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Sample records for adjacent coastal region

  1. Regional Jurassic geologic framework of Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent Federal waters area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    To date, numerous Jurassic hydrocarbon fields and pools have been discovered in the Cotton Valley Group, Haynesville Formation, Smackover Formation and Norphlet Formation in the tri-state area of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida, and in Alabama State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters area. Petroleum traps are basement highs, salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines and extensional faults associated with salt movement. Reservoirs include continental and marine sandstones, limestones and dolostones. Hydrocarbon types are oil, condensate and natural gas. The onshore stratigraphic and structural information can be used to establish a regional geologic framework for the Jurassic for the State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters areas. Evaluation of the geologic information along with the hydrocarbon data from the tri-state area indicates that at least three Jurassic hydrocarbon trends (oil, oil and gas condensate, and deep natural gas) can be identified onshore. These onshore hydrocarbon trends can be projected into the Mobile area in the Central Gulf of Mexico and into the Pensacola, Destin Dome and Apalachicola areas in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial reserves of natural gas are expected to be present in Alabama State waters and the northern portion of the Mobile area. Significant accumulations of oil and gas condensate may be encountered in the Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola areas. ?? 1989.

  2. Stable isotopes in juvenile marine fishes and their invertebrate prey from the Thames Estuary, UK, and adjacent coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leakey, Chris D. B.; Attrill, Martin J.; Jennings, Simon; Fitzsimons, Mark F.

    2008-04-01

    Estuaries are regarded as valuable nursery habitats for many commercially important marine fishes, potentially providing a thermal resource, refuge from predators and a source of abundant prey. Stable isotope analysis may be used to assess relative resource use from isotopically distinct sources. This study comprised two major components: (1) development of a spatial map and discriminant function model of stable isotope variation in selected invertebrate groups inhabiting the Thames Estuary and adjacent coastal regions; and (2) analysis of stable isotope signatures of juvenile bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax), sole ( Solea solea) and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) for assessment of resource use and feeding strategies. The data were also used to consider anthropogenic enrichment of the estuary and potential energetic benefits of feeding in estuarine nursery habitat. Analysis of carbon (δ 13C), nitrogen (δ 15N) and sulphur (δ 34S) isotope data identified significant differences in the 'baseline' isotopic signatures between estuarine and coastal invertebrates, and discriminant function analysis allowed samples to be re-classified to estuarine and coastal regions with 98.8% accuracy. Using invertebrate signatures as source indicators, stable isotope data classified juvenile fishes to the region in which they fed. Feeding signals appear to reflect physiological (freshwater tolerance) and functional (mobility) differences between species. Juvenile sole were found to exist as two isotopically-discrete sub-populations, with no evidence of mixing between the two. An apparent energetic benefit of estuarine feeding was only found for sole.

  3. Surface circulation in Block Island Sound and adjacent coastal and shelf regions: A FVCOM-CODAR comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yunfang; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Ullman, Dave; Butman, Bradford; Lin, Huichan

    2016-04-01

    CODAR-derived surface currents in Block Island Sound over the period of June 2000 through September 2008 were compared to currents computed using the Northeast Coastal Ocean Forecast System (NECOFS). The measurement uncertainty of CODAR-derived currents, estimated using statistics of a screened nine-year time series of hourly-averaged flow field, ranged from 3 to 7 cm/s in speed and 4° to 14° in direction. The CODAR-derived and model-computed kinetic energy spectrum densities were in good agreement at subtidal frequencies, but the NECOFS-derived currents were larger by about 28% at semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal frequencies. The short-term (hourly to daily) current variability was dominated by the semidiurnal tides (predominantly the M2 tide), which on average accounted for ∼87% of the total kinetic energy. The diurnal tidal and subtidal variability accounted for ∼4% and ∼9% of the total kinetic energy, respectively. The monthly-averaged difference between the CODAR-derived and model-computed velocities over the study area was 6 cm/s or less in speed and 28° or less in direction over the study period. An EOF analysis for the low-frequency vertically-averaged model current field showed that the water transport in the Block Island Sound region was dominated by modes 1 and 2, which accounted for 89% and 7% of the total variance, respectively. Mode 1 represented a relatively stationary spatial and temporal flow pattern with a magnitude that varied with season. Mode 2 was characterized mainly by a secondary cross-shelf flow and a relatively strong along-shelf flow. Process-oriented model experiments indicated that the relatively stationary flow pattern found in mode 1 was a result of tidal rectification and its magnitude changed with seasonal stratification. Correlation analysis between the flow and wind stress suggested that the cross-shelf water transport and its temporal variability in mode 2 were highly correlated to the surface wind forcing. The mode 2

  4. Multi-element otolith chemistry of juvenile sole ( Solea solea), whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) and European seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) in the Thames Estuary and adjacent coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leakey, Chris D. B.; Attrill, Martin J.; Fitzsimons, Mark F.

    2009-04-01

    Estuaries are regarded as valuable nursery habitats for many commercially important marine fishes, potentially providing a thermal resource, refuge from predators and a source of abundant prey. To assess the extent of estuarine use by juvenile (0+) common sole ( Solea solea), whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) and European seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) we: (1) developed techniques to distinguish between estuarine and coastally-caught juveniles using otolith chemistry; and (2) examined the accuracy with which multi-elemental signatures could re-classify juveniles to their region of collection. High-resolution solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HB-SB-ICPMS) was used to quantify 32 elements within the juvenile otoliths; 14 elements occurred above detection limits for all samples. Some elemental distributions demonstrated clear differences between estuarine and coastally-caught fish. Multivariate analysis of the otolith chemistry data resulted in 95-100% re-classification accuracy to the region of collection. Estuarine and coastal signatures were most clearly defined for sole which, compared to bass and whiting, have low mobility and are less likely to move from estuarine to coastal habitats between larval settlement and later migration to adult stocks. Sole were the only species to reveal an energetic benefit associated with an estuarine juvenile phase. The physiological ability of bass to access upper estuarine regions was consistent with some elemental data, while the high mobility and restricted range of whiting resulted in less distinct otolith chemistries.

  5. Comparison of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in plants from disturbed and adjacent undisturbed regions of a coastal salt marsh in Clinton, Connecticut, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, John C.; Lefor, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of salt marsh plant species Spartina alterniflora, S. patens, Distichlis spicata, and others were examined for the presence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Samples were taken from introduced planted material in a salt marsh restoration project and from native material in adjacent marsh areas along the Indian River, Clinton, Connecticut, USA. After ten years the replanted area still has sites devoid of vegetation. The salt marsh plants introduced there were devoid of VAM fungi, while high marsh species from the adjacent undisturbed region showed consistent infection, leading the authors to suggest that VAM fungal infection of planting stocks may be a factor in the success of marsh restoration.

  6. Particle dynamics of the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent coastal region determined by natural particle-reactive radionuclides (7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dekun; Du, Jinzhou; Moore, Willard S.; Zhang, Jing

    2013-04-01

    timescale of transport processes in estuarine and coastal regions can be evaluated using natural radionuclides with different half-lives. The distribution patterns of 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th in the water column from April to July 2008 were used to calculate the removal and residence times in the Changjiang Estuary. The results showed that the maximum particulate activities of 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th were observed approximately 150 km downstream (the turbidity maximum zone) of the freshwater end-number. The mean distribution coefficients (Kd, cm3 g-1) of the high suspended particulate matter (SPM) group are higher than those of the lower-SPM group for 7Be and 210Pb; for 234Th, the reverse is true. Based on a material balance in two-dimensional models of 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th in the Changjiang River mouth, the removal times of these nuclides were approximately 0.66-12, 1.6-21, and 1.2-5.4 days, respectively. The residence times increased toward the seaward side. In the coastal region, the removal times of 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th calculated by material balance in one-dimensional models were approximately 1.1-26, 1.2-27, and 0.70-23 days, respectively. Moreover, an enhanced resuspension process not only controlled the partitioning of 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th between the particulate and dissolved phases, but also, this process may play a dominant role in controlling the dynamic behavior of SPM in the water column compared with the advection input/output fluxes of the SPM in the river mouth areas. The removal and the resuspension fluxes were comparable in the estuary. Meanwhile, old composition (whose deposition into the seabed for a long time is enough for 7Be to decay completely) occupied only a small part in the resuspended sediment during resuspension process.

  7. Flow and transport within a coastal aquifer adjacent to a stratified water body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oz, Imri; Yechieli, Yoseph; Eyal, Shalev; Gavrieli, Ittai; Gvirtzman, Haim

    2016-04-01

    The existence of a freshwater-saltwater interface and the circulation flow of saltwater beneath the interface is a well-known phenomenon found at coastal aquifers. This flow is a natural phenomenon that occurs due to density differences between fresh groundwater and the saltwater body. The goals of this research are to use analytical, numerical, and physical models in order to examine the configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interface and the density-driven flow patterns within a coastal aquifer adjacent to long-term stratified saltwater bodies (e.g. meromictic lake). Such hydrological systems are unique, as they consist of three different water types: the regional fresh groundwater, and low and high salinity brines forming the upper and lower water layers of the stratified water body, respectively. This research also aims to examine the influence of such stratification on hydrogeological processes within the coastal aquifer. The coastal aquifer adjacent to the Dead Sea, under its possible future meromictic conditions, serves as an ideal example to examine these processes. The results show that adjacent to a stratified saltwater body three interfaces between three different water bodies are formed, and that a complex flow system, controlled by the density differences, is created, where three circulation cells are developed. These results are significantly different from the classic circulation cell that is found adjacent to non-stratified water bodies (lakes or oceans). In order to obtain a more generalized insight into the groundwater behavior adjacent to a stratified water body, we used the numerical model to perform sensitivity analysis. The hydrological system was found be sensitive to three dimensionless parameters: dimensionless density (i.e. the relative density of the three water bodies'); dimensionless thickness (i.e. the ratio between the relative thickness of the upper layer and the whole thickness of the lake); and dimensionless flux. The results

  8. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  9. 33 CFR 148.510 - What happens when a petition for exemption involves the interests of an adjacent coastal State?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exemption involves the interests of an adjacent coastal State? 148.510 Section 148.510 Navigation and... petition for exemption involves the interests of an adjacent coastal State? If the petition for exemption concerns an adjacent coastal State, the Commandant (CG-5) forwards the petition to the Governor of...

  10. 33 CFR 150.35 - How may an adjacent coastal State request an amendment to the operations manual?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How may an adjacent coastal State... § 150.35 How may an adjacent coastal State request an amendment to the operations manual? (a) An adjacent coastal State connected by pipeline to the deepwater port may petition the cognizant Captain...

  11. Numerical Simulation of Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen at Perdido Bay and Adjacent Coastal Ocean

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC), a numerical estuarine and coastal ocean circulation hydrodynamic model, was used to simulate the distribution of the salinity, temperature, nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Perdido Bay and adjacent Gulf of Mexico. External forcing fa...

  12. Seasonal dynamics of circulation in Hooghly Estuary and its adjacent coastal oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Shashank Kr.; Nayak, Gourav; Nayak, R. K.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    Hooghly is one of the major estuaries in Ganges, the largest and longest river in the Indian subcontinent. The Hooghly estuary is a coastal plain estuary lying approximately between 21°-23° N and 87°-89° E. We used a terrain following ocean model to study tide driven residual circulations, seasonal mean flow patterns and its energetics in the Hooghly estuary and adjacent coastal oceans on the north eastern continental shelf of India. The model is driven by tidal levels at open ocean end and winds at the air-sea interface. The sources of forcing fields for tides were from FES2012, winds from ECMWF. Harmonic analysis is carried out to compute the tidal and non-tidal components of currents and sea level from the model solutions. The de-tidal components were averaged for the entire period of simulation to describe residual and mean-seasonal circulations in the regions. We used tide-gauge, SARAL-ALTIKA along track sea level measurements to evaluate model solutions. Satellite measure Chla were used along with simulated currents to describe important features of the circulations in the region.

  13. NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN LOADING SOURCES FOR THREE COASTAL LAGOONS FROM ATMOSPHERIC AND WATERSHED SOURCES, ADJACENT COASTAL MARSHES, TIDAL EXCHANGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract and Oral Presentation Gulf Estuarine Research Society.

    Standing stocks and inputs of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) to three coastal lagoons, hereafter referred to as Kee's Bayou, Gongora, and State Park, with varying adjacent land-use, geomorphology, and water re...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  19. Adjacent effect and cross talk of land surfaces on coastal water in the Aster VNIR and SWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Tsutomu; Masuda, Kazuhiko; Sato, Isao; Tsuchida, Satoshi

    2002-12-01

    The adjacency effect is discussed at coastal areas of main land and peninsula using VNIR and SWIR on ASTER sensor, although the cross-talk phenomenon is apparently noted on some SWIR. The purpose of the analysis is to derive optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol. The aerosol model is in accordance to the dust-like model. This model is adopted to ASTER and MISR on Terra satellite. Data is the Atsumi Peninsula near Nagoya (34° 40'N, 134° 00'E) GMT1.55 on July 10,2000. The ASTER SWIR(1.65μm-2.395μm) cross-talk phenomenon is noted in the data. This is known as a result of a structure of ASTER sensor. It is relatively large (5-6 DN counts and 100 lines or 3km length). On the other hands, when ASTER observe heterogeneous surface of coastal water, the adjacency effect due to the scattering by atmosphere might partly be contaminated to the above effect. In the SWIR region of spectrum, molecular scattering is practically neglected. However, some aerosol model indicates strong scattering effect at SWIR wavelengths. The main results are (1) The Japan Main land indicates 6~20 times more effect than the peninsula on adjacent radiance from ocean water. (2) SWIR & VNIR exhibit similar adjacent effect which might indicate aerosol or large particles.

  20. Studying the impact of climate change on coastal aquifers and adjacent wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigter, Tibor; Ribeiro, Luís.; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Samper, Javier; Fakir, Younes; Fonseca, Luís.; Monteiro, José Paulo; Nunes, João. Pedro; Pisani, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    program, assessing the impact of climate change on coastal groundwater resources and dependent ecosystems. These resources are often intensively exploited, potentially leading to saltwater intrusion and the degradation of groundwater and dependent wetlands. Climate change may increase this problem in Mediterranean regions, due to the combined effect of rising sea levels and decreasing aquifer recharge. CLIMWAT aims to address this problem by employing a multimethodological approach involving climate scenarios, surface and groundwater flow and transport modeling, as well as hydrochemical indicator and ecological diversity indices. Research is performed in three coastal areas: the Central Algarve in Portugal, the Ebro delta in Spain and the Atlantic Sahel in Morocco. The mean annual temperatures are 17.4 ° C, 17.2 ° C and 17.5 ° C, respectively, whereas mean annual rainfall is lower in the Atlantic Sahel (390 mm) than in the Ebro Delta (520 mm) and the Central Algarve (660 mm). Work package (WP) 1 involves the collection of existing data (in a GIS environment), baseline characterization and the selection of monitoring locations. These include wells and springs of official (water level/quality) monitoring networks, as well as additional observation points selected at strategic locations, including the wetlands receiving groundwater and adjacent aquifer sectors. In WP2 the climate scenarios are selected and integrated in hydrological models (SWAT, GISBALAN), which are developed and calibrated with existing data, prior to scenario modeling. The main focus of this WP is to estimate the evolution of surface runoff and groundwater recharge under climate change. Data on climate change scenarios and model projections are compiled from: (i) the PRUDENCE project; (ii) the ENSEMBLES project; (iii) IPCC scenarios and projections, AR4; (iv) AEMet (Spanish Meteorological Agency) for generation of regional scenarios of climate change in Spain. For Morocco, where runoff is

  1. An interdisciplinary study of the estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The synoptic repetitive coverage of the multispectral imagery from the ERTS-1 satellite, when photographically reprocessed using the state-of-the-art techniques, has given indication of spectral differences in Block Island and adjacent New England waters which were heretofore unknown. Of particular interest was the possible detection of relatively small amounts of phytoplankton prior to the occurrence of the red tide in Massachusetts waters. Preparation of spatial and temporal hydrographic charts using ERTS-1 imagery and ground truth analysis will hopefully determine the environmental impact on New York coastal waters.

  2. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  3. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  4. Seismic Monitoring Capabilities of the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Tsunami Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurel, Jean-Marie; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Crespo, Hector; McNamara, Dan; Huerfano, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions during the past 500 years. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Hundreds of thousands are currently threatened along the Caribbean coastlines. In 2005 the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established. It recommended the following minimum seismic performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of <30 km. The implementation plan of the CARIBE EWS currently includes 115 seismic stations in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions. The NOAA National Weather Service Caribbean Tsunami Warning Program prepares and distributes monthly reports on real time and archived seismic data availability of the contributing stations at the US Tsunami Warning Centers, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network and IRIS. As of early 2014, 99 of the proposed stations are being contributed by national, regional and international seismological institutions. Recent network additions (Nicaragua, Colombia, Mexico, Cayman Islands, and Venezuela) have reduced detection threshold, time and location error throughout much of the Caribbean region and Central America. Specifically, earthquakes (>M4.0) can be detected within 1 minute throughout much of the Caribbean. The remaining exceptions to this standard for detection are portions of northern South America and Mexico. Another performance criterion is 90% data availability. Currently 60-70% of the stations meet this standard. The presentation will further report on the status of the CARIBE EWS seismic capability for the timely and accurate detection and analysis of earthquakes for tsunami warning purposes for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions.

  5. Soil Carbon Storage and Turnover in an Old-Growth Coastal Redwood Forest and Adjacent Prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, K. J.; Torn, M. S.; Mambelli, S.; Dawson, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests store lots of carbon in aboveground tree biomass because redwoods are very long-lived and can grow very large. Redwood is known for its high resistance to decay, a result of high levels of aromatic compounds (tannins) in the tree’s tissues. We tested the hypothesis that because coastal redwoods are highly productive and produce organic matter that is chemically resistant to decay, old-growth redwood forests should store large amounts of stabilized soil carbon. We measured soil C storage to 110 cm depth in an old-growth coastal redwood forest and used physical soil fractionation combined with radiocarbon measurements to determine soil organic matter turnover time. In addition, we measured soil C storage and turnover at an adjacent prairie experiencing the same climate and with soils derived from the same parent material. We found larger soil C stocks to 110 cm at the prairie (350 Mg C ha-1) than the redwood forest (277 Mg C ha-1) even with O-horizons included for the forest. Larger N stocks were also observed at the prairie than the redwood and these differences in stocks were driven by higher C and N concentrations in mineral soils at the prairie. Differences between ecosystems in soil C and N concentrations, C:N ratios, and C and N stocks were observed for the top 50 cm only, suggesting that the influence of the different litter types did not extend to deeper soils. Contrary to what was expected, bulk soil and heavy density-fraction Δ14C values were higher, indicating shorter turnover times, for the redwood forest than the prairie. In summary, we did not observe greater C storage or 14C-based turnover times in old-growth redwood forest compared to adjacent prairie, suggesting chemical recalcitrance of litter inputs does not drive soil C stabilization at these ecosystems.

