 90??km/h. Velocity of a moving flow appears to be essentially a function of the water content of the flow. Low velocity debris flows are characterized by steep snouts that, when stopped, have only small amounts of water draining from the flow. In marked contrast are high-velocity debris flows whose deposits more resemble fluvial deposits. In the Forest Falls area two adjacent drainage basins, Snow Creek and Rattlesnake Creek, have considerably different histories of debris flows. Snow Creek basin, with an area about three times as large as Rattlesnake Creek basin, has a well developed debris flow channel with broad levees. Most of the debris flows in Snow Creek have greater water content and attain higher velocities than those of Rattlesnake Creek. Most debris flows are in relative equilibrium with the geometry of the channel morphology. Exceptionally high-velocity flows, however, overshoot the channel walls at particularly tight channel curves. After overshooting the channel, the flows degrade the adjacent levee surface and remove trees and structures in the immediate path, before spreading out with decreasing velocity. As the velocity decreases the clasts in the debris flows pulverize the up-slope side of the trees and often imbed clasts in them. Debris flows in Rattlesnake Creek are relatively slow moving and commonly stop in the

  14. Tritium Plume Dynamics in the Shallow Unsaturated Zone Adjacent to an Arid Waste Disposal Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, S.; Andraski, B. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Cooper, C. A.; Michel, R. L.; Pohll, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southern Nevada have documented two plumes of tritiated water-vapor (3HHOg) adjacent to a closed, commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Wastes were disposed on-site from 1962-92. Tritium has moved long distances (> 400 m) through a shallow (1-2-m depth) dry gravelly layer—orders of magnitude further than anticipated by standard transport models. Geostatistical methods, spatial moment analyses and tritium flux calculations were applied to assess shallow plume dynamics. A grid-based plant-water sampling method was utilized to infer detailed, field-scale 3HHOg concentrations at 5-yr intervals during 2001-11. Results indicate that gravel-layer 3HHOg mass diminished faster than would be expected from radioactive decay (~70% in 10 yr). Both plumes exhibited center-of-mass stability, suggesting that bulk-plume movement is minimal during the period of study. Nonetheless, evidence of localized lateral advancement along some margins, combined with increases in the spatial covariance of concentration distribution, indicates intra-plume mass redistribution is ongoing. Previous studies have recognized that vertical movement of tritiated water from sub-root-zone gravel into the root-zone contributes to atmospheric release via evapotranspiration. Estimates of lateral and vertical tritium fluxes during the study period indicate (1) vertical tritiated water fluxes were dominated by diffusive-vapor fluxes (> 90%), and (2) vertical diffusive-vapor fluxes were roughly an order of magnitude greater than lateral diffusive-vapor fluxes. This behavior highlights the importance of the atmosphere as a tritium sink. Estimates of cumulative vertical diffusive-vapor flux and radioactive decay with time were comparable to observed declines in total shallow plume mass with time. This suggests observed changes in plume mass may (1) be attributed, in considerable part, to these removal

  15. A computer-graphic technique for the study of body size perception and body types.

    PubMed

    Benson, P J; Emery, J L; Cohen-Tovée, E M; Tovée, M J

    1999-08-01

    We present a novel approach for measuring body size estimation in normal and eating-disordered women and men. Clinical categories of body types were used as prototypes. By comparing the subjective appearance of a person's body with prototypes, we can understand how different attributes of his or her body shape contribute to perception of body size. After lifelike random distortions have been applied to parts of their body image, individuals adjust their body shapes until they converge on their perceived veridical appearance. Exaggeration and minimization of particular body areas measured with respect to their true shape and with different prototypes can be expressed as numerical deviations. In this way, perceived body size and body attractiveness can be appraised during the course of diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders. PMID:10502868

  16. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  17. Possible Factors affecting the Thermal Contrast between Middle-Latitude Asian Continent and Adjacent Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huaqiong; Wu, Tongwen; Dong, Wenjie

    2015-04-01

    A middle-latitude Land-Sea thermal contrast Index was used in this study which has close connection to the East Asian summer precipitation. The index has two parts which are land thermal index defined as JJA 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies at a land area (75°-90° E, 40° -55°N ) and ocean thermal index defined as that at an oceanic area (140° -150°E, 35° -42.5°N). The impact of the surface heat flux and atmospheric diabatic heating over the land and the ocean on the index was studied. The results show that the surface heat flux over Eurasian inner land has little influence to the land thermal index, while the variation of the surface latent heat flux and long-wave radiation over the Pacific adjacent to Japan has highly correlation with the ocean thermal index. The changes with height of the atmospheric diabatic heating rates over the Eurasian inner land and the Pacific adjacent to Japan have different features. The variations of the middle troposphere atmospheric long-wave and short-wave radiation heating have significantly influences on land thermal index, and that of the low troposphere atmospheric long-wave radiation, short-wave radiation and deep convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the land thermal index. For the ocean thermal index, the variations of the surface layer atmospheric vertical diffuse heating, large-scale latent heating and long-wave radiation heating are more important, low and middle troposphere atmospheric large-scale latent heating and shallow convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the ocean thermal index. And then the ocean thermal index has closely connection with the low troposphere atmospheric temperature, while the land thermal index has closely connection with the middle troposphere atmospheric temperature. The Effect of the preceding global SST anomalies on the index also was analyzed. The relations of land thermal index and ocean thermal index and the global SST anomalies

  18. Take a look at the bright side: Effects of positive body exposure on selective visual attention in women with high body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Glashouwer, Klaske A; Jonker, Nienke C; Thomassen, Karen; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Women with high body dissatisfaction look less at their 'beautiful' body parts than their 'ugly' body parts. This study tested the robustness of this selective viewing pattern and examined the influence of positive body exposure on body-dissatisfied women's attention for 'ugly' and 'beautiful' body parts. In women with high body dissatisfaction (N = 28) and women with low body dissatisfaction (N = 14) eye-tracking was used to assess visual attention towards pictures of their own and other women's bodies. Participants with high body dissatisfaction were randomly assigned to 5 weeks positive body exposure (n = 15) or a no-treatment condition (n = 13). Attention bias was assessed again after 5 weeks. Body-dissatisfied women looked longer at 'ugly' than 'beautiful' body parts of themselves and others, while participants with low body dissatisfaction attended equally long to own/others' 'beautiful' and 'ugly' body parts. Although positive body exposure was very effective in improving participants' body satisfaction, it did not systematically change participants' viewing pattern. The tendency to preferentially allocate attention towards one's 'ugly' body parts seems a robust phenomenon in women with body dissatisfaction. Yet, modifying this selective viewing pattern seems not a prerequisite for successfully improving body satisfaction via positive body exposure. PMID:27236075

  19. Our Bodies, Our Cells: Children's Activities in Body Systems. Children's Activity Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Marilyn

    The supplemental teaching resources provided in this book offer a variety of concrete, visual activities designed to help classroom and daycare center teachers introduce children to the human body and the way it is organized. An analogy comparing human body parts to house parts is used throughout the book to make lessons clear and age-appropriate.…

  20. Regional tectonics of Myanmar (Burma) and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.R.; Russell, O.R.; Staskowski, R.J.; Loyd, S.P.; Tabbutt, V.M. ); Dolan, Stein, A. )

    1990-05-01

    Analysis of 38 contiguous Landsat Multispectral Scanner scenes acquired over Myanmar (Burma) reveals numerous large-scale features associated with margins of the Burman plate, previously unidentified northeast-southwest-trending discontinuities, important extensions of previously mapped fault trends, and numerous structural features that appear favorable for petroleum exploration. A mosaic of these scenes at 1:1,000,000 scale shows a large number of tectonic elements and their spatial relationships. Within the area of investigation are portions of the Indian, Burman, Lhasa, and Shan-Thai plates, and perhaps other, smaller plates. The Himalayan front and Indo-Burman Ranges manifest effects of current and recently past plate movement. The complexity of the kinematic history accounts for the diversity of structural features in the area. The last major event in this long and violent saga, which began in middle Miocene (approximately 11 Ma) time and continues to the present, is the recent change from a collisional to a right-lateral strike-slip transform margin between the Indian and Burman plates. The complexity of the structures visible is the product of multiple plate collisions, rotation of the Indian plate and parts of the Asian plate, and long-continued convergence that changed velocity and direction tbrough time. The most obvious evidence of this complexity, which is immediately apparent on geologic maps or the Landsat mosaic of the region, is the almost right-angle relationship of the folds of the Indo-Burman Ranges and the frontal thrusts and suture zones of the Himalaya. These two sets of compressive features imply maximum compressive stress axes that lie at right angles to each other. The implications are either that the orientation of the stress field changes rapidly over a short distance or that the stress field has changed through time. Both occurrences seem to be true.

  1. Body Awareness in Preschool Children with Psychiatric Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J.; Leitschuh, C.; Raymaekers, A.; Vandenbussche, I.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the body awareness of preschool children with a psychiatric disorder as measured by the test imitation of gestures (Berges & Lezine, 1978), using the subsections for pointing to body parts (passive vocabulary) and naming body parts (active vocabulary). Seventy-seven children from 37 to 72 months of age…

  2. Characterization of particulate organic matter in the Lena River delta and adjacent nearshore zone, NE Siberia - Part I: Radiocarbon inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterfeld, M.; Laepple, T.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2015-06-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) derived from permafrost soils and transported by the Lena River represents a quantitatively important terrestrial carbon pool exported to Laptev Sea sediments (next to POM derived from coastal erosion). Its fate in a future warming Arctic, i.e., its remobilization and remineralization after permafrost thawing as well as its transport pathways to and sequestration in marine sediments, is currently under debate. We present one of the first radiocarbon (14C) data sets for surface water POM within the Lena Delta sampled in the summers of 2009-2010 and spring 2011 (n = 30 samples). The bulk Δ14C values varied from -55 to -391 ‰ translating into 14C ages of 395 to 3920 years BP. We further estimated the fraction of soil-derived POM to our samples based on (1) particulate organic carbon to particulate nitrogen ratios (POC : PN) and (2) on the stable carbon isotope (δ13C) composition of our samples. Assuming that this phytoplankton POM has a modern 14C concentration, we inferred the 14C concentrations of the soil-derived POM fractions. The results ranged from -322 to -884 ‰ (i.e., 3060 to 17 250 14C years BP) for the POC : PN-based scenario and from -261 to -944 ‰ (i.e., 2370 to 23 100 14C years BP) for the δ13C-based scenario. Despite the limitations of our approach, the estimated Δ14C values of the soil-derived POM fractions seem to reflect the heterogeneous 14C concentrations of the Lena River catchment soils covering a range from Holocene to Pleistocene ages better than the bulk POM Δ14C values. We further used a dual-carbon-isotope three-end-member mixing model to distinguish between POM contributions from Holocene soils and Pleistocene Ice Complex (IC) deposits to our soil-derived POM fraction. IC contributions are comparatively low (mean of 0.14) compared to Holocene soils (mean of 0.32) and riverine phytoplankton (mean of 0.55), which could be explained with the restricted spatial distribution of IC deposits within the Lena catchment. Based on our newly calculated soil-derived POM Δ14C values, we propose an isotopic range for the riverine soil-derived POM end member with Δ14C of -495 ± 153 ‰ deduced from our δ13C-based binary mixing model and δ13C of -26.6 ± 1 ‰ deduced from our data of Lena Delta soils and literature values. These estimates can help to improve the dual-carbon-isotope simulations used to quantify contributions from riverine soil POM, Pleistocene IC POM from coastal erosion, and marine POM in Siberian shelf sediments.

  3. Characterization of particulate organic matter in the Lena River Delta and adjacent nearshore zone, NE Siberia - Part 2: Radiocarbon inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterfeld, M.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2014-10-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) derived from permafrost soils and transported by the Lena River represents a quantitatively important terrestrial carbon pool exported to Laptev Sea sediments (next to POM derived from coastal erosion). Its fate in a future warming Arctic, i.e. its remobilization and remineralization after permafrost thawing as well as its transport pathways to and sequestration in marine sediments is currently under debate. We present the first radiocarbon (14C) data set of surface water POM within the Lena Delta sampled in summers 2009-2010 and spring 2011 (n = 30 samples). The bulk Δ14C concentrations varied from -55 to -391‰ translating into 14C ages of 395 to 3920 yr BP. We further estimated the fraction of phytoplankton-derived POM to our samples based on (1) particulate organic carbon to particulate nitrogen ratios (POC:PN) and (2) on the stable carbon isotope (Δ13C) composition of our samples. Assuming that this phytoplankton POM has a modern 14C signature we inferred the 14C concentrations of the soil-derived POM fractions. The results ranged from -258 to -768‰ (i.e. 2340 to 11 700 14C yr BP) for the POC:PN-based scenario and from -191 to -704‰ (i.e. 1640 to 9720 14C yrs BP). Despite the limitations of our approach, the estimated Δ14C concentrations of the soil-derived POM fractions seem to reflect the heterogeneous 14C signal of the Lena River catchment soils covering a range from Holocene to Pleistocene ages. We therefore propose a typical isotopic signature of riverine soil-derived POM with a Δ13C of -26.6 ± 1.1‰ deduced from our data of Lena Delta soils and published values, and a Δ14C concentration of -362 ± 123‰ deduced from our Δ13C-based estimates. These data can help to improve the dual-carbon-isotope simulations used to quantify contributions from riverine soil POM, Pleistocene ice complex POM from coastal erosion, and marine POM in Siberian shelf sediments.

  4. Investigations of Particle Velocities in a Slurry Pump Using PIV. Part 1; The Tongue and Adjacent Channel Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadambi, Jaikrishnan R.; Charoenngam, Pathom; Subramanian, Amirthaganesh; Wernet, Mark P.; Sankovic, John M.; Addie, Graeme; Courtwright, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Transport of solid-liquid slurries in pipeline transport over short and medium distances is very important in many industries, including mining related processes. The particle image velocimetry technique was successfully utilized to investigate the velocities and kinetic energy fluctuations of slurry particles at the tongue region of an optically-clear centrifugal pump. The experiments were conducted using 500 micron glass beads at volumetric Concentrations of 2.5% and 5% and at pump speeds of 725 rpm and 1000 rpm. The fluctuation kinetic energy increased approximately 200% to 500% as the pump speed was increased from 725 rpm to IO00 rpm. The directional impingement mechanism is more significant at the pressure side of the blade, tongue and the casing. This mechanism becomes more important as the speed increases. This suggests that the impeller; tongue and the casing of the slurry pump can wear out quickly, especially with an increase in speed. In this paper the emphasis is on the tongue region. The random impingement mechanism caused by the fluctuation kinetic energy of the solids can play an important role on the erosion of the tongue area.

  5. GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery for parts of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paskevich, Valerie F.; Wong, Florence L.; O'Malley, John J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Gutmacher, Christina E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a Proclamation establishing the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the United States extending its territory 200 nautical miles from the coasts of the United States, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and other U.S. territories and possessions. The charter of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) places the primary responsibility for mapping the territories of the United States within the USGS. Upon declaration of the EEZ, the territory of the United States was enlarged by more than 13 million square kilometers, all of which are under water. The USGS EEZ-SCAN program to systematically map the EEZ began in 1984 and continued through 1991. This digital publication contains all the GLORIA sidescan imagery of the deep-water (greater than 200 meters) portion of the EEZ mapped during those 8 years of data collection. For each EEZ area, we describe the data collection surveys and provide downloads of the GLORIA data and metadata.

  6. Embodied Cognition and beyond: Acting and Sensing the Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghi, Anna M.; Cimatti, Felice

    2010-01-01

    Embodied cognition (EC) underlines that cognition is constrained by the kind of body we possess, and stresses the importance of action for cognition. In this perspective the body is always considered as an "acting" body. Here, we review EC literature discussing studies that show that body parts are not considered independent of their involvement…

  7. 5. Former P&LE tracks (now CSXT) adjacent to trestle towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Former P&LE tracks (now CSXT) adjacent to trestle towards west. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Y Trestle, South side of Monongahela River between Thirty-fourth & Twenty-ninth Streets, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 7. WALKWAY/ENTRANCE TO ADMINSITRATIVE SITE ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE ROAD AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WALKWAY/ENTRANCE TO ADMINSITRATIVE SITE ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE ROAD AND INTERNAL POLICE POST, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Manzanar War Relocation Center, Owens Valley off U.S. Highway 395, 6 miles South of Independence, Independence, Inyo County, CA

  9. Divergent parasite faunas in adjacent populations of West Greenland caribou: suggested natural and anthropogenic influences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal parasite diversity was characterized for two adjacent populations of west Greenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) through examinations of abomasa and small intestines of adult and subadult females collected during late winter. Three trichostrongyline (Trichostrongylina: ...

  10. Multi-focal histiocytosis X of bone in two adjacent vertebrae causing paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Turgut, M; Gurçay, O

    1992-03-01

    This report describes a case of multi-focal histiocytosis X of bone in two adjacent vertebrae that caused a spinal cord compression. This case was treated radically with combined surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (RT). PMID:1550511

  11. Numerical Simulation of Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen at Perdido Bay and Adjacent Coastal Ocean

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC), a numerical estuarine and coastal ocean circulation hydrodynamic model, was used to simulate the distribution of the salinity, temperature, nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Perdido Bay and adjacent Gulf of Mexico. External forcing fa...

  12. Body Knowledge in Brain-Damaged Children: A Double-Dissociation in Self and Other's Body Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frassinetti, Francesca; Fiori, Simona; D'Angelo, Valentina; Magnani, Barbara; Guzzetta, Andrea; Brizzolara, Daniela; Cioni, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Bodies are important element for self-recognition. In this respect, in adults it has been recently shown a self vs other advantage when small parts of the subjects' body are visible. This advantage is lost following a right brain lesion underlying a role of the right hemisphere in self body-parts processing. In order to investigate the bodily-self…

  13. Lewy Body Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss of mental ... to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, build ...

  14. Body Composition Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... more bone and muscle will weigh more in water than a person with less bone and muscle. The volume of the body is calculated and body density and body fat percentage are calculated. This technique ...

  15. Minimally invasive treatment for esthetic enhancement of white spot lesion in adjacent tooth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dae-Gon; Park, Chan-Jin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the treatment provided to a patient with the maxillary anterior teeth exhibiting severe secondary caries beneath the previous restoration and a white spot lesion on the adjacent incisor. Two implants were placed after extraction of hopeless teeth with the guided bone regeneration technique. A white spot lesion of the adjacent incisor was treated with minimally invasive treatment. This clinical report describes the multidisciplinary treatment for the white spot lesion and esthetic restoration of missing anterior teeth. PMID:24049579

  16. Stress Reduction in Adjacent Level Discs via Dynamic Instrumentation: A Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castellvi, Antonio E.; Huang, Hao; Vestgaarden, Tov; Saigal, Sunil; Pienkowski, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Conventional (rigid) fusion instrumentation is believed to accelerate the degeneration of adjacent discs by increasing stresses caused by motion discontinuity. Fusion instrumentation that employs reduced rod stiffness and increased axial motion, or dynamic instrumentation, may partially alleviate this problem, but the effects of this instrumentation on the stresses in the adjacent disc are unknown. We used a finiteelement model to calculate and compare the stresses in the adjacent-level disc that are induced by rigid and dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation. Methods A 3-dimensional finite-element model of the lumbar spine was obtained that simulated flexion and extension. The L5–S1 segment of this model was fused, and the L4–L5 segment was fixed with rigid or dynamic instrumentation. The mechanical properties of the dynamic instrumentation were determined by laboratory testing and then used in the finite-element model. Peak stresses in the lumbar discs were calculated and compared. Results The reduced-stiffness component of the dynamic instrumentation was associated with a 1% to 2% reduction in peak compressive stresses in the adjacent-level disc (at 45° flexion), and the increased axial motion component of this instrumentation reduced peak disc stress by 8% to 9%. Areas of disc tissue exposed to 80% of peak stresses of 6.17 MPa were 47% less for discs adjacent to dynamic instrumentation than for those adjacent to rigid instrumentation. Conclusions Reduced stiffness and increased axial motion of dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation designs result in an approximately 10% cumulative stress reduction for each flexion cycle. The effect of this stress reduction over many cycles may be substantial. Clinical Relevance The cumulative effect of this reduced amplitude and distribution of peak stresses in the adjacent disc may partially alleviate the problem of adjacent-level disc degeneration. PMID:25802582

  17. Feasibility of simultaneous operation of passive remote microwave sensors and active services occupying adjacent frequency bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sue, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    To ensure proper sensor operations, it is necessary to understand the situation of potential interference to sensors due to active equipment sharing common frequency bands as well as equipment occupying adjacent bands. The feasibility of sharing common frequency bands between passive sensors and other active services was analyzed. Potential interference to sensors due to equipment in bands adjacent to sensor frequency bands is examined and criteria to avoid interference is developed.

  18. Multimodal efferent and recurrent neurons in the medial lobes of cockroach mushroom bodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Strausfeld, N J

    1999-07-12

    Previous electrophysiological studies of cockroach mushroom bodies demonstrated the sensitivity of efferent neurons to multimodal stimuli. The present account describes the morphology and physiology of several types of efferent neurons with dendrites in the medial lobes. In general, efferent neurons respond to a variety of modalities in a context-specific manner, responding to specific combinations or specific sequences of multimodal stimuli. Efferent neurons that show endogenous activity have dendritic specializations that extend to laminae of Kenyon cell axons equipped with many synaptic vesicles, termed "dark" laminae. Efferent neurons that are active only during stimulation have dendritic specializations that branch mainly among Kenyon cell axons having few vesicles and forming the "pale" laminae. A new category of "recurrent" efferent neuron has been identified that provides feedback or feedforward connections between different parts of the mushroom body. Some of these neurons are immunopositive to antibodies raised against the inhibitory transmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. Feedback pathways to the calyces arise from satellite neuropils adjacent to the medial lobes, which receive axon collaterals of efferent neurons. Efferent neurons are uniquely identifiable. Each morphological type occurs at the same location in the mushroom bodies of different individuals. Medial lobe efferent neurons terminate in the lateral protocerebrum among the endings of antennal lobe projection neurons. It is suggested that information about the sensory context of olfactory (or other) stimuli is relayed by efferent neurons to the lateral protocerebrum where it is integrated with information about odors relayed by antennal lobe projection neurons. PMID:10376745

  19. Crustal Structure of the Ethiopian Rift and Adjacent Plateaus: Results of new integrated interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadesse, K.; Keller, G. R.

    2006-12-01

    The Ethiopian rift is the large part of the East African Rift system, which represents an incipient divergent plate boundary. This important structure provides excellent opportunities to study the transition from continental to oceanic. As a result, geophysical data are becoming increasingly available but some results are contradictory. We used a newly enhanced gravity database and seismic information to produce an integrated interpretation of the crustal structure beneath the Ethiopian rift and the adjacent plateaus. Wide regions have been covered to assess the regional structures including the Kenyan and Ethiopian rifts and the area covered by the Ethiopian flood basalt. Broad negative Bouguer gravity anomalies are delineated over the Ethiopian Plateaus and the Kenyan dome. Residual gravity anomalies, which parallel the major border faults clearly highlight the segregation between the plateaus and the rift valleys. Results of other filtering techniques have clearly revealed individual volcanic centers within the rift valleys. Positive gravity anomalies outside the rift valleys may be associated with older structures, shield volcanoes, or structures that are related to the initiation and propagation of rifting. A long axial profile from the central part of Kenya to the Afar triple junction has been modeled to investigate along-axis crustal variation of the East African rift system, with emphasis on the Ethiopian rift. This modeling has been constrained using seismic refraction data from the Ethiopian Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment (EAGLE) and Kenya Rift International Seismic Project (KRISP) results. We are able to see a thin crust (~26 km) in the Afar triangle with a gradual thickening (~40 km) southwards towards the Main Central Ethiopian rift (MER). The crust thickness decreases towards Turkana rift (~22 km), and increases again towards the central eastern rift section in Kenya. Our profile model across the MER has revealed that the eastern rift

  20. Parts Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuqua, Lou; Fuqua, Debbie

    Designed to address the skills that an auto parts specialist must master in order to be effective in the market place, this manual consists of 13 units of instruction. Covered in the units are orientation; human relations; communications; safety; parts and systems identification; stocking, shipping, and receiving; inventory control; cataloging and…