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Sample records for adjacent brain parenchyma

  1. Escape of intraluminal platelets into brain parenchyma after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Victor; Flores, Rowena; Muller, Artur; Sehba, Fatima A.

    2009-01-01

    Platelet aggregates are present in parenchymal vessels as early as 10 minutes after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Structural injury to parenchymal vessel walls and depletion of collagen-IV (the major protein of basal lamina) occur in a similar time frame. Since platelets upon activation release enzymes which can digest collagen-IV, we investigated the topographical relationship between platelet aggregates, endothelium, and basal lamina after SAH produced by endovascular perforation, using triple immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy with deconvolution. The location of platelet aggregates in relation to zymography-detected active collagenase was also examined. As reported previously, most cerebral vessels profiles contained platelets aggregates at 10 minutes after SAH. High-resolution three-dimensional image analysis placed many platelets at the ab-luminal (basal) side of endothelium at 10 minutes, and others either within the vascular basal lamina or in nearby parenchyma. By 24 hours post-hemorrhage, large numbers of platelets had entered the brain parenchyma. The vascular sites of platelet movement were devoid of endothelium and collagen IV. Collagenase activity colocalized with vascular platelet aggregates. Our data demonstrate that parenchymal entry of platelets into brain parenchyma begins within minutes after hemorrhage. Three-dimensional analysis suggests that platelet aggregates initiate or stimulate local disruption of endothelium and destruction of adjacent basal lamina after SAH. PMID:19861151

  2. Biopsy-proven mantle cell lymphoma in brain parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Justin M.; Cooper, Barry; Krause, John R.; Stone, Marvin J.

    2011-01-01

    Brain parenchymal involvement by mantle cell lymphoma is rare and confers a grim prognosis. More commonly, patients with central nervous system manifestations of mantle cell lymphoma have leptomeningeal involvement on radiographic studies with malignant cells found in the cerebrospinal fluid. Risk factors for central nervous system involvement include a high proliferation index, bone marrow involvement, and blastoid morphology. We present an unusual case of a biopsy-proven mantle cell lymphoma mass lesion in the brain parenchyma as the presentation of relapse 6 months after diagnosis. PMID:21307976

  3. Subtle volume differences in brain parenchyma of children surviving medulloblastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddick, Wilburn E.; Mulhern, Raymond K.; Elkin, T. David; Glass, John O.; Langston, James W.

    1998-07-01

    The overriding incentive for accurate quantification of the functional status of children treated for brain tumors emerges from the clinician's desire to balance the efficacy and chronic toxicity of therapies used for the developing child. A hybrid combination of the Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) for segmentation and a multilayer backpropagation (MLBP) neural network for classification removes observer variances to yield a reproducible and accurate identification of tissues. A group of 17 volunteers and 77 patients from a larger ongoing study of pediatric patients with brain tumors were used to investigate the sensitivity of segmented volumes to determine atrophy as measured by two radiologists. The atrophy study revealed a significant relationship for brain parenchyma, CSF and white matter volumes with atrophy while gray matter had no significant relationship. Brain parenchyma and subsequently white matter were found to be inversely proportional to increasing grades of atrophy. An additional study compared fifteen age-matched patients treated with irradiation and surgery with patients treated with surgery alone. The age-matched study of patients demonstrated that brain volumes in the irradiated patients were significantly decreased compared to those treated with surgery alone. Further investigation of this difference revealed that white matter was significantly reduced while gray matter was relatively unchanged.

  4. The use of diffusion weighted imaging to evaluate pathology outside the brain parenchyma in neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Philip; Khan, Faraan; MacKinnon, Andrew D

    2017-04-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has transformed the radiological assessment of a variety of cerebral pathologies, in particular acute stroke. In neuroimaging studies, DWI can also be used to evaluate pathology outside the brain parenchyma, although it is sometimes underutilized for this purpose. In this pictorial review, the principles of DWI are outlined, and 13 cases of abnormal diffusion outside the brain parenchyma are illustrated in order to show DWI as a useful sequence for the evaluation of the following recommended review areas: the dural venous sinuses, internal carotid arteries, meninges, ventricles, cavernous sinus and orbits, skull base and lymph nodes.

  5. The brain parenchyma has a type I interferon response that can limit virus spread

    PubMed Central

    Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Göz Aytürk, Didem; Soh, Timothy K.; Chrenek, Ryan; O’Loughlin, Elaine; Madore, Charlotte; Butovsky, Oleg; Cepko, Constance L.

    2017-01-01

    The brain has a tightly regulated environment that protects neurons and limits inflammation, designated “immune privilege.” However, there is not an absolute lack of an immune response. We tested the ability of the brain to initiate an innate immune response to a virus, which was directly injected into the brain parenchyma, and to determine whether this response could limit viral spread. We injected vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a transsynaptic tracer, or naturally occurring VSV-derived defective interfering particles (DIPs), into the caudate–putamen (CP) and scored for an innate immune response and inhibition of virus spread. We found that the brain parenchyma has a functional type I interferon (IFN) response that can limit VSV spread at both the inoculation site and among synaptically connected neurons. Furthermore, we characterized the response of microglia to VSV infection and found that infected microglia produced type I IFN and uninfected microglia induced an innate immune response following virus injection. PMID:27980033

  6. Correlation of neurocognitive function and brain parenchyma volumes in children surviving cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddick, Wilburn E.; White, Holly A.; Glass, John O.; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2002-04-01

    This research builds on our hypothesis that white matter damage and associated neurocognitive symptoms, in children treated for cancer with cranial spinal irradiation, spans a continuum of severity that can be reliably probed using non-invasive MR technology. Quantitative volumetric assessments of MR imaging and psychological assessments were obtained in 40 long-term survivors of malignant brain tumors treated with cranial irradiation. Neurocognitive assessments included a test of intellect (Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (Conner's Continuous Performance Test), and memory (California Verbal Learning Test). One-sample t-tests were conducted to evaluate test performance of survivors against age-adjusted scores from the test norms; these analyses revealed significant impairments in all apriori selected measures of intelligence, attention, and memory. Partial correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationships between brain tissues volumes (normal appearing white matter (NAWM), gray matter, and CSF) and neurocognitive function. Global intelligence (r = 0.32, p = 0.05) and global attentional (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) were significantly positively correlated with NAWM volumes, whereas global memory was significantly positively correlated with overall brain parenchyma (r = 0.38, p = 0.04). We conclude that quantitative assessment of MR examinations in survivors of childhood cancer treated with cranial irradiation reveal that loss of NAWM is associated with decreased intellectual and attentional deficits, whereas overall parenchyma loss, as reflected by increased CSF and decreased white matter, is associated with memory-related deficits.

  7. Predictive models for pressure-driven fluid infusions into brain parenchyma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Raghu; Brady, Martin

    2011-10-01

    Direct infusions into brain parenchyma of biological therapeutics for serious brain diseases have been, and are being, considered. However, individual brains, as well as distinct cytoarchitectural regions within brains, vary in their response to fluid flow and pressure. Further, the tissue responds dynamically to these stimuli, requiring a nonlinear treatment of equations that would describe fluid flow and drug transport in brain. We here report in detail on an individual-specific model and a comparison of its prediction with simulations for living porcine brains. Two critical features we introduced into our model—absent from previous ones, but requirements for any useful simulation—are the infusion-induced interstitial expansion and the backflow. These are significant determinants of the flow. Another feature of our treatment is the use of cross-property relations to obtain individual-specific parameters that are coefficients in the equations. The quantitative results are at least encouraging, showing a high fraction of overlap between the computed and measured volumes of distribution of a tracer molecule and are potentially clinically useful. Several improvements are called for; principally a treatment of the interstitial expansion more fundamentally based on poroelasticity and a better delineation of the diffusion tensor of a particle confined to the interstitial spaces.

  8. Agrin in Alzheimer's Disease: Altered Solubility and Abnormal Distribution within Microvasculature and Brain Parenchyma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, John E.; Berzin, Tyler M.; Rafii, Michael S.; Glass, David J.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Fallon, Justin R.; Stopa, Edward G.

    1999-05-01

    Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is widely expressed in neurons and microvascular basal lamina in the rodent and avian central nervous system. Agrin induces the differentiation of nerve-muscle synapses, but its function in either normal or diseased brains is not known. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by loss of synapses, changes in microvascular architecture, and formation of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. Here we have asked whether AD causes changes in the distribution and biochemical properties of agrin. Immunostaining of normal, aged human central nervous system revealed that agrin is expressed in neurons in multiple brain areas. Robust agrin immunoreactivity was observed uniformly in the microvascular basal lamina. In AD brains, agrin is highly concentrated in both diffuse and neuritic plaques as well as neurofibrillary tangles; neuronal expression of agrin also was observed. Furthermore, patients with AD had microvascular alterations characterized by thinning and fragmentation of the basal lamina. Detergent extraction and Western blotting showed that virtually all the agrin in normal brain is soluble in 1% SDS. In contrast, a large fraction of the agrin in AD brains is insoluble under these conditions, suggesting that it is tightly associated with β -amyloid. Together, these data indicate that the agrin abnormalities observed in AD are closely linked to β -amyloid deposition. These observations suggest that altered agrin expression in the microvasculature and the brain parenchyma contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.

  9. Predictive models for pressure-driven fluid infusions into brain parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Raghu; Brady, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Direct infusions into brain parenchyma of biological therapeutics for serious brain diseases have been, and are being, considered. However, individual brains, as well as distinct cytoarchitectural regions within brains, vary in their response to fluid flow and pressure. Further, the tissue responds dynamically to these stimuli, requiring a nonlinear treatment of equations that would describe fluid flow and drug transport in brain. We here report in detail on an individual–specific model and a comparison of its prediction with simulations for living porcine brains. Two critical features we introduced into our model — absent from previous ones, but requirements for any useful simulation — are the infusion-induced interstitial expansion and the backflow. These are significant determinants of the flow. Another feature of our treatment is the use of cross–property relations to obtain individual–specific parameters that are coefficients in the equations. The quantitative results are at least encouraging, showing a high fraction of overlap between the computed and measured volumes of distribution of a tracer molecule, and are potentially clinically useful. Several improvements are called for; principally a treatment of the interstitial expansion more fundamentally based on poroelasticity, and a better delineation of the diffusion tensor of a particle confined to the interstitial spaces. PMID:21891847

  10. Evaluation of C-arm CT metal artifact reduction algorithm during intra-aneurysmal coil embolization: Assessment of brain parenchyma, stents and flow-diverters.

    PubMed

    Chintalapani, Gouthami; Chinnadurai, Ponraj; Srinivasan, Visish; Chen, Stephen R; Shaltoni, Hashem; Morsi, Hesham; Mawad, Michel E; Kan, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Flat panel C-arm CT images acquired in the interventional suite provide valuable information regarding brain parenchyma, vasculature, and device status during the procedure. However, these images often suffer from severe streak artifacts due to the presence of metallic objects such as coils. These artifacts limit the capability to make diagnostic inferences and thus need to be reduced for better image interpretation. The main purpose of this paper is to systematically evaluate the accuracy of one such C-arm CT based metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithm and to demonstrate its usage in both stent and flow diverter assisted coil embolization procedures. C-arm CT images routinely acquired in 24 patients during coil embolization procedure (stent-assisted (12) and flow-diverter assisted (12)) were included in this study in a retrospective fashion. These images were reconstructed without and with MAR algorithm on an offline workstation and compared using quantitative image analysis metrics. This analysis was carried out to assess the improvements in both brain parenchyma and device visibility with MAR algorithm. Further, ground truth reference images from phantom experiments and clinical data were used for accurate assessment. Quantitative image analysis of brain parenchyma showed uniform distribution of grayscale values and reduced image noise after MAR correction. The line profile plot analysis of device profile in both phantom and clinical data demonstrated improved device visibility with MAR correction. MAR algorithm successfully reduced streak artifacts from coil embolization in all cases, thus allowing more accurate assessment of devices and adjacent brain parenchyma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcranial sonography (TCS) of brain parenchyma in movement disorders: quality standards, diagnostic applications and novel technologies.

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Školoudík, D

    2014-08-01

    Transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS) of brain parenchyma is being increasingly used as a diagnostic tool in movement disorders. Compared to other neuroimaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, TCS can be performed today with portable machines and has the advantages of noninvasiveness and high resistance to movement artifacts. In distinct brain disorders TCS detects abnormalities that cannot be visualized or can only be visualized with significant effort with other imaging methods. In the field of movement disorders, TCS has been established mainly as a tool for the early and differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. The postoperative position control of deep brain stimulation electrodes, especially in the subthalamic nucleus, can reliably and safely be performed with TCS.  The present update review summarizes the current methodological standards and defines quality criteria of adequate TCS imaging and assessment of diagnostically relevant deep brain structures such as substantia nigra, brainstem raphe, basal ganglia and ventricles. Finally, an overview is given on recent technological advances including TCS-MRI fusion imaging and upcoming technologies of digitized image analysis aiming at a more investigator-independent assessment of deep brain structures on TCS.

  12. Human Polyomavirus Receptor Distribution in Brain Parenchyma Contrasts with Receptor Distribution in Kidney and Choroid Plexus

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Sheila A.; O'Hara, Bethany A.; Nelson, Christian D.S.; Brittingham, Frances L.P.; Henriksen, Kammi J.; Stopa, Edward G.; Atwood, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    The human polyomavirus, JCPyV, is the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a rare demyelinating disease that occurs in the setting of prolonged immunosuppression. After initial asymptomatic infection, the virus establishes lifelong persistence in the kidney and possibly other extraneural sites. In rare instances, the virus traffics to the central nervous system, where oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and glial precursors are susceptible to lytic infection, resulting in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The mechanisms by which the virus traffics to the central nervous system from peripheral sites remain unknown. Lactoseries tetrasaccharide c (LSTc), a pentasaccharide containing a terminal α2,6–linked sialic acid, is the major attachment receptor for polyomavirus. In addition to LSTc, type 2 serotonin receptors are required for facilitating virus entry into susceptible cells. We studied the distribution of virus receptors in kidney and brain using lectins, antibodies, and labeled virus. The distribution of LSTc, serotonin receptors, and virus binding sites overlapped in kidney and in the choroid plexus. In brain parenchyma, serotonin receptors were expressed on oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, but these cells were negative for LSTc and did not bind virus. LSTc was instead found on microglia and vascular endothelium, to which virus bound abundantly. Receptor distribution was not changed in the brains of patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Virus infection of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes during disease progression is LSTc independent. PMID:26056932

  13. Molecular crosstalk between tumour and brain parenchyma instructs histopathological features in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bougnaud, Sébastien; Golebiewska, Anna; Oudin, Anaïs; Keunen, Olivier; Harter, Patrick N.; Mäder, Lisa; Azuaje, Francisco; Fritah, Sabrina; Stieber, Daniel; Kaoma, Tony; Vallar, Laurent; Brons, Nicolaas H.C.; Daubon, Thomas; Miletic, Hrvoje; Sundstrøm, Terje; Herold-Mende, Christel; Mittelbronn, Michel; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Niclou, Simone P.

    2016-01-01

    The histopathological and molecular heterogeneity of glioblastomas represents a major obstacle for effective therapies. Glioblastomas do not develop autonomously, but evolve in a unique environment that adapts to the growing tumour mass and contributes to the malignancy of these neoplasms. Here, we show that patient-derived glioblastoma xenografts generated in the mouse brain from organotypic spheroids reproducibly give rise to three different histological phenotypes: (i) a highly invasive phenotype with an apparent normal brain vasculature, (ii) a highly angiogenic phenotype displaying microvascular proliferation and necrosis and (iii) an intermediate phenotype combining features of invasion and vessel abnormalities. These phenotypic differences were visible during early phases of tumour development suggesting an early instructive role of tumour cells on the brain parenchyma. Conversely, we found that tumour-instructed stromal cells differentially influenced tumour cell proliferation and migration in vitro, indicating a reciprocal crosstalk between neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells. We did not detect any transdifferentiation of tumour cells into endothelial cells. Cell type-specific transcriptomic analysis of tumour and endothelial cells revealed a strong phenotype-specific molecular conversion between the two cell types, suggesting co-evolution of tumour and endothelial cells. Integrative bioinformatic analysis confirmed the reciprocal crosstalk between tumour and microenvironment and suggested a key role for TGFβ1 and extracellular matrix proteins as major interaction modules that shape glioblastoma progression. These data provide novel insight into tumour-host interactions and identify novel stroma-specific targets that may play a role in combinatorial treatment strategies against glioblastoma. PMID:27049916

  14. Human polyomavirus receptor distribution in brain parenchyma contrasts with receptor distribution in kidney and choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Haley, Sheila A; O'Hara, Bethany A; Nelson, Christian D S; Brittingham, Frances L P; Henriksen, Kammi J; Stopa, Edward G; Atwood, Walter J

    2015-08-01

    The human polyomavirus, JCPyV, is the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a rare demyelinating disease that occurs in the setting of prolonged immunosuppression. After initial asymptomatic infection, the virus establishes lifelong persistence in the kidney and possibly other extraneural sites. In rare instances, the virus traffics to the central nervous system, where oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and glial precursors are susceptible to lytic infection, resulting in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The mechanisms by which the virus traffics to the central nervous system from peripheral sites remain unknown. Lactoseries tetrasaccharide c (LSTc), a pentasaccharide containing a terminal α2,6-linked sialic acid, is the major attachment receptor for polyomavirus. In addition to LSTc, type 2 serotonin receptors are required for facilitating virus entry into susceptible cells. We studied the distribution of virus receptors in kidney and brain using lectins, antibodies, and labeled virus. The distribution of LSTc, serotonin receptors, and virus binding sites overlapped in kidney and in the choroid plexus. In brain parenchyma, serotonin receptors were expressed on oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, but these cells were negative for LSTc and did not bind virus. LSTc was instead found on microglia and vascular endothelium, to which virus bound abundantly. Receptor distribution was not changed in the brains of patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Virus infection of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes during disease progression is LSTc independent.

  15. Access to the brain parenchyma using endovascular techniques and a micro-working channel.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Johan; Johansson, Carina B; Jonsson, Stefan; Holmin, Staffan

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Several older studies report a low risk for parenchymal access to the CNS by surgical techniques. In more recent studies, including those with post-puncture CT scans, there are indications that the risk of bleeding might approach 8%. New therapies, such as those that use viral vectors, modified mRNA, or cell transplantation, will probably warrant more parenchymal access to the CNS. Other minimally invasive routes might then be tempting to explore. This study was designed in 2 parts to address the possibility of using the endovascular route. The first aim was to test the ability to create a parenchymal micro-working channel to the CNS in macaque monkeys through the vessel wall. Second, the biocompatibility of a device-associated, detached, distal securing plug that was made of nitinol was investigated in swine for 1 year. METHODS Trans-vessel wall intervention in the middle cerebral artery and associated cerebral parenchyma was performed in 4 rhesus macaque monkeys using a full clinical angiography suite. A contrast agent and methylene blue were injected to test the working channel and then detached at the distal end to act as a securing plug through the vessel wall. One-year follow-ups were also performed using angiography and histological analysis in 10 swine with 24 implants that were distributed in the external carotid artery tree. RESULTS The cerebral interventions were performed without acute bleeding. Both the contrast agent and methylene blue were infused into the brain parenchyma and subarachnoidal space via the endovascular micro-working channel (7 injections in 4 animals). In the 1-year follow-up period, the implant that was left in the external carotid vessel wall in the swine was covered by the endothelium, which was followed by dislodgement just outside the blood vessel with thin capsule formation. No stenosis in the artery was detected on 1-year angiography. The animals showed normal behavior and blood sample results during the follow

  16. [A Case of Transorbital Penetrating Brain Injury Caused by a Steel Wire Entirely Embedded in the Brain Parenchyma].

    PubMed

    Kin, Kyohei; Ono, Yasuhiro; Fujimori, Takeshi; Kuramoto, Satoshi; Katsumata, Atsushi; Goda, Yuji; Kawauchi, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Penetrating brain injury(PBI)is very rare in Japan. Because there is a very wide variety of pathological condition of PBI, the guideline for the treatment of PBI has not been established yet. We report the unique case of PBI caused by a steel wire piece completely embedded in the brain parenchyma. A 75-year-old man was brought to the emergency department due to ocular injury caused by a steel wire piece. Neurological examination revealed only left visual disturbance. CT scan revealed a steel wire piece located intraparenchymally between the left frontal lobe and the ventricles, but digital subtraction angiography showed no significant vascular injury in the surrounding structures. We performed an open surgery and removed the steel wire piece. Because the steel wire piece was completely embedded in the brain, we used intraoperative X-ray fluoroscopy to choose a less invasive approach for the brain. The patient suffered no additional neurological deficit and no sign of cerebral infection or seizure after surgery. He was discharged after a 4-week administration of antibiotics. In most cases of PBI caused by low velocity injury, foreign bodies are not completely embedded in the brain except for remnants after surgical removal. This is the first report of low velocity PBI caused by a foreign body completely embedded in the brain.

  17. Test of the 'glymphatic' hypothesis demonstrates diffusive and aquaporin-4-independent solute transport in rodent brain parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiaoming; Dix, James A; Jin, Byung-Ju

    2017-01-01

    Transport of solutes through brain involves diffusion and convection. The importance of convective flow in the subarachnoid and paravascular spaces has long been recognized; a recently proposed ‘glymphatic’ clearance mechanism additionally suggests that aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels facilitate convective transport through brain parenchyma. Here, the major experimental underpinnings of the glymphatic mechanism were re-examined by measurements of solute movement in mouse brain following intracisternal or intraparenchymal solute injection. We found that: (i) transport of fluorescent dextrans in brain parenchyma depended on dextran size in a manner consistent with diffusive rather than convective transport; (ii) transport of dextrans in the parenchymal extracellular space, measured by 2-photon fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, was not affected just after cardiorespiratory arrest; and (iii) Aqp4 gene deletion did not impair transport of fluorescent solutes from sub-arachnoid space to brain in mice or rats. Our results do not support the proposed glymphatic mechanism of convective solute transport in brain parenchyma. PMID:28826498

  18. Expression of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma from early postnatal development into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Clinton, Sarah M; Glover, Matthew E; Maltare, Astha; Laszczyk, Ann M; Mehi, Stephen J; Simmons, Rebecca K; King, Gwendalyn D

    2013-08-21

    Without the age-regulating protein klotho, mouse lifespan is shortened and the rapid onset of age-related disorders occurs. Conversely, overexpression of klotho extends mouse lifespan. Klotho is most abundant in kidney and expressed in a limited number of other organs, including the brain, where klotho levels are highest in choroid plexus. Reports vary on where klotho is expressed within the brain parenchyma, and no data is available as to whether klotho levels change across postnatal development. We used in situ hybridization to map klotho mRNA expression in the developing and adult rat brain and report moderate, widespread expression across grey matter regions. mRNA expression levels in cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, and amygdala decreased during the second week of life and then gradually rose to adult levels by postnatal day 21. Immunohistochemistry revealed a protein expression pattern similar to the mRNA results, with klotho protein expressed widely throughout the brain. Klotho protein co-localized with both the neuronal marker NeuN, as well as, oligodendrocyte marker olig2. These results provide the first anatomical localization of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma and demonstrate that klotho levels vary during early postnatal development.

  19. A Paravascular Pathway Facilitates CSF Flow Through the Brain Parenchyma and the Clearance of Interstitial Solutes, Including Amyloid β

    PubMed Central

    Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Wang, Minghuan; Liao, Yonghong; Plogg, Benjamin A.; Peng, Weiguo; Gundersen, Georg A.; Benveniste, Helene; Vates, G. Edward; Deane, Rashid; Goldman, Steven A.; Nagelhus, Erlend A.; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2013-01-01

    Because it lacks a lymphatic circulation, the brain must clear extracellular proteins by an alternative mechanism. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) functions as a sink for brain extracellular solutes, but it is not clear how solutes from the brain interstitium move from the parenchyma to the CSF. We demonstrate that a substantial portion of subarachnoid CSF cycles through the brain interstitial space. On the basis of in vivo two-photon imaging of small fluorescent tracers, we showed that CSF enters the parenchyma along paravascular spaces that surround penetrating arteries and that brain interstitial fluid is cleared along paravenous drainage pathways. Animals lacking the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in astrocytes exhibit slowed CSF influx through this system and a ~70% reduction in interstitial solute clearance, suggesting that the bulk fluid flow between these anatomical influx and efflux routes is supported by astrocytic water transport. Fluorescent-tagged amyloid β, a peptide thought to be pathogenic in Alzheimer’s disease, was transported along this route, and deletion of the Aqp4 gene suppressed the clearance of soluble amyloid β, suggesting that this pathway may remove amyloid β from the central nervous system. Clearance through paravenous flow may also regulate extracellular levels of proteins involved with neurodegenerative conditions, its impairment perhaps contributing to the mis-accumulation of soluble proteins. PMID:22896675

  20. Intra-Arterially Delivered Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Not Detected in the Brain Parenchyma in an Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na Kyung; Yang, Jehoon; Chang, Eun Hyuk; Park, Sang Eon; Lee, Jeongmin; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Chang, Jong Wook; Na, Duk L

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a promising role as a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Prior studies suggested that intra-arterially administered MSCs are engrafted into the brain in stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) animal models. However, a controversial standpoint exists in terms of the integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB) in transgenic AD mice. The primary goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of delivering human umbilical cord-blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) into the brains of non-transgenic WT (C3H/C57) and transgenic AD (APP/PS1) mice through the intra-arterial (IA) route. Through two experiments, mice were infused with hUCB-MSCs via the right internal carotid artery and were sacrificed at two different time points: 6 hours (experiment 1) or 5 minutes (experiment 2) after infusion. In both experiments, no cells were detected in the brain parenchyma while MSCs were detected in the cerebrovasculature in experiment 2. The results from this study highlight that intra-arterial delivery of MSCs is not the most favorable route to be implemented as a potential therapeutic approach for AD.

  1. Targeting transferrin receptors at the blood-brain barrier improves the uptake of immunoliposomes and subsequent cargo transport into the brain parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Kasper Bendix; Burkhart, Annette; Melander, Fredrik; Kempen, Paul Joseph; Vejlebo, Jonas Bruun; Siupka, Piotr; Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Moos, Torben

    2017-09-04

    Drug delivery to the brain is hampered by the presence of the blood-brain barrier, which excludes most molecules from freely diffusing into the brain, and tightly regulates the active transport mechanisms that ensure sufficient delivery of nutrients to the brain parenchyma. Harnessing the possibility of delivering neuroactive drugs by way of receptors already present on the brain endothelium has been of interest for many years. The transferrin receptor is of special interest since its expression is limited to the endothelium of the brain as opposed to peripheral endothelium. Here, we investigate the possibility of delivering immunoliposomes and their encapsulated cargo to the brain via targeting of the transferrin receptor. We find that transferrin receptor-targeting increases the association between the immunoliposomes and primary endothelial cells in vitro, but that this does not correlate with increased cargo transcytosis. Furthermore, we show that the transferrin receptor-targeted immunoliposomes accumulate along the microvessels of the brains of rats, but find no evidence for transcytosis of the immunoliposome. Conversely, the increased accumulation correlated both with increased cargo uptake in the brain endothelium and subsequent cargo transport into the brain. These findings suggest that transferrin receptor-targeting is a relevant strategy of increasing drug exposure to the brain.

  2. Sleep and rhythm changes at the time of Trypanosoma brucei invasion of the brain parenchyma in the rat.

    PubMed

    Seke Etet, Paul F; Palomba, Maria; Colavito, Valeria; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Bentivoglio, Marina; Bertini, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is a severe disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.). The disease hallmark is sleep alterations. Brain involvement in HAT is a crucial pathogenetic step for disease diagnosis and therapy. In this study, a rat model of African trypanosomiasis was used to assess changes of sleep-wake, rest-activity, and body temperature rhythms in the time window previously shown as crucial for brain parenchyma invasion by T.b. to determine potential biomarkers of this event. Chronic radiotelemetric monitoring in Sprague-Dawley rats was used to continuously record electroencephalogram, electromyogram, rest-activity, and body temperature in the same animals before (baseline recording) and after infection. Rats were infected with T.b. brucei. Data were acquired from 1 to 20 d after infection (parasite neuroinvasion initiates at 11-13 d post-infection in this model), and were compared to baseline values. Sleep parameters were manually scored from electroencephalographic-electromyographic tracings. Circadian rhythms of sleep time, slow-wave activity, rest-activity, and body temperature were studied using cosinor rhythmometry. Results revealed alterations of most of the analyzed parameters. In particular, sleep pattern and sleep-wake organization plus rest-activity and body temperature rhythms exhibited early quantitative and qualitative alterations, which became marked around the time interval crucial for parasite neuroinvasion or shortly after. Data derived from actigrams showed close correspondence with those from hypnograms, suggesting that rest-activity could be useful to monitor sleep-wake alterations in African trypanosomiasis.

  3. Ictal lack of binding to brain parenchyma suggests integrity of the blood-brain barrier for 11C-dihydroergotamine during glyceryl trinitrate-induced migraine.

    PubMed

    Schankin, Christoph J; Maniyar, Farooq H; Seo, Youngho; Kori, Shashidar; Eller, Michael; Chou, Denise E; Blecha, Joseph; Murphy, Stephanie T; Hawkins, Randall A; Sprenger, Till; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Goadsby, Peter J

    2016-07-01

    SEE DREIER DOI 101093/AWW112 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: For many decades a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier has been postulated to occur in migraine. Hypothetically this would facilitate access of medications, such as dihydroergotamine or triptans, to the brain despite physical properties otherwise restricting their entry. We studied the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in six migraineurs and six control subjects at rest and during acute glyceryl trinitrate-induced migraine attacks using positron emission tomography with the novel radioligand (11)C-dihydroergotamine, which is chemically identical to pharmacologically active dihydroergotamine. The influx rate constant Ki, average dynamic image and time activity curve were assessed using arterial blood sampling and served as measures for receptor binding and thus blood-brain barrier penetration. At rest, there was binding of (11)C-dihydroergotamine in the choroid plexus, pituitary gland, and venous sinuses as expected from the pharmacology of dihydroergotamine. However, there was no binding to the brain parenchyma, including the hippocampus, the area with the highest density of the highest-affinity dihydroergotamine receptors, and the raphe nuclei, a postulated brainstem site of action during migraine, suggesting that dihydroergotamine is not able to cross the blood-brain barrier. This binding pattern was identical in migraineurs during glyceryl trinitrate-induced migraine attacks as well as in matched control subjects. We conclude that (11)C-dihydroergotamine is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier interictally or ictally demonstrating that the blood-brain barrier remains tight for dihydroergotamine during acute glyceryl trinitrate-induced migraine attacks. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved.

  4. Trypanosoma brucei Invasion and T-Cell Infiltration of the Brain Parenchyma in Experimental Sleeping Sickness: Timing and Correlation with Functional Changes

    PubMed Central

    Laperchia, Claudia; Palomba, Maria; Seke Etet, Paul F.; Rodgers, Jean; Bradley, Barbara; Montague, Paul; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Bentivoglio, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background The timing of Trypanosoma brucei entry into the brain parenchyma to initiate the second, meningoencephalitic stage of human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is currently debated and even parasite invasion of the neuropil has been recently questioned. Furthermore, the relationship between neurological features and disease stage are unclear, despite the important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Methodology Using a rat model of chronic Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection we determined the timing of parasite and T-cell neuropil infiltration and its correlation with functional changes. Parasite DNA was detected using trypanosome-specific PCR. Body weight and sleep structure alterations represented by sleep-onset rapid eye movement (SOREM) periods, reported in human and experimental African trypanosomiasis, were monitored. The presence of parasites, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the neuropil was assessed over time in the brain of the same animals by immunocytochemistry and quantitative analyses. Principal findings Trypanosome DNA was present in the brain at day 6 post-infection and increased more than 15-fold by day 21. Parasites and T-cells were observed in the parenchyma from day 9 onwards. Parasites traversing blood vessel walls were observed in the hypothalamus and other brain regions. Body weight gain was reduced from day 7 onwards. SOREM episodes started in most cases early after infection, with an increase in number and duration after parasite neuroinvasion. Conclusion These findings demonstrate invasion of the neuropil over time, after an initial interval, by parasites and lymphocytes crossing the blood-brain barrier, and show that neurological features can precede this event. The data thus challenge the current clinical and cerebrospinal fluid criteria of disease staging. PMID:28002454

  5. Intra-Arterially Delivered Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Not Detected in the Brain Parenchyma in an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Na Kyung; Yang, Jehoon; Chang, Eun Hyuk; Park, Sang Eon; Lee, Jeongmin; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Chang, Jong Wook; Na, Duk L.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a promising role as a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Prior studies suggested that intra-arterially administered MSCs are engrafted into the brain in stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) animal models. However, a controversial standpoint exists in terms of the integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB) in transgenic AD mice. The primary goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of delivering human umbilical cord-blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) into the brains of non-transgenic WT (C3H/C57) and transgenic AD (APP/PS1) mice through the intra-arterial (IA) route. Through two experiments, mice were infused with hUCB-MSCs via the right internal carotid artery and were sacrificed at two different time points: 6 hours (experiment 1) or 5 minutes (experiment 2) after infusion. In both experiments, no cells were detected in the brain parenchyma while MSCs were detected in the cerebrovasculature in experiment 2. The results from this study highlight that intra-arterial delivery of MSCs is not the most favorable route to be implemented as a potential therapeutic approach for AD. PMID:27203695

  6. Distribution of glycylsarcosine and cefadroxil among cerebrospinal fluid, choroid plexus, and brain parenchyma after intracerebroventricular injection is markedly different between wild-type and Pept2 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David E; Hu, Yongjun; Shen, Hong; Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Fenstermacher, Joseph D; Keep, Richard F

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance kinetics, choroid plexus uptake, and parenchymal penetration of PEPT2 substrates in different regions of the brain after intracerebroventricular administration. To accomplish these objectives, we performed biodistribution studies using [14C]glycylsarcosine (GlySar) and [3H]cefadroxil, along with quantitative autoradiography of [14C]GlySar, in wild-type and Pept2 null mice. We found that PEPT2 deletion markedly reduced the uptake of GlySar and cefadroxil in choroid plexuses at 60 mins by 94% and 82% (P<0.001), respectively, and lowered their CSF clearances by about fourfold. Autoradiography showed that GlySar concentrations in the lateral, third, and fourth ventricle choroid plexuses were higher in wild-type as compared with Pept2 null mice (P<0.01). Uptake of GlySar by the ependymal–subependymal layer and septal region was higher in wild-type than in null mice, but the half-distance of penetration into parenchyma was significantly less in wild-type mice. The latter is probably because of the clearance of GlySar from interstitial fluid by brain cells expressing PEPT2, which stops further penetration. These studies show that PEPT2 knockout can significantly modify the spatial distribution of GlySar and cefadroxil (and presumably other peptides/mimetics and peptide-like drugs) in brain. PMID:20571525

  7. EGFRvIII-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Migrate to and Kill Tumor Deposits Infiltrating the Brain Parenchyma in an Invasive Xenograft Model of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Hongsheng; Choi, Bryan D.; Suryadevara, Carter M.; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Yang, Shicheng; De Leon, Gabriel; Sayour, Elias J.; McLendon, Roger; Herndon, James E.; Healy, Patrick; Archer, Gary E.; Bigner, Darell D.; Johnson, Laura A.; Sampson, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults and is uniformly lethal. T-cell-based immunotherapy offers a promising platform for treatment given its potential to specifically target tumor tissue while sparing the normal brain. However, the diffuse and infiltrative nature of these tumors in the brain parenchyma may pose an exceptional hurdle to successful immunotherapy in patients. Areas of invasive tumor are thought to reside behind an intact blood brain barrier, isolating them from effective immunosurveillance and thereby predisposing the development of "immunologically silent" tumor peninsulas. Therefore, it remains unclear if adoptively transferred T cells can migrate to and mediate regression in areas of invasive GBM. One barrier has been the lack of a preclinical mouse model that accurately recapitulates the growth patterns of human GBM in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that D-270 MG xenografts exhibit the classical features of GBM and produce the diffuse and invasive tumors seen in patients. Using this model, we designed experiments to assess whether T cells expressing third-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting the tumor-specific mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFRvIII, would localize to and treat invasive intracerebral GBM. EGFRvIII-targeted CAR (EGFRvIII+ CAR) T cells demonstrated in vitro EGFRvIII antigen-specific recognition and reactivity to the D-270 MG cell line, which naturally expresses EGFRvIII. Moreover, when administered systemically, EGFRvIII+ CAR T cells localized to areas of invasive tumor, suppressed tumor growth, and enhanced survival of mice with established intracranial D-270 MG tumors. Together, these data demonstrate that systemically administered T cells are capable of migrating to the invasive edges of GBM to mediate antitumor efficacy and tumor regression. PMID:24722266

  8. New scenarios for neuronal structural plasticity in non-neurogenic brain parenchyma: the case of cortical layer II immature neurons.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Luca; Nacher, Juan

    2012-07-01

    The mammalian central nervous system, due to its interaction with the environment, must be endowed with plasticity. Conversely, the nervous tissue must be substantially static to ensure connectional invariability. Structural plasticity can be viewed as a compromise between these requirements. In adult mammals, brain structural plasticity is strongly reduced with respect to other animal groups in the phylogenetic tree. It persists under different forms, which mainly consist of remodeling of neuronal shape and connectivity, and, to a lesser extent, the production of new neurons. Adult neurogenesis is mainly restricted within two neurogenic niches, yet some gliogenic and neurogenic processes also occur in the so-called non-neurogenic tissue, starting from parenchymal progenitors. In this review we focus on a population of immature, non-newly generated neurons in layer II of the cerebral cortex, which were previously thought to be newly generated since they heavily express the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule and doublecortin. These unusual neurons exhibit characteristics defining an additional type of structural plasticity, different from either synaptic plasticity or adult neurogenesis. Evidences concerning their morphology, antigenic features, ultrastructure, phenotype, origin, fate, and reaction to different kind of stimulations are gathered and analyzed. Their possible role is discussed in the context of an enriched complexity and heterogeneity of mammalian brain structural plasticity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impaired integrity of the brain parenchyma in non-geriatric patients with major depressive disorder revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Tha, Khin K; Terae, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Shin; Inoue, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Nobuki; Kako, Yuki; Nakato, Yasuya; Akter Popy, Kawser; Fujima, Noriyuki; Zaitsu, Yuri; Yoshida, Daisuke; Ito, Yoichi M; Miyamoto, Tamaki; Koyama, Tsukasa; Shirato, Hiroki

    2013-06-30

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is considered to be able to non-invasively quantify white matter integrity. This study aimed to use DTI to evaluate white matter integrity in non-geriatric patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who were free of antidepressant medication. DTI was performed on 19 non-geriatric patients with MDD, free of antidepressant medication, and 19 age-matched healthy subjects. Voxel-based and histogram analyses were used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values between the two groups, using two-sample t tests. The abnormal DTI indices, if any, were tested for correlation with disease duration and severity, using Pearson product-moment correlation analysis. Voxel-based analysis showed clusters with FA decrease at the bilateral frontal white matter, anterior limbs of internal capsule, cerebellum, left putamen and right thalamus of the patients. Histogram analysis revealed lower peak position of FA histograms in the patients. FA values of the abnormal clusters and peak positions of FA histograms of the patients exhibited moderate correlation with disease duration and severity. These results suggest the implication of frontal-subcortical circuits and cerebellum in MDD, and the potential utility of FA in evaluation of brain parenchymal integrity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative Evaluation of Diffusion and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR in Tumor Parenchyma and Peritumoral Area for Distinction of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Yang, Zhi-yun; Luo, Bo-ning; Yang, Jian-yong; Chu, Jian-ping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To quantitatively evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of parameters from diffusion and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR which based on tumor parenchyma (TP) and peritumoral (PT) area in classification of brain tumors. Methods 45 patients (male: 23, female: 22; mean age: 46 y) were prospectively recruited and they underwent conventional, DCE-MR and DWI examination. With each tumor, 10–15 regions of interest (ROIs) were manually placed on TP and PT area. ADC and permeability parameters (Ktrans, Ve, Kep and iAUC) were calculated and their diagnostic efficiency was assessed. Results In TP, all permeability parameters and ADC value could significantly discriminate Low- from High grade gliomas (HGG) (p<0.001); among theses parameters, Ve demonstrated the highest diagnostic power (iAUC: 0.79, cut-off point: 0.15); the most sensitive and specific index for gliomas grading were Ktrans (84%) and Kep (89%). While, in PT area, only Ktrans could help in gliomas grading (P = 0.009, cut-off point: 0.03 min-1). Moreover, in TP, mean Ve and iAUC of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and metastases were significantly higher than that in HGG (p<0.003). Further, in PT area, mean Ktrans (p≤0.004) could discriminate PCNSL from HGG and ADC (p≤0.003) could differentiate metastases with HGG. Conclusions Quantitative ADC and permeability parameters from Diffusion and DCE-MR in TP and PT area, especially DCE-MR, can aid in gliomas grading and brain tumors discrimination. Their combined application is strongly recommended in the differential diagnosis of these tumor entities. PMID:26384329

  11. Non-target adjacent stimuli classification improves performance of classical ERP-based brain computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, G. A.; Hernández, L. F.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The classical ERP-based speller, or P300 Speller, is one of the most commonly used paradigms in the field of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). Several alterations to the visual stimuli presentation system have been developed to avoid unfavorable effects elicited by adjacent stimuli. However, there has been little, if any, regard to useful information contained in responses to adjacent stimuli about spatial location of target symbols. This paper aims to demonstrate that combining the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli with standard classification (target versus non-target) significantly improves classical ERP-based speller efficiency. Approach. Four SWLDA classifiers were trained and combined with the standard classifier: the lower row, upper row, right column and left column classifiers. This new feature extraction procedure and the classification method were carried out on three open databases: the UAM P300 database (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico), BCI competition II (dataset IIb) and BCI competition III (dataset II). Main results. The inclusion of the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli improves target classification in the classical row/column paradigm. A gain in mean single trial classification of 9.6% and an overall improvement of 25% in simulated spelling speed was achieved. Significance. We have provided further evidence that the ERPs produced by adjacent stimuli present discriminable features, which could provide additional information about the spatial location of intended symbols. This work promotes the searching of information on the peripheral stimulation responses to improve the performance of emerging visual ERP-based spellers.

  12. Evolutionary origins of non-adjacent sequence processing in primate brain potentials

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Alice E.; Mueller, Jutta L.; Männel, Claudia; Attaheri, Adam; Friederici, Angela D.; Petkov, Christopher I.

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in understanding the ontogeny and phylogeny of the human language system, yet, neurobiological work at the interface of both fields is absent. Syntactic processes in language build on sensory processing and sequencing capabilities on the side of the receiver. While we better understand language-related ontogenetic changes in the human brain, it remains a mystery how neurobiological processes at specific human development stages compare with those in phylogenetically closely related species. To address this knowledge gap, we measured EEG event-related potentials (ERPs) in two macaque monkeys using a paradigm developed to evaluate human infant and adult brain potentials associated with the processing of non-adjacent ordering relationships in sequences of syllable triplets. Frequent standard triplet sequences were interspersed with infrequent voice pitch or non-adjacent rule deviants. Monkey ERPs show early pitch and rule deviant mismatch responses that are strikingly similar to those previously reported in human infants. This stands in contrast to adults’ later ERP responses for rule deviants. The results reveal how non-adjacent sequence ordering relationships are processed in the primate brain and provide evidence for evolutionarily conserved neurophysiological effects, some of which are remarkably like those seen at an early human developmental stage. PMID:27827366

  13. Control of a brain-computer interface using stereotactic depth electrodes in and adjacent to the hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusienski, D. J.; Shih, J. J.

    2011-04-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a device that enables severely disabled people to communicate and interact with their environments using their brain waves. Most research investigating BCI in humans has used scalp-recorded electroencephalography or intracranial electrocorticography. The use of brain signals obtained directly from stereotactic depth electrodes to control a BCI has not previously been explored. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded from bilateral stereotactic depth electrodes implanted in and adjacent to the hippocampus were used to control a P300 Speller paradigm. The ERPs were preprocessed and used to train a linear classifier to subsequently predict the intended target letters. The classifier was able to predict the intended target character at or near 100% accuracy using fewer than 15 stimulation sequences in the two subjects tested. Our results demonstrate that ERPs from hippocampal and hippocampal adjacent depth electrodes can be used to reliably control the P300 Speller BCI paradigm.

  14. Assessment of functional and structural damage in brain parenchyma in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency: A longitudinal perfusion and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Roy, Bhaswati; Trivedi, Richa; Garg, Ravindra K; Gupta, Pradeep K; Tyagi, Ritu; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency may cause neural tissue damage. Even in advanced stages, conventional imaging of brain usually appears normal in vitamin B12 deficient patients. The aim of this study was to assess the structural and functional changes in brain of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency before and after six weeks of vitamin B12 supplementation using diffusion tensor imaging and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling (PCASL). MR imaging including DTI and PCASL and neuropsychological tests (NPT) were performed in 16 patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and 16 controls before and after 6weeks of therapy. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) derived from PCASL and DTI indices was calculated in brain of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and controls. Patient with vitamin B12 deficiency showed altered neuropsychological scores and altered CBF as well as fractional anisotropy (FA) values in various brain regions as compared with controls. Both CBF values and neuropsychological scores showed complete reversibility at 6weeks post therapy. Though FA values showed significant recovery, it failed to show complete recovery. Our results suggest that micro-structural recovery lags behind functional recovery in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency following therapy and CBF change may be used as an early predictor of complete recovery in patients with B12 deficiency. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Neuropeptide localisation in the substantia innominata and adjacent regions of the human brain.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, J M; Perry, R H; Thompson, J E; Johnson, M; Oakley, A E

    1985-01-01

    A dense peptidergic innervation has been demonstrated in the substantia innominata region in postmortem specimens of human brain using immunocytochemical techniques. A peptidergic innervation of the nucleus of Meynert - the prominent nucleus of this area containing the cholinergic cell bodies which innervate the cerebral cortex - has been demonstrated by immunostaining with antisera against the following eight neuropeptides: somatostatin, substance P, cholecystokinin octapeptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, met-enkephalin, ACTH, alpha-MSH and oxytocin. Other immunocytochemical features of the substantia innominata region include a dense band of peptide immunoreactivity beneath the medial aspect of the anterior commissure and islands of somatostatin and substance P terminal immunoreactivity in the rostral part of the substantia innominata. Somatostatin immunostained cell bodies have been located in a discrete area of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and in the rostral portion of the substantia innominata, nucleus accumbens and the ventral part of the putamen. The dense band of peptide immunoreactivity beneath the medial aspect of the anterior commissure consists of ribbon-like processes stained with antisera against somatostatin, substance P, cholecystokinin octapeptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and met-enkephalin. Less intense immunostaining of ribbon-like elements is also present in the globus pallidus. The presence of a peptidergic innervation to the nucleus of Meynert suggests a possible important modulatory role in cortical cholinergic function. Images Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 3 (cont.) Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2416723

  16. Peripheral osmotic stimulation inhibits the brain's innate immune response to microdialysis of acidic perfusion fluid adjacent to supraoptic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sanmei

    2009-01-01

    During the brain's innate immune response microglia, astroglia and ependymal cells resolve/repair damaged tissue and control infection. Released interleukin-1β (IL-1β) reaching cerebroventricles stimulates circumventricular organs (CVOs; subfornical organ, SFO; organum vasculosum lamina terminalis, OVLT), the median preoptic nucleus (MePO), and magnocellular and parvocellular neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. Hypertonic saline (HS) also activates these osmosensory CVOs and neuroendocrine systems, but, in contrast to IL-1β, inhibits the peripheral immune response. To examine whether the brain's innate immune response is attenuated by osmotic stimulation, sterile acidic perfusion fluid was microdialyzed (2 μl/min) in the SON area of conscious rats for 6 h with sterile HS (1.5 M NaCl) injected subcutaneously (15 ml/kg) at 5 h. Immunohistochemistry identified cytokine sources (IL-1β+; OX-42+ microglia) and targets (IL-1R+; inducible cyclooxygenase, COX-2+; c-Fos+) near the probe, in CVOs, MePO, ependymal cells, periventricular hypothalamus, SON, and PVN. Inserting the probe stimulated magnocellular neurons (c-Fos+; SON; PVN) via the MePO (c-Fos+), a response enhanced by HS. Microdialysis activated microglia (OX-42+; amoeboid/hypertrophied; IL-1β+) in the adjacent SON and bilaterally in perivascular areas of the PVN, periventricular hypothalamus and ependyma, coincident with c-Fos expression in ependymal cells and COX-2 in the vasculature. These microglial responses were attenuated by HS, coincident with activating parvocellular and magnocellular neuroendocrine systems and elevating circulating IL-1β, oxytocin, and vasopressin. Acidosis-induced cellular injury from microdialysis activated the brain's innate immune response by a mechanism inhibited by peripheral osmotic stimulation. PMID:19759333

  17. Xylem parenchyma cell walls lack a gravitropic response in conifer compression wood.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Lloyd A; Nanayakkara, B; Radotić, K; Djikanovic-Golubović, D; Mitrović, A; Bogdanović Pristov, J; Simonović Radosavljević, J; Kalauzi, A

    2015-12-01

    Cell wall fluorescence and immunocytochemistry demonstrate that xylem parenchyma cell walls do not show changes in structure and composition related to gravitropic response comparable to those of tracheids, even when they have lignified secondary cell walls. Tracheid cell walls in compression wood have altered composition and structure which generates the strain responsible for correction of stem lean as part of the gravitropic response of woody plants. Xylem parenchyma cell walls vary among conifer species and can be lignified secondary walls (spruce) or unlignified primary walls (pine). It can be expected that xylem parenchyma with lignified secondary cell walls might show features of compression wood comparable to those of tracheids that have a similar type of cell wall. A comparison of xylem parenchyma cell walls in normal and compression wood in species with lignified and non-lignified parenchyma cell walls provides a unique opportunity to understand the process of reaction wood formation in conifers. Using both UV/visible fluorescence microscopy of cell wall fluorophores and immunocytochemistry of galactan and mannan epitopes, we demonstrate that xylem parenchyma cell walls do not show the changes in composition and structure typical of compression wood tracheids. Adjacent cells of different types but with similar cell wall structure can undergo cell wall developmental changes related to support or defence functions independent of their neighbours. Tracheids are sensitive to gravitropic signals while xylem parenchyma cells are not.

  18. Progenitor/Stem Cell Markers in Brain Adjacent to Glioblastoma: GD3 Ganglioside and NG2 Proteoglycan Expression.

    PubMed

    Lama, Gina; Mangiola, Annunziato; Proietti, Gabriella; Colabianchi, Anna; Angelucci, Cristiana; D' Alessio, Alessio; De Bonis, Pasquale; Geloso, Maria Concetta; Lauriola, Libero; Binda, Elena; Biamonte, Filippo; Giuffrida, Maria Grazia; Vescovi, Angelo; Sica, Gigliola

    2016-02-01

    Characterization of tissue surrounding glioblastoma (GBM) is a focus for translational research because tumor recurrence invariably occurs in this area. We investigated the expression of the progenitor/stem cell markers GD3 ganglioside and NG2 proteoglycan in GBM, peritumor tissue (brain adjacent to tumor, BAT) and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) isolated from GBM (GCSCs) and BAT (PCSCs). GD3 and NG2 immunohistochemistry was performed in paired GBM and BAT specimens from 40 patients. Double-immunofluorescence was carried out to characterize NG2-positive cells of vessel walls. GD3 and NG2 expression was investigated in GCSCs and PCSCs whose tumorigenicity was also evaluated in Scid/bg mice. GD3 and NG2 expression was higher in tumor tissue than in BAT. NG2 decreased as the distance from tumor margin increased, regardless of the tumor cell presence, whereas GD3 correlated with neoplastic infiltration. In BAT, NG2 was coexpressed with a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) in pericytes and with nestin in the endothelium. Higher levels of NG2 mRNA and protein were found in GCSCs while GD3 synthase was expressed at similar levels in the 2 CSC populations. PCSCs had lower tumorigenicity than GCSCs. These data suggest the possible involvement of GD3 and NG2 in pre/pro-tumorigenic events occurring in the complex microenvironment of the tissue surrounding GBM.

  19. A mathematical model of lung parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Karakaplan, A D; Bieniek, M P; Skalak, R

    1980-05-01

    The geometry of the proposed model of the parenchyma of a mammalian lung reproduces a cluster of alveoli arranged around a lowest-level air duct. The alveolar walls are assumed to be nonlinear elastic membranes, whose properties are described in terms of a strain energy function which reflects the hardening character of the stress-strain curve. The effect of the surfactant is included in terms of a variable (area-dependent) surface tension. Analyses of various mechanical processes in the parenchyma are performed with the aid of the finite element method, with the geometric and physical nonlinearities of the problem taken into account.

  20. Effectiveness of hepatic parenchyma lithotomy of hepatolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, En Liang; Feng, Qian; Yang, Qing Ping; Liao, Wen Jun; Liu, Wang Wei; Huang, Yong; Wu, Lin Quan; Yin, Xiang Bao; Shao, Jiang Hua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the clinical significance of hepatic parenchyma incision by lithotomy near the second hepatic portal area for the treatment of complex hepatolithiasis. A retrospective study was conducted with 35 patients who had complicated hepatolithiasis in our hospital from January 2008 to December 2013, who underwent hepatic parenchyma incision by lithotomy near the second hepatic portal area. The perioperative and long-term outcomes included the stone clearance rate, operative morbidity and mortality, and the stone recurrence rate. Patients with a preoperative diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma were excluded from the study. All patients with hepatic duct stones were mainly located at S2, S4, and S8 regions. Surgical methods included were hepatic parenchyma incision by lithotomy near the second hepatic portal area, or by combined partial hepatectomy. The mean follow-up period was 51 months. One patient died during hospitalization. The surgical morbidity was 17.6%, stone clearance rate was 88.2%, and final clearance rate was 94.1% followed by postoperative choledochoscopic lithotripsy. The stone recurrence rate was 15.6% and the occurrence of postoperative cholangitis was 11.8% during the follow-up period. Hepatic parenchyma incision by lithotomy near the second hepatic portal area is safe with satisfactory short and long-term outcome results for complicated hepatolithiasis. PMID:28272201

  1. Colonization of second-trimester placenta parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Onderdonk, Andrew B; Hecht, Jonathan L; McElrath, Thomas F; Delaney, Mary L; Allred, Elizabeth N; Leviton, Alan

    2008-07-01

    The overtly healthy, nonpregnant uterus harbors bacteria, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma. The extent of colonization remains elusive, as are relationships between isolated microorganisms, preterm labor and fetal inflammation. Biopsy specimens of chorion parenchyma from 1083 placentas delivered before the beginning of the 28th week of gestation were cultured, and the placentas were examined histologically. The frequencies of individual microorganisms and groups of microorganisms were evaluated in strata of processes leading to preterm delivery, routes of delivery, gestational age, and placenta morphology. Placentas delivered by cesarean section with preeclampsia had the lowest bacterial recovery rate (25%). Preterm labor had the highest rates, which decreased with increasing gestational age from 79% at 23 weeks to 43% at 27 weeks. The presence of microorganisms in placenta parenchyma was associated with the presence of neutrophils in the fetal stem vessels of the chorion or in the vessels of the umbilical cord. The high rate of colonization appears to coincide with phenomena associated with preterm delivery and gestational age. The presence of microorganisms within placenta parenchyma is biologically important.

  2. Dissimilarity representations in lung parenchyma classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Lauge; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2009-02-01

    A good problem representation is important for a pattern recognition system to be successful. The traditional approach to statistical pattern recognition is feature representation. More specifically, objects are represented by a number of features in a feature vector space, and classifiers are built in this representation. This is also the general trend in lung parenchyma classification in computed tomography (CT) images, where the features often are measures on feature histograms. Instead, we propose to build normal density based classifiers in dissimilarity representations for lung parenchyma classification. This allows for the classifiers to work on dissimilarities between objects, which might be a more natural way of representing lung parenchyma. In this context, dissimilarity is defined between CT regions of interest (ROI)s. ROIs are represented by their CT attenuation histogram and ROI dissimilarity is defined as a histogram dissimilarity measure between the attenuation histograms. In this setting, the full histograms are utilized according to the chosen histogram dissimilarity measure. We apply this idea to classification of different emphysema patterns as well as normal, healthy tissue. Two dissimilarity representation approaches as well as different histogram dissimilarity measures are considered. The approaches are evaluated on a set of 168 CT ROIs using normal density based classifiers all showing good performance. Compared to using histogram dissimilarity directly as distance in a emph{k} nearest neighbor classifier, which achieves a classification accuracy of 92.9%, the best dissimilarity representation based classifier is significantly better with a classification accuracy of 97.0% (text{emph{p" border="0" class="imgtopleft"> = 0.046).

  3. Airway-parenchyma uncoupling in nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed

    Irvin, C G; Pak, J; Martin, R J

    2000-01-01

    Airway flow resistance is well known to be dependent upon lung volume. The rise in lung volume that occurs in asthma is therefore thought to be an important mechanism that defends airway patency. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the interdependence or mechanical coupling between airways and lung parenchyma during the inflammatory processes that occur in the patient with nocturnal asthma. Five patients with documented nocturnal asthma were studied in both a vertical and a horizontal body plethysmograph. Lung volume was altered with continuous negative pressure as applied to the chest wall with a poncho cuirass in different postures and during sleep. We found during the awake phase that an increase in lung volume decreased lower pulmonary resistance (Rlp); however, within 30 min of sleep onset, functional residual capacity (FRC) fell and Rlp rose more than would be expected for the fall in FRC. Restoring FRC to presleep values either at an early (half-hour) or a late (3-h) time point did not cause Rlp to significantly fall. A second phase of the study showed that the loss of Rlp dependence on lung volume was not due to the assumption of the supine posture. Indirect measurements of lung compliance were consistent with a stiffening of the lung. We conclude that with sleep there is an immediate uncoupling of the parenchyma to the airway, resulting in a loss of interdependence that persists throughout sleep and may contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with nocturnal asthma.

  4. Localization of phenolics in phloem parenchyma cells of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Hong; Nagy, Nina Elisabeth; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Krokene, Paal; Niu, Xue-Mei; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Schneider, Bernd

    2012-12-21

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) bark contains specialized phloem parenchyma cells that swell and change their contents upon attack by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its microbial associate, the blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica. These cells exhibit bright autofluorescence after treatment with standard aldehyde fixatives, and so have been postulated to contain phenolic compounds. Laser microdissection of spruce bark sections combined with cryogenic NMR spectroscopy demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of the stilbene glucoside astringin in phloem parenchyma cells than in adjacent sieve cells. After infection by C. polonica, the flavonoid (+)-catechin also appeared in phloem parenchyma cells and there was a decrease in astringin content compared to cells from uninfected trees. Analysis of whole-bark extracts confirmed the results obtained from the cell extracts and revealed a significant increase in dimeric stilbene glucosides, both astringin and isorhapontin derivatives (piceasides A to H), in fungus-infected versus uninfected bark that might explain the reduction in stilbene monomers. Phloem parenchyma cells thus appear to be a principal site of phenolic accumulation in spruce bark.

  5. Magnetization transfer and T2 quantitation in normal appearing cortical gray matter and white matter adjacent to focal abnormality in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Gupta, Rakesh K; Rao, Sajja B; Chawla, Sanjeev; Husain, Mazhar; Rathore, Ram K S

    2003-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the commonest causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries with posttraumatic epilepsy and functional disability being its major sequelae. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis whether the normal appearing adjacent gray and white matter regions on T2 and T1 weighted magnetization transfer (MT) weighted images show any abnormality on quantitative imaging in patients with TBI. A total of 51 patients with TBI and 10 normal subjects were included in this study. There were significant differences in T2 and MT ratio values of T2 weighted and T1 weighted MT normal appearing gray matter regions adjacent to focal image abnormality compared to normal gray matter regions in the normal individuals as corresponding contralateral regions of the TBI patient's group (p < 0.05). However the adjoining normal appearing white matter quantitative values did not show any significant change compared to the corresponding contralateral normal white matter values. We conclude that quantitative T2 and MT ratio values provide additional abnormality in patients with TBI that is not discernable on conventional T2 weighted and T1 weighted MT imaging especially in gray matter. This additional information may be of value in overall management of these patients with TBI.

  6. Elasticity of excised dog lung parenchyma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vawter, D. L.; Fung, Y. C.; West, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    An optical-electromechanical system is used to measure the force-deformation behavior of biaxially loaded rectangular slabs of excised dog lung parenchyma. In the course of the study, the effects of time, the consistency of reference lengths and areas, the presence of hysteresis, the necessity of preconditioning, the repeatability of results, the effects of lateral load, the effect of strain rate, the effect of pH, the influence of temperature, and the variations among specimens are considered. A new finding is that there is a change in elastic behavior when the tissue undergoes a compressive strain. When the tissue is in tension, increasing the lateral load decreases the compliance, whereas the opposite is true when compressive strain is present.

  7. Elasticity of excised dog lung parenchyma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vawter, D. L.; Fung, Y. C.; West, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    An optical-electromechanical system is used to measure the force-deformation behavior of biaxially loaded rectangular slabs of excised dog lung parenchyma. In the course of the study, the effects of time, the consistency of reference lengths and areas, the presence of hysteresis, the necessity of preconditioning, the repeatability of results, the effects of lateral load, the effect of strain rate, the effect of pH, the influence of temperature, and the variations among specimens are considered. A new finding is that there is a change in elastic behavior when the tissue undergoes a compressive strain. When the tissue is in tension, increasing the lateral load decreases the compliance, whereas the opposite is true when compressive strain is present.

  8. Estimation of gadolinium-induced T1-shortening with measurement of simple signal intensity ratio between the cochlea and brain parenchyma on 3D-FLAIR: correlation with T1 measurement by TI scout sequence.

    PubMed

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishihara, Shunichi; Iwano, Shingo; Kawai, Hisashi; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    T(1)-shortening of labyrinthine fluid on 3-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) has been reported in many inner ear disorders. Although semi-quantitative assessment by simple signal intensity ratio between cochlear fluid and brain tissue has been tried, its feasibility using a multi-channel phased-array head coil with an inherently inhomogenous sensitivity distribution has not been fully evaluated. We evaluated the feasibility of measuring simple signal intensity ratio by correlating rapid T(1) measurements using an inversion time (TI) scout sequence. We evaluated 10 patients with Meniere's disease and 4 patients with sudden deafness. Nine of the patients with Meniere's disease received a unilateral intratympanic injection of Gd-DTPA; the tenth patient received bilateral injections. The 4 patients with sudden deafness received a double-dose intravenous injection. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained 24 hours after intratympanic injections and 4 hours after intravenous injections at 3 tesla using a 32-channel head coil. We measured the ratio (CM ratio) between the signal intensity of the perilymph in the cochlea (C) and that of the medulla oblongata (M) and correlated it with the null-point inversion time (TI(null)) obtained with the TI scout sequence. The TI scout consisted of 85 images obtained with TI values between 132.5 and 3087.5 ms at increments of 37.5 ms. The correlation coefficient between TI(null) and the natural logarithm of the CM ratio was -0.88 (P<0.01). There was significant negative linear correlation. Measurement of the simple signal intensity ratio between the cochlea and the medulla can be used for semi-quantitative analysis of 3D-FLAIR. The results of this study may facilitate clinical research of inner-ear disease using 3D-FLAIR.

  9. CD11c-expressing cells reside in the juxtavascular parenchyma and extend processes into the glia limitans of the mouse nervous system.

    PubMed

    Prodinger, Carolin; Bunse, Jörg; Krüger, Martin; Schiefenhövel, Fridtjof; Brandt, Christine; Laman, Jon D; Greter, Melanie; Immig, Kerstin; Heppner, Frank; Becher, Burkhard; Bechmann, Ingo

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that primary immune responses can be induced within the brain depending on vessel-associated cells expressing markers of dendritic cells (DC). Using mice transcribing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the promoter of the DC marker CD11c, we determined the distribution, phenotype, and source of CD11c+ cells in non-diseased brains. Predilection areas of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions (periventricular area, adjacent fibre tracts, and optical nerve) were preferentially populated by CD11c+ cells. Most CD11c+ cells were located within the juxtavascular parenchyma rather than the perivascular spaces. Virtually all CD11c+ cells co-expressed ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA-1), CD11b, while detectable levels of major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) in non-diseased mice was restricted to CD11c+ cells of the choroid plexus. Cellular processes project into the glia limitans which may allow transport and/or presentation of intraparenchymal antigens to extravasated T cells in perivascular spaces. In chimeric mice bearing CD11c-GFP bone marrow, fluorescent cells appeared in the CNS between 8 and 12 weeks after transplantation. In organotypic slice cultures from CD11c-GFP mice, the number of fluorescent cells strongly increased within 72 h. Strikingly, using anti-CD209, an established marker for human DC, a similar population was detected in human brains. Thus, we show for the first time that CD11c+ cells can not only be recruited from the blood into the parenchyma, but also develop from an intraneural precursor in situ. Dysbalance in their recruitment/development may be an initial step in the pathogenesis of chronic (autoimmune) neuroinflammatory diseases such as MS.

  10. Cell orientation in potato tuber parenchyma tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Marek; Konstankiewicz, Krystyna; Zgórska, Kazimiera

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents the results of the research of the size and shape of parenchyma tissue cells in potato tubers depending on the direction and site of sampling in tubers. An optical confocal microscope was used to observe samples in their natural state. The investigation was carried out for 1 mm thick samples cut from cylindrical samples (10x10 mm)taken in two mutually perpendicular directions of the inner and outer core of each variety. The analysis was done ten times.The methods developed for the composition and image analysis ensure obtaining a sufficient number of cells to determine tissue structure parameters (surface, shape, elongation and number of cells per 1 mm2) and decays of these parameters were obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using the λ-Kolmogorov-Smirnov compliance test.Arelationship between the direction of sampling and the size and shape of the inner core of cells was found. Greater surface area and elongation of the inner core cells for the longitudinal direction in the tuber (stolon - top) was demonstrated. There was no such a correlation for the outer core in the tubers of the cultivars examined.

  11. Frequent p53 mutation in brain (fetal)-type glycogen phosphorylase positive foci adjacent to human ‘de novo’olorectal carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, S; Shiomori, K; Tashima, S; Tsuruta, J; Ogawa, M

    2001-01-01

    ‘de novo’ carcinogenesis has been advocated besides ‘adenoma carcinoma sequence’ as another dominant pathway leading to colorectal carcinoma. Our recent study has demonstrated that the distribution of brain (fetal)-type glycogen phosphorylase (BGP) positive foci (BGP foci) has a close relationship with the location of ‘de novo’ carcinoma. The aims of the present study are to investigate genetic alteration in the BGP foci and to characterize them in the ‘de novo’ carcinogenesis. 17 colorectal carcinomas without any adenoma component expressing both immunoreactive p53 and BGP protein were selected from 96 resected specimens from our previous study. Further investigations to examine the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labelling index, and the p53 and the codon 12 of K-ras mutation using the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism were performed in the BGP foci, BGP negative mucosa and carcinoma. The BGP foci were observed sporadically in the transitional mucosa adjacent to the carcinoma in all cases. The PCNA labelling index in the BGP foci was significantly higher than that in the BGP negative mucosa (P< 0.001). p53 mutations were observed in 8 carcinomas, but no K-ras mutation was detected. Interestingly, although none of the overexpressions of p53 protein was detected immunohistochemically in the BGP positive foci, the p53 gene frequently (41.2% of the BGP foci tested) mutated in spite of no K-ras mutation. The present study demonstrates potentially premalignant foci in the colorectal transitional mucosa with frequent p53 gene mutation. It is suggested that BGP foci are promising candidates for the further investigation of ‘de novo’ colorectal carcinogenesis. © 2001Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11384100

  12. Improved pulmonary nodule classification utilizing lung parenchyma texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilger, S. K.; Judisch, A.; Uthoff, J.; Hammond, E.; Newell, J. D.; Sieren, J. C.

    2015-03-01

    Current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) models, developed to determine the malignancy of pulmonary nodules, characterize the nodule's shape, density, and border. Analyzing the lung parenchyma surrounding the nodule is an area that has been minimally explored. We hypothesize that improved classification of nodules can be achieved through the inclusion of features quantified from the surrounding lung tissue. From computed tomography (CT) data, feature extraction techniques were developed to quantify the parenchymal and nodule textures, including a three-dimensional application of Laws' Texture Energy Measures. Border irregularity was investigated using ray-casting and rubber-band straightening techniques, while histogram features characterized the densities of the nodule and parenchyma. The feature set was reduced by stepwise feature selection to a few independent features that best summarized the dataset. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, a neural network was used for classification. The CAD tool was applied to 50 nodules (22 malignant, 28 benign) from high-resolution CT scans. 47 features, including 39 parenchymal features, were statistically significant, with both nodule and parenchyma features selected for classification, yielding an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.935. This was compared to classification solely based on the nodule yielding an AUC of 0.917. These preliminary results show an increase in performance when the surrounding parenchyma is included in analysis. While modest, the improvement and large number of significant parenchyma features supports our hypothesis that the parenchyma contains meaningful data that can assist in CAD development.

  13. Destruction of renal parenchyma at percutaneous nephrolithotripsy; experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Y; Shima, H; Mori, Y; Ikoma, F

    1989-07-01

    The destruction of renal parenchyma caused by excess deflection of the sheath was examined to determine at what level of force the renal parenchyma was ruptured during PNL. The kidney obtained from right nephroureterectomy due to renal pelvic cancer (stage T2N0M0) of a 54-year-old female patient was punctured at the posterolateral portion with a puncture needle. The tract was dilated up to 26 Fr. in size with an Amplatz renal dilation set. The 26 Fr. sheath was left in the tract and fixed to the metal bar attached to Gig Boring Machine (Hydroptic-6) which could sense the change of pressure added to the renal parenchyma in the parallel movement of the metal bar. The critical angle in regard to the deflection of the renal parenchyma in order not to cause the rupture of renal parenchyma on PNL was calculated from both the resultant force and the shape of the wound of renal parenchyma at rupture. The safety angle against horizontal plane of the tract ranged from 18 to 37 degree.

  14. Tissue motion and strain in the human brain assessed by intraoperative ultrasound in glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Selbekk, Tormod; Brekken, Reidar; Solheim, Ole; Lydersen, Stian; Hernes, Toril A N; Unsgaard, Geirmund

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate tissue motion and strain imposed by cardiovascular pulsation in pathologic and normal brain parenchyma, as quantified from in vivo ultrasound data. Ultrasound acquired during surgery of 16 patients with glial tumors was retrospectively processed and analyzed. The tissue velocity was quantified at depths of 1cm, 2cm and 3cm from brain cortex to investigate spatial dependency with depth. Comparison of strain and velocity in tumor and adjacent normal parenchyma was performed by selecting two regions-of-interest in the hyperechoic tumor and two regions in the low-echogenic areas interpreted as mainly normal tissue with some degree of tumor cell infiltration. The absolute maximum tissue velocity is seen to increase with increasing depths in 14 of 16 cases (87.5%). The maximum tissue velocities in the four regions close to the ultrasound visible tumor border are not statistically different (p=0.163 to p=0.975). The strain magnitudes are significantly higher in the regions with expected normal brain parenchyma than in regions with expected glial tumor tissue, both for the two regions being closest to the tumor border (p=0.0004) and for the two regions further away from the tumor border (p=0.0009). We conclude that the velocity of the brain parenchyma imposed by arterial pulsation during a cardiac cycle is generally increasing with increasing depth from cortex. The maximum velocity appears to be similar in regions with expected normal brain and tumor tissue, thus, does not seem to be affected by pathology. Strain magnitude is, however, a suitable parameter for discrimination of glial tumor and normal brain parenchyma. (E-mail: Tormod.Selbekk@sintef.no).

  15. The Five Ps of Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment: Parenchyma, Pipes, Perfusion, Penumbra, and Prevention of Complications

    PubMed Central

    Felberg, Robert A.; Naidech, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Stroke is a treatable disease. Despite the therapeutic nihilism of the past, the advent of thrombolysis has changed the way stroke treatment is approached. Acute ischemic stroke is a challenging and heterogeneous disease, and treatment must be based on an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of ischemia. Interventions are designed to improve neuronal salvage and outcome. The underlying tenets of stroke therapy focus on the brain parenchyma, arterial flow (pipes), perfusion, the ischemic milieu or penumbra, and prevention of complications. This article focuses on the practical issues of ischemic stroke care with a brief review of supporting literature. PMID:22470250

  16. Rapid loss of renal parenchyma after acute obstruction.

    PubMed

    Parvex, P; Pippi-Salle, J L; Goodyer, P R

    2001-12-01

    Urinary tract obstruction (UTO) is a frequent cause of renal failure in the pediatric population. We report a patient with type I/I cystinuria, followed prospectively from birth with yearly ultrasonography, who developed acute UTO due to a cystine stone at 10 years of age. In animal models of UTO, acute obstruction produces rapid loss of renal parenchyma secondary to apoptosis of tubular cells. Since we had prospectively obtained serial ultrasonographic measurements of renal growth, we were able to document sudden decrease in kidney size and function following UTO, suggesting that programmed cell death may similarly have caused the rapid irreversible loss of renal parenchyma in our patient. Despite surgical relief of the obstruction, kidney size decreased for at least 3-4 months. We speculate that anti-apoptotic drugs might be considered as a therapeutic strategy to protect ongoing renal parenchyma loss in UTO.

  17. Experimental Evidence of Mechanical Isotropy in Porcine Lung Parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Benjamin; Patnaik, Sourav; Rougeau-Browning, Mary; Brazile, Bryn; Liao, Jun; Prabhu, Raj; Williams, Lakiesha N.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary injuries are a major source of morbidity and mortality associated with trauma. Trauma includes injuries associated with accidents and falls as well as blast injuries caused by explosives. The prevalence and mortality of these injuries has made research of pulmonary injury a major priority. Lungs have a complex structure, with multiple types of tissues necessary to allow successful respiration. The soft, porous parenchyma is the component of the lung which contains the alveoli responsible for gas exchange. Parenchyma is also the portion which is most susceptible to traumatic injury. Finite element simulations are an important tool for studying traumatic injury to the human body. These simulations rely on material properties to accurately recreate real world mechanical behaviors. Previous studies have explored the mechanical properties of lung tissues, specifically parenchyma. These studies have assumed material isotropy but, to our knowledge, no study has thoroughly tested and quantified this assumption. This study presents a novel methodology for assessing isotropy in a tissue, and applies these methods to porcine lung parenchyma. Briefly, lung parenchyma samples were dissected so as to be aligned with one of the three anatomical planes, sagittal, frontal, and transverse, and then subjected to compressive mechanical testing. Stress-strain curves from these tests were statistically compared by a novel method for differences in stresses and strains at percentages of the curve. Histological samples aligned with the anatomical planes were also examined by qualitative and quantitative methods to determine any differences in the microstructural morphology. Our study showed significant evidence to support the hypothesis that lung parenchyma behaves isotropically.

  18. Giant cystic Virchow-Robin spaces with adjacent white matter signal alteration.

    PubMed

    Wani, Nisar A; Mir, Farooq; Bhat, Irshad M; Gojwari, Tariq; Bhat, Salma

    2011-01-01

    Perivascular spaces surround the small arteries and veins as they enter into the brain parenchyma from the subarachnoid spaces. Also called as Virchow-Robin spaces, these are prominent in the basal ganglia and high convexity white matter of the elderly. Occasionally VR spaces may get massively enlarged and may mimic a cystic mass lesion. The typical CSF-like signal intensity of the cysts and location on MRI, in the absence of a neurological abnormality help in the diagnosis of the giant VR spaces and thus biopsy is avoided. Typically there is no significant adjacent brain abnormality; however FLAIR images may sometimes reveal perilesional white matter hyperintensity, which may be an indication of gliosis due to the mass effect of the lesion. Such a signal alteration should not deter one from making a diagnosis of giant Virchow-Robin spaces when the rest of the imaging findings are typical. We describe a case of a 50-year-old female with incidental giant Virchow-Robin spaces in the right hemispheric subcortical white matter with adjacent white matter hyperintense signal intensity on T2-weighted and FLAIR images.

  19. Improved pulmonary nodule classification utilizing quantitative lung parenchyma features.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Samantha K N; Uthoff, Johanna; Judisch, Alexandra; Hammond, Emily; Mott, Sarah L; Smith, Brian J; Newell, John D; Hoffman, Eric A; Sieren, Jessica C

    2015-10-01

    Current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) models for determining pulmonary nodule malignancy characterize nodule shape, density, and border in computed tomography (CT) data. Analyzing the lung parenchyma surrounding the nodule has been minimally explored. We hypothesize that improved nodule classification is achievable by including features quantified from the surrounding lung tissue. To explore this hypothesis, we have developed expanded quantitative CT feature extraction techniques, including volumetric Laws texture energy measures for the parenchyma and nodule, border descriptors using ray-casting and rubber-band straightening, histogram features characterizing densities, and global lung measurements. Using stepwise forward selection and leave-one-case-out cross-validation, a neural network was used for classification. When applied to 50 nodules (22 malignant and 28 benign) from high-resolution CT scans, 52 features (8 nodule, 39 parenchymal, and 5 global) were statistically significant. Nodule-only features yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.918 (including nodule size) and 0.872 (excluding nodule size). Performance was improved through inclusion of parenchymal (0.938) and global features (0.932). These results show a trend toward increased performance when the parenchyma is included, coupled with the large number of significant parenchymal features that support our hypothesis: the pulmonary parenchyma is influenced differentially by malignant versus benign nodules, assisting CAD-based nodule characterizations.

  20. Retained wooden foreign body in lung parenchyma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mohamadi, Afshin; Khodabakhsh, Maryam

    2010-09-01

    Despite advances in imaging techniques, the detection of retained wooden foreign bodies remains a difficult and challenging task. The detection of wood is especially important because it may serve as a nidus for superimposed infection. The initial examination may mimic malignancy. We report a rare case of retained wooden foreign body in the lung parenchyma that was found on chest X-ray and computerized tomography as a thick wall cavity. Surgical resection was performed and a wooden particle was revealed. Review of the literature shows that presence of wooden foreign bodies in the lung parenchyma is quite rare and may present with a wide variety of densities. We conclude that foreign body should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unusual lung opacity, and it must be resected on an urgent basis due to the risk of recurrent infection.

  1. A new boundary correction method for lung parenchyma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junfang; Jiang, Huiqin; Ma, Ling; Liu, Yumin; Toshiya, Nakaguchi

    2017-02-01

    In order to repair the boundary depressions caused by juxtapleural nodules and improve the lung segmentation accuracy, we propose a new boundary correction method for lung parenchyma. Firstly, the top-hat filter is used to enhance the image contrast; Secondly, we employ the Ostu algorithm for image binarization; Thirdly, the connected component labeling algorithm is utilized to remove the main trachea; Fourthly, the initial mask image is obtained by morphological region filling algorithm; Fifthly, the boundary tracing algorithm is applied to extract the initial lung contour; Afterwards, we design a sudden change degree algorithm to modify the initial lung contour; Finally, the complete lung parenchyma image is obtained. The novelty is that sudden change degree algorithm can detect the inflection points more accurately than other methods, which contributes to repairing lung contour efficiently. The experimental results show that the proposed method can incorporate the juxtapleural nodules into the lung parenchyma effectively, and the precision is increased by 6.46% and 2.72% respectively compared with the other two methods, providing favorable conditions for the accurate detection of pulmonary nodules and having important clinical value.

  2. A tree-parenchyma coupled model for lung ventilation simulation.

    PubMed

    Pozin, N; Montesantos, S; Katz, I; Pichelin, M; Vignon-Clementel, I; Grandmont, C

    2017-02-22

    In this article we develop a lung-ventilation model. The parenchyma is described as an elastic homogenized media. It is irrigated by a space-filling dyadic resistive pipe network, which represents the tracheo-bronchial tree. In this model the tree and the parenchyma are strongly coupled. The tree induces an extra viscous term in the system constitutive relation, which leads, in the finite element framework, to a full matrix. We consider an efficient algorithm that takes advantage of the tree structure to enable a fast matrix-vector product computation. This framework can be used to model both free and mechanically induced respiration, in health and disease. Patient-specific lung geometries acquired from CT scans are considered. Realistic Dirichlet boundary conditions can be deduced from surface registration on CT images. The model is compared to a more classical exit-compartment approach. Results illustrate the coupling between the tree and the parenchyma, at global and regional levels, and how conditions for the purely 0D model can be inferred. Different types of boundary conditions are tested, including a nonlinear Robin model of the surrounding lung structures.

  3. DMD and IL1RAPL1: two large adjacent genes localized within a common fragile site (FRAXC) have reduced expression in cultured brain tumors.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, S; Ganapathiraju, S; Perez, D S; James, C D; Smith, D I

    2007-01-01

    Common fragile sites (CFSs) are large regions of profound genomic instability found in all individuals. Spanning the center of the two most frequently expressed CFS regions, FRA3B (3p14.3) and FRA16D (16q23.2), are the 1.5 Mb FHIT gene and the 1.0 Mb WWOX gene. These genes are frequently deleted and/or altered in many different cancers. Both FHIT and WWOX have been demonstrated to function as tumor suppressors, both in vitro and in vivo. A number of other large CFS genes have been identified and are also frequently inactivated in multiple cancers. Based on these data, several additional very large genes were tested to determine if they were derived from within CFS regions, but DCC and RAD51L1 were not. However, the 2.0 Mb DMD gene and its immediately distal neighbor, the 1.8 Mb IL1RAPL1 gene are CFS genes contained within the FRAXC CFS region (Xp21.2-->p21.1). They are abundantly expressed in normal brain but were dramatically underexpressed in every brain tumor cell line and xenograft (derived from an intracranial model of glioblastoma multiforme) examined. We studied the expression of eleven other large CFS genes in the same panel of brain tumor cell lines and xenografts and found reduced expression of multiple large CFS genes in these samples. In this report we show that there is selective loss of specific large CFS genes in different cancers that does not appear to be mediated by the relative instability within different CFS regions. Further, the inactivation of multiple large CFS genes in xenografts and brain tumor cell lines may help to explain why this type of cancer is highly aggressive and associated with a poor clinical outcome.

  4. Interstitial laser photocoagulation of normal lung parenchyma in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, D; Buonaccorsi, G; Hanby, A; Hetzel, M; Bown, S

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Management of peripheral lung tumours may be risky in patients with poor lung function or in the elderly. A new possibility is interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) in which tumours are gently coagulated using thin laser fibres placed percutaneously under radiological guidance. This could have a useful palliative role in selected patients, but to be safe the effects on normal lung parenchyma must first be understood. This paper describes the creation and healing of ILP lesions in the normal rat lung.
METHODS—ILP was performed using single laser fibres placed percutaneously in the left lung of normal rats under general anaesthetic with radiological guidance (laser power 1-3 W at 805 nm, treatment time 250-1000 s). The lesion size and healing were studied in rats killed at times from three days to six months after treatment, the bursting pressure was measured, and any complications noted.
RESULTS—Zones of necrosis up to 12 mm in diameter were produced, the size depending on the laser power and treatment time. Histological examination showed typical thermal effects with complete healing with fibrosis by two months. The effect was very localised with remarkably little effect on the structure and function of the rest of the lung. Adverse effects in the lung parenchyma only occurred if the ILP lesion involved the hilar vessels or the oesophagus, causing pulmonary congestion and perforation, respectively. Pneumothorax was seen in 6% of cases.
CONCLUSIONS—ILP with a single fibre can produce a localised zone of necrosis in normal lung parenchyma which heals safely and which has little effect on the rest of the lung. Further study of this technique using multiple fibres in a larger animal model is warranted to see if it is feasible and safe to produce a large enough volume of necrosis to be of value in the treatment of small peripheral lung tumours in patients who are unsuitable for surgery or palliative radiotherapy.

 PMID:9828858

  5. Infrared Thermographic Profiles Of Vessel Sealing Devices On Thyroid Parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Carter T.; Zarebczan, Barbara; Alhefdhi, Amal; Chen, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Introduction During thyroid lobectomy, division of the thyroid parenchyma has traditionally been accomplished using suture ligation. Development of hemostatic techniques in the forms of ultrasonic dissection (UD) and electronic vessel sealing (EVS) have increased the usage of these devices during thyroid operations. We sought to characterize the thermal profile of each of these devices when used to divide the parenchyma of the thyroid gland. Methods Using a porcine model, the parenchyma of the gland was then sealed by alternating application of the UD and EVS devices. In each case the thermal activity was recorded using infrared thermal imaging. We performed multiple seals with each instrument and then compared the thermal profiles. Results There was no significant difference in lateral thermal spread of EVS and UD above 39, 40 or 60 degrees Celsius (2.30±0.31mm vs. 2.53±0.47mm, P=0.26; 2.22±0.27mm vs. 2.47±0.47mm, P=0.22; and 1.37±0.27mm vs. 1.54±0.26mm, P=0.22). There was no significant difference in mean time above 39, or 40 degrees Celsius (35.1±8.7s vs. 31.7±9.3s, p=0.47 and 29.9±8.1s vs. 27.3±6.7s, p=0.50). UD reached a greater maximum temperature (179.12±0.0008C vs. 96.52±5.6C, p=<0.001) and stayed over 60 degrees Celcius for longer than EVS (9.5±1.8s vs. 5.3±0.97s, p=<0.001). Conclusions The amount of lateral spread of thermal energy was not significantly different between the UD and EVS devices. However, the use of UD produced a higher maximum temperature during thyroid parenchyma sealing and remained above 60 degrees longer than EVS. This may translate into greater thermal injury to thyroid and surrounding tissues during division. PMID:21529840

  6. [MRI of the pulmonary parenchyma: Towards clinical applicability?

    PubMed

    Dournes, G; Macey, J; Blanchard, E; Berger, P; Laurent, F

    2017-02-01

    Lung parenchyma has long been considered out of the scope of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clinical applicability. However, technological advances have emerged to soluce the technical difficulties and thus, applications in clinical practice have become realistic. Nevertheless, various approaches have been proposed and there is a need to synthetize the most recent literature data in order to envision a rationale to build lung MR protocols for clinical use. In addition, these technological innovations may modify the usual paradigms of lung MRI, which are still not consensual. Thus, lung MR protocols appear to be heterogeneous across expert centers in the current context. In this literature review, we ought to describe a rationale on the need to get an alternative to ionizing imaging modalities, in particular in the follow-up of patients with chronic lung diseases. We will describe the most recent technical advances regarding both morphological and functional MRI. Finally, we will conclude on the clinical applicability of MRI of the pulmonary parenchyma, as a routine or research tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Slazinski, Tess

    2013-09-01

    A brain abscess is defined as a localized collection of pus within the parenchyma of the brain or meninges. Brain abscesses are a complication of ear, sinus, and/or dental infections. Although they may occur in many brain locations, the most common sites are frontal and temporal lobes. Modern neuroimaging and laboratory analysis have led to prompt diagnosis and have decreased the mortality rates from brain abscess. Critical care nurses have a vital role in performing accurate neurologic assessments, timely administration of antibiotics, and management of fever. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing Conifer Ray Parenchyma for Ecological Studies: Pitfalls and Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    von Arx, Georg; Arzac, Alberto; Olano, José M.; Fonti, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Ray parenchyma is an essential tissue for tree functioning and survival. This living tissue plays a major role for storage and transport of water, nutrients, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), thus regulating xylem hydraulics and growth. However, despite the importance of rays for tree carbon and water relations, methodological challenges hamper knowledge about ray intra- and inter-tree variability and its ecological meaning. In this study we provide a methodological toolbox for soundly quantifying spatial and temporal variability of different ray features. Anatomical ray features were surveyed in different cutting planes (cross-sectional, tangential, and radial) using quantitative image analysis on stem-wood micro-sections sampled from 41 mature Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris). The percentage of ray surface (PERPAR), a proxy for ray volume, was compared among cutting planes and between early- and latewood to assess measurement-induced variability. Different tangential ray metrics were correlated to assess their similarities. The accuracy of cross-sectional and tangential measurements for PERPAR estimates as a function of number of samples and the measured wood surface was assessed using bootstrapping statistical technique. Tangential sections offered the best 3D insight of ray integration into the xylem and provided the most accurate estimates of PERPAR, with 10 samples of 4 mm2 showing an estimate within ±6.0% of the true mean PERPAR (relative 95% confidence interval, CI95), and 20 samples of 4 mm2 showing a CI95 of ±4.3%. Cross-sections were most efficient for establishment of time series, and facilitated comparisons with other widely used xylem anatomical features. Earlywood had significantly lower PERPAR (5.77 vs. 6.18%) and marginally fewer initiating rays than latewood. In comparison to tangential sections, PERPAR was systematically overestimated (6.50 vs. 4.92%) and required approximately twice the sample area for similar accuracy. Radial cuttings

  9. Assessing Conifer Ray Parenchyma for Ecological Studies: Pitfalls and Guidelines.

    PubMed

    von Arx, Georg; Arzac, Alberto; Olano, José M; Fonti, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Ray parenchyma is an essential tissue for tree functioning and survival. This living tissue plays a major role for storage and transport of water, nutrients, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), thus regulating xylem hydraulics and growth. However, despite the importance of rays for tree carbon and water relations, methodological challenges hamper knowledge about ray intra- and inter-tree variability and its ecological meaning. In this study we provide a methodological toolbox for soundly quantifying spatial and temporal variability of different ray features. Anatomical ray features were surveyed in different cutting planes (cross-sectional, tangential, and radial) using quantitative image analysis on stem-wood micro-sections sampled from 41 mature Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris). The percentage of ray surface (PERPAR), a proxy for ray volume, was compared among cutting planes and between early- and latewood to assess measurement-induced variability. Different tangential ray metrics were correlated to assess their similarities. The accuracy of cross-sectional and tangential measurements for PERPAR estimates as a function of number of samples and the measured wood surface was assessed using bootstrapping statistical technique. Tangential sections offered the best 3D insight of ray integration into the xylem and provided the most accurate estimates of PERPAR, with 10 samples of 4 mm(2) showing an estimate within ±6.0% of the true mean PERPAR (relative 95% confidence interval, CI95), and 20 samples of 4 mm(2) showing a CI95 of ±4.3%. Cross-sections were most efficient for establishment of time series, and facilitated comparisons with other widely used xylem anatomical features. Earlywood had significantly lower PERPAR (5.77 vs. 6.18%) and marginally fewer initiating rays than latewood. In comparison to tangential sections, PERPAR was systematically overestimated (6.50 vs. 4.92%) and required approximately twice the sample area for similar accuracy. Radial cuttings

  10. A high voltage electrical burn of lung parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Masanès, M J; Gourbière, E; Prudent, J; Lioret, N; Febvre, M; Prévot, S; Lebeau, B

    2000-11-01

    High voltage electrical trauma may cause severe visceral injuries. We report a case of direct electrical injury to the lung parenchyma, without evidence of any thoracic wall contact injury, in an electrician who sustained a 20 kV-electrical shock while working in a substation cubicle. The diagnosis of a true electrical burn of the left lower lobe was suggested early on by imaging and then confirmed by surgical exploration, histological findings and the significant improvement of the patient's condition following resection of the infarcted lobe. All possible causes of bronchial and pulmonary pathologies in such a context were ruled out. The fatal outcome of two previous similar cases and the generally high mortality of any electrical visceral injury support early surgical management as the only rational life-saving treatment. Current pathophysiological knowledge substantiates the theory of an isolated visceral injury located far away from the contact wounds. However, the pathogenesis of such severe injuries is not entirely understood.

  11. Aberrant hepatic arteries running through pancreatic parenchyma encountered during pancreatoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Jianwei; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Zongli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Aberrant hepatic arteries (HAs) encountered during pancreatoduodenectomy are difficult to manage. Mehtods: Two cases with rare types of aberrant HA running through the pancreatic parenchyma were reviewed. Results: The first case, a 68-year-old man, was admitted with obstructive jaundice. A tumor of the pancreatic head and aberrant HAs were suspected on computed tomography (CT) scan. At laparotomy, a new variation was identified; namely, 2 aberrant arteries—a right replaced HA and middle HA (RMHA) that both originated from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and ran via intrapancreatic paths posterior and anterior to the pancreatic head, respectively. Branches of the RMHA to the pancreas were ligated and severed and the trunk preserved. The RMHA was mistakenly identified as an aberrant left HA (RLHA), whereas the RLHA was overlooked and not dissected intraoperatively. CT angiography performed 11 days postoperatively identified that the RLHA originated from the left gastric artery (LGA). The second case had a variation of Michels IX. A 58-year-old woman presented with obstructive jaundice and a distal cholangiocarcinoma was suspected on the basis of enhanced CT scan. At laparotomy, the common hepatic artery (CHA) was found to originate entirely from the SMA and run posterior to the pancreatic head via an intrapancreatic path. The segment of CHA in the pancreatic parenchyma was removed and reconstructed with the LGA. Conclusions: Preoperative identification of aberrant HAs helps in planning appropriate operative procedures and minimizing unnecessary complications. Both preservation and reconstruction of these arteries are technically safe and feasible; however, preservation is preferable. PMID:27930504

  12. IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor of the renal pelvis involving renal parenchyma, mimicking malignancy.

    PubMed

    Park, Ho Gyun; Kim, Kyoung Min

    2016-01-22

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized systemic disease characterized by storiform fibrosis with infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells. In rare incidences, IgG4-related renal disease can present as a solitary mass lesion at renal pelvis and can pose a diagnostic challenge since these lesions mimic malignancy. Herein, we present a rare case of IgG4-related disease presenting as inflammatory pseudotumor lesion, involving the renal pelvis and also neighboring renal parenchyma. A 75-year-old man with no history of IgG4-related disease underwent computed tomography (CT) scan for evaluation of prostatic cancer. The CT scan incidentally revealed a mass lesion located at the right renal pelvis. Radiologic findings were highly suggestive of malignancy. Therefore, the patient underwent right nephroureterectomy. Microscopically, the mass lesion showed storiform fibrosis with diffuse and intense inflammatory cell infiltration. Infiltrating cells were mainly histiocytes and plasma cells. Tubulointerstitium adjacent to the lesion also showed fibrosis with abundant plasmacytic infiltration. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of IgG4-positive plasma cells in both the mass lesion and tubulointerstitium (mean of 94/HPF per field). Considering these findings, we diagnosed the mass lesion as IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor of the renal pelvis. In patients with renal pelvic masses, IgG4-related inflammatory pesudotumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention.

  13. Lung parenchyma remodeling in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rocco, P R M; Dos Santos, C; Pelosi, P

    2009-12-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the most severe manifestation of acute lung injury (ALI), is described as a stereotyped response to lung injury with a transition from alveolar capillary damage to a fibroproliferative phase. Most ARDS patients survive the acute initial phase of lung injury and progress to either reparation of the lesion or evolution of the syndrome. Despite advances in the management of ARDS, mortality remains high (40%) and autopsies show extended pulmonary fibrosis in 55% of patients, suggesting the importance of deregulated repair in the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Factors influencing progression to fibroproliferative ARDS versus resolution and reconstitution of the normal pulmonary parenchymal architecture are poorly understood. Abnormal repair and remodeling may be profoundly affected by both environmental and genetic factors. In this line, mechanical ventilation may affect the macromolecules that constitute the extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin, fibronectin, laminin, proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycans), suffer changes and impact the biomechanical behavior of lung parenchyma. Furthermore, evidence suggests that acute inflammation and fibrosis may be partially independent and/or interacting processes that are autonomously regulated, and thus amenable to individual and specific therapies. In this review, we explore recent advances in the field of fibroproliferative ARDS/ALI, with special emphasis on 1) the physiological properties of the extracellular matrix, 2) the mechanisms of remodeling, 3) the impact of mechanical ventilation on lung fibrotic response, and (4) therapeutic interventions in the remodeling process.

  14. HURTLE CELLS IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ACTIVITIES IN HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS PARENCHYMA.

    PubMed

    Tsagareli, Z; Kvachadze, T; Melikadze, E; Metreveli, L; Nikobadze, E; Gogiashvili, L

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the participation and utility of Hǘrtle cells morphological requirment and transformation under Hashimoto autoimmune thyroiditis versus Riedel´s struma. Several markers have been evaluated to detect induced activities of Hǘrtle cells. Study subject - specimens (tissue fragments) collected from TG surgery (thyroidectomy) for mollecular (receptor) diagnosis of Hǘrtle cells activities using routine histological and immunohistochemical samples. 89 cases were selected in Hashimoto thyroiditis diagnosis with Hǘrtle cells history (adenoma and adenomatous grouth of oncocytes). Markers as: TSH receptors, TTF-1, S-100 protein, also anti-TPO and anti-TG levels in blood plasm were detected. It was shown that solid cell claster-nests like agregation of oncocytes and adenomatous growth foci in parafollicular areas with anti-TPO and anti-TG antibodies levels arising while Riedel´s struma shown only large intra- and extra glandular inflammatory proliferative fibrosing process. Large positive expression of TTF-1 and S-100 protein and the negative reaction of TSH receptor factor suggest that Thyroid parenchyma disorganization and mollecular biological atypia with Hǘrtle cells are proceses due to hypothyreoidismus, as well as neuroectodermal cells prominent activities in 70% of Hashimoto cases.

  15. Low-dose high-resolution CT of lung parenchyma

    SciTech Connect

    Zwirewich, C.V.; Mayo, J.R.; Mueller, N.L. )

    1991-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of low-dose high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the assessment of lung parenchyma, three observers reviewed the scans of 31 patients. The 1.5-mm-collimation, 2-second, 120-kVp scans were obtained at 20 and 200 mA at selected identical levels in the chest. The observers evaluated the visualization of normal pulmonary anatomy, various parenchymal abnormalities and their distribution, and artifacts. The low-dose and conventional scans were equivalent in the evaluation of vessels, lobar and segmental bronchi, and anatomy of secondary pulmonary lobules, and in characterizing the extent and distribution of reticulation, honeycomb cysts, and thickened interlobular septa. The low-dose technique failed to demonstrate ground-glass opacity in two of 10 cases (20%) and emphysema in one of nine cases (11%), in which they were evident but subtle on the high-dose scans. These differences were not statistically significant. Linear streak artifact was more prominent on images acquired with the low-dose technique, but the two techniques were judged equally diagnostic in 97% of cases. The authors conclude that HRCT images acquired at 20 mA yield anatomic information equivalent to that obtained with 200-mA scans in the majority of patients, without significant loss of spatial resolution or image degradation due to linear streak artifact.

  16. Physicochemical properties of dehydrated potato parenchyma cells with ungelatinized and gelatinized starches.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hyun-Seok

    2015-03-06

    Potato parenchyma cells were characterized to identify the function of intact parenchyma cell walls on their physicochemical properties. Parenchyma cells were separated using pectinase from raw and cooked potatoes (R-Cell and G-Cell, respectively), and investigated with respect to their morphology, chemical composition, starch leaching and swelling power, gelatinization, and pasting property. Potato flour (RPF) and potato granule (PGL) prepared in laboratory were used as controls of R-Cell and G-Cell, respectively. Protein and ash were lost during parenchyma cell isolation. Ungelatinized and gelatinized starches within parenchyma cells were tightly wrapped by intact parenchyma cell walls. Compared to their controls, the parenchyma cell walls prevented starch leaching from R-Cell and G-Cell. R-Cell exhibited the reduced swelling powers and pasting viscosities, while the opposite patterns were observed for G-Cell. R-Cell revealed the increased gelatinization temperatures than native potato starch. Overall, potato parenchyma cells may expand the industrial availability of dehydrated potato products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Parenchyma cell respiration and survival in secondary xylem: does metabolic activity decline with cell age?

    PubMed

    Spicer, R; Holbrook, N M

    2007-08-01

    Sapwood respiration often declines towards the sapwood/heartwood boundary, but it is not known if parenchyma metabolic activity declines with cell age. We measured sapwood respiration in five temperate species (sapwood age range of 5-64 years) and expressed respiration on a live cell basis by quantifying living parenchyma. We found no effect of parenchyma age on respiration in two conifers (Pinus strobus, Tsuga canadensis), both of which had significant amounts of dead parenchyma in the sapwood. In angiosperms (Acer rubrum, Fraxinus americana, Quercus rubra), both bulk tissue and live cell respiration were reduced by about one-half in the oldest relative to the youngest sapwood, and all sapwood parenchyma remained alive. Conifers and angiosperms had similar bulk tissue respiration despite a smaller proportion of parenchyma in conifers (5% versus 15-25% in angiosperms), such that conifer parenchyma respired at rates about three times those of angiosperms. The fact that 5-year-old parenchyma cells respired at the same rate as 25-year-old cells in conifers suggests that there is no inherent or intrinsic decline in respiration as a result of cellular ageing. In contrast, it is not known whether differences observed in cellular respiration rates of angiosperms are a function of age per se, or whether active regulation of metabolic rate or positional effects (e.g. proximity to resources and/or hormones) could be the cause of reduced respiration in older sapwood.

  18. Laser-assisted parenchyma-sparing pulmonary resection

    SciTech Connect

    LoCicero, J. III; Frederiksen, J.W.; Hartz, R.S.; Michaelis, L.L. )

    1989-05-01

    The neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser is an excellent tool for removing lesions while sparing surrounding normal tissue. Local excision of 32 pulmonary lesions in 26 patients was performed with the Nd:YAG laser. Fourteen patients had moderate to severe impairment of pulmonary function: average forced vital capacity = 2.2 +/- 0.3 L and forced expiratory volume in 1 second = 1.3 +/- 0.3 L. Limited thoracotomy was used in the last 23 patients. The resected lesions included 16 primary malignant tumors: nine adenocarcinomas, five squamous carcinomas, and two large cell carcinomas. Eight of these lesions were classified as T1 N0, seven were T2 N0; and one was T1 N2. There were 10 metastatic lesions: three lymphomas, two adenocarcinomas, two leiomyosarcomas, and one case each of melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. There were six benign lesions: three granulomas, two hamartomas, and one carcinoid. Twelve lesions were deep seated, could not have been removed by wedge resection or segmentectomy, and would have necessitated lobectomy without this technique. With the laser, the lesion could be precisely excised with minimal loss of lung parenchyma. Mean operating time was 80 +/- 20 minutes; laser resection time was 15 +/- 8 minutes. Resection necessitated 10,000 to 20,000 J. Total blood loss was minimal (less than 100 ml). Chest tubes were always used and remained in place 5 +/- 2 days. The mean hospitalization time was 10 +/- 2 days. Pulmonary function testing, perform 6 weeks to 6 months after discharge, showed no significant difference from preoperative levels. To date, there have been no local recurrences (longest follow-up 2 years). The Nd:YAG laser is an excellent adjunct for pulmonary resection in patients who have marginal pulmonary function or who have deep parenchymal lesions not amenable to wedge resection. The operative technique for laser resection is presented.

  19. Male donor-derived cells in the brains of female sex-mismatched bone marrow transplant recipients: a Y-chromosome specific in situ hybridization study.

    PubMed

    Unger, E R; Sung, J H; Manivel, J C; Chenggis, M L; Blazar, B R; Krivit, W

    1993-09-01

    In five female bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients of sex-mismatched donor marrow, Y-chromosome specific in situ hybridization was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of the medulla to detect the male donor marrow-derived cells. Y-chromosome-bearing cells (Y-cells), thereby donor-derived, were matched with leukocyte common antigen (LCA)-reactive cells in adjacent sections immunostained with anti-LCA antibody. Y-cells included mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) within the vessel lumen and infiltrating the perivascular space and parenchyma, and "perivascular cells." We have, therefore, concluded that donor marrow-derived MNL, though limited in number, do enter the normal-appearing brain and can transform to "perivascular cells" in human BMT recipients. It remains, however, to be confirmed whether MNL entering the normal adult CNS parenchyma transform to ramified microglia.

  20. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed.

  1. First insights into the functional role of vasicentric tracheids and parenchyma in eucalyptus species with solitary vessels: do they contribute to xylem efficiency or safety?

    PubMed

    Barotto, Antonio José; Fernandez, María Elena; Gyenge, Javier; Meyra, Ariel; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Monteoliva, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between hydraulic specific conductivity (ks) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) with size and number of vessels has been studied in many angiosperms. However, few of the studies link other cell types (vasicentric tracheids (VT), fibre-tracheids, parenchyma) with these hydraulic functions. Eucalyptus is one of the most important genera in forestry worldwide. It exhibits a complex wood anatomy, with solitary vessels surrounded by VT and parenchyma, which could serve as a good model to investigate the functional role of the different cell types in xylem functioning. Wood anatomy (several traits of vessels, VT, fibres and parenchyma) in conjunction with maximum ks and VC was studied in adult trees of commercial species with medium-to-high wood density (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.). Traits of cells accompanying vessels presented correlations with functional variables suggesting that they contribute to both increasing connectivity between adjacent vessels-and, therefore, to xylem conduction efficiency-and decreasing the probability of embolism propagation into the tissue, i.e., xylem safety. All three species presented moderate-to-high resistance to cavitation (mean P50 values = -2.4 to -4.2 MPa) with no general trade-off between efficiency and safety at the interspecific level. The results in these species do not support some well-established hypotheses of the functional meaning of wood anatomy.

  2. Role of intracellular contents to facilitate supercooling capability in beech (Fagus crenata) xylem parenchyma cells.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Jun; Mizuno, Kaoru; Miyaji, Natsuko; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2006-01-01

    In order to find the possible role of intracellular contents in facilitating the supercooling capability of xylem parenchyma cells, changes in the temperature of supercooling levels were compared before and after the release of intracellular substances from beech xylem parenchyma cells by DTA. Various methods were employed to release intracellular substances from xylem parenchyma cells and all resulted in a reduction of supercooling ability. It was concluded that the reduction of supercooling ability primarily resulted from changes of intracellular conditions, including the release of intracellular contents or their mixing with extracellular solutions, rather than due to changes of cell wall structures. It is therefore suggested that any unidentified intracellular contents may function to facilitate supercooling capability in xylem parenchyma cells.

  3. Non-invasive monitoring of sucrose mobilization from culm storage parenchyma by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian P; Purnell, Matthew P; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Cowin, Gary J; Galloway, Graham J; Nielsen, Lars K; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2013-01-01

    Because sucrose stored in mature stalks (in excess of 40% of stalk dry weight) can be wholly mobilized to supply carbon for the growth of heterotrophic tissues, we propose that sucrose mobilization requires a net sink-to-source transition that acts in toto within sett internode storage parenchyma. Based on our data we propose that mobilization of sucrose from culm storage parenchyma requires minimal investment of metabolic resources, and that the mechanism of sucrose mobilization is metabolically neutral. By magnetic resonance spectroscopy and phloem-specific tracer dyes, strong evidence was found that sucrose is mobilized from sett storage parenchyma via phloem to the growing shoot tissue. An analysis of the enzyme activities involved in sucrose metabolism and glycolysis suggested that sucrose synthase activity is downregulated due to the effects of sucrose mobilization. Overall, metabolism in storage parenchyma shifts from futile cycling to a more quiescent state during sucrose mobilization.

  4. Hyaline vascular castleman disease involving renal parenchyma and a lymph node: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji Hyun; Min, Soo Kee; Shin, Mi Kyung; Lee, Yong Seong; Lee, Young-Goo; Ko, Young Hyeh

    2012-02-01

    Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative lesion that is predominantly found in the mediastinum. Retroperitoneal and pararenal localizations are very rare. We describe a 36-year-old man with a hyaline vascular type of Castleman disease involving renal parenchyma and a paraaortic lymph node. Most reported renal Castleman disease was plasma cell type with systemic symptoms. Herein, we report the first Korean case of the hyaline vascular type of Castleman disease involving the renal parenchyma and the paraaortic lymph node simultaneously.

  5. Hepatitis C virus load in parenchyma cells correlates with hepatic injury in infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Lin, Ji-Zong; Lin, Guo-Li; Wei, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Ying; Ke, Wei-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Hong

    2017-01-01

    The association between serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) load and hepatic injury in HCV-infected patients has been extensively investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the association between HCV load in hepatic parenchyma cells and hepatic injury in HCV-infected patients. A total of 56 HCV-infected patients were included in the present retrospective study. The serum HCV mRNA was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, while the hepatic parenchyma cell volume and HCV mRNA in hepatic parenchyma cells were also determined. Hepatic injury was evaluated on the basis of the severity of inflammation and fibrosis. The results demonstrated that there were evident differences in the mean serum HCV RNA levels and the HCV load/parenchyma cell volume among the various grades of hepatic inflammation (G1-G4) when groups with the least and most inflammation were compared (G1 vs. G4; P<0.05). Significant differences in the HCV load existed between groups divided according to the fibrosis grade; in addition, differences existed between fibrosis grades S1 and S2, and S2 and S4 when comparing serum HCV RNA levels (P<0.05). Similarly, differences existed between every two fibrosis stages (S0 vs. S4, S2 vs. S3, and S2 vs. S4; P<0.05) when viral loads and parenchyma cell volumes were compared (F=2.860, P<0.05). Furthermore, the fibrosis staging was correlated with the viral load/parenchyma cell volume (F=2.670, P<0.05). In conclusion, hepatic fibrosis grade was found to be associated with HCV load in parenchyma cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that the viral load in parenchyma cells is a more appropriate index compared with the serum viral load for evaluating HCV replication in hepatocytes, and may function as an important factor in HCV-infected hepatic injury evaluation. PMID:28123484

  6. The Effect of Sunlight in Parenchyma Pith Cells Diameter of Manihot esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanti, D.; Aziz, D. N.; Astuti, W.; Nuraeni, E.

    2017-03-01

    Sunlight is one of the factors that effect on the grow of a plant. Manihot esculenta is one of the plants that easily found in Indonesia because its role as staple food. The aim of this research is to know the correlation between sunlight the grow of parenchyma pith cells diameter of Manihot esculenta. Independent variable in this research is sunlight, and dependent variable is the parenchyma pith cells diameter of Manihot esculenta. Data was collected is in qualitative and quantitative form. Qualitative data gotten gained by morphology observation. The parenchyma pith cells of Manihot esculenta that is affected by sunlight in 1310 x 10 Lux, morphologically has hexagon, cell walls thick, solid state, and regular composition. Meanwhile, the parenchyma pith cells that has less sunlight (363 x 10 Lux) has a hexagon shape, thin cell walls thin, soft state, and irregular composition. Qualitative data suported by quantitative data. The size of parenchyma pith cells diameter that is affected by sunlight in 1310 x 10 Lux 96,4 µm. While, the stem parenchyma pith cells diameter empulur that has less sunlight (363 x 10 Lux) is 129,8 µm.

  7. High accumulation of soluble sugars in deep supercooling Japanese white birch xylem parenchyma cells.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Jun; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the accumulation of soluble sugars in extracellular freezing cortical parenchyma cells and deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells in Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) were compared to identify the effects of soluble sugars on the mechanism of deep supercooling, which keeps the liquid state of water in cells under extremely low temperatures for long periods. Soluble sugars in both tissues were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the concentrations of sugars in cells were estimated by histological observation of occupancy rates of parenchyma cells in each tissue. Relative and equilibrium melting points of parenchyma cells were measured by differential thermal analysis and cryoscanning electron microscopy, respectively. In both xylem and cortical parenchyma cells, amounts of sucrose, raffinose and stachyose increased in winter, but amounts of fructose and glucose exhibited little change throughout the entire year. In addition, no sugars were found to be specific for either tissue. Combined results of HPLC analyses, histological observation and melting point analyses confirmed that the concentration of sugars was much higher in xylem cells than in cortical cells. It is thought that the higher concentration of soluble sugars in xylem cells may contribute to facilitation of deep supercooling in xylem cells by depressing the nucleation temperature.

  8. Antileukotriene Reverts the Early Effects of Inflammatory Response of Distal Parenchyma in Experimental Chronic Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gobbato, Nathália Brandão; de Souza, Flávia Castro Ribas; Fumagalli, Stella Bruna Napolitano; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenório Quirino dos Santos; Prado, Carla Máximo; Martins, Milton Arruda; Tibério, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo; Leick, Edna Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Compare the effects of montelukast or dexamethasone in distal lung parenchyma and airway walls of guinea pigs (GP) with chronic allergic inflammation. Methods. GP have inhaled ovalbumin (OVA group-2x/week/4weeks). After the 4th inhalation, GP were treated with montelukast or dexamethasone. After 72 hours of the 7th inhalation, GP were anesthetised, and lungs were removed and submitted to histopathological evaluation. Results. Montelukast and dexamethasone treatments reduced the number of eosinophils in airway wall and distal lung parenchyma compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). On distal parenchyma, both treatments were effective in reducing RANTES, NF-κB, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.001). Montelukast was more effective in reducing eotaxin positive cells on distal parenchyma compared to dexamethasone treatment (P < 0.001), while there was a more expressive reduction of IGF-I positive cells in OVA-D group (P < 0.001). On airway walls, montelukast and dexamethasone were effective in reducing IGF-I, RANTES, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). Dexamethasone was more effective in reducing the number of eotaxin and NF-κB positive cells than Montelukast (P < 0.05). Conclusions. In this animal model, both treatments were effective in modulating allergic inflammation and remodeling distal lung parenchyma and airway wall, contributing to a better control of the inflammatory response. PMID:24151607

  9. Lung parenchyma remodeling in a murine model of chronic allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Xisto, Debora G; Farias, Luciana L; Ferreira, Halina C; Picanço, Miguel R; Amitrano, Daniel; Lapa E Silva, Jose R; Negri, Elnara M; Mauad, Thais; Carnielli, Denise; Silva, Luiz Fernando F; Capelozzi, Vera L; Faffe, Debora S; Zin, Walter A; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2005-04-15

    This study tested the hypotheses that chronic allergic inflammation induces not only bronchial but also lung parenchyma remodeling, and that these histologic changes are associated with concurrent changes in respiratory mechanics. For this purpose, airway and lung parenchyma remodeling were evaluated by quantitative analysis of collagen and elastin, immunohistochemistry (smooth-muscle actin expression, eosinophil, and dendritic cell densities), and electron microscopy. In vivo (airway resistance, viscoelastic pressure, and static elastance) and in vitro (tissue elastance, resistance, and hysteresivity) respiratory mechanics were also analyzed. BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin and exposed to repeated ovalbumin challenges. A marked eosinophilic infiltration was seen in lung parenchyma and in large and distal airways. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, and dendritic cells also infiltrated the lungs. There was subepithelial fibrosis, myocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, elastic fiber fragmentation, and increased numbers of myofibroblasts in airways and lung parenchyma. Collagen fiber content was increased in the alveolar walls. The volume proportion of smooth muscle-specific actin was augmented in distal airways and alveolar duct walls. Airway resistance, viscoelastic pressure, static elastance, and tissue elastance and resistance were significantly increased. In conclusion, prolonged allergen exposure induced remodeling not only of the airway wall but also of the lung parenchyma, leading to in vivo and in vitro mechanical changes.

  10. Pulsed ultrasound expands the extracellular and perivascular spaces of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, David S.; Nguyen, Ben A.; Dancy, Jimena G.; Adapa, Arjun R.; Winkles, Jeffrey A.; Woodworth, Graeme F.; Kim, Anthony J.; Frenkel, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion within the extracellular and perivascular spaces of the brain plays an important role in biological processes, therapeutic delivery, and clearance mechanisms within the central nervous system. Recently, ultrasound has been used to enhance the dispersion of locally administered molecules and particles within the brain, but ultrasound-mediated effects on the brain parenchyma remain poorly understood. We combined an electron microscopy-based ultrastructural analysis with high-resolution tracking of non-adhesive nanoparticles in order to probe changes in the extracellular and perivascular spaces of the brain following a non-destructive pulsed ultrasound regimen known to alter diffusivity in other tissues. Freshly obtained rat brain neocortical slices underwent sham treatment or pulsed, low intensity ultrasound for 5 minutes at 1 MHz. Transmission electron microscopy revealed intact cells and blood vessels and evidence of enlarged spaces, particularly adjacent to blood vessels, in ultrasound-treated brain slices. Additionally, ultrasound significantly increased the diffusion rate of 100 nm, 200 nm, and 500 nm nanoparticles that were injected into the brain slices, while 2000 nm particles were unaffected. In ultrasound-treated slices, 91.6% of the 100 nm particles, 20.7% of the 200 nm particles, 13.8% of the 500 nm particles, and 0% of the 2000 nm particles exhibited diffusive motion. Thus, pulsed ultrasound can have meaningful structural effects on the brain extracellular and perivascular spaces without evidence of tissue disruption.Keywords: Ultrasound, Extracellular space, Nanoparticle, Diffusion PMID:27369449

  11. Pulsed ultrasound expands the extracellular and perivascular spaces of the brain.

    PubMed

    Hersh, David S; Nguyen, Ben A; Dancy, Jimena G; Adapa, Arjun R; Winkles, Jeffrey A; Woodworth, Graeme F; Kim, Anthony J; Frenkel, Victor

    2016-09-01

    Diffusion within the extracellular and perivascular spaces of the brain plays an important role in biological processes, therapeutic delivery, and clearance mechanisms within the central nervous system. Recently, ultrasound has been used to enhance the dispersion of locally administered molecules and particles within the brain, but ultrasound-mediated effects on the brain parenchyma remain poorly understood. We combined an electron microscopy-based ultrastructural analysis with high-resolution tracking of non-adhesive nanoparticles in order to probe changes in the extracellular and perivascular spaces of the brain following a non-destructive pulsed ultrasound regimen known to alter diffusivity in other tissues. Freshly obtained rat brain neocortical slices underwent sham treatment or pulsed, low intensity ultrasound for 5min at 1MHz. Transmission electron microscopy revealed intact cells and blood vessels and evidence of enlarged spaces, particularly adjacent to blood vessels, in ultrasound-treated brain slices. Additionally, ultrasound significantly increased the diffusion rate of 100nm, 200nm, and 500nm nanoparticles that were injected into the brain slices, while 2000nm particles were unaffected. In ultrasound-treated slices, 91.6% of the 100nm particles, 20.7% of the 200nm particles, 13.8% of the 500nm particles, and 0% of the 2000nm particles exhibited diffusive motion. Thus, pulsed ultrasound can have meaningful structural effects on the brain extracellular and perivascular spaces without evidence of tissue disruption.

  12. Hyaline Vascular Castleman Disease Involving Renal Parenchyma and a Lymph Node: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ji Hyun; Shin, Mi Kyung; Lee, Yong Seong; Lee, Young-Goo; Ko, Young Hyeh

    2012-01-01

    Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative lesion that is predominantly found in the mediastinum. Retroperitoneal and pararenal localizations are very rare. We describe a 36-year-old man with a hyaline vascular type of Castleman disease involving renal parenchyma and a paraaortic lymph node. Most reported renal Castleman disease was plasma cell type with systemic symptoms. Herein, we report the first Korean case of the hyaline vascular type of Castleman disease involving the renal parenchyma and the paraaortic lymph node simultaneously. PMID:23109983

  13. Detection of reactive oxygen metabolites in malignant and adjacent normal tissues of patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Okur, Hacer Kuzu; Yuksel, Meral; Lacin, Tunc; Baysungur, Volkan; Okur, Erdal

    2013-01-17

    Different types of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) are known to be involved in carcinogenesis. Several studies have emphasized the formation of ROMs in ischemic tissues and in cases of inflammation. The increased amounts of ROMs in tumor tissues can either be because of their causative effects or because they are produced by the tumor itself. Our study aimed to investigate and compare the levels of ROMs in tumor tissue and adjacent lung parenchyma obtained from patients with lung cancer. Fifteen patients (all male, mean age 63.6 ± 9 years) with non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled in the study. All patients were smokers. Of the patients with lung cancer, twelve had epidermoid carcinoma and three had adenocarcinoma. During anatomical resection of the lung, tumor tissue and macroscopically adjacent healthy lung parenchyma (control) that was 5 cm away from the tumor were obtained. The tissues were freshly frozen and stored at -20°C. The generation of ROMs was monitored using luminol- and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) techniques. Both luminol (specific for (.)OH, H(2)O(2), and HOCl(-)) and lucigenin (selective for O(2)(.)(-)) CL measurements were significantly higher in tumor tissues than in control tissues (P <0.001). Luminol and lucigenin CL measurements were 1.93 ± 0.71 and 2.5 ± 0.84 times brighter, respectively, in tumor tissues than in the adjacent parenchyma (P = 0.07). In patients with lung cancer, all ROM levels were increased in tumor tissues when compared with the adjacent lung tissue. Because the increase in lucigenin concentration, which is due to tissue ischemia, is higher than the increase in luminol, which is directly related to the presence and severity of inflammation, ischemia may be more important than inflammation for tumor development in patients with lung cancer.

  14. Detection of reactive oxygen metabolites in malignant and adjacent normal tissues of patients with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Different types of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) are known to be involved in carcinogenesis. Several studies have emphasized the formation of ROMs in ischemic tissues and in cases of inflammation. The increased amounts of ROMs in tumor tissues can either be because of their causative effects or because they are produced by the tumor itself. Our study aimed to investigate and compare the levels of ROMs in tumor tissue and adjacent lung parenchyma obtained from patients with lung cancer. Methods Fifteen patients (all male, mean age 63.6 ± 9 years) with non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled in the study. All patients were smokers. Of the patients with lung cancer, twelve had epidermoid carcinoma and three had adenocarcinoma. During anatomical resection of the lung, tumor tissue and macroscopically adjacent healthy lung parenchyma (control) that was 5 cm away from the tumor were obtained. The tissues were freshly frozen and stored at −20°C. The generation of ROMs was monitored using luminol- and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) techniques. Results Both luminol (specific for .OH, H2O2, and HOCl-) and lucigenin (selective for O2.-) CL measurements were significantly higher in tumor tissues than in control tissues (P <0.001). Luminol and lucigenin CL measurements were 1.93 ± 0.71 and 2.5 ± 0.84 times brighter, respectively, in tumor tissues than in the adjacent parenchyma (P = 0.07). Conclusion In patients with lung cancer, all ROM levels were increased in tumor tissues when compared with the adjacent lung tissue. Because the increase in lucigenin concentration, which is due to tissue ischemia, is higher than the increase in luminol, which is directly related to the presence and severity of inflammation, ischemia may be more important than inflammation for tumor development in patients with lung cancer. PMID:23327412

  15. Developmental changes in cell and tissue water relations parameters in storage parenchyma of sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Moore, P H; Cosgrove, D J

    1991-01-01

    The osmotic pressure of the cell sap of stalk storage parenchyma of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) increases by an order of magnitude during ontogeny to reach molar concentrations of sucrose at maturity. Stalk parenchyma cells must either experience very high turgor at maturation or have an ability to regulate turgor. We tested this hypothesis by using pressure probe techniques to quantify parameters of cell and tissue water relations of sugarcane storage parenchyma during ontogeny. The largest developmental change was in the volumetric elastic modulus, which increased from 6 bars in immature tissue to 43 bars in mature tissue. Turgor was maintained relatively low during sucrose accumulation by the partitioning of solutes between the cell and wall compartments. Membrane hydraulic conductivity decreased from about 12 x 10(-7) centimeters per second per bar down to 4.4 x 10(-7) centimeters per second per bar. The 2.7-fold decrease in membrane hydraulic conductivity during tissue maturation was accompanied by a 7.8-fold increase in wall elasticity. Integration of the cell wall and membrane properties appears to be by the opposing effects of turgor on hydraulic conductivity and elastic modulus. The changes in these properties during development of sugarcane stalk tissue may be a way for parenchyma cells to develop a capacity for expansive growth and still serve as a strong sink for storing high concentrations of sucrose.

  16. A global analysis of parenchyma tissue fractions in secondary xylem of seed plants.

    PubMed

    Morris, Hugh; Plavcová, Lenka; Cvecko, Patrick; Fichtler, Esther; Gillingham, Mark A F; Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I; McGlinn, Daniel J; Wheeler, Elisabeth; Zheng, Jingming; Ziemińska, Kasia; Jansen, Steven

    2016-03-01

    Parenchyma is an important tissue in secondary xylem of seed plants, with functions ranging from storage to defence and with effects on the physical and mechanical properties of wood. Currently, we lack a large-scale quantitative analysis of ray parenchyma (RP) and axial parenchyma (AP) tissue fractions. Here, we use data from the literature on AP and RP fractions to investigate the potential relationships of climate and growth form with total ray and axial parenchyma fractions (RAP). We found a 29-fold variation in RAP fraction, which was more strongly related to temperature than with precipitation. Stem succulents had the highest RAP values (mean ± SD: 70.2 ± 22.0%), followed by lianas (50.1 ± 16.3%), angiosperm trees and shrubs (26.3 ± 12.4%), and conifers (7.6 ± 2.6%). Differences in RAP fraction between temperate and tropical angiosperm trees (21.1 ± 7.9% vs 36.2 ± 13.4%, respectively) are due to differences in the AP fraction, which is typically three times higher in tropical than in temperate trees, but not in RP fraction. Our results illustrate that both temperature and growth form are important drivers of RAP fractions. These findings should help pave the way to better understand the various functions of RAP in plants.

  17. Comparative analysis of inhaled particles contained in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, lung parenchyma and lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Dumortier, P; De Vuyst, P; Yernault, J C

    1994-01-01

    Translocation of inhaled particles from the alveolar spaces to lung parenchyma and lymph nodes is one of the mechanisms that determine the biopersistence of particles. This study compares the nonfibrous particulate burden in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, lung parenchyma, and thoracic lymph nodes and attempts to detect the degree of differentiation, if any, based on particle size or type. This comparison can only be done on BAL, lung parenchyma, and lymph node samples collected from the same subject over a short time. Patients undergoing surgical lung resection are suitable for this purpose. Particles recovered by digestion-filtration were counted, sized, and analyzed by analytical transmission electron microscopy. Total particle load ranges grossly between 10(5) to 10(7) p/ml in BAL, 10(9) to 10(10) p/g dry tissue in parenchyma and 10(10) to 10(11) p/g dry tissue in lymph nodes. Diameters are log-normally distributed and mean diameters range between 0.5 to 0.9 micron. Nonlamellar silicate particles have a significantly larger diameter in lymph nodes. Differences in particle type between the three sampling sites are small and nonsystematic. PMID:7882946

  18. [ULTRASTRUCTURE OF PARENCHYMA IN THE SYNCYTIAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM IN TURBELLARIA Convoluta convoluta (Acoela].

    PubMed

    Gazizova, G R; Zabotin, Ya I; Golubev, A I

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents data on the ultrastructure of parenchyma that is involved in the digestion in turbellaria Convoluta convoluta (n = 15). Unusual connections between the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane of parenchymal cells were found for the first time, which may indicate the origin of these cell structures. The double trophic role of zooxanthellae in the organism of Convoluta is described.

  19. Developmental changes in cell and tissue water relations parameters in storage parenchyma of sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.H. ); Cosgrove, D.J. )

    1991-07-01

    The osmotic pressure of the cell sap of stalk storage parenchyma of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) increases by an order of magnitude during ontogeny to reach molar concentrations of sucrose at maturity. Stalk parenchyma cells must either experience very high turgor at maturation of have an ability to regulate turgor. The authors tested this hypothesis by using pressure probe techniques to quantify parameters of cell and tissue water relations of sugarcane storage parenchyma during ontogeny. The largest developmental change was in the volumetric elastic modulus, which increased from 6 bars in immature tissue to 43 bars in mature tissue. Turgor was maintained relatively low during sucrose accumulation by the partitioning of solutes between the cell and wall compartments. Membrane hydraulic conductivity decreased from about 12 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second per bar down to 4.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second per bar. The 2.7-fold decrease in membrane hydraulic conductivity during tissue maturation was accompanied by a 7.8-fold increase in wall elasticity. Integration of the cell and wall membrane properties appears to be by the opposing effects of turgor on hydraulic conductivity and elastic modulus. The changes in these properties during development of sugarcane stalk tissue may be a way for parenchyma cells to develop a capacity for expansive growth and still serve as a strong sink for storing high concentrations of sucrose.

  20. The functional role of xylem parenchyma cells and aquaporins during recovery from severe water stress.

    PubMed

    Secchi, Francesca; Pagliarani, Chiara; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2016-09-15

    Xylem parenchyma cells [vessel associated cells (VACs)] constitute a significant fraction of the xylem in woody plants. These cells are often closely connected with xylem vessels or tracheids via simple pores (remnants of plasmodesmata fields). The close contact and biological activity of VACs during times of severe water stress and recovery from stress suggest that they are involved in the maintenance of xylem transport capacity and responsible for the restoration of vessel/tracheid functionality following embolism events. As recovery from embolism requires the transport of water across xylem parenchyma cell membranes, an understanding of stem-specific aquaporin expression patterns, localization and activity is a crucial part of any biological model dealing with embolism recovery processes in woody plants. In this review, we provide a short overview of xylem parenchyma cell biology with a special focus on aquaporins. In particular we address their distributions and activity during the development of drought stress, during the formation of embolism and the subsequent recovery from stress that may result in refilling. Complemented by the current biological model of parenchyma cell function during recovery from stress, this overview highlights recent breakthroughs on the unique ability of long-lived perennial plants to undergo cycles of embolism-recovery related to drought/rewetting or freeze/thaw events.

  1. Modeling the biomechanical and injury response of human liver parenchyma under tensile loading.

    PubMed

    Untaroiu, Costin D; Lu, Yuan-Chiao; Siripurapu, Sundeep K; Kemper, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    The rapid advancement in computational power has made human finite element (FE) models one of the most efficient tools for assessing the risk of abdominal injuries in a crash event. In this study, specimen-specific FE models were employed to quantify material and failure properties of human liver parenchyma using a FE optimization approach. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on 34 parenchyma coupon specimens prepared from two fresh human livers. Each specimen was tested to failure at one of four loading rates (0.01s(-1), 0.1s(-1), 1s(-1), and 10s(-1)) to investigate the effects of rate dependency on the biomechanical and failure response of liver parenchyma. Each test was simulated by prescribing the end displacements of specimen-specific FE models based on the corresponding test data. The parameters of a first-order Ogden material model were identified for each specimen by a FE optimization approach while simulating the pre-tear loading region. The mean material model parameters were then determined for each loading rate from the characteristic averages of the stress-strain curves, and a stochastic optimization approach was utilized to determine the standard deviations of the material model parameters. A hyperelastic material model using a tabulated formulation for rate effects showed good predictions in terms of tensile material properties of human liver parenchyma. Furthermore, the tissue tearing was numerically simulated using a cohesive zone modeling (CZM) approach. A layer of cohesive elements was added at the failure location, and the CZM parameters were identified by fitting the post-tear force-time history recorded in each test. The results show that the proposed approach is able to capture both the biomechanical and failure response, and accurately model the overall force-deflection response of liver parenchyma over a large range of tensile loadings rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of celery (Apium graveolens L.) collenchyma and parenchyma cell wall polysaccharides enabled by solid-state (13)C NMR.

    PubMed

    Zujovic, Zoran; Chen, Da; Melton, Laurence D

    2016-02-01

    Collenchyma cells with their thickened walls are one of specific mechanical support tissues for plants, while parenchyma cells are thin walled and serve multiple functions. The parenchyma tissue is what you enjoy eating, while collenchyma, because of its fibrous nature, is not so attractive. Celery is a useful model for comparing the cell walls (CWs) of the two cell types such as collenchyma and parenchyma. However, to date, the structural characteristics of collenchyma and parenchyma cell walls from the same plant have not been compared. Monosaccharide composition suggested the collenchyma cell walls contained less pectin but more hemicellulose in comparison to parenchyma. High-resolution solid-state NMR spectra of highly mobile pectins revealed that the arabinan signals were more evident in the collenchyma spectrum, while galactan showed a much stronger resonance in the parenchyma spectrum. In addition, methyl esterified and non-esterified galacturonic acid signals were observed in parenchyma CWs, but only the latter one appeared in the collenchyma. The ratio of cellulose surface/interior obtained from CP/MAS spectra for collenchyma suggested the cellulose microfibrils were ~2.4 nm, while in the parenchyma, these were somewhat larger. X-ray diffraction indicated the size of the cellulose microfibrils were the same for both types of CWs.

  3. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis).

    PubMed

    Lamaming, Junidah; Hashim, Rokiah; Leh, Cheu Peng; Sulaiman, Othman; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Nasir, Mohammed

    2015-12-10

    In this study cellulose nanocrystals were isolated through acid hydrolysis process from parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis). The morphological properties of obtained cellulose nanocrystals were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microscopy images showed smoother and cleaner surface of parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals when compared to vascular bundle cellulose nanocrystals. The TEM image shows a higher length and diameter for parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals compared to vascular bundle cellulose nanocrystals. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed changes in functional groups after acid hydrolysis due to removal of lignin, hemicelluloses and other impurities in both type of cellulose nanocrystals. Crystallinity index of cellulose nanocrystals was observed higher for vascular bundle as compared to parenchyma. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study the thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals and it was observed higher for parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals compared to vascular bundle.

  4. Copper transport to the brain by the blood-brain barrier and blood-CSF barrier.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung-Sun; Zheng, Wei

    2009-01-12

    The mechanism of copper (Cu) transport into the brain is unclear. This study evaluated the main species and route of Cu transport into the brain using in situ brain perfusion technique, and assessed the levels of mRNA encoding Cu transporters using real time RT-PCR. Free (64)Cu uptake in rat choroid plexus (CP), where the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) is primarily located, is about 50 and 1000 times higher than (64)Cu-albumin and (64)Cu-ceruloplasmin uptake, respectively. The unidirectional transport rate constants (K(in)) for Cu in the CP and brain capillaries of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were 1034 and 319 microl/s/g, respectively, while K(in) in CSF and capillary-depleted parenchyma were much reduced, 0.8 and 112 microl/s/g, respectively. The K(in) in cerebellum was significantly lower than that in hippocampus. The mRNAs encoding Cu transporter-1 (Ctr1) and ATP7A were higher in the CP than those in brain capillaries and parenchyma, whereas ATP7B mRNA was higher in brain capillaries than those in the CP and brain parenchyma. Taken together, these data suggest that the expression of Cu transporters is higher in brain barriers than in brain parenchyma; the Cu transport into the brain is mainly achieved through the BBB as a free Cu ion and the BCB may serve as a main regulatory site of Cu in the CSF.

  5. In vivo quantification of motion in liver parenchyma and its application in shistosomiasis tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Ahmed M.; Hashem, Ahmed M.; Youssef, Abou-Bakr M.; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed F.

    1995-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major problem in Egypt, despite an active control program it is estimated to exist in about 1/3 of the population. Deposition of less functioning fibrous tissues in the liver is the major contributory factor to the hepatic pathology. Fibrous tissues consist of a complex array of connective matrix material and a variety of collagen isotopes. As a result of an increased stromal density (collagen content), the parenchyma became more ectogenic and less elastic (hard). In this study we investigated the effect of cardiac mechanical impulses from the heart and aorta on the kinetics of the liver parenchyma. Under conditions of controlled patient movements and suspended respiration, a 30 frame per second of 588 X 512 ultrasound images (cineloop, 32 pels per cm) are captured from an aTL ultrasound machine then digitized. The image acquisition is triggered by the R wave of the ECG of the patient. The motion that has a forced oscillation form in the liver parenchyma is quantified by tracking of small box (20 - 30 pels) in 16 directions for all the successive 30 frames. The tracking was done using block matching techniques (the max correlation between boxes in time, frequency domains, and the minimum SAD (sum absolute difference) between boxes). The motion is quantified for many regions at different positions within the liver parenchyma for 80 cases of variable degrees of schisto., cirrhotic livers, and for normal livers. The velocity of the tissue is calculated from the displacement (quantified motion), time between frames, and the scan time for the ultrasound scanner. We found that the motion in liver parenchyma is small in the order of very few millimeters, and the attenuation of the mechanical wave for one ECG cycle is higher in the schisto. and cirrhotic livers than in the normal ones. Finally quantification of motion in liver parenchyma due to cardiac impulses under controlled limb movement and respiration may be of value in the characterization of

  6. Deep lamellar keratoplasty by deep parenchyma detachment from the corneal limbs

    PubMed Central

    Senoo, T; Chiba, K; Terada, O; Mori, J; Kusama, M; Hasegawa, K; Obara, Y

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To improve the deep lamellar keratoplasty technique. Method: For the easy and reliable perfomance of deep lamellar keratoplasty (DLKP), detachment of Descemet’s membrane through the corneal limber flap was improved. To expose Descemet’s membrane, the parenchyma was detached by hydrodelamination through a sclerocorneal flap made in the corneal limbs. The parenchyma was removed after the pseudochamber between it and Descemet’s membrane was maintained with viscoelastic material. The corneal graft was placed with a running suture. 22 eyes were treated. Results: Complete exposure of Descemet’s membrane was obtained in 20 of the 22 eyes (91%). The membrane was perforated in five of the 22 eyes (23%) during surgery, and two of the 22 eyes (9%) were converted to penetrating keratoplasty. These two eyes developed keratoconus after acute corneal hydrops. Conclusion: Compared with the conventional procedure, this new method provides easy, reliable exposure of Descemet’s membrane. PMID:16299139

  7. MR imaging of pulmonary parenchyma and emboli by paramagnetic and superparamagnetic contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Thakur, M L; Vinitski, S; Mitchell, D G; Consigny, P M; Lin, S; DeFulvio, J; Rifkin, M

    1990-01-01

    Using experimentally induced pulmonary emboli in an animal model, three intravenously administered contrast agents, Gd-DTPA-albumin microspheres (8-15 microns, 0.2 M particles/mg protein, 39-106 micrograms Gd/mg, 50 mg/ml), Gd-DTPA-liposomes (15-30 microns, 130 micrograms/mg lipid, 6 mg Gd/ml) and superparamagnetic ferrosome, (60 nm, 100 mM iron and 20 mg lipid/ml) were examined for MR imaging. Gd-DTPA entrapped in lung capillaries did not enhance the signal intensity of lung parenchyma, but liposomes (5 ml) served as better Gd-DTPA carriers and increased the parenchymal signal intensity by up to a factor of 2.3. However, neither agent improved delineation of pulmonary emboli. Ferrosome decreased the intensity of lung parenchyma, improving detectability of pulmonary emboli by several factors.

  8. Carcinoma of Gall bladder with distant metastasis to breast parenchyma. Report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Damodara; Anamalai, Manikandan; Velu, Umesh; Nambirajan, Aruna; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Gall bladder carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in India. Gall bladder cancer with metastasis to the breast is very rare. Herein we intend to report a case of carcinoma gall bladder with breast metastasis and a short review of the literature. This report describes an interesting and unusual case of gall bladder carcinoma presenting with breast metastasis. A 38-year lady presented with complaints of right abdominal pain. Bilateral breast examination showed 2×2cm palpable lump in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. Contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed circumferential thickening of gall bladder with the loss of fat plane with the adjacent liver parenchyma. Biopsy from the breast lump was reported as metastatic adenocarcinoma compatible with primary in the gall bladder. Whole body PET-CT showed gall bladder mass with abdominal and pelvic nodes with metastasis to liver, left breast, C7 vertebral body and left supra-clavicular node. She was diagnosed to have disseminated carcinoma gall bladder with liver, breast and supraclavicular nodal metastasis. She received palliative chemotherapy with gemcitabine and carboplatin and radiotherapy to C7 vertebra. After receiving 3 cycles of chemotherapy, chemotherapy was changed to the second line with single agent capecitabine. In spite of two lines of chemotherapy, she succumbed to disease progression and expired. There are limited examples of gall bladder adenocarcinoma with simultaneous metastasis to breast in the English literature. Our case showed an unusual dissemination of gall bladder cancer. Copyright © 2016 National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Brachypodium as an experimental system for the study of stem parenchyma biology in grasses

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, Curtis Gene

    2017-01-01

    Stem parenchyma is a major cell type that serves key metabolic functions for the plant especially in large grasses, such as sugarcane and sweet sorghum, where it serves to store sucrose or other products of photosynthesis. It is therefore desirable to understand the metabolism of this cell type as well as the mechanisms by which it provides its function for the rest of the plant. Ultimately, this information can be used to selectively manipulate this cell type in a controlled manner to achieve crop improvement. In this study, we show that Brachypodium distachyon is a useful model system for stem pith parenchyma biology. Brachypodium can be grown under condition where it resembles the growth patterns of important crops in that it produces large amounts of stem material with the lower leaves senescing and with significant stores of photosynthate located in the stem parenchyma cell types. We further characterize stem plastid morphology as a function of tissue types, as this organelle is central for a number of metabolic pathways, and quantify gene expression for the four main classes of starch biosynthetic genes. Notably, we find several of these genes differentially regulated between stem and leaf. These studies show, consistent with other grasses, that the stem functions as a specialized storage compartment in Brachypodium. PMID:28248997

  10. A rare extramedullary involvement in myeloma: lung parenchyma and association with unfavorable chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Şahin Balçık, Özlem; Albayrak, Murat; Dağdaş, Simten; Ceran, Funda; Özet, Gülsüm; Demirağ, Funda; Yokuş, Osman

    2010-06-05

    Although pulmonary complications developing secondary to lung infections and involvement in ribs occur frequently in multiple myeloma (MM), involvement of the lung parenchyma is quite rare. In clinical studies, the involvement of lung parenchyma has been found to be associated with unfavorable prognosis. Here, a MM case in whom involvement of lung parenchyma was accompanied by unfavorable prognostic cytogenetic markers is presented. A 62-year-old male presented with complaint of cough, and heterogeneous hypodense mass was detected in thorax computerized tomography. The patient underwent bronchoscopic biopsy. Pathological examination revealed diffuse plasma cell infiltration staining with kappa immunohistochemically. In bone marrow biopsy, plasma cell infiltration was observed. In conventional cytogenetic examination, hypodiploidy was established. In cytogenetic examination carried out with fluorescence in situ hybridization, deletion (13q) was determined. In conclusion, in patients diagnosed with MM and presenting with pulmonary mass lesion, lung involvement associated with plasma cell infiltration should also be considered in the differential diagnosis. As overall survival is low in these cases, more aggressive treatment approaches such as high-dose treatment should be immediately considered.

  11. Apoplasmic and Protoplasmic Water Transport through the Parenchyma of the Potato Storage Organ.

    PubMed Central

    Michael, W.; Schultz, A.; Meshcheryakov, A. B.; Ehwald, R.

    1997-01-01

    Stationary volume fluxes through living and denatured parenchyma slices of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage organ were studied to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall and to evaluate the significance of water transport through protoplasts, cell walls, and intercellular spaces. Slices were placed between liquid compartments, steady-state fluxes induced by pressure or concentration gradients of low- and high-molecular-mass osmotica were measured, and water transport pathways were distinguished on the basis of their difference in limiting pore size. The protoplasts were the dominating route for osmotically driven water transport through living slices, even in the case of a polymer osmoticum that is excluded from cell walls. The specific hydraulic conductivity of the cell wall matrix is too small to allow a significant contribution of the narrow cell wall bypass to water flow through the living tissue. This conclusion is based on (a) ultrafilter coefficients of denatured parenchyma slices, (b) the absence of a significant difference between ultrafilter coefficients of the living tissue slices for osmotica with low and high cell wall reflection coefficients, and (c) the absence of a significant interaction (solvent drag) between apoplasmic permeation of mannitol and the water flux caused by a concentration difference of excluded polyethylene glycol. Liquid-filled intercellular spaces were the dominating pathways for pressure-driven volume fluxes through the parenchyma tissue. PMID:12223860

  12. Brachypodium as an experimental system for the study of stem parenchyma biology in grasses.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jacob Krüger; Wilkerson, Curtis Gene

    2017-01-01

    Stem parenchyma is a major cell type that serves key metabolic functions for the plant especially in large grasses, such as sugarcane and sweet sorghum, where it serves to store sucrose or other products of photosynthesis. It is therefore desirable to understand the metabolism of this cell type as well as the mechanisms by which it provides its function for the rest of the plant. Ultimately, this information can be used to selectively manipulate this cell type in a controlled manner to achieve crop improvement. In this study, we show that Brachypodium distachyon is a useful model system for stem pith parenchyma biology. Brachypodium can be grown under condition where it resembles the growth patterns of important crops in that it produces large amounts of stem material with the lower leaves senescing and with significant stores of photosynthate located in the stem parenchyma cell types. We further characterize stem plastid morphology as a function of tissue types, as this organelle is central for a number of metabolic pathways, and quantify gene expression for the four main classes of starch biosynthetic genes. Notably, we find several of these genes differentially regulated between stem and leaf. These studies show, consistent with other grasses, that the stem functions as a specialized storage compartment in Brachypodium.

  13. Brachypodium as an experimental system for the study of stem parenchyma biology in grasses

    DOE PAGES

    Jensen, Jacob Kruger; Wilkerson, Curtis Gene; Ma, Wujun

    2017-03-01

    Stem parenchyma is a major cell type that serves key metabolic functions for the plant especially in large grasses, such as sugarcane and sweet sorghum, where it serves to store sucrose or other products of photosynthesis. It is therefore desirable to understand the metabolism of this cell type as well as the mechanisms by which it provides its function for the rest of the plant. Ultimately, this information can be used to selectively manipulate this cell type in a controlled manner to achieve crop improvement. In this study, we show that Brachypodium distachyon is a useful model system for stemmore » pith parenchyma biology. Brachypodium can be grown under condition where it resembles the growth patterns of important crops in that it produces large amounts of stem material with the lower leaves senescing and with significant stores of photosynthate located in the stem parenchyma cell types. We further characterize stem plastid morphology as a function of tissue types, as this organelle is central for a number of metabolic pathways, and quantify gene expression for the four main classes of starch biosynthetic genes. Notably, we find several of these genes differentially regulated between stem and leaf. Furthermore, these studies show, consistent with other grasses, that the stem functions as a specialized storage compartment in Brachypodium.« less

  14. Performance assessment of an opto-fluidic phantom mimicking porcine liver parenchyma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; King, Travis J.; Long, Ruiqi; McShane, Michael J.; Nance Ericson, M.; Wilson, Mark A.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2012-07-01

    An implantable, optical oxygenation and perfusion sensor to monitor liver transplants during the two-week period following the transplant procedure is currently being developed. In order to minimize the number of animal experiments required for this research, a phantom that mimics the optical, anatomical, and physiologic flow properties of liver parenchyma is being developed as well. In this work, the suitability of this phantom for liver parenchyma perfusion research was evaluated by direct comparison of phantom perfusion data with data collected from in vivo porcine studies, both using the same prototype perfusion sensor. In vitro perfusion and occlusion experiments were performed on a single-layer and on a three-layer phantom perfused with a dye solution possessing the absorption properties of oxygenated hemoglobin. While both phantoms exhibited response patterns similar to the liver parenchyma, the signal measured from the multilayer phantom was three times higher than the single layer phantom and approximately 21 percent more sensitive to in vitro changes in perfusion. Although the multilayer phantom replicated the in vivo flow patterns more closely, the data suggests that both phantoms can be used in vitro to facilitate sensor design.

  15. MAGNETIC RESONANCE ELASTOGRAPHY OF HUMAN LUNG PARENCHYMA: TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT, THEORETICAL MODELING AND IN VIVO VALIDATION

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Yogesh K; Glaser, Kevin J; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Manduca, Armando; Ehman, Richard L; McGee, Kiaran P

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To develop a novel MR-based method for visualizing the elastic properties of human lung parenchyma in vivo and to evaluate the ability of this method to resolve differences in parenchymal stiffness at different respiration states in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods A spin-echo MR Elastography (MRE) pulse sequence was developed to provide both high shear wave motion sensitivity and short TE for improved visualization of lung parenchyma. The improved motion sensitivity of this approach was modeled and tested with phantom experiments. In vivo testing was then performed on ten healthy volunteers at the respiratory states of residual volume (RV) and total lung capacity (TLC). Results Shear wave propagation was visualized within the lungs of all volunteers and was processed to provide parenchymal shear stiffness maps of all ten subjects. Density corrected stiffness values at TLC (1.83 ± 0.22 kPa) were higher than those at the RV (1.14 ± 0.14 kPa) with the difference being statistically significant (p<0.0001). Conclusion 1H-based MR Elastography can noninvasively measure the shear stiffness of human lung parenchyma in vivo and can quantitate the change in shear stiffness due to respiration. The values obtained were consistent with previously reported in vitro assessments of cadaver lungs. Further work is required to increase the flexibility of the current acquisition and to investigate the clinical potential of lung MRE. PMID:21591003

  16. The function of intercellular spaces along the ray parenchyma in sapwood, intermediate wood, and heartwood of Cryptomeria japonica (Cupressaceae).

    PubMed

    Nagai, Satoshi; Utsumi, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    Intercellular spaces along ray parenchyma (ISRP) are common in many conifer xylems, but their function is uncertain because the in-situ structural network among ISRP, ray parenchyma, and tracheids has not been evaluated. Analysis of water distribution in ISRP from sapwood to heartwood is needed to elucidate the function of ISRP in sapwood, intermediate wood, and heartwood. We used cryo-scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photography, and water content measurement in xylem to analyze the presence of liquids in ISRP, ray parenchyma, and tracheids from sapwood to heartwood in Cryptomeria japonica (Cupressaceae). In sapwood, almost all ISRP were empty. "Cingulate-cavitated regions", which lose water along the tangential direction within one annual ring, formed in the earlywood tracheids, and their frequency increased toward the inner annual rings, whereas ray parenchyma cells were alive and not involved in the partial cavitation. In intermediate wood, almost all ISRP and earlywood tracheids and many of the ray cells were empty, and only some latewood tracheids retained liquid in their lumina. The ISRP were connected with tracheids via gas-filled ray parenchyma cells. The ISRP work as a pathway of gas for aspiration of ray parenchyma cells in sapwood. On the other hand, the occurrence of a gas network between ISRP, ray parenchyma, and tracheids facilitates cavitation of tracheids, resulting in the generation of low-moisture, intermediate wood.

  17. A Segmentation Method for Lung Parenchyma Image Sequences Based on Superpixels and a Self-Generating Neural Forest

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xiaolei; Zhao, Juanjuan; Jiao, Cheng; Lei, Lei; Qiang, Yan; Cui, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung parenchyma segmentation is often performed as an important pre-processing step in the computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules based on CT image sequences. However, existing lung parenchyma image segmentation methods cannot fully segment all lung parenchyma images and have a slow processing speed, particularly for images in the top and bottom of the lung and the images that contain lung nodules. Method Our proposed method first uses the position of the lung parenchyma image features to obtain lung parenchyma ROI image sequences. A gradient and sequential linear iterative clustering algorithm (GSLIC) for sequence image segmentation is then proposed to segment the ROI image sequences and obtain superpixel samples. The SGNF, which is optimized by a genetic algorithm (GA), is then utilized for superpixel clustering. Finally, the grey and geometric features of the superpixel samples are used to identify and segment all of the lung parenchyma image sequences. Results Our proposed method achieves higher segmentation precision and greater accuracy in less time. It has an average processing time of 42.21 seconds for each dataset and an average volume pixel overlap ratio of 92.22 ± 4.02% for four types of lung parenchyma image sequences. PMID:27532214

  18. Viscoelastic Model for Lung Parenchyma for Multi-Scale Modeling of Respiratory System, Phase II: Dodecahedral Micro-Model

    SciTech Connect

    Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Carson, James P.; Jacob, Rick E.

    2012-03-01

    In the first year of this contractual effort a hypo-elastic constitutive model was developed and shown to have great potential in modeling the elastic response of parenchyma. This model resides at the macroscopic level of the continuum. In this, the second year of our support, an isotropic dodecahedron is employed as an alveolar model. This is a microscopic model for parenchyma. A hopeful outcome is that the linkage between these two scales of modeling will be a source of insight and inspiration that will aid us in the final year's activity: creating a viscoelastic model for parenchyma.

  19. Blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in normal and pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masaki; Chiba, Yoichi; Murakami, Ryuta; Matsumoto, Koichi; Kawauchi, Machi; Fujihara, Ryuji

    2016-04-01

    Blood-borne substances can invade into the extracellular spaces of the brain via endothelial cells in sites without the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and can travel through the interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain parenchyma adjacent to non-BBB sites. It has been shown that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains directly into the blood via the arachnoid villi and also into lymph nodes via the subarachnoid spaces of the brain, while ISF drains into the cervical lymph nodes through perivascular drainage pathways. In addition, the glymphatic pathway of fluids, characterized by para-arterial pathways, aquaporin4-dependent passage through astroglial cytoplasm, interstitial spaces, and paravenous routes, has been established. Meningeal lymphatic vessels along the superior sagittal sinus were very recently discovered. It is known that, in mice, blood-borne substances can be transferred to areas with intact BBB function, such as the medial regions of the hippocampus, presumably through leaky vessels in non-BBB sites. In the present paper, we review the clearance mechanisms of interstitial substances, such as amyloid-β peptides, as well as summarize models of BBB deterioration in response to different types of insults, including acute ischemia followed by reperfusion, hypertension, and chronic hypoperfusion. Lastly, we discuss the relationship between perivascular clearance and brain disorders.

  20. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept pollutants before they reach the stream. High percentages of agriculture along streams increase the likelihood of elevated nutrient, pesticide and sediment levels in the stream. Agricultural land cover along streams (RIPAG) is the percent of total stream length adjacent to agriculture. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  1. Evaluation of airway measurements in phantom parenchyma and soft tissue regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Robert A.; Kim, Hyun J.; Goldin, Jonathan G.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Brown, Matthew S.

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a 3D airway measurement technique that can be initialized at a single point (either automatically or user defined) and to evaluate the measurement accuracy with varying imaging parameters as well as in synthetic parenchyma and soft tissue regions. This approach may have advantages over existing methods that require segmentation of the entire airway branch. METHODS: Rays are cast spherically from the initial measurement point and a range image is created of the distance to the edge of the airway lumen. The trajectory of the airway is estimated from the range image, and can be used to re-construct a 2D slice perpendicular to the airway for cross-sectional measurements. The evaluation phantom consisted of 5 tubes (3.18 to 19.05 mm in diameter and 1.59 to 3.18 mm in wall thickness) embedded in synthetic lung parenchyma and soft tissue. Images were acquired at 10 and 100 mAs at three tube orientations (0°, 45°, 90°) and were reconstructed at 0.6 and 1.5 mm slice thicknesses with both smooth and standard reconstruction kernels. RESULTS: The overall diameter and wall thickness accuracy was 0.43 +/- 0.19 mm and 0.28 +/- 0.15 mm respectively in parenchyma regions and 0.46 +/- 0.16 mm and 0.49 +/- 0.40 mm respectively in the soft tissue regions. The overall accuracy of the trajectory estimate was 0.64 +/- 0.51°. The proposed technique may allow a potentially larger number of airways to be measured for research and clinical analysis than with current methods.

  2. Outdoor air pollution and risk for kidney parenchyma cancer in 14 European cohorts.

    PubMed

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Pedersen, Marie; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Andersen, Zorana J; Galassi, Claudia; Sommar, Johan; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun H; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Föger, Bernhard; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Migliore, Enrica; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Kooter, Ingeborg; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Vermeulen, Roel; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor air pollution at the residence and the incidence of kidney parenchyma cancer in the general population. We used data from 14 European cohorts from the ESCAPE study. We geocoded and assessed air pollution concentrations at baseline addresses by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM10 , PM2.5 , PMcoarse , PM2.5 absorbance (soot)) and nitrogen oxides (NO2 , NOx ), and collected data on traffic. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effects models for meta-analyses to calculate summary hazard ratios (HRs). The 289,002 cohort members contributed 4,111,908 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 14.2 years) 697 incident cancers of the kidney parenchyma were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed higher HRs in association with higher PM concentration, e.g. HR = 1.57 (95%CI: 0.81-3.01) per 5 μg/m(3) PM2.5 and HR = 1.36 (95%CI: 0.84-2.19) per 10(-5) m(-1) PM2.5 absorbance, albeit never statistically significant. The HRs in association with nitrogen oxides and traffic density on the nearest street were slightly above one. Sensitivity analyses among participants who did not change residence during follow-up showed stronger associations, but none were statistically significant. Our study provides suggestive evidence that exposure to outdoor PM at the residence may be associated with higher risk for kidney parenchyma cancer; the results should be interpreted cautiously as associations may be due to chance. © 2016 UICC.

  3. Histopathological analysis of the non - tumour parenchyma following radical nephrectomy: can it predict renal functional outcome?

    PubMed

    Birendra, Rana; John, Nirmal Thampi; Duhli, Neelaveni; Devasia, Antony; Kekre, Nitin; Manojkumar, Ramani

    2017-01-01

    Radical nephrectomy (RN), a recommended treatment option for patients with Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) leads to an inevitable decline in global renal function. Pathological changes in the non-tumour parenchyma of the kidney may help predict the function of the remaining kidney. Aim of this prospective, observational study was to find histopathological factors in the non-tumor renal parenchyma that could predict the decline in global renal function postoperatively and its association with co-morbidities like diabetes (DM). Data of consecutive patients undergoing RN from December-2013 to January-2015 was collected. Non-tumor parenchyma of the specimen was reported by a dedicated histopathologist. eGFR was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault formula before the surgery and at last follow up of at least 12 months. 73 RN specimens were analyzed. Mean follow up was 12.3 months. The mean decrease in eGFR was 22% (p=.0001). Percent decrease in eGFR did not show association with any of the histopathological parameters studied. DM was significantly associated with decrease in percent eGFR (p<0.05) and increase in arteriolar hyalinosis (p=0.004), Glomerulosclerosis (p=0.03) and Interstitial fibrosis/ Tubular atrophy (p=.0001). Maximum size of the tumor showed a negative correlation with percentage change in eGFR (p=0.028). Histological parameters in the non-tumour portion of the RN specimen may not be able to predict renal function outcome over a short follow up. However, presence of DM was associated with adverse pathological changes and significant decrease in renal function postoperatively. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  4. Pulmonary Endogenous Fluorescence Allows the Distinction of Primary Lung Cancer from the Perilesional Lung Parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Charlotte; Farcy, René; Garcia, Stéphane; Secq, Veronique; Gaubert, Jean-Yves; Trousse, Delphine; Orsini, Bastien; Doddoli, Christophe; Moniz-Koum, Helene; Thomas, Pascal Alexandre; D’journo, Xavier Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Background Pre-therapeutic pathological diagnosis is a crucial step of the management of pulmonary nodules suspected of being non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially in the frame of currently implemented lung cancer screening programs in high-risk patients. Based on a human ex vivo model, we hypothesized that an embedded device measuring endogenous fluorescence would be able to distinguish pulmonary malignant lesions from the perilesional lung tissue. Methods Consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection of pulmonary lesions were included in this prospective and observational study over an 8-month period. Measurements were performed back table on surgical specimens in the operative room, both on suspicious lesions and the perilesional healthy parenchyma. Endogenous fluorescence signal was characterized according to three criteria: maximal intensity (Imax), wavelength, and shape of the signal (missing, stable, instable, photobleaching). Results Ninety-six patients with 111 suspicious lesions were included. Final pathological diagnoses were: primary lung cancers (n = 60), lung metastases of extra-thoracic malignancies (n = 27) and non-tumoral lesions (n = 24). Mean Imax was significantly higher in NSCLC targeted lesions when compared to the perilesional lung parenchyma (p<0,0001) or non-tumoral lesions (p<0,0001). Similarly, photobleaching was more frequently found in NSCLC than in perilesional lung (p<0,0001), or in non-tumoral lesions (p<0,001). Respective associated wavelengths were not statistically different between perilesional lung and either primary lung cancers or non-tumoral lesions. Considering lung metastases, both mean Imax and wavelength of the targeted lesions were not different from those of the perilesional lung tissue. In contrast, photobleaching was significantly more frequently observed in the targeted lesions than in the perilesional lung (p≤0,01). Conclusion Our results demonstrate that endogenous fluorescence applied to the

  5. The diagnostic value of cytokeratins expression in the renal parenchyma tumors.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Aurora; Baderca, Flavia; Lighezan, Rodica; Izvernariu, D; Raica, M

    2010-01-01

    Renal carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors, difficult to classify and identify precisely. Since their prognosis depends very much upon their type, precise diagnosis might mean the difference between therapeutic success and patient death. Cytokeratins are particularly useful for the identification of the epithelial nature of the tumors, because their expression is maintained even in poorly differentiated tumors. Monoclonal cytokeratins such as CK7 and CK20 stain different components of the renal tubular system and are a useful duo for the identification of the origin of the different tumors that might arise in the kidney. Along with polyclonal cytokeratins such as AE1/AE3 and high molecular weight cytokeratin antibodies (34betaE12, Cam 5.2), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and vimentin, they are included in every diagnostic panel for renal tumors. We have selected 138 renal parenchyma tumor specimens, performed morphological diagnosis and then stained them with polyclonal cytokeratin antibody AE1/AE3, and monoclonal antibodies to CK7 and CK20. AE1/AE3 was expressed in 61.7% of the renal parenchyma tumors, with high intensity and percentage of positive cases in the papillary carcinomas (100%), and with rare and weakly positive cells in chromophobic cells carcinomas, clear cells carcinomas and sarcomatous carcinomas. CK7 was positive in 68% of the renal parenchyma tumors, with positive reaction in 100% of the cases of chromophobic cells and sarcomatous carcinomas. Clear cells carcinomas had the less percentage of positive cells, whereas papillary carcinomas were positive in seven out of eight cases. No difference in the staining pattern was noticed between type I and type II papillary carcinomas. CK20 was negative in all cases studied.

  6. Assessment of pulmonary parenchyma perfusion with FAIR in comparison with DCE-MRI--initial results.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li; Liu, Shi-yuan; Sun, Fei; Xiao, Xiang-sheng

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess pulmonary parenchyma perfusion with flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) in comparison with 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging in healthy volunteers and in patients with pulmonary embolism or lung cancer. Sixteen healthy volunteers and 16 patients with pulmonary embolism (5 cases) or lung cancer (11 cases) were included in this study. Firstly, the optimized inversion time of FAIR (TI) was determined in 12 healthy volunteers. Then, FAIR imaging with the optimized TI was performed followed by DCE-MRI on the other 4 healthy volunteers and 16 patients. Tagging efficiency of lung and SNR of perfusion images were calculated with different TI values. In the comparison of FAIR with DCE-MRI, the homogeneity of FAIR and DCE-MRI perfusion was assessed. In the cases of perfusion abnormality, the contrast between normal lung and perfusion defects was quantified by calculating a normalized signal intensity ratio. One thousand milliseconds was the optimal TI, which generated the highest lung tagging efficiency and second highest PBF SNR. In the volunteers, the signal intensity of perfusion images acquired with both FAIR and DCE-MRI was homogeneous. Wedged-shaped or triangle perfusion defects were visualized in five pulmonary embolisms and three lung cancer cases. There was no significant statistical difference in signal intensity ratio between FAIR and DCE-MRI (P>0.05). In the rest of eight lung cancers, all the lesions showed low perfusion against the higher perfused pulmonary parenchyma in both FAIR and DCE-MRI. Pulmonary parenchyma perfusion imaging with FAIR was feasible, consistent and could obtain similar functional information to that from DCE-MRI.

  7. New star on the stage: amount of ray parenchyma in tree rings shows a link to climate.

    PubMed

    Olano, José Miguel; Arzac, Alberto; García-Cervigón, Ana I; von Arx, Georg; Rozas, Vicente

    2013-04-01

    Tree-ring anatomy reflects the year-by-year impact of environmental factors on tree growth. Up to now, research in this field has mainly focused on the hydraulic architecture, with ray parenchyma neglected despite the growing recognition of its relevance for xylem function. Our aim was to address this gap by exploring the potential of the annual patterns of xylem parenchyma as a climate proxy. We constructed ring-width and ray-parenchyma chronologies from 1965 to 2004 for 20 Juniperus thurifera trees growing in a Mediterranean continental climate. Chronologies were related to climate records by means of correlation, multiple regression and partial correlation analyses. Ray parenchyma responded to climatic conditions at critical stages during the xylogenetic process; namely, at the end of the previous year's xylogenesis (October) and at the onset of earlywood (May) and latewood formation (August). Ray parenchyma-based chronologies have potential to complement ring-width chronologies as a tool for climate reconstructions. Furthermore, medium- and low-frequency signals in the variation of ray parenchyma may improve our understanding of how trees respond to environmental fluctuations and to global change.

  8. Nephron-sparing Suture of Renal Parenchyma After Partial Nephrectomy: Which Technique to Go For? Some Best Practices.

    PubMed

    Porpiglia, Francesco; Bertolo, Riccardo; Amparore, Daniele; Fiori, Cristian

    2017-08-28

    The quantity of the preserved parenchyma after partial nephrectomy is the result of interplay among various factors: the unmodifiable preoperative quality of the renal parenchyma and some technical modifiable aspects. Among the modifiable factors able to influence the quantity, the suture technique has gained paramount importance. Indeed, nowadays there is a consensus suggesting that one of the main predictors of the ultimate renal function is the minimal parenchymal volume loss: this is the sum of the healthy parenchyma excised with the tumour and the portion of the parenchyma devascularised by the renorrhaphy. The historical aim of a good suture was to avoid bleeding and urine leakage. A modern suture after partial nephrectomy should minimise the ischaemic effect on the renal parenchyma whenever possible. This has to be carried out with precision and based on the vascular anatomy of the kidney. In this report, we tried to describe the best practice for the suturing of renal parenchyma after conservative surgical treatment for small renal tumours. Indeed, the suture after the resection of a renal mass should minimise the ischaemic effect on the renal tissue whenever possible, maximising the functional outcomes. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A large sialolith on the parenchyma of the submandibular gland: A case report

    PubMed Central

    JUNG, JAE-HOON; HONG, SUNG OK; NOH, KWANTAE; LEE, DEOK-WON

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old female was referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with the complaint of pain in the right submandibular region and a dry mouth, which had started one week previously. A clinical examination revealed a swelling and tenderness in the right submandibular region. Panoramic radiography and computed tomography identified a sialolith in the submandibular gland. Surgery on the sialolith was subsequently completed under general anesthesia extraorally. A brownish stone was present in the parenchyma of the submandibular gland, measuring 14×10 mm. PMID:25009613

  10. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by natural...

  11. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by natural...

  12. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  13. [Effects of cadmium on the ovarian parenchyma in Swiss albino mice].

    PubMed

    Lubo-Palma, Adonías; Nava-Leal, Carmen; Villasmil, Víctor; Quevedo, Ana Luisa; Montiel, Maria; Simoes, David; Faría, Clarisa

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of cadmium on the ovarian parenchyma. An experimental study was designed with 25 Swiss albino mice (healthy females) living 50 days under controlled laboratory conditions. For the experimental group, 21 mice were selected at random and divided into 3 groups (B, C, and D) of 7 animals each; thereafter they were exposed, respectively, to 50, 100 and 150 ppm of cadmium chloride dissolved in water offered ad libitum. They were compared with the control group A (6 remaining mice). Beginning on week three, physical and behavioral changes were observed: darkening of the eyes, yellowish discoloration of hair, flaccid and hypotonic muscles, irritability, aggressiveness and indifference. Ovaric histological findings were compared among the groups through optic microscopy and they were the following in cadmium exposed mice: 1) in the epithelium, proliferation, finger-like projections, hyperplasia, degeneration and necrosis; 2) in the ovary cortex, increased numbers of atresic follicles, decreased number of follicles in different stages of maturation, disorganization, edema and decreased number of yellow bodies; 3) in the interfollicular zone, areas of disorganization, edema and necrosis, mainly in the samples belonging to group D; 4) in the ovaric medulla, congestion, hyperemia and large sanguineous vasodilatation tending to haemorrhage. Since these effects increased with increasing concentrations of cadmium chloride, we may conclude that cadmium chloride is a highly toxic agent on the ovaric parenchyma of Swiss albino mice.

  14. The diagnostic value of EMA expression in the renal parenchyma tumors.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Aurora; Baderca, Flavia; Lighezan, Rodica; Zăhoi, Delia Elena; Izvernariu, D

    2011-01-01

    Renal parenchyma tumors are a heterogeneous group of malignancies that are difficult to diagnose and classify. Immunohistochemistry begun to be routinely used for the diagnosis of these tumors. Panels of antibodies are developed for the diagnostic assessment of these tumors, which include cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin. Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) is expressed by most of the tumor cell types. Forty-seven specimens of renal parenchyma tumors were studied immunohistochemically for the expression of EMA. In the majority of the cases, clear cells carcinoma was positive for EMA (25/33, 75.70%). All of the papillary carcinomas were positive, with different staining patterns between the two subtypes. The two cases of chromophobe cells carcinomas were intensely positive with a granular cytoplasmic staining pattern. The mixed epithelial-stromal tumor was negative for EMA in both of the components. Out of the three cases of sarcomatoid carcinomas, one was negative, one was weakly positive (+1) and the last was positive (+2). Intensely positive normal tubes were caught by the tumor proliferation in the negative case and in the negative stained areas of the weakly positive case.

  15. Biomechanics of the lung parenchyma: critical roles of collagen and mechanical forces.

    PubMed

    Suki, Béla; Ito, Satoru; Stamenovic, Dimitrije; Lutchen, Kenneth R; Ingenito, Edward P

    2005-05-01

    The biomechanical properties of connective tissues play fundamental roles in how mechanical interactions of the body with its environment produce physical forces at the cellular level. It is now recognized that mechanical interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) have major regulatory effects on cellular physiology and cell-cycle kinetics that can lead to the reorganization and remodeling of the ECM. The connective tissues are composed of cells and the ECM, which includes water and a variety of biological macromolecules. The macromolecules that are most important in determining the mechanical properties of these tissues are collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. Among these macromolecules, the most abundant and perhaps most critical for structural integrity is collagen. In this review, we examine how mechanical forces affect the physiological functioning of the lung parenchyma, with special emphasis on the role of collagen. First, we overview the composition of the connective tissue of the lung and their complex structural organization. We then describe how mechanical properties of the parenchyma arise from its composition as well as from the architectural organization of the connective tissue. We argue that, because collagen is the most important load-bearing component of the parenchymal connective tissue, it is also critical in determining the homeostasis and cellular responses to injury. Finally, we overview the interactions between the parenchymal collagen network and cellular remodeling and speculate how mechanotransduction might contribute to disease propagation and the development of small- and large-scale heterogeneities with implications to impaired lung function in emphysema.

  16. Symplasmic networks in secondary vascular tissues: parenchyma distribution and activity supporting long-distance transport.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    Stems that develop secondary vascular tissue (i.e. xylem and phloem derived from the vascular cambium) have unique demands on transport owing to their mass and longevity. Transport of water and assimilates must occur over long distances, while the increasing physical separation of xylem and phloem requires radial transport. Developing secondary tissue is itself a strong sink positioned between xylem and phloem along the entire length of the stem, and the integrity of these transport tissues must be maintained and protected for years if not decades. Parenchyma cells form an interconnected three-dimensional lattice throughout secondary xylem and phloem and perform critical roles in all of these tasks, yet our understanding of their physiology, the nature of their symplasmic connections, and their activity at the symplast-apoplast interface is very limited. This review highlights key historical work as well as current research on the structure and function of parenchyma in secondary vascular tissue in the hopes of spurring renewed interest in this area, which has important implications for whole-plant transport processes and resource partitioning.

  17. Coupled heterocellular arrays in the brain.

    PubMed

    Fróes, M M; Menezes, J R L

    2002-11-01

    Gap junctions are transcellular pathways that enable a dynamic metabolic coupling and a selective exchange of biological signaling mediators. Throughout the course of the brain development these intercellular channels are assembled into regionally and temporally defined patterns. The present review summarizes the possibilities of heterocellular gap junctional pairing in the brain parenchyma, involving glial cells, neurons and neural precursors as well as it highlights on the meaningfulness of these coupled arrays to the concept of brain functional compartments.

  18. Effects of nutrient intake level on mammary parenchyma growth and gene expression in crossbred (Holstein × Gyr) prepubertal heifers.

    PubMed

    Weller, M M D C A; Albino, Ronan L; Marcondes, M I; Silva, W; Daniels, K M; Campos, M M; Duarte, M S; Mescouto, M L; Silva, F F; Guimarães, S E F

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of increased nutrient intake levels on prepubertal mammary parenchyma development in crossbreed (Holstein × Gyr) dairy heifers. Eighteen heifers age 3 to 4 mo were fed 1 of 3 nutrient intake levels (n=6 per treatment) designed to sustain an average daily gain of 0.0kg/d (maintenance, MA), 0.5kg/d (low gain, LG), or 1.0kg/d (high gain, HG). Serum blood samples collected on d 42 and 84 after a 12-h fast were analyzed for triglycerides, leptin, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Liver and mammary parenchyma were biopsied on d 42 and harvested on d 84 for gene expression analysis. Parenchyma samples were also used for biochemical and histological analysis. Mammary parenchyma weight was lower in HG than in MA or LG heifers, but mammary extraparenchymal fat was greater in HG heifers than in other groups. Heifers fed the HG diet had a greater fraction of ether extract in their parenchyma than the others and a smaller fraction of crude protein in their parenchyma than MA heifers. Moreover, the HG and LG heifers had greater body fat mass than MA heifers. Nutrient intake level had no effect on the number of intraparenchymal adipocytes. Heifers fed the HG diet had greater serum IGF-1 than the others, and serum insulin was lower in the MA than the HG or LG heifers. Liver GHR, IGF1, and IGFBP3 mRNA expression was higher, but IGFBP2 mRNA was lower in HG heifers than in others. The parenchyma mRNA expression of lipogenic markers, such as CD36, ACCA, FASN, and ADIPOR1, was upregulated by nutrient intake level. Significant nutrient intake × time interactions for lipogenic genes during the experimental period indicated variable gene expression depending on the time point of prepubertal mammary gland development. Overall, our data suggest that enhancing nutrient intake increased body fat accumulation and lipogenesis in the mammary gland to the detriment of parenchyma growth. Moreover, increased lipogenesis in the parenchyma of HG

  19. Breast MRI contrast enhancement kinetics of normal parenchyma correlate with presence of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shandong; Berg, Wendie A; Zuley, Margarita L; Kurland, Brenda F; Jankowitz, Rachel C; Nishikawa, Robert; Gur, David; Sumkin, Jules H

    2016-07-22

    We investigated dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) contrast enhancement kinetic variables quantified from normal breast parenchyma for association with presence of breast cancer, in a case-control study. Under a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant and Institutional Review Board-approved protocol, DCE-MRI scans of the contralateral breasts of 51 patients with cancer and 51 controls (matched by age and year of MRI) with biopsy-proven benign lesions were retrospectively analyzed. Applying fully automated computer algorithms on pre-contrast and multiple post-contrast MR sequences, two contrast enhancement kinetic variables, wash-in slope and signal enhancement ratio, were quantified from normal parenchyma of the contralateral breasts of both patients with cancer and controls. Conditional logistic regression was employed to assess association between these two measures and presence of breast cancer, with adjustment for other imaging factors including mammographic breast density and MRI background parenchymal enhancement (BPE). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess the ability of the kinetic measures to distinguish patients with cancer from controls. When both kinetic measures were included in conditional logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for breast cancer was 1.7 (95 % CI 1.1, 2.8; p = 0.017) for wash-in slope variance and 3.5 (95 % CI 1.2, 9.9; p = 0.019) for signal enhancement ratio volume, respectively. These odds ratios were similar on respective univariate analysis, and remained significant after adjustment for menopausal status, family history, and mammographic density. While percent BPE was associated with an odds ratio of 3.1 (95 % CI 1.2, 7.9; p = 0.018), in multivariable analysis of the three measures, percent BPE was non-significant (p = 0.897) and the two kinetics measures remained significant. For the differentiation of patients

  20. Tumour-related imaging parameters predicting the percentage of preserved normal renal parenchyma following nephron sparing surgery: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Aertsen, Michael; De Keyzer, Frederik; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Joniau, Steven; De Wever, Liesbeth; Lerut, Evelyne; Oyen, Raymond; Claus, Filip

    2013-01-01

    To examine pre-operative imaging parameters that predict the residual amount of healthy renal parenchyma after nephron sparing surgery (NSS) for renal tumours, as this can help stratify patients towards the optimal surgical choice. Ninety-eight patients with the diagnosis of a solitary unilateral renal tumour and with pre- and post-operative imaging were included in this retrospective study. Imaging, patient and surgical parameters were acquired and their correlation to the percentage decrease of healthy renal parenchyma following surgery was statistically examined to find the most significant predictor of nephron sparing. Loss of healthy renal parenchyma was highest in patients with renal sinus tumour involvement (P = 0.003) and anterior tumours (P = 0.006), but not significantly correlated with medial/lateral location (P = 0.940) or exophytic/endophytic tumour growth (P = 0.244). The correlation of tumour size with the percentage of parenchymal sparing did not quite reach statistical significance (P = 0.053), but involvement of the urinary collecting system (P = 0.008) was a very good predictor of complications. Loss of healthy renal parenchyma was higher in patients with high-grade surgical complications (P = 0.001). Several pre-operative parameters correlate to percentage nephron sparing after NSS. Anterior tumour location and renal sinus involvement proved to be the best predictors of loss of healthy renal parenchyma.

  1. The texture quantitative analysis of the normal mammary parenchyma and in breast lesions: acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Liu, C; Geng, J; Zheng, X; Chen, B; Lu, Z; Wang, X

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the feasibility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technology in the normal mammary parenchyma and in breast lesions. The virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) value was measured on a total of 150 cases in the normal mammary parenchyma and a total of 69 cases in breast lesions (19 cases of nodules, 28 cases of fibroadenoma, and 22 cases of cancer). Then the statistic analysis was carried out on the VTQ value combined with mammographic density, ages, menstrual stages, and pathological result. The VTQ value of mammary parenchyma rose with the increase of the mammographic density, and the value of VTQ had statistical differences in the comparison of group C with group B and in the comparison of group D with group C. The comparison of the VTQ value of the mammary parenchyma in patients with breast cancer and the nodule had statistical difference. The comparison of the VTQ value of the mammary parenchyma in patients with breast cancer, and the fibroadenoma had statistical difference. The value ofVTQ in masses gradually increased in the groups of nodule, fibroadenoma, and breast cancer. There was significant difference in the comparison of VTQ value of the nodule group and the fibroadenoma group with breast cancer group respectively. ARFI-VTQ technology has some reference value in assessing mammographic density. ARFI-VTQ can be used as the quantitative indicater for differentially diagnosing the breast lesions.

  2. Compositional analysis of Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) cell-wall material from parenchyma, epidermis, and subepidermal tissues.

    PubMed

    Grassby, Terri; Jay, Andrew J; Merali, Zara; Parker, Mary L; Parr, Adrian J; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2013-10-09

    Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis (Burman f.) Trin ex Henschel) is a corm consumed globally in Oriental-style cuisine. The corm consists of three main tissues, the epidermis, subepidermis, and parenchyma; the cell walls of which were analyzed for sugar, phenolic, and lignin content. Sugar content, measured by gas chromatography, was higher in the parenchyma cell walls (931 μg/mg) than in the subepidermis (775 μg/mg) or epidermis (685 μg/mg). The alkali-extractable phenolic content, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, was greater in the epidermal (32.4 μg/mg) and subepidermal cell walls (21.7 μg/mg) than in the cell walls of the parenchyma (12.3 μg/mg). The proportion of diferulic acids was higher in the parenchyma. The Klason lignin content of epidermal and subepidermal cell walls was ~15%. Methylation analysis of Chinese water chestnut cell-wall polysaccharides identified xyloglucan as the predominant hemicellulose in the parenchyma for the first time, and also a significant pectin component, similar to other nongraminaceous monocots.

  3. Analysis of radiation therapy in a model of triple-negative breast cancer brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Smart, DeeDee; Garcia-Glaessner, Alejandra; Palmieri, Diane; Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J; Kramp, Tamalee; Gril, Brunilde; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Lyle, Tiffany; Hua, Emily; Cameron, Heather A; Camphausen, Kevin; Steeg, Patricia S

    2015-10-01

    Most cancer patients with brain metastases are treated with radiation therapy, yet this modality has not yet been meaningfully incorporated into preclinical experimental brain metastasis models. We applied two forms of whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) to the brain-tropic 231-BR experimental brain metastasis model of triple-negative breast cancer. When compared to sham controls, WBRT as 3 Gy × 10 fractions (3 × 10) reduced the number of micrometastases and large metastases by 87.7 and 54.5 %, respectively (both p < 0.01); whereas a single radiation dose of 15 Gy × 1 (15 × 1) was less effective, reducing metastases by 58.4 % (p < 0.01) and 47.1 % (p = 0.41), respectively. Neuroinflammation in the adjacent brain parenchyma was due solely to a reaction from metastases, and not radiotherapy, while adult neurogenesis in brains was adversely affected following both radiation regimens. The nature of radiation resistance was investigated by ex vivo culture of tumor cells that survived initial WBRT ("Surviving" cultures). The Surviving cultures surprisingly demonstrated increased radiosensitivity ex vivo. In contrast, re-injection of Surviving cultures and re-treatment with a 3 × 10 WBRT regimen significantly reduced the number of large and micrometastases that developed in vivo, suggesting a role for the microenvironment. Micrometastases derived from tumor cells surviving initial 3 × 10 WBRT demonstrated a trend toward radioresistance upon repeat treatment (p = 0.09). The data confirm the potency of a fractionated 3 × 10 WBRT regimen and identify the brain microenvironment as a potential determinant of radiation efficacy. The data also nominate the Surviving cultures as a potential new translational model for radiotherapy.

  4. Larch (Larix kaempferi) xylem parenchyma cells respond to subfreezing temperature by deep supercooling.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Jun; Takata, Naoki; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2007-01-01

    In previous studies, xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in the boreal softwood species larch, which has thick and rigid walls similar to those of XPCs in boreal hardwood species, were shown to respond to subfreezing temperature by deep supercooling during summer but change their freezing behavior to extracellular freezing during winter. In this study, we re-examined freezing behavior of XPCs in larch by observation of deep etching of frozen samples as well as observation of re-warmed samples after freezing using a cryo-scanning electron microscope. The results showed that XPCs in larch adapts to subfreezing temperature by deep supercooling throughout all seasons. Such freezing behavior is the same as that of XPCs in boreal hardwood species.

  5. The lung strip: evaluation of a method to study contractility of pulmonary parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Evans, J N; Adler, K B

    1981-08-01

    Isolated strips of rabbit lung were examined as an in vitro model for assessment of the direct effect of pharmacologic agents on the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in force of the strip were measured with an isometric force transducer. Histamine, acetylcholine and epinephrine elicited dose-related contractile responses. Morphological and immunohistochemical examination revealed three possible sources of force generation within the strip: airway smooth muscle, vascular smooth muscle, and interstitial actin-containing cells. Generation of force by the strip could reflect contraction of any combination of these three elements. Therefore, ascription of such contraction to peripheral airway smooth muscle alone is questionable. In order to assess the properties of the contractile elements within the strip, it is necessary to isolate and study them individually.

  6. Vascular defense responses in rice: peroxidase accumulation in xylem parenchyma cells and xylem wall thickening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Young, S. A.; Willard, L. H.; McGee, J. D.; Sweat, T.; Chittoor, J. M.; Guikema, J. A.; Leach, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    The rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a vascular pathogen that elicits a defensive response through interaction with metabolically active rice cells. In leaves of 12-day-old rice seedlings, the exposed pit membrane separating the xylem lumen from the associated parenchyma cells allows contact with bacterial cells. During resistant responses, the xylem secondary walls thicken within 48 h and the pit diameter decreases, effectively reducing the area of pit membrane exposed for access by bacteria. In susceptible interactions and mock-inoculated controls, the xylem walls do not thicken within 48 h. Xylem secondary wall thickening is developmental and, in untreated 65-day-old rice plants, the size of the pit also is reduced. Activity and accumulation of a secreted cationic peroxidase, PO-C1, were previously shown to increase in xylem vessel walls and lumen. Peptide-specific antibodies and immunogold-labeling were used to demonstrate that PO-C1 is produced in the xylem parenchyma and secreted to the xylem lumen and walls. The timing of the accumulation is consistent with vessel secondary wall thickening. The PO-C1 gene is distinct but shares a high level of similarity with previously cloned pathogen-induced peroxidases in rice. PO-C1 gene expression was induced as early as 12 h during resistant interactions and peaked between 18 and 24 h after inoculation. Expression during susceptible interactions was lower than that observed in resistant interactions and was undetectable after infiltration with water, after mechanical wounding, or in mature leaves. These data are consistent with a role for vessel secondary wall thickening and peroxidase PO-C1 accumulation in the defense response in rice to X. oryzae pv. oryzae.

  7. Gene expression associated with increased supercooling capability in xylem parenchyma cells of larch (Larix kaempferi).

    PubMed

    Takata, Naoki; Kasuga, Jun; Takezawa, Daisuke; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2007-01-01

    Xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in larch adapt to subfreezing temperatures by deep supercooling, while cortical parenchyma cells (CPCs) undergo extracellular freezing. The temperature limits of supercooling in XPCs changed seasonally from -30 degrees C during summer to -60 degrees C during winter as measured by freezing resistance. Artificial deacclimation of larch twigs collected in winter reduced the supercooling capability from -60 degrees C to -30 degrees C. As an approach to clarify the mechanisms underlying the change in supercooling capability of larch XPCs, genes expressed in association with increased supercooling capability were examined. By differential screening and differential display analysis, 30 genes were found to be expressed in association with increased supercooling capability in XPCs. These 30 genes were categorized into several groups according to their functions: signal transduction factors, metabolic enzymes, late embryogenesis abundant proteins, heat shock proteins, protein synthesis and chromatin constructed proteins, defence response proteins, membrane transporters, metal-binding proteins, and functionally unknown proteins. All of these genes were expressed most abundantly during winter, and their expression was reduced or disappeared during summer. The expression of all of the genes was significantly reduced or disappeared with deacclimation of winter twigs. Interestingly, all but one of the genes were expressed more abundantly in the xylem than in the cortex. Eleven of the 30 genes were thought to be novel cold-induced genes. The results suggest that change in the supercooling capability of XPCs is associated with expression of genes, including genes whose functions have not been identified, and also indicate that gene products that have been thought to play a role in dehydration tolerance by extracellular freezing also have a function by deep supercooling.

  8. Vascular defense responses in rice: peroxidase accumulation in xylem parenchyma cells and xylem wall thickening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Young, S. A.; Willard, L. H.; McGee, J. D.; Sweat, T.; Chittoor, J. M.; Guikema, J. A.; Leach, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    The rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a vascular pathogen that elicits a defensive response through interaction with metabolically active rice cells. In leaves of 12-day-old rice seedlings, the exposed pit membrane separating the xylem lumen from the associated parenchyma cells allows contact with bacterial cells. During resistant responses, the xylem secondary walls thicken within 48 h and the pit diameter decreases, effectively reducing the area of pit membrane exposed for access by bacteria. In susceptible interactions and mock-inoculated controls, the xylem walls do not thicken within 48 h. Xylem secondary wall thickening is developmental and, in untreated 65-day-old rice plants, the size of the pit also is reduced. Activity and accumulation of a secreted cationic peroxidase, PO-C1, were previously shown to increase in xylem vessel walls and lumen. Peptide-specific antibodies and immunogold-labeling were used to demonstrate that PO-C1 is produced in the xylem parenchyma and secreted to the xylem lumen and walls. The timing of the accumulation is consistent with vessel secondary wall thickening. The PO-C1 gene is distinct but shares a high level of similarity with previously cloned pathogen-induced peroxidases in rice. PO-C1 gene expression was induced as early as 12 h during resistant interactions and peaked between 18 and 24 h after inoculation. Expression during susceptible interactions was lower than that observed in resistant interactions and was undetectable after infiltration with water, after mechanical wounding, or in mature leaves. These data are consistent with a role for vessel secondary wall thickening and peroxidase PO-C1 accumulation in the defense response in rice to X. oryzae pv. oryzae.

  9. Benign and tumor parenchyma metabolomic profiles affect compensatory renal growth in renal cell carcinoma surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Nimrod D.; Reznik, Ed; Shingarev, Roman; Juluru, Krishna; Akin, Oguz; Hsieh, James J.; Jaimes, Edgar A.; Russo, Paul; Susztak, Katalin; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Hakimi, A. Ari

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives Pre-operative kidney volume is an independent predictor of glomerular filtration rate in renal cell carcinoma patients. Compensatory renal growth (CRG) can ensue prior to nephrectomy in parallel to tumor growth and benign parenchyma loss. We aimed to test whether renal metabolite abundances significantly associate with CRG, suggesting a causative relationship. Design, setting, participants, and measurements Tissue metabolomics data from 49 patients, with a median age of 60 years, were previously collected and the pre-operative fold-change of their contra to ipsi-lateral benign kidney volume served as a surrogate for their CRG. Contra-lateral kidney volume fold-change within a 3.3 +/- 2.1 years follow-up interval was used as a surrogate for long-term CRG. Using a multivariable statistical model, we identified metabolites whose abundances significantly associate with CRG. Results Our analysis found 13 metabolites in the benign (e.g. L-urobilin, Variable Influence in Projection, VIP, score = 3.02, adjusted p = 0.017) and 163 metabolites in the malignant (e.g. 3-indoxyl-sulfate, VIP score = 1.3, adjusted p = 0.044) tissues that significantly associate with CRG. Benign/tumor fold change in metabolite abundances revealed three additional metabolites with that significantly positively associate with CRG (e.g. p-cresol sulfate, VIP score = 2.945, adjusted p = 0.033). At the pathway level, we show that fatty-acid oxidation is highly enriched with metabolites whose benign tissue abundances strongly positively associate with CRG, both pre-operatively and long term, whereas in the tumor tissue significant enrichment of dipeptides and benzoate (positive association), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, lysolipid and nucleotide sugar pentose (negative associations) sub-pathways, were observed. Conclusion These data suggest that specific biological processes in the benign as well as in the tumor parenchyma strongly influence compensatory renal growth. PMID

  10. Material characterization of liver parenchyma using specimen-specific finite element models.

    PubMed

    Untaroiu, Costin D; Lu, Yuan-Chiao

    2013-10-01

    The liver is one of the most frequently injured abdominal organs during motor vehicle crashes. Realistic car crash simulations require incorporating strain-rate dependent mechanical properties of soft tissue in finite element (FE) material models. This study presents a total of 30 tension tests performed on fresh bovine liver parenchyma at various loading rates in order to characterize the biomechanical and failure properties of liver parenchyma. Each specimen, cut in a standard dog-bone shape, was tested until failure at one of three loading rates (0.01 s(-1), 0.1s(-1), 1 s(-1)) using a tensile testing setup. Load and acceleration recorded from each specimen grip were employed to calculate the time history of force at specimen ends. The shapes of all specimens were reconstructed from laser scans recorded prior to each test and then used to develop specimen-specific FE models. A first-order Ogden material model and the time histories of specimen end displacement were assigned to each specimen FE model. The failure Green-Lagrangian strain showed averages around 50% and no significant dependence on loading rates, but the failure 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress showed rate-dependence with average values ranging from 33 kPa to 94 kPa. The FE models with material model parameters identified using a simulation-based optimization replicated well the time history of load recorded during the test. The FE simulations with model parameters identified using an analytical approach or based on the displacement of optical markers showed a significantly stiffer response and lower failure stress/strain than the FE specimen-specific models. This study provides novel biomechanical and failure data which can be easily implemented in FE models and used to assess injury risk in automobile collisions.

  11. The role of the parenchyma sheath and PCD during the development of oil cavities in Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Tatiane Maria; Santos, Daniela Carvalho Dos; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2011-07-01

    Pterodon pubescens cavities are constituted by lumen and uniseriated epithelium surrounded by multiseriate parenchyma sheath. We studied the development of secretory cavities, including the role of parenchyma sheath, using light and transmission electron microscopy. A Tunel assay was performed to verify whether programmed cell death (PCD) occurs during the process. The lumen is formed by schizogeny and lysigeny occur in later developmental stages of the secretory cavities. Ultrastructurally, epithelial cells in later developmental stages become dark and with sinuous walls; the protoplast becomes retracted and the cytoplasm shows low organelle definition. Degenerated cells are released toward the lumen. Our results showed that PCD occurs during later developmental stages of cavities and plays a critical role in functioning of these glands. New cells originated from the parenchyma sheath differentiate into secretory cells and replace those degenerated ones. This fact associated to PCD guarantees epithelium renovation during the secretory cycle and the maintenance of secretory activity of cavities.

  12. Brain interstitial fluid collected through implanted tissue cages.

    PubMed

    Sechi, G P; Petruzzi, V; Rosati, G; Rubattu, L; Tanda, F; Deiana, G A; De Riu, P

    1991-11-08

    The physicochemical properties of the whole-brain interstitial fluid (IF) are unknown. A volume of whole-brain IF sufficient for analysis was obtained through a small, hollow, multiperforated polypropylene sphere implanted for 4-5 weeks into the dog brain parenchyma. The main physicochemical properties of the whole-brain IF were characterized, in comparison with the physicochemical properties of cerebrospinal fluid and blood/serum.

  13. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off...

  14. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off...

  15. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off...

  16. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off...

  17. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off...

  18. Cell-type-dependent enzymatic hydrolysis of palm residues: chemical and surface characterization of fibers and parenchyma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Liu, Hao; Fu, Shiyu; Chen, Shicheng

    2013-02-01

    Chemical and surface characteristics of sulfite-pretreated royal palm sheath (RPS) fibers and parenchyma cells were investigated in order to study cell-type-dependent biomass hydrolysis by cellulase. Size, chemical composition, cellulose crystallinity and the exposure of cellulose microfibrils in pretreated RPS biomass affected the enzymatic accessibility and digestibility of different cell-type substrates.

  19. Revisiting nanoparticle technology for blood-brain barrier transport: Unfolding at the endothelial gate improves the fate of transferrin receptor-targeted liposomes.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Kasper Bendix; Moos, Torben

    2016-01-28

    An unmet need exists for therapeutic compounds to traverse the brain capillary endothelial cells that denote the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to deliver effective treatment to the diseased brain. The use of nanoparticle technology for targeted delivery to the brain implies that targeted liposomes encapsulating a drug of interest will undergo receptor-mediated uptake and transport through the BBB with a subsequent unfolding of the liposomal content inside the brain, hence revealing drug release to adjacent drug-demanding neurons. As transferrin receptors (TfRs) are present on brain capillary endothelial, but not on endothelial cells elsewhere in the body, the use of TfR-targeted liposomes - colloidal particulates with a phospholipid bilayer membrane - remains the most relevant strategy to obtain efficient drug delivery to the brain. However, many studies have failed to provide sufficient quantitative data to proof passage of the BBB and significant appearance of drugs inside the brain parenchyma. Here, we critically evaluate the current evidence on the use of TfR-targeted liposomes for brain drug delivery based on a thorough investigation of all available studies within this research field. We focus on issues with respect to experimental design and data analysis that may provide an explanation to conflicting reports, and we discuss possible explanations for the current lack of sufficient transcytosis across the BBB for implementation in the design of TfR-targeted liposomes. We finally provide a list of suggestions for strategies to obtain substantial uptake and transport of drug carriers at the BBB with a concomitant transport of therapeutics into the brain.

  20. Texture-learning-based system for three-dimensional segmentation of renal parenchyma in abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cong-Qi; Chang, Yuan-Hsiang; Wang, Li-Jen; Wong, Yon-Choeng; Chiang, Yang-Jen; Jiang, Yan-Yau

    2009-02-01

    Abdominal CT images are commonly used for the diagnosis of kidney diseases. With the advances of CT technology, processing of CT images has become a challenging task mainly because of the large number of CT images being studied. This paper presents a texture-learning based system for the three-dimensional (3D) segmentation of renal parenchyma in abdominal CT images. The system is designed to automatically delineate renal parenchyma and is based on the texturelearning and the region-homogeneity-based approaches. The first approach is achieved with the texture analysis using the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features and an artificial neural network (ANN) to determine if a pixel in the CT image is likely to fall within the renal parenchyma. The second approach incorporates a two-dimensional (2D) region growing to segment renal parenchyma in single CT image slice and a 3D region growing to propagate the segmentation results to neighboring CT image slices. The criterion for the region growing is a test of region-homogeneity which is defined by examining the ANN outputs. In system evaluation, 10 abdominal CT image sets were used. Automatic segmentation results were compared with manually segmentation results using the Dice similarity coefficient. Among the 10 CT image sets, our system has achieved an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.87 that clearly shows a high correlation between the two segmentation results. Ultimately, our system could be incorporated in applications for the delineation of renal parenchyma or as a preprocessing in a CAD system of kidney diseases.

  1. Celery (Apium graveolens) parenchyma cell walls: cell walls with minimal xyloglucan.

    PubMed

    Thimm, Julian C.; Burritt, David J.; Sims, Ian M.; Newman, Roger H.; Ducker, William A.; Melton, Laurence D.

    2002-10-01

    The primary walls of celery (Apium graveolens L.) parenchyma cells were isolated and their polysaccharide components characterized by glycosyl linkage analysis, cross-polarization magic-angle spinning solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS 13C NMR) and X-ray diffraction. Glycosyl linkage analysis showed that the cell walls consisted of mainly cellulose (43 mol%) and pectic polysaccharides (51 mol%), comprising rhamnogalacturonan (28 mol%), arabinan (12 mol%) and galactan (11 mol%). The amounts of xyloglucan (2 mol%) and xylan (2 mol%) detected in the cell walls were strikingly low. The small amount of xyloglucan present means that it cannot coat the cellulose microfibrils. Solid-state 13C NMR signals were consistent with the constituents identified by glycosyl linkage analysis and allowed the walls to be divided into three domains, based on the rigidity of the polymers. Cellulose (rigid) and rhamnogalacturonan (semi-mobile) polymers responded to the CP/MAS 13C NMR pulse sequence and were distinguished by differences in proton spin relaxation time constants. The arabinans, the most mobile polymers, responded to single-pulse excitation (SPE), but not CP/MAS 13C NMR. From solid-state 13C NMR of the cell walls the diameter of the crystalline cellulose microfibrils was determined to be approximately 3 nm while X-ray diffraction of the cell walls gave a value for the diameter of approximately 2 nm.

  2. Biochemical and Cytological Analyses of RNA Synthesis in Kinetin-treated Pea Root Parenchyma 1

    PubMed Central

    Shininger, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Excised cortical parenchyma from the pea root (cv. Little Marvel) responds to kinetin/auxin treatment with an increased rate of RNA synthesis well before reinitiating DNA synthesis. Few cells synthesize RNA in the 1st hour of culture. In the presence of kinetin/auxin, the nuclear labeling index increases 2.5-fold as compared to control cultures. The RNA synthesis response has an apparent lag period of 2-4 hours as shown by double label ([3H]adenosine/[14C]adenosine) experiments. Qualitatively, the RNA synthesized at 4-6 hours sediments between 18S and 5S. The RNA synthesized at 14-16 hours and 24-26 hours is primarily ribosomal RNA when kinetin is present. In the absence of kinetin, no clear pattern of RNA synthesis emerges. The data are interpreted to mean that kinetin treatment elicits RNA synthesis in a small proportion of the population initially and this may involve messenger-like RNA. Later, more cells synthesize RNA and this is primarily rRNA. Images PMID:16661292

  3. Efficient ethanol production from separated parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk.

    PubMed

    Prawitwong, Panida; Kosugi, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Deng, Lan; Lee, Kok Chang; Ibrahim, Darah; Murata, Yoshinori; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Sudesh, Kumar; Ibrahim, Wan Asma Bt; Saito, Masayoshi; Mori, Yutaka

    2012-12-01

    For efficient utilization of both starchy and cellulosic materials, oil palm trunk was separated into parenchyma (PA) and vascular bundle (VB). High solid-state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (HSS-SSF) using 30% (w/v) PA, containing 46.7% (w/w) starch, supplemented with amylases and Saccharomyces cerevisiae K3, produced 6.1% (w/v) ethanol. Subsequent alkali-pretreatment using sodium hydroxide was carried out with starch-free PA (sfPA) and VB. Enzymatic digestibility of 5% (w/v) pretreated sfPA and VB was 92% and 97%, respectively, using 18 FPU of commercial cellulase supplemented with 10 U of Novozyme-188 per gram of substrate. Likewise, HSS-SSF using 30% (w/v) alkali-pretreated sfPA and VB, with cellulases and yeast, resulted in high ethanol production (8.2% and 8.5% (w/v), respectively). These results show that HSS-SSF using separated PA and VB is a useful fermentation strategy, without loss of starchy and cellulosic materials, for oil palm trunk.

  4. Neutrophils Infiltrate the Spinal Cord Parenchyma of Rats with Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Victoria L.; Guck, Jonathan D.; Cotter, Mary A.

    2017-01-01

    Spinal glial cell activation and cytokine secretion have been implicated in the etiology of neuropathic pain in a number of experimental models, including diabetic neuropathy. In this study, streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with gabapentin (50 mg/kg/day by gavage for 2 weeks, from 6 weeks after STZ). At 8 weeks after STZ, hypersensitivity was confirmed in the untreated diabetic rats as a reduced response threshold to touch, whilst mechanical thresholds in gabapentin-treated diabetic rats were no different from controls. Diabetes-associated thermal hypersensitivity was also ameliorated by gabapentin. We performed a cytokine profiling array in lumbar spinal cord samples from control and diabetic rats. This revealed an increase in L-selectin, an adhesion molecule important for neutrophil transmigration, in the spinal cord of diabetic rats but not diabetic rats treated with gabapentin. Furthermore, we found an increase in the number of neutrophils present in the parenchyma of the spinal cord, which was again ameliorated in gabapentin-treated diabetic rats. Therefore, we suggest that dysregulated spinal L-selectin and neutrophil infiltration into the spinal cord could contribute to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy. PMID:28293643

  5. Resistance to alveolar shape change limits range of force propagation in lung parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Baoshun; Smith, Bradford J; Bates, Jason H T

    2015-06-01

    We have recently shown that if the lung parenchyma is modeled in 2 dimensions as a network of springs arranged in a pattern of repeating hexagonal cells, the distortional forces around a contracting airway propagate much further from the airway wall than classic continuum theory predicts. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that this occurs because of the negligible shear modulus of a hexagonal spring network. We simulated the narrowing of an airway embedded in a hexagonal network of elastic alveolar walls when the hexagonal cells of the network offered some resistance to a change in shape. We found that as the forces resisting shape change approach about 10% of the forces resisting length change of an individual spring the range of distortional force propagation in the spring network fell of rapidly as in an elastic continuum. We repeated these investigations in a 3-dimensional spring network composed of space-filling polyhedral cells and found similar results. This suggests that force propagation away from a point of local parenchymal distortion also falls off rapidly in real lung tissue.

  6. RESISTANCE TO ALVEOLAR SHAPE CHANGE LIMITS RANGE OF FORCE PROPAGATION IN LUNG PARENCHYMA

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Baoshun; Smith, Bradford J.; Bates, Jason H.T.

    2015-01-01

    We have recently shown that if the lung parenchyma is modeled in 2 dimensions as a network of springs arranged in a pattern of repeating hexagonal cells, the distortional forces around a contracting airway propagate much further from the airway wall than classic continuum theory predicts. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that this occurs because of the negligible shear modulus of a hexagonal spring network. We simulated the narrowing of an airway embedded in a hexagonal network of elastic alveolar walls when the hexagonal cells of the network offered some resistance to a change in shape. We found that as the forces resisting shape change approach about 10% of the forces resisting length change of an individual spring the range of distortional force propagation in the spring network fell of rapidly as in an elastic continuum. We repeated these investigations in a 3-dimensional spring network composed of space-filling polyhedral cells and found similar results. This suggests that force propagation away from a point of local parenchymal distortion also falls off rapidly in real lung tissue. PMID:25812796

  7. Bradykinin enhances invasion of malignant glioma into the brain parenchyma by inducing cells to undergo amoeboid migration

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Stefanie; Sontheimer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The molecular and cellular mechanisms governing cell motility and directed migration in response to the neuropeptide bradykinin are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human glioma cells whose migration is guided by bradykinin generate bleb-like protrusions. We found that activation of the B2 receptor leads to a rise in free Ca2+ from internal stores that activates actomyosin contraction and subsequent cytoplasmic flow into protrusions forming membrane blebs. Furthermore Ca2+ activates Ca2+-dependent K+ and Cl− channels, which participate in bleb regulation. Treatment of gliomas with bradykinin in situ increased glioma growth by increasing the speed of cell migration at the periphery of the tumour mass. To test if bleb formation is related to bradykinin-promoted glioma invasion we blocked glioma migration with blebbistatin, a blocker of myosin kinase II, which is necessary for proper bleb retraction. Our findings suggest a pivotal role of bradykinin during glioma invasion by stimulating amoeboid migration of glioma cells. PMID:25194042

  8. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  9. Thermodynamic Battle for Photosynthate Acquisition between Sieve Tubes and Adjoining Parenchyma in Transport Phloem1

    PubMed Central

    Hafke, Jens B.; van Amerongen, Jan-Kees; Kelling, Frits; Furch, Alexandra C.U.; Gaupels, Frank; van Bel, Aart J.E.

    2005-01-01

    In transport phloem, photoassimilates escaping from the sieve tubes are released into the apoplasmic space between sieve element (SE)/companion cell (CC) complexes (SE/CCs) and phloem parenchyma cells (PPCs). For uptake respective retrieval, PPCs and SE/CCs make use of plasma membrane translocators energized by the proton motive force (PMF). Their mutual competitiveness, which essentially determines the amount of photoassimilates translocated through the sieve tubes, therefore depends on the respective PMFs. We measured the components of the PMF, membrane potential and ΔpH, of SE/CCs and PPCs in transport phloem. Membrane potentials of SE/CCs and PPCs in tissue slices as well as in intact plants fell into two categories. In the first group including apoplasmically phloem-loading species (e.g. Vicia, Solanum), the membrane potentials of the SEs are more negative than those of the PPCs. In the second group including symplasmically phloem-loading species (e.g. Cucurbita, Ocimum), membrane potentials of SEs are equal to or slightly more positive than those of PPCs. Pure sieve tube sap collected from cut aphid stylets was measured with H+-selective microelectrodes. Under our experimental conditions, pH of the sieve tube saps was around 7.5, which is comparable to the pH of cytoplasmic compartments in parenchymatous cells. In conclusion, only the membrane potential appears to be relevant for the PMF-determined competition between SE/CCs and PPCs. The findings may imply that the axial sinks along the pathway withdraw more photoassimilates from the sieve tubes in symplasmically loading species than in apoplasmically loading species. PMID:15980202

  10. Ultrastructure of Fibre and Parenchyma Cell Walls During Early Stages of Culm Development in Dendrocalamus asper

    PubMed Central

    GRITSCH, CRISTINA SANCHIS; MURPHY, RICHARD J.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The anatomy of bamboo culms and the multilayered structure of fibre cell walls are known to be the main determinant factors for its physical and mechanical properties. Studies on the bamboo cell wall have focussed mainly on fully elongated and mature fibres. The main aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of primary and secondary cell walls in culm tissues of Dendrocalamus asper at different stages of development. • Methods The development of fibre and parenchyma tissues was classified into four stages based on light microscopy observations made in tissues from juvenile plants. The stages were used as a basis for transmission electron microscopy study on the ultrastructure of the cell wall during the process of primary and early secondary cell wall formation. Macerations and phloroglucinol–HCl staining were employed to investigate fibre cell elongation and fibre cell wall lignification, respectively. • Key Results The observations indicated that the primary wall is formed by the deposition of two distinct layers during the elongation of the internode and that secondary wall synthesis may begin before the complete cessation of internode and fibre elongation. Elongation was followed by a maturation phase characterized by the deposition of multiple secondary wall layers, which varied in number according to the cell type, location in the culm tissue and stage of shoot development. Lignification of fibre cell walls started at the period prior to the cessation of internode elongation. • Conclusions The structure of the primary cell wall was comprised of two layers. The fibre secondary cell wall began to be laid down while the cells were still undergoing some elongation, suggesting that it may act to cause the slow-down and eventual cessation of cell elongation. PMID:15665037

  11. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging for evaluation of renal parenchyma elasticity in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Goya, Cemil; Kilinc, Faruk; Hamidi, Cihad; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Yildirim, Yasar; Cetincakmak, Mehmet Guli; Hattapoglu, Salih

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The goal of this study is to evaluate the changes in the elasticity of the renal parenchyma in diabetic nephropathy using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. The study included 281 healthy volunteers and 114 patients with diabetic nephropathy. In healthy volunteers, the kidney elasticity was assessed quantitatively by measuring the shear-wave velocity using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging based on age, body mass index, and sex. The changes in the renal elasticity were compared between the different stages of diabetic nephropathy and the healthy control group. RESULTS. In healthy volunteers, there was a statistically significant correlation between the shear-wave velocity values and age and sex. The shear-wave velocity values for the kidneys were 2.87, 3.14, 2.95, 2.68, and 2.55 m/s in patients with stage 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 diabetic nephropathy, respectively, compared with 2.35 m/s for healthy control subjects. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging was able to distinguish between the different diabetic nephropathy stages (except for stage 5) in the kidneys. The threshold value for predicting diabetic nephropathy was 2.43 m/s (sensitivity, 84.1%; specificity, 67.3%; positive predictive value, 93.1%; negative predictive value 50.8%; accuracy, 72.1%; positive likelihood ratio, 2.5; and negative likelihood ratio, 0.23). CONCLUSION. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging could be used for the evaluation of the renal elasticity changes that are due to secondary structural and functional changes in diabetic nephropathy.

  12. [Gemstone computed tomography in the evaluation of material distribution in pulmonary parenchyma for pulmonary embolism].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Lü, Lei; Wu, Hua-wei; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ji-wei

    2011-12-06

    To present our initial experiences with pulmonary high-definition multidetector computed tomography (HDCT) in patients with acute venous thromboembolism (AVTE) to evaluate their corresponding clinical manifestations. Since December 2009 to March 2010, 23 AVTE patients underwent HDCT at our hospital. Pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed based on the 3D-reconstructed images of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The post processed data were collected by spectral imaging system software to detect the iodine distribution maps. Perfusion defects, calculated as the values of iodine content, were compared with those of normal lung parenchymal perfusion in the absence of PE. Among them, 14 AVTE patients were definitely diagnosed with PE. Prior to anticoagulant therapy, their values of iodine content in defective perfusion area were significantly lower than those in normal perfusion area. After a 3-month anticoagulant therapy, the values of iodine content for the defective perfusion area increased significantly (P < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the values of iodine content for segmental/subsegmental filling defect area and clinical risk score of DVT (r = 2.68, P > 0.05). But there was a significant negative correlation between the values of iodine content for segmental/subsegmental filling defection area and clinical probability score of PE (r = 0.78, P < 0.05). HDCT is a promising modality of visualizing pulmonary microvasculature as a correlative manifestation of regional perfusion. PE results in hypoperfusion with decreased values of iodine content in affected lung parenchyma. Hemodynamic changes in affected areas correlate with the severity of clinical manifestations of PE.

  13. Kinetic Changes in Liver Parenchyma After Preoperative Chemotherapy for Patients with Colorectal Liver Metastases.

    PubMed

    Tani, Keigo; Shindoh, Junichi; Takamoto, Takeshi; Shibahara, Junji; Nishioka, Yujiro; Hashimoto, Takuya; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Makuuchi, Masatoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2017-05-01

    Total liver volume (TLV) empirically changes after aggressive preoperative chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases (CLM). However, the actual degree of changes in normal liver parenchyma and its clinical relevance remain unclear. Morphometric data of 110 patients who underwent initial hepatectomy after preoperative chemotherapy were reviewed. TLVs before and after chemotherapy were measured using a computer-based volumetry software and their relevance to clinical factors was investigated. More than 10% of decrease in TLV was observed in 42 (38.2%) patients, and more than 10% of increase was observed in 11 (10.0%) patients. Change in TLV was within 10% in the remaining 57 (51.8%) patients. Indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (ICG-R15) value was significantly higher in patients with TLV decrease more than 10% (13.4 vs. 9.3 vs. 8.5%; p = 0.004). Steatosis in the underlying liver was significantly frequent in patients with TLV increase more than 10% (p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that more than 10% of shrinkage in TLV after chemotherapy was independently associated with ICG-R15 >15% (odds ratio 8.8; p = 0.0001). Tendency of correlation was confirmed in the kinetic changes in TLV and ICG-R15 during chemotherapy even though there was no statistical significance (r = -0.33, p = 0.080). Perichemotherapy kinetic changes in TLV may predict histopathologic changes or changes in hepatic functional reserve in the underlying liver. More than 10% of shrinkage in TLV is associated with impaired hepatic functional reserve, and it can be a new supplemental finding in the prediction of surgical risk of major hepatectomy for CLM.

  14. Is pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in celiac disease related to structural alterations in pancreatic parenchyma?

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Surinder S.; Dambalkar, Arvind; Chhabra, Puneet; Sharma, Ravi; Nada, Ritambhra; Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Satyavati; Bhasin, Deepak K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) has been reported in a number of patients with celiac disease (CD), it is not clear if this is primarily a functional or a structural defect. We studied pancreatic structural abnormalities by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in adult CD patients with EPI. Methods Pancreatic exocrine function was prospectively assessed in 36 recently diagnosed CD patients (mean age: 29.8 years) by measuring fecal elastase. Pancreatic structural changes were assessed in CD patients with EPI by EUS and elastography. Exocrine functions were reassessed after 3 months of gluten-free diet. Results Of the 36 CD patients included, 30 (83%) had anemia, 21 (58%) diarrhea, and 7 (19%) hypothyroidism. Ten (28%) patients had EPI with mean elastase levels of 141.6 μg/g of stool, of whom only one had a history of recurrent acute pancreatitis while the rest 9 patients had no history of acute or chronic pancreatitis. Of these 10 patients, 8 (80%) had diarrhea, 8 (80%) anemia, and 2 (20%) hypothyroidism. EUS was done in 8 patients which showed: normal pancreas in 5 (50%), hyperechoic strands in 3 (30%), and hyperechoic foci without shadowing in 2 (20%) patients. None had lobularity or parenchymal calcification. All patients except the patient with recurrent pancreatitis had normal strain ratio. Follow-up fecal elastase was within normal range in 6 of 7 (86%) patients. Conclusion EPI, assessed by fecal elastase levels in adult CD patients, possibly does not relate to structural alterations in the pancreatic parenchyma and may be reversible by following a gluten-free diet. PMID:27366039

  15. Is pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in celiac disease related to structural alterations in pancreatic parenchyma?

    PubMed

    Rana, Surinder S; Dambalkar, Arvind; Chhabra, Puneet; Sharma, Ravi; Nada, Ritambhra; Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Satyavati; Bhasin, Deepak K

    2016-01-01

    Although exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) has been reported in a number of patients with celiac disease (CD), it is not clear if this is primarily a functional or a structural defect. We studied pancreatic structural abnormalities by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in adult CD patients with EPI. Pancreatic exocrine function was prospectively assessed in 36 recently diagnosed CD patients (mean age: 29.8 years) by measuring fecal elastase. Pancreatic structural changes were assessed in CD patients with EPI by EUS and elastography. Exocrine functions were reassessed after 3 months of gluten-free diet. Of the 36 CD patients included, 30 (83%) had anemia, 21 (58%) diarrhea, and 7 (19%) hypothyroidism. Ten (28%) patients had EPI with mean elastase levels of 141.6 μg/g of stool, of whom only one had a history of recurrent acute pancreatitis while the rest 9 patients had no history of acute or chronic pancreatitis. Of these 10 patients, 8 (80%) had diarrhea, 8 (80%) anemia, and 2 (20%) hypothyroidism. EUS was done in 8 patients which showed: normal pancreas in 5 (50%), hyperechoic strands in 3 (30%), and hyperechoic foci without shadowing in 2 (20%) patients. None had lobularity or parenchymal calcification. All patients except the patient with recurrent pancreatitis had normal strain ratio. Follow-up fecal elastase was within normal range in 6 of 7 (86%) patients. EPI, assessed by fecal elastase levels in adult CD patients, possibly does not relate to structural alterations in the pancreatic parenchyma and may be reversible by following a gluten-free diet.

  16. Celery (Apium graveolens L.) parenchyma cell walls examined by atomic force microscopy: effect of dehydration on cellulose microfibrils.

    PubMed

    Thimm, J C; Burritt, D J; Ducker, W A; Melton, L D

    2000-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image celery (Apium graveolens L.) parenchyma cell walls in situ. Cellulose microfibrils could clearly be distinguished in topographic images of the cell wall. The microfibrils of the hydrated walls appeared smaller, more uniformly distributed, and less enmeshed than those of dried peels. In material that was kept hydrated at all times and imaged under water, the microfibril diameter was mainly in the range 6-25 nm. The cellulose microfibril diameters were highly dependent on the water content of the specimen. As the water content was decreased, by mixing ethanol with the bathing solution, the microfibril diameters increased. Upon complete dehydration of the specimen we observed a significant increase in microfibril diameter. The procedure used to dehydrate the parenchyma cells also influenced the size of cellulose microfibrils with freeze-dried material having larger diameters than air-dried material.

  17. Accidental aspiration of head scarf pin in left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma: A rare case in a child

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Yusuf; Kandath, Mohammed Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration is commonly seen in children but less commonly in adolescents. Headscarf pin aspiration is common in Muslim girls, who inappropriately place the pins between their lips while securing the scarf on the head. Bronchoscopy is the treatment modality of choice, and surgery is rarely required. An 11-year-old girl was admitted as a case of accidental aspiration of headscarf pin. X-ray chest showed a radiopaque object in the left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma. Computed tomography (CT) chest confirmed the diagnosis. The headscarf pin was removed by flexible bronchoscopy as the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon failed to remove it by rigid bronchoscopy. The FB was removed successfully and the patient was discharged home. Removal of a sharp pin by bronchoscopy is difficult, especially if it pierces the lung parenchyma. In our case, the pin was bent by forceps and then removed by a flexible bronchoscope, which requires a highly skilled professional. PMID:27578937

  18. Accidental aspiration of head scarf pin in left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma: A rare case in a child.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Yusuf; Kandath, Mohammed Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration is commonly seen in children but less commonly in adolescents. Headscarf pin aspiration is common in Muslim girls, who inappropriately place the pins between their lips while securing the scarf on the head. Bronchoscopy is the treatment modality of choice, and surgery is rarely required. An 11-year-old girl was admitted as a case of accidental aspiration of headscarf pin. X-ray chest showed a radiopaque object in the left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma. Computed tomography (CT) chest confirmed the diagnosis. The headscarf pin was removed by flexible bronchoscopy as the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon failed to remove it by rigid bronchoscopy. The FB was removed successfully and the patient was discharged home. Removal of a sharp pin by bronchoscopy is difficult, especially if it pierces the lung parenchyma. In our case, the pin was bent by forceps and then removed by a flexible bronchoscope, which requires a highly skilled professional.

  19. Quantitative computed tomography of lung parenchyma in patients with emphysema: analysis of higher-density lung regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K.; Zheng, Bin; Sciurba, Frank C.; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (CT) has been widely used to detect and evaluate the presence (or absence) of emphysema applying the density masks at specific thresholds, e.g., -910 or -950 Hounsfield Unit (HU). However, it has also been observed that subjects with similar density-mask based emphysema scores could have varying lung function, possibly indicating differences of disease severity. To assess this possible discrepancy, we investigated whether density distribution of "viable" lung parenchyma regions with pixel values > -910 HU correlates with lung function. A dataset of 38 subjects, who underwent both pulmonary function testing and CT examinations in a COPD SCCOR study, was assembled. After the lung regions depicted on CT images were automatically segmented by a computerized scheme, we systematically divided the lung parenchyma into different density groups (bins) and computed a number of statistical features (i.e., mean, standard deviation (STD), skewness of the pixel value distributions) in these density bins. We then analyzed the correlations between each feature and lung function. The correlation between diffusion lung capacity (DLCO) and STD of pixel values in the bin of -910HU <= PV < -750HU was -0.43, as compared with a correlation of -0.49 obtained between the post-bronchodilator ratio (FEV1/FVC) measured by the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) dividing the forced vital capacity (FVC) and the STD of pixel values in the bin of -1024HU <= PV < -910HU. The results showed an association between the distribution of pixel values in "viable" lung parenchyma and lung function, which indicates that similar to the conventional density mask method, the pixel value distribution features in "viable" lung parenchyma areas may also provide clinically useful information to improve assessments of lung disease severity as measured by lung functional tests.

  20. Diffuse renal parenchyma uptake with bone scintigraphy in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and normal kidney function.

    PubMed

    Balink, Hans; Hoogendoorn, Mels; Hemmelder, Marc

    2014-03-01

    A 41-year-old woman with a Harrington spondylodesis presented with lower back pain. Bone scintigraphy showed diffusely increased parenchymal uptake in both kidneys. She reported 2 previous periods of dark, almost black, urine. Additional flow cytometric analysis confirmed the diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. The increased renal parenchyma uptake is very probably due to paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria-related renal hemosiderosis. Remarkably, the patient did not develop any abnormality of renal function.

  1. Infarction and Laceration of Liver Parenchyma Caused by Wedged CO{sub 2} Venography Before TIPS Insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Theuerkauf, Ingo; Strunk, Holger; Brensing, Karl August; Schild, Hans Heinz; Pfeifer, Ulrich

    2001-01-15

    We describe the fatal outcome of an elective TIPS procedure performed in a 43-year-old man with alcoholic cirrhosis. Wedged hepatic venography with CO{sub 2} was the reason for infarction and laceration of liver parenchyma resulting in a subcapsular hematoma and subsequent intra-abdominal bleeding. This is the first report of this complication after the use of CO{sub 2} in a cirrhotic patient.

  2. Brain abscess: Current management

    PubMed Central

    Alvis Miranda, Hernando; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Elzain, Mohammed Awad; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Brain abscess (BA) is defined as a focal infection within the brain parenchyma, which starts as a localized area of cerebritis, which is subsequently converted into a collection of pus within a well-vascularized capsule. BA must be differentiated from parameningeal infections, including epidural abscess and subdural empyema. The BA is a challenge for the neurosurgeon because it is needed good clinical, pharmacological, and surgical skills for providing good clinical outcomes and prognosis to BA patients. Considered an infrequent brain infection, BA could be a devastator entity that easily left the patient into dead. The aim of this work is to review the current concepts regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of BA. PMID:24174804

  3. Dissection of the Process of Brain Metastasis Reveals Targets and Mechanisms for Molecular-based Intervention.

    PubMed

    Weidle, Ulrich H; Birzele, Fabian; Kollmorgen, Gwendlyn; Rüger, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases outnumber the incidence of brain tumors by a factor of ten. Patients with brain metastases have a dismal prognosis and current treatment modalities achieve only a modest clinical benefit. We discuss the process of brain metastasis with respect to mechanisms and involved targets to outline options for therapeutic intervention and focus on breast and lung cancer, as well as melanoma. We describe the process of penetration of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) by disseminated tumor cells, establishment of a metastatic niche, colonization and outgrowth in the brain parenchyma. Furthermore, the role of angiogenesis in colonization of the brain parenchyma, interactions of extravasated tumor cells with microglia and astrocytes, as well as their propensity for neuromimicry, is discussed. We outline targets suitable for prevention of metastasis and summarize targets suitable for treatment of established brain metastases. Finally, we highlight the implications of findings revealing druggable mutations in brain metastases that cannot be identified in matching primary tumors.

  4. Functional units in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson) liver: III. Morphometric analysis of parenchyma, stroma, and component cell types.

    PubMed

    Hampton, J A; Lantz, R C; Hinton, D E

    1989-05-01

    Hepatic stroma and parenchyma with its component cell types were quantitatively described in adult male and female actively-spawning 5-year-old rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson). Point-count morphometry of glycol methacrylate sections estimated volume compartments for stroma and parenchyma. Veins composed 85% of the stroma while arteries and bile ducts occupied approximately 6-7% each. Parenchyma accounted for 95% of hepatic volume. Point-count morphometry of transmission electron micrographs estimated volume compartments as well as numerical and surface density measurements for parenchymal components. Within the hepatic parenchymal compartment, hepatocytes occupied 85% and showed significant sex differences. Female hepatocytes were significantly more numerous but were smaller, only 60% of the volume of male hepatocytes. Since hepatocyte nuclear volume was equal in both sexes, differences were due to reduced cytoplasmic volume in females. Perisinusoidal macrophages of females occupied larger volumes of their respective parenchymal compartments, and their larger mean cytoplasmic volumes suggested activation. Biliary epithelial cells of preductules and ductules were numerous. Ratios of numerical density of hepatocytes to biliary epithelial cells were consistent with a tubular arrangement of hepatocytes. Factors possibly mediating the sexual dimorphism are discussed.

  5. Fractal analysis of two-dimensional vascularity in primary prostate cancer and surrounding non-tumoral parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Taverna, Gianluigi; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Grizzi, Fabio; Franceschini, Barbara; Ceva-Grimaldi, Giorgia; Seveso, Mauro; Giusti, Guido; Piccinelli, Alessandro; Graziotti, Pierpaolo

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer in the world. However, none of the actual prognostic factors provide a valid index for predicting patient outcome. Here, we evaluate the two-dimensional vascularity in primary prostate tumors and surrounding non-tumoral parenchyma by means of fractal geometry, and assess any correlations between the results and some clinical and pathological parameters of prostate carcinoma. Prostate sections from 27 carcinoma patients were treated with CD34 antibodies. Two >10mm(2) areas of tumoral and surrounding non-tumoral parenchyma were digitized using an image analysis system that automatically quantified the fractal dimension of the vascular surface. Data were correlated with patient's age, PSA level, clinical and pathological stage, Gleason score, tumor volume, vascular invasion, surgical margins, and biochemical relapse. Two groups of patients were distinguished on the basis of whether the fractal dimension of their tumoral vascular surface was higher (group 1) or lower (group 2) than that of the surrounding non-tumoral parenchyma. Statistically significant between-group differences were found in terms of serum PSA levels (p=0.0061), tumor volume (p=0.0017), and biochemical relapse (p=0.031). The patients in group 2 had a poorer outcome. Our findings suggest a group of prostate cancer patients with a poor outcome, and the vascular surface fractal dimension as a helpful geometrical index in clinical practice.

  6. Isolation of rice dwarf mutants with ectopic deposition of phenolic components including lignin in parenchyma cell walls of internodes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kanna; Kawamura, Asuka; Obara, Tsukasa; Kawai, Shinya; Kajita, Shinya; Kitano, Hidemi; Katayama, Yoshihiro

    2011-12-01

    Rice internodes must have the proper shape to support high-yielding panicles. The shape of internodes is controlled by various factors involved in their formation, such as developmental patterns, cell division, cell elongation, and cell wall biosynthesis. To understand the regulation of internode development, we screened dwarf mutants to identify those with a phenotype of ectopic deposits of phenolic components in parenchyma cell walls of internodes. We named these mutants ectopic deposition of phenolic components1 (edp1). Two alleles were identified, edp1-1 and edp1-2. Furthermore, these mutants showed disordered cell files in internode parenchyma. These abnormal phenotypes were very similar to that of a previously reported dwarf50 (d50) mutant. Genetic analyses of edp1 mutants revealed that the edp1 loci are distinct from d50. Our results indicate that analyses of edp1 mutants as well as the d50 mutant will be useful for understanding the molecular mechanisms behind ectopic deposition of cell wall phenolic components in internode parenchyma cells and the regulation of internode development.

  7. Lipid-laden cells differentially distributed in the aging brain are functionally active and correspond to distinct phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, Marilia Kimie; Langhi, Larissa Gutman Paranhos; Cordeiro, Ingrid; Brito, José M; Batista, Claudia Maria de Castro; Mattson, Mark P; Mello Coelho, Valeria de

    2016-03-31

    We characterized cerebral Oil Red O-positive lipid-laden cells (LLC) of aging mice evaluating their distribution, morphology, density, functional activities and inflammatory phenotype. We identified LLC in meningeal, cortical and neurogenic brain regions. The density of cerebral LLC increased with age. LLC presenting small lipid droplets were visualized adjacent to blood vessels or deeper in the brain cortical and striatal parenchyma of aging mice. LLC with larger droplets were asymmetrically distributed in the cerebral ventricle walls, mainly located in the lateral wall. We also found that LLC in the subventricular region co-expressed beclin-1 or LC3, markers for autophagosome or autophagolysosome formation, and perilipin (PLIN), a lipid droplet-associated protein, suggesting lipophagic activity. Some cerebral LLC exhibited β galactosidase activity indicating a senescence phenotype. Moreover, we detected production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in cortical PLIN(+) LLC. Some cortical NeuN(+) neurons, GFAP(+) glia limitans astrocytes, Iba-1(+) microglia and S100β(+) ependymal cells expressed PLIN in the aging brain. Our findings suggest that cerebral LLC exhibit distinct cellular phenotypes and may participate in the age-associated neuroinflammatory processes.

  8. Lipid-laden cells differentially distributed in the aging brain are functionally active and correspond to distinct phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Shimabukuro, Marilia Kimie; Langhi, Larissa Gutman Paranhos; Cordeiro, Ingrid; Brito, José M.; Batista, Claudia Maria de Castro; Mattson, Mark P.; de Mello Coelho, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    We characterized cerebral Oil Red O-positive lipid-laden cells (LLC) of aging mice evaluating their distribution, morphology, density, functional activities and inflammatory phenotype. We identified LLC in meningeal, cortical and neurogenic brain regions. The density of cerebral LLC increased with age. LLC presenting small lipid droplets were visualized adjacent to blood vessels or deeper in the brain cortical and striatal parenchyma of aging mice. LLC with larger droplets were asymmetrically distributed in the cerebral ventricle walls, mainly located in the lateral wall. We also found that LLC in the subventricular region co-expressed beclin-1 or LC3, markers for autophagosome or autophagolysosome formation, and perilipin (PLIN), a lipid droplet-associated protein, suggesting lipophagic activity. Some cerebral LLC exhibited β galactosidase activity indicating a senescence phenotype. Moreover, we detected production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in cortical PLIN+ LLC. Some cortical NeuN+ neurons, GFAP+ glia limitans astrocytes, Iba-1+ microglia and S100β+ ependymal cells expressed PLIN in the aging brain. Our findings suggest that cerebral LLC exhibit distinct cellular phenotypes and may participate in the age-associated neuroinflammatory processes. PMID:27029648

  9. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  10. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming.

    PubMed

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise.

  11. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging for Noninvasive Evaluation of Renal Parenchyma Elasticity: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui-Xiong; Peng, Ai; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Liu, Lin-Na

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) to test the elasticity of renal parenchyma by measuring the shear wave velocity (SWV) which might be used to detect chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods 327 healthy volunteers and 64 CKD patients were enrolled in the study. The potential influencing factors and measurement reproducibility were evaluated in the healthy volunteers. Correlations between SWV and laboratory tests were analyzed in CKD patients.?Receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were performed to assess the diagnostic performance of ARFI. Results The SWV of healthy volunteers correlated significantly to age (r = −0.22, P<0.001, n = 327) and differed significantly between men and women (2.06±0.48 m/s vs. 2.2±0.52 m/s, P = 0.018, n = 327). However, it did not correlate significantly to height, weight, body mass index, waistline, kidney dimension and the depth for SWV measurement (n = 30). Inter- and intraobserver agreement expressed as intraclass coefficient correlation were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.13 to 0.82, P = 0.011) and 0.6 (95% CI: 0.31 to 0.81, P = 0.001) (n = 40). The mean SWV in healthy volunteers was 2.15±0.51 m/s, while was 1.81±0.43 m/s, 1.79±0.29 m/s, 1.81±0.44 m/s, 1.64±0.55 m/s, and 1.36±0.17 m/s for stage 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in CKD patients respectively. The SWV was significantly higher for healthy volunteers compared with each stage in CKD patients. ARFI could not predict the different stages of CKD except stage 5. In CKD patients, SWV correlated to e-GFR (r = 0.3, P = 0.018), to urea nitrogen (r =  −0.3, P = 0.016), and to creatinine (r =  −0.41, P = 0.001). ROC analyses indicated that the area under the ROC curve was 0.752 (95% CI: 0.704 to 0.797) (P<0.001). The cut-off value for predicting CKD was 1.88 m/s (sensitivity 71.87% and specificity 69.69%). Conclusion ARFI may be a potentially useful tool in detecting CKD. PMID

  12. Usefulness of clearance parametric images in detection of regional renal parenchyma dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kuśmierek, Jacek; Bieńkiewicz, Małgorzata; Konecki, Tomasz; Surma, Marian; Sosnowski, Marek; Płachcińska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether parametric clearance images (PAR) enhance diagnostic potential of a dynamic renal scintigraphy with detection of local dysfunction of kidneys, on a model of kidneys after treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), MATERIAL AND METHODS: Kidneys after ESWL were accepted as a proper model for the implementation of this objective because of the previously proven damaging effect of a shock wave on renal parenchyma and known region of ESWL application. Forty patients (23 males and 17 females) at the age of 37 to 70 years (mean value 54) with untreated earlier single, one-sided nephrolithiasis, currently treated with ESWL, underwent a study. A dynamic renal 99mTc-EC scintigraphy was performed three times: before ESWL, a week and a month after this therapeutic intervention. PAR images generated with use of an in-house developed software were compared with summation (SUM) of images obtained from radiopharmaceutical uptake phase and quantitative global function parameters (GFP) of each kidney, like split function, MTT - mean transit time and PTT - parenchymal transit time. PAR and SUM images of all 40 kidneys before ESWL were normal. PAR images revealed local or diffused defects a week and a month after therapeutic intervention in statistically significantly larger numbers of kidneys than SUM images (19 vs. 6, p = 0.002 and 16 vs. 5, p = 0.003, respectively). A week after ESWL, when defects in PAR images were observed in about a half of all renal segments (29/57 - 51%) all GFP values were significantly worse than in kidneys without defects. A month after ESWL defects in PAR images could be observed in ab. 1/3 (17/48 - 35%) of segments and were less extensive, whereas GFP values did not differ significantly from values in kidneys without clearance function impairment in the PAR images. PAR images enhance diagnostic potential of a dynamic renal scintigraphy with detection of local function defects. These images

  13. Freezing effect on brain density in postmortem CT.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Miyu; Hyodoh, Hideki; Rokukawa, Masumi; Kanazawa, Ayumi; Murakami, Rina; Shimizu, Junya; Okazaki, Shunichiro; Mizuo, Keisuke; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Two 60-year-old males were found at their homes whose bodies had deteriorated due to putrefaction. To prevent worm invasion and minimize deterioration, dry ice was used prior to the autopsy investigation. Prior to autopsy, postmortem CT demonstrated a decreased density in brain parenchyma at the dry-iced side, and autopsy revealed deteriorated brain parenchyma with frozen effect (presented like sherbet). Moreover, the deteriorated cerebral parenchyma maintained their structure and they were evaluated by cutting. When lower CT density presents in postmortem CT, the freezing effect may need to be considered and the physician should evaluate the cadaver's postmortem condition to prevent misdiagnoses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel B19-like parvovirus in the brain of a harbor seal.

    PubMed

    Bodewes, Rogier; Rubio García, Ana; Wiersma, Lidewij C M; Getu, Sarah; Beukers, Martijn; Schapendonk, Claudia M E; van Run, Peter R W A; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Poen, Marjolein J; Osinga, Nynke; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J; Kuiken, Thijs; Smits, Saskia L; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2013-01-01

    Using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel parvovirus was detected in the brain of a young harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis that was rehabilitated at the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in the Netherlands. In addition, two novel viruses belonging to the family Anelloviridae were detected in the lungs of this animal. Phylogenetic analysis of the coding sequence of the novel parvovirus, tentatively called Seal parvovirus, indicated that this virus belonged to the genus Erythrovirus, to which human parvovirus B19 also belongs. Although no other seals with similar signs were rehabilitated in SRRC in recent years, a prevalence study of tissues of seals from the same area collected in the period 2008-2012 indicated that the Seal parvovirus has circulated in the harbor seal population at least since 2008. The presence of the Seal parvovirus in the brain was confirmed by real-time PCR and in vitro replication. Using in situ hybridization, we showed for the first time that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus was present in the Virchow-Robin space and in cerebral parenchyma adjacent to the meninges. These findings showed that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus can be involved in central nervous system infection and inflammation, as has also been suspected but not proven for human parvovirus B19 infection.

  15. Novel B19-Like Parvovirus in the Brain of a Harbor Seal

    PubMed Central

    Bodewes, Rogier; Rubio García, Ana; Wiersma, Lidewij C. M.; Getu, Sarah; Beukers, Martijn; Schapendonk, Claudia M. E.; van Run, Peter R. W. A.; van de Bildt, Marco W. G.; Poen, Marjolein J.; Osinga, Nynke; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J.; Kuiken, Thijs; Smits, Saskia L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel parvovirus was detected in the brain of a young harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis that was rehabilitated at the Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in the Netherlands. In addition, two novel viruses belonging to the family Anelloviridae were detected in the lungs of this animal. Phylogenetic analysis of the coding sequence of the novel parvovirus, tentatively called Seal parvovirus, indicated that this virus belonged to the genus Erythrovirus, to which human parvovirus B19 also belongs. Although no other seals with similar signs were rehabilitated in SRRC in recent years, a prevalence study of tissues of seals from the same area collected in the period 2008-2012 indicated that the Seal parvovirus has circulated in the harbor seal population at least since 2008. The presence of the Seal parvovirus in the brain was confirmed by real-time PCR and in vitro replication. Using in situ hybridization, we showed for the first time that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus was present in the Virchow-Robin space and in cerebral parenchyma adjacent to the meninges. These findings showed that a parvovirus of the genus Erythrovirus can be involved in central nervous system infection and inflammation, as has also been suspected but not proven for human parvovirus B19 infection. PMID:24223918

  16. Brain abscess in seven cats due to a bite wound: MRI findings, surgical management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Chiara; Garosi, Laurent S; Glass, Eric N; Rusbridge, Clare; Stalin, Catherine E; Volk, Holger A

    2011-09-01

    PRESENTATION AND LESION LOCALISATION: Seven adult domestic shorthair cats were presented with a 1- to 6-day history of progressive neurological signs. A focal skin puncture and subcutaneous swelling over the dorsal part of the head were detected on physical examination. Neurological examination indicated lesion(s) in the right forebrain in four cats, multifocal forebrain in one cat, left forebrain in one cat, and multifocal forebrain and brainstem in the remaining cat. In all cats, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a space-occupying forebrain lesion causing a severe mass effect on adjacent brain parenchyma. CLINICAL APPROACH AND OUTCOME: All cats were managed with a combination of medical and surgical treatment. At surgery a small penetrating calvarial fracture was detected in all cats, and a tooth fragment was found within the content of the abscess in two cats. The combination of surgical intervention, intensive care and intravenous antimicrobials led to a return to normal neurological function in five cats. As this series of cases indicates, successful resolution of a brain abscess due to a bite injury depends on early recognition and combined used of antimicrobials and surgical intervention. A particular aim of surgery is to remove any skull and foreign body (tooth) fragments that may represent a continuing focus of infection. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. All rights reserved.

  17. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ventilation or by ventilation equipment safe for use in an explosive gas atmosphere. (b) Each space adjacent... gas atmosphere must be de-energized at a location outside of that space. This location must be labeled to prohibit reenergizing until the atmosphere in the space is tested and found to be less than 30...

  18. Perivascular Spaces--MRI Marker of Inflammatory Activity in the Brain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuerfel, Jens; Haertle, Mareile; Waiczies, Helmar; Tysiak, Eva; Bechmann, Ingo; Wernecke, Klaus D.; Zipp, Frauke; Paul, Friedemann

    2008-01-01

    The Virchow-Robin spaces (VRS), perivascular compartments surrounding small blood vessels as they penetrate the brain parenchyma, are increasingly recognized for their role in leucocyte trafficking as well as for their potential to modulate immune responses. In the present study, we investigated VRS numbers and volumes in different brain regions…

  19. Perivascular Spaces--MRI Marker of Inflammatory Activity in the Brain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuerfel, Jens; Haertle, Mareile; Waiczies, Helmar; Tysiak, Eva; Bechmann, Ingo; Wernecke, Klaus D.; Zipp, Frauke; Paul, Friedemann

    2008-01-01

    The Virchow-Robin spaces (VRS), perivascular compartments surrounding small blood vessels as they penetrate the brain parenchyma, are increasingly recognized for their role in leucocyte trafficking as well as for their potential to modulate immune responses. In the present study, we investigated VRS numbers and volumes in different brain regions…

  20. Improving parenchyma segmentation by simultaneous estimation of tissue property T1 map and group-wise registration of inversion recovery MR breast images.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ye; Xue, Zhong; Englander, Sarah; Schnall, Mitchell; Shen, Dinggang

    2008-01-01

    The parenchyma tissue in the breast has a strong relation with predictive biomarkers of breast cancer. To better segment parenchyma, we perform segmentation on estimated tissue property T1 map. To improve the estimation of tissue property (T1) which is the basis for parenchyma segmentation, we present an integrated algorithm for simultaneous T1 map estimation, T1 map based parenchyma segmentation and group-wise registration on series of inversion recovery magnetic resonance (MR) breast images. The advantage of using this integrated algorithm is that the simultaneous T1 map estimation (E-step) and group-wise registration (R-step) could benefit each other and jointly improve parenchyma segmentation. In particular, in E-step, T1 map based segmentation could help perform an edge-preserving smoothing on the tentatively estimated noisy T1 map, and could also help provide tissue probability maps to be robustly registered in R-step. Meanwhile, the improved estimation of T1 map could help segment parenchyma in a more accurate way. In R-step, for robust registration, the group-wise registration is performed on the tissue probability maps produced in E-step, rather than the original inversion recovery MR images, since tissue probability maps are the intrinsic tissue property which is invariant to the use of different imaging parameters. The better alignment of images achieved in R-step can help improve T1 map estimation and indirectly the T1 map based parenchyma segmentation. By iteratively performing E-step and R-step, we can simultaneously obtain better results for T1 map estimation, T1 map based segmentation, group-wise registration, and finally parenchyma segmentation.

  1. The effects of ductal ligation on the parenchyma of salivary glands of cat studied by enzyme histochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D; Garrett, J R

    1976-01-01

    Submandibular, sublingual and parotid glands of cat have been studied following periods of ductal ligation ranging from 1 day to 1 year. An increased prominence of granules of acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase and E600-resistant esterase reaction products was sometimes seen in acinar cells and atropic striated ductal cells, and probably represents increased lysosomal enzymic activity, which may be of importance in the adapation of the parenchyma to the altered environment. Other reaction products often appeared to be at normal levels in parenchymal structures that were not very atrophic, and at reduced levels in those that were very atrophic, suggesting a reduction of functional activity in these structures.

  2. CD11c-positive cells from brain, spleen, lung, and liver exhibit site-specific immune phenotypes and plastically adapt to new environments.

    PubMed

    Immig, Kerstin; Gericke, Martin; Menzel, Franziska; Merz, Felicitas; Krueger, Martin; Schiefenhövel, Fridtjof; Lösche, Andreas; Jäger, Kathrin; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Biber, Knut; Bechmann, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    The brain's immune privilege has been also attributed to the lack of dendritic cells (DC) within its parenchyma and the adjacent meninges, an assumption, which implies maintenance of antigens rather than their presentation in lymphoid organs. Using mice transcribing the green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the DC marker CD11c (itgax), we identified a juxtavascular population of cells expressing this DC marker and demonstrated their origin from bone marrow and local microglia. We now phenotypically compared this population with CD11c/CD45 double-positive cells from lung, liver, and spleen in healthy mice using seven-color flow cytometry. We identified unique, site-specific expression patterns of F4/80, CD80, CD86, CX3CR1, CCR2, FLT3, CD103, and MHC-II. Furthermore, we observed the two known CD45-positive populations (CD45(high) and CD45(int) ) in the brain, whereas liver, lung, and spleen exhibited a homogeneous CD45(high) population. CD11c-positive microglia lacked MHC-II expression and CD45(high) /CD11c-positive cells from the brain have a lower percentage of MHC-II-positive cells. To test whether phenotypical differences are fixed by origin or specifically develop due to environmental factors, we transplanted brain and spleen mononuclear cells on organotypic slice cultures from brain (OHSC) and spleen (OSSC). We demonstrate that adaption and ramification of MHC-II-positive splenocytes is paralleled by down-regulation of MHC-II, whereas brain-derived mononuclear cells neither ramified nor up-regulated MHC-II in OSSCs. Thus, brain-derived mononuclear cells maintain their MHC-II-negative phenotype within the environment of an immune organ. Intraparenchymal CD11c-positive cells share immunophenotypical characteristics of DCs from other organs but remain unique for their low MHC-II expression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. EAGLE CAP WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilsgaard, Thor H.; Tuchek, Ernest T.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey of the Eagle Cap Wilderness and adjacent areas a probable mineral-resources potential was identified in five areas in the eastern part of the wilderness. Mineral resources are most likely to occur in tactite deposits in sedimentary rocks at or near contacts with intrusive granitic rocks that could contain copper and small amounts of other metals; however, there is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  4. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  5. Enteroenteroanastomosis near adjacent ileocecal valve in infants

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Wei; Xu, Xiao-Qun; Geng, Qi-Ming; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Huan; Lv, Xiao-Feng; Lu, Chang-Gui; Tang, Wei-Bing

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility and the effectiveness of ileoileostomy in the region adjacent to the ileocecal valve, which can retain the ileocecal valve in infants. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of 48 patients who underwent ileoileostomy in the region adjacent to the ileocecal valve (group 1) and 34 patients who underwent ileocecal resections and ileotransversanastomosis (group 2). Patients were monitored for the time to flatus, resumption of eating, length of hospital stay after surgery, serum total bile acid, vitamin B12 and postoperative complications. RESULTS: The time to flatus, time until resumption of eating and post-operative length of hospital stay showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Serum total bile acid and vitamin B12 were not significantly different between the two groups at post-operative day 1 and day 3, but were significantly decreased at 1 wk after operation in group 2. None of the patients died or suffered from stomal leak in these two groups. However, the incidence of diarrhea, intestinal infection, disturbance of acid-base balance and water-electrolytes in group 1 was lower than in group 2. CONCLUSION: Ileoileostomy in the region adjacent to the ileocecal valve is safe and results in fewer complications than ileotransversanastomosis in infants. PMID:23326139

  6. [Atmospheric adjacency effect correction of ETM images].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng-yu; Chen, Chun; Zhang, Shu-qing; Gao, Ji-yue

    2010-09-01

    It is an important precondition to retrieve the ground surface reflectance exactly for improving the subsequent product of remote sensing images and the quantitative application of remote sensing. However, because the electromagnetic wave is scattered by the atmosphere during its transmission from the ground surface to the sensor, the electromagnetic wave signal of the target received by the sensor contained the signal of the background. The adjacency effect emerges. Because of the adjacency effect, the remote sensing images become blurry, and their contrast reduces. So the ground surface reflectance retrieved from the remote sensing images is also inaccurate. Finally, the quality of subsequent product of remote sensing images and the accuracy of quantitative application of remote sensing might decrease. In the present paper, according to the radiative transfer equation, the atmospheric adjacency effect correction experiment of ETM images was carried out by using the point spread function method. The result of the experiment indicated that the contrast of the corrected ETM images increased, and the ground surface reflectance retrieved from those images was more accurate.

  7. Effect of Macerase, Oxalic Acid, and EGTA on Deep Supercooling and Pit Membrane Structure of Xylem Parenchyma of Peach

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Michael; Davis, Glen; Arora, Rajeev

    1991-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine if calcium cross-linking of pectin in the pit membrane of xylem parenchyma restricts water movement which results in deep supercooling. Current year shoots of `Loring' peach (Prunus persica) were infiltrated with oxalic acid or EGTA solutions for 24 or 48 hours and then either prepared for ultrastructural analysis or subjected to differential thermal analysis. The effect of 0.25 to 1.0% pectinase (weight/volume) on deep supercooling was also investigated. The use of 5 to 50 millimolar oxalic acid and pectinase resulted in a significant reduction (flattening) of the low temperature exotherm and a distinct swelling and partial degradation of the pit membrane. EGTA (10 millimolar) for 24 or 48 hours shifted the low temperature exotherm to warmer temperatures and effected the outermost layer of the pit membrane. A hypothesis is presented on pectin-mediated regulation of deep supercooling of xylem parenchyma. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:16668341

  8. Absence of fibromodulin affects matrix composition, collagen deposition and cell turnover in healthy and fibrotic lung parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Rydell-Törmänen, Kristina; Andréasson, Kristofer; Hesselstrand, Roger; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    The ECM exerts great effects on cells, and changed composition may therefore have profound impact. Small leucine-rich proteoglycans, e.g. fibromodulin, are essential in collagen assembly. Our aim was to investigate the role of fibromodulin in healthy and fibrotic lung parenchyma, theorizing that fibromodulin-deficient animals would be protected against fibrosis. Repeated subcutaneous bleomycin-injections were given to wild type and fibromodulin-deficient mice, inducing pulmonary fibrosis. Development of fibrosis, ECM composition, cell turnover and inflammatory responses were investigated. Fibromodulin-deficient animals were not protected from fibrosis, but the composition of the matrix was affected, with decreased Collagen I in fibromodulin-deficient animals, both in controls (0.07 ± 0.04% vs. 0.18 ± 0.07% tissue area) and after bleomycin (0.37 ± 0.16% vs. 0.61 ± 0.21% tissue area). Biglycan was increased in fibromodulin-deficient animals, whereas decorin was decreased. Furthermore, bleomycin increased cell turnover in wild type, but only proliferation in fibromodulin-deficient animals, resulting in hyperplasia. In addition, the bleomycin-induced immune response was affected in fibromodulin-deficient animals. We thus conclude that fibromodulin has a profound effect on ECM, both in healthy and fibrotic lung parenchyma, and may be providing a permissive microenvironment affecting cell turnover. Furthermore, this study highlights the need to acknowledge specific ECM components, when assessing tissue properties and ultimately cell behaviour. PMID:25230586

  9. Ultrasonographic assessment of the thyroid gland and adjacent anatomic structures in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus).

    PubMed

    Kot, Brian C W; Ying, Michael T C; Brook, Fiona M; Kinoshita, Reimi E; Cheng, Sammy C H

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the use of ultrasonography for thyroid gland assessment in healthy Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the thyroid gland and adjacent anatomic structures, and identify potential associations between variations in thyroid gland morphology and demographic features in this species. 18 captive Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins. 1,404 ultrasonographic examinations of the thyroid gland and adjacent anatomic structures (eg, cervical lymph nodes, musculature, and vasculature) were performed during the > 3-year study period. Shape, echogenicity, and homogeneity of thyroid glands were assessed, and glands were categorized into morphological configurations on the basis of results of 2-D and 3-D ultrasonographic evaluation. Associations between demographic factors and thyroid gland morphology were assessed. Thyroid lobes appeared elliptical or fusiform in the transverse scan plane and round to oval in longitudinal scan planes; morphologically, glands comprised 2 lobes joined by an isthmus or a roughly diamond-shaped structure located on the ventral surface of the trachea. Major blood vessels and cervical lymph nodes were identified. Thyroid parenchyma was typically uniform and homogeneous, with echogenic reticulations and well-defined borders. Thyroid glands were hypoechoic or isoechoic relative to the sternocephalicus muscle; echogenicity was greater in adolescents than in adults. Thyroid gland volume differed between sexes, between sexually mature and immature dolphins, and among age groups and was positively correlated with body length and weight. Ultrasonography provided a reliable and repeatable method for evaluation of thyroid glands and adjacent anatomic structures in live dolphins.

  10. The cytoskeleton facilitates a three-dimensional symplasmic continuum in the long-lived ray and axial parenchyma cells of angiosperm trees.

    PubMed

    Chaffey, N; Barlow, P

    2001-09-01

    The microtubule (MT), microfilament (MF) and myosin components of the cytoskeleton were studied in the long-lived ray and axial parenchyma cells of the secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem of two angiosperm trees, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse-chestnut) and Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx. (hybrid aspen), using indirect immunofluorescence localisation and transmission electron microscopy. MTs and MFs were bundled and oriented axially (parallel to the cell's long axis) within all parenchyma cell types after they had fully differentiated. Additionally, actin and myosin were immunolocalised at the thin-walled membranes of the pits, which linked cells in neighbouring files of both ray and axial parenchyma, and at the pits between axial and ray parenchyma cells themselves. Anti-callose antibody immunolocated the plasmodesmata at the pit membranes, and in the same pattern as that of anti-myosin. Ray cells are important symplasmic pathways between the xylem and the phloem throughout the life of trees. We hypothesise that the MT and MF components of the cytoskeleton in the ray and axial parenchyma cells are involved in the transport of materials within those cells, and, in association with the acto-myosin of plasmodesmata at pit fields, are also important in intercellular transport. Thus, the symplasmic coupling between ray cells, between axial parenchyma cells, and between axial parenchyma and ray cells represents an extensive three-dimensional communication pathway permeating the tree from the phloem through the cambium into the wood. We suggest that this cytoskeletal pathway has an important role in delivery of photosynthate, and mobilised reserves, to the actively dividing cambium, and in the movement of materials to sites of reserve deposition, principally within the wood. This pathway could also have an important role in co-ordinating developmental processes throughout the tree.

  11. Adjacent-level arthroplasty following cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Deshpande V; Hari, Akshay; Krishna, Murali; Konar, Subhas; Sharma, Ankit

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Adjacent-level disc degeneration following cervical fusion has been well reported. This condition poses a major treatment dilemma when it becomes symptomatic. The potential application of cervical arthroplasty to preserve motion in the affected segment is not well documented, with few studies in the literature. The authors present their initial experience of analyzing clinical and radiological results in such patients who were treated with arthroplasty for new or persistent arm and/or neck symptoms related to neural compression due to adjacent-segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). METHODS During a 5-year period, 11 patients who had undergone ACDF anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and subsequently developed recurrent neck or arm pain related to adjacent-level cervical disc disease were treated with cervical arthroplasty at the authors' institution. A total of 15 devices were implanted (range of treated levels per patient: 1-3). Clinical evaluation was performed both before and after surgery, using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Radiological outcomes were analyzed using pre- and postoperative flexion/extension lateral radiographs measuring Cobb angle (overall C2-7 sagittal alignment), functional spinal unit (FSU) angle, and range of motion (ROM). RESULTS There were no major perioperative complications or device-related failures. Statistically significant results, obtained in all cases, were reflected by an improvement in VAS scores for neck/arm pain and NDI scores for neck pain. Radiologically, statistically significant increases in the overall lordosis (as measured by Cobb angle) and ROM at the treated disc level were observed. Three patients were lost to follow-up within the first year after arthroplasty. In the remaining 8 cases, the duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 3 years. None of these 8 patients required surgery for the same vertebral level during the follow

  12. Relationship of nuclease activity and synthesis to senescence of corn (Zea mays L.) stalk pith, cob parenchyma and first developed leaf tissues.

    PubMed

    BeMiller, J N; Liu TU, Y S; Liu, C R; Pappelis, A J

    1976-01-01

    An increase in total RNase activity was associated with three patterns of cell senescence in corn (Zea mays L.) (cv. WF9 X 38-11) cob parenchyma during the first two weeks following silking, stalk pith tissue after internode elongation and the first developed leaf of seedlings. Stalk pith tissue had two RNase activities, one inhibited by EDTA and one not. Both remained in approximately equal amounts in young to old pith tissue. In the first developed leaf of seedlings, the activity not inhibited by EDTA remained at a constant low level during the period studied, while the other activity varied. No inhibition by EDTA was found in cob parenchyma tissue. Incubation of sections of cob parenchyma and stalk pith tissues suggested that the total RNase activity of cob parenchyma is very stable and that of stalk pith tissue is relatively stable. An age-related increase in DNase activity was found in stalk pith tissue and in the first developed leaf of seedlings, but not in cob parenchyma tissue.

  13. Fully automatized renal parenchyma volumetry using a support vector machine based recognition system for subject-specific probability map generation in native MR volume data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Mensel, Birger; Völzke, Henry

    2015-11-01

    In epidemiological studies as well as in clinical practice the amount of produced medical image data strongly increased in the last decade. In this context organ segmentation in MR volume data gained increasing attention for medical applications. Especially in large-scale population-based studies organ volumetry is highly relevant requiring exact organ segmentation. Since manual segmentation is time-consuming and prone to reader variability, large-scale studies need automatized methods to perform organ segmentation. Fully automatic organ segmentation in native MR image data has proven to be a very challenging task. Imaging artifacts as well as inter- and intrasubject MR-intensity differences complicate the application of supervised learning strategies. Thus, we propose a modularized framework of a two-stepped probabilistic approach that generates subject-specific probability maps for renal parenchyma tissue, which are refined subsequently by using several, extended segmentation strategies. We present a three class-based support vector machine recognition system that incorporates Fourier descriptors as shape features to recognize and segment characteristic parenchyma parts. Probabilistic methods use the segmented characteristic parenchyma parts to generate high quality subject-specific parenchyma probability maps. Several refinement strategies including a final shape-based 3D level set segmentation technique are used in subsequent processing modules to segment renal parenchyma. Furthermore, our framework recognizes and excludes renal cysts from parenchymal volume, which is important to analyze renal functions. Volume errors and Dice coefficients show that our presented framework outperforms existing approaches.

  14. Wood anatomical correlates with theoretical conductivity and wood density across China: evolutionary evidence of the functional differentiation of axial and radial parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jingming; Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In recent years considerable effort has focused on linking wood anatomy and key ecological traits. Studies analysing large databases have described how these ecological traits vary as a function of wood anatomical traits related to conduction and support, but have not considered how these functions interact with cells involved in storage of water and carbohydrates (i.e. parenchyma cells). Methods We analyzed, in a phylogenetic context, the functional relationship between cell types performing each of the three xylem functions (conduction, support and storage) and wood density and theoretical conductivity using a sample of approx. 800 tree species from China. Key Results Axial parenchyma and rays had distinct evolutionary correlation patterns. An evolutionary link was found between high conduction capacity and larger amounts of axial parenchyma that is probably related to water storage capacity and embolism repair, while larger amounts of ray tissue have evolved with increased mechanical support and reduced hydraulic capacity. In a phylogenetic principal component analysis this association of axial parenchyma with increased conduction capacity and rays with wood density represented orthogonal axes of variation. In multivariate space, however, the proportion of rays might be positively associated with conductance and negatively with wood density, indicating flexibility in these axes in species with wide rays. Conclusions The findings suggest that parenchyma types may differ in function. The functional axes represented by different cell types were conserved across lineages, suggesting a significant role in the ecological strategies of the angiosperms. PMID:23904446

  15. The lung parenchyma strip preparation of the cat and dog. Responses to anaphylactic mediators and sympathetic bronchodilators.

    PubMed

    Kleinstiver, P W; Eyre, P

    1980-03-01

    A detailed investigation was made of the direct effects of histamine, serotonin, carbachol, isoproterenol, salbutamol and terbutaline, alone and in the presence of specific antagonists in isolated lung parenchyma strip preparations of cat and dog. The effects of specific antigen were also observed in lung strips of antigen-sensitized cat and dogs, as well as the effects of feline and canine slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (STS-A). Preparations from cat and dog produced consistent responses between lung strips from one animal, as well as from animal to animal. It is suggested that this tissue may be a useful model in which to study the effects of immediate (Type I) hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis and those of potential bronchodilators.

  16. Detecting gas‐induced vasomotor changes via blood oxygenation level‐dependent contrast in healthy breast parenchyma and breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Tess E.; Patterson, Andrew J.; Abeyakoon, Oshaani; Bedair, Reem; Manavaki, Roido; McLean, Mary A.; O'Connor, James P.B.; Graves, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate blood oxygenation level‐dependent (BOLD) contrast changes in healthy breast parenchyma and breast carcinoma during administration of vasoactive gas stimuli. Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 3T in 19 healthy premenopausal female volunteers using a single‐shot fast spin echo sequence to acquire dynamic T 2‐weighted images. 2% (n = 9) and 5% (n = 10) carbogen gas mixtures were interleaved with either medical air or oxygen in 2‐minute blocks, for four complete cycles. A 12‐minute medical air breathing period was used to determine background physiological modulation. Pixel‐wise correlation analysis was applied to evaluate response to the stimuli in breast parenchyma and these results were compared to the all‐air control. The relative BOLD effect size was compared between two groups of volunteers scanned in different phases of the menstrual cycle. The optimal stimulus design was evaluated in five breast cancer patients. Results Of the four stimulus combinations tested, oxygen vs. 5% carbogen produced a response that was significantly stronger (P < 0.05) than air‐only breathing in volunteers. Subjects imaged during the follicular phase of their cycle when estrogen levels typically peak exhibited a significantly smaller BOLD response (P = 0.01). Results in malignant tissue were variable, with three out of five lesions exhibiting a diminished response to the gas stimulus. Conclusion Oxygen vs. 5% carbogen is the most robust stimulus for inducing BOLD contrast, consistent with the opposing vasomotor effects of these two gases. Measurements may be confounded by background physiological fluctuations and menstrual cycle changes. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:335–345. PMID:26898173

  17. A Randomised Clinical Trial to Compare Coaxial and Noncoaxial Techniques in Percutaneous Core Needle Biopsy of Renal Parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Babaei Jandaghi, Ali; Lebady, Mohammadkazem; Zamani, Athar-Alsadat; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Monfared, Ali; Pourghorban, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    To compare the coaxial and noncoaxial techniques of renal parenchymal core needle biopsy. This is an institutional review board-approved randomised controlled trial comparing 83 patients (male, n = 49) who underwent renal parenchymal core biopsy with coaxial method and 83 patients (male, n = 40) with noncoaxial method. The rate of complications, the number of glomerular profiles, and the procedural time were evaluated in a comparison of the two methods. Correlation between the presence of renal parenchymal disease and the rate of complication was also evaluated. The procedural time was significantly shorter in the coaxial technique (coaxial group, 5 ± 1 min; noncoaxial group, 14 ± 2 min; p < 0.001). The rates of complications for the coaxial method was significantly lower than the noncoaxial method (coaxial group, 10.8 %; noncoaxial group, 24.1 %; p = 0.025). There was no significant correlation between gender and the rate of complication. The number of glomerular profiles was significantly higher in patents who underwent renal biopsy with the coaxial method (coaxial group, 18.2 ± 9.1; noncoaxial group, 8.6 ± 5.5; p < 0.001). In the whole study population, the rate of complications was significantly higher in patients with a pathologic renal parenchyma compared to those with a normal parenchyma (19/71 vs. 10/95; p = 0.006). Renal parenchymal biopsy using a coaxial needle is a faster and safer method with a lower rate of complications.

  18. Differential permeability of the blood-brain barrier in experimental brain metastases produced by human neoplasms implanted into nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, R. D.; Price, J. E.; Fujimaki, T.; Bucana, C. D.; Fidler, I. J.

    1992-01-01

    This study clarified whether and when the blood-brain barrier in experimental brain metastases is impaired by using hydrosoluble sodium fluorescein (MW 376) as a blood-brain barrier function indicator. Cells from eight human tumor lines (four melanomas, two breast carcinomas, one colon carcinoma, and one renal carcinoma) were inoculated into the internal carotid artery of nude mice. Brain metastases at different stages of development were sampled and the permeability of the blood-brain barrier around the metastases determined. Histologic examination showed two patterns of tumor growth. In the first, tumor cells formed isolated, well-defined nodules in the parenchyma of the brain. In lesions smaller than 0.2 mm2, the blood-brain barrier was intact. In the second, small diffuse nests of tumor cells were distributed throughout the brain parenchyma. The blood-brain barrier was intact until the small tumor cell colonies coalesced to form large tumor masses. These results suggest that the permeability of the blood-brain barrier varies among different experimental brain metastases and that its function is related to the growth pattern and size of the lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1443046

  19. Spatiotemporal morphometry of adjacent tissue layers with application to the study of sulcal formation

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A.; Kim, Kio; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A.; Barkovich, A. James; Studholme, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The process of brain growth involves the expansion of tissue at different rates at different points within the brain. As the layers within the developing brain evolve they can thicken or increase in area as the brain surface begins to fold. In this work we propose a new spatiotemporal formulation of tensor based volume morphometry that is derived in relation to tissue boundaries. This allows the study of the directional properties of tissue growth by separately characterizing the changes in area and thickness of the adjacent layers. The approach uses temporally weighted, local regression across a population of anatomies with different ages to model changes in components of the growth radial and tangential to the boundary between tissue layers. The formulation is applied to the study of sulcal formation from in-utero MR imaging of human fetal brain anatomy. Results show that the method detects differential growth of tissue layers adjacent to the cortical surface, particularly at sulcal locations, as early as 22 gestational weeks. PMID:21995063

  20. Group G Streptococci in association with brain abscess: a rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Parimala; Raja, Vidhya; Lingaiah, Bipinchandra Bhagath; Madappa, Beena Prasavangada; Chakravarthy, Hariprakash

    2014-11-13

    Brain abscess is a serious life-threatening infection of the brain parenchyma. We are reporting a rare case of brain abscess caused by Group G Streptococcus in a 12 year-old female child who presented with neurological symptoms. She was diagnosed with congenital anomalies of the heart at birth. She was treated with amoxyclav and ciprofloxacin. The child recovered and was discharged uneventfully.

  1. Superresolution Imaging of Aquaporin-4 Cluster Size in Antibody-Stained Paraffin Brain Sections.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alex J; Verkman, Alan S

    2015-12-15

    The water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) forms supramolecular clusters whose size is determined by the ratio of M1- and M23-AQP4 isoforms. In cultured astrocytes, differences in the subcellular localization and macromolecular interactions of small and large AQP4 clusters results in distinct physiological roles for M1- and M23-AQP4. Here, we developed quantitative superresolution optical imaging methodology to measure AQP4 cluster size in antibody-stained paraffin sections of mouse cerebral cortex and spinal cord, human postmortem brain, and glioma biopsy specimens. This methodology was used to demonstrate that large AQP4 clusters are formed in AQP4(-/-) astrocytes transfected with only M23-AQP4, but not in those expressing only M1-AQP4, both in vitro and in vivo. Native AQP4 in mouse cortex, where both isoforms are expressed, was enriched in astrocyte foot-processes adjacent to microcapillaries; clusters in perivascular regions of the cortex were larger than in parenchymal regions, demonstrating size-dependent subcellular segregation of AQP4 clusters. Two-color superresolution imaging demonstrated colocalization of Kir4.1 with AQP4 clusters in perivascular areas but not in parenchyma. Surprisingly, the subcellular distribution of AQP4 clusters was different between gray and white matter astrocytes in spinal cord, demonstrating regional specificity in cluster polarization. Changes in AQP4 subcellular distribution are associated with several neurological diseases and we demonstrate that AQP4 clustering was preserved in a postmortem human cortical brain tissue specimen, but that AQP4 was not substantially clustered in a human glioblastoma specimen despite high-level expression. Our results demonstrate the utility of superresolution optical imaging for measuring the size of AQP4 supramolecular clusters in paraffin sections of brain tissue and support AQP4 cluster size as a primary determinant of its subcellular distribution.

  2. Superresolution Imaging of Aquaporin-4 Cluster Size in Antibody-Stained Paraffin Brain Sections

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alex J.; Verkman, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    The water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) forms supramolecular clusters whose size is determined by the ratio of M1- and M23-AQP4 isoforms. In cultured astrocytes, differences in the subcellular localization and macromolecular interactions of small and large AQP4 clusters results in distinct physiological roles for M1- and M23-AQP4. Here, we developed quantitative superresolution optical imaging methodology to measure AQP4 cluster size in antibody-stained paraffin sections of mouse cerebral cortex and spinal cord, human postmortem brain, and glioma biopsy specimens. This methodology was used to demonstrate that large AQP4 clusters are formed in AQP4−/− astrocytes transfected with only M23-AQP4, but not in those expressing only M1-AQP4, both in vitro and in vivo. Native AQP4 in mouse cortex, where both isoforms are expressed, was enriched in astrocyte foot-processes adjacent to microcapillaries; clusters in perivascular regions of the cortex were larger than in parenchymal regions, demonstrating size-dependent subcellular segregation of AQP4 clusters. Two-color superresolution imaging demonstrated colocalization of Kir4.1 with AQP4 clusters in perivascular areas but not in parenchyma. Surprisingly, the subcellular distribution of AQP4 clusters was different between gray and white matter astrocytes in spinal cord, demonstrating regional specificity in cluster polarization. Changes in AQP4 subcellular distribution are associated with several neurological diseases and we demonstrate that AQP4 clustering was preserved in a postmortem human cortical brain tissue specimen, but that AQP4 was not substantially clustered in a human glioblastoma specimen despite high-level expression. Our results demonstrate the utility of superresolution optical imaging for measuring the size of AQP4 supramolecular clusters in paraffin sections of brain tissue and support AQP4 cluster size as a primary determinant of its subcellular distribution. PMID:26682810

  3. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  4. Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1974-01-01

    Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

  5. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  10. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  11. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  12. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  13. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  14. Brain iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Moos, Torben

    2002-11-01

    deficiency altered the cellular content of these proteins so that transferrin receptors were higher and ferritin lower. The transport of iron from brain to blood was addressed in the last part of the thesis. It was found that in the case of iron and transferrin, there is no evidence showing other significant routes of transport from the brain extracellular fluid into the blood than drainage to the ventricular system followed by export to the blood via the arachnoid villi. The turnover of transferrin in the CSF was found to be very high. For reasons mentioned above, transferrin of the CSF is of little significance for transport and cellular delivery of iron to transferrin receptor-expressing neurons. Instead, transferrin of the CSF probably plays a significant role for neutralization and export to the blood of metals, including iron. Once appearing in blood, transferrin of the CSF was degraded at the same rate as intravenously injected transferrin, which indicates that the transferrin of CSF is not altered to an extent that changes its catabolism during the passage from CSF to blood plasma. The metabolism of iron in the developing brain was found to differ markedly when compared to that of the adult brain. A developing regulated transfer of iron to the brain was reflected morphologically by a higher content of transferrin receptors and non-heme iron in endothelial cells of the developing rat brain than in the adult. Neurons had a very low level of transferrin receptors. After about 20 days of age, iron transport into the brain decreased rapidly, and transferrin receptors appeared on neurons. Iron and transferrin injected into the ventricular system of the developing brain were much more widely distributed in the brain parenchyma than in the adult brain. This high accumulation of substances injected into the ventricles in young animals is probably due to the lower rate of production and turnover of CSF, which will increase the time available for diffusion of proteins into the

  15. Brain metabolic pattern analysis using a magnetic resonance spectra classification software in experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Xarrié, Elena; Davila, Myriam; Candiota, Ana Paula; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Ortega-Martorell, Sandra; Julià-Sapé, Margarida; Arús, Carles; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan

    2017-01-13

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides non-invasive information about the metabolic pattern of the brain parenchyma in vivo. The SpectraClassifier software performs MRS pattern-recognition by determining the spectral features (metabolites) which can be used objectively to classify spectra. Our aim was to develop an Infarct Evolution Classifier and a Brain Regions Classifier in a rat model of focal ischemic stroke using SpectraClassifier. A total of 164 single-voxel proton spectra obtained with a 7 Tesla magnet at an echo time of 12 ms from non-infarcted parenchyma, subventricular zones and infarcted parenchyma were analyzed with SpectraClassifier ( http://gabrmn.uab.es/?q=sc ). The spectra corresponded to Sprague-Dawley rats (healthy rats, n = 7) and stroke rats at day 1 post-stroke (acute phase, n = 6 rats) and at days 7 ± 1 post-stroke (subacute phase, n = 14). In the Infarct Evolution Classifier, spectral features contributed by lactate + mobile lipids (1.33 ppm), total creatine (3.05 ppm) and mobile lipids (0.85 ppm) distinguished among non-infarcted parenchyma (100% sensitivity and 100% specificity), acute phase of infarct (100% sensitivity and 95% specificity) and subacute phase of infarct (78% sensitivity and 100% specificity). In the Brain Regions Classifier, spectral features contributed by myoinositol (3.62 ppm) and total creatine (3.04/3.05 ppm) distinguished among infarcted parenchyma (100% sensitivity and 98% specificity), non-infarcted parenchyma (84% sensitivity and 84% specificity) and subventricular zones (76% sensitivity and 93% specificity). SpectraClassifier identified candidate biomarkers for infarct evolution (mobile lipids accumulation) and different brain regions (myoinositol content).

  16. Morphologic Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide on the Blood-Brain Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadwell, Richard D.; Salcman, Michael; Kaplan, Richard S.

    1982-07-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) opens the blood-brain barrier of mice to the enzymatic tracer horseradish peroxidase. A single injection of horseradish peroxidase in 10 to 15 percent DMSO into the tail vein along with 10 to 15 percent DMSO delivered intraperitoneally allowed horseradish peroxidase to fill the extracellular clefts throughout the brain within 2 hours. In the absence of DMSO, peroxidase failed to enter brain parenchyma except through the circumventricular organs. Opening of the blood-brain barrier by DMSO is reversible. Dimethyl sulfoxide stimulated the pinocytosis of horseradish peroxidase by the cerebral endothelium; the peroxidase was then directed to lysosomal dense bodies for degradation. Vesicular transport of horseradish peroxidase from the luminal to the abluminal wall of the endothelial cell was not observed. Dimethyl sulfoxide did not alter the morphology of endothelial cells or brain parenchyma.

  17. Magic-angle spinning NMR studies of cell wall bound aromatic-aliphatic biopolyesters associated with strengthening of intercellular adhesion in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bingwu; Vengadesan, G; Wang, Hsin; Jashi, Liana; Yefremov, Tatiana; Tian, Shiying; Gaba, Victor; Shomer, Ilan; Stark, Ruth E

    2006-03-01

    Intercellular adhesion strengthening, a phenomenon that compromises the texture and the edible quality of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), has been induced reproducibly by exposure to low-pH acetic acid solutions under tissue culture conditions. The resulting parenchyma tissues have been examined by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in order to characterize the biopolymer(s) thought to be associated with this syndrome. Cross polarization-magic angle spinning (CPMAS) (13)C NMR has been used to establish the presence of a polyphenol-suberin-like aromatic-aliphatic polyester within an abundant cell wall polysaccharide matrix in potato tubers that exhibit hardening due to strengthened intercellular adhesion. Dipolar dephasing and CP chemical shift anisotropy experiments suggest that the aromatic domain is composed primarily of guaiacyl and sinapyl groups. Two-dimensional wide-line separation experiments show that the biopolymer associated with parenchyma hardening contains rigid polysaccharide cell walls and mobile aliphatic long-chain fatty acids; (1)H spin diffusion experiments show that these flexible aliphatic chains are proximal to both the phenolics and a subpopulation of the cell wall polysaccharides. Finally, high-resolution MAS NMR of parenchyma samples swelled in DMSO in conjunction with two-dimensional through-bond and through-space NMR spectroscopy provides evidence for covalent linkages among the polysaccharide, phenolic, and aliphatic domains of the intercellular adhesion-strengthening biopolymer in potato parenchyma tissue.

  18. Distribution of enzymes in mesophyll and parenchyma-sheath chloroplasts of maize leaves in relation to the C4-dicarboxylic acid pathway of photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Slack, C. R.; Hatch, M. D.; Goodchild, D. J.

    1969-01-01

    1. Mesophyll and parenchyma-sheath chloroplasts of maize leaves were separated by density fractionation in non-aqueous media. 2. An investigation of the distribution of photosynthetic enzymes indicated that the mesophyll chloroplasts probably contain the entire leaf complement of pyruvate,Pi dikinase, NADP-specific malate dehydrogenase, glycerate kinase and nitrite reductase and most of the adenylate kinase and pyrophosphatase. The fractionation pattern of phosphopyruvate carboxylase suggested that this enzyme may be associated with the bounding membrane of mesophyll chloroplasts. 3. Ribulose diphosphate carboxylase, ribose phosphate isomerase, phosphoribulokinase, fructose diphosphate aldolase, alkaline fructose diphosphatase and NADP-specific `malic' enzyme appear to be wholly localized in the parenchyma-sheath chloroplasts. Phosphoglycerate kinase and NADP-specific glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase, on the other hand, are distributed approximately equally between the two types of chloroplast. 4. After exposure of illuminated leaves to 14CO2 for 25sec., labelled malate, aspartate and 3-phosphoglycerate had similar fractionation patterns, and a large proportion of each was isolated with mesophyll chloroplasts. Labelled fructose phosphates and ribulose phosphates were mainly isolated in fractions containing parenchyma-sheath chloroplasts, and dihydroxyacetone phosphate had a fractionation pattern intermediate between those of C4 dicarboxylic acids and sugar phosphates. 6. These results indicate that the mesophyll and parenchyma-sheath chloroplasts have a co-operative function in the operation of the C4-dicarboxylic acid pathway. Possible routes for the transfer of carbon from C4 dicarboxylic acids to sugars are discussed. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4309527

  19. Experimental COPD induced by solid combustible burn smoke in rats: a study of the emphysematous changes of the pulmonary parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Murărescu, Elena Doina; Eloae-Zugun, Fl; Mihailovici, Maria Sultana

    2008-01-01

    According to the GOLD 2006 definition, COPD is a preventable and treatable pathological situation characterized by the partially reversible airflow limitation determined by a variable proportion mixture of small airways disease (obliterative bronchiolitis) and parenchyma destruction (emphysema). A major impediment in the study of the COPD is represented by the fact the fundamental morphological changes that determine the major pulmonary dysfunction take place in the small, peripheral, airways, at the bronchiolo-alveolar attachments. That is why the experimental model of COPD developed progressively to the transgenic mouse. There are many experimental studies on the animal models that have obtained emphysema rapidly through intratraheal instillation of elastasis or bronchitis/bronchiolitis through intratraheal instillation of particles. It is accepted that the unnatural character of aggression, that does not permit the natural evolution of the inflammatory phenomenon, limits these models and tissue remodeling that take place in COPD patients. It is well known that cigarette smoking is a major cause of COPD. There have been reported some cases of COPD in never smoking patients exposed to air pollutants. We aimed to create an experimental model of COPD in rat through exposure to smoke resulted from solid combustibles burn for the same period and in the same conditions of cigarette smoke exposure and to compare the pulmonary morphological changes. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 10): (1) the control group (C), (2) the cigarette smoke group (CS), and (3) the solid combustible smoke group (SCS). Apart from the control group, these were treated with solid combustibles smoke (SCS group) or cigarette smoke (CS group) for six months. Morphological and morphometry studies have been assessed. We have established a rat COPD model based on natural cigarette smoke exposure versus solid combustible burn resulted smoke, usable for a further approach in human

  20. Interleukin-1beta, -6, -12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in brains of dogs with canine distemper virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gröne, A; Alldinger, S; Baumgärtner, W

    2000-10-02

    Canine distemper virus infection in dogs is commonly associated with demyelinating central nervous system lesions. Investigations on viral protein expression by studying mRNA and protein distribution together with the characterization of CD4 and CD8 inflammatory cells and MHC class II up-regulation revealed a biphasic disease process. To further investigate the cellular interactions in the different plaque types the cerebella of 14 dogs with confirmed distemper infection were investigated for expression of interleukin (IL)-1beta, -6, -12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) by immunohistochemistry using rabbit polyclonal anti-cytokine antibodies. T-cells and astrocytes were identified with rabbit anti CD3- and GFAP-monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, respectively; and microglia/macrophages were characterized by their ability to bind lectin from Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BS-1). To further name the cytokine expressing cells immunoenzymatic double staining using DAB and New Fuchsin was performed. White matter lesions were classified according to histopathological criteria into acute, subacute and chronic. Canine distemper virus nucleoprotein antigen was demonstrated in nearly all plaques, except in older plaques where virus was not present within the plaque but adjacent to the lesion. IL-1 expression was observed to varying degrees in all types of lesions. Most often IL-1 was present in CD3 and BS-1 positive cells in the brain parenchyma in earlier plaques and comprising perivascular cuffs found in chronic plaques. IL-6 expression was present in all lesions, and followed a similar distribution pattern as IL-1. IL-12 displayed very often a granular extracellular pattern of immunoreactivity, especially in the brain parenchyma, and was found only in individual perivascular cells. TNF staining, predominantly found in astrocytes, was present in lesions of various types; however, staining appeared to be stronger in acute lesions and decreased in chronic plaques. In the

  1. Carcinoid tumours of the lung and the 'PEPPS' approach: evaluation of preoperative bronchoscopic tumour debulking as preparation for subsequent parenchyma-sparing surgery.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Michael; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Schmidt, Michael; Gesierich, Wolfgang; Reichenberger, Frank; Morresi-Hauf, Alicia; Hatz, Rudolf A; Lindner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative bronchoscopic tumour ablation has been suggested as a beneficial treatment for bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumours, although data regarding its effects and long-term outcome are lacking. In our case-matched cohort study with 208 patients with bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumours we investigated the role of preoperative bronchoscopic interventions before subsequent surgery and analysed the safety of this Procedure of Endobronchial Preparation for Parenchyma-sparing Surgery (PEPPS) based on metastasis and recurrence rates as well as survival data from 1991 to 2010. The subsequent surgery was classified into parenchyma-sparing procedures and classical lobectomies, bilobectomies and pneumonectomies. Data were obtained from the tumour registry and medical reports. Outcomes were the frequency of parenchyma-sparing surgery after bronchoscopic treatment as well as rates of metastasis, recurrence and survival. 132 of 208 carcinoids were located centrally. Among them, 77 patients could be recanalised preoperatively. After bronchoscopic preparation, the rate of subsequent parenchyma-sparing surgery methods was higher (p=0.021). The effect was measured by the number of segments removed. The 10-year survival rate was 89% (typical carcinoids) and 68% (atypical carcinoids), respectively. After applying PEPPS, long-term survival was slightly higher (p=0.23). Metastasis and recurrence rates showed no relevant differences between the bronchoscopically treated or non-treated groups, or between the two types of surgery classes or between the PEPPS and non-PEPPS groups. After preoperative bronchoscopic treatment, parenchyma-sparing surgery techniques can be applied more frequently. Furthermore, we detected no negative effects after PEPPS based on metastasis, recurrence and survival rates.

  2. Carcinoid tumours of the lung and the ‘PEPPS’ approach: evaluation of preoperative bronchoscopic tumour debulking as preparation for subsequent parenchyma-sparing surgery

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, Michael; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Schmidt, Michael; Gesierich, Wolfgang; Reichenberger, Frank; Morresi-Hauf, Alicia; Hatz, Rudolf A; Lindner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Preoperative bronchoscopic tumour ablation has been suggested as a beneficial treatment for bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumours, although data regarding its effects and long-term outcome are lacking. Methods In our case-matched cohort study with 208 patients with bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumours we investigated the role of preoperative bronchoscopic interventions before subsequent surgery and analysed the safety of this Procedure of Endobronchial Preparation for Parenchyma-sparing Surgery (PEPPS) based on metastasis and recurrence rates as well as survival data from 1991 to 2010. The subsequent surgery was classified into parenchyma-sparing procedures and classical lobectomies, bilobectomies and pneumonectomies. Data were obtained from the tumour registry and medical reports. Outcomes were the frequency of parenchyma-sparing surgery after bronchoscopic treatment as well as rates of metastasis, recurrence and survival. Results 132 of 208 carcinoids were located centrally. Among them, 77 patients could be recanalised preoperatively. After bronchoscopic preparation, the rate of subsequent parenchyma-sparing surgery methods was higher (p=0.021). The effect was measured by the number of segments removed. The 10-year survival rate was 89% (typical carcinoids) and 68% (atypical carcinoids), respectively. After applying PEPPS, long-term survival was slightly higher (p=0.23). Metastasis and recurrence rates showed no relevant differences between the bronchoscopically treated or non-treated groups, or between the two types of surgery classes or between the PEPPS and non-PEPPS groups. Conclusions After preoperative bronchoscopic treatment, parenchyma-sparing surgery techniques can be applied more frequently. Furthermore, we detected no negative effects after PEPPS based on metastasis, recurrence and survival rates. PMID:26203359

  3. Characterization of mild and severe post-radical nephrectomy renal functional deterioration utilizing histopathological evaluation of non-neoplastic nephrectomized renal parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Sejima, Takehiro; Yumioka, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Noriya; Iwamoto, Hideto; Masago, Toshihiko; Morizane, Shuichi; Honda, Masashi; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    We investigated factors affecting mild (MRFD) and severe renal functional deterioration (SRFD) after radical nephrectomy with a special focus on the histopathology of nephrectomized non-neoplastic renal parenchyma. MRFD was defined as a postoperative decline of percent estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) lower than the value of the mean minus standard deviation (SD). SRFD was defined as a rate greater than the value of the mean plus SD. The histopathological factors of global glomerulosclerosis (GS) and arteriosclerosis in non-neoplastic renal parenchyma and multiple clinical factors were analyzed to determine whether they affected postoperative renal functional deterioration in 100 renal cell carcinoma cases. The prognoses, including non-cancer mortality, were collected from long-term follow-up data. A higher preoperative eGFR and a higher global GS extent in non-neoplastic renal parenchyma were independently associated with MRFD and SRFD, respectively. The cardiovascular disease-specific survival rates of the SRFD group and the group with global GS extent >14 % were significantly worse than those of their counterparts. This is the first report to identify global GS extent in nephrectomized non-neoplastic renal parenchyma as a factor affecting the development of life-threatening post-nephrectomy renal functional deterioration. Moreover, we are the first to advocate the importance of the characterization of favorable post-nephrectomy renal functional deterioration. The identification of MRFD and SRFD by histopathological evaluation of nephrectomized non-neoplastic renal parenchyma will contribute to personalized postoperative follow-up. It may improve follow-up of individual patients with SRFD by permitting collaboration with other clinical departments such as cardiology.

  4. Noninvasive delivery of stealth, brain-penetrating nanoparticles across the blood-brain barrier using MRI-guided focused ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Miller, G. Wilson; Song, Ji; Louttit, Cameron; Klibanov, Alexander L; Shih, Ting-Yu; Swaminathan, Ganesh; Tamargo, Rafael J.; Woodworth, Graeme F.; Hanes, Justin; Price, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a significant obstacle for the treatment of many central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including invasive brain tumors, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and stroke. Therapeutics must be capable of bypassing the BBB and also penetrate the brain parenchyma to achieve a desired effect within the brain. In this study, we test the unique combination of a noninvasive approach to BBB permeabilization with a therapeutically relevant polymeric nanoparticle platform capable of rapidly penetrating within the brain microenvironment. MR-guided focused ultrasound (FUS) with intravascular microbubbles (MBs) is able to locally and reversibly disrupt the BBB with submillimeter spatial accuracy. Densely poly(ethylene-co-glycol) (PEG) coated, brain-penetrating nanoparticles (BPNs) are long-circulating and diffuse 10-fold slower in normal rat brain tissue compared to diffusion in water. Following intravenous administration of model and biodegradable BPN in normal healthy rats, we demonstrate safe, pressure-dependent delivery of 60 nm BPNs to the brain parenchyma in regions where the BBB is disrupted by FUS and MBs. Delivery of BPNs with MR-guided FUS has the potential to improve efficacy of treatments for many CNS diseases, while reducing systemic side effects by providing sustained, well-dispersed drug delivery into select regions of the brain. PMID:24979210

  5. Mannitol-enhanced, fluid-phase endocytosis in storage parenchyma cells of celery (Apium graveolens; Apiaceae) petioles.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, Ed; Gonzalez, Pedro; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2007-06-01

    We recently demonstrated the occurrence of a sucrose-enhanced, fluid-phase endocytic (FPE) mechanism of nutrient uptake in heterotrophic cells. In the present work, the possible enhancement/induction of FPE by photoassimilates other than sucrose was investigated by measuring the incorporation of the fluorescent endocytosis marker d-TR (dextran-Texas red, 3000 mw) into celery (Apium graveolens) petiole storage parenchyma (CSP), a tissue that transports and accumulates mannitol. Mannitol uptake in these cells is biphasic, with a hyperbolic phase at concentrations below 20 mM and a linear phase above 20 mM external solute concentration. In the absence of mannitol, or in its presence at concentrations within the hyperbolic phase, CSP cells accumulated low levels of d-TR. Conversely, d-TR accumulation by CSP cells was greatly enhanced in the presence of mannitol at concentrations within the linear phase. At high external mannitol concentration, d-TR accumulation was prevented by the endocytic inhibitors LY294002 and latrunculin B. In addition, d-TR uptake was temperature dependent under high mannitol concentration. Microscopic observations revealed that d-TR accumulated in the vacuole. These data support the occurrence of an FPE mechanism in CSP cells that participates in trapping and transport of photoassimilates to the vacuole. The FPE mechanism is enhanced by high mannitol concentrations.

  6. Wall ingrowth deposition in phloem parenchyma transfer cells in Arabidopsis: Heteroblastic variations and a potential role in pathogen defence.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Suong T T; McCurdy, David W

    2017-06-03

    Transfer cell (TCs) develop unique wall ingrowth networks which amplify plasma membrane surface area and thus maximize nutrient transporter density at key anatomic sites for nutrient exchange within plants and their external environment. These sites fall into 4 main groups corresponding to 4 categories of trans-membrane flux: absorption/secretion of solutes from or to the external environment, and absorption/secretion of solutes from or to internal, extra-cytoplasmic compartments. Research on TC biology over recent decades has demonstrated correlations between wall ingrowth deposition in TCs and enhanced transport capacity in many major agricultural species such as pea, fava bean, cotton and maize. Consequently, there is general consensus that the existence of wall ingrowth morphology implies an augmentation in membrane transport capacity. However, this may not be entirely applicable for phloem parenchyma (PP) TCs in Arabidopsis. Our recent survey of PP TC abundance and distribution in Arabidopsis veins indicated that PP TC development reflects heteroblastic status. A consequence of this observation is the suggestion that PP TCs, or at least wall ingrowth deposition in these cells, potentially act as a physical barrier to defend access of invading pathogens to sugar-rich sieve elements rather than solely in facilitating the export of photoassimilate from collection phloem in leaves.

  7. Anti-ice nucleation activity in xylem extracts from trees that contain deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Jun; Mizuno, Kaoru; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2007-12-01

    Boreal hardwood species, including Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla Sukat. var. japonica Hara), Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc.), katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum Sieb. et Zucc.), Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata Blume), mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz.), and Japanese rowan (Sorbus commixta Hedl.), had xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) that adapt to subfreezing temperatures by deep supercooling. Crude extracts from xylem in all these trees were found to have anti-ice nucleation activity that promoted supercooling capability of water as measured by a droplet freezing assay. The magnitude of increase in supercooling capability of water droplets in the presence of ice-nucleation bacteria, Erwinia ananas, was higher in the ranges from 0.1 to 1.7 degrees C on addition of crude xylem extracts than freezing temperature of water droplets on addition of glucose in the same concentration (100 mosmol/kg). Crude xylem extracts from C. japonicum provided the highest supercooling capability of water droplets. Our additional examination showed that crude xylem extracts from C. japonicum exhibited anti-ice nucleation activity toward water droplets containing a variety of heterogeneous ice nucleators, including ice-nucleation bacteria, not only E. ananas but also Pseudomonas syringae (NBRC3310) or Xanthomonas campestris, silver iodide or airborne impurities. However, crude xylem extracts from C. japonicum did not affect homogeneous ice nucleation temperature as analyzed by emulsified micro-water droplets. The possible role of such anti-ice nucleation activity in crude xylem extracts in deep supercooling of XPCs is discussed.

  8. Roles of cell walls and intracellular contents in supercooling capability of xylem parenchyma cells of boreal trees.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Jun; Endoh, Keita; Yoshiba, Megumi; Taido, Ippei; Arakawa, Keita; Uemura, Matsuo; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2013-05-01

    The supercooling capability of xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in boreal hardwood species differs depending not only on species, but also season. In this study, the roles of cell walls and intracellular contents in supercooling capability of XPCs were examined in three boreal hardwood species, Japanese beech, katsura tree and mulberry, whose supercooling capability differs largely depending on species and season. XPCs in these species harvested in winter and summer were treated by rapid freezing and thawing (RFT samples) or by RFT with further washing (RFTW samples) to remove intracellular contents from XPCs in order to examine the roles of cell walls in supercooling. RFT samples were also treated with glucose solution (RFTG samples) to examine roles of intracellular contents in supercooling. The supercooling capabilities of these samples were examined by differential thermal analysis after ultrastructural observation of XPCs by a cryo-scanning electron microscope to confirm effects of the above treatments. XPCs in RFTW samples showed a large reduction in supercooling capability to similar temperatures regardless of species or season. On the other hand, XPCs in RFTG samples showed a large increase in supercooling capability to similar temperatures regardless of species or season. These results indicate that although cell walls have an important role in maintenance of supercooling, change in supercooling capability of XPCs is induced by change in intracellular contents, but not by change in cell wall properties.

  9. Grape seed extract attenuates lung parenchyma pathology in ovalbumin-induced mouse asthma model: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Yomna Ibrahim

    2012-10-01

    Due to the growing incidence of asthma and because of the non-specificity and side effects of the conventional drugs, the development of novel agents for the treatment of asthma has become considerably important. Natural plant products offer promising alternatives for the development of effective and safe treatments. Grape seed extract (GSE) is one such phytochemical supplement that has been shown to have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of GSE to suppress lung parenchyma pathology and inflammation in ovalbumin-induced murine asthma model. Ovalbumin exposure was associated with many pathological and morphometric alterations in the lungs of asthmatic mice. The alterations involved alveolar size reduction, alveolar wall thickening, cellular infiltration and blood capillary congestion, as well as significant increase in the number of type II pneumocytes and lamellar bodies. However, GSE significantly ameliorated of the pathological changes of ovalbumin-induced asthma. The results support the possibility of GSE as an effective, safe anti-inflammatory dietary supplement to attenuate the pathogenicity of asthma. While these preliminary results appear promising, further studies are required to elucidate the precise mechanism of the modulatory effect of GSE on asthma remodeling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phloem as capacitor: radial transfer of water into xylem of tree stems occurs via symplastic transport in ray parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Pfautsch, Sebastian; Renard, Justine; Tjoelker, Mark G; Salih, Anya

    2015-03-01

    The transfer of water from phloem into xylem is thought to mitigate increasing hydraulic tension in the vascular system of trees during the diel cycle of transpiration. Although a putative plant function, to date there is no direct evidence of such water transfer or the contributing pathways. Here, we trace the radial flow of water from the phloem into the xylem and investigate its diel variation. Introducing a fluorescent dye (0.1% [w/w] fluorescein) into the phloem water of the tree species Eucalyptus saligna allowed localization of the dye in phloem and xylem tissues using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Our results show that the majority of water transferred between the two tissues is facilitated via the symplast of horizontal ray parenchyma cells. The method also permitted assessment of the radial transfer of water during the diel cycle, where changes in water potential gradients between phloem and xylem determine the extent and direction of radial transfer. When injected during the morning, when xylem water potential rapidly declined, fluorescein was translocated, on average, farther into mature xylem (447 ± 188 µm) compared with nighttime, when xylem water potential was close to zero (155 ± 42 µm). These findings provide empirical evidence to support theoretical predictions of the role of phloem-xylem water transfer in the hydraulic functioning of plants. This method enables investigation of the role of phloem tissue as a dynamic capacitor for water storage and transfer and its contribution toward the maintenance of the functional integrity of xylem in trees.

  11. The amount of parenchyma and living fibers affects storage of nonstructural carbohydrates in young stems and roots of temperate trees.

    PubMed

    Plavcová, Lenka; Hoch, Günter; Morris, Hugh; Ghiasi, Sara; Jansen, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) are used as proxies for the net carbon balance of trees and as indicators of carbon starvation resulting from environmental stress. Woody organs are the largest NSC-storing compartments in forest ecosystems; therefore, it is essential to understand the factors that affect the size of this important storage pool. In wood, NSC are predominantly deposited in ray and axial parenchyma (RAP); however, direct links between nutrient storage and RAP anatomy have not yet been established. Here, we tested whether the NSC storage capacity of wood is influenced by the amount of RAP. We measured NSC concentrations and RAP fractions in root and stem sapwood of 12 temperate species sampled at the onset of winter dormancy and in stem sapwood of four tropical trees growing in an evergreen lowland rainforest. The patterns of starch distribution were visualized by staining with Lugol's solution. The concentration of NSCs in sapwood of temperate trees scales tightly with the amount of RAP and living fibers (LFs), with almost all RAP and LFs being densely packed with starch grains. In contrast, the tropical species had lower NSC concentrations despite their higher RAP and LFs fraction and had considerable interspecific differences in starch distribution. The differences in RAP and LFs abundance affect the ability of sapwood to store NSC in temperate trees, whereas a more diverse set of functions of RAP might be pronounced in species growing in a tropical environment with little seasonality. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  12. Presence of supercooling-facilitating (anti-ice nucleation) hydrolyzable tannins in deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells in Cercidiphyllum japonicum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donghui; Kasuga, Jun; Kuwabara, Chikako; Endoh, Keita; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Fujikawa, Seizo; Arakawa, Keita

    2012-04-01

    Xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in trees adapt to subzero temperatures by deep supercooling. Our previous study indicated the possibility of the presence of diverse kinds of supercooling-facilitating (SCF; anti-ice nucleation) substances in XPCs of katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum), all of which might have an important role in deep supercooling of XPCs. In the previous study, a few kinds of SCF flavonol glycosides were identified. Thus, in the present study, we tried to identify other kinds of SCF substances in XPCs of katsura tree. SCF substances were purified from xylem extracts by silica gel column chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Then, four SCF substances isolated were identified by UV, mass and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. The results showed that the four kinds of hydrolyzable gallotannins, 2,2',5-tri-O-galloyl-α,β-D-hamamelose (trigalloyl Ham or kurigalin), 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (trigalloyl Glc), 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (tetragalloyl Glc) and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pentagalloyl Glc), in XPCs exhibited supercooling capabilities in the range of 1.5-4.5°C, at a concentration of 1 mg mL⁻¹. These SCF substances, including flavonol glycosides and hydrolyzable gallotannins, may contribute to the supercooling in XPCs of katsura tree.

  13. Evidence for the Involvement of a Specific Cell Wall Layer in Regulation of Deep Supercooling of Xylem Parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Michael; Davis, Glen

    1989-01-01

    Current theory indicates that the structure of the cell wall is integral to the ability of a tissue to exhibit deep supercooling. Our previous work has indicated that the structure of the pit membrane and/or amorphous layer (protective layer), rather than the entire cell wall, may play a major role in deep supercooling (21, 22). The present study indicates a shift in the low-temperature-exotherm of current year shoots of peach can be induced by soaking twigs in water over 3 to 10 days. Alternatively, these shifts can be inhibited by exposing tissues to 10−4 molar cycloheximide. Ultrastructural observations indicated a marked alteration of the amorphous layer in xylem parenchyma of water-soaked tissue. Alterations consisted of an apparent loosening or partial dissolution of portions of the amorphous layer. Changes in the density or uniformity of the amorphous layer in cycloheximide-treated tissues were not as readily apparent. The appearance of the protoplast in tissue soaked in water for up to 10 days was characteristic of deacclimated cells. However, in tissue soaked in cycloheximide for the same period these changes were not evident. These observations further support our contention that the structure of the amorphous layer may play a key role in establishing and regulating the ability of a cell to exhibit deep supercooling. Images Figure 2-3 Figure 4-7 Figure 8-11 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12-13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:16666988

  14. Immunolocalization of solanaceous SUT1 proteins in companion cells and xylem parenchyma: new perspectives for phloem loading and transport.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Bianca; Stadler, Ruth; Sauer, Norbert

    2008-09-01

    Leaf sucrose (Suc) transporters are essential for phloem loading and long-distance partitioning of assimilates in plants that load their phloem from the apoplast. Suc loading into the phloem is indispensable for the generation of the osmotic potential difference that drives phloem bulk flow and is central for the long-distance movement of phloem sap compounds, including hormones and signaling molecules. In previous analyses, solanaceous SUT1 Suc transporters from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were immunolocalized in plasma membranes of enucleate sieve elements. Here, we present data that identify solanaceous SUT1 proteins with high specificity in phloem companion cells. Moreover, comparisons of SUT1 localization in the abaxial and adaxial phloem revealed higher levels of SUT1 protein in the abaxial phloem of all three solanaceous species, suggesting different physiological roles for these two types of phloem. Finally, SUT1 proteins were identified in files of xylem parenchyma cells, mainly in the bicollateral veins. Together, our data provide new insight into the role of SUT1 proteins in solanaceous species.

  15. Opposite polarity subduction in adjacent plate segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peral, Mireia; Király, Ágnes; Zlotnik, Sergio; Funiciello, Francesca; Fernandez, Manel; Faccenna, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this work is to understand the dynamics of a subduction system characterized by two adjacent subducting plates with opposite retreating directions as recently proposed for the Westernmost Mediterranean. A series of analogue models based on viscous syrup (representing the mantle) and silicone putty (representing the subducting plate) have been designed to simulate the evolution of a double subduction system. The basic setup contains a pair of plates subducting in opposite directions. The plates are fixed at their back edge to enforce a slab rollback behavior and subduction is started by deflecting manually the leading edge of the plate (i.e., initial slab pull, phase 1). Different setups were designed to test the influence of two variables on the system: i) the width of the plates, that varies from 10 cm to 30 cm (1 cm in model corresponds to 60 km in nature) and ii) the lateral distance between the two subducting plates, that varies from 10 to 0.5 cm. Our results show that trench velocities increase during the stage of approaching trenches (phase 2) and then decrease after trenches pass each other (phase 3). This behavior indicates an interaction of the mantle flows produced by the two retreating slabs. On the other hand, the trench curvature increases linearly during the entire evolution and the lateral distance between plates remains constant along time, indicating that no effective lateral stress is produced when the opposing plates have similar dimensions. In addition, we have reproduced numerically some of the laboratory experiments. This work is part of the projects WE-ME (PIE-CSIC-201330E111) and MITE (CGL2014-59516-P). We also thank to the project AECT-2016-1-0002 of the Barcelona Supercomputing center (BSC-CNS).

  16. Torsades: adjacent and triggering electrocardiographic events.

    PubMed

    Childers, Rory

    2010-01-01

    Torsades de pointes (TdP) is a particular variant of ventricular arrhythmia associated with the long QT syndrome. The background of the latter is essentially 2-fold: patients under treatment with QT-prolonging drugs and subjects with congenital ionopathies. A third category is composed of subjects with both of these backgrounds. The fundamental feature of TdP is its provocation by pause-related augmentation of the repolarizing TU wave. The substrate electrocardiogram (ECG) shows prominent U waves in regular rhythm. The exaggeration of the U wave voltage following a pause is more marked the longer the pause and, for a given pause, more marked the faster the prepause rate. The pause-related sequences figure frequently adjacent to that which actually triggers the attack of TdP and continues to be seen after the event, serving to advise the physician as to the diagnosis, even following cardiac resuscitation, so that preventive measures can be taken (pacing, intravenous magnesium sulfate, or infusion with isoproterenol). The U wave of the regular rhythm ECG may show amplitude instability: an especially tall U triggering a premature ventricular complexe (PVC) that then in turn generates a pause-related sequence. TU alternans is common. Because these patients may not be in a monitored bed, recognition of pause-related phenomena in a patient with a long QT requires the ECG reader of the day to alert the floor as to the running danger. The mechanism of the pause-related TU augmentation is the generation of early afterdepolarizations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The excessively small ventricle on computed axial tomography of the brain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, F J; Schapiro, R L

    1976-01-01

    Computed axial tomography has made it possible to observe excessively small ventricles in a variety of disorders of the CNS. This finding is presumably due to non-specific and diffuse swelling of brain parenchyma, and is illustrated in cases of trauma, neoplasm, encephalitis, pseudotumor cerebri, metabolic disorder, and probable dilantin effect. It is likely that other causes will be encountered in the future.

  18. Plasmonics-enhanced and optically modulated delivery of gold nanostars into brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Wilson, Christy M; Xia, Jun; Doyle, Sarah L; Li, Shuqin; Fales, Andrew M; Liu, Yang; Ozaki, Ema; Mulfaul, Kelly; Hanna, Gabi; Palmer, Gregory M; Wang, Lihong V; Grant, Gerald A; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2014-04-21

    Plasmonics-active gold nanostars exhibiting strong imaging contrast and efficient photothermal transduction were synthesized for a novel pulsed laser-modulated plasmonics-enhanced brain tumor microvascular permeabilization. We demonstrate a selective, optically modulated delivery of nanoprobes into the tumor parenchyma with minimal off-target distribution.

  19. Plasmonics-enhanced and optically modulated delivery of gold nanostars into brain tumor

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Wilson, Christy M.; Xia, Jun; Doyle, Sarah L.; Li, Shuqin; Fales, Andrew M; Liu, Yang; Ozaki, Ema; Mulfaul, Kelly; Hanna, Gabi; Palmer, Gregory M.; Wang, Lihong V.; Grant, Gerald A.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics-active gold nanostars exhibiting strong imaging contrast and efficient photothermal transduction were synthesized for a novel pulsed laser-modulated plasmonics-enhanced brain tumor microvascular permeabilization. We demonstrate a selective, optically modulated delivery of nanoprobes into the tumor parenchyma with minimal off-target distribution. PMID:24619405

  20. Detail of adjacent buildings illustrating spatial relationships and window placement ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of adjacent buildings illustrating spatial relationships and window placement Buildings 16 and 17 facing south - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. CT brain findings in a patient with elevated brain cesium levels.

    PubMed

    Khangure, Simon R; Williams, Eric S; Welman, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    We describe the CT findings in the brain of a woman with pathologically proven elevated levels of blood and tissue cesium. The 42-year-old woman had been receiving cesium chloride as a non-mainstream treatment for metastatic breast carcinoma. She presented to hospital following a seizure, and died 48 hours after admission. A brain CT performed on hospital admission showed a diffuse increase in attenuation of brain parenchyma. Autopsy revealed elevated levels of cesium in blood and solid organs including the brain. We hypothesize that the imaging findings are attributable to the abnormally elevated level of brain cesium at the time of the CT scan. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this imaging finding.

  2. A mathematical model of blood, cerebrospinal fluid and brain dynamics.

    PubMed

    Linninger, Andreas A; Xenos, Michalis; Sweetman, Brian; Ponkshe, Sukruti; Guo, Xiaodong; Penn, Richard

    2009-12-01

    Using first principles of fluid and solid mechanics a comprehensive model of human intracranial dynamics is proposed. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain parenchyma as well as the spinal canal are included. The compartmental model predicts intracranial pressure gradients, blood and CSF flows and displacements in normal and pathological conditions like communicating hydrocephalus. The system of differential equations of first principles conservation balances is discretized and solved numerically. Fluid-solid interactions of the brain parenchyma with cerebral blood and CSF are calculated. The model provides the transitions from normal dynamics to the diseased state during the onset of communicating hydrocephalus. Predicted results were compared with physiological data from Cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging to verify the dynamic model. Bolus injections into the CSF are simulated in the model and found to agree with clinical measurements.

  3. Convection-enhanced delivery of liposomes to primate brain.

    PubMed

    Krauze, Michal T; Forsayeth, John; Yin, Dali; Bankiewicz, Krystof S

    2009-01-01

    Direct delivery of therapeutic agents to the human central nervous system remains an inadequately studied field. Our group has extensively studied and refined a powerful method for distributing various macromolecules and nanoparticles into the parenchyma by means of a procedure called convection-enhanced delivery (CED). First, we developed an improved design of infusion cannula that greatly decreased the likelihood of reflux of infusate up the outside of the cannula. Second, we began to use liposomes loaded with the MRI contrast reagent, Gadoteridol (Gd), to track infusions into brain parenchyma in real time. This innovation generated a wealth of quantitative and qualitative data that in turn drove further improvements in CED. In this chapter, we review many of the recently devised methods needed to ensure controlled distribution of therapeutic agents in the brain.

  4. Parenchyma-Sparing, Limited Pancreatic Head Resection for Benign Tumors and Low-Risk Periampullary Cancer--a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Beger, Hans G; Mayer, Benjamin; Rau, Bettina M

    2016-01-01

    Parenchyma-sparing local extirpation of benign tumors of the pancreatic head provides the potential benefits of preservation of functional tissue and low postoperative morbidity. Medline/PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases were surveyed for studies performing limited resection of the pancreatic head and resection of a segment of the duodenum and common bile duct or preservation of the duodenum and common bile duct (CBD). The systematic analysis included 27 cohort studies that reported on limited pancreatic head resections for benign tumors. In a subgroup analysis, 12 of the cohort studies were additionally evaluated to compare the postoperative morbidity after total head resection including duodenal segment resection (DPPHR-S) and total head resection conserving duodenum and CBD (DPPHR-T). Three hundred thirty-nine of a total of 503 patients (67.4%) underwent total head resections. One hundred forty-seven patients (29.2%) of them underwent segmental resection of the duodenum and CBD (DPPHR-S) and 192 patients (38.2%) underwent preservation of duodenum and CBD. One hundred sixty-four patients experienced partial head resection (32.6%). The final histological diagnosis revealed in 338 of 503 patients (67.2%) cystic neoplasms, 53 patients (10.3%) neuroendocrine tumors, and 20 patients (4.0%) low-risk periampullary carcinomas. Severe postoperative complications occurred in 62 of 490 patients (12.7%), pancreatic fistula B + C in 40 of 295 patients (13.6%), resurgery was experienced in 2.7%, and delayed gastric emptying in 12.3%. The 90-day mortality was 0.4%. The subgroup analysis comparing 143 DPPHR-S patients with 95 DPPHR-T patients showed that the respective rates of procedure-related biliary complications were 0.7% (1 of 143 patients) versus 8.4% (8 of 95 patients) (p ≤ 0.0032), and rates of duodenal complications were 0 versus 6.3% (6 of 95 patients) (p ≤ 0.0037). DPPHR-S was associated with a higher rate of delay of gastric emptying

  5. Exophytic renal masses: angular interface with renal parenchyma for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions at MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sachit K; Mitchell, Donald G; Yang, Roberta; Roth, Christopher G; O'Kane, Patrick; Verma, Manisha; Parker, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    To retrospectively determine whether benign exophytic renal masses can be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) on the basis of angular interface at single-shot fast spin-echo (SE) T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This retrospective study was compliant with HIPAA and was approved by the institutional review board. Patient informed consent was waived. A total of 162 exophytic (2 cm or greater) renal masses in 152 patients (103 men, 49 women; mean age, 58 years; age range, 23-85 years) were included. Two radiologists independently recorded the mass size and angular interface on single-shot fast SE T2-weighted MR images. Surgical pathologic report and MR follow-up were used as reference standards. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the usefulness of these variables for differentiating benign masses from RCCs. Diagnostic performance was analyzed by comparing values for area under receiver operating characteristic curve (A(z)). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of angular interface for diagnosing benign masses were calculated. Reader agreement was assessed with kappa-weighted statistics and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Of 162 masses, 65 were benign, and 97 were RCCs. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and A(z) of angular interface for diagnosing benign masses were 78%, 100%, 100%, 87%, and 0.813, respectively. Angular interface (P < .001) was a significant predictor of benign renal mass but mass size (P = .66) was not. There was almost perfect interobserver agreement for mass size (ICC = 0.96) and angular interface (kappa = 0.91). The presence of an angular interface with the renal parenchyma at single-shot fast SE T2-weighted MR imaging is a strong predictor of benignity in an exophytic renal mass 2 cm or greater in diameter with high specificity and diagnostic accuracy.

  6. Deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells of katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum) contain flavonol glycosides exhibiting high anti-ice nucleation activity.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Jun; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Nishioka, Atsushi; Yoshiba, Megumi; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2008-09-01

    Xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) of boreal hardwood species adapt to sub-freezing temperatures by deep supercooling to maintain a liquid state of intracellular water near -40 degrees C. Our previous study found that crude xylem extracts from such tree species exhibited anti-ice nucleation activity to promote supercooling of water. In the present study, thus, we attempted to identify the causative substances of supercooling. Crude xylem extracts from katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum), of which XPCs exhibited deep supercooling to -40 degrees C, were prepared by methanol extraction. The crude extracts were purified by liquid-liquid extraction and then by silica gel column chromatography. Although all the fractions obtained after each purification step exhibited some levels of anti-ice nucleation activity, only the most active fraction was retained to proceed to the subsequent level of purification. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of a fraction with the highest level of activity revealed four peaks with high levels of anti-ice nucleation activity in the range of 2.8-9.0 degrees C. Ultraviolet (UV), mass and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra revealed that these four peaks corresponded to quercetin-3-O-beta-glucoside (Q3G), kaempferol-7-O-beta-glucoside (K7G), 8-methoxykaempferol-3-O-beta-glucoside (8MK3G) and kaempferol-3-O-beta-glucoside (K3G). Microscopic observations confirmed the presence of flavonoids in cytoplasms of XPCs. These results suggest that diverse kinds of anti-ice nucleation substances, including flavonol glycosides, may have important roles in deep supercooling of XPCs.

  7. A particle-based model to simulate the micromechanics of single-plant parenchyma cells and aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Liedekerke, P.; Ghysels, P.; Tijskens, E.; Samaey, G.; Smeedts, B.; Roose, D.; Ramon, H.

    2010-06-01

    This paper is concerned with addressing how plant tissue mechanics is related to the micromechanics of cells. To this end, we propose a mesh-free particle method to simulate the mechanics of both individual plant cells (parenchyma) and cell aggregates in response to external stresses. The model considers two important features in the plant cell: (1) the cell protoplasm, the interior liquid phase inducing hydrodynamic phenomena, and (2) the cell wall material, a viscoelastic solid material that contains the protoplasm. In this particle framework, the cell fluid is modeled by smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), a mesh-free method typically used to address problems with gas and fluid dynamics. In the solid phase (cell wall) on the other hand, the particles are connected by pairwise interactions holding them together and preventing the fluid to penetrate the cell wall. The cell wall hydraulic conductivity (permeability) is built in as well through the SPH formulation. Although this model is also meant to be able to deal with dynamic and even violent situations (leading to cell wall rupture or cell-cell debonding), we have concentrated on quasi-static conditions. The results of single-cell compression simulations show that the conclusions found by analytical models and experiments can be reproduced at least qualitatively. Relaxation tests revealed that plant cells have short relaxation times (1 µs-10 µs) compared to mammalian cells. Simulations performed on cell aggregates indicated an influence of the cellular organization to the tissue response, as was also observed in experiments done on tissues with a similar structure.

  8. A particle-based model to simulate the micromechanics of single-plant parenchyma cells and aggregates.

    PubMed

    Van Liedekerke, P; Ghysels, P; Tijskens, E; Samaey, G; Smeedts, B; Roose, D; Ramon, H

    2010-05-26

    This paper is concerned with addressing how plant tissue mechanics is related to the micromechanics of cells. To this end, we propose a mesh-free particle method to simulate the mechanics of both individual plant cells (parenchyma) and cell aggregates in response to external stresses. The model considers two important features in the plant cell: (1) the cell protoplasm, the interior liquid phase inducing hydrodynamic phenomena, and (2) the cell wall material, a viscoelastic solid material that contains the protoplasm. In this particle framework, the cell fluid is modeled by smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), a mesh-free method typically used to address problems with gas and fluid dynamics. In the solid phase (cell wall) on the other hand, the particles are connected by pairwise interactions holding them together and preventing the fluid to penetrate the cell wall. The cell wall hydraulic conductivity (permeability) is built in as well through the SPH formulation. Although this model is also meant to be able to deal with dynamic and even violent situations (leading to cell wall rupture or cell-cell debonding), we have concentrated on quasi-static conditions. The results of single-cell compression simulations show that the conclusions found by analytical models and experiments can be reproduced at least qualitatively. Relaxation tests revealed that plant cells have short relaxation times (1 micros-10 micros) compared to mammalian cells. Simulations performed on cell aggregates indicated an influence of the cellular organization to the tissue response, as was also observed in experiments done on tissues with a similar structure.

  9. Comparison of metastatic brain tumour models using three different methods: the morphological role of the pia mater.

    PubMed

    Saito, Norihiko; Hatori, Tsutomu; Murata, Nozomu; Zhang, Ze-An; Nonaka, Hiroko; Aoki, Kazuya; Iwabuchi, Satoshi; Ueda, Morikazu

    2008-02-01

    As methods of cancer diagnosis and treatment progress, interest in metastatic brain tumours continues to increase. There are many studies using various methods of animal model and we considered that each model reflects different pathological processes because of the unique composition of the brain. We prepared metastatic brain tumour models using three different methods. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the roles of the pia mater in brain metastasis. The metastatic foci showed an angiocentric pattern, forming collars of neoplastic cells, and were designated 'perivascular proliferations'. Furthermore, we observed neoplastic cells that infiltrated the brain parenchyma, the border of which had become indistinct. These were labelled 'invasive proliferations'. The internal carotid artery injection model reflects haematogenous metastasis. In this model, both perivascular and invasive proliferations were observed. The intrathecal injection model reflects leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. In this model, metastasis to the meninges was observed. In the stereotactic injection model, the tumour proliferation at the injection site and the infiltration into the brain parenchyma were observed. The pia-glial membrane serves as a scaffold when neoplastic cells spread to the perivascular space forming angiocentric pattern. The pia-glial membrane is found between the brain parenchyma and blood vessels. Blood vessels penetrate the brain through tunnels known as perivascular spaces that are covered by pia mater. Three different methods which we prepared reflect three different pathological processes. Our findings suggest that the pia mater is a critical factor in brain metastasis.

  10. In vitro models of the blood-brain barrier: An overview of commonly used brain endothelial cell culture models and guidelines for their use.

    PubMed

    Helms, Hans C; Abbott, N Joan; Burek, Malgorzata; Cecchelli, Romeo; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Deli, Maria A; Förster, Carola; Galla, Hans J; Romero, Ignacio A; Shusta, Eric V; Stebbins, Matthew J; Vandenhaute, Elodie; Weksler, Babette; Brodin, Birger

    2016-05-01

    The endothelial cells lining the brain capillaries separate the blood from the brain parenchyma. The endothelial monolayer of the brain capillaries serves both as a crucial interface for exchange of nutrients, gases, and metabolites between blood and brain, and as a barrier for neurotoxic components of plasma and xenobiotics. This "blood-brain barrier" function is a major hindrance for drug uptake into the brain parenchyma. Cell culture models, based on either primary cells or immortalized brain endothelial cell lines, have been developed, in order to facilitate in vitro studies of drug transport to the brain and studies of endothelial cell biology and pathophysiology. In this review, we aim to give an overview of established in vitro blood-brain barrier models with a focus on their validation regarding a set of well-established blood-brain barrier characteristics. As an ideal cell culture model of the blood-brain barrier is yet to be developed, we also aim to give an overview of the advantages and drawbacks of the different models described. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. In vitro models of the blood–brain barrier: An overview of commonly used brain endothelial cell culture models and guidelines for their use

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Hans C; Abbott, N Joan; Burek, Malgorzata; Cecchelli, Romeo; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Deli, Maria A; Förster, Carola; Galla, Hans J; Romero, Ignacio A; Shusta, Eric V; Stebbins, Matthew J; Vandenhaute, Elodie; Weksler, Babette

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial cells lining the brain capillaries separate the blood from the brain parenchyma. The endothelial monolayer of the brain capillaries serves both as a crucial interface for exchange of nutrients, gases, and metabolites between blood and brain, and as a barrier for neurotoxic components of plasma and xenobiotics. This “blood-brain barrier” function is a major hindrance for drug uptake into the brain parenchyma. Cell culture models, based on either primary cells or immortalized brain endothelial cell lines, have been developed, in order to facilitate in vitro studies of drug transport to the brain and studies of endothelial cell biology and pathophysiology. In this review, we aim to give an overview of established in vitro blood–brain barrier models with a focus on their validation regarding a set of well-established blood–brain barrier characteristics. As an ideal cell culture model of the blood–brain barrier is yet to be developed, we also aim to give an overview of the advantages and drawbacks of the different models described. PMID:26868179

  12. A Study of the Pronunciation of Words Containing Adjacent Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Ivo P.

    To determine the usefulness of the commonly taught phonics rule, "only pronounce the first vowel in words that contain adjacent vowels" (the VV rule, with the first "v" pronounced with the long vowel sound), two new studies applied it to words with adjacent vowels in several lists and dictionaries. The first study analyzed words containing…

  13. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  15. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  16. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  17. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  18. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  20. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  1. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  4. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  6. A Study of the Pronunciation of Words Containing Adjacent Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Ivo P.

    To determine the usefulness of the commonly taught phonics rule, "only pronounce the first vowel in words that contain adjacent vowels" (the VV rule, with the first "v" pronounced with the long vowel sound), two new studies applied it to words with adjacent vowels in several lists and dictionaries. The first study analyzed words containing…

  7. [Dynamic expression profile of HBsAg according to hepatic parenchyma cells' volume at different liver fibrosis stages in the immune clearance phase].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhe-bin; Cao, Hong; Liu, Ting; Wu, Ze-qian; Ke, Wei-min; Gao, Zhi-liang

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dynamic expression profile of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) according to hepatic parenchyma cells' volume at different stages of liver fibrosis during the immune clearance phase. Eighty-nine patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the immune clearance stage were recruited for study. Each patient's serum HBsAg levels were detected by electrochemiluminescence. The serum HBsAg levels were apportioned according to hepatic parenchyma cells' volume at liver fibrosis stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 and compared by ANOVA. The unapportioned serum HBsAg levels (IU/mL) at liver fibrosis stages 1 (227.2+/-237.7), 2 (211.0+/-131.4), 3(300.1+/-144.6), and 4 (278.7+/-148.8) were not significantly different (all comparisons, P range: 0.061 to 0.759). However, when the serum HBsAg levels were apportioned by the same hepatic parenchyma cells' volume at liver fibrosis stages 1 (343.9+/-359.8), 2 (336.4+/-209.5), 3 (508.7+/-245.1), and 4 (525.2+/-274.8), the levels were significantly different (all comparisons, F = 3.045 and P = 0.033; stage 1 vs. 3, P = 0.041; stage 1 vs. 4, P = 0.046; stage 2 vs. 3, P = 0.028; stage 2 vs. 4, P = 0.034). During the immune clearance phase of chronic hepatitis B, increased HBsAg expression is associated with increased hepatic parenchyma cells' volume and progressive liver fibrosis stage.

  8. Response of Xylem Ray Parenchyma Cells of Red Osier Dogwood (Cornus sericea L.) to Freezing Stress (Microscopic Evidence of Protoplasm Contraction).

    PubMed Central

    Ristic, Z.; Ashworth, E. N.

    1994-01-01

    Freezing behavior of wood tissue of red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L.) cannot be explained by current concepts of freezing resistance. Previous studies indicated that water in wood tissue presumably froze extracellularly. However, it was observed that xylem ray parenchyma cells within these tissues could survive temperatures as low as -80[deg]C and the walls of these cells did not collapse during freezing (S.R. Malone and E.N. Ashworth [1991] Plant Physiol 95: 871-881). This observation was unexpected and is inconsistent with the current hypothesis of cell response during freezing. Hence, the objective of our study was to further examine the mechanism of freezing resistance of wood tissue of red osier dogwood. We studied freezing stress response of xylem ray parenchyma cells of red osier dogwood using freeze substitution and transmission electron microscopy. Wood samples were collected in winter, spring, and summer of 1992. Specimens were cooled from 0[deg]C to -60[deg]C at 5[deg]C/h. Freezing stress did not affect the structural organization of wood tissue. However, the xylem ray parenchyma cells showed two unique responses to a freezing stress: protoplasm contraction and protoplasm fragmentation. Protoplasm contraction was evident at all freezing temperatures and in tissues collected at different times of the year. Cells with fragmented protoplasm, however, were noticed only in tissues collected in spring and summer. Protoplasm contraction in winter tissue occurred without apparent damage to the protoplasm. In contrast, protoplasm contraction in spring and summer tissues was accompanied by substantial damage. No evidence of intracellular ice formation was observed in parenchyma cells exposed to freezing stress. Differences in protoplasm contraction and appearance of cells with fragmented protoplasm likely indicated seasonal changes in cold hardiness of the wood tissue of red osier dogwood. We speculate that the appearance of fragmented protoplasm may indicate

  9. Rice sucrose transporter1 (OsSUT1) up-regulation in xylem parenchyma is caused by aphid feeding on rice leaf blade vascular bundles.

    PubMed

    Ibraheem, O; Botha, C E J; Bradley, G; Dealtry, G; Roux, S

    2014-07-01

    The role of the sucrose transporter OsSUT1 in assimilate retrieval via the xylem, as a result of damage to and leakage from punctured phloem was examined after rusty plum aphid (Hysteroneura setariae, Thomas) infestation on leaves from 3-week-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Nipponbare) plants. Leaves were examined over a 1- to 10-day infestation time course, using a combination of gene expression and β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene analyses. qPCR and Western blot analyses revealed differential expression of OsSUT1 during aphid infestation. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy was used to confirm the expression of OsSUT1-promoter::GUS reporter gene in vascular parenchyma associated with xylem elements, as well as in companion cells associated with phloem sieve tubes of large, intermediate and small vascular bundles within the leaf blade, in regions where the aphids had settled and were feeding. Of great interest was up-regulation of OsSUT1 expression associated with the xylem parenchyma cells, abutting the metaxylem vessels, which confirmed that OsSUT1 was not only involved in loading of sugars into the phloem under normal physiological conditions, but was apparently involved in the retrieval of sucrose leaked into the xylem conduits, which occurred as a direct result of aphid feeding, probing and puncturing of vascular bundles. The up-regulation of OsSUT1 in xylem vascular parenchyma thus provides evidence in support of the location within the xylem parenchyma cells of an efficient mechanism to ensure sucrose recovery after loss to the apoplast (xylem) after aphid-related feeding damage and its transfer back to the symplast (phloem) in O. sativa leaves.

  10. Aberrant nonfibrotic parenchyma in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is correlated with decreased β-catenin inhibition and increased Wnt5a/b interaction.

    PubMed

    Rydell-Törmänen, Kristina; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Hallgren, Oskar; Einarsson, Jonas; Eriksson, Leif; Andersson-Sjöland, Annika; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), an insidious disease with grave prognosis, is characterized by heterogeneous fibrosis with densely fibrotic areas surrounded by nonfibrotic normal-looking tissue, believed to reflect a temporal development. The etiology is incompletely elucidated, but aberrant wound healing is believed to be involved. Embryonic signaling pathways, including Wnt signaling, are reactivated in wound healing, and we therefore aimed to investigate Wnt signaling, and hypothesized that Wnt signaling would correspond to degree of fibrosis. Material from 10 patients with IPF were included (four diagnostic biopsies and six donated lungs) and compared to healthy controls (n = 7). We investigated markers of Wnt signaling (β-catenin, Wnt3a, ICAT, Wnt5a/b, DAAM1 and NLK) histologically in lung parenchyma with variable degree of fibrosis. Our results suggest that Wnt signaling is significantly altered (P < 0.05) already in normal-looking parenchyma. The expression of Wnt3a and ICAT decreased (both P < 0.01) in IPF compared to healthy lungs, whereas β-catenin, Wnt5a/b, DAAM1 and NLK increased (P < 0.05 for all). ICAT is further decreased in dense fibrosis compared to normal-looking parenchyma in IPF (P < 0.001). On the basis of our results, we conclude that from a Wnt perspective, there is no normal parenchyma in IPF, and Wnt signaling corresponds to degree of fibrosis. In addition, β-catenin and Wnt5a appears coupled, and decreased inhibition of β-catenin may be involved. We suggest that the interaction between β-catenin, ICAT, and Wnt5a/b may represent an important research area and potential target for therapeutic intervention. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  11. Mortality of passerines adjacent to a North Carolina corn field treated with granular carbofuran.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, Tom; Smith, Milton R.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Converse, Kathryn A.

    1996-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were collected during an epizootic in southeastern North Carolina (USA). Activity of brain cholinesterase (ChE) was inhibited by 14 to 48% in three of five specimens, and returned to normal levels after incubation. Gastrointestinal tracts were analyzed for 30 anti-ChE agents. Carbofuran, the only compound detected, was present in all specimens at levels from 5.44 to 72.7 μg/g wet weight. Application of granular carbofuran in an adjacent corn field, results of necropsy examinations, and chemical analyses are consistent with a diagnosis of carbofuran poisoning in these specimens.

  12. Heterogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma does not influence the detection of multi-focality in papillary thyroid carcinoma on preoperative ultrasound staging.

    PubMed

    Herh, Sun Jin; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Sung, Ji Min; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2014-05-01

    Heterogeneous echogenicity and micro-nodulations of diffuse thyroid disease on ultrasonography (US) might influence the diagnostic performance of pre-operative US staging, especially the detection of multi-focality. This study was designed to determine whether heterogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma influences the diagnostic performance of US in the detection of multi-focality in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Between December 2010 and April 2011, 811 patients underwent pre-operative staging US for papillary thyroid carcinoma and surgery. Twelve radiologists performed the pre-operative US for T and N staging. Underlying parenchymal echogenicity and unilateral and bilateral multi-focality of the thyroid nodules were also evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of the underlying echogenicity of the thyroid gland. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of US with respect to underlying echogenicity, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated and compared between the two groups. Among the 811 patients included, US revealed underlying heterogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma in 204 (25.2%) and underlying homogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma in 607 (74.8%). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the diagnostic performance of pre-operative staging US in predicting unilateral multi-focality and bilaterality. Underlying heterogeneous echogenicity in a thyroid gland with Hashimoto's thyroiditis does not significantly influence the detection of multi-focality in papillary thyroid cancer on pre-operative US staging.

  13. PIXE analysis of elements in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qixin; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Lingnuo; Xu, Yongling; Ye, Simao

    1990-04-01

    The elemental regional distributions in 20 resected human stomach tissues were obtained using PIXE analysis. The samples were pathologically divided into four types: normal, adjacent mucosa A, adjacent mucosa B and cancer. The targets for PIXE analysis were prepared by wet digestion with a pressure bomb system. P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se were measured and statistically analysed. We found significantly higher concentrations of P, K, Cu, Zn and a higher ratio of Cu compared to Zn in cancer tissue as compared with normal tissue, but statistically no significant difference between adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue was found.

  14. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  15. Regulation of brain copper homeostasis by the brain barrier systems: Effects of Fe-overload and Fe-deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Monnot, Andrew D.; Behl, Mamta; Ho, Sanna; Zheng, Wei

    2011-11-15

    Maintaining brain Cu homeostasis is vital for normal brain function. The role of systemic Fe deficiency (FeD) or overload (FeO) due to metabolic diseases or environmental insults in Cu homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate how blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-SCF barrier (BCB) regulated Cu transport and how FeO or FeD altered brain Cu homeostasis. Rats received an Fe-enriched or Fe-depleted diet for 4 weeks. FeD and FeO treatment resulted in a significant increase (+ 55%) and decrease (- 56%) in CSF Cu levels (p < 0.05), respectively; however, neither treatment had any effect on CSF Fe levels. The FeD, but not FeO, led to significant increases in Cu levels in brain parenchyma and the choroid plexus. In situ brain perfusion studies demonstrated that the rate of Cu transport into the brain parenchyma was significantly faster in FeD rats (+ 92%) and significantly slower (- 53%) in FeO rats than in controls. In vitro two chamber Transwell transepithelial transport studies using primary choroidal epithelial cells revealed a predominant efflux of Cu from the CSF to blood compartment by the BCB. Further ventriculo-cisternal perfusion studies showed that Cu clearance by the choroid plexus in FeD animals was significantly greater than control (p < 0.05). Taken together, our results demonstrate that both the BBB and BCB contribute to maintain a stable Cu homeostasis in the brain and CSF. Cu appears to enter the brain primarily via the BBB and is subsequently removed from the CSF by the BCB. FeD has a more profound effect on brain Cu levels than FeO. FeD increases Cu transport at the brain barriers and prompts Cu overload in the CNS. The BCB plays a key role in removing the excess Cu from the CSF.

  16. Distinct roles for matrix metalloproteinase-2 and alpha4 integrin in autoimmune T cell extravasation and residency in brain parenchyma during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Graesser, D; Mahooti, S; Madri, J A

    2000-09-22

    Expression of alpha4 integrin by auto-reactive T cells is critical for their ability to induce EAE, an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in mice, used as a model to study human multiple sclerosis. Having previously identified one role for alpha4 integrin in adhesion-mediated induction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), an enzyme that degrades the subendothelial basement membrane matrix, we investigated independent roles for MMP-2 and alpha4 integrin during EAE. The data suggest that expression of alpha4 integrin by auto-reactive T cells is important not only in mediating MMP-2 induction to facilitate entry into the CNS, but also plays a role in maintaining residency within the CNS.

  17. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  18. Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with soundproof walls and pedestal flooring - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  19. Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example is located between Buildings 26 and 27. Facing northeast - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  1. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  3. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  4. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  5. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  6. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  7. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 11. SOUTHWEST ELEVATION, SHOT FROM ADJACENT SCRAP YARD. Pittsburgh, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SOUTHWEST ELEVATION, SHOT FROM ADJACENT SCRAP YARD. - Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, Calumet River Bridge, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  9. 1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  10. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  11. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  12. 2. DETAIL OF CONTROL GATE ADJACENT TO LIFT LOCK NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF CONTROL GATE ADJACENT TO LIFT LOCK NO. 7; THIS CONTROL GATE IS A 1980s RECONSTRUCTION. - Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lift Lock No. 7 & Control Gate, East side of DuPage River, Channahon, Will County, IL

  13. 72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing engine house where water from furnaces was allowed to cool. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 5 and portion of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  15. 7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 1 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  16. 8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 2 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  17. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  19. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  1. Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight line. View to east. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Guard Tower, Florida Street at Aircraft Shelters Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  2. Community conservation adjacent to Ruaha National Park, Tanzania

    Treesearch

    Sue Stolberger

    2007-01-01

    In the areas adjacent to Ruaha National Park where rural communities exist, much more work and education is required to enable them to benefit directly and indirectly from tourism and managing their own natural resources.

  3. 10. SLATE PATIO ADJACENT TO SOUTH PORCH OF HOUSE, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SLATE PATIO ADJACENT TO SOUTH PORCH OF HOUSE, FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF REAR PORCH. SHED IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Butt Valley Dam, Gate Tender's House, Butt Valley Reservoir Road, Caribou, Plumas County, CA

  4. Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance of the northwest wing - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  6. 14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen he designed and installed in the Congdon Canal, facing southeast. Photo dates ca. late 1920's. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  7. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  8. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. GENERAL VIEW OF WAREHOUSE ADJACENT TO BATCH PLANT, LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF WAREHOUSE ADJACENT TO BATCH PLANT, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM DREY STREET PLANT, INSIDE WELCOME WALL - Chambers Window Glass Company, Warehouse & Shipping, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  10. UNITED SPANISH WAR VETERANS MONUMENT, ADJACENT TO SECTION 400, FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UNITED SPANISH WAR VETERANS MONUMENT, ADJACENT TO SECTION 400, FRONT AND SIDE, AT THE CORNER OF WILSHIRE BOULEVARD AND VETERAN AVENUE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Los Angeles National Cemetery, 950 South Sepulveda Boulevard, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung; Kim, Seok Won

    2016-06-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature.

  12. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF CEMETERY WITH ADJACENT PRIVATE LOUDON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF CEMETERY WITH ADJACENT PRIVATE LOUDON PARK CEMETERY. 20 MAY 1967. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - Loudon Park National Cemetery, 3445 Frederick Avenue, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. 28. TOP VIEW OF CIRCUIT BREAKER ADJACENT TO BRIDGE, CATENARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. TOP VIEW OF CIRCUIT BREAKER ADJACENT TO BRIDGE, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  14. 33. VIEW OF ADJACENT SUBSTATION AND TRANSFORMER, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW OF ADJACENT SUBSTATION AND TRANSFORMER, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 524 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  15. 11. FROM NORTH SIDE OF BRIDGE ADJACENT TO EAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. FROM NORTH SIDE OF BRIDGE ADJACENT TO EAST END LOOKING WEST SHOWING PORTION OF SUPERSTRUCTURE BENEATH SIDEWALK AND INDENTATION - VERTICAL VIEW - Ravine Bluffs Development Bridge, Spanning ravine at Sylvan Road, Glencoe, Cook County, IL

  16. 31. VAL, DETAIL OF LOADING PLATFORM ADJACENT TO LAUNCHER BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VAL, DETAIL OF LOADING PLATFORM ADJACENT TO LAUNCHER BRIDGE LOOKING WEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Visual Receptive Field Heterogeneity and Functional Connectivity of Adjacent Neurons in Primate Frontoparietal Association Cortices.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Pooja; Nieder, Andreas

    2017-09-13

    The basic organization principles of the primary visual cortex (V1) are commonly assumed to also hold in the association cortex such that neurons within a cortical column share functional connectivity patterns and represent the same region of the visual field. We mapped the visual receptive fields (RFs) of neurons recorded at the same electrode in the ventral intraparietal area (VIP) and the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rhesus monkeys. We report that the spatial characteristics of visual RFs between adjacent neurons differed considerably, with increasing heterogeneity from VIP to PFC. In addition to RF incongruences, we found differential functional connectivity between putative inhibitory interneurons and pyramidal cells in PFC and VIP. These findings suggest that local RF topography vanishes with hierarchical distance from visual cortical input and argue for increasingly modified functional microcircuits in noncanonical association cortices that contrast V1.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our visual field is thought to be represented faithfully by the early visual brain areas; all the information from a certain region of the visual field is conveyed to neurons situated close together within a functionally defined cortical column. We examined this principle in the association areas, PFC, and ventral intraparietal area of rhesus monkeys and found that adjacent neurons represent markedly different areas of the visual field. This is the first demonstration of such noncanonical organization of these brain areas. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/378919-10$15.00/0.

  19. Metal content of biopsies adjacent to dental cast alloys.

    PubMed

    Garhammer, Pauline; Schmalz, G; Hiller, K-A; Reitinger, T

    2003-06-01

    Single case reports indicate that components of dental alloys accumulate in the adjacent soft tissue of the oral cavity. However, data on a wider range of dental alloys and patient groups are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the metal content of oral tissues adjacent to dental alloys showing persisting signs of inflammation or other discoloration (affected sites) and of healthy control sites with no adjacent metal restoration in 28 patients. The composition of the adjacent alloys was analyzed and compared to the alloy components in the affected sites. Tissue analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Alloy analysis was performed with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. In the affected sites, the metals Ag, Au, Cu, and Pd prevailed compared to control sites, reflecting the frequency distribution of single metals in the adjacent alloys. In most cases (84%), at least one of the analyzed metals was a component of the alloy and also detected in the tissue. Metal components from almost all dental cast alloys can be detected in adjacent tissue.

  20. Non-invasive delivery of stealth, brain-penetrating nanoparticles across the blood-brain barrier using MRI-guided focused ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Nance, Elizabeth; Timbie, Kelsie; Miller, G Wilson; Song, Ji; Louttit, Cameron; Klibanov, Alexander L; Shih, Ting-Yu; Swaminathan, Ganesh; Tamargo, Rafael J; Woodworth, Graeme F; Hanes, Justin; Price, Richard J

    2014-09-10

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a significant obstacle for the treatment of many central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including invasive brain tumors, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and stroke. Therapeutics must be capable of bypassing the BBB and also penetrate the brain parenchyma to achieve a desired effect within the brain. In this study, we test the unique combination of a non-invasive approach to BBB permeabilization with a therapeutically relevant polymeric nanoparticle platform capable of rapidly penetrating within the brain microenvironment. MR-guided focused ultrasound (FUS) with intravascular microbubbles (MBs) is able to locally and reversibly disrupt the BBB with submillimeter spatial accuracy. Densely poly(ethylene-co-glycol) (PEG) coated, brain-penetrating nanoparticles (BPNs) are long-circulating and diffuse 10-fold slower in normal rat brain tissue compared to diffusion in water. Following intravenous administration of model and biodegradable BPNs in normal healthy rats, we demonstrate safe, pressure-dependent delivery of 60nm BPNs to the brain parenchyma in regions where the BBB is disrupted by FUS and MBs. Delivery of BPNs with MR-guided FUS has the potential to improve efficacy of treatments for many CNS diseases, while reducing systemic side effects by providing sustained, well-dispersed drug delivery into select regions of the brain.

  1. Brain herniation

    MedlinePlus

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  2. Stereotactic radiotherapy for spinal intradural metastases developing within or adjacent to the previous irradiation field--report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yoshimasa; Hashizume, Chisa; Shibamoto, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Nakazawa, Hisato; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Tsugawa, Takahiko

    2013-08-01

    Results of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for spinal intradural metastases developing inside or adjacent to the previous external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) field are shown in 3 cases. One case of spinal intramedullary metastasis and two cases of intradural extramedullary metastases were treated using a Novalis shaped-beam SRT. Case 1 developed an intramedullary metastatic tumor in the C1 spinal medulla inside the previous whole brain EBRT field and another lesion adjacent to the field in the C2 spinal medulla. Case 2 developed intradural extramedullary metastasis around C6-8 inside the previous EBRT field for the primary lung adenocarcinoma. Case 3 developed multiple spinal intradural extramedullary metastatic deposits after surgical resection and following whole brain EBRT for brain metastasis. We delivered 24 to 36 Gy in 5 to 12 fractions. The treated tumors were stable or decreased in size until the patients' death from the primary cancer (10, 22, and 5 months). Neurological symptoms were stable or improved in all 3 patients. Palliative SRT using Novalis is expected to be safe and effective even if the patient develops spinal intradural metastases within or adjacent to the previous irradiation field.

  3. Image segmentation by EM-based adaptive pulse coupled neural networks in brain magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fu, J C; Chen, C C; Chai, J W; Wong, S T C; Li, I C

    2010-06-01

    We propose an automatic hybrid image segmentation model that integrates the statistical expectation maximization (EM) model and the spatial pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is developed to fine tune the PCNN parameters. The EM model serves two functions: evaluation of the PCNN image segmentation and adaptive adjustment of the PCNN parameters for optimal segmentation. To evaluate the performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN, we use it to segment MR brain image into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN is compared with that of the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and Bias Corrected Fuzzy C-Means (BCFCM) algorithms. The result is four sets of boundaries for the GM and the brain parenchyma (GM+WM), the two regions of most interest in medical research and clinical applications. Each set of boundaries is compared with the golden standard to evaluate the segmentation performance. The adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and BCFCM algorithms in gray mater segmentation. In brain parenchyma segmentation, the adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the BCFCM only. However, the adaptive EM-PCNN is better than the non-adaptive EM-PCNN and EM on average. We conclude that of the three approaches, the adaptive EM-PCNN yields the best results for gray matter and brain parenchyma segmentation.

  4. Extravasation of blood-borne immunoglobulin G through blood-brain barrier during adrenaline-induced transient hypertension in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Fang; Wang, Bai-Ren; Zhang, Ping; Fei, Ling-Ling; Jia, Yi; Duan, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xi; Xu, Zhen; Li, Gai-Li; Jiao, Xi-Ying; Ju, Gong

    2004-06-01

    The effect of transient hypertension on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, particularly on extravasation of immunoglobulin G (IgG), has not been fully understood. In the present experiment, we investigated the time course of endogenous albumin and IgG extravasation through BBB and the localization of extravasated IgG in brain parenchyma during adrenaline(AD)-induced transient hypertension in the rat by using Evans blue fluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot. The results showed that a bolus injection of AD (10 microg/kg) induced a transient elevation of arterial pressure lasting about 1 min. The endogenous albumin and IgG entered the brain parenchyma via BBB only when hypertension occurred. Electron microscopically, the IgG-like immunoreactivities were predominantly seen in the cytoplasm of endothelia of capillaries, pericytes, extracellular space of parenchyma, and the cytoplasm of glial cells. The results suggest that circulating IgG or antibodies might contact the structures of brain parenchyma through passage of BBB when its permeability is temporally changed by transient hypertension. This phenomenon implies a possible mechanism of pathogenesis for immune-mediated diseases in the brain.

  5. Temporary Arterial Embolization of Liver Parenchyma with Degradable Starch Microspheres (EmboCept{sup ®}S) in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, Claus C. Meyer, Carsten; Vollmar, Brigitte; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Schild, Hans H.; Wilhelm, Kai E.

    2015-04-15

    BackgroundThis study aimed to evaluate the embolic properties, time to reperfusion, and histologic changes in temporary embolization of liver tissue with degradable starch microspheres (DSM) in a swine model.MethodsIn four adult minipigs, DSMs were injected into the right or left hepatic artery on the lobar level until complete stasis of the blood flow was detectable angiographically. The time required to complete angiographically determined reperfusion was noted. The animals were killed 3 h after complete reperfusion, and samples were taken from the liver. Histologic examinations of the embolized liver parenchyma and untreated tissue were performed.ResultsHepatic arterial embolization using DSMs was technically successful in all cases, with complete blood flow stasis shown by control angiography. A single vial of DSMs (450 mg/7.5 ml) was sufficient to embolize a whole liver lobe in all cases. Angiography showed complete reconstitution of hepatic arterial perfusion after a mean time to reperfusion of 32 ± 6.1 min (range, 26–39 min). Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed no histologically detectable differences between untreated tissue and parenchyma embolized with DSMs except for mild sinusoidal congestion in one case. Indirect in situ DNA nick end labeling staining (TUNEL) showed only single positive hepatocytes, indicating apoptosis.ConclusionTemporary embolization of the hepatic artery using DSMs is feasible with complete reperfusion after 30 min in pigs. Even after complete arterial blood flow stasis, no extensive tissue damage to the embolized liver parenchyma was observed at histologic examinations in this short-term study.

  6. Magnetic resonance elastography of the lung parenchyma in an in situ porcine model with a noninvasive mechanical driver: correlation of shear stiffness with trans-respiratory system pressures.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, Yogesh K; Kolipaka, Arunark; Manduca, Armando; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Ehman, Richard L; Araoz, Philip; McGee, Kiaran P

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of the mechanical properties of lung parenchyma is an active field of research due to the association of this metric with normal function, disease initiation and progression. A phase contrast MRI-based elasticity imaging technique known as magnetic resonance elastography is being investigated as a method for measuring the shear stiffness of lung parenchyma. Previous experiments performed with small animals using invasive drivers in direct contact with the lungs have indicated that the quantification of lung shear modulus with (1) H based magnetic resonance elastography is feasible. This technique has been extended to an in situ porcine model with a noninvasive mechanical driver placed on the chest wall. This approach was tested to measure the change in parenchymal stiffness as a function of airway opening pressure (P(ao) ) in 10 adult pigs. In all animals, shear stiffness was successfully quantified at four different P(ao) values. Mean (±STD error of mean) pulmonary parenchyma density corrected stiffness values were calculated to be 1.48 (±0.09), 1.68 (±0.10), 2.05 (±0.13), and 2.23 (±0.17) kPa for P(ao) values of 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm H2O, respectively. Shear stiffness increased with increasing P(ao) , in agreement with the literature. It is concluded that in an in situ porcine lung shear stiffness can be quantitated with (1) H magnetic resonance elastography using a noninvasive mechanical driver and that it is feasible to measure the change in shear stiffness due to change in P(ao) .

  7. Reduced-dose chest CT with 3D automatic exposure control vs. standard chest CT: quantitative assessment of emphysematous changes in smokers' lung parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Hisanobu; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Yamazaki, Youichi; Matsumoto, Keiko; Onishi, Yumiko; Takenaka, Daisuke; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Nishio, Mizuho; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Murase, Kenya; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-06-01

    To determine the capability of reduced-dose chest CT with three-dimensional (3D) automatic exposure control (AEC) on quantitative assessment of emphysematous change in smoker' lung parenchyma, compared to standard chest CT. Twenty consecutive smoker patients (mean age 62.8 years) underwent CT examinations using a standard protocol (150 mAs) and a protocol with 3D-AEC. In this study, the targeted standard deviations number was set to 160. For quantitative assessment of emphysematous change in lung parenchyma in each subject using the standard protocol, a percentage of voxels less than -950 HU in the lung (%LAA(-950)) was calculated. The 3D-AEC protocol's %LAA was computed from of voxel percentages under selected threshold CT value. The differences of radiation doses between these two protocols were evaluated, and %LAAs(-950) was compared with the 3D-AEC protocol %LAAs. Mean dose length products were 780.2 ± 145.5 mGy cm (standard protocol), and 192.0 ± 95.9 (3D-AEC protocol). There was significant difference between them (paired Student's t test, p<0.00001). Meanwhile, only setting -960 HU yielded no significant difference (paired Student's t test, p=0.32) between %LAAs(-950) and 3D-AEC protocol %LAAs. In adopting the feasible threshold CT values of the 3D-AEC protocol, the 3D-AEC protocol %LAAs were significantly correlated with %LAAs(-950) (r = 0.98, p<0.001) and limits of agreement from Bland-Altman analysis was 0.52 ± 4.3%. Changing threshold CT values demonstrated that reduced-dose chest CT with 3D-AEC can substitute for the standard protocol in assessments of emphysematous change in smoker' lung parenchyma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Parenchyma of Secondary Xylem and Its Critical Role in Tree Defense against Fungal Decay in Relation to the CODIT Model

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Hugh; Brodersen, Craig; Schwarze, Francis W. M. R.; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the roles that ray and axial parenchyma (RAP) plays against fungal pathogens in the secondary xylem of wood within the context of the CODIT model (Compartmentalization of Decay in Trees), a defense concept first conceived in the early 1970s by Alex Shigo. This model, simplistic in its design, shows how a large woody perennial is highly compartmented. Anatomical divisions in place at the time of infection or damage, (physical defense) alongside the ‘active’ response by the RAP during and after wounding work together in forming boundaries that function to restrict air or decay spread. The living parenchyma cells play a critical role in all of the four walls (differing anatomical constructs) that the model comprises. To understand how living cells in each of the walls of CODIT cooperate, we must have a clear vision of their complex interconnectivity from a three-dimensional perspective, along with knowledge of the huge variation in ray parenchyma (RP) and axial parenchyma (AP) abundance and patterns. Crucial patterns for defense encompass the symplastic continuum between both RP and AP and the dead tissues, with the latter including the vessel elements, libriform fibers, and imperforate tracheary elements (i.e., vasicentric and vascular tracheids). Also, the heartwood, a chemically altered antimicrobial non-living substance that forms the core of many trees, provides an integral part of the defense system. In the heartwood, dead RAP can play an important role in defense, depending on the genetic constitution of the species. Considering the array of functions that RAP are associated with, from capacitance, through to storage, and long-distance water transport, deciding how their role in defense fits into this suite of functions is a challenge for plant scientists, and likely depends on a range of factors. Here, we explore the important role of RAP in defense against fungal pathogens and the trade-offs involved from a viewpoint for structure

  9. Electrophysiological approach to determine kinetic parameters of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements or phloem parenchyma cells in intact Vicia faba plants

    PubMed Central

    Hafke, Jens B.; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Kühn, Christina; van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Apart from cut aphid stylets in combination with electrophysiology, no attempts have been made thus far to measure in vivo sucrose-uptake properties of sieve elements. We investigated the kinetics of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells in Vicia faba plants. To this end, microelectrodes were inserted into free-lying phloem cells in the main vein of the youngest fully-expanded leaf, half-way along the stem, in the transition zone between the autotrophic and heterotrophic part of the stem, and in the root axis. A top-to-bottom membrane potential gradient of sieve elements was observed along the stem (−130 mV to −110 mV), while the membrane potential of the phloem parenchyma cells was stable (approx. −100 mV). In roots, the membrane potential of sieve elements dropped abruptly to −55 mV. Bathing solutions having various sucrose concentrations were administered and sucrose/H+-induced depolarizations were recorded. Data analysis by non-linear least-square data fittings as well as by linear Eadie–Hofstee (EH) -transformations pointed at biphasic Michaelis–Menten kinetics (2 MM, EH: Km1 1.2–1.8 mM, Km2 6.6–9.0 mM) of sucrose uptake by sieve elements. However, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) favored single MM kinetics. Using single MM as the best-fitting model, Km values for sucrose uptake by sieve elements decreased along the plant axis from 1 to 7 mM. For phloem parenchyma cells, higher Km values (EH: Km1 10 mM, Km2 70 mM) as compared to sieve elements were found. In preliminary patch-clamp experiments with sieve-element protoplasts, small sucrose-coupled proton currents (−0.1 to −0.3 pA/pF) were detected in the whole-cell mode. In conclusion (a) Km values for sucrose uptake measured by electrophysiology are similar to those obtained with heterologous systems, (b) electrophysiology provides a useful tool for in situ determination of Km values, (c) As yet, it remains unclear if one or two uptake systems are involved

  10. [Results of surgical treatment of intrathoracic recurrence after complete resection of non-small cell lung cancer: clinical significance of subsequent lesion in lung parenchyma].

    PubMed

    Saito, Y; Takahashi, S; Sato, M; Sagawa, M; Kanma, K; Usuda, K; Endo, C; Chen, Y; Sakurada, A; Aikawa, H

    1995-01-01

    Results of surgical treatment for 33 intrathoracic recurrence after complete resection of non-small cell lung cancer were analyzed. Prognosis of the second surgical treatment were favorable in patients with subsequent cancer with in situ component and solitary lesion in lung parenchyma. Retrospective study of 53 patients who recurred and were thoroughly followed up their clinical course until lung cancer death revealed that the solitary one tends to be confined to the intrathoracic location, and the multiple one did not confined to the intrathoracic location but also extended to the extrathoracic distant metastasis or to the supraclavicular lymph nodes.

  11. Usefulness of basic renal function tests in decision-making in children with loss of renal parenchyma and/or dilation of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    García Nieto, Víctor M; Luis Yanes, Maria Isabel; Arango Sancho, Pedro; Sotoca Fernandez, Jorge V

    2016-01-01

    Basic renal function tests such as maximum urine osmolality and urinary elimination of albumin and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase often reveal abnormalities in clinical cases involving hyperpressure in the urinary tract or loss of renal parenchyma. However, in all the available algorithms dedicated to the study of children with urinary tract infection or dilation, the benefit of using these functional parameters is not mentioned. In this review, we provide information about the practical usefulness of assessing the basic renal function parameters. From these data, we propose an algorithm that combines morphological and functional parameters to make a reasoned case for voiding cystourethrography.

  12. Electrophysiological approach to determine kinetic parameters of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements or phloem parenchyma cells in intact Vicia faba plants.

    PubMed

    Hafke, Jens B; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Kühn, Christina; van Bel, Aart J E

    2013-01-01

    Apart from cut aphid stylets in combination with electrophysiology, no attempts have been made thus far to measure in vivo sucrose-uptake properties of sieve elements. We investigated the kinetics of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells in Vicia faba plants. To this end, microelectrodes were inserted into free-lying phloem cells in the main vein of the youngest fully-expanded leaf, half-way along the stem, in the transition zone between the autotrophic and heterotrophic part of the stem, and in the root axis. A top-to-bottom membrane potential gradient of sieve elements was observed along the stem (-130 mV to -110 mV), while the membrane potential of the phloem parenchyma cells was stable (approx. -100 mV). In roots, the membrane potential of sieve elements dropped abruptly to -55 mV. Bathing solutions having various sucrose concentrations were administered and sucrose/H(+)-induced depolarizations were recorded. Data analysis by non-linear least-square data fittings as well as by linear Eadie-Hofstee (EH) -transformations pointed at biphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics (2 MM, EH: K m1 1.2-1.8 mM, K m2 6.6-9.0 mM) of sucrose uptake by sieve elements. However, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) favored single MM kinetics. Using single MM as the best-fitting model, K m values for sucrose uptake by sieve elements decreased along the plant axis from 1 to 7 mM. For phloem parenchyma cells, higher K m values (EH: K m1 10 mM, K m2 70 mM) as compared to sieve elements were found. In preliminary patch-clamp experiments with sieve-element protoplasts, small sucrose-coupled proton currents (-0.1 to -0.3 pA/pF) were detected in the whole-cell mode. In conclusion (a) K m values for sucrose uptake measured by electrophysiology are similar to those obtained with heterologous systems, (b) electrophysiology provides a useful tool for in situ determination of K m values, (c) As yet, it remains unclear if one or two uptake systems are involved in sucrose

  13. The Parenchyma of Secondary Xylem and Its Critical Role in Tree Defense against Fungal Decay in Relation to the CODIT Model.

    PubMed

    Morris, Hugh; Brodersen, Craig; Schwarze, Francis W M R; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the roles that ray and axial parenchyma (RAP) plays against fungal pathogens in the secondary xylem of wood within the context of the CODIT model (Compartmentalization of Decay in Trees), a defense concept first conceived in the early 1970s by Alex Shigo. This model, simplistic in its design, shows how a large woody perennial is highly compartmented. Anatomical divisions in place at the time of infection or damage, (physical defense) alongside the 'active' response by the RAP during and after wounding work together in forming boundaries that function to restrict air or decay spread. The living parenchyma cells play a critical role in all of the four walls (differing anatomical constructs) that the model comprises. To understand how living cells in each of the walls of CODIT cooperate, we must have a clear vision of their complex interconnectivity from a three-dimensional perspective, along with knowledge of the huge variation in ray parenchyma (RP) and axial parenchyma (AP) abundance and patterns. Crucial patterns for defense encompass the symplastic continuum between both RP and AP and the dead tissues, with the latter including the vessel elements, libriform fibers, and imperforate tracheary elements (i.e., vasicentric and vascular tracheids). Also, the heartwood, a chemically altered antimicrobial non-living substance that forms the core of many trees, provides an integral part of the defense system. In the heartwood, dead RAP can play an important role in defense, depending on the genetic constitution of the species. Considering the array of functions that RAP are associated with, from capacitance, through to storage, and long-distance water transport, deciding how their role in defense fits into this suite of functions is a challenge for plant scientists, and likely depends on a range of factors. Here, we explore the important role of RAP in defense against fungal pathogens and the trade-offs involved from a viewpoint for structure

  14. Delivery of Nano-Tethered Therapies to Brain Metastases of Primary Breast Cancer Using a Cellular Trojan Horse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    will be required. Absorption of light by the skull and scatter of light by the brain parenchyma significantly reduce the dose of light that can be...power by the skull : Developing tools for simulation and local measurements of NIR photon transport in heterogeneous medium. b. Results: Voxel... skull and reaching ~3cm into the agar-based brain phantom. Fig.2: Comparison between voxel- based MC simulations of white and gray matter in water

  15. Delivery of Nano-Tethered Therapies to Brain Metastases of Primary Breast Cancer Using a Cellular Trojan Horse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    suggests that innovative formulations of these compounds will be required. Absorption of light by the skull and scatter of light by the brain parenchyma...brain barrier and cardiotoxicity. Task 2 a. Current Objectives: Determination of attenuation of laser power by the skull : Developing tools...Fig.3: Experimental setup to determine the fraction of NIR light (800nm) penetrating the sheep skull and reaching ~3cm into the agar-based

  16. Biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Thein Aung; Wang, Zhuo; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Yoshikawa, Takamasa; Inaba, Tadashi; Kasai, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    Various biomechanical investigations have attempted to clarify the aetiology of adjacent segment disease (ASD). However, no biomechanical study has examined in detail the deformation behaviour of the adjacent segments when both pure torque and an angular displacement load are applied to the vertebrae along multiple segments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments. Ten cadaveric lumbar spines (L2-L5) of boars were used. Control and fusion models were prepared by disc damage and pedicle screw fixation of each specimen, and then, bending and rotation tests were performed using a six-axis material tester. In the biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, the range of motion (ROM) of the cranial and caudal adjacent segments in antero-posterior flexion and lateral bending was increased by about 20 % (p < 0.05), and the maximal torque in the fusion model was about threefold (p < 0.05) that in the control model. And in axial rotation, the ROM of cranial and caudal adjacent segments was increased by about 100 % (p < 0.001), and the maximal torque was about sixfold (p < 0.01) that in the control model. The ROM of adjacent segments was significantly increased after pedicle screw fixation as assessed by biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, but not in those regulated by torque. We present the results of biomechanical tests regulated by torque and angular displacement and show that the maximum torque of the fusion model was larger than that of the control model in the biomechanical test regulated by an angular displacement load, suggesting that mechanical stress on the segments adjacent to the fused segment is large. We think that ASD arises after spinal fusion surgery as a mechanism to compensate for the ROM lost due to excessive fusion by pedicle screw fixation, so that a large torque may be applied to adjacent segments within a physiologically

  17. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-10-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  18. Early verb constructions in French: adjacency on the left edge.

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Edy; Clark, Eve V

    2016-11-01

    Children acquiring French elaborate their early verb constructions by adding adjacent morphemes incrementally at the left edge of core verbs. This hypothesis was tested with 2657 verb uses from four children between 1;3 and 2;7. Consistent with the Adjacency Hypothesis, children added clitic subjects first only to present tense forms (as in il saute 'he jumps'); modals to infinitives (as in faut sauter 'has to jump'); and auxiliaries to past participles (as in a sauté 'has jumped'). Only after this did the children add subjects to the left of a modal or auxiliary, as in elle veut sauter 'she wants to jump', or elle a sauté 'she has jumped'. The order in which these elements were added, and the development in the frequencies of the constructions, all support the predictions of the Adjacency Hypothesis for left edge development in early verb constructions.

  19. Massive pneumatic expansion of lymphatic vessel resulting in cystic lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma: a rare case of persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema in a non-ventilated infant.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Jun; Komuro, Hiroaki; Ono, Kentaro; Urita, Yasuhisa; Shinkai, Toko; Minami, Yuko; Kawabata, Yoshinori; Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Masumoto, Kouji

    2012-12-01

    We report the case of 2-week-old female infant with cystic lung disease who presented with mild tachypnea and had no history of mechanical ventilation. Chest CT demonstrated multiple air-filled cystic lesions in right upper lobe, and the patient subsequently underwent a right upper lobectomy. Histology revealed cystic lesions located in the pulmonary parenchyma and showed that the lesions were lined by lymphatic endothelium and were communicating with dilated lymphatic vessels in the interstitium. Additionally, multinucleated foreign body giant cells were attached to the lumen of the cyst. On the basis of these findings, we considered this a case of persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema (PIPE) with massive pneumatic expansion of the lymphatic vessels, resulting in cystic lesions with lymphatic endothelium in the pulmonary parenchyma. While PIPE is extremely rare in term non-ventilated infants, our case demonstrated that this disease should be added to the differential diagnosis of cystic lung diseases with lymphatic endothelium even in infants without mechanical ventilation. When cystic lesions and symptoms persist despite conservative treatment, open or thoracoscopic resection is an appropriate option for diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Comparison of magnetic resonance urography to dimercaptosuccinic acid scan for the identification of renal parenchyma defects in children with vesicoureteral reflux.

    PubMed

    Cerwinka, W H; Grattan-Smith, J D; Jones, R A; Haber, M; Little, S B; Blews, D E; Williams, J P; Kirsch, A J

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan to magnetic resonance urography (MRU) in the identification of renal parenchyma defects (RPD). Twenty-five children with history of acute pyelonephritis and vesicoureteral reflux underwent DMSA scan and MRU to determine the presence of RPD. DMSA scans and MRUs were each evaluated by two radiologists and agreement achieved by consensus. Discordant DMSA-MRU findings were re-evaluated in a side-by-side comparison and an ultimate consensus reached. The ultimate consensus diagnosis was 18 kidneys with RPDs in 15 patients, of which five were classified as mild RPDs, six as moderate RPDs, and seven as severe RPDs. Although DMSA scan and MRU were similar in their ability to diagnose RPDs, MRU was considered to represent the true diagnosis in 11 of the 12 discordant cases in consensus review by four pediatric radiologists. MRU showed a much higher inter-observer agreement with a weighted kappa of 0.96 for both kidneys compared to 0.71 for the right kidney and 0.86 for the left kidney by DMSA scan. Our results suggest that MRU is superior to DMSA scan in the identification of renal parenchyma defects. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Automatic tracking of the respiratory motion of lung parenchyma on dynamic magnetic resonance imaging: comparison with pulmonary function tests in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Hirofumi; Iwasawa, Tae; Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Kagei, Seiichiro; Shinohara, Takeshi; Ogura, Takashi; Hagiwara, Hiroaki; Tateishi, Ukihide; Inoue, Tomio

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated the respiratory motion of the lung parenchyma using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and clarified differences between healthy individuals and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The study comprised 6 healthy volunteers and 42 patients diagnosed with smoking-related COPD. We captured 80 sequential frames from the mid-sagittal portion of the right lung while repeating forced deep breathing using a balanced fast-field echo sequence (repetition time, 2.2 ms; echo time, 1.1 ms; slice thickness, 10 mm; field of view, 450 mm; matrix size, 128 × 256; and acquisition time, 0.28 s/frame). We traced 15 points on pulmonary vessels using a computer-aided system and measured the maximal motion distance of each tracked point. Movement of these points was then compared with spirometric data using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Patients with COPD showed reduced respiratory motion compared with healthy volunteers. Respiratory motion and spirometric data such as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity showed highly significant positive correlations (correlation between normalized motion distance for the whole lung and FEV1, r = 0.75; P < 0.01). The respiratory motion of the pulmonary vessels reflects expansion and deflation of the lung parenchyma, and such motion is restricted in patients with COPD due to airflow limitation.

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-D texture analysis of lung parenchyma is better than 2-D for discrimination of lung pathology in stage 0 COPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye; Sonka, Milan; McLennan, Geoffrey; Guo, Junfeng; Hoffman, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Lung parenchyma evaluation via multidetector-row CT (MDCT), has significantly altered clinical practice in the early detection of lung disease. Our goal is to enhance our texture-based tissue classification ability to differentiate early pathologic processes by extending our 2-D Adaptive Multiple Feature Method (AMFM) to 3-D AMFM. We performed MDCT on 34 human volunteers in five categories: emphysema in severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as EC, emphysema in mild COPD (MC), normal appearing lung in COPD (NC), non-smokers with normal lung function (NN), smokers with normal function (NS). We volumetrically excluded the airway and vessel regions, calculated 24 volumetric texture features for each Volume of Interest (VOI); and used Bayesian rules for discrimination. Leave-one-out and half-half methods were used for testing. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the four-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: EC: 84.9%/70.7%, MC: 89.8%/82.7%; NC: 87.5.0%/49.6%; NN: 100.0%/60.0%. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the two-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: NN: 99.3%/71.6%; NS: 99.7%/74.5%. We conclude that 3-D AMFM analysis of the lung parenchyma improves discrimination compared to 2-D analysis of the same images.

  3. Management of adjacent segment disease after cervical spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Hilibrand, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) was described after long-term follow-up of patients treated with cervical fusion. The term describes new-onset radiculopathy or myelopathy referable to a motion segment adjacent to previous arthrodesis and often attributed to alterations in the biomechanical environment after fusion. Evidence suggests that ASD affects between 2% and 3% of patients per year. Although prevention of ASD was one major impetus behind the development of motion-sparing surgery, the literature does not yet clearly distinguish a difference in the rate of ASD between fusion and disk replacement. Surgical techniques during index surgery may reduce the rate of ASD.

  4. Skin Flaps for the Repair of Multiple Adjacent Tumors.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Valladares, M J; Pérez-Bustillo, A; González-Sixto, B; Otero-Rivas, M; Rodríguez-Prieto, M A

    2016-03-01

    In daily clinical practice, the dermatologic surgeon frequently has to excise closely adjacent tumors in the facial region. In such cases, planning of an appropriate reconstruction technique is essential. The aim is to treat all of the lesions in a single surgical intervention, if possible, and to achieve a good functional and cosmetic outcome. We present 5 patients in whom a single flap was used to repair multiple adjacent defects. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sadovnikov, A. V. Nikitov, S. A.; Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.

    2016-07-25

    We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.

  6. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-05-10

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation packages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on tile US Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama.

  7. Metal-based nanoparticle interactions with the nervous system: The challenge of brain entry and the risk of retention in the organism

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review of metal and metal-oxide based nanoparticles focuses on factors that influence their distribution into the nervous system, evidence that they enter brain parenchyma, and nervous system responses. Emphasis is placed on gold as a model metal-based nanoparticle and for r...

  8. Metal-based nanoparticle interactions with the nervous system: The challenge of brain entry and the risk of retention in the organism

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review of metal and metal-oxide based nanoparticles focuses on factors that influence their distribution into the nervous system, evidence that they enter brain parenchyma, and nervous system responses. Emphasis is placed on gold as a model metal-based nanoparticle and for r...

  9. Repeated Intratracheal Instillation of PM10 Induces Lipid Reshaping in Lung Parenchyma and in Extra-Pulmonary Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Montorfano, Gigliola; Pani, Giuseppe; Battaglia, Cristina; Sancini, Giulio; Palestini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Adverse health effects of air pollution attributed mainly to airborne particulate matter have been well documented in the last couple of decades. Short term exposure, referring to a few hours exposure, to high ambient PM10 concentration is linked to increased hospitalization rates for cardiovascular events, typically 24 h after air pollution peaks. Particulate matter exposure is related to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, with increased oxidative stress and inflammatory status. Previously, we have demonstrated that repeated intratracheal instillation of PM10sum in BALB/c mice leads to respiratory tract inflammation, creating in lung a condition which could potentially evolve in a systemic toxic reaction. Additionally, plasma membrane and tissue lipids are easily affected by oxidative stress and directly correlated with inflammatory products. With this aim, in the present investigation using the same model, we analyzed the toxic potential of PM10sum exposure on lipid plasma membrane composition, lipid peroxidation and the mechanisms of cells protection in multiple organs such as lung, heart, liver and brain. Obtained results indicated that PM10 exposure led to lung lipid reshaping, in particular phospholipid and cholesterol content increases; concomitantly, the generation of oxidative stress caused lipid peroxidation. In liver we found significant changes in lipid content, mainly due to an increase of phosphatidylcholine, and in total fatty acid composition with a more pronounced level of docosahexaenoic acid; these changes were statistically correlated to lung molecular markers. Heart and brain were similarly affected; heart was significantly enriched in triglycerides in half of the PM10sum treated mice. These results demonstrated a direct involvement of PM10sum in affecting lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in peripheral tissues that might be related to the serious systemic air-pollution effects on human health. PMID:25259850

  10. Repeated intratracheal instillation of PM10 induces lipid reshaping in lung parenchyma and in extra-pulmonary tissues.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Farina, Francesca; Montorfano, Gigliola; Pani, Giuseppe; Battaglia, Cristina; Sancini, Giulio; Palestini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Adverse health effects of air pollution attributed mainly to airborne particulate matter have been well documented in the last couple of decades. Short term exposure, referring to a few hours exposure, to high ambient PM10 concentration is linked to increased hospitalization rates for cardiovascular events, typically 24 h after air pollution peaks. Particulate matter exposure is related to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, with increased oxidative stress and inflammatory status. Previously, we have demonstrated that repeated intratracheal instillation of PM10sum in BALB/c mice leads to respiratory tract inflammation, creating in lung a condition which could potentially evolve in a systemic toxic reaction. Additionally, plasma membrane and tissue lipids are easily affected by oxidative stress and directly correlated with inflammatory products. With this aim, in the present investigation using the same model, we analyzed the toxic potential of PM10sum exposure on lipid plasma membrane composition, lipid peroxidation and the mechanisms of cells protection in multiple organs such as lung, heart, liver and brain. Obtained results indicated that PM10 exposure led to lung lipid reshaping, in particular phospholipid and cholesterol content increases; concomitantly, the generation of oxidative stress caused lipid peroxidation. In liver we found significant changes in lipid content, mainly due to an increase of phosphatidylcholine, and in total fatty acid composition with a more pronounced level of docosahexaenoic acid; these changes were statistically correlated to lung molecular markers. Heart and brain were similarly affected; heart was significantly enriched in triglycerides in half of the PM10sum treated mice. These results demonstrated a direct involvement of PM10sum in affecting lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in peripheral tissues that might be related to the serious systemic air-pollution effects on human health.

  11. In vivo transport of a dynorphin-like analgesic peptide, E-2078, through the blood-brain barrier: an application of brain microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, T; Deguchi, Y; Sato, H; Hirai, K; Tsuji, A

    1991-07-01

    In vivo transport through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been demonstrated for a dynorphin-like analgesic peptide, CH3-[125I]Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu-Arg-CH3Arg-D-Leu-NHC2H5 ( [125I]E-2078). A remarkable time-dependent increase in the distribution volume of [125I]E-2078 in the brain parenchyma separated from blood vessels and capillaries was observed during a brain perfusion. The distribution volume of [125I]E-2078 in the brain parenchyma after 20 min of perfusion was 2.18 +/- 0.09 microliters/g brain (mean +/- SE) and was significantly greater than the distribution volume of [3H]inulin (0.994 +/- 0.138 microliters/g brain), providing in vivo evidence for the penetration of [125I]E-2078 into the brain parenchyma. Brain microdialysis was carried out to collect directly the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) during the brain perfusion of [125I]E-2078. No metabolite of [125I]E-2078 in the brain ISF was found by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the brain dialysate. The concentrations of [125I]E-2078 and [14C]sucrose in the brain ISF were estimated based on an in vitro evaluation of dialysis clearance. The concentration ratio of [125I]E-2078 between the brain ISF and the brain perfusate was determined to be 2.92 x 10(-1) +/- 0.50 x 10(-1) and was approximately 100 times higher than that of [14C]sucrose (2.71 x 10(-3) +/- 1.43 x 10(-3), demonstrating transport of [125I]E-2078 through the BBB in vivo. On the other hand, no remarkable difference in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-to-perfusate concentration ratios of [125I]E-2078 and [14C]sucrose was observed, indicating little contribution of the blood-CSF barrier (BCSF barrier) transport to the penetration of [125I]E-2078 into the brain.

  12. 4. ROW OF SPARE THREEHIGH ROLL STANDS ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ROW OF SPARE THREE-HIGH ROLL STANDS ADJACENT TO THE 32/28 STRUCTURAL MILL. AN OVERHEAD CRANE LIFTED THESE STANDS INTO PLACE ON THE 32/28 MILL. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Structural Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN BUILDING (BASSIN'S RESTAURANT) (HABS No. DC-357), 501-511 14TH STREET (THE LOCKER ROOM) HABS No. DC-356) ON CORNER, AND MUNSEY BUILDING (HABS No. DC-358) - William J. Stone Building, 1345 E Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  15. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  16. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  17. 2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  18. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. MTR COOLING TOWER. BASIN IS ADJACENT TO PUMP HOUSE. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR COOLING TOWER. BASIN IS ADJACENT TO PUMP HOUSE. CAMERA FACES SOUTHEAST TOWARD NORTH SIDE OF PUMP HOUSE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2690. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  5. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  6. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Hult, Erin L.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Price, Phillip N.

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  7. Herpetology of the American Madrean Archipelago and adjacent valleys

    Treesearch

    Lawrence L. C. Jones

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 110 species of amphibians (18 frogs and toads, and 1 salamander) and reptiles (47 snakes, 39 lizards, and 5 turtles) are known from the American Madrean Archipelago and adjacent valleys. The high diversity of the herpetofauna comes from a variety of factors, including a convergence of biotic communities representing deserts, grasslands, and mountains....

  8. 11. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site, including Pier No. 4. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  9. 12. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site, including Pier No. 4. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  10. 45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, WALL ON LEFT DIVIDING CLOTH ROOM ADDED LATER (PROBABLY C. 1970s). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  11. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 3. View of side of house facing north from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of side of house facing north from adjacent property. Original wood siding and trim is visible. Note: later addition to rear of house is shown in right side of photograph. - 322 South Fifteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  13. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  14. 12. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM THE PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM THE PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO THE STEEL PLANT OFFICES. BAR AND BILLET MILLS AND, IN THE DISTANCE, THE BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES MAY BE SEEN. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  15. 47 CFR 73.810 - Third adjacent channel interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.810 Third adjacent channel... power FM, FM translator or FM booster station to such affected station and to the Commission. (ii) A full power FM, FM translator or FM booster station shall review all complaints it receives,...

  16. 47 CFR 73.810 - Third adjacent channel interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.810 Third adjacent channel... power FM, FM translator or FM booster station to such affected station and to the Commission. (ii) A full power FM, FM translator or FM booster station shall review all complaints it receives,...

  17. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  18. A peptide for targeted, systemic delivery of imaging and therapeutic compounds into acute brain injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Aman P.; Scodeller, Pablo; Hussain, Sazid; Joo, Jinmyoung; Kwon, Ester; Braun, Gary B.; Mölder, Tarmo; She, Zhi-Gang; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Ranscht, Barbara; Krajewski, Stan; Teesalu, Tambet; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sailor, Michael J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health and socio-economic problem, but no pharmacological agent is currently approved for the treatment of acute TBI. Thus, there is a great need for advances in this field. Here, we describe a short peptide (sequence CAQK) identified by in vivo phage display screening in mice with acute brain injury. The CAQK peptide selectively binds to injured mouse and human brain, and systemically injected CAQK specifically homes to sites of brain injury in mouse models. The CAQK target is a proteoglycan complex upregulated in brain injuries. Coupling to CAQK increased injury site accumulation of systemically administered molecules ranging from a drug-sized molecule to nanoparticles. CAQK-coated nanoparticles containing silencing oligonucleotides provided the first evidence of gene silencing in injured brain parenchyma by systemically administered siRNA. These findings present an effective targeting strategy for the delivery of therapeutics in clinical management of acute brain injuries.

  19. A peptide for targeted, systemic delivery of imaging and therapeutic compounds into acute brain injuries

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Aman P.; Scodeller, Pablo; Hussain, Sazid; Joo, Jinmyoung; Kwon, Ester; Braun, Gary B.; Mölder, Tarmo; She, Zhi-Gang; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Ranscht, Barbara; Krajewski, Stan; Teesalu, Tambet; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sailor, Michael J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health and socio-economic problem, but no pharmacological agent is currently approved for the treatment of acute TBI. Thus, there is a great need for advances in this field. Here, we describe a short peptide (sequence CAQK) identified by in vivo phage display screening in mice with acute brain injury. The CAQK peptide selectively binds to injured mouse and human brain, and systemically injected CAQK specifically homes to sites of brain injury in mouse models. The CAQK target is a proteoglycan complex upregulated in brain injuries. Coupling to CAQK increased injury site accumulation of systemically administered molecules ranging from a drug-sized molecule to nanoparticles. CAQK-coated nanoparticles containing silencing oligonucleotides provided the first evidence of gene silencing in injured brain parenchyma by systemically administered siRNA. These findings present an effective targeting strategy for the delivery of therapeutics in clinical management of acute brain injuries. PMID:27351915

  20. The history of brain retractors throughout the development of neurological surgery.

    PubMed

    Assina, Rachid; Rubino, Sebastian; Sarris, Christina E; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Early neurosurgical procedures dealt mainly with treatment of head trauma, especially skull fractures. Since the early medical writings by Hippocrates, a great deal of respect was given to the dura mater, and many other surgeons warned against violating the dura. It was not until the 19th century that neurosurgeons started venturing beneath the dura, deep into the brain parenchyma. With this advancement, brain retraction became an essential component of intracranial surgery. Over the years brain retractors have been created pragmatically to provide better visualization, increased articulations and degrees of freedom, greater stability, less brain retraction injury, and less user effort. Brain retractors have evolved from simple handheld retractors to intricate brain-retraction systems with hand-rest stabilizers. This paper will focus on the history of brain retractors, the different types of retractors, and the progression from one form to another.

  1. Maturation of teeth adjacent to dental agenesis site.

    PubMed

    Ben-Bassat, Yocheved; Babadzhanov, Daniel; Brin, Ilana; Hazan-Molina, Hagai; Aizenbud, Dror

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the developmental stage of teeth adjacent to the agenesis site in comparison to their antimeres. Panoramic views of 39 patients with unilateral dental agenesis and 42 normal controls were evaluated. The dental developmental stage (normal or delayed) of the teeth adjacent to the agenesis site was determined for each patient using the Haavikko's method, while the overall dental age was determined by Becker's method. No statistically significant difference was found in the developmental stage of teeth adjacent to the agenesis, compared to their antimere and to the same teeth in the normal control group. However, the prevalence of cases with no difference in development was almost double for the tooth distal to the agenesis site compared to the tooth mesial to the agenesis site in the hypodontia group (84.6% distal and 43.6% mesial; p < 0.001) and in the control group (83.3% distal and 52.4% mesial; p < 0.002). In most of the cases the tooth distal to the agenesis site was the 1st permanent molar. (1) No difference was found between the developmental stage of teeth adjacent to the agenesis site and their antimeres. (2) Teeth mesial to the agenesis site showed some delay in development compared to teeth distal to the agenesis site, in this study. (3) The 1st molars, which were in most of the cases the distal adjacent tooth to the site of agenesis, showed developmental stability. (4) Additional longitudinal studies are needed to examine the dental developmental pattern in patients with agenesis.

  2. Brain-blood barrier? Yes and no.

    PubMed Central

    Broadwell, R D; Balin, B J; Salcman, M; Kaplan, R S

    1983-01-01

    Ventriculo-cisternal perfusion of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the mouse brain has demonstrated that a brain-blood barrier exists at the microvascular endothelium in brain parenchyma but not in the median eminence of the hypothalamus. The brain-blood barrier is similar to the blood-brain barrier in that: tight junctions prevent the movement of protein between endothelial cells, HRP taken into the endothelial cells is directed to lysosomal dense bodies, and, contrary to the literature, a vesicular transendothelial transport of HRP from brain to blood does not occur under normal conditions. The endocytosis of ventricular injected HRP from the abluminal side of the endothelium is demonstrably less than the endocytosis of intravenous injected HRP from the luminal side; hence, the cerebral endothelium expresses a degree of polarity regarding the internalization of its cell surface membrane and extracellular protein. The passage of cerebrospinal fluid-borne or blood-borne HRP between some ependymal cells of the median eminence is not precluded by tight junctions. These patent extracellular channels offer a direct pathway for the exchange of substances between cerebrospinal fluid in the third ventricle and fenestrated capillaries in the median eminence. Images PMID:6580650

  3. Cerebral malaria: mysteries at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Rénia, Laurent; Howland, Shanshan Wu; Claser, Carla; Charlotte Gruner, Anne; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Hui Teo, Teck; Russell, Bruce; Ng, Lisa F P

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is the most severe pathology caused by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The pathogenic mechanisms leading to cerebral malaria are still poorly defined as studies have been hampered by limited accessibility to human tissues. Nevertheless, histopathology of post-mortem human tissues and mouse models of cerebral malaria have indicated involvement of the blood-brain barrier in cerebral malaria. In contrast to viruses and bacteria, malaria parasites do not infiltrate and infect the brain parenchyma. Instead, rupture of the blood-brain barrier occurs and may lead to hemorrhages resulting in neurological alterations. Here, we review the most recent findings from human studies and mouse models on the interactions of malaria parasites and the blood-brain barrier, shedding light on the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria, which may provide directions for possible interventions.

  4. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a potential contrast agent for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Goñi, T; Martín-Sitjar, J; Simões, R V; Acosta, M; Lope-Piedrafita, S; Arús, C

    2013-02-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used in preclinical studies of animal models of high-grade glioma as a solvent for chemotherapeutic agents. A strong DMSO signal was detected by single-voxel MRS in the brain of three C57BL/6 control mice during a pilot study of DMSO tolerance after intragastric administration. This led us to investigate the accumulation and wash-out kinetics of DMSO in both normal brain parenchyma (n=3 control mice) by single-voxel MRS, and in 12 GL261 glioblastomas (GBMs) by single-voxel MRS (n=3) and MRSI (n=9). DMSO accumulated differently in each tissue type, reaching its highest concentration in tumors: 6.18 ± 0.85 µmol/g water, 1.5-fold higher than in control mouse brain (p<0.05). A faster wash-out was detected in normal brain parenchyma with respect to GBM tissue: half-lives of 2.06 ± 0.58 and 4.57 ± 1.15 h, respectively. MRSI maps of time-course DMSO changes revealed clear hotspots of differential spatial accumulation in GL261 tumors. Additional MRSI studies with four mice bearing oligodendrogliomas (ODs) revealed similar results as in GBM tumors. The lack of T(1) contrast enhancement post-gadolinium (gadopentetate dimeglumine, Gd-DTPA) in control mouse brain and mice with ODs suggested that DMSO was fully able to cross the intact blood-brain barrier in both normal brain parenchyma and in low-grade tumors. Our results indicate a potential role for DMSO as a contrast agent for brain tumor detection, even in those tumors 'invisible' to standard gadolinium-enhanced MRI, and possibly for monitoring heterogeneities associated with progression or with therapeutic response.

  5. Brain abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... with certain heart disorders, may receive antibiotics before dental or other procedures to help reduce the risk of infection. Alternative Names Abscess - brain; Cerebral abscess; CNS abscess Patient Instructions Brain surgery - discharge Images Amebic brain abscess ...

  6. Brain components

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  7. Brain surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  8. Brain Malformations

    MedlinePlus

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  9. Brain injury associated with widely abused amphetamines: neuroinflammation, neurogenesis and blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana P; Martins, Tânia; Baptista, Sofia; Gonçalves, Joana; Agasse, Fabienne; Malva, João O

    2010-12-01

    Over the course of the 20(th) century, it became increasingly clear that amphetamine-like psychostimulants carried serious abuse liability that has resulted in sociological use patterns that have been described as epidemics. In fact, drug addiction is a brain disease with a high worldwide prevalence, and is considered the most expensive of the neuropsychiatric disorders. This review goes beyond the previously well-documented evidence demonstrating that amphetamines cause neuronal injury. Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the neurotoxicity of psychostimulants drugs have been extensively described giving particular attention to the role of oxidative stress and metabolic compromise. Recently, it was shown that the amphetamine class of drugs of abuse triggers an inflammatory process, emerging as a critical concept to understand the toxic effects of these drugs. Moreover, it has been suggested that psychostimulants compromise the capacity of the brain to generate new neurons (neurogenesis), and can also lead to blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. Together, these effects may contribute to brain damage, allowing the entry of pathogens into the brain parenchyma and thus decreasing the endogenous brain repair resources. The overall objective of this review is to highlight experimental evidence in an attempt to clarify the role of neuroinflammation in amphetamines-induced brain dysfunction and the effect of these drugs on both neurogenesis and BBB integrity.

  10. Ultrastructural pathology of endothelial tight junctions in human brain oedema.

    PubMed

    Castejón, Orlando J

    2012-01-01

    Cortical biopsies of patients with the diagnosis of complicated brain trauma, congenital hydrocephalus, brain vascular anomaly, and brain tumour are studied with the electron microscope using cortical biopsies of different cortical brain regions to analyze the alterations of endothelial junctions, and their participation in the pathogenesis of human brain oedema. In moderate oedema, most endothelial tight junctions are structurally closed and intact, while in some cases of severe oedema, the opening of tight endothelial junctions is observed. In very severe brain oedema, a considerable enlargement of interjunctional pockets of extracellular space is also seen suggesting that in highly increased cerebrovascular permeability, the endothelial junctions are open in their entire extent, and that an intercellular or paracellular route through interendothelial clefts for transferring haematogenous oedema fluid from blood to the capillary basement membrane and the brain parenchyma is formed, contributing to the formation of brain oedema. High intensity brain trauma, seizures, osmotic forces, hypoxic conditions, and alteration of tight junctions proteins would explain the opening of endothelial junctions in severe and complicated brain oedema. In congenital hydrocephalus, the capillary wall shows evident signs of blood-brain barrier dysfunction characterized by closed and open interendothelial junctions, increased endothelial vesicular and vacuolar transport, thin and fragmented basement membrane with areas of focal thickening, and discontinuous perivascular astrocytic end-feet. The perivascular space is notably dilated and widely communicated with the enlarged extracellular space in the neuropil, showing the contribution of damaged endothelial junction to the formation of interstitial or hydrocephalic brain oedema. Altered expression of tight junction proteins could cause a blood-brain barrier breakdown following brain injury and hypoxic conditions leading to brain oedema

  11. Viscoelastic Model for Lung Parenchyma for Multi-Scale Modeling of Respiratory System Phase I: Hypo-Elastic Model for CFD Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.

    2011-04-14

    An isotropic constitutive model for the parenchyma of lung has been derived from the theory of hypo-elasticity. The intent is to use it to represent the mechanical response of this soft tissue in sophisticated, computational, fluid-dynamic models of the lung. This demands that the continuum model be accurate, yet simple and effcient. An objective algorithm for its numeric integration is provided. The response of the model is determined for several boundary-value problems whose experiments are used for material characterization. The effective elastic, bulk, and shear moduli, and Poisson’s ratio, as tangent functions, are also derived. The model is characterized against published experimental data for lung. A bridge between this continuum model and a dodecahedral model of alveolar geometry is investigated, with preliminary findings being reported.

  12. Infusion of hypertonic saline into the lung parenchyma during radiofrequency ablation of the lungs with multitined expandable electrodes: results using a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Iishi, Tatsuhiko; Hiraki, Takao; Mimura, Hidefumi; Gobara, Hideo; Kurose, Taichi; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Sakurai, Jun; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Tadashi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2009-06-01

    The present study was performed to clarify the effect of hypertonic saline infusion into the lung parenchyma on radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the lungs. A total of 20 ablation zones were created in 3 pigs. The ablation zones were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 (n=6) consisted of ablation zones created by applying smaller radiofrequency (RF) power without saline infusion; group 2 (n=5) zones were created by applying greater RF power without saline infusion;and group 3 (n=9) zones were created by applying greater RF power with saline infusion. The techniques of saline infusion included administration of hypertonic saline 1 ml before RFA, followed by continuous administration at a rate of 1 ml/min during the first 2 min after the initiation of RFA. The ablation parameters and coagulation necrosis volumes were compared among the groups. Group 3 had a tendency toward smaller mean impedance than group 1 (p=0.059) and group 2 (p=0.053). Group 3 showed significantly longer RF application time than group 2 (p=0.004) and significantly greater maximum RF power than group 1 (p=0.001) and group 2 (p=0.004). Group 3 showed significantly larger coagulation necrosis volume (mean, 1,421mm3) than group 2 (mean, 858 mm3, p=0.039) and had a tendency toward larger necrosis volume than group 1 (mean, 878 mm3, p=0.077). Although this small study had limited statistical power, hypertonic saline infusion during RFA appeared to enlarge coagulation necrosis of the lung parenchyma.

  13. Evaluation of liver parenchyma and perfusion using dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana) under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Contrast-enhanced diagnostic imaging techniques are considered useful in veterinary and human medicine to evaluate liver perfusion and focal hepatic lesions. Although hepatic diseases are a common occurrence in reptile medicine, there is no reference to the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) to evaluate the liver in lizards. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of change in echogenicity and attenuation of the liver in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) after administration of specific contrast media. Results An increase in liver echogenicity and density was evident during CEUS and CECT, respectively. In CEUS, the mean ± SD (median; range) peak enhancement was 19.9% ± 7.5 (18.3; 11.7-34.6). Time to peak enhancement was 134.0 ± 125.1 (68.4; 59.6-364.5) seconds. During CECT, first visualization of the contrast medium was at 3.6 ± 0.5 (4; 3-4) seconds in the aorta, 10.7 ± 2.2 (10.5; 7-14) seconds in the hepatic arteries, and 15 ± 4.5 (14.5; 10-24) seconds in the liver parenchyma. Time to peak was 14.1 ± 3.4 (13; 11-21) and 31 ± 9.6 (29; 23-45) seconds in the aorta and the liver parenchyma, respectively. Conclusion CEUS and dynamic CECT are practical means to determine liver hemodynamics in green iguanas. Distribution of contrast medium in iguana differed from mammals. Specific reference ranges of hepatic perfusion for diagnostic evaluation of the liver in iguanas are necessary since the use of mammalian references may lead the clinician to formulate incorrect diagnostic suspicions. PMID:24885935

  14. New adjacent Bis-tetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Rong; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chou, Chi-Jung; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2003-03-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, annocatacin A ( 1). and annocatacin B ( 2). from the seeds and the leaves, respectively, of Annona muricata. Compounds 1 and 2 are the first examples where the adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran ring system is located at C-15. The new structures were elucidated and characterized by spectral and chemical methods. Both Annonaceous acetogenins 1 and 2 showed significant in vitro cytotoxicity toward the human hepatoma cell lines, Hep G2 and 2,2,15, and were compared with the known adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, neoannonin ( 3). desacetyluvaricin ( 4). bullatacin ( 5). asimicin ( 6). annoglaucin ( 7). squamocin ( 8). and rollimusin ( 9).

  15. Surgical treatment of complex axis fractures with adjacent segment instability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xia, Tian; Dong, Shuanghai; Zhao, Qinghua; Tian, Jiwei

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates the clinical and radiographic characteristics of complex axis fractures with adjacent segment instability and describes the outcome of surgical treatment. Twenty-one patients (14 male, seven female; mean age=34 years) with complex axis fractures and adjacent segment instability who were treated between August 2003 and June 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment selection was based on fracture type and stability of the upper cervical segments. All patients were immobilized with a hard collar for three months after surgery. The mean follow-up period was 12 months (range=6-36 months). No intraoperative surgery-related complications were observed and fusion was achieved in all patients. The outcome was excellent for 17 patients, good for two patients, fair for one patient, and poor for one patient. The upper cervical segments that can become unstable due to complex axis fractures include the atlantoaxial and C2-3 joints. Recommended surgical treatments produce good results.

  16. On the Circulation Manifold for Two Adjacent Lifting Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zannetti, Luca; Iollo, Angelo

    1998-01-01

    The circulation functional relative to two adjacent lifting sections is studied for two cases. In the first case we consider two adjacent circles. The circulation is computed as a function of the displacement of the secondary circle along the axis joining the two centers and of the angle of attack of the secondary circle, The gradient of such functional is computed by deriving a set of elliptic functions with respect both to their argument and to their Period. In the second case studied, we considered a wing-flap configuration. The circulation is computed by some implicit mappings, whose differentials with respect to the variation of the geometrical configuration in the physical space are found by divided differences. Configurations giving rise to local maxima and minima in the circulation manifold are presented.

  17. Processing multiple non-adjacent dependencies: evidence from sequence learning.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Meinou H; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Geukes, Sebastian; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Christiansen, Morten H

    2012-07-19

    Processing non-adjacent dependencies is considered to be one of the hallmarks of human language. Assuming that sequence-learning tasks provide a useful way to tap natural-language-processing mechanisms, we cross-modally combined serial reaction time and artificial-grammar learning paradigms to investigate the processing of multiple nested (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(3)B(2)B(1)) and crossed dependencies (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(1)B(2)B(3)), containing either three or two dependencies. Both reaction times and prediction errors highlighted problems with processing the middle dependency in nested structures (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(3)_B(1)), reminiscent of the 'missing-verb effect' observed in English and French, but not with crossed structures (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(1)_B(3)). Prior linguistic experience did not play a major role: native speakers of German and Dutch-which permit nested and crossed dependencies, respectively-showed a similar pattern of results for sequences with three dependencies. As for sequences with two dependencies, reaction times and prediction errors were similar for both nested and crossed dependencies. The results suggest that constraints on the processing of multiple non-adjacent dependencies are determined by the specific ordering of the non-adjacent dependencies (i.e. nested or crossed), as well as the number of non-adjacent dependencies to be resolved (i.e. two or three). Furthermore, these constraints may not be specific to language but instead derive from limitations on structured sequence learning.

  18. 38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER. THIS UNIT GENERATED A MAGNETIC PULSE WHICH WAS TRANSMITTED TO THE COLLECTION PLATES IN THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. THESE PERIODIC PULSES VIBRATE THE PLATES AND CAUSE PRECIPITATED ARTICLES OF SMOKE AND FLY ASH TO FALL TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  19. Timber resources of the Kuskokwim flood plain and adjacent upland.

    Treesearch

    Karl M. Hegg; Harold. Sieverding

    1979-01-01

    The first intensive forest inventory of the Kuskokwim River flood plains and adjacent uplands was conducted in 1967. A commercial forest area of 252.5 thousand acres (102.2 thousand hectares) was identified with a growing-stock volume of 343.0 million cubic feet (9.7 million cubic meters). A noncommercial stratum was also examined that had substantial standing volume...

  20. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  1. Four-body central configurations with adjacent equal masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yiyang; Li, Bingyu; Zhang, Shiqing

    2017-04-01

    For any convex non-collinear central configuration of the planar Newtonian 4-body problem with adjacent equal masses m1 =m2 ≠m3 =m4, with equal lengths for the two diagonals, we prove it must possess a symmetry and must be an isosceles trapezoid; furthermore, which is also an isosceles trapezoid when the length between m1 and m4 equals the length between m2 and m3.

  2. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  3. Processing multiple non-adjacent dependencies: evidence from sequence learning

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Meinou H.; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Geukes, Sebastian; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    Processing non-adjacent dependencies is considered to be one of the hallmarks of human language. Assuming that sequence-learning tasks provide a useful way to tap natural-language-processing mechanisms, we cross-modally combined serial reaction time and artificial-grammar learning paradigms to investigate the processing of multiple nested (A1A2A3B3B2B1) and crossed dependencies (A1A2A3B1B2B3), containing either three or two dependencies. Both reaction times and prediction errors highlighted problems with processing the middle dependency in nested structures (A1A2A3B3_B1), reminiscent of the ‘missing-verb effect’ observed in English and French, but not with crossed structures (A1A2A3B1_B3). Prior linguistic experience did not play a major role: native speakers of German and Dutch—which permit nested and crossed dependencies, respectively—showed a similar pattern of results for sequences with three dependencies. As for sequences with two dependencies, reaction times and prediction errors were similar for both nested and crossed dependencies. The results suggest that constraints on the processing of multiple non-adjacent dependencies are determined by the specific ordering of the non-adjacent dependencies (i.e. nested or crossed), as well as the number of non-adjacent dependencies to be resolved (i.e. two or three). Furthermore, these constraints may not be specific to language but instead derive from limitations on structured sequence learning. PMID:22688641

  4. Osmium complex binding to mismatched methylcytosine: effect of adjacent bases.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Akiko; Tainaka, Kazuki; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of osmium complex formation at 5-methylcytosine in mismatched DNA duplexes. Osmium complexation was not observed in fully matched duplexes, whereas the complexation site and efficiency in mismatched duplexes depended on the 5'-neighboring base of the 5-methylcytosine. In particular, when the base adjacent to the 5' side of the mismatched base pair was thymine, a unique side reaction was observed. However, the mismatched base pairs did not influence the selectivity of osmium complexation with methylated DNA.

  5. Adjacent Segment Disease in the Cervical and Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Tobert, Daniel G; Antoci, Valentin; Patel, Shaun P; Saadat, Ehsan; Bono, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is disappointing long-term outcome for both the patient and clinician. In contrast to adjacent segment degeneration, which is a common radiographic finding, ASD is less common. The incidence of ASD in both the cervical and lumbar spine is between 2% and 4% per year, and ASD is a significant contributor to reoperation rates after spinal arthrodesis. The etiology of ASD is multifactorial, stemming from existing spondylosis at adjacent levels, predisposed risk to degenerative changes, and altered biomechanical forces near a previous fusion site. Numerous studies have sought to identify both patient and surgical risk factors for ASD, but a consistent, sole predictor has yet to be found. Spinal arthroplasty techniques seek to preserve physiological biomechanics, thereby minimizing the risk of ASD, and long-term clinical outcome studies will help quantify its efficacy. Treatment strategies for ASD are initially nonoperative, provided a progressive neurological deficit is not present. The spine surgeon is afforded many surgical strategies once operative treatment is elected. The goal of this manuscript is to consider the etiologies of ASD, review its manifestations, and offer an approach to treatment.

  6. Perceptual processing of adjacent and nonadjacent tactile nontargets.

    PubMed

    Evans, P M; Craig, J C; Rinker, M A

    1992-11-01

    Previous research has shown that subjects appear unable to restrict processing to a single finger and ignore a stimulus presented to an adjacent finger. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that, at least for moving stimuli, an adjacent nontarget is fully processed to the level of incipient response activation. The present study replicated and expanded upon these original findings. The results of Experiment 1 showed that an equally large response-competition effect occurred when the nontarget was presented to adjacent and nonadjacent fingers (on the same hand). The results of Experiment 2 showed that the effects observed in Experiment 1 (and in previous studies) were also obtained with stationary stimuli. Although small, there was some indication in the results of Experiment 2 that interference may dissipate more rapidly with distance with stationary stimuli. An additional finding was that interference effects were observed in both experiments with temporal separations between the target and nontarget of up to 100 msec. In Experiment 3, target and nontarget stimuli were presented to opposite hands. Although reduced, interference was still evident with target and nontarget stimuli presented to opposite hands. Varying the physical distance between hands did not produce any change in the amount of interference. The results suggest that the focus of attention on the skin extends nearly undiminished across the fingers of one hand and is not dependent upon the physical distance between sites of stimulation.

  7. Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsson, Dan; Malm, Torleif

    2008-09-01

    A significant expansion of offshore wind power is expected in the near future, with thousands of turbines in coastal waters, and various aspects of how this may influence the coastal ecology including disturbance effects from noise, shadows, electromagnetic fields, and changed hydrological conditions are accordingly of concern. Further, wind power plants constitute habitats for a number of organisms, and may locally alter assemblage composition and biomass of invertebrates, algae and fish. In this study, fouling assemblages on offshore wind turbines were compared to adjacent hard substrate. Influences of the structures on the seabed were also investigated. The turbines differed significantly from adjacent boulders in terms of assemblage composition of epibiota and motile invertebrates. Species number and Shannon-Wiener diversity were, also, significantly lower on the wind power plants. It was also indicated that the turbines might have affected assemblages of invertebrates and algae on adjacent boulders. Off shore wind power plant offer atypical substrates for fouling assemblages in terms of orientation, depth range, structure, and surface texture. Some potential ecological implications of the addition of these non-natural habitats for coastal ecology are discussed.

  8. Predicting Agenesis of the Mandibular Second Premolar from Adjacent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of agenesis of the mandibular second premolar (P2) enhances management of the dental arch in the growing child. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship in the development of the mandibular first molar (M1) and first premolar (P1) at early stages of P2 (second premolar). Specifically, we ask if the likelihood of P2 agenesis can be predicted from adjacent developing teeth. We selected archived dental panoramic radiographs with P2 at crown formation stages (N = 212) and calculated the likelihood of P2 at initial mineralisation stage ‘Ci’ given the tooth stage of adjacent teeth. Our results show that the probability of observing mandibular P2 at initial mineralisation stage ‘Ci’ decreased as both the adjacent P1 and M1 matured. The modal stage at P2 ‘Ci’ was P1 ‘Coc’ (cusp outline complete) and M1 ‘Crc’ (crown complete). Initial mineralisation of P2 was observed up to P1 ‘Crc’ and M1 stage ‘R½’ (root half). The chance of observing P2 at least ‘Coc’ (coalescence of cusps) was considerably greater prior to these threshold stages compared to later stages of P1 and M1. These findings suggest that P2 is highly unlikely to develop if P1 is beyond ‘Crc’ and M1 is beyond ‘R½’. PMID:26673218

  9. Using BRDFs for accurate albedo calculations and adjacency effect corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the authors discuss two uses of BRDFs in remote sensing: (1) in determining the clear sky top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo, (2) in quantifying the effect of the BRDF on the adjacency point-spread function and on atmospheric corrections. The TOA spectral albedo is an important parameter retrieved by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR). Its accuracy depends mainly on how well one can model the surface BRDF for many different situations. The authors present results from an algorithm which matches several semi-empirical functions to the nine MISR measured BRFs that are then numerically integrated to yield the clear sky TOA spectral albedo in four spectral channels. They show that absolute accuracies in the albedo of better than 1% are possible for the visible and better than 2% in the near infrared channels. Using a simplified extensive radiosity model, the authors show that the shape of the adjacency point-spread function (PSF) depends on the underlying surface BRDFs. The adjacency point-spread function at a given offset (x,y) from the center pixel is given by the integral of transmission-weighted products of BRDF and scattering phase function along the line of sight.

  10. Lymphatic Clearance of the Brain: Perivascular, Paravascular and Significance for Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Erik N T P; Bacskai, Brian J; Arbel-Ornath, Michal; Aldea, Roxana; Bedussi, Beatrice; Morris, Alan W J; Weller, Roy O; Carare, Roxana O

    2016-03-01

    The lymphatic clearance pathways of the brain are different compared to the other organs of the body and have been the subject of heated debates. Drainage of brain extracellular fluids, particularly interstitial fluid (ISF) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is not only important for volume regulation, but also for removal of waste products such as amyloid beta (Aβ). CSF plays a special role in clinical medicine, as it is available for analysis of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. Despite the lack of a complete anatomical and physiological picture of the communications between the subarachnoid space (SAS) and the brain parenchyma, it is often assumed that Aβ is cleared from the cerebral ISF into the CSF. Recent work suggests that clearance of the brain mainly occurs during sleep, with a specific role for peri- and para-vascular spaces as drainage pathways from the brain parenchyma. However, the direction of flow, the anatomical structures involved and the driving forces remain elusive, with partially conflicting data in literature. The presence of Aβ in the glia limitans in Alzheimer's disease suggests a direct communication of ISF with CSF. Nonetheless, there is also the well-described pathology of cerebral amyloid angiopathy associated with the failure of perivascular drainage of Aβ. Herein, we review the role of the vasculature and the impact of vascular pathology on the peri- and para-vascular clearance pathways of the brain. The different views on the possible routes for ISF drainage of the brain are discussed in the context of pathological significance.

  11. Blood-brain barrier transport machineries and targeted therapy of brain diseases

    PubMed Central

    Barar, Jaleh; Rafi, Mohammad A.; Pourseif, Mohammad M.; Omidi, Yadollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Desired clinical outcome of pharmacotherapy of brain diseases largely depends upon the safe drug delivery into the brain parenchyma. However, due to the robust blockade function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), drug transport into the brain is selectively controlled by the BBB formed by brain capillary endothelial cells and supported by astrocytes and pericytes. Methods: In the current study, we have reviewed the most recent literature on the subject to provide an insight upon the role and impacts of BBB on brain drug delivery and targeting. Results: All drugs, either small molecules or macromolecules, designated to treat brain diseases must adequately cross the BBB to provide their therapeutic properties on biological targets within the central nervous system (CNS). However, most of these pharmaceuticals do not sufficiently penetrate into CNS, failing to meet the intended therapeutic outcomes. Most lipophilic drugs capable of penetrating BBB are prone to the efflux functionality of BBB. In contrast, all hydrophilic drugs are facing severe infiltration blockage imposed by the tight cellular junctions of the BBB. Hence, a number of strategies have been devised to improve the efficiency of brain drug delivery and targeted therapy of CNS disorders using multimodal nanosystems (NSs). Conclusions: In order to improve the therapeutic outcomes of CNS drug transfer and targeted delivery, the discriminatory permeability of BBB needs to be taken under control. The carrier-mediated transport machineries of brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) can be exploited for the discovery, development and delivery of small molecules into the brain. Further, the receptor-mediated transport systems can be recruited for the delivery of macromolecular biologics and multimodal NSs into the brain. PMID:28265539

  12. Beta-endorphin chimeric peptides: Transport through the blood-brain barrier in vivo and cleavage of disulfide linkage by brain

    SciTech Connect

    Pardridge, W.M.; Triguero, D.; Buciak, J.L. )

    1990-02-01

    Water soluble peptides are normally not transported through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Chimeric peptides may be transportable through the BBB and are formed by the covalent coupling of a nontransportable peptide to a transportable peptide vector, e.g. cationized albumin, using disulfide-based coupling reagents such as N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio(propionate)) (SPDP). The transcytosis of peptide into brain parenchyma, as opposed to vascular sequestration of blood-borne peptide, was quantified using an internal carotid artery perfusion/capillary depletion method. It is shown that (125I)beta-endorphin is not transported through the BBB, but is rapidly cleaved to free (125I) tyrosine via capillary peptidase. Therefore, chimeric peptide was prepared using (125I) (D-Ala2)beta-endorphin (DABE), owing to the resistance of this analogue to peptidase degradation. The (125I) DABE-cationized albumin chimeric peptide is shown to enter brain parenchyma at a rate comparable to that reported previously for unconjugated cationized albumin. When the (125I) DABE-cationized albumin chimeric peptide was incubated with rat brain homogenate at 37 C, the free (125I) DABE was liberated from the cationized albumin conjugate prior to its subsequent degradation into free (125I) tyrosine. Approximately 50% of the chimeric peptide was cleaved within 60 sec of incubation at 37 C. These studies demonstrate that (1) (125I)beta-endorphin is not transported through the BBB in its unconjugated form, (2) a (125I) DABE-cationized albumin chimeric peptide is transported through the BBB into brain parenchyma at a rate comparable to the unconjugated cationized albumin, and (3) brain contains the necessary disulfide reductases for rapid cleavage of the chimeric peptide into free beta-endorphin and this cleavage occurs before degradation of the (125I) DABE into (125I) tyrosine.

  13. Kinetics of functionalised carbon nanotube distribution in mouse brain after systemic injection: Spatial to ultra-structural analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julie T.-W.; Rubio, Noelia; Kafa, Houmam; Venturelli, Enrica; Fabbro, Chiara; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Da Ros, Tatiana; Sosabowski, Jane K.; Lawson, Alastair D.; Robinson, Martyn K.; Prato, Maurizio; Bianco, Alberto; Festy, Frederic; Preston, Jane E.; Kostarelos, Kostas; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T.

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies proved the success of using chemically functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWNTs) as nanocarriers to the brain. Little insight into the kinetics of brain distribution of f-MWNTs in vivo has been reported. This study employed a wide range of qualitative and quantitative techniques with the aim of shedding the light on f-MWNT's brain distribution following intravenous injection. γ-Scintigraphy quantified the uptake of studied radiolabelled f-MWNT in the whole brain parenchyma and capillaries while 3D-single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging and autoradiography illustrated spatial distribution within various brain regions. Raman and multiphoton luminescence together with transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of intact f-MWNT in mouse brain, in a label-free manner. The results evidenced the presence of f-MWNT in mice brain parenchyma, in addition to brain endothelium. Such information on the rate and extent of regional and cellular brain distribution is needed before further implementation into neurological therapeutics can be made. PMID:26742944

  14. [Meningitis and brain abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius in a patient infected with HIV-1].

    PubMed

    Vallalta Morales, M; Solaz Moreno, E; Lacruz Rodrigo, J; Salavert Lletí, M; Silla Burdalo, G; Pérez-Bellés, C

    2005-06-01

    Streptococcus milleri group have been recognized as an important pathogens for abscess formation in various organs. Streptococci other than Streptococcus pneumoniae are a rare cause of bacterial meningitis in adults and can be associated with the presence of an undiagnosed brain abscess. Brain abscess is a focal collection within the brain parenchyma which can arise as a complication of a variety of infections. The most common etiologic organisms in clinical series have been microaerophilic streptococci and anaerobic bacteria. Although intracranial mass lesions that occur as a result of infection have commonly been reported in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, brain abscess due to the common bacterial pathogens are rarely described in HIV infected patients and Toxoplasma gondii is the organism most frequently isolated from stereotactic brain biopsy in these patients. We report a patient with both HIV-1 infection and streptococcal meningitis secondary to brain abscess caused by S. intermedius.

  15. Replacement of osmotic minipumps to extend the intracerebral infusion time of compounds into the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Grathwohl, Stefan A; Jucker, Mathias

    2013-08-01

    Osmotic minipumps represent a convenient and established method for targeted delivery of agents into the brain of small rodents. Agents unable to cross the blood brain barrier can be directly infused into the brain parenchyma or lateral ventricle through implanted cannulas. The small volume of the minipump reservoir typically limits the infusion time to 4-6 weeks. Pump changes with reattachment of a new pump reservoir to the cannula might lead to brain tissue irritation or increased intracranial pressure associated with hydrocephalus. Here, we describe a pump reservoir exchange technique using a Y-shaped connection piece (Y-con) between the infusion cannula and the pump reservoir. This allows repeated replacement of a subcutaneously installed pump reservoir for brain delivery of agents in mice. Experimental evaluation of Y-con pump replacement revealed no signs of tissue irritation or hydrocephalus and allowed extended controlled delivery of infusion agents in the brain.

  16. A Quantitative Analysis of Brain Soluble Tau and the Tau Secretion Factor.

    PubMed

    Han, Pengcheng; Serrano, Geidy; Beach, Thomas G; Caselli, Richard J; Yin, Junxiang; Zhuang, Ningning; Shi, Jiong

    2017-01-09

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) represent products of insoluble tau protein in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau level is a biomarker in AD diagnosis. The soluble portion of tau protein in brain parenchyma is presumably the source for CSF tau but this has not previously been quantified. We measured CSF tau and soluble brain tau at autopsy in temporal and frontal brain tissue samples from 7 cognitive normal, 12 mild cognitively impaired, and 19 AD subjects. Based on the measured brain soluble tau, we calculated the whole brain tau load and estimated tau secretion factor. Our results suggest that the increase in NFT in AD is likely attributable to post-translational processes; the increase in CSF tau in AD patients is due to an accelerated carrier-based secretion. Moreover, cognitive dysfunction assessed by final Mini-Mental State Examination scores correlated with the secretion factor but not with the soluble tau.

  17. Aquaporin-4 expression contributes to decreases in brain water content during mouse postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiumiao; Gao, Junying; Ding, Jiong; Hu, Gang; Xiao, Ming

    2013-05-01

    The water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is implicated to facilitate water efflux from the brain parenchyma into the blood and CSF, playing a critical role in maintaining brain water homeostasis. Nevertheless, its contribution to decreases in brain water content during postnatal development remains unknown. A quantitative Western blot analysis was performed to investigate developmental expression of AQP4 in the whole mouse brain and showed that AQP4 expression level in 1 week-old brain was only 21.3% of that in the adult brain, but significantly increased to 67.4% of the adult level by 2 weeks after birth. Statistical analysis demonstrated that increased AQP4 expression partially relates to decreased brain water content in postnatal mice (r(2)=0.92 and P=0.002). Moreover, AQP4 null mice had greater brain water content than littermate controls from 2 weeks up to adult age. Consistently, mature pattern of AQP4 localization at the brain-blood and brain-CSF interfaces were completed at approximately at 2 weeks after birth. In addition, AQP4 expression in the brain stem and hypothalamus was earlier than that in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, suggesting a brain regional variation in developmental expression of AQP4. These results characterize the developmental feature of AQP4 expression in the postnatal brain and provide direct evidence for a role of AQP4 in postnatal brain water uptake.

  18. Optimal technique of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for tumors adjacent to brainstem.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiou-Shiung; Hwang, Jing-Min; Tai, Po-An; Chang, You-Kang; Wang, Yu-Nong; Shih, Rompin; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a well-established technique that is replacing whole-brain irradiation in the treatment of intracranial lesions, which leads to better preservation of brain functions, and therefore a better quality of life for the patient. There are several available forms of linear accelerator (LINAC)-based SRS, and the goal of the present study is to identify which of these techniques is best (as evaluated by dosimetric outcomes statistically) when the target is located adjacent to brainstem. We collected the records of 17 patients with lesions close to the brainstem who had previously been treated with single-fraction radiosurgery. In all, 5 different lesion catalogs were collected, and the patients were divided into 2 distance groups-1 consisting of 7 patients with a target-to-brainstem distance of less than 0.5cm, and the other of 10 patients with a target-to-brainstem distance of ≥ 0.5 and < 1cm. Comparison was then made among the following 3 types of LINAC-based radiosurgery: dynamic conformal arcs (DCA), intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS), and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT). All techniques included multiple noncoplanar beams or arcs with or without intensity-modulated delivery. The volume of gross tumor volume (GTV) ranged from 0.2cm(3) to 21.9cm(3). Regarding the dose homogeneity index (HIICRU) and conformity index (CIICRU) were without significant difference between techniques statistically. However, the average CIICRU = 1.09 ± 0.56 achieved by VMAT was the best of the 3 techniques. Moreover, notable improvement in gradient index (GI) was observed when VMAT was used (0.74 ± 0.13), and this result was significantly better than those achieved by the 2 other techniques (p < 0.05). For V4Gy of brainstem, both VMAT (2.5%) and IMRS (2.7%) were significantly lower than DCA (4.9%), both at the p < 0.05 level. Regarding V2Gy of normal brain, VMAT plans had attained 6.4 ± 5%; this was significantly better (p < 0.05) than

  19. Extracellular fluid S100B in the injured brain: a future surrogate marker of acute brain injury?

    PubMed

    Sen, J; Belli, A; Petzold, A; Russo, S; Keir, G; Thompson, E J; Smith, M; Kitchen, N

    2005-08-01

    The authors describe the measurement of S100B protein in brain extracellular fluid (ECF) of patients with acute brain injury (traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage) using the technique of microdialysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S100B measurement in the human brain. Acute Brain Injury (ABI) is a leading cause of death and disability and the need for a practical and sensitive biochemical marker for monitoring these patients is urgent. The calcium binding astrocyte protein, S100B, may be a candidate for this role. Previous serum studies have shown S100B to be a sensitive predictor of mortality and rise in intracranial pressure in ABI, but it has never before been measured directly within the brain. The ECF reflects the local biochemistry of the brain parenchyma, and the use of intracerebral microdialysis opens up the possibility of studying many novel surrogate markers of injury in the laboratory, in addition to the conventional markers it measures at the bedside (lactate, pyruvate, glucose, and glycerol). In this preliminary report of two cases, the authors demonstrate the quantification of S100B in ECF microdialysate, and investigate whether changes in hourly S100B profile can be related to secondary brain injury. It is shown that extracellular concentrations of S100B change markedly in response to secondary brain injury. Further investigation is required to determine whether extracellular S100B measurement in ABI could assist in patient management.

  20. Implementation of non-invasive brain physiological monitoring concepts.

    PubMed

    Ragauskas, Arminas; Daubaris, Gediminas; Ragaisis, Vytautas; Petkus, Vytautas

    2003-10-01

    The paper presents innovative methods and technology for non-invasive intracranial hemodynamics monitoring based on the measurement of brain parenchyma acoustic properties. The clinical investigation of new technology shows the similarity between the invasively recorded intracranial pressure (ICP) and non-invasively recorded intracranial blood volume (IBV) pulse waves, slow waves and slow trends under intensive care unit (ICU) conditions. Also, the applicability of the non-invasive IBV slow wave monitoring technique for cerebrovascular autoregulation non-invasive long-term monitoring is demonstrated by theoretical and experimental studies.

  1. Biodegradable brain-penetrating DNA nanocomplexes and their use to treat malignant brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Zhang, Clark; Song, Eric; Kim, Young Eun; Park, Hee Won; Berry, Sneha; Choi, Won Kyu; Hanes, Justin; Suk, Jung Soo

    2017-09-28

    The discovery of powerful genetic targets has spurred clinical development of gene therapy approaches to treat patients with malignant brain tumors. However, lack of success in the clinic has been attributed to the inability of conventional gene vectors to achieve gene transfer throughout highly disseminated primary brain tumors. Here, we demonstrate ex vivo that small nanocomplexes composed of DNA condensed by a blend of biodegradable polymer, poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE), with PBAE conjugated with 5kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules (PBAE-PEG) rapidly penetrate healthy brain parenchyma and orthotopic brain tumor tissues in rats. Rapid diffusion of these DNA-loaded nanocomplexes observed in fresh tissues ex vivo demonstrated that they avoided adhesive trapping in the brain owing to their dense PEG coating, which was critical to achieving widespread transgene expression throughout orthotopic rat brain tumors in vivo following administration by convection enhanced delivery. Transgene expression with the PBAE/PBAE-PEG blended nanocomplexes (DNA-loaded brain-penetrating nanocomplexes, or DNA-BPN) was uniform throughout the tumor core compared to nanocomplexes composed of DNA with PBAE only (DNA-loaded conventional nanocomplexes, or DNA-CN), and transgene expression reached beyond the tumor edge, where infiltrative cancer cells are found, only for the DNA-BPN formulation. Finally, DNA-BPN loaded with anti-cancer plasmid DNA provided significantly enhanced survival compared to the same plasmid DNA loaded in DNA-CN in two aggressive orthotopic brain tumor models in rats. These findings underscore the importance of achieving widespread delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids within brain tumors and provide a promising new delivery platform for localized gene therapy in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Adjacent segment disease and C-ADR: promises fulfilled?

    PubMed Central

    Riew, K Daniel; Schenk-Kisser, Jeannette M.; Skelly, Andrea C.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Clinical question: Do the rates and timing of adjacent segment disease (ASD) differ between cervical total disc arthroplasty (C-ADR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in patients treated for cervical degenerative disc disease? Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed and bibliographies of key articles was done to identify studies with long-term follow-up for symptomatic and/or radiographic ASD comparing C-ADR with fusion for degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine. The focus was on studies with longer follow-up (48–60 months) of primary US Food and Drug Administration trials of Prestige ST, Prodisc-C, and Bryan devices as available. Trials of other discs with a minimum of 24 months follow-up were considered for inclusion. Studies evaluating lordosis/angle changes at adjacent segments and case series were excluded. Results: From 14 citations identified, four reports from three randomized controlled trials and four nonrandomized studies are summarized. Risk differences between C-ADR and ACF for symptomatic ASD were 1.5%–2.3% and were not significant across RCT reports. Time to development of ASD did not significantly differ between treatments. Rates of radiographic ASD were variable. No meaningful comparison of ASD rates based on disc design was possible. No statistical differences in adjacent segment range of motion were noted between treatment groups. Conclusion: Our analysis reveals that, to date, there is no evidence that arthroplasty decreases ASD compared with ACDF; the promise of arthroplasty decreasing ASD has not been fulfilled. PMID:23236312

  3. Microwave treatment of renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongyan; Liang, Ping; Yu, Xiaoling; Yu, Jie; Cheng, Zhigang; Han, Zhiyu; Duan, Shaobo; Huang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) adjacent to renal sinus. This retrospective study included 41 patients who underwent US-guided percutaneous MWA of 41 RCCs adjacent to the renal sinus from April 2006 to December 2015. Contrast-enhanced images of US and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed at pre-ablation and 1day, 1 month, 3 months, and every 6 months after ablation. Initial ablation success (IAS), disease-free survival (DFS), RCC-related survival (RRS), and overall survival (OS) were recorded at the follow-up visits. IAS was achieved in 92.7% (38/41) of the study subjects. The IAS significantly differed between patients with RCCs ≤4cm (100%, 29/29) and RCCs >4cm (75%, 9/12, p=0.021). During the median follow-up of 37.6 (range, 3.0-97.3) months, the estimated 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS of patients with an initial tumor of ≤4cm were 100%, 89.7%, and 81.5%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year RRS were 100%, 93.3%, and 93.3%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 97.1%, 87.8%, and 83.6%, respectively. The multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model revealed no independent predictor of recurrence among all the variables. There were no MWA-related deaths among the study subjects. One patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess after ablation. US-guided percutaneous MWA appears to be a promising method for RCCs adjacent to renal sinus, especially for tumors ≤4cm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of adjacent land use on coastal wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Jurasinski, Gerald; Peticzka, Robert; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-15

    Coastal wetlands link terrestrial with marine ecosystems and are influenced from both land and sea. Therefore, they are ecotones with strong biogeochemical gradients. We analyzed sediment characteristics including macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Ni) of two coastal wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis at the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain, a lagoon system at the Southern Baltic Sea, to identify the impact of adjacent land use and to distinguish between influences from land or sea. In the wetland directly adjacent to cropland (study site Dabitz) heavy metal concentrations were significantly elevated. Fertilizer application led to heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of the adjacent wetland zones. In contrast, at the other study site (Michaelsdorf), where the hinterland has been used as pasture, heavy metal concentrations were low. While the amount of macronutrients was also influenced by vegetation characteristics (e.g. carbon) or water chemistry (e.g. sulfate), the accumulation of heavy metals is regarded as purely anthropogenic influence. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on the sediment data showed that the wetland fringes of the two study sites are not distinguishable, neither in their macronutrient status nor in their concentrations of heavy metals, whereas the interior zones exhibit large differences in terms of heavy metal concentrations. This suggests that seaside influences are minor compared to influences from land. Altogether, heavy metal concentrations were still below national precautionary and action values. However, if we regard the macronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the wetland fringes as the natural background values, an accumulation of trace elements from agricultural production in the hinterland is apparent. Thus, coastal wetlands bordering croplands may function as effective pollutant buffers today, but the future development has to be monitored closely to avoid

  5. Adrenomedullin and the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Kastin, A J; Akerstrom, V; Hackler, L; Pan, W

    2001-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) is present both in the periphery and brain. In addition to its peripheral effects, this peptide can exert central effects such as decreasing food ingestion. We used multiple-time regression analysis to determine that labeled ADM can cross from blood to brain with an apparent influx constant (K(I)) of 5.83 +/- 1.44 x 10(-4) ml/g-min, much faster than that of albumin, the vascular control. HPLC showed that almost all of the injected 125I-ADM in the brain was intact, and capillary depletion showed that it could reach the parenchyma of the brain. However, more 125I-ADM was reversibly associated with the brain vasculature than we have seen with any other peptide tested by these methods. After intracerebroventricular injection, 125I-ADM exited the brain with the bulk reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid at an efflux rate comparable to that of albumin. Although there was no blood-to-brain saturation, in situ brain perfusion of 125I-ADM in blood-free physiological buffer showed self-inhibition by excess unlabeled ADM. This, along with evidence of the lack of protein binding shown by capillary zone electrophoresis, indicated competition for the binding site of ADM at the BBB. The low lipophilicity of ADM determined by the octanol/buffer partition coefficient was also consistent with the prominent reversible association of ADM with the vasculature of the BBB. This suggests a function for ADM at the cerebral blood vessels, such as altering cerebral blood flow and perfusion, without disruption of the BBB.

  6. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  7. Stereoselective Organocatalytic Synthesis of Oxindoles with Adjacent Tetrasubstituted Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Engl, Oliver D; Fritz, Sven P; Wennemers, Helma

    2015-07-06

    Oxindoles with adjacent tetrasubstituted stereocenters were obtained in high yields and stereoselectivities by organocatalyzed conjugate addition reactions of monothiomalonates (MTMs) to isatin-derived N-Cbz ketimines. The method requires only a low catalyst loading (2 mol %) and proceeds under mild reaction conditions. Both enantiomers are accessible in good yields and excellent stereoselectivities by using either Takemoto's catalyst or a cinchona alkaloid derivative. The synthetic methodology allowed establishment of a straightforward route to derivatives of the gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist AG-041R.

  8. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  9. Astronaut Charles Duke stands at rock adjacent to 'House Rock'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Apollo 16 lunar module pilot, stands at a rock adjacent (south) to the huge 'House Rock' (barely out of view at right edge). Note shadow at extreme right center where the two moon-exploring crewmen of the mission sampled what they referred to as the 'eastwest split of House Rock' or the open space between this rock and 'House Rock'. Duke has a sample bag in his hand, and a lunar surface rake leans against the large boulder.

  10. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  11. Compression of Adjacent Anatomical Structures by Pulmonary Artery Dilation

    PubMed Central

    Dakkak, Wael; Tonelli, Adriano R.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is the commonest condition leading to dilated pulmonary artery. We describe three different types of compression of adjacent anatomical structures by dilated pulmonary arteries. We included involvement of the left main coronary artery, left recurrent laryngeal nerve and tracheobronchial tree. Compression of these structures can cause major complications such as myocardial ischemia, hoarseness and major airway stenosis. We present a case for each scenario and review the literature for each of these complications, focusing on patients’ characteristics and contemporary management. PMID:26898826

  12. Empires and percolation: stochastic merging of adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldous, D. J.; Ong, J. R.; Zhou, W.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a stochastic model in which adjacent planar regions A, B merge stochastically at some rate λ(A, B) and observe analogies with the well-studied topics of mean-field coagulation and of bond percolation. Do infinite regions appear in finite time? We give a simple condition on λ for this hegemony property to hold, and another simple condition for it to not hold, but there is a large gap between these conditions, which includes the case λ(A, B) ≡ 1. For this case, a non-rigorous analytic argument and simulations suggest hegemony.

  13. Determination of regional brain temperature using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess brain-body temperature differences in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Childs, Charmaine; Hiltunen, Yrjö; Vidyasagar, Rishma; Kauppinen, Risto A

    2007-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) was used to determine brain temperature in healthy volunteers. Partially water-suppressed (1)H MRS data sets were acquired at 3T from four different gray matter (GM)/white matter (WM) volumes. Brain temperatures were determined from the chemical-shift difference between the CH(3) of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) at 2.01 ppm and water. Brain temperatures in (1)H MRS voxels of 2 x 2 x 2 cm(3) showed no substantial heterogeneity. The volume-averaged temperature from single-voxel spectroscopy was compared with body temperatures obtained from the oral cavity, tympanum, and temporal artery regions. The mean brain parenchyma temperature was 0.5 degrees C cooler than readings obtained from three extra-brain sites (P < 0.01). (1)H MRS imaging (MRSI) data were acquired from a slice encompassing the single-voxel volumes to assess the ability of spectroscopic imaging to determine regional brain temperature within the imaging slice. Brain temperature away from the center of the brain determined by MRSI differed from that obtained by single-voxel MRS in the same brain region, possibly due to a poor line width (LW) in MRSI. The data are discussed in the light of proposed brain-body temperature gradients and the use of (1)H MRSI to monitor brain temperature in pathologies, such as brain trauma.

  14. Trafficking of Endogenous Immunoglobulins by Endothelial Cells at the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Villaseñor, Roberto; Ozmen, Laurence; Messaddeq, Nadia; Grüninger, Fiona; Loetscher, Hansruedi; Keller, Annika; Betsholtz, Christer; Freskgård, Per-Ola; Collin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    The Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) restricts access of large molecules to the brain. The low endocytic activity of brain endothelial cells (BECs) is believed to limit delivery of immunoglobulins (IgG) to the brain parenchyma. Here, we report that endogenous mouse IgG are localized within intracellular vesicles at steady state in BECs in vivo. Using high-resolution quantitative microscopy, we found a fraction of endocytosed IgG in lysosomes. We observed that loss of pericytes (key components of the BBB) in pdgf-bret/ret mice affects the intracellular distribution of endogenous mouse IgG in BECs. In these mice, endogenous IgG was not detected within lysosomes but instead accumulate at the basement membrane and brain parenchyma. Such IgG accumulation could be due to reduced lysosomal clearance and increased sorting to the abluminal membrane of BECs. Our results suggest that, in addition to low uptake from circulation, IgG lysosomal degradation may be a downstream mechanism by which BECs further restrict IgG access to the brain. PMID:27149947

  15. Microglia-blood vessel interactions: a double-edged sword in brain pathologies.

    PubMed

    Dudvarski Stankovic, Nevenka; Teodorczyk, Marcin; Ploen, Robert; Zipp, Frauke; Schmidt, Mirko H H

    2016-03-01

    Microglia are long-living resident immune cells of the brain, which secure a stable chemical and physical microenvironment necessary for the proper functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). These highly dynamic cells continuously scan their environment for pathogens and possess the ability to react to damage-induced signals in order to protect the brain. Microglia, together with endothelial cells (ECs), pericytes and astrocytes, form the functional blood-brain barrier (BBB), a specialized endothelial structure that selectively separates the sensitive brain parenchyma from blood circulation. Microglia are in bidirectional and permanent communication with ECs and their perivascular localization enables them to survey the influx of blood-borne components into the CNS. Furthermore, they may stimulate the opening of the BBB, extravasation of leukocytes and angiogenesis. However, microglia functioning requires tight control as their dysregulation is implicated in the initiation and progression of numerous neurological diseases. Disruption of the BBB, changes in blood flow, introduction of pathogens in the sensitive CNS niche, insufficient nutrient supply, and abnormal secretion of cytokines or expression of endothelial receptors are reported to prime and attract microglia. Such reactive microglia have been reported to even escalate the damage of the brain parenchyma as is the case in ischemic injuries, brain tumors, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In this review, we present the current state of the art of the causes and mechanisms of pathological interactions between microglia and blood vessels and explore the possibilities of targeting those dysfunctional interactions for the development of future therapeutics.

  16. SU-E-T-56: Brain Metastasis Treatment Plans for Contrast-Enhanced Synchrotron Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Obeid, L; Adam, J; Tessier, A; Vautrin, M; Benkebil, M; Sihanath, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Iodine-enhanced radiotherapy is an innovative treatment combining the selective accumulation of an iodinated contrast agent in brain tumors with irradiations using monochromatic medium energy x-rays. The aim of this study is to compare dynamic stereotactic arc-therapy and iodineenhanced SSRT. Methods: Five patients bearing brain metastasis received a standard helical 3D-scan without iodine. A second scan was acquired 13 min after an 80 g iodine infusion. Two SSRT treatment plans (with/without iodine) were performed for each patient using a dedicated Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning system (TPS) based on the ISOgray TPS. Ten coplanar beams (6×6 cm2, shaped with collimator) were simulated. MC statistical error objective was less than 5% in the 50% isodose. The dynamic arc-therapy plan was achieved on the Iplan Brainlab TPS. The treatment plan validation criteria were fixed such that 100% of the prescribed dose is delivered at the beam isocentre and the 70% isodose contains the whole target volume. The comparison elements were the 70% isodose volume, the average and maximum doses delivered to organs at risk (OAR): brainstem, optical nerves, chiasma, eyes, skull bone and healthy brain parenchyma. Results: The stereotactic dynamic arc-therapy remains the best technique in terms of dose conformation. Iodine-enhanced SSRT presents similar performances to dynamic arc-therapy with increased brainstem and brain parenchyma sparing. One disadvantage of SSRT is the high dose to the skull bone. Iodine accumulation in metastasis may increase the dose by 20–30%, allowing a normal tissue sparing effect at constant prescribed dose. Treatment without any iodine enhancement (medium-energy stereotactic radiotherapy) is not relevant with degraded HDVs (brain, parenchyma and skull bone) comparing to stereotactic dynamic arc-therapy. Conclusion: Iodine-enhanced SSRT exhibits a good potential for brain metastasis treatment regarding the dose distribution and OAR criteria.

  17. Experimental evaluation of freezing preparation for the macroscopic inspection in putrefied brain.

    PubMed

    Hyodoh, Hideki; Matoba, Kotaro; Murakami, Manabu; Matoba, Tomoko; Saito, Atsuko; Feng, Fei; Jin, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of freezing preparation for macroscopic investigation in advanced putrefied brain. After sealing in individual plastic bags, 10 pig heads were stored at 20°C for 5days allow postmortem change (putrefaction) to progress. After an observation period, they were divided into 2 groups to evaluate the usefulness of the freezing effect in macroscopic investigation. The process over the postmortem period and the freezing process were examined. At day-5, the presence of air density was detected between the inner surface of the cranium and the brain parenchyma. Intra-cranial air accumulation presented on CT in all heads. In the control group, the brain parenchyma leaked out from the hole in the meninges, and the gray-white matter difference was clear in 3/72 (4.2%), moderate in 7/72 (9.7%), ambiguous in 17/72 (23.6%), and poor in 45/72 (62.5%). In the freezing group, the brain parenchyma presented homogeneous low density after more than 14h freezing. On opening the cranium, the entire brains were frozen, and the gray-white matter difference was clear in 33/72 (46.0%), moderate in 17/72 (24.0%), ambiguous in 15/72 (21.0%), and poor in 7/72 (10.0%). The freezing group afforded greater clarity in the gray-white matter inspection (p<0.05). Freezing preparation was useful for the macroscopic investigation of putrefied brain compared with the ordinary autopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coexistence Analysis of Adjacent Long Term Evolution (LTE) Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Olama, Mohammed M

    2013-01-01

    As the licensing and deployment of Long term evolution (LTE) systems are ramping up, the study of coexistence of LTE systems is an essential topic in civil and military applications. In this paper, we present a coexistence study of adjacent LTE systems aiming at evaluating the effect of inter-system interference on system capacity and performance as a function of some of the most common mitigation techniques: frequency guard band, base station (BS) antenna coupling loss, and user equipment (UE) antenna spacing. A system model is constructed for two collocated macro LTE networks. The developed model takes into consideration the RF propagation environment, power control scheme, and adjacent channel interference. Coexistence studies are performed for a different combination of time/frequency division duplex (TDD/FDD) systems under three different guard-bands of 0MHz, 5MHz, and 10MHz. Numerical results are presented to advice the minimum frequency guard band, BS coupling loss, and UE antenna isolation required for a healthy system operation.

  19. Detailed Simulations of Bubble-Cluster Collapse Adjacent Material Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Arpit; Pantano, Carlos; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2013-11-01

    The collapse of bubble clusters adjacent material surfaces is thought to be an important damage mechanism, in both engineering and biomedical applications. Homogeneous models of these clusters have been able to reproduce some of their gross dynamics, however diagnostic challenges leave it unclear how important the bubble dynamics are for important quantities such as peak pressures on the surface. We study in detail the dynamics of small clusters collapsing adjacent to a wall using a numerical scheme that faithfully represents bubble-scale dynamics. It is based on a recently developed interface capturing method that is asymptotically consistent with a well-posed mixture model for the two phases. For collapse near a rigid wall, we show strong inward focusing of re-entrant jets, which enhances the impulsive pressures generated on the wall. The homogeneous model we compare with fails to capture the true peak pressures on the walls. We further apply our scheme to simulate cluster collapse near a viscous fluid as a model for soft tissue, as in therapeutic ultrasound. In this case, the low impedance mismatch at the wall leads to significantly different dynamics. Simulations suggest that clusters can actually be relatively protective when compared to single-bubble collapses.

  20. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  1. Pn anisotropy tomography of the Colorado Plateau and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shengyao

    The Pn tomography method utilizes seismic waves that refract along the Moho interface to perform inversion in order to investigate velocity anomalies and seismic anisotropy in the uppermost mantle. Results from Pn tomography can provide important information about the composition, temperature, and tectonic processes beneath the study area. Over the past decades, numerous seismic and geologic studies have been conducted in the Colorado Plateau and its adjacent areas to reveal crustal and mantle structures and processes responsible for the diverse surface geological features and tectonic events that have occurred in this area. To investigate lateral variations in the uppermost mantle in terms of temperature, composition and orientation of anisotropic fabrics beneath Colorado Plateau and adjacent areas, the Pn tomography method was applied. The current research uses data from 468 local earthquakes recorded by 186 stations from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center. A total of 2548 seismograms were used to invert the velocity and anisotropic structures. Resulting low velocity anomalies beneath the westernmost part of the CP suggest a high-temperature top mantle, probably as a result of active mantle upwelling and hot asthenosphere replacement of cold lithosphere. In contrast, the high velocity anomaly represents cool and stable uppermost mantle. In comparison with the shear wave splitting and shear stress results, the fast orientation of Pn wave anisotropy may reflect the extension direction of Basin and Range and Rio Grand Rift studies.

  2. Blood-brain barrier transport kinetics of the cyclic depsipeptide mycotoxins beauvericin and enniatins.

    PubMed

    Taevernier, Lien; Bracke, Nathalie; Veryser, Lieselotte; Wynendaele, Evelien; Gevaert, Bert; Peremans, Kathelijne; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2016-09-06

    The cyclic depsipeptide mycotoxins beauvericin and enniatins are capable of reaching the systemic circulation through various routes of exposure and are hence capable of exerting central nervous system (CNS) effects, if they are able to pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which was the main objective of this study. Quantification of the mycotoxins was performed using an in-house developed and validated bio-analytical UHPLC-MS/MS method. Prior to the BBB experiments, the metabolic stability of the mycotoxins was evaluated in vitro in mouse serum and brain homogenate. The BBB permeation kinetics of beauvericin and enniatins were studied using an in vivo mice model, applying multiple time regression for studying the blood-to-brain influx. Additionally, capillary depletion was applied to obtain the fraction of the peptides really entering the brain parenchyma and the fraction loosely adhered to the brain capillary wall. Finally, also the brain-to-blood efflux transport kinetics was studied. Metabolic stability data indicated that the investigated mycotoxins were stable during the duration of the in vivo study. The brain influx study showed that beauvericin and enniatins are able to cross the blood-brain barrier in mice: using the Gjedde-Patlak biphasic model, it was shown that all investigated mycotoxins exert a high initial influx rate into the brain (K1 ranging from 11 to 53μL/(g×min)), rapidly reaching a plateau. After penetration, the mycotoxins reached the brain parenchyma (95%) with only a limited amount residing in the capillaries (5%). Negligible efflux (<0.005min(-1)) from the brain was observed in the 15min post-intracerebroventricular injection.

  3. Characterization of AgMaT2, a plasma membrane mannitol transporter from celery, expressed in phloem cells, including phloem parenchyma cells.

    PubMed

    Juchaux-Cachau, Marjorie; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Pichaut, Jean-Philippe; Campion, Claire; Porcheron, Benoit; Jeauffre, Julien; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Simoneau, Philippe; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi

    2007-09-01

    A second mannitol transporter, AgMaT2, was identified in celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce), a species that synthesizes and transports mannitol. This transporter was successfully expressed in two different heterologous expression systems: baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants (a non-mannitol-producing species). Data indicated that AgMaT2 works as an H(+)/mannitol cotransporter with a weak selectivity toward other polyol molecules. When expressed in tobacco, AgMaT2 decreased the sensitivity to the mannitol-secreting pathogenic fungi Alternaria longipes, suggesting a role for polyol transporters in defense mechanisms. In celery, in situ hybridization showed that AgMaT2 was expressed in the phloem of leaflets, petioles from young and mature leaves, floral stems, and roots. In the phloem of petioles and leaflets, AgMaT2, as localized with specific antibodies, was present in the plasma membrane of three ontologically related cell types: sieve elements, companion cells, and phloem parenchyma cells. These new data are discussed in relation to the physiological role of AgMaT2 in regulating mannitol fluxes in celery petioles.

  4. Xylem ray parenchyma cells in boreal hardwood species respond to subfreezing temperatures by deep supercooling that is accompanied by incomplete desiccation.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Kasuga, Jun; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2003-02-01

    It has been accepted that xylem ray parenchyma cells (XRPCs) in hardwood species respond to subfreezing temperatures either by deep supercooling or by extracellular freezing. Present study by cryo-scanning electron microscopy examined the freezing responses of XRPCs in five boreal hardwoods: Salix sachalinensis Fr. Schmit, Populus sieboldii Miq., Betula platyphylla Sukat. var japonica Hara, Betula pubescens Ehrh., and red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), in which XRPCs have been reported to respond by extracellular freezing. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that slow cooling of xylem to -80 degrees C resulted in intracellular freezing in the majority of XRPCs in S. sachalinensis, an indication that these XRPCs had been deep supercooled. In contrast, in the majority of XRPCs in P. sieboldii, B. platyphylla, B. pubescens, and red osier dogwood, slow cooling to -80 degrees C produced slight cytorrhysis without clear evidence of intracellular freezing, suggesting that these XRPCs might respond by extracellular freezing. In these XRPCs exhibited putative extracellular freezing; however, deep etching revealed the apparent formation of intracellular ice crystals in restricted local areas. To confirm the occurrence of intracellular freezing, we rewarmed these XRPCs after cooling and observed very large intracellular ice crystals as a result of the recrystallization. Thus, the XRPCs in all the boreal hardwoods that we examined responded by deep supercooling that was accompanied with incomplete desiccation. From these results, it seems possible that limitations to the deep-supercooling ability of XRPCs might be a limiting factor for adaptation of hardwoods to cold climates.

  5. Phloem as Capacitor: Radial Transfer of Water into Xylem of Tree Stems Occurs via Symplastic Transport in Ray Parenchyma[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Justine; Tjoelker, Mark G.; Salih, Anya

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of water from phloem into xylem is thought to mitigate increasing hydraulic tension in the vascular system of trees during the diel cycle of transpiration. Although a putative plant function, to date there is no direct evidence of such water transfer or the contributing pathways. Here, we trace the radial flow of water from the phloem into the xylem and investigate its diel variation. Introducing a fluorescent dye (0.1% [w/w] fluorescein) into the phloem water of the tree species Eucalyptus saligna allowed localization of the dye in phloem and xylem tissues using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Our results show that the majority of water transferred between the two tissues is facilitated via the symplast of horizontal ray parenchyma cells. The method also permitted assessment of the radial transfer of water during the diel cycle, where changes in water potential gradients between phloem and xylem determine the extent and direction of radial transfer. When injected during the morning, when xylem water potential rapidly declined, fluorescein was translocated, on average, farther into mature xylem (447 ± 188 µm) compared with nighttime, when xylem water potential was close to zero (155 ± 42 µm). These findings provide empirical evidence to support theoretical predictions of the role of phloem-xylem water transfer in the hydraulic functioning of plants. This method enables investigation of the role of phloem tissue as a dynamic capacitor for water storage and transfer and its contribution toward the maintenance of the functional integrity of xylem in trees. PMID:25588734

  6. The delivery of salts to the xylem. Three types of anion conductance in the plasmalemma of the xylem parenchyma of roots of barley.

    PubMed

    Köhler, B; Raschke, K

    2000-01-01

    To explore possible pathways for anions to enter the xylem in the root during the transport of salts to the shoot, we used the patch-clamp method on protoplasts prepared from the xylem parenchyma of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants. K(+) currents were suppressed by tetraethylammonium or N-methylglucamine in the solutions in the pipette and the bath, and the permeating anions were Cl(-) or NO(3)(-). We recorded the activities of three distinct anion conductances: (a) an inwardly rectifying anion channel (X-IRAC), characterized by activation at hyperpolarization and open times of up to several seconds; (b) a quickly activating anion conductance (X-QUAC), important for anion efflux at voltages between -50 mV and the equilibrium potential of the prevailing anion; and (c) a slowly activating anion conductance (X-SLAC), activating above -100 mV. Both X-IRAC and X-QUAC were permeable for Cl(-) and NO(3)(-); X-QUAC was also permeable for malate. The occurrence of X-IRAC became more frequent with an increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), while the occurrence of X-QUAC decreased. Anion currents through X-SLAC, and particularly through X-QUAC, were estimated to be large enough to account for reported rates of xylem loading, which is in accordance with the notion that xylem loading is a passive process.

  7. In Patients with a Soft Pancreas, a Thick Parenchyma, a Small Duct, and Fatty Infiltration Are Significant Risks for Pancreatic Fistula After Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Motokazu; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Kojima, Motohiro; Kobayashi, Tatsushi; Gotohda, Naoto; Konishi, Masaru

    2017-05-01

    This study sought to characterize soft and hard pancreatic textures radiologically and histologically, and to identify specific risks in a soft pancreas associated with postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) formation after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Consecutive 145 patients who underwent PD at a single institution between January 2010 and May 2013 were studied. Pancreatic consistency was intraoperatively judged as soft or hard. Pancreatic configuration was assessed using preoperative CT. Histologic components of the pancreatic stump were evaluated using a morphometric analysis. Clinicopathologic parameters were then analyzed for the risk of clinically relevant POPF. Compared with patients with a hard pancreas (n = 66), those with a soft pancreas (n = 79) had a smaller main pancreatic duct (MPD) diameter and a larger parenchymal thickness on CT, had a smaller fibrosis ratio and a larger lobular ratio histologically, and developed clinically relevant POPF more frequently (P < 0.001 for all). In patients with a soft pancreas, an MPD diameter <2 mm, a parenchymal thickness ≥10 mm, a lobular ratio <75%, and a fat ratio ≥20% were independently associated with clinically relevant POPF (P < 0.010 for all). In patients with a soft pancreas, a thick parenchyma, a small MPD, and fatty infiltration were strongly associated with clinically relevant POPF after PD.

  8. Immunolocalization of Solanaceous SUT1 Proteins in Companion Cells and Xylem Parenchyma: New Perspectives for Phloem Loading and Transport1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Bianca; Stadler, Ruth; Sauer, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Leaf sucrose (Suc) transporters are essential for phloem loading and long-distance partitioning of assimilates in plants that load their phloem from the apoplast. Suc loading into the phloem is indispensable for the generation of the osmotic potential difference that drives phloem bulk flow and is central for the long-distance movement of phloem sap compounds, including hormones and signaling molecules. In previous analyses, solanaceous SUT1 Suc transporters from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were immunolocalized in plasma membranes of enucleate sieve elements. Here, we present data that identify solanaceous SUT1 proteins with high specificity in phloem companion cells. Moreover, comparisons of SUT1 localization in the abaxial and adaxial phloem revealed higher levels of SUT1 protein in the abaxial phloem of all three solanaceous species, suggesting different physiological roles for these two types of phloem. Finally, SUT1 proteins were identified in files of xylem parenchyma cells, mainly in the bicollateral veins. Together, our data provide new insight into the role of SUT1 proteins in solanaceous species. PMID:18614713

  9. Characterization of AgMaT2, a Plasma Membrane Mannitol Transporter from Celery, Expressed in Phloem Cells, Including Phloem Parenchyma Cells[OA

    PubMed Central

    Juchaux-Cachau, Marjorie; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Pichaut, Jean-Philippe; Campion, Claire; Porcheron, Benoit; Jeauffre, Julien; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Simoneau, Philippe; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi

    2007-01-01

    A second mannitol transporter, AgMaT2, was identified in celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce), a species that synthesizes and transports mannitol. This transporter was successfully expressed in two different heterologous expression systems: baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants (a non-mannitol-producing species). Data indicated that AgMaT2 works as an H+/mannitol cotransporter with a weak selectivity toward other polyol molecules. When expressed in tobacco, AgMaT2 decreased the sensitivity to the mannitol-secreting pathogenic fungi Alternaria longipes, suggesting a role for polyol transporters in defense mechanisms. In celery, in situ hybridization showed that AgMaT2 was expressed in the phloem of leaflets, petioles from young and mature leaves, floral stems, and roots. In the phloem of petioles and leaflets, AgMaT2, as localized with specific antibodies, was present in the plasma membrane of three ontologically related cell types: sieve elements, companion cells, and phloem parenchyma cells. These new data are discussed in relation to the physiological role of AgMaT2 in regulating mannitol fluxes in celery petioles. PMID:17631523

  10. Study of restorative processes in brain laceration in the first seven days after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Florou, Charoula; Cătălin, Bogdan; Badea, Oana; Bălşeanu, Tudor Adrian; Vasilescu, Cristina Eugenia; Mogoantă, LaurenŢiu; Grosu, Florin; Matei, Marius; Turculeanu, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries represent the main cause of death and invalidity all over the world. Persons surviving a severe traumatic brain injury often present long-term disabilities, sensitive and motor deficits, cognitive, vegetative or mental disorders. Brain injuries are directly caused by the traumatic agent, and indirectly caused by the action of cells involved in the restorative process. The main cells involved in the restorative process are microglias and astrocytes. By using an experimental model, we investigated the reaction of these cells in the first week after a severe brain injury, followed by brain laceration. Of the two cell types, the most rapid and intense reaction was held by the macroglias, also known as resident macrophages of the central nervous system. Alongside the activation of local microglias, in the restorative process there were also involved blood monocytes that turned into macrophages. 24 hours after the injury, the number of macrophage cells÷mm² at brain wound level increased 2-4 times, after three days - 10-12 times, and after seven days - over 20 times. The astrocyte reaction was slower, their activation being signaled no sooner than three days from injury, when their number in the perilesional brain parenchyma increased approximately two times, while after seven days - approximately 4-5 times. Both astrocytes and macrophages (microglias), besides their beneficial effects in restoring traumatic brain injuries, may have unfavorable effects upon the nervous cells in the immediate proximity of the injury. Destruction of vascular network by the traumatic agent, and the extremely slow restore of vascularization, partially explain brain neurons death on extend areas.

  11. Brain Autopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... that you contact a medical center or brain bank with experience in neurological disorders and, if at ... and Strokes also maintains a listing of brain banks on the research section of their website: www. ...

  12. Brain Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Reviews significant findings of recent brain research, including the concept of five minds: automatic, subconscious, practical, creative, and spiritual. Suggests approaches to training the brain that are related to this hierarchy of thinking. (JOW)

  13. Brain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  14. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests don't provide enough information. Screening for brain aneurysms The use of imaging tests to screen ... and occupational therapy to relearn skills. Treating unruptured brain aneurysms Surgical clipping or endovascular coiling can be ...

  15. Role of nuclear receptors in the regulation of drug transporters in the brain.

    PubMed

    Chan, Gary N Y; Hoque, Md Tozammel; Bendayan, Reina

    2013-07-01

    ATP-binding cassette membrane-associated drug efflux transporters and solute carrier influx transporters, expressed at the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and in brain parenchyma, are important determinants of drug disposition in the central nervous system. Targeting the regulatory pathways that govern the expression of these transporters could provide novel approaches to selectively alter drug permeability into the brain. Nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors which regulate the gene expression of several metabolic enzymes and drug efflux/influx transporters. Although efforts have primarily been focused on investigating these regulatory pathways in peripheral organs (i.e., liver and intestine), recent findings demonstrate their significance in the brain. This review addresses the role of nuclear receptors in the regulation of drug transporter functional expression in the brain. An in-depth understanding of these pathways could guide the development of novel pharmacotherapy with either enhanced efficacy in the central nervous system or minimal associated neurotoxicity.

  16. The Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubel, David H.

    1979-01-01

    This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)

  17. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  18. The Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubel, David H.

    1979-01-01

    This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)

  19. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  20. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  1. Scolopendromorpha of New Guinea and adjacent islands (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A; Stoev, Pavel E

    2016-08-04

    The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20th century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings. The old and doubtful record of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844 from New Guinea is referred to S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and the species is here excluded from the present day list of New Guinean scolopendromorphs. Cryptops nepalensis Lewis, 1999 is here recorded from New Guinea for the first time. An annotated list and an identification key to the scolopendromorphs of the studied region are presented.

  2. Reconnaissance geologic map of Kodiak Island and adjacent islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2013-01-01

    Kodiak Island and its adjacent islands, located on the west side of the Gulf of Alaska, contain one of the largest areas of exposure of the flysch and melange of the Chugach terrane of southern Alaska. However, in the past 25 years, only detailed mapping covering small areas in the archipelago has been done. This map and its associated digital files (Wilson and others, 2005) present the best available mapping compiled in an integrated fashion. The map and associated digital files represent part of a systematic effort to release geologic map data for the United States in a uniform manner. The geologic data have been compiled from a wide variety of sources, ranging from state and regional geologic maps to large-scale field mapping. The map data are presented for use at a nominal scale of 1:500,000, although individual datasets (see Wilson and others, 2005) may contain data suitable for use at larger scales.

  3. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  4. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  5. An optimization study for viscous dampers between adjacent buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandemir-Mazanoglu, Elif Cagda; Mazanoglu, Kemal

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates optimum viscous damper capacity and number for prevention of one-sided structural pounding between two adjacent buildings under earthquake motion. The buildings assumed as shear-type structures are modeled by using lumped mass-stiffness technique. Impact forces due to pounding is simulated by nonlinear elastic spring approximation called Hertz model. A parametric study is conducted by varying storey number and stiffness of buildings in addition to the capacity of the viscous dampers. Pounding force and supplemental damping ratio for each case are presented based upon newly defined nondimensional natural frequency parameter ratio. An optimization procedure for determination of viscous damper capacity is developed based on modified supplemental damping ratio equation. Results are compared with each other to clarify the effect of variation in building parameters on pounding forces and viscous damper capacity.

  6. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  7. En bloc pancreaticoduodenectomy for right colon cancer invading adjacent organs.

    PubMed

    Berrospi, Francisco; Celis, Juan; Ruiz, Eloy; Payet, Eduardo

    2002-03-01

    Surgical treatment of colorectal cancer needs an extended resection of the tumor en block with invaded organs. There is little information about the surgical treatment of right-sided colon carcinoma directly involving duodenum and pancreas. Our objective is to report our experience with three patients who underwent en bloc pancreaticoduodenectomy and hemicolectomy for locally advanced right colon cancer. Retrospective review of clinical records of patients with colon cancer. Three patients with right colon cancer adherent to adjacent organs underwent en block surgery. No operative deaths occurred. All patients are alive without evidence of disease at 10, 30, 113 months of follow-up, respectively. Locally advanced right-sided colon cancer can be safely treated with en bloc pancreaticoduodenectomy and colectomy with excellent long-term results. Copyright 2002 Wiley--Liss, Inc.

  8. Formation of wide binary stars from adjacent cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2017-07-01

    Wide gravitationally bound pairs of stars can be formed from adjacent pre-stellar cores that happen to move slowly enough relative to each other. These binaries are remnants of primordial clustering. It is shown that the expected fraction of wide bound pairs in low-density star formation regions can be larger than the fraction of wide pairs in the field. However, wide binaries do not form or survive in dense clusters. Recent works on the separation distribution of young binaries, summarized here, confirm these expectations. Alternative formation mechanisms of wide binaries, such as cluster dissolution or unfolding of triple stars, cannot explain the large observed fraction of young wide pairs, and therefore are not dominant. The fact that more than half of the wide pairs contain subsystems matches the general multiplicity statistics and does not imply that hierarchical multiplicity and wide binaries are genetically related.

  9. 38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A MOVABLE TIRE BENDER FOR SHAPING ELI WINDMILL WHEEL RIMS. AT THE CENTER IS A FLOOR-MOUNTED CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER OF THE TYPE USED FOR SMOOTHING ROUGH CASTINGS. ON THE WHEELED WORK STATION IS A SUNNEN BUSHING GRINDER, BEHIND WHICH IS A TRIPOD CHAIN VICE. IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND IS A WOODEN CHEST OF DRAWERS WHICH CONTAINS A 'RAG DRAWER' STILL FILLED WITH CLOTH RAGS PLACED IN THE FACTORY BUILDING AT THE INSISTENCE OF LOUISE (MRS. ARTHUR) KREGEL FOR THE CONVENIENCE AND CLEANLINESS OF WORKERS. IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND IS A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  10. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's distilled...

  11. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's distilled...

  12. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's distilled...

  13. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's distilled...

  14. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  15. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  16. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  17. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  18. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  19. Effect of Fluoridated Sealants on Adjacent Tooth Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cagetti, M.G.; Carta, G.; Cocco, F.; Sale, S.; Congiu, G.; Mura, A.; Strohmenger, L.; Lingström, P.; Campus, G.

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed in 6- to 7-yr-old schoolchildren to evaluate, in a 30-mo period, whether the caries increment on the distal surface of the second primary molars adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with fluoride release compounds would be lower with respect to those adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with a nonfluoridated sealant. In sum, 2,776 subjects were enrolled and randomly divided into 3 groups receiving sealants on sound first molars: high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (GIC group); resin-based sealant with fluoride (fluoride-RB group); and a resin-based sealant without fluoride (RB group). Caries (D1 – D3 level) was recorded on the distal surface of the second primary molar, considered the unit of analysis including only sound surfaces at the baseline. At baseline, no differences in caries prevalence were recorded in the 3 groups regarding the considered surfaces. At follow-up, the prevalence of an affected unit of analysis was statistically lower (p = .03) in the GIC and fluoride-RB groups (p = .04). In the GIC group, fewer new caries were observed in the unit of analysis respect to the other 2 groups. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.68; p < .01) for GIC vs. RB and 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.04; p = .005) for fluoride-RB vs. RB. Caries incidence was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status (IRR = 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.42; p = .05). Dental sealant high-viscosity GIC and fluoride-RB demonstrated protection against dental caries, and there was evidence that these materials afforded additional protection for the tooth nearest to the sealed tooth (clinical trial registration NCT01588210). PMID:24846910

  20. Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Arising Adjacent to a Breast Implant.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Ciara; Ged, Yasser; Quinn, Fiona; Walker, Jan; Kennedy, John; Gillham, Charles; Pittaluga, Stefania; McDermott, Ronan; Vandenberghe, Elisabeth; Grant, Cliona; Flavin, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Breast implant-associated lymphoma has recently gained wide recognition. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is the most frequently diagnosed subtype in this setting but the spectrum is broadening. A 66-year-old woman developed swelling and itch around her saline implant 6 years after its insertion. Imaging revealed a fluid collection surrounding the implant with an adjacent mass. Microscopy showed sclerotic tissue punctuated by discrete cellular nodules comprising small lymphocytes, eosinophils and interspersed large atypical Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS)-like cells. The HRS-like cells stained positively for CD30 and CD15 by immunohistochemistry. Small T-lymphocytes formed rosettes around HRS-like cells. Appearances were consistent with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction demonstrated no clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes, however, a t(14;18)(q32;q21)BCL2-JH translocation involving the major breakpoint region of the bcl2 gene was present. Staging positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan revealed FDG-avid masses in the right axilla and pelvis. Subsequent pathological examination identified low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) with a t(14;18) translocation at these sites. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HL arising adjacent to a breast implant. An awareness of this diagnosis is important as classical HL, with its prominent mixed inflammatory background, may be overlooked as a reactive process when histologically assessing capsulectomy specimens. It is also important in the differential diagnosis for implant-associated ALCL as both contain large atypical CD30-positive cells highlighting the need for full immunohistochemical and molecular workup in such cases. This case also adds to the large body of literature regarding the association between HL and FL. © The Author(s) 2016.