  6. Influence of intermittent estuary outflow on coastal sediments of adjacent sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Jessica L.; Quinn, Gerry P.; Matthews, Ty G.; Barton, Jan; Bellgrove, Alecia

    2011-03-01

    Outflows from estuaries potentially contribute to the productivity of adjacent coastal waters, although most previous work has been on estuaries with considerable river discharge. We investigated the influence of estuary outflow on aspects of coastal sediments adjacent to two seasonally intermittent estuaries, the Curdies and Anglesea Rivers, in southwest Victoria, Australia. For each estuary, we measured sediment organic matter, microphytobenthic chlorophyll a and microbial utilization of carbon sources at three locations associated with each estuary: (1) inside estuary mouth, (2) estuary swash and (3) control swash (an open beach distant from any estuarine influences). Sampling occurred one week before and at one and nine weeks after both an artificial mouth opening and a separate natural flood at both estuaries. Significant temporal changes were detected for all three variables at the estuary mouth and estuary swash but the direction of change was inconsistent across the two estuaries and between the artificial mouth opening and natural flood. Organic matter in both estuaries showed no difference after the artificial mouth openings. Only Anglesea showed an increase in organic matter in the estuary mouth and estuary swash after the floods. Microphytobenthic chlorophyll a concentrations were highest when the estuary mouths were closed. Concentrations decreased at all locations at Curdies after the mouth was artificially opened. The estuary mouth at Anglesea sustained high chlorophyll concentrations and the estuary swash increased one week post artificial opening. The flood event resulted in an increase in chlorophyll a at the estuary mouth and swash at both estuaries, one week post flood. At Curdies, the microbial utilization of different carbon sources changed after both mouth events; estuary mouth and estuary swash showed similar patterns at one and nine weeks post opening. At Anglesea, the bacteria utilized different carbon sources between locations and the

  7. Tsunami Ready Recognition Program for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Launched in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Hinds, K.; Aliaga, B.; Brome, A.; Lopes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions over the past 500 years with 4,561 associated deaths according to the NOAA Tsunami Database. The most recent devastating tsunamis occurred in 1946 in Dominican Republic; 1865 died. With the explosive increase in residents, tourists, infrastructure, and economic activity along the coasts, the potential for human and economic loss is enormous. It has been estimated that on any day, more than 500,000 people in the Caribbean could be in harm's way just along the beaches, with hundreds of thousands more working and living in the tsunamis hazard zones. In 2005 the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission established the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG CARIBE EWS) to coordinate tsunami efforts among the 48 participating countries in territories in the region. In addition to monitoring, modeling and communication systems, one of the fundamental components of the warning system is community preparedness, readiness and resilience. Over the past 10 years 49 coastal communities in the Caribbean have been recognized as TsunamiReady® by the US National Weather Service (NWS) in the case of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands and jointly by UNESCO and NWS in the case of the non US jurisdictions of Anguilla and the British Virgin Islands. In response to the positive feedback of the implementation of TsunamiReady, the ICG CARIBE EWS in 2015 recommended the approval of the guidelines for a Community Performance Based Recognition program. It also recommended the adoption of the name "Tsunami Ready", which has been positively consulted with the NWS. Ten requirements were established for recognition and are divided among Preparedness, Mitigation and Response elements which were adapted from the proposed new US TsunamiReady guidelines and align well with emergency management functions. Both a

  8. FISH-MEDIATED NUTRIENT AND ENERGY EXCHANGE BETWEEN A LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND AND ITS ADJACENT BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little has been done to quantify fluxes of organisms, nutrients, and energy between freshwater coastal habitats and adjacent offshore waters or to evaluate the ecological implications of these exchanges on a whole-lake basis. To test the hypothesis that fish-mediated transport m...

  9. Best Merge Region Growing Segmentation with Integrated Non-Adjacent Region Object Aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Tarabalka, Yuliya; Montesano, Paul M.; Gofman, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Best merge region growing normally produces segmentations with closed connected region objects. Recognizing that spectrally similar objects often appear in spatially separate locations, we present an approach for tightly integrating best merge region growing with non-adjacent region object aggregation, which we call Hierarchical Segmentation or HSeg. However, the original implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg required excessive computing time even for moderately sized images because of the required intercomparison of each region with all other regions. This problem was previously addressed by a recursive approximation of HSeg, called RHSeg. In this paper we introduce a refined implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg that reduces the computational requirements of HSeg without resorting to the recursive approximation. In this refinement, HSeg s region inter-comparisons among non-adjacent regions are limited to regions of a dynamically determined minimum size. We show that this refined version of HSeg can process moderately sized images in about the same amount of time as RHSeg incorporating the original HSeg. Nonetheless, RHSeg is still required for processing very large images due to its lower computer memory requirements and amenability to parallel processing. We then note a limitation of RHSeg with the original HSeg for high spatial resolution images, and show how incorporating the refined HSeg into RHSeg overcomes this limitation. The quality of the image segmentations produced by the refined HSeg is then compared with other available best merge segmentation approaches. Finally, we comment on the unique nature of the hierarchical segmentations produced by HSeg.

  10. Quantifying 10 years of Improvements in Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; McNamara, D. E.; Saurel, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude-9.3 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness to the destructive hazard of earthquakes and tsunamis. Post event assessments of global coastline vulnerability highlighted the Caribbean as a region of high hazard and risk and that it was poorly monitored. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region and Adjacent Regions in the past 500 years and continue to pose a threat for its nations, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North and South America. Significant efforts to improve monitoring capabilities have been undertaken since this time including an expansion of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Global Seismographic Network (GSN) (McNamara et al., 2006) and establishment of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Intergovernmental Coordination Group (ICG) for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). The minimum performance standards it recommended for initial earthquake locations include: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of <30 km. In this study, we assess current compliance with performance standards and model improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring capabilities in the Caribbean region since the first meeting of the UNESCO ICG-Caribe EWS in 2006. The three measures of network capability modeled in this study are: 1) minimum Mw detection threshold; 2) P-wave detection time of an automatic processing system and; 3) theoretical earthquake location uncertainty. By modeling three measures of seismic network capability, we can optimize the distribution of ICG-Caribe EWS seismic stations and select an international network that will be contributed from existing real-time broadband national networks in the region. Sea level monitoring improvements both offshore and

  11. The ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Strandzha Mountain and adjacent coastal territories (Bulgaria and Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Guéorguiev, Borislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The knowledge of the ground-beetle fauna of Strandzha is currently incomplete, and is largely based on data from the Bulgarian part of the region and on records resulting from casual collecting. This study represents a critical revision of the available literature, museum collections and a three years field study of the carabid beetles of the Bulgarian and Turkish parts of Strandzha Mountain and the adjacent Black Sea Coast territories. New information A total of 328 species and subspecies of Carabidae, belonging to 327 species from the region of Strandzha Mountain and adjacent seacoast area, have been listed. Of these, 77 taxa represent new records for the Bulgarian part of the region, and 110 taxa new records for Turkish part of the studied region. Two taxa, one subgenus (Haptotapinus Reitter, 1886) and one species (Pterostichus crassiusculus), are new to the fauna of Bulgaria. Based on a misidentification, the species Apotomus testaceus is excluded from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. Seven species (Carabus violaceus azurescens, Apotomus rufus, Platynus proximus, Molops alpestris kalofericus, M. dilatatus angulicollis, Pterostichus merklii, and Calathus metallicus) are treated as doubtful for the regional fauna, and one (Apotomus rufus) also for the Bulgarian fauna. Altogether, 43 taxa collected in the Turkish part of the region are new for European Turkey. New taxa for Turkey are the genera Myas and Oxypselaphus, the subgenus Feronidius, and nine species and subspecies (Carabus granulatus granulatus, Dyschirius tristis, Bembidion normannum apfelbecki, B. subcostatum vau, Acupalpus exiguus, Myas chalybaeus, Oxypselaphus obscurus, Pterostichus leonisi, Pt. melas). In addition, there are a further seven species that are here confirmed for Turkey. PMID:27099564

  12. Aquaculture-derived enrichment of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in coastal sediments of Hong Kong and adjacent mainland China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Cheng, Zhang; Du, Jun; Man, Yu-Bon; Leung, Ho-Man; Giesy, John P; Wong, Chris K C; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate contamination of sediments along the coast of Hong Kong and adjacent mainland China, concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in surface and core sediments were measured in six mariculture zones. In surface sediments (0 to 5 cm), concentrations of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs in mariculture sediments were approximately 1.3- and 7.7-fold greater, respectively, than those detected in sediments at corresponding reference sites, which were 1 to 2 km away in areas where there was no mariculture. Similarly, in cores of sediments, concentrations of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs were 1.2- and 14-fold greater in mariculture zones, respectively. Enrichment relative to regional background concentrations, expressed as percentages was as large as 8.67 × 10(3)% for o,p'-DDD. The major sources of the enriched organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were hypothesized to be derived from the use of contaminated fish feeds and anti-fouling paints for maintaining fish cages. Results of ecological risk assessments revealed that enriched OCPs had a large potential to contaminate the surrounding marine environment and lead to adverse effects on the associated biota. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the differences of OCP contaminations between mariculture and natural coastal sediments.

  13. Subsurface geology of upper Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, coastal Louisiana and adjacent Continental Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlan, E. Jr.; Leroy, D.O.

    1988-09-01

    Upper Tertiary and Quaternary deposits thicken seaward from a feather edge on the outcrop in the uplands of southern Louisiana to more than 7000 ft (2134 m) beneath the middle continental shelf. Through a study of cores and cuttings from 100 control wells and electric-log pattern correlations from 350 water and petroleum industry wells with seismic corroboration in the offshore area, these deposits have been divided into six major time-stratigraphic units, four of which correlate to outcropping terraces. This investigation presents a regional stratigraphic framework of the major upper Tertiary and Quaternary units from their updip pinch-outs in and beneath the terraced uplands, into the subsurface, across the coastal plain to the Louisiana offshore area.

  14. Evaluation of ground-water contribution to streamflow in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Priest, Sherlyn

    2004-01-01

    Stream-aquifer relations in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and South Carolina were evaluated as part of the Coastal Georgia Sound Science Initiative, the Georgia Environmental Protection Division's strategy to protect the Upper Floridan aquifer from saltwater intrusion. Ground-water discharge to streams was estimated using three methods: hydrograph separation, drought-streamflow measurements, and linear-regression analysis of streamflow duration. Ground-water discharge during the drought years of 1954, 1981, and 2000 was analyzed for minimum ground-water contribution to streamflow. Hydrograph separation was used to estimate baseflow at eight streamflow gaging stations during the 31-year period 1971?2001. Six additional streamflow gaging stations were evaluated using linear-regression analysis of flow duration to determine mean annual baseflow. The study area centers on three major river systems ? the Salkehatchie?Savannah?Ogeechee, Altamaha?Satilla?St Marys, and Suwannee ? that interact with the underlying ground-water system to varying degrees, largely based on the degree of incision of the river into the aquifer and on the topography. Results presented in this report are being used to calibrate a regional ground-water flow model to evaluate ground-water flow and stream-aquifer relations of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Hydrograph separation indicated decreased baseflow to streams during drought periods as water levels declined in the aquifer. Average mean annual baseflow ranged from 39 to 74 percent of mean annual streamflow, with a mean contribution of 58 percent for the period 1971?2001. In a wet year (1997), baseflow composed from 33 to 70 percent of mean annual streamflow. Drought-streamflow analysis estimated baseflow contribution to streamflow ranged from 0 to 24 percent of mean annual streamflow. Linear-regression analysis of streamflow duration estimated the Q35 (flow that is equaled or exceeded 35 percent of the time) as the most

  15. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year

  16. Conserved termini and adjacent variable region of Twortlikevirus Staphylococcus phages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianglilan; Kang, Huaixing; Li, Yuyuan; Liu, Xiaodong; Yang, Yu; Li, Shasha; Pei, Guangqian; Sun, Qiang; Shu, Peng; Mi, Zhiqiang; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Zhiyi; Liu, Yannan; An, Xiaoping; Xu, Xiaolu; Tong, Yigang

    2015-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an increasing cause of serious infection, both in the community and hospital settings. Despite sophisticated strategies and efforts, the antibiotic options for treating MRSA infection are narrowing because of the limited number of newly developed antimicrobials. Here, four newly-isolated MRSA-virulent phages, IME-SA1, IMESA2, IME-SA118 and IME-SA119, were sequenced and analyzed. Their genome termini were identified using our previously proposed "termini analysis theory". We provide evidence that remarkable conserved terminus sequences are found in IME-SA1/2/118/119, and, moreover, are widespread throughout Twortlikevirus Staphylococcus phage G1 and K species. Results also suggested that each phage of the two species has conserved 5' terminus while the 3' terminus is variable. More importantly, a variable region with a specific pattern was found to be present near the conserved terminus of Twortlikevirus S. phage G1 species. The clone with the longest variable region had variable terminus lengths in successive generations, while the clones with the shortest variable region and with the average length variable region maintained the same terminal length as themselves during successive generations. IME-SA1 bacterial infection experiments showed that the variation is not derived from adaptation of the phage to different host strains. This is the first study of the conserved terminus and variable region of Twortlikevirus S. phages.

  17. Geologic framework of the offshore region adjacent to Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, R.N.; Roberts, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Several multichannel, common depth point (CDP) seismic reflection profiles concentrated in the area of the entrance to Delaware Bay provide a tie between the known onshore geology of the Coastal Plain of Delaware and the offshore geology of the Baltimore Canyon Trough. The data provide a basis for understanding the geologic framework and petroleum resource potential of the area immediately offshore Delaware. Our research has focused on buried early Mesozoic rift basins and their geologic history. Assuming that the buried basins are analogous to the exposed Newark Supergroup basins of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic age, the most likely possibility for occurrence of hydrocarbon source beds in the area of the landward margin of the Baltimore Canyon Trough is presumed to be lacustrine, organic-rich shales probably present in the basins. Although buried basins mapped offshore Delaware are within reach of drilling, no holes have been drilled to date; therefore, direct knowledge of source, reservoir, and sealing beds is absent. Buried rift basins offshore Delaware show axial trends ranging from NW-SE to NNE-SSW. Seismic reflection profiles are too widely spaced to delineate basin boundaries accurately. Isopleths of two-way travel time representing basin fill suggest that, structurally, the basins are grabens and half-grabens. As shown on seismic reflection profiles, bounding faults of the basins intersect or merge with low-angle fault surfaces that cut the pre-Mesozoic basement. The rift basins appear to have formed by Mesozoic extension that resulted in reverse motion on reactivated basement thrust faults that originated from compressional tectonics during the Paleozoic. Computer-plotted structure contour maps derived from analysis of seismic reflection profiles provide information on the burial history of the rift basins. The postrift unconformity bevels the rift basins and, in the offshore area mapped, ranges from 2000 to 12,000 m below present sea level. The oldest

  18. Pollution status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenglong; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Zhao, Yifei; Yu, Wenwen; Li, Yali; Song, Qiaochu

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mainly produced by incomplete combustion and are used as indicators of anthropogenic activities on the environment. This study analyses the PAHs level in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE), an important component of Yangtze River and a developed and populated region in China. Surface sediments were collected from 77 sites at the YRE and its adjacent coastal zone (IACZ) for a comprehensive study of PAHs. Kriging interpolation technology and Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model were applied to explore the spatial distribution and sources of PAHs. Concentrations of 16 PAHs (ΣPAHs) varied from 27.2 ng g(-1) to 621.6 ng g(-1) dry weight, with an average value of 158.2 ng g(-1). Spatially, ΣPAHs exhibited wide fluctuation and exhibited an increasing tendency from north to south. In addition, ΣPAHs exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing distance between the estuary and IACZ. The deposition flux of PAHs indicated that more than 107.8 t a(-1) PAHs was deposited in the study area annually. The results of the PMF model revealed that anthropogenic activities were the main sources of PAHs in the study area. Vehicle emissions and marine engines were the most important sources and accounted for 40.9% of the pollution. Coal combustion, petrogenic sources, and wood combustion were other sources that contributed 23.9%, 23.6%, and 11.5%, respectively. The distribution patterns of PAHs in the YRE and IACZ were influenced by many complicated factors such as sediment grain size, hydrodynamics and so on. PMID:27485799

  19. Seasonal dynamics of particulate organic matter in the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent coastal waters illustrated by amino acid enantiomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ying; Liu, Zongguang; Hu, Jun; Zhu, Zhuoyi; Liu, Sumei; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Total suspended matter (TSM) was collected in the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent areas of the East China Sea in July, August, and November 2011, to study the composition and fate of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) during an August typhoon event and bottom trawling activities. Concentrations of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN), and hydrolyzable particulate amino acids (PAA, D- and L-enantiomers) were higher during July and August than during November; however, D-arginine and alanine levels were significantly higher in November. Seasonal trends in the composition of PAAs indicate that in situ production is a key factor in their temporal distribution. No significant increase in TSM or decrease in labile organic matter was observed during the transit period following a typhoon event in August. In contrast, higher primary production was observed at this time as a result of the penetration of Changjiang Diluted Water caused by the typhoon event. Trawling effects were studied by comparing the calm season (July) with the bottom-trawling period (November) at similar sampling sites. The effect of trawling on the composition of bottom organic matter was studied by comparing D-amino acids concentrations and C/N ratios in the calm season (July) with the bottom-trawling period (November). A substantial contribution of microbial organic matter during the November cruise was indicated by a decrease in glutamic acid, an increase in TSM and D-alanine, and a lower carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio. In shallow coastal regions, anthropogenic activities (bottom trawling) may enhance the transfer of low-nutritional-value particulate organic matter into the benthic food chain.

  20. Simulation of Integrated Surface-Water/Ground-Water Flow and Salinity for a Coastal Wetland and Adjacent Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, Christian D.; Swain, Eric D.; Melinda A., Wolfert

    2004-01-01

    The SWIFT2D surface-water flow and transport code, which solves the St. Venant equations in two dimensions, was coupled with the SEAWAT variable-density ground-water code to represent hydrologic processes in coastal wetlands and adjacent estuaries. The integrated code was applied to the southern Everglades of Florida to quantify flow and salinity patterns and to evaluate effects of hydrologic processes. Results indicate that most surface water within Taylor Slough flows through Joe Bay and into Florida Bay through Trout Creek. Overtopping of the Buttonwood Embankment, a narrow but continuous ridge that separates the coastal wetlands from Florida Bay, does occur in response to tropical storms, but the net overflow is only 1.5 percent of creek discharge. The net leakage rate for the coastal wetland is about zero with nearly equal upward (17.1 cm/yr) and downward (17.4 cm/yr) rates. During the dry season, the coastal wetland increases in salinity to 30-35 practical salinity units but is flushed each year with the onset of the wet season. Model results demonstrate that surface-water/ground-water interactions, density-dependent flow, and wind affect flow and salinity patterns.

  1. Regional tectonics of Myanmar (Burma) and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.R.; Russell, O.R.; Staskowski, R.J.; Loyd, S.P.; Tabbutt, V.M. ); Dolan, Stein, A. )

    1990-05-01

    Analysis of 38 contiguous Landsat Multispectral Scanner scenes acquired over Myanmar (Burma) reveals numerous large-scale features associated with margins of the Burman plate, previously unidentified northeast-southwest-trending discontinuities, important extensions of previously mapped fault trends, and numerous structural features that appear favorable for petroleum exploration. A mosaic of these scenes at 1:1,000,000 scale shows a large number of tectonic elements and their spatial relationships. Within the area of investigation are portions of the Indian, Burman, Lhasa, and Shan-Thai plates, and perhaps other, smaller plates. The Himalayan front and Indo-Burman Ranges manifest effects of current and recently past plate movement. The complexity of the kinematic history accounts for the diversity of structural features in the area. The last major event in this long and violent saga, which began in middle Miocene (approximately 11 Ma) time and continues to the present, is the recent change from a collisional to a right-lateral strike-slip transform margin between the Indian and Burman plates. The complexity of the structures visible is the product of multiple plate collisions, rotation of the Indian plate and parts of the Asian plate, and long-continued convergence that changed velocity and direction tbrough time. The most obvious evidence of this complexity, which is immediately apparent on geologic maps or the Landsat mosaic of the region, is the almost right-angle relationship of the folds of the Indo-Burman Ranges and the frontal thrusts and suture zones of the Himalaya. These two sets of compressive features imply maximum compressive stress axes that lie at right angles to each other. The implications are either that the orientation of the stress field changes rapidly over a short distance or that the stress field has changed through time. Both occurrences seem to be true.

  2. Phaneorozoic sequence stratigraphy of Bolivia and adjacent regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sempere, T. )

    1993-02-01

    Phaneorozoic sequence stratigraphy of the Pacific margin of western South America, particularly the Bolivian section, has been completed and new interpretations and hypotheses have been proposed as a result of data analyses of this information. The Paleozoic margin was initially passive (late Cambrian-Llanvirn, [open quotes]Puna aulacogen[close quotes]), but became active during a middle Ordovician compressional episode. Most of late Cambrian to early Triassic Bolivian rocks are of marine origin, with dark shale units recording sea level rises, whereas middle Triassic to Recent rocks were mainly deposited in continental environments (except six restricted-marine ingressions in the late Cretaceous-Danian, and one in the late Miocene, all with hydrocarbon potential). A noteworthy similarity exists between the Devonian to Jurassic stratigraphies of Bolivia and the Parana basin, suggesting that Bolivia behaved as part of the Brazilian craton from late Cambrian to late Jurassic, when it was captured into the Pacific margin geotectonic system. Organic-rich units correlate with Paleozoic highstand deposits and younger ingressions. The Bolivian Phanerozoic strata is characterized by thick layers, partly due to middle Ordovician-Carboniferous and late Cretaceous-Cenozoic foreland basins. Paleozoic foreland geometries include northeastern onlaps and, potentially, stratigraphic traps. Hydrocarbon generation, migration and trapping mainly depended on Cenozoic structural loading and burial and on propagation of Andean deformation which are comprised of Paleozoic shale decollements. Precise knowledge of the evolution of the Phanerozoic geodynamic contexts and basin geometries through sedimentation and subsequent deformations is crucial for hydrocarbon exploration strategies in these regions.

  3. 78 FR 14411 - Notice of Proposed Policy Clarification Concerning Designation of Adjacent Coastal States for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... internal waters, to a belt of sea adjacent to its coast, described as a territorial sea.'' \\10\\ Article 24... environment, waters of the contiguous zone, and waters of the high seas.'' \\9\\ \\7\\ 33 U.S.C. 1501(1)&(2). \\8... designation of an ACS should be measured. Article 1 of the Convention on the Territorial Sea and...

  4. Degradation capability of the coastal environment adjacent to the Itata River in central Chile (36.5° S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, S.; Gutiérrez, M. H.; Ampuero, P.; Tejos, E.

    2011-08-01

    The response of the coastal ocean influenced by both river discharges and inputs of photosynthetically derived organic carbon product of upwelling, was evaluated by estimating rates of microbial hydrolysis of macromolecules with the goal of estimating the potential degradation capability of the coastal ecosystem off central Chile. Extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) in seawater was dominated by aminopeptidase activity on substrate L-leucine-4-methyl-7-coumarinylamide (MCA-leu) (1.2 to 182 nmol l-1 h-1) followed by 4-methylumbelliferyl-ß-D-glucoside (MUF-glu) (0.08-61 nmol l-1 h-1) and 4-methylumbelliferyl-ß-D-cellobiose (MUF-cel) (0.15-7 nmol l-1 h-1), with the highest rates measured during spring-summer. In riverine waters, extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis remained within the range of 45 to 131 nmol l-1 h-1 for MCA-leu and ca. 20 nmol l-1 h-1 for glucosidic substrates, year-round. Contrary to the EEA observed for the marine water column, surface sediment extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of MCA-leu (0.04 to 6.13 nmol g-1 dw h-1) was in the same order of magnitude as the rates observed for MUF-cel (0.004 to 5.1 nmol g-1 dw h-1) and MUF-glu (0.007 to 10.5 nmol g-1 dw h-1). Moreover, hydrolysis in sediments was characterized by higher rates during winter compared with spring-summer in the coastal and estuarine zone. The five years of data allowed us to evaluate the potential capability of microbial processing of organic carbon in the coastal area adjacent to the Itata river discharge where the increase in primary production in the productive seasons is accompanied by the increase in hydrolysis of macromolecules.

  5. Degradation capability of the coastal environment adjacent to the Itata River in central Chile (36.5° S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, S.; Gutiérrez, M. H.; Ampuero, P.; Tejos, E.

    2011-02-01

    The response of the coastal ocean influenced by both river discharges and inputs of photosynthetically derived organic carbon product of upwelling, was evaluated by estimating rates of microbial hydrolysis of macromolecules with the goal of estimating the degradation capability of the coastal ecosystem off central Chile. Extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis in seawater was dominated by aminopeptidase activity on substrate MCA-leu (1.2 to 182 nM h-1), which surpassed that of substrates MUF-glu (0.08-61 nM h-1) and MUF-cel (0.15-6.8 nM h-1), with the fastest rates measured during spring-summer. In riverine waters, extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis remained within the range of 45 to 131 nM h-1 for MCA-leu and ca. 20 nM h-1 for glucosidic substrates, year-round. Contrary to the observed for the marine water column, surface sediment extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of MCA-leu (0.04 to 6.13 nmol gdw-1 h-1) was in the same order of magnitude as the rates observed for MUF-cel (0.004 to 2.58 nmol gdw-1 h-1) and MUF-glu (0.007 to 10.5 nmol gdw-1 h-1). Moreover, hydrolysis was characterized by higher rates during winter compared with spring-summer in the coastal and estuarine zone. The five years of data allowed us to construct a carbon budget for winter and spring-summer in the coastal area adjacent to the Itata River discharge. The comparison of fluxes evidenced a deficit of photosynthetic carbon to fuel extracellular hydrolysis in the water column during both periods (winter 20% and spring-summer 35%). We estimated that the Itata River is a feasible source of dissolved organic carbon, specially during winter, in the form of macromolecules, although non-focal sources may be also significant for the area.

  6. Overview of the Pre-YMC2015 campaign over the southwestern coastal land and adjacent sea of Sumatera Island, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shuichi; Katsumata, Masaki; Yoneyama, Kunio; Suzuki, Kenji; Hayati, Noer; Syamsudin, Fadli

    2016-04-01

    An international research project named Years of the Maritime Continent (YMC) is planned during 2017-2019 to expedite the progress of improving understanding and prediction of local multi-scale variability of the Maritime Continent (MC) weather-climate system and its global impact through observations and modeling exercises. We carried out a campaign observation over the southwestern coastal land and adjacent sea of Sumatera Island, Indonesia, during November-December 2015 as a pilot study of the YMC to examine land-ocean coupling processes in mechanisms of coastal heavy rain band (CHeR) along Sumatera Island and further potential scientific themes in the coming YMC. We deployed two land observation sites at Bengkulu city (3.86S, 102.34E) in the southwestern coast of Sumatera Island with various kinds of instruments including an X-band dual polarimetric (DP) radar and a C-band Doppler radar, and the R/V Mirai approximately 50 km southwest (4.07S, 101.90E) of the land stations with a C-band DP radar. We made 3 hourly soundings at Bengkulu and the R/V Mirai during 09 November - 25 December (47 days) and 24 November - 17 December (24 days), respectively. In addition, 18 videosondes observations, which could identify precipitation particles by an onboard camera in and out of rainclouds, were performed under heavy rainfall condition to examine cloud microphysical processes as well as simultaneous RHI observations with the Mirai DP radar. Whereas rainfall amount during the period was less than that of climatological view due to the Godzilla El-Nino event in this rainy season, we found concrete diurnal variation with thunderstorms in the evening along the foothills of coastal land and widely spread stratiform precipitation mainly over the adjacent sea due to the passage of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) convection with strong westerly wind in the lower troposphere during the former and latter halves of the campaign period, respectively. Diurnally developed thunderstorms

  7. Editorial: Eutrophication and hypoxia and their impacts on the ecosystem of the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Xiao, Tian; Huang, Daji; Liu, Su Mei; Fang, Jianguang

    2016-02-01

    The Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary plays an important role in the land-ocean interactions of East Asia, particularly in regard to the fate of land-derived materials and their impact on marine ecosystems in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The 12 papers included in this special issue describe results from the MEcoPAM Study, an IMBER-China project, which occurred in 2011-2015. This project used a multi-disciplinary approach to understand ecosystem function of the Changjiang Estuary in response to multiple stressors (i.e. combined external forcings). The results presented here show that human activities in the watersheds have greatly changed the flux and variation of dissolved and particulate materials from the river. Further interactions between the Changjiang Watersheds and the East China Sea can dramatically modify the pathways of biogeochemistry and food web dynamics of the estuary and adjacent coastal environment at seasonal and inter-annual scales.

  8. Microbial water quality before and after the repair of a failing onsite wastewater treatment system adjacent to coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Habteselassie, M.Y.; Denene, Blackwood A.; Noble, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The objective was to assess the impacts of repairing a failing onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS, i.e., septic system) as related to coastal microbial water quality. Methods and Results: Wastewater, groundwater and surface water were monitored for environmental parameters, faecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and the viral tracer MS2 before and after repairing a failing OWTS. MS2 results using plaque enumeration and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) often agreed, but inhibition limited the qRT-PCR assay sensitivity. Prerepair, MS2 persisted in groundwater and was detected in the nearby creek; postrepair, it was not detected. In groundwater, total coliform concentrations were lower and E.??coli was not detected, while enterococci concentrations were similar to prerepair levels. E.??coli and enterococci surface water concentrations were elevated both before and after the repair. Conclusions: Repairing the failing OWTS improved groundwater microbial water quality, although persistence of bacteria in surface water suggests that the OWTS was not the singular faecal contributor to adjacent coastal waters. A suite of tracers is needed to fully assess OWTS performance in treating microbial contaminants and related impacts on receiving waters. Molecular methods like qRT-PCR have potential but require optimization. Significance and Impact of Study: This is the first before and after study of a failing OWTS and provides guidance on selection of microbial tracers and methods. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology ?? 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Paleoenvironments and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation of southwestern Alabama and adjacent coastal water area

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1984-09-01

    Upper Jurassic Norphlet sediments in southwestern Alabama and the adjacent coastal water area accumulated under arid climatic conditions. The Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States extended into southwestern Alabama, providing a barrier for air and water circulation during Norphlet deposition. Norphlet paleogeography was dominated by a broad desert plain rimmed to the north and east by the Appalachians and to the south by a developing shallow sea. Initiation of Norphlet sedimentation was a result of erosion of the southern Appalachians. Norphlet conglomerates were deposited in coalescing alluvial fans in proximity to an Appalachian source. The conglomeratic sandstones grade downdip into red-bed lithofacies that accumulated in distal portions of alluvial fan and wadi systems. Quartzose sandstones (Denkman Member) were deposited as dune and interdune sediments on a broad desert plain. The source of the sand was the updip and adjacent alluvial fan, plain, and wadi deposits. A marine transgression was initiated late in Denkman deposition, resulting in the reworking of previously deposited Norphlet sediments. Norphlet hydrocarbon potential in southwestern and offshore Alabama is excellent with four oil and gas fields already established. Petroleum traps discovered to date are primarily structural traps involving salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines, and extensional fault traps associated with salt movement. Reservoir rocks consist of quartzose sandstones, which are principally eolian in origin. Smackover algal carbonate mudstones were probably the source for the Norphlet hydrocarbons.

  10. Fluorescent whitening agents in Tokyo Bay and adjacent rivers: their application as anthropogenic molecular markers in coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuko; Managaki, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige

    2002-08-15

    Two kinds of stilbene-type fluorescent whitening agents (i.e., DSBP and DAS1), minor components of laundry detergents, were analyzed in surface waters of Tokyo Bay and adjacent rivers and in sewage effluents to examine their usefulness as molecular markers in the marine environment. Sensitive determination using HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) with fluorescence detection with postcolumn UV radiator was employed. DSBP and DAS1 were found in Tokyo rivers at concentrations of a few microg/L and approximately 1 microg/L, respectively. DSBP and DAS1 were widely distributed in Tokyo Bay waters at concentrations in the range of 0.019-0.264 microg/L and 0.021-0.127 microg/L, respectively. Comparison of these concentrations with those in sewage effluents (DSBP: 8 microg/L and DAS1: 2.5 microg/L on average) yielded sewage dilutions in Tokyo Bay on the order of 10(2). FWAs-salinity diagram in the Tamagawa Estuary showed fairly conservative behaviors of the FWAs with approximately 20% and approximately 10% removal of DSBP and DAS1, respectively. This is thought to be caused by photodegradation. The persistent nature of FWAs and their widespread distribution in coastal environments demonstrates the utility of FWAs in tracing the behavior of water from rivers and sewage outfalls. The DSBP/DAS1 ratio showed a decreasing trend from sewage effluents, to rivers, to Tokyo Bay, indicating selective photodegradation of DSBP. The DSBP/DAS1 ratio is proposed as an index of the degree of photodegradation and residence time and freshness of water mass in coastal environments.

  11. Human health-related ecosystem services of avian-dense coastal wetlands adjacent to a Western Lake Erie swimming beach.

    PubMed

    Rea, Chris L; Bisesi, Michael S; Mitsch, William; Andridge, Rebecca; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-03-01

    Wetlands provide many valuable ecosystem services, including water quality improvement to protect downstream aquatic ecosystems such as lakes, rivers, and estuaries. However, their ability to improve water quality to safe levels for direct human exposure while largely surrounded by agricultural lands and hosting large wildlife populations remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the ecosystem service capabilities of an avian-dense coastal wetland surrounded by agricultural lands along the southwestern shore of Lake Erie in Ohio by assessing the quality of water as it flows through the wetland (Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge (ONWR)) and into Lake Erie beach waters. Our study used total phosphorus and fecal indicator (Escherichia coli) concentrations as water quality metrics across the wetland and at an adjacent Lake Erie swimming beach during the 2012 summer swim season. E. coli and total P levels were consistently highest at the site, where water enters the ONWR (mean E. coli = 507 CFU/100 mL; mean total P = 535 μg/L), and steadily decreased as water flowed through the wetland and into the adjacent beach (mean E. coli = 10 CFU/100 mL; mean total P = 41 μg/L). E. coli and total P showed statistically significant (α = 0.01) correlations with phycocyanin, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and pH; total P was also significantly correlated with total N. The results suggest that this wetland may be contributing to improving water quality, which is beneficial for human health as well as to downstream ecosystem health (e.g., limiting eutrophication promoting conditions, etc.). PMID:25582638

  12. Human health-related ecosystem services of avian-dense coastal wetlands adjacent to a Western Lake Erie swimming beach.

    PubMed

    Rea, Chris L; Bisesi, Michael S; Mitsch, William; Andridge, Rebecca; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-03-01

    Wetlands provide many valuable ecosystem services, including water quality improvement to protect downstream aquatic ecosystems such as lakes, rivers, and estuaries. However, their ability to improve water quality to safe levels for direct human exposure while largely surrounded by agricultural lands and hosting large wildlife populations remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the ecosystem service capabilities of an avian-dense coastal wetland surrounded by agricultural lands along the southwestern shore of Lake Erie in Ohio by assessing the quality of water as it flows through the wetland (Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge (ONWR)) and into Lake Erie beach waters. Our study used total phosphorus and fecal indicator (Escherichia coli) concentrations as water quality metrics across the wetland and at an adjacent Lake Erie swimming beach during the 2012 summer swim season. E. coli and total P levels were consistently highest at the site, where water enters the ONWR (mean E. coli = 507 CFU/100 mL; mean total P = 535 μg/L), and steadily decreased as water flowed through the wetland and into the adjacent beach (mean E. coli = 10 CFU/100 mL; mean total P = 41 μg/L). E. coli and total P showed statistically significant (α = 0.01) correlations with phycocyanin, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and pH; total P was also significantly correlated with total N. The results suggest that this wetland may be contributing to improving water quality, which is beneficial for human health as well as to downstream ecosystem health (e.g., limiting eutrophication promoting conditions, etc.).

  13. A suppressor of mutations in the region adjacent to iterons of pSC101 ori.

    PubMed Central

    Ohkubo, S; Yamaguchi, K

    1997-01-01

    Some single-base changes in a 14-bp region (the downstream region) adjacent to three repeated sequences (iterons) in pSC101 ori are very deleterious for replication. We isolated a host suppressor mutation for one of these mutations and found that the suppressor suppressed all the mutations tested in the downstream region. The nucleotide sequence of the suppressor revealed that the suppressor gene was identical to dksA, which encodes a multicopy suppressor of the heat shock gene dnaK. PMID:9068662

  14. Food web structure of the coastal area adjacent to the Tagus estuary revealed by stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of energy sources, pathways and trophic linkages among organisms is crucial for the understanding of food web dynamics. Stable isotopes were used to identify the trophic level of food web components and track the incorporation of organic matter of different origins in the coastal ecosystem adjacent to the Tagus estuary. It was shown that the river Tagus is a major source of organic carbon to this system. Also, the wide difference in δ 13C among the primary consumers allowed the identification of the pelagic and the benthic energy pathways. The maximum trophic level observed was 2.4 for Sepia officinalis. This value is indicative of a short food web. It was concluded that the diet of the upper trophic level species relies directly on the lower food web levels to a considerable extent, instead of relying mostly on intermediate trophic level species. Moreover, the δ 15N values of primary consumers were very close to that of particulate organic matter, probably due to poorly known processes occurring at the basis of the food web. This lowers the trophic length of the whole food web. Reliance on benthic affinity prey was high for all upper trophic level secondary consumers.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Western Region: Coastal ecosystem responses to influences from land and sea, Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Sea otters and the nearshore ecosystems they inhabit-from highly urbanized California to relatively pristine Alaska-are the focus of a new multidisciplinary study by scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and a suite of international, academic and government collaborators. The Coastal Ecosystem Responses to Influences from Land and Sea project will investigate the many interacting variables that influence the health of coastal ecosystems along the Northeast Pacific shore. These ecosystems face unprecedented challenges, with threats arising from the adjacent oceans and lands. From the ocean, challenges include acidification, sea level rise, and warming. From the land, challenges include elevated biological, geological and chemical pollutants associated with burgeoning human populations along coastlines. The implications of these challenges for biological systems are only beginning to be explored. Comparing sea otter population status indicators from around the northeastern Pacific Rim, will begin the process of defining factors of coastal ecosystem health in this broad region.

  16. Historical bathymetry and bathymetric change in the Mississippi-Alabama coastal region, 1847-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buster, Noreen A.; Morton, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Land loss and seafloor change around the Mississippi and Alabama (MS-AL) barrier islands are of great concern to the public and to local, state, and federal agencies. The islands provide wildlife protected areas and recreational land, and they serve as a natural first line of defense for the mainland against storm activity (index map on poster). Principal physical conditions that drive morphological seafloor and coastal change in this area include decreased sediment supply, sea-level rise, storms, and human activities (Otvos, 1970; Byrnes and others, 1991; Morton and others, 2004; Morton, 2008). Seafloor responses to the same processes can also affect the entire coastal zone. Sediment eroded from the barrier islands is entrained in the littoral system, where it is redistributed by alongshore currents. Wave and current activity is partially controlled by the profile of the seafloor, and this interdependency along with natural and anthropogenic influences has significant effects on nearshore environments. When a coastal system is altered by human activity such as dredging, as is the case of the MS-AL coastal region, the natural state and processes are altered, and alongshore sediment transport can be disrupted. As a result of deeply dredged channels, adjacent island migration is blocked, nearshore environments downdrift in the littoral system become sediment starved, and sedimentation around the channels is modified. Sediment deposition and erosion are reflected through seafloor evolution. In a rapidly changing coastal environment, understanding historically where and why changes are occurring is essential. To better assess the comprehensive dynamics of the MS-AL coastal zone, a 160-year evaluation of the bathymetry and bathymetric change of the region was conducted.

  17. A genome walking strategy for the identification of nucleotide sequences adjacent to known regions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailong; Yao, Ting; Cai, Mei; Xiao, Xiuqing; Ding, Xuezhi; Xia, Liqiu

    2013-02-01

    To identify the transposon insertion sites in a soil actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora spinosa, a genome walking approach, termed SPTA-PCR, was developed. In SPTA-PCR, a simple procedure consisting of TA cloning and a high stringency PCR, following the single primer-mediated, randomly-primed PCR, can eliminate non-target DNA fragments and obtain target fragments specifically. Using SPTA-PCR, the DNA sequence adjacent to the highly conserved region of lectin coding gene in onion plant, Allium chinense, was also cloned. PMID:23108875

  18. Digital depth horizon compilations of the Alaskan North Slope and adjacent Arctic regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    Data have been digitized and combined to create four detailed depth horizon grids spanning the Alaskan North Slope and adjacent offshore areas. These map horizon compilations were created to aid in petroleum system modeling and related studies. Topography/bathymetry is extracted from a recent Arctic compilation of global onshore DEM and satellite altimetry and ship soundings offshore. The Lower Cretaceous Unconformity (LCU), the top of the Triassic Shublik Formation, and the pre-Carboniferous acoustic basement horizon grids are created from numerous seismic studies, drill hole information, and interpolation. These horizons were selected because they mark critical times in the geologic evolution of the region as it relates to petroleum. The various horizons clearly show the major tectonic elements of this region including the Brooks Range, Colville Trough, Barrow Arch, Hanna Trough, Chukchi Platform, Nuwuk Basin, Kaktovik Basin, and Canada Basin. The gridded data are available in a variety of data formats for use in regional studies.

  19. The ENSO signature and other hydrological characteristics in Patos and adjacent coastal lagoons, south-eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquini, Andrea I.; Niencheski, Luis F. H.; Depetris, Pedro J.

    2012-10-01

    With a surface area of over 10,000 km2, Patos Lagoon is Brazil's largest (choked) coastal lagoon. Directly or indirectly, Patos is associated with two other coastal lagoons, Mirim and Mangueira. Patos Lagoon reaches maximum water level height during the austral winter, in coherence with the rainy season. The longest (1961-2011) available rainfall (recorded at nearby Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil) and river discharge time series (1940-2011, in the tributary Jacuí River, at Rio Pardo) shows an overall increasing trend through the application of Mann-Kendall analysis. If, however, the series are split in two segments, negative trends become evident for the 1990-2011 period; in both cases earlier data showed a positive trend until ˜1989. Coherent with water inflow, the lagoon's water height level shows a seasonal Kendall's τ coefficient that is consistently negative for the month of April (statistically significant p). Rainfall over Patos' drainage basin is actively teleconnected with ENSO occurrences in the equatorial Pacific. This can be verified in Porto Alegre's rainfall as well as in the Jacuí River discharge time series and in the lagoon's water level variability; a distinctly negative Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) usually results in excess precipitation, high riverine discharge and, accordingly, above normal lagoon water level. The use of a method for harmonic analysis (Continuous Wavelet Transform or CWT) allows detecting decadal and inter-annual periodicities in the rainfall and discharge frequencies and in the lagoon's water level time series. Also, a change in the frequency pattern appears to have occurred in the late 1990s (i.e., simultaneous with the 1997 ENSO event?) and suggests that it may be connected with the trend change which resulted in the current negative slope observed in deseasonalized hydrological data and a fainter ENSO signal for the region.

  20. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-02-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  1. Saltwater intrusion in coastal regions of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Paul M.; Reichard, Eric G.

    2010-01-01

    Saltwater has intruded into many of the coastal aquifers of the United States, Mexico, and Canada, but the extent of saltwater intrusion varies widely among localities and hydrogeologic settings. In many instances, the area contaminated by saltwater is limited to small parts of an aquifer and to specific wells and has had little or no effect on overall groundwater supplies; in other instances, saltwater contamination is of regional extent and has resulted in the closure of many groundwater supply wells. The variability of hydrogeologic settings, three-dimensional distribution of saline water, and history of groundwater withdrawals and freshwater drainage has resulted in a variety of modes of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These include lateral intrusion from the ocean; upward intrusion from deeper, more saline zones of a groundwater system; and downward intrusion from coastal waters. Saltwater contamination also has occurred along open boreholes and within abandoned, improperly constructed, or corroded wells that provide pathways for vertical migration across interconnected aquifers. Communities within the coastal regions of North America are taking actions to manage and prevent saltwater intrusion to ensure a sustainable source of groundwater for the future. These actions can be grouped broadly into scientific monitoring and assessment, engineering techniques, and regulatory approaches.

  2. 40 CFR 81.152 - Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.152 Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the...

  3. 40 CFR 81.149 - Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.149 Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the...

  4. Regional Risk Assessment for climate change impacts on coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, F; Rizzi, J; Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2015-12-15

    Coastal aquifers have been identified as particularly vulnerable to impacts on water quantity and quality due to the high density of socio-economic activities and human assets in coastal regions and to the projected rising sea levels, contributing to the process of saltwater intrusion. This paper proposes a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrated with a chain of numerical models to evaluate potential climate change-related impacts on coastal aquifers and linked natural and human systems (i.e., wells, river, agricultural areas, lakes, forests and semi-natural environments). The RRA methodology employs Multi Criteria Decision Analysis methods and Geographic Information Systems functionalities to integrate heterogeneous spatial data on hazard, susceptibility and risk for saltwater intrusion and groundwater level variation. The proposed approach was applied on the Esino River basin (Italy) using future climate hazard scenarios based on a chain of climate, hydrological, hydraulic and groundwater system models running at different spatial scales. Models were forced with the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario for the period 2071-2100 over four seasons (i.e., winter, spring, summer and autumn). Results indicate that in future seasons, climate change will cause few impacts on the lower Esino River valley. Groundwater level decrease will have limited effects: agricultural areas, forests and semi-natural environments will be at risk only in a region close to the coastline which covers less than 5% of the total surface of the considered receptors; less than 3.5% of the wells will be exposed in the worst scenario. Saltwater intrusion impact in future scenarios will be restricted to a narrow region close to the coastline (only few hundred meters), and thus it is expected to have very limited effects on the Esino coastal aquifer with no consequences on the considered natural and human systems.

  5. Regional Risk Assessment for climate change impacts on coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, F; Rizzi, J; Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2015-12-15

    Coastal aquifers have been identified as particularly vulnerable to impacts on water quantity and quality due to the high density of socio-economic activities and human assets in coastal regions and to the projected rising sea levels, contributing to the process of saltwater intrusion. This paper proposes a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrated with a chain of numerical models to evaluate potential climate change-related impacts on coastal aquifers and linked natural and human systems (i.e., wells, river, agricultural areas, lakes, forests and semi-natural environments). The RRA methodology employs Multi Criteria Decision Analysis methods and Geographic Information Systems functionalities to integrate heterogeneous spatial data on hazard, susceptibility and risk for saltwater intrusion and groundwater level variation. The proposed approach was applied on the Esino River basin (Italy) using future climate hazard scenarios based on a chain of climate, hydrological, hydraulic and groundwater system models running at different spatial scales. Models were forced with the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario for the period 2071-2100 over four seasons (i.e., winter, spring, summer and autumn). Results indicate that in future seasons, climate change will cause few impacts on the lower Esino River valley. Groundwater level decrease will have limited effects: agricultural areas, forests and semi-natural environments will be at risk only in a region close to the coastline which covers less than 5% of the total surface of the considered receptors; less than 3.5% of the wells will be exposed in the worst scenario. Saltwater intrusion impact in future scenarios will be restricted to a narrow region close to the coastline (only few hundred meters), and thus it is expected to have very limited effects on the Esino coastal aquifer with no consequences on the considered natural and human systems. PMID:26282744

  6. Summary of hydraulic properties of the Floridan Aquifer system in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Leeth, David C.; Taylor-Harris, DaVette; Painter, Jaime A.; Labowski, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Hydraulic-property data for the Floridan aquifer system and equivalent clastic sediments in a 67-county area of coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida were evaluated to provide data necessary for development of ground-water flow and solute-transport models. Data include transmissivity at 324 wells, storage coefficient at 115 wells, and vertical hydraulic conductivity of 72 core samples from 27 sites. Hydraulic properties of the Upper Floridan aquifer vary greatly in the study area due to the heterogeneity (and locally to anisotropy) of the aquifer and to variations in the degree of confinement provided by confining units. Prominent structural features in the areathe Southeast Georgia Embayment, the Beaufort Arch, and the Gulf Troughinfluence the thickness and hydraulic properties of the sediments comprising the Floridan aquifer system. Transmissivity of the Upper Floridan aquifer and equivalent updip units was compiled for 239 wells and ranges from 530 feet squared per day (ft2/d) at Beaufort County, South Carolina, to 600,000 ft2/d in Coffee County, Georgia. In carbonate rock settings of the lower Coastal Plain, transmissivity of the Upper Floridan aquifer generally is greater than 20,000 ft2/d, with values exceeding 100,000 ft2/d in the southeastern and southwestern parts of the study area (generally coinciding with the area of greatest aquifer thickness). Transmissivity of the Upper Floridan aquifer generally is less than 10,000 ft2/d in and near the upper Coastal Plain, where the aquifer is thin and consists largely of clastic sediments, and in the vicinity of the Gulf Trough, where the aquifer consists of low permeability rocks and sediments. Large variability in the range of transmissivity in Camden and Glynn Counties, Georgia, and Nassau County, Florida, demonstrates the anisotropic distribution of hydraulic properties that may result from fractures or solution openings in the carbonate rocks. Storage coefficient of the Upper

  7. Loops Adjacent to Catalytic Region and Molecular Stability of Man1312.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haiyan; Yong, Jie; Gao, Han; Yuan, Zhihui; Yang, Wenjiao; Tian, Yun; Wu, Yongyao

    2016-09-01

    Hemicelluloses are the second major polysaccharides in nature and can be converted to ethanol product by a variety of enzymes including mannanases. Mannanase is an important enzyme that hydrolyses mannose-containing polysaccharides which are abundant in plants. An optimized mannanase could help to improve conversion process and make the technology efficiently and competitively. In this work, the effects of loops adjacent to active region on enzymic properties of Man1312 were investigated. Loop 6 and 10 are two loops neighboring to Man1312 catalytic region, and deletion mutagenesis and residue substitution were performed on both loops. Deletion on sites S145, Q148, N244, and S255 and substitution on sites N146, S147, S156, and T157 gave significant increased stability to enzyme. The quadruplet mutant ManD4I4 combined all the mutations and had higher optimal temperature and T m value by 5 and 4 °C than Man1312, respectively. From our data, we are able to conclude the loops of enzymes are important to design mutagenesis and obtain improved properties, especially the loops neighboring to catalytic region from tertiary structure. In our experiment, residue deletion and substitution on loops neighboring to catalytic region made significant improvement on enzyme properties.

  8. Revised hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system in the northern coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Lester J.; Gill, Harold E.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework for the Floridan aquifer system has been revised for eight northern coastal counties in Georgia and five coastal counties in South Carolina by incorporating new borehole geophysical and flowmeter log data collected during previous investigations. Selected well logs were compiled and analyzed to determine the vertical and horizontal continuity of permeable zones that make up the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers and to define more precisely the thickness of confining beds that separate these aquifers. The updated framework generally conforms to the original framework established by the U.S. Geological Survey in the 1980s except for adjustments made to the internal boundaries of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers and the individual permeable zones that compose these aquifers. The revised boundaries of the Floridan aquifer system were mapped by taking into account results from local studies and regional correlations of geologic and hydrogeologic units. Because the revised framework does not match the previous regional framework along all edges, additional work will be needed to expand the framework into adjacent areas. The Floridan aquifer system in the northern coastal region of Georgia and parts of South Carolina can be divided into the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers, which are separated by a middle confining unit of relatively lower permeability. The Upper Floridan aquifer includes permeable and hydraulically connected carbonate rocks of Oligocene and upper Eocene age that represent the most transmissive part of the aquifer system. The middle confining unit consists of low permeability carbonate rocks that lie within the lower part of the upper Eocene in Beaufort and Jasper Counties, South Carolina, and within the upper to middle parts of the middle Eocene elsewhere. Locally, the middle confining unit contains thin zones that have moderate to high permeability and can produce water to wells that tap them. The Lower Floridan aquifer

  9. Trace metal concentrations in estuaries and coastal regions

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, C.D.

    1994-12-31

    Estuaries and coastal regions are highly variable in the physical and hydrographic conditions. As a result of heavy urbanization and industrialization of the head waters of most estuaries, there are substantial localized inputs of contaminants to the estuary. These factors combined with the flushing characteristics of individual estuaries to create relatively unique features that result in variation in the typical levels of trace metals for these systems. This makes intercomparison of the estuaries difficult. Comparability among estuaries becomes even more difficult when metals analyses are conducted without proper control of field and laboratory contamination, now firmly established in the trace metal analytical literature as a prerequisite for reliable marine trace metals analysis. This paper compares the concentrations of selected trace metal (Ag, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in the waters of several major estuaries of the United States. The basis of comparison is that all samples war collected under rigid trace metal clean collection and analysis procedures. Generally, metal concentrations within the estuaries are similar. Metal concentrations in the higher salinity coastal regions are more similar in concentration. The comparison provides a baseline of typical concentrations of these trace metals in the coastal waters against which future analytical results can be compared.

  10. Critical review of studies on atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, D.L.; Kaleel, R.J.

    1982-09-01

    This study effort was required as a preliminary step prior to initiation of field measurements of atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is in the process of planning an extensive field measurement program to generate data which will serve as improved data bases for licensing decisions, confirmation of regulations, standards, and guides, and for site characterizations. The study being reported here is an effort directed to obtaining as much information as is possible from existing studies that is relevant toward NRC's objectives. For this study, reports covering research and meteorological measurements conducted for industrial purposes, utility needs, military objectives, and academic studies were obtained and critically reviewed in light of NRC's current data needs. This report provides an interpretation of the extent of existing usable information, an indication of the potential for tailoring existing research toward current NRC information needs, and recommendations for several follow-on studies which could provide valuable additional information through reanalysis of the data. Recommendations are also offered regarding new measurement programs. Emphasis is placed on the identification and acquisition of data from atmospheric tracer studies conducted in coastal regions. A total of 225 references were identified which deal with the coastal atmosphere, including meteorological and tracer measurement programs, theoretical descriptions of the relevant processes, and dispersion models.

  11. Climate Outreach Using Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System Portals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. M.; Hernandez, D. L.; Wakely, A.; Bochenek, R. J.; Bickel, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal oceans are dynamic, changing environments affected by processes ranging from seconds to millennia. On the east and west coast of the U.S., regional observing systems have deployed and sustained a remarkable diverse array of observing tools and sensors. Data portals visualize and provide access to real-time sensor networks. Portals have emerged as an interactive tool for educators to help students explore and understand climate. Bringing data portals to outreach events, into classrooms, and onto tablets and smartphones enables educators to address topics and phenomena happening right now. For example at the 2015 Charleston Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Festival, visitors navigated the SECOORA (Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing regional Association) data portal to view the real-time marine meteorological conditions off South Carolina. Map-based entry points provide an intuitive interface for most students, an array of time series and other visualizations depict many of the essential principles of climate science manifest in the coastal zone, and data down-load/ extract options provide access to the data and documentation for further inquiry by advanced users. Beyond the exposition of climate principles, the portal experience reveals remarkable technologies in action and shows how the observing system is enabled by the activity of many different partners.

  12. Lineaments and their tectonic implications in Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains region

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, E.K.; Perry, W.J. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Two orthogonal sets of lineaments in Phanerozoic rocks of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains region probably reflect recurrent structural movement along corresponding fractures in the underlying igneous and metamorphic rocks. The lineaments seem to have been primarily paleotopographic features that affected the depositional and erosional margins, thicknesses, and the distribution of lithofacies of Phanerozoic strata. At small scales, the crosscutting lineaments of either set suggest primarily vertical movements of rectangular blocks along through-going rectilinear fractures in the basement rocks. At larger scales, the differential movement of these blocks apparently was propagated upward through the strata and formed a variety of structures, many of which are en echelon. Blocks in the region moved at different times, and they commonly rotated about horizontal axes, as indicated by lateral differences in rates of associated sedimentation and by structural features along the lineaments. Throughout most of the Phanerozoic, the movements seem to have been mainly along the diagonal set (northeast, northwest) of lineaments, but the cardinal set (north-south, east-west) also influenced the development of Laramide structures and the present landscape in the Rocky Mountain region. The structural stresses, which were released along the two sets of lineaments, may reflect plate movements, and they probably are related to orogenies caused either by plate collisions or by rifting and continental fragmentation.

  13. Isotope geochemistry and fluxes of carbon and organic matter in tropical small mountainous river systems and adjacent coastal waters of the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Ryan; Bauer, James; Grottoli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that small mountainous rivers (SMRs) may act as sources of aged and/or refractory carbon (C) to the coastal ocean, which may increase organic C burial at sea and subsidize coastal food webs and heterotrophy. However, the characteristics and spatial and temporal variability of C and organic matter (OM) exported from tropical SMR systems remain poorly constrained. To address this, the abundance and isotopic character (δ13C and Δ14C) of the three major C pools were measured in two Puerto Rico SMRs with catchments dominated by different land uses (agricultural vs. non-agricultural recovering forest). The abundance and character of C pools in associated estuaries and adjacent coastal waters were also examined. Riverine dissolved and particulate organic C (DOC and POC, respectively) concentrations were highly variable with respect to land use and sampling month, while dissolved inorganic C (DIC) was significantly higher at all times in the agricultural catchment. In both systems, riverine DOC and POC ranged from modern to highly aged (2,340 years before present), while DIC was always modern. The agricultural river and irrigation canals contained very old DOC (1,184 and 2,340 years before present, respectively), which is consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that these tropical SMRs provide a source of aged DOC to the ocean. During months of high river discharge, OM in estuarine and coastal waters had C isotope signatures reflective of direct terrestrial input, indicating that relatively unaltered OM is transported to the coastal ocean at these times. This is also consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that C transported to the coastal ocean by SMRs may differ from that of larger rivers because it is exported from smaller catchments that have steeper terrains and fewer land-use types.

  14. Seasonal variations of transport time of freshwater exchanges between Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya; Shen, Jian; He, Qing; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Dai

    2015-05-01

    Seasonal variations of transport time of freshwater between the Changjiang Estuary (CJE) and its adjacent regions, Hangzhou Bay (HZB) and Jiangsu Coast (JSC), are investigated. The freshwater exchange between the CJE and HZB is controlled by the strength of the secondary plume, which initiates from the South Passage of the southernmost waterway of CJE. The transport time varies seasonally and is modulated by spring-neap tides. The water exchange between CJE and HZB exhibits a high spatial variation. A large water age is observed in the region near the southern coast of the HZB, which corresponds to high pollutant deposition and low water quality conditions observed in the field. A large exchange occurs in summer between CJE and HZB. The freshwater transported into the HZB is accumulated in the deep channel near the western shoreline of the HZB and weak horizontal exchange occurs in the southern region near the southern shoreline, resulting in an increase of water age in the southern region. Due to the increase of northerly and northwesterly winds in winter and fall, more horizontal exchange occurs, resulting in a decrease of water age. The transport time from Xuliujing to the Hangzhou Bay ranges from 30 to 60 days near Jinshanwei, and ranges from 100 to 140 days in the southern region. The advective transport is the dominant transport mechanism to move water out of the HZB, while shear-induced exchange flow transports freshwater into the HZB. Net flux is out of HZB in winter and fall, but into the HZB in summer when Changjiang discharge is high. A weak transport of freshwater between the CJE and Subei Coast exists. A portion of a freshwater plume transports freshwater northward during summer and fall. It takes approximately 60-140 days for the freshwater from Xuliujing to be transported to the Subei Coast.

  15. Detection of pharmaceuticals and other personal care products in groundwater beneath and adjacent to onsite wastewater treatment systems in a coastal plain shallow aquifer.

    PubMed

    Del Rosario, Katie L; Mitra, Siddhartha; Humphrey, Charles P; O'Driscoll, Michael A

    2014-07-15

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are the predominant disposal method for human waste in areas without municipal sewage treatment alternatives. Relatively few studies have addressed the release of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from OWTS to groundwater. PPCP fate and transport from OWTS are important, particularly where these systems are adjacent to sensitive aquatic ecosystems such as coastal areas or wetlands. The objectives of this study were to identify PPCPs in residential wastewater and groundwater beneath OWTS and to characterize the environmental conditions affecting the OWTS discharge of PPCPs to nearby streams. The study sites are in coastal plain aquifers, which may be considered vulnerable "end-members" for subsurface PPCP transport. The PPCPs most commonly detected in the OWTS, at concentrations ranging from 0.12 μg L(-1) to 12.04 μg L(-1) in the groundwater, included: caffeine, ibuprofen, DEET, and homosalate. Their presence was related to particulate and dissolved organic carbon abundance.

  16. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  17. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  18. Global projections of 21st century land-use changes in regions adjacent to Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Linda J; Duursma, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    The conservation efficiency of Protected Areas (PA) is influenced by the health and characteristics of the surrounding landscape matrix. Fragmentation of adjacent lands interrupts ecological flows within PAs and will decrease the ability of species to shift their distribution as climate changes. For five periods across the 21(st) century, we assessed changes to the extent of primary land, secondary land, pasture and crop land projected to occur within 50 km buffers surrounding IUCN-designated PAs. Four scenarios of land-use were obtained from the Land-Use Harmonization Project, developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). The scenarios project the continued decline of primary lands within buffers surrounding PAs. Substantial losses are projected to occur across buffer regions in the tropical forest biomes of Indo-Malayan and the Temperate Broadleaf forests of the Nearctic. A number of buffer regions are projected to have negligible primary land remaining by 2100, including those in the Afrotropic's Tropical/Subtropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland. From 2010-2050, secondary land is projected to increase within most buffer regions, although, as with pasture and crops within tropical and temperate forests, projections from the four land-use scenarios may diverge substantially in magnitude and direction of change. These scenarios demonstrate a range of alternate futures, and show that although effective mitigation strategies may reduce pressure on land surrounding PAs, these areas will contain an increasingly heterogeneous matrix of primary and human-modified landscapes. Successful management of buffer regions will be imperative to ensure effectiveness of PAs and to facilitate climate-induced shifts in species ranges.

  19. Regional flow in the Baltic Shield during Holocene coastal regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Clifford I.; Andersson, Johan

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of saline waters in the Baltic Shield in Sweden is consistent with ongoing but incomplete Holocene flushing and depends on the geometry and connectivity of conductive structures at both regional and local scales, and on the surface topography. Numerical simulation of regional variable-density fluid flow during Holocene land-rise and coastal regression shows that the existence of any old saline water, whether derived from submarine recharge in regions below Sweden's highest postglacial coastline or geochemical processes in the crystalline rock, is an indication either of slow fluid movements through the bedrock over long times, or of long travel distances through fracture systems before arriving at measurement points. During the land-rise period, regional flow is not affected by the variable density of fluids in the upper few kilometers of the shield, and the topography of the water table is the only driving force. The spatial distribution of meteoric flushing water and pre-Holocene waters may be complex, with the possibility of relatively fresh water in fracture zones below salty units even at depths of a few kilometers. The domination of the topographic driving force implies that deep saline water is not necessarily stagnant, and significant flow may be expected to occur in well-connected horizons even at depth. Local topography variation and fracture zone location combine to create a complex flow field in which local topographic driving forces extend to considerable depth in some areas, whereas regional topographic forces predominate in others. Thus, a pattern may be difficult to discern in measurements of the regional salinity distribution, although it is clear that the coastal region is the major zone of discharge for deeper pre-Holocene fluids. During the land-rise period, the regional flow field equilibrates with changing climatic conditions and coastal positions, while the distribution of flushing water and older water lags and will

  20. Teleseismic tomography of the southern Puna plateau in Argentina and adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, M.; Heit, B.; Jakovlev, A.; Yuan, X.; Kay, S. M.; Sandvol, E.; Alonso, R. N.; Coira, B.; Brown, L.; Kind, R.; Comte, D.

    2013-02-01

    We performed a teleseismic P wave tomography study using seismic events at both teleseismic and regional distances, recorded by a temporary seismic array in the Argentine Puna Plateau and adjacent regions. The tomographic images show the presence of a number of positive and negative anomalies in a depth range of 20-300 km beneath the array. The most prominent of these anomalies corresponds to a low-velocity body, located in the crust, most clearly seen in the center of the array (27°S, 67°W) between the Cerro Peinado volcano, the Cerro Blanco caldera and the Farallon Negro in the east. This anomaly (southern Puna Magmatic Body) extends from the northern most part of the array and follows the line with the highest density of stations towards the south where it becomes smaller. It is flanked by high velocities on the west and the east respectively. On the west, the high velocities might be related to the subducted Nazca plate. On the northeast the high velocity block coincides with the position of the Hombre Muerto basin in the crust and could be indicating an area of lithospheric delamination where we detected a high velocity block at 100 km depth on the eastern border of the Puna plateau, north of Galan. This block might be related to a delamination event in an area with a thick crust of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks at the border between Puna and Eastern Cordillera. In the center of the array the Southern Puna magmatic body is also flanked by high velocities but the most prominent region is located on the east and is interpreted as part of the Sierras Pampeanas lithosphere with high velocities. The position of the Sierras Pampeanas geological province is key in this area as it appears to limit the extension of the plateau towards the south.

  1. Lineaments and their tectonic implications in Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains region

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, E.K.; Perry, W.J. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    Two orthogonal sets of lineaments in Phanerozoic rocks of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains region probably reflect recurrent structural movement along corresponding fractures in the underlying igneous and metamorphic rocks. The lineaments seem to have been primarily paleotopographic features that affected the depositional and erosional margins, thicknesses, and the distribution of lithofacies of Phanerozoic strata. One set is oriented approximately N5-15/sup 0/E and N75-85/sup 0/W; the other set is oriented about N50-60/sup 0/E and N30-40/sup 0/W. At small scales, the crosscutting lineaments of either set indicate primarily vertical movements of rectangular blocks along through-going rectilinear fractures in the basement rocks. At larger scales, the differential movement of these blocks apparently was propagated upward through the strata and formed a variety of structures, many of which are en echelon. Blocks in the region moved at different times, and they commonly rotated about horizontal axes, as indicated by lateral differences in rates of associated sedimentation and by structural features along the lineaments. Through most of the Phanerozoic, the movements seem to have been mainly along the diagonal set (northeast, northwest) of lineaments, but the cardinal set (north-south, east-west) also influenced the development of Laramide structures and the present landscape in the Rocky Mountain region. The structural stresses, which were released along the two sets of lineaments, may reflect plate movements, and they probably are related to orogenies caused either by plate collisions or by rifting and continental fragmentation.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of particle-attached and free-living bacterial communities in the Columbia river, its estuary, and the adjacent coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Crump, B C; Armbrust, E V; Baross, J A

    1999-07-01

    The Columbia River estuary is a dynamic system in which estuarine turbidity maxima trap and extend the residence time of particles and particle-attached bacteria over those of the water and free-living bacteria. Particle-attached bacteria dominate bacterial activity in the estuary and are an important part of the estuarine food web. PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes from particle-attached and free-living bacteria in the Columbia River, its estuary, and the adjacent coastal ocean were cloned, and 239 partial sequences were determined. A wide diversity was observed at the species level within at least six different bacterial phyla, including most subphyla of the class Proteobacteria. In the estuary, most particle-attached bacterial clones (75%) were related to members of the genus Cytophaga or of the alpha, gamma, or delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. These same clones, however, were rare in or absent from either the particle-attached or the free-living bacterial communities of the river and the coastal ocean. In contrast, about half (48%) of the free-living estuarine bacterial clones were similar to clones from the river or the coastal ocean. These free-living bacteria were related to groups of cosmopolitan freshwater bacteria (beta-proteobacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and Verrucomicrobium spp.) and groups of marine organisms (gram-positive bacteria and alpha-proteobacteria [SAR11 and Rhodobacter spp.]). These results suggest that rapidly growing particle-attached bacteria develop into a uniquely adapted estuarine community and that free-living estuarine bacteria are similar to members of the river and the coastal ocean microbial communities. The high degree of diversity in the estuary is the result of the mixing of bacterial communities from the river, estuary, and coastal ocean.

  3. Identification guide to skates (Family Rajidae) of the Canadian Atlantic and adjacent regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; MacWhirter, P. D.; Luke, K.E.; Norem, A.D.; Miller, J.M.; Cooper, J.A.; Harris, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management requires sound information on the distribution and abundance of species both common and rare. Therefore, the accurate identification for all marine species has assumed a much greater importance. The identification of many skate species is difficult as several are easily confused and has been found to be problematic in both survey data and fisheries data collection. Identification guides, in combination with training and periodic validation of taxonomic information, improve our accuracy in monitoring data required for ecosystem-based management and monitoring of populations. This guide offers a comparative synthesis of skate species known to occur in Atlantic Canada and adjacent regions. The taxonomic nomenclature and descriptions of key morphological features are based on the most up-to-date understanding of diversity among these species. Although this information will aid the user in accurate identification, some features vary geographically (such as colour) and others with life stage (most notably the proportion of tail length to body length; the presence of spines either sharper in juveniles or in some cases not yet present; and also increases in the number of tooth rows as species grow into maturity). Additional information on juvenile features are needed to facilitate problematic identifications (e.g. L. erinacea vs. L. ocellata). Information on size at maturity is still required for many of these species throughout their geographic distribution.

  4. Glacial erosion and expected permafrost thickness of Fennoscandia and adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amantov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    Linked geological, geomorphological and tectonic features of Fennoscandia with adjacent regions of East-European plain and Barents-Kara shelf indirectly influenced the history of glacial grows and decays. The first-order bedrock landscape elements (often created or exhumed during pre-glacial Cenozoic stages) were the major factors that could partly control centers of ice nucleation and basal velocities, serve natural barriers shaping ice sheet margin during some time intervals, etc. On the hand, many landforms were powerfully modified by glacial and periglacial processes, in particular by strong glacial erosion with lithological and structural control. Quantitative estimation of Plio-Pleistocene erosion and deposition was performed combining regional geological-geomorphological analysis (GA) and modeling with rate-based time-scale reconstructions (RR), and mass-balance control. Of special GA importance was to compare and extract changes of preserved elements of pre-glacial Neogene topography from areas that underwent different duration of glacial activity, in comparison with bordering non-glaciated ones. More distinct radial glacial erosion pattern and larger basal ice velocities seem likely at the beginning of the early ice-age stage, with partial widening of pre-glacial drainage elements. Few wide lowlands with meandering rivers in permafrost condition could provoke early stage onset of topographic ice-streams. Over time, further complication of the pattern from radial to "spider web" is expected due to developing of topographic ice-streams. Worth to mention is progressive exhumation of resistant formations, additional complications of the pattern by fluvioglacial activity and glacial sedimentation, "pendulum" principle, with increasing amount of glacial and interglacial sedimentation in eroded material. Approximated variable permafrost distribution seems to be additional weighty aspect, changing erosion rates at some time intervals. To estimate mean annual

  5. Assessment of contaminants in Dubai coastal region, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Darwish, H. A.; Abd El-Gawad, E. A.; Mohammed, F. H.; Lotfy, M. M.

    2005-12-01

    Coastal uses and other human activities have inevitably impinged on the Gulf environment; therefore, these regions require continuous monitoring. The investigated area covered the maximum fragments of Dubai coastal region in the Arabian Gulf. The determination of major oxides and trace metal concentrations in Dubai sediments revealed three heavily and moderately contaminated regions. One is in the far northeastern part at Al-Hamriya Sts 1 3 and contaminated by Fe, Cu, Pb, and Zn; the second is in the mid-northeastern part at Dry Docks and contaminated by Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn; and finally, the third is in the near southwestern part at Dubal and contaminated by Fe, Mg, Cr, Ni, and Zn. Al-Hamriya St 3 represented the highest values of Cu, Pb, and Zn, whereas Dubal exhibited the maximum values of Fe, Mg, Ba, Cr, Mn, Ni, and V. The anthropogenic discharge and natural deposits are the main sources of contamination. In general, all trace and major elements showed the minimal levels at Jebel Ali Sanctuary (Sts 11, 12, 13) except for Sr and Ca, which showed their maximum values. The highest concentrations of Ca and Sr are mainly attributed to carbonate gravel sands and sands, which cover most stations. Each of V and Ni showed negative correlation with TPH, which may be indicated that the source of oil contamination in the region is not related to crude oil but mostly attributable to anthropogenic sources. The significant positive correlation, which was found between trace metals and TOC indicates that organic matter plays an important role in the accumulation of trace metals in case of Cu, Zn, and Pb.

  6. Simulation of ground-water flow in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida-predevelopment, 1980, and 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, Dorothy F.; Rumman, Malek Abu; Clarke, John S.

    2005-01-01

    A digital model was developed to simulate steady-state ground-water flow in a 42,155-square-mile area of coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida. The model was developed to (1) understand and refine the conceptual model of regional ground-water flow, (2) serve as a framework for the development of digital subregional ground-water flow and solute-transport models, and (3) serve as a tool for future evaluations of hypothetical pumping scenarios used to facilitate water management in the coastal area. Single-density ground-water flow was simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference code MODFLOW-2000 for mean-annual conditions during predevelopment (pre?1900) and the years 1980 and 2000. The model comprises seven layers: the surficial aquifer system, the Brunswick aquifer system, the Upper Floridan aquifer, the Lower Floridan aquifer, and the intervening confining units. A combination of boundary conditions was applied, including a general-head boundary condition on the top active cells of the model and a time-variable fixed-head boundary condition along part of the southern lateral boundary. Simulated heads for 1980 and 2000 conditions indicate a good match to observed values, based on a plus-or-minus 10-foot (ft) calibration target and calibration statistics. The root-mean square of residual water levels for the Upper Floridan aquifer was 13.0 ft for the 1980 calibration and 9.94 ft for the 2000 calibration. Some spatial patterns of residuals were indicated for the 1980 and 2000 simulations, and are likely a result of model-grid cell size and insufficiently detailed hydraulic-property and pumpage data in some areas. Simulated potentiometric surfaces for predevelopment, 1980, and 2000 conditions all show major flow system features that are indicated by estimated peotentiometric maps. During 1980?2000, simulated water levels at the centers of pumping at Savannah and Brunswick rose more than 20 ft and 8 ft, respectively, in

  7. Anthropogenic and authigenic uranium in marine sediments of the central Gulf of California adjacent to the Santa Rosalía mining region.

    PubMed

    Shumilin, Evgueni; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Griselda; Sapozhnikov, Dmitry; Sapozhnikov, Yuri; Choumiline, Konstantin

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the causes of uranium (U) enrichment in marine sediments in the eastern sector of the Gulf of California, surface sediments and sediment cores were collected adjacent to the Santa Rosalía copper mining region in the Baja California peninsula. Three coastal sediment cores were found to display high concentrations of U (from 54.2 ± 7.3 mg kg(-1) to 110 ± 13 mg kg(-1)) exceeding those found in the deeper cores (1.36 ± 0.26 mg kg(-1) in the Guaymas Basin to 9.31 ± 3.03 mg kg(-1) in the SR63 core from the suboxic zone). The contribution of non-lithogenic U (estimated using scandium to normalize) to the total U content in sediments of three coastal cores varied from 97.2 ± 0.4 % to 98.82 % versus 49.8 ± 3 % (Guaymas Basin) to 84.2 ± 8.2 % (SR62 core) in the deeper cores. The U content record in a lead-210 ((210)Pb)-dated core had two peaks (in 1923 and 1967) corresponding to the history of ancient mining and smelting activities in Santa Rosalía.

  8. Coastal Flood Risks in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand: Combined Impacts of Land Subsidence, Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duangyiwa, C.; Yu, D.; Wilby, R.; Aobpaet, A.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the fast-changing climatic and anthropogenic conditions at coastal regions, many coastal mega-cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to internal and external risks. The risk is particularly high for low-lying coastal cities in developing nations, with Southeast Asia recognized as a hotspot of vulnerability due to the increasing population density, rapid change of natural landscape associated with urbanization and intensified hydrological and atmospheric conditions at the coastal front in an uncertain climate future. The Bangkok Metropolitan Region is one of the largest coastal megacities in Southeast Asia that are challenged by the potential impacts due to climate change and anthropological variability in the coming decades. Climate-related risks in this region are associated with its relatively low-lying nature of the terrain and adjacency to the coast. Coastal inundation due to high tides from the sea occurs annually in the area close to the seashore. This is set to increase given a projected rising sea level and the sinking landscape due to groundwater extraction and urbanization. The aim of this research is, therefore, to evaluate the vulnerability of the city to sea level rise, land subsidence and storm surge. Distributed land subsidence rate, projected sea level rise and existing structural features such as flood defences are taken into account. The 2011 flood in Thailand is used as a baseline event. Scenarios were designed with projections of land subsidence and sea level rise to 2050s, 2080s, and 2100s. A two-dimensional flood inundation model (FloodMap, Yu and Lane 2006) is used to derive inundation depth and velocity associated with each scenario. The impacts of coastal flood risk on critical infrastructures (e.g. power supply, transportation network, rescue centers, hospitals, schools and key government buildings) are evaluated (e.g. Figure 1). Results suggest progressively increase but non-linear risks of coastal flooding to key coastal

  9. Significant variations in the productivity of green macroalgae in a mesotidal estuary: implications to the nutrient loading of the system and the adjacent coastal area.

    PubMed

    Martins, Irene; Lopes, R J; Lillebø, A I; Neto, J M; Pardal, M A; Ferreira, J G; Marques, J C

    2007-06-01

    A spatially dynamic model for the productivity of spores and adults of green macroalgae (Enteromorpha sp.) was developed for a mesotidal estuary (Mondego estuary, Portugal). Many of the algal processes and parameters included in the model were experimentally obtained. Model predictions were compared to a real time series (1993-1997) of macroalgal biomass variation and the two sets show a good agreement (ANOVA, P<0.001). Results suggest that algal growth is highly sensitive to small changes in depth and exhibits different patterns of variation in different seasons. On a yearly basis, global calculations for the south channel of the estuary (137 ha) suggest that during bloom years, macroalgal biomass may reach about 21,205 ton DW compared to 240 ton DW in regular years. On a seasonal basis, the difference may be even more significant. The consequences of such variations on the nitrogen and phosphorus loading of the system and the adjacent coastal area are discussed. PMID:17395214

  10. Regional Sea Level Variation: California Coastal Subsidence (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, G.; Hammond, W. C.; Nerem, R.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite altimetry over the last two decades has measured variations in geocentric sea level (GSL), relative to the Earth system center of mass, providing valuable data to test models of physical oceanography and the effects of global climate change. The societal impacts of sea level change however relate to variations in local sea level (LSL), relative to the land at the coast. Therefore, assessing the impacts of sea level change requires coastal measurements of vertical land motion (VLM). Indeed, ΔLSL = ΔGSL - ΔVLM, with subsidence mapping 1:1 into LSL. Measurements of secular coastal VLM also allow tide-gauge data to test models of GSL over the last century in some locations, which cannot be provided by satellite data. Here we use GPS geodetic data within 15 km of the US west coast to infer regional, secular VLM. A total of 89 GPS stations met the criteria that time series span >4.5 yr, and do not have obvious non-linear variation, as may be caused by local instability. VLM rates for the GPS stations are derived in the secular reference frame ITRF2008, which aligns with the Earth system center of mass to ×0.5 mm/yr. We find that regional VLM has different behavior north and south of the Mendocino Triple Junction (MTJ). The California coast has a coherent regional pattern of subsidence averaging 0.5 mm/yr, with an increasing trend to the north. This trend generally matches GIA model predictions. Around San Francisco Bay, the observed coastal subsidence of 1.0 mm/yr coherently decreases moving away from the Pacific Ocean to very small subsidence on the east shores of the bay. This gradient is likely caused by San Andreas-Hayward Fault tectonics, and possibly by differential surface loading across the bay and Sacramento-San Joachim River Delta. Thus in addition to the trend in subsidence from GIA going northward along the California coast, tectonics may also play a role where the plate boundary fault system approaches the coast. In contrast, we find that VLM

  11. Late cenozoic uplift of the southwestern colorado plateau and adjacent lower colorado river region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucchitta, I.

    1979-01-01

    Rocks deposited near sea level under marine, estuarine, and lacustrine conditions, and located along the course of the lower Colorado River from the mouth of the Grand Canyon as far as the Mexican border, have been displaced to present positions as high as 880 m a.s.l. and as low as 1600 m b.s.l. The rocks include the marine and estuarine Bouse Formation and the lacustrine or marine Hualapai Limestone Member of the Muddy Creek Formation. A profile joining spot elevations that represent the highest erosional remnants of these rocks preserved at any one locality gives an approximation (in most cases a minimum value) for the uplift or downdropping of the region relative to sea level since about 5.5 m.y. ago, the K/Ar age of the most widespread and critical unit. The profile shows that most of the lower Colorado region has risen at least 550 m through broad and rather uniform upwarping and at an average rate of about 100 m/m.y. In addition to these 550 m, the nearby Colorado Plateau has risen by discrete movement along Wheeler fault, which is parallel to and about 8 km west of the plateau's edge, to a total uplift of at least 880 m, at a rate that may be as high as 160 m/m.y. Before warping and faulting, the top of the plateau was about 1100 m above the fill of adjacent basins; the top of this fill probably was at or a little below sea level. p]The profile shows two major south-facing rises in slope. The bigger one, near Yuma, occurs where the profile intersects the northwest-trending San Andreas-Salton trough system of faults; it is interpreted as rifting resulting from transcurrent movement along the faults. At the Mexican border, the base of the Bouse Formation is 1600 m b.s.l., which corresponds to a rate of subsidence since the beginning of Bouse time that may be as high as 290 m/.m.y. The top of the Bouse is at 1000 m b.s.l., corresponding to a rate of subsidence of about 180 m/m.y. In this area, the "older marine sedimentary rocks" of Olmsted et al., (1973

  12. In situ spectroradiometric calibration of EREP imagery and estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island sound and adjacent New York coastal waters. [Willcox, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The first part of the study resulted in photographic procedures for making multispectral positive images which greatly enhance the color differences in land detail using an additive color viewer. An additive color analysis of the geologic features near Willcox, Arizona using enhanced black and white multispectral positives allowed compilation of a significant number of unmapped geologic units which do not appear on geologic maps of the area. The second part demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing Skylab remote sensor data to monitor and manage the coastal environment by relating physical, chemical, and biological ship sampled data to S190A, S190B, and S192 image characteristics. Photographic reprocessing techniques were developed which greatly enhanced subtle low brightness water detail. Using these photographic contrast-stretch techniques, two water masses having an extinction coefficient difference of only 0.07 measured simultaneously with the acquisition of S190A data were readily differentiated.

  13. A long-term monitoring study of chlorophyll, microbial contaminants, and pesticides in a coastal residential stormwater pond and its adjacent tidal creek.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, Marie E; Thompson, Brian; Cooper, Emily; Moore, Janet; Fulton, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    Stormwater ponds are commonly used in residential and commercial areas to control flooding. The accumulation of urban contaminants in stormwater ponds can lead to water-quality problems including nutrient enrichment, chemical contamination, and bacterial contamination. This study presents 5 years of monitoring data assessing water quality of a residential subdivision pond and adjacent tidal creek in coastal South Carolina, USA. The stormwater pond is eutrophic, as described by elevated concentrations of chlorophyll and phosphorus, and experiences periodic cyanobacterial blooms. A maximum monthly average chlorophyll concentration of 318.75 μg/L was measured in the stormwater pond and 227.63 μg/L in the tidal creek. Fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) levels were measured in both the pond and the tidal creek that exceeded health and safety standards for safe recreational use. A maximum monthly average FCB level of 1,247 CFU/100 mL was measured in the stormwater pond and 12,850 CFU/100 mL in the tidal creek. In addition, the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogenic bacteria were detected. Low concentrations of herbicides (atrazine and 2,4-D: ), a fungicide (chlorothalonil), and insecticides (pyrethroids and imidacloprid) were measured. Seasonal trends were identified, with the winter months having the lowest concentrations of chlorophyll and FCB. Statistical differences between the stormwater pond and the tidal creek were also noted within seasons. The tidal creek had higher FCB levels than the stormwater pond in the spring and summer, whereas the stormwater pond had higher chlorophyll levels than the tidal creek in the summer and fall seasons. Chlorophyll and FCB levels in the stormwater pond were significantly correlated with monthly average temperature and total rainfall. Pesticide concentrations were also significantly correlated with temperature and rainfall. Pesticide concentrations in the stormwater pond were significantly correlated with

  14. Using Morphological, Molecular and Climatic Data to Delimitate Yews along the Hindu Kush-Himalaya and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Ram C.; Möller, Michael; Gao, Lian-Ming; Ahrends, Antje; Baral, Sushim R.; Liu, Jie; Thomas, Philip; Li, De-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the availability of several studies to clarify taxonomic problems on the highly threatened yews of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) and adjacent regions, the total number of species and their exact distribution ranges remains controversial. We explored the use of comprehensive sets of morphological, molecular and climatic data to clarify taxonomy and distributions of yews in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 743 samples from 46 populations of wild yew and 47 representative herbarium specimens were analyzed. Principle component analyses on 27 morphological characters and 15 bioclimatic variables plus altitude and maximum parsimony analysis on molecular ITS and trnL-F sequences indicated the existence of three distinct species occurring in different ecological (climatic) and altitudinal gradients along the HKH and adjacent regions Taxus contorta from eastern Afghanistan to the eastern end of Central Nepal, T. wallichiana from the western end of Central Nepal to Northwest China, and the first report of the South China low to mid-elevation species T. mairei in Nepal, Bhutan, Northeast India, Myanmar and South Vietnam. Conclusion/Significance The detailed sampling and combination of different data sets allowed us to identify three clearly delineated species and their precise distribution ranges in the HKH and adjacent regions, which showed no overlap or no distinct hybrid zone. This might be due to differences in the ecological (climatic) requirements of the species. The analyses further provided the selection of diagnostic morphological characters for the identification of yews occurring in the HKH and adjacent regions. Our work demonstrates that extensive sampling combined with the analysis of diverse data sets can reliably address the taxonomy of morphologically challenging plant taxa. PMID:23056501

  15. Geochemical Differences between two adjacent streams in the Tenaya Lake region of Yosemite National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antweiler, R.; Andrews, E. D.

    2010-12-01

    Tenaya and Murphy Creeks are two small, intermittent streams with drainage basins adjacent to each other in the Tenaya Lake region of Yosemite National Park. Tenaya Creek has a drainage basin area of 3.49 km2 ranging in elevation from 2491 to 3012 m; Murphy Creek has a drainage basin size of 7.07 km2 ranging in elevation from 2485 to 2990 m. Both basins are underlain by the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites (Bateman et al, 1983), with chemical compositions that are practically indistinguishable (Bateman et al, 1988). Both streams derive all of their water from snowmelt and rainfall, normally going dry by early August each year. Tenaya Creek flows primarily south-southwest, whereas Murphy Creek predominantly flows south. For nearly all of Tenaya Creek’s length it is bordered by the Tioga Pass Road, the only highway in Yosemite National Park which crosses the Sierras; on the other hand, all of Murphy Creek (except its mouth) is wilderness. During the summers of 2009 and 2010, both creeks were sampled along most of their lengths for major and trace elements. In addition, both streams have been sampled near their mouths periodically during the spring and summer (until they go dry) since 2007. Water discharge has been continuously monitored during this time. Because these streams derive all of their water from snowmelt and rainfall, the water chemistry of each must originate from atmospheric deposition, weathering of the bedrock and/or human or animal inputs. These factors, along with the similarity of the geology, topography and basin orientation, suggest that the water chemistries of the creeks should be similar. Instead, while measured sulfate concentrations in Tenaya and Murphy Creeks are similar in their upper reaches, Tenaya Creek sulfate values are almost double in the lower reaches. No other major or trace element showed a similar pattern, although sodium, potassium, calcium and rubidium showed modest increases. Other concentration differences between

  16. Depositional and diagenetic history and petroleum geology of the Jurassic Norphlet Formation of the Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent federal waters area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kugler, R.L.; Mink, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of deep (>20,000 ft) gas reservoirs in eolian sandstone of the Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation in Mobile Bay and offshore Alabama in the late 1970s represents one of the most significant hydrocarbon discoveries in the nation during the past several decades. Estimated original proved gas from Norphlet reservoirs in the Alabama coastal waters and adjacent federal waters is 7.462 trillion ft3 (Tcf) (75% recovery factor). Fifteen fields have been established in the offshore Alabama area. Norphlet sediment was deposited in an arid environment in alluvial fans, alluvial plains, and wadis in updip areas. In downdip areas, the Norphlet was deposited in a broad desert plain, with erg development in some areas. Marine transgression, near the end of Norphlet deposition, resulted in reworking of the upper part of the Norphlet Formation. Norphlet reservoir sandstone is arkose and subarkose, consisting of a simple assemblage of three minerals, quartz, albite, and K-feldspar. The present framework grain assemblage of the Norphlet is dominantly diagenetic, owing to albitization and dissolution of feldspar. Despite the simple framework composition, the diagenetic character of the Norphlet is complex. Important authigenic minerals include carbonate phases (calcite, dolomite, Fe-dolomite, and breunnerite), feldspar (albite and K-feldspar), evaporite minerals (anhydrite and halite), clay minerals (illite and chlorite), quartz, and pyrobitumen. The abundance and distribution of these minerals varies significantly between onshore and offshore regions of Norphlet production. The lack of sufficient internal sources of components for authigenic minerals, combined with unusual chemical compositions of chloride (Mg-rich), breunnerite, and some minor authigenic minerals, suggests that Louann-derived fluids influenced Norphlet diagenesis. In offshore Alabama reservoirs, porosity is dominantly modified primary porosity. Preservation of porosity in deep Norphlet reservoirs is due

  17. Multiresolution in CROCO (Coastal and Regional Ocean Community model)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debreu, Laurent; Auclair, Francis; Benshila, Rachid; Capet, Xavier; Dumas, Franck; Julien, Swen; Marchesiello, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    CROCO (Coastal and Regional Ocean Community model [1]) is a new oceanic modeling system built upon ROMS_AGRIF and the non-hydrostatic kernel of SNH, gradually including algorithms from MARS3D (sediments)and HYCOM (vertical coordinates). An important objective of CROCO is to provide the possibility of running truly multiresolution simulations. Our previous work on structured mesh refinement [2] allowed us to run two-way nesting with the following major features: conservation, spatial and temporal refinement, coupling at the barotropic level. In this presentation, we will expose the current developments in CROCO towards multiresolution simulations: connection between neighboring grids at the same level of resolution and load balancing on parallel computers. Results of preliminary experiments will be given both on an idealized test case and on a realistic simulation of the Bay of Biscay with high resolution along the coast. References: [1] : CROCO : http://www.croco-ocean.org [2] : Debreu, L., P. Marchesiello, P. Penven, and G. Cambon, 2012: Two-way nesting in split-explicit ocean models: algorithms, implementation and validation. Ocean Modelling, 49-50, 1-21.

  18. Diets and food-web relationships of seabirds in the Gulf of Alaska and adjacent marine regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanger, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Overall diets of 39 species of marine birds (four procellariiforms, three cormorants, six sea ducks, one phalarope, two jaegers, 17 gulls, two terns, and 13 alcids) inhabiting the Gulf of Alaska and adjacent marine regions are summarized with food-web diagrams, tables, and text. Diets of the Northern Fulmar, Sooty and Short-tailed Shearwaters, Pelagic Cormorant, Black-legged Kittiwake, Common and Thick-billed Murres, Marbled and Kittlitz's Murrelets, and Horned and Tufted Puffins are compared among seasons and geographic regions.

  19. Design, revision, and application of ground-water flow models for simulation of selected water-management scenarios in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Krause, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    Ground-water flow models of the Floridan aquifer system in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida, were revised and updated to ensure consistency among the various models used, and to facilitate evaluation of the effects of pumping on the ground-water level near areas of saltwater contamination. The revised models, developed as part of regional and areal assessments of ground-water resources in coastal Georgia, are--the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) model, the Glynn County area (Glynn) model, and the Savannah area (Savannah) model. Changes were made to hydraulic-property arrays of the RASA and Glynn models to ensure consistency among all of the models; results of theses changes are evidenced in revised water budgets and calibration statistics. Following revision, the three models were used to simulate 32 scenarios of hypothetical changes in pumpage that ranged from about 82 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) lower to about 438 Mgal/d higher, than the May 1985 pumping rate of 308 Mgal/d. The scenarios were developed by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division and the Chatham County-Savannah Metropolitan Planning Commission to evaluate water-management alternatives in coastal Georgia. Maps showing simulated ground-water-level decline and diagrams presenting changes in simulated flow rates are presented for each scenario. Scenarios were grouped on the basis of pumping location--entire 24-county area, central subarea, Glynn-Wayne-Camden County subarea, and Savannah-Hilton Head Island subarea. For those scenarios that simulated decreased pumpage, the water level at both Brunswick and Hilton Head Island rose, decreasing the hydraulic gradient and reducing the potential for saltwater contamination. Conversely, in response to scenarios of increased pumpage, the water level at both locations declined, increasing the hydraulic gradient and increasing the potential for saltwater contamination

  20. An AHP-derived method for mapping the physical vulnerability of coastal areas at regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Cozannet, G.; Garcin, M.; Bulteau, T.; Mirgon, C.; Yates, M. L.; Méndez, M.; Baills, A.; Idier, D.; Oliveros, C.

    2013-05-01

    Assessing coastal vulnerability to climate change at regional scales is now mandatory in France since the adoption of recent laws to support adaptation to climate change. However, there is presently no commonly recognised method to assess accurately how sea level rise will modify coastal processes in the coming decades. Therefore, many assessments of the physical component of coastal vulnerability are presently based on a combined use of data (e.g. digital elevation models, historical shoreline and coastal geomorphology datasets), simple models and expert opinion. In this study, we assess the applicability and usefulness of a multi-criteria decision-mapping method (the analytical hierarchy process, AHP) to map physical coastal vulnerability to erosion and flooding in a structured way. We apply the method in two regions of France: the coastal zones of Languedoc-Roussillon (north-western Mediterranean, France) and the island of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean), notably using the regional geological maps. As expected, the results show not only the greater vulnerability of sand spits, estuaries and low-lying areas near to coastal lagoons in both regions, but also that of a thin strip of erodible cliffs exposed to waves in La Réunion. Despite gaps in knowledge and data, the method is found to provide a flexible and transportable framework to represent and aggregate existing knowledge and to support long-term coastal zone planning through the integration of such studies into existing adaptation schemes.

  1. Impact of outflow from the Guadiana River on the distribution of suspended particulate matter and nutrients in the adjacent coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravo, Alexandra; Madureira, Miguel; Felícia, Helena; Rita, F.; Bebianno, Maria J.

    2006-10-01

    In this study we collected surface water samples from the coastal area adjacent to the Guadiana estuary during winter for 3 consecutive years to assess the impact of the Guadiana outflow upon the concentration and spatial distribution of suspended particulate matter and nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, and silicate). Deeper water samples were also collected near the river mouth in water greater than 10 m in depth. Our results indicate that the maximal surface influence of the Guadiana outflow is close to the mouth of the Guadiana River, at the 10-m isobath, where the highest concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and nutrients were recorded, as well as the lowest salinity. SPM and nutrient concentrations decrease with increased water depth, while salinity increased. Beyond the 10-m isobath, toward the ocean, nutrient concentrations decreased gradually with increasing salinity. Nutrient concentrations showed a conservative behaviour only during the last of the three sampling periods. The impact of Guadiana outflow was especially low when river discharge was low, however, after periods of peak rainfall the river outflow increased enormously and the impact of SPM and nutrients (more than an order of magnitude higher than normal) was observed, particularly around the mouth of the estuary. This impact involved the development of a fingerprint plume that represents a net export of SPM and nutrients to the coastal area. This plume had a width of about 10-15 km, and despite being centred slightly east of the mouth of the Guadiana River, tended to migrate westward. The increase in N compounds was more significant than increases in P and Si, is reflected in high N:P and N:Si nutrient ratios. In water depths in excess of 10 m, the effect of the Guadiana outflow was most evident until 5 m depth. It is expected that with the completion of the biggest dam in Europe along the Guadiana River, the outflow of the river will be markedly reduced, especially during summer

  2. Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell with thin doped region adjacent metal Schottky barrier

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.; Wronski, Christopher R.

    1979-01-01

    A Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell incorporating a thin highly doped p-type region of hydrogenated amorphous silicon disposed between a Schottky barrier high work function metal and the intrinsic region of hydrogenated amorphous silicon wherein said high work function metal and said thin highly doped p-type region forms a surface barrier junction with the intrinsic amorphous silicon layer. The thickness and concentration of p-type dopants in said p-type region are selected so that said p-type region is fully ionized by the Schottky barrier high work function metal. The thin highly doped p-type region has been found to increase the open circuit voltage and current of the photovoltaic device.

  3. A Science Plan for a Comprehensive Regional Assessment of the Atlantic Coastal Plain Aquifer System in Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, Robert J.; Bolton, David W.; Cleaves, Emery T.; Gerhart, James M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    The Maryland Coastal Plain region is, at present, largely dependent upon ground water for its water supply. Decades of increasing pumpage have caused ground-water levels in parts of the Maryland Coastal Plain to decline by as much as 2 feet per year in some areas of southern Maryland. Continued declines at this rate could affect the long-term sustainability of ground-water resources in Maryland's heavily populated Coastal Plain communities and the agricultural industry of the Eastern Shore. In response to a recommendation in 2004 by the Advisory Committee on the Management and Protection of the State's Water Resources, the Maryland Geological Survey and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a science plan for a comprehensive assessment that will provide new scientific information and new data management and analysis tools for the State to use in allocating ground water in the Coastal Plain. The comprehensive assessment has five goals aimed at improving the current information and tools used to understand the resource potential of the aquifer system: (1) document the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the aquifer system in the Maryland Coastal Plain and appropriate areas of adjacent states; (2) conduct detailed studies of the regional ground-water-flow system and water budget for the aquifer system; (3) improve documentation of patterns of water quality in all Coastal Plain aquifers, including the distribution of saltwater; (4) enhance ground-water-level, streamflow, and water-quality-monitoring networks in the Maryland Coastal Plain; and (5) develop science-based tools to facilitate sound management of the ground-water resources in the Maryland Coastal Plain. The assessment, as designed, will be conducted in three phases and if fully implemented, is expected to take 7 to 8 years to complete. Phase I, which was initiated in January 2006, is an effort to assemble all the information and investigation tools needed to do a more comprehensive assessment of

  4. Phytoplankton and nutrient distributions in a front-eddy area adjacent to the coastal upwelling zone off Concepcion (Chile): implications for ecosystem productivity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Carmen; Anabalón, Valeria; Hormazábal, Samuel; Cornejo, Marcela; Bento, Joaquim; Silva, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    exportation of coastal communities to the open ocean in this region. We discuss how this interaction might affect ecosystem productivity in the coastal band.

  5. Apparatus and methods for impingement cooling of an undercut region adjacent a side wall of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands. Each band includes a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The inturned flange has a plurality of apertures for directing cooling steam to cool the side wall between adjacent nozzle segments.

  6. A regional ionospheric TEC mapping technique over China and adjacent areas on the basis of data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aa, Ercha; Huang, Wengeng; Yu, Shimei; Liu, Siqing; Shi, Liqin; Gong, Jiancun; Chen, Yanhong; Shen, Hua

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a regional total electron content (TEC) mapping technique over China and adjacent areas (70°E-140°E and 15°N-55°N) is developed on the basis of a Kalman filter data assimilation scheme driven by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China and International GNSS Service. The regional TEC maps can be generated accordingly with the spatial and temporal resolution being 1°×1° and 5 min, respectively. The accuracy and quality of the TEC mapping technique have been validated through the comparison with GNSS observations, the International Reference Ionosphere model values, the global ionosphere maps from Center for Orbit Determination of Europe, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Automated Processing of GPS TEC data from Madrigal database. The verification results indicate that great systematic improvements can be obtained when data are assimilated into the background model, which demonstrates the effectiveness of this technique in providing accurate regional specification of the ionospheric TEC over China and adjacent areas.

  7. Ocean forecasting for the German Bight: from regional to coastal scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, Emil V.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Staneva, Joanna; Grayek, Sebastian; Grashorn, Sebastian; Behrens, Arno; Koch, Wolfgang; Pein, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes recent developments based on advances in coastal ocean forecasting in the fields of numerical modeling, data assimilation, and observational array design, exemplified by the Coastal Observing System for the North and Arctic Seas (COSYNA). The region of interest is the North and Baltic seas, and most of the coastal examples are for the German Bight. Several pre-operational applications are presented to demonstrate the outcome of using the best available science in coastal ocean predictions. The applications address the nonlinear behavior of the coastal ocean, which for the studied region is manifested by the tidal distortion and generation of shallow-water tides. Led by the motivation to maximize the benefits of the observations, this study focuses on the integration of observations and modeling using advanced statistical methods. Coastal and regional ocean forecasting systems do not operate in isolation but are linked, either weakly by using forcing data or interactively using two-way nesting or unstructured-grid models. Therefore, the problems of downscaling and upscaling are addressed, along with a discussion of the potential influence of the information from coastal observatories or coastal forecasting systems on the regional models. One example of coupling coarse-resolution regional models with a fine-resolution model interface in the area of straits connecting the North and Baltic seas using a two-way nesting method is presented. Illustrations from the assimilation of remote sensing, in situ and high-frequency (HF) radar data, the prediction of wind waves and storm surges, and possible applications to search and rescue operations are also presented. Concepts for seamless approaches to link coastal and regional forecasting systems are exemplified by the application of an unstructured-grid model for the Ems Estuary.

  8. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. IV - Deconvolution of the Mare Imbrium, Aristarchus, and adjacent regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Metzger, A. E.; Haines, E. L.; Hawke, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    Several fields of orbital gamma ray spectroscopy data have been deconvolved in order to model the distribution of Th over the Mare Imbrium and northern Oceanus Procellarum portions of the Apollo 15 lunar ground track, which in combination with a prior study of the Apenninus region covers a continuous swath from 10 deg E to 60 deg W in the northwest quadrant. The crater of the Aristarchus region dominates the Th distribution, with a concentration of 20 ppm, and substantial enhancements are also found in the mare regions around Brayley and at the ejecta blankets of Timocharis and Lambert. The existence of enhanced Th concentrations in mare basalt regions suggests that reservoirs of some late stage mare basalts incorporated KREEP-rich material during formation or transit.

  9. Regional prospectivity of Mesozoic and Tertiary in the eastern Adriatic and adjacent area

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.; Dolan, P.; Lunn, G. )

    1988-08-01

    Post-Hercynian deposits in the eastern Adriatic and the adjacent external zones of the Dinarides and Albanian Hellenides may be subdivided into four facies groups. (1) Permian-Lower Triassic clastics and carbonates with some evaporites, (2) Middle Triassic-lower Tertiary carbonate platform facies with associated continental margin deeper marine sequences, (3) Upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary flysch, and (4) middle Tertiary molasse and postorogenic Neogene sediments. The Permian to lower Tertiary section was deposited during the complex Alpine cycle, while the upper Tertiary section is the product of post-Alpine deposition. This depositional history during markedly different tectonic regimes creates two groups of petroleum plays in the eastern Adriatic: (1) Alpine cycle plays in the Permian to lower Tertiary in the thrust-faulted and folded foreland of Adria and (2) post-Alpine plays in upper Tertiary postorogenic or late synorogenic basins. Around the Adriatic, the post-Alpine plays have so far proved the most successful. Major production occurs in the onshore Po basin and its extension beneath the Adriatic. Some of this production is from deep Alpine-cycle reservoirs, but the bulk is from the upper Tertiary-Quaternary. Similar horizons produce onshore and offshore the central-southern Adriatic coast of Italy. Major Tertiary production also occurs to the northeast in the Pannonian basin of Yugoslavia and Hungary from Miocene and younger sequences. Onshore Albania produces significant quantities of hydrocarbons; although data are scarce, much of this production is presumably from upper Tertiary molasse or lower Tertiary flysch.

  10. Vesicomyinae (Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae) of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and adjacent abyssal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylova, Elena M.; Kamenev, Gennady M.; Vladychenskaya, Irina P.; Petrov, Nikolai B.

    2015-01-01

    Representatives of the subfamily Vesicomyinae (Bivalvia, Vesicomyidae) are tiny deep-sea molluscs distributed worldwide and reaching huge abundances of hundreds and thousands of specimens in trawl catches. During the German-Russian deep-sea expedition KuramBio (R/V Sonne, 2012) for the first time two vesicomyin species were collected from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench from the depths of 4861-5787 m, Vesicomya pacifica (Smith, 1885) and "Vesicomya" filatovae sp.n. Two species of vesicomyins, V. sergeeviFilatova, 1971 and V. profundiFilatova, 1971, which were previously reported from the hadal of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, were not collected at the abyssal depth despite of the close geographical proximity of the sampling area to their distribution ranges. Altogether nine species of vesicomyins are recorded now from the West and Indo-West Pacific; data on distribution and morpho-anatomical characters of these species are provided. Taxonomic description of V. pacifica is revised including information on its soft part anatomy, new localities and COI sequences. For the first time for a vesicomyin bivalve molecular data is given for a species with an explicit morphological description and unambiguous taxonomic affiliation. Molecular analysis of 160 published COI sequences of vesicomyids and newly obtained molecular data on V. pacifica showed that V. pacifica and two undescribed vesicomyin species forming a monophyletic clade which exhibits sister relationships with the Pliocardiinae, the group of chemosymbiotic vesicomyids. "Vesicomya" filatovae sp.n. is provisionally assigned to the genus Vesicomya (s.l.) until additional morphological and molecular data are obtained. It differs from Vesicomya s.s. by a broader hinge margin with more radiating teeth and the presence of only one pair of demibranchs.

  11. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface: IV. Deconvolution of the mare imbrium, aristarchus, and adjacent regions

    SciTech Connect

    Etchegaray-Ramirez, M.I.; Metzger, A.E.; Haines, E.L.; Hawke, B.R.

    1983-02-15

    The distribution of Th over the Mare Imbrium and northern Oceanus Procellarum portions of the Apollo 15 lunar ground track has been modeled by deconvolving several fields of orbital gamma ray spectroscopy data. Including a prior study of the Apenninus region, a continuous swath from 10/sup 0/E to 60/sup 0/W in the northwest quadrant has now been analyzed. In the Aristarchus region, the crater dominates the Th distribution with a concentration of 20 ppm. Other enhancements are seen on the Aristarchus Plateau and south of the plateau. The concentration across the Aristarchus Plateau is not uniform. The average Th concentration in Oceanus Procellarum is less to the west than to the east of the Aristarchus Plateau. Substantial enhancements are found in mare regions around Brayley, and at the ejecta blankets of Timocharis and Lambert. Th in the Eratosthenian mare regions is generally low with one notable exception lying rouhgly between the craters Euler and Carlini. The existence of enhanced Th concentrations in mare basalt regions suggests that reservoirs of some late stage mare basalts incorporated KREEP-rich material during formation or transit.

  12. Ground-water resources in the tri-state region adjacent to the Lower Delaware River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barksdale, Henry C.; Greenman, David W.; Lang, Solomon Max; Hilton, George Stockbridge; Outlaw, Donald E.

    1958-01-01

    The maximum beneficial utilization of the ground-water resources cannot be accomplished in haphazard fashion. It must be planned and controlled on the basis of sound, current information about the hydrology of the various aquifers. Continued and, in some areas, intensified investigations of the ground-water resources of the region should form the basis for such planning and control.

  13. Aquifer systems in the Great Basin region of Nevada, Utah, and adjacent states; a study plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrill, James R.; Welch, A.H.; Prudic, D.E.; Thomas, J.M.; Carman, R.L.; Plume, R.W.; Gates, J.S.; Mason, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Great Basin Regional Aquifer Study includes about 140,000 square miles in parts of Nevada, Utah, California, Idaho, Oregon , and Arizona within which 240 hydrographic areas occupy structural depressions formed primarily by basin-and-range faulting. The principal aquifers are in basin-fill deposits; however, significant carbonate-rock aquifers underlie much of eastern Nevada and western Utah. In October 1980, the U.S. Geological Survey started a 4-year study to: (1) describe the ground-water systems, (2) analyze the changes that have led to the systems ' present conditions, (3) tie the results of this and previous studies together in a regional analysis, and (4) provide means by which effects of future ground-water development can be estimated. A plan of work is presented that describes the general approach to be taken. It defines the major tasks necessary to meet objectives and defines constraints on the scope of work. The approach has been influenced by the diverse nature of ground water flow systems and the large number of basins. A detailed appraisal of 240 individual areas would require more resources than are available. Consequently, the general approach is to study selected ' typical ' areas and key hydrologic processes. Effort during the first three years will be directed toward describing the regional hydrology, conducting detailed studies of ' type ' areas and studying selected hydrologic processes. Effort during the final year will be directed toward developing a regional analysis of results. Special studies will include evaluation of regional geochemistry , regional hydrogeology, recharge, ground-water discharge, and use of remote sensing. Areas to be studied using ground-water flow models include the regional carbonate-rock province in eastern Nevada and western Utah, six valleys--Las Vegas, Carson, Paradise, Dixie, Smith Creek, and Stagecoach--Nevada, plus Jordan Valley, the Millford area, and Tule Valley in Utah. The results will be presented in a

  14. Gymnocranius superciliosus and Gymnocranius satoi, two new large-eye breams (Sparoidea: Lethrinidae) from the Coral Sea and adjacent regions.

    PubMed

    Borsa, Philippe; Béarez, Philippe; Paijo, Sobar; Chen, Wei-Jen

    2013-04-01

    Two related perciform fish species of the subfamily Monotaxinae (Sparoidea: Lethrinidae) Gymnocranius superciliosus sp. nov. and Gymnocranius satoi sp. nov. are described from specimens and tissue samples from the Coral Sea and adjacent regions. G. superciliosus sp. nov. is distinct from all other known Gymnocranius spp. by the following combination of characters: body elongated (depth 2.7-3.1 in standard length), caudal fin moderately forked with a subtle middle notch, its lobes slightly convex inside, distinctive blackish eyebrow, snout and cheek with blue speckles, and dorsal, pectoral, anal and caudal fins reddish. G. satoi sp. nov. is the red-finned 'Gymnocranius sp.' depicted in previous taxonomic revisions. While colour patterns are similar between the two species, G. satoi sp. nov. is distinct from G. superciliosus sp. nov. by the ratio of standard length to body depth (2.4-2.5 vs. 2.7-3.1) and by the shape of the caudal fin, which is more shallowly forked, its lobes convex inside and their extremities rounded. The two species are genetically distinct from each other and they are genetically distinct from G. elongatus, G. euanus, G. grandoculis, and G. oblongus sampled from the Coral Sea and adjacent regions. PMID:23849726

  15. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  16. Physical parameters along the boundaries of a mid-latitude streamer and in its adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susino, R.; Ventura, R.; Spadaro, D.; Vourlidas, A.; Landi, E.

    2008-09-01

    Context: Coronal streamers appear to be strictly associated with the generation of the slow solar wind, even if a firm identification of the sources of the particle flux within these structures is still an unresolved issue. Aims: The purpose of this work is to contribute to a better knowledge of the physical characteristics of streamers and of their surroundings in a wide range of heliocentric distances and at both high radial and latitudinal resolutions. Methods: The analysis is based on spectral observations of a narrow, mid-latitude streamer performed with UVCS/SOHO during one week in May 2004: H i Lyα and O vi resonance doublet line intensities and profiles were obtained at different heliocentric distances and latitudes. In addition, white-light polarized brightness images were taken in the same days of observation, through the LASCO/SOHO C2 coronagraph. Results: The radial variations in electron density and temperature, H i and O vi kinetic temperatures, and outflow velocities were derived from the observed line intensities, profiles, and O vi line intensity ratios between 1.6 and 5.0 R_⊙, in two regions, 2-3 arcmin wide, located along the boundaries and in a narrow strip (5-10 arcmin) outside the streamer structure. Significantly high kinetic temperatures and outflow velocities were found in the out-of-streamer region above 3.0 R_⊙ for the O vi ions and, for the first time, H i atoms, compared to those obtained along the streamer boundaries. Moreover, the O vi kinetic temperatures and velocities turn out much higher than the H i ones at any heliocentric distance in all the observed regions. A higher anisotropy is also noticed for the O vi kinetic temperature in the region flanking the streamer. Conclusions: The slow coronal wind is found to flow with significantly different speeds and kinetic temperatures along the boundaries of the streamer and in the out-of-streamer regions at all heights, above 3.0-3.5 R_⊙. This fact, consistent with previous

  17. Genetic and metabolic biodiversity of Trichoderma from Colombia and adjacent neotropic regions.

    PubMed

    Hoyos-Carvajal, Lilliana; Orduz, Sergio; Bissett, John

    2009-09-01

    The genus Trichoderma has been studied for production of enzymes and other metabolites, as well as for exploitation as effective biological control agents. The biodiversity of Trichoderma has seen relatively limited study over much of the neotropical region. In the current study we assess the biodiversity of 183 isolates from Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil and Colombia, using morphological, metabolic and genetic approaches. A comparatively high diversity of species was found, comprising 29 taxa: Trichoderma asperellum (60 isolates), Trichoderma atroviride (3), Trichoderma brevicompactum (5), Trichoderma crassum (3), Trichoderma erinaceum (3), Trichoderma gamsii (2), Trichoderma hamatum (2), Trichoderma harzianum (49), Trichoderma koningiopsis (6), Trichoderma longibrachiatum (3), Trichoderma ovalisporum (1), Trichoderma pubescens (2), Trichoderma rossicum (4), Trichoderma spirale (1), Trichoderma tomentosum (3), Trichoderma virens (8), Trichoderma viridescens (7) and Hypocrea jecorina (3) (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei), along with 11 currently undescribed species. T. asperellum was the prevalent species and was represented by two distinct genotypes with different metabolic profiles and habitat preferences. The second predominant species, T. harzianum, was represented by three distinct genotypes. The addition of 11 currently undescribed species is evidence of the considerable unresolved biodiversity of Trichoderma in neotropical regions. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the ribosomal repeat could not differentiate some species, and taken alone gave several misidentifications in part due to the presence of nonorthologous copies of the ITS in some isolates.

  18. Structure and variation of human ribosomal DNA: the external transcribed spacer and adjacent regions.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G N; Szura, L L; Rushford, C; Jackson, D; Erickson, J

    1982-01-01

    A group of human ribosomal DNA (rDNA) recombinants that include the probable site for initiation of transcription have been examined for sequence polymorphism. A detailed restriction map of one rDNA insert was constructed using plasmid subclones and end-labeled segments. Comparison of 16 similar rDNA inserts by restriction and heteroduplex analysis demonstrated striking conservation of the external transcribed spacer and 18S gene regions, but defined a region where restriction sites for the enzymes Sma I, Hpa II, and Hha I become frequent or variable. This region extends for about 400--800 base pairs (bp) at the left end of the rDNA insert and is postulated to contain nontranscribed spacer sequences. The use of cloned rDNA segments as probes for the restriction analysis of genomic rDNA has demonstrated certain fixed sites in the nontranscribed spacer that do not vary significantly among different individuals or tumor cell lines. In contrast, restriction with the enzyme Sal I reveals several variable fragments, one of which has been found only in a retinoblastoma cell line. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6282117

  19. Temporal and spatial variations of abundance of phycocyanin- and phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus in Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Chai, Chao; Wang, Jifang; Zhang, Ling; Cen, Jingyi; Lu, Songhui

    2016-10-01

    Three surveys were carried out in Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal area in May, August, and November, 2013, to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of abundance of phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus (PE-rich SYN) and phycocyanin-rich Synechococcus (PC-rich SYN). The effects of environmental factors on the alternation of the different Synechococcus groups were also elucidated. PE-rich SYN was detected in three surveys, whereas PC-rich SYN was detected in May and August, but not in November. The highest abundances of PE-rich SYN and PC-rich SYN were recorded in August and May, with mean values of 74.17×103 and 189.92×103 cells mL-1, respectively. From May to November, the relative abundance of PE-rich SYN increased, whereas that of PC-rich SYN declined. PE-rich and PC-rich SYN presented similar horizontal distributions with high abundance in the southern estuary in May, and in the western estuary in August. The abundances of PE-rich and PC-rich SYN were high at 27-32°C and salinity of 10-20. PC-rich SYN was not detected at < 24°C, and PC:PE-rich SYN decreased in abundance with salinity increase. When less than 20 mg L-1, suspended particulate matter (SPM) was helpful for Synechococcus growth. PE-rich SYN decreased in abundance when the concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen increased in May and November, and the concentration of phosphate increased in November. However, PC-rich SYN abundance and nutrients showed no correlation. Principal component analysis and regression analysis indicated that PE-rich SYN significantly correlated with the principal components that were affected by environmental factors.

  20. Accretion, modification and erosion of Archean lithosphere: evidence from the Superior Province and adjacent regions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederiksen, A. W.; Olaleye, M.; Toni, D. A.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Eaton, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    The lithosphere beneath shield regions is generally believed to be thick, cold, high in seismic velocity, and convectively stable. If formation of the shield lithosphere was approximately contemporaneous with the overlying crust, then the lithosphere has undergone a history as complex as the crust; however, this history will be fundamentally different due to potential influences on the lithosphere from both plate-tectonic (top-down) and mantle convective (bottom-up) processes. The Superior Province in eastern and central Canada is the largest Archean craton in the world; recent seismological investigations have shown that it has a complex internal structure. Through a combination of tomography, shear-wave splitting, and receiver-function analysis, we have found evidence of anomalous mantle which we believe to date back to the accretion of the lithosphere: a high-velocity, strongly and consistently anisotropic region in the western Superior which is truncated by the Trans-Hudson Orogen at its western edge. This feature was then eroded by Trans-Hudson orogenic activity, as the anomaly now ends ca. 200 km east of the boundary. Subsequent rifting along the Mid-Continent Rift truncated the anomalous region to the south; the enigmatic Nipigon Embayment, which is associated with the rift but may be something other than a failed arm, contains a tightly-focused region of anomalous mantle. In the easter Superior, the lithosphere is lower in velocity and more weakly anisotropic, with more directional variation. Some of this difference may be due to different formation mechanisms, but there is also evidence of later modification by the Great Meteor hotspot. The Great Meteor track continues into the Grenville Province and shows possible evidence of later deformation. Complicating this large-scale picture is the strong evidence for internal layering seen in receiver function gathers. An anisotropic layer immediately below the Moho is ubiquitous underneath the western Superior

  1. Assessment of the Relative Largest Earthquake Hazard Level in the NW Himalaya and its Adjacent Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsapanos, Theodoros M.; Yadav, R. B. S.; Olasoglou, Efthalia M.; Singh, Mayshree

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the level of the largest earthquake hazard is assessed in 28 seismic zones of the NW Himalaya and its vicinity, which is a highly seismically active region of the world. Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution (hereafter as GIII) is adopted for the evaluation of the largest earthquake magnitudes in these seismic zones. Instead of taking in account any type of Mmax, in the present study we consider the ω value which is the largest earthquake magnitude that a region can experience according to the GIII statistics. A function of the form Θ(ω, RP6.0) is providing in this way a relatively largest earthquake hazard scale defined by the letter K(K index). The return periods for the ω values (earthquake magnitudes) 6 or larger (RP6.0) are also calculated. According to this index, the investigated seismic zones are classified into five groups and it is shown that seismic zones 3 (Quetta of Pakistan), 11 (Hindukush), 15 (northern Pamirs), and 23 (Kangra, Himachal Pradesh of India) correspond to a "very high" K index which is 6.

  2. Gravity anomaly and crustal density structure in Jilantai rift zone and its adjacent region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guiju; Shen, Chongyang; Tan, Hongbo; Yang, Guangliang

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with the interpretation of Bouguer gravity anomalies measured along a 250 km long Suhaitu-Etuokeqi gravity profile located at the transitional zone of the Alxa and Ordos blocks where geophysical characteristics are very complex. The analysis is carried out in terms of the ratio of elevation and Bouguer gravity anomaly, the normalized full gradient of a section of the Bouguer gravity anomaly ( G h ) and the crustal density structure reveal that (1) the ratio of highs and lows of elevation and Bouguer gravity anomaly is large between Zhengyiguan fault (F4) and Helandonglu fault (F6), which can be explained due to crustal inhomogeneities related to the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet block in the northeast; (2) the main active faults correspond to the G h contour strip or cut the local region, and generally show strong deformation characteristics, for example the Bayanwulashan mountain front fault ( F1) or the southeast boundary of Alxa block is in accord with the western change belt of G h , a belt about 10 km wide that extends to about 30 km; (3) Yinchuan-Pingluo fault ( F8) is the seismogenic structure of the Pingluo M earthquake, and its focal depth is about 15 km; (4) the Moho depth trend and Bouguer gravity anomaly variation indicates that the regional gravity field is strongly correlated with the Moho discontinuity.

  3. Gravity anomaly and crustal density structure in Jilantai rift zone and its adjacent region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guiju; Shen, Chongyang; Tan, Hongbo; Yang, Guangliang

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with the interpretation of Bouguer gravity anomalies measured along a 250 km long Suhaitu-Etuokeqi gravity profile located at the transitional zone of the Alxa and Ordos blocks where geophysical characteristics are very complex. The analysis is carried out in terms of the ratio of elevation and Bouguer gravity anomaly, the normalized full gradient of a section of the Bouguer gravity anomaly (G h ) and the crustal density structure reveal that (1) the ratio of highs and lows of elevation and Bouguer gravity anomaly is large between Zhengyiguan fault (F4) and Helandonglu fault (F6), which can be explained due to crustal inhomogeneities related to the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet block in the northeast; (2) the main active faults correspond to the G h contour strip or cut the local region, and generally show strong deformation characteristics, for example the Bayanwulashan mountain front fault (F1) or the southeast boundary of Alxa block is in accord with the western change belt of G h , a belt about 10 km wide that extends to about 30 km; (3) Yinchuan-Pingluo fault (F8) is the seismogenic structure of the Pingluo M earthquake, and its focal depth is about 15 km; (4) the Moho depth trend and Bouguer gravity anomaly variation indicates that the regional gravity field is strongly correlated with the Moho discontinuity.

  4. Apparatus for impingement cooling a side wall adjacent an undercut region of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and vanes therebetween. Each band includes a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. Slots are formed through the inturned flange along the nozzle side wall. A plate having through-apertures extending between opposite edges thereof is disposed in each slot, the slots and plates being angled such that the cooling medium exiting the apertures in the second cavity lie close to the side wall for focusing and targeting cooling medium onto the side wall.

  5. Phylogeography and allopatric divergence of cypress species (Cupressus L.) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although allopatric speciation is viewed as the most common way in which species originate, allopatric divergence among a group of closely related species has rarely been examined at the population level through phylogeographic analysis. Here we report such a case study on eight putative cypress (Cupressus) species, which each have a mainly allopatric distribution in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjacent regions. The analysis involved sequencing three plastid DNA fragments (trnD-trnT, trnS-trnG and trnL-trnF) in 371 individuals sampled from populations at 66 localities. Results Both phylogenetic and network analyses showed that most DNA haplotypes recovered or haplotype-clustered lineages resolved were largely species-specific. Across all species, significant phylogeographic structure (NST > GST, P < 0.05) implied a high correlation between haplotypes/lineages and geographic distribution. Two species, C. duclouxiana and C. chengiana, which are distributed in the eastern QTP region, contained more haplotypes and higher diversity than five species with restricted distributions in the western highlands of the QTP. The remaining species, C. funebris, is widely cultivated and contained very little cpDNA diversity. Conclusions It is concluded that the formation of high mountain barriers separating deep valleys in the QTP and adjacent regions caused by various uplifts of the plateau since the early Miocene most likely promoted allopatric divergence in Cupressus by restricting gene flow and fixing local, species-specific haplotypes in geographically isolated populations. The low levels of intraspecific diversity present in most species might stem from population bottlenecks brought about by recurrent periods of unfavorable climate and more recently by the negative impacts of human activities on species' distributions. Our findings shed new light on the importance of geographical isolation caused by the uplift of the QTP on the development of high plant

  6. Russian aeromagnetic surveys of the Prince Charles Mountains and adjacent regions into the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golynsky, Alexander; Golynsky, Dmitry; Kiselev, Alexander; Masolov, Valery

    2014-05-01

    Russian aeromagnetic investigations in the Prince Charles Mountains (PCM) and surrounding areas, seek to contribute data on the tectonics of Precambrian igneous belts and cratonic fragments, the crustal structure of the Lambert Rift system and other major aspects of Antarctic geology, critical to understanding continental growth processes (Golynsky et al., 2006). Over the past decade, the Polar Marine Geoscience Expedition projects acquired approximately 77,400 line-km of aeromagnetic data over the largely ice-covered regions of MacRobertson Land and Princess Elizabeth Land. The airborne surveys were performed with a standard profile spacing of 5 km and tie-line interval of 15-25 km. The total amount of the Russian aeromagnetic data collected in this region exceeded more than 165,000 line-km. Together with the PCMEGA and AGAP surveys (Damaske and McLean, 2005; Ferraccioli et al., 2011) the PMGE dataset forms the longest transect ever mapped in East Antarctica exceeding 1950 km in length. Several distinct crustal subdivisions are clearly differentiated in the magnetic data. The high-amplitude positive anomalies that extend around the Vestfold Hills and Rauer Islands are likely be attributed to the southern boundary of high-grade metamorphic Late Archean craton. The northern PCM that are composed by ~1 Ga orthogneiss and charnockite display a predominantly northeasterly trending magnetic fabric that continues to the eastern shoulder of the Lambert Rift. The aeromagnetic data from the Southern PCM reveal the spatial boundary of the Archaean Ruker Terrane that is characterized by a short-wavelength anomalies and the prominent Ruker Anomaly that is associated with a banded iron formation. The prominent alternating system of linear NE-SW positive and negative anomalies over the eastern shoulder of the Lambert Rift may reflect the western boundary of the Princess Elizabeth Land cratonic(?) block, although its relationships and tectonic origin remained largely ambiguous

  7. Analysis of regional deformation and strain accumulation data adjacent to the San Andreas fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to the understanding of crustal deformation was developed under this grant. This approach combined aspects of fractals, chaos, and self-organized criticality to provide a comprehensive theory for deformation on distributed faults. It is hypothesized that crustal deformation is an example of comminution: Deformation takes place on a fractal distribution of faults resulting in a fractal distribution of seismicity. Our primary effort under this grant was devoted to developing an understanding of distributed deformation in the continental crust. An initial effort was carried out on the fractal clustering of earthquakes in time. It was shown that earthquakes do not obey random Poisson statistics, but can be approximated in many cases by coupled, scale-invariant fractal statistics. We applied our approach to the statistics of earthquakes in the New Hebrides region of the southwest Pacific because of the very high level of seismicity there. This work was written up and published in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. This approach was also applied to the statistics of the seismicity on the San Andreas fault system.

  8. Evidence that local land use practices influence regional climate, vegetation, and stream flow patterns in adjacent natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Baron, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    We present evidence that land use practices in the plains of Colorado influence regional climate and vegetation in adjacent natural areas in the Rocky Mountains in predictable ways. Mesoscale climate model simulations using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) projected that modifications to natural vegetation in the plains, primarily due to agriculture and urbanization, could produce lower summer temperatures in the mountains. We corroborate the RAMS simulations with three independent sets of data: (i) climate records from 16 weather stations, which showed significant trends of decreasing July temperatures in recent decades; (ii) the distribution of seedlings of five dominant conifer species in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, which suggested that cooler, wetter conditions occurred over roughly the same time period; and (iii) increased stream flow, normalized for changes in precipitation, during the summer months in four river basins, which also indicates cooler summer temperatures and lower transpiration at landscape scales. Combined, the mesoscale atmospheric/land-surface model, short-term in regional temperatures, forest distribution changes, and hydrology data indicate that the effects of land use practices on regional climate may overshadow larger-scale temperature changes commonly associated with observed increases in CO2 and other greenhouse gases.

  9. Tectonic origin of Lower Mesozoic regional unconformities: Southern Colorado Plateau and adjacent Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Marzolf, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Palinspastic restoration of Basin and Range structural blocks to early Mesozoic positions relative to the Colorado Plateau permits correlation of lower Mesozoic regional unconformities of the Colorado Plateau across the southern Basin and Range. These unconformities correlate with tectonic reconfiguration of sedimentary basins in which enclosed depositional sequences were deposited. Lesser recognized intraformational unconformities are related to relative sea level change. The Tr-1 unconformity developed on subaerially exposed, karsted, and deeply incised Leonardian carbonates. The overlying Lower Triassic Moenkopi Formation and equivalent strata display a narrow, north-south aligned, passive-margin-type architecture subdivided by Smithian and Spathian intraformational unconformities into three depositional sequences. From basinal to inner shelf facies, Tr-1 truncates folds in Permian rocks. Initial deposition of the lowest sequence began with sea level at the base of the continental slope. Basal conglomerates of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation were deposited in northward-trending paleovalleys incised within and parallel to the Early Triassic shelf. Distribution of fluvial deposition, orientation of paleovalleys, paleocurrent indicators, and provenance indicate change from the passive-margin-bordered Early Triassic basin to an offshore active-margin basin. Continental and marine facies suggest two depositional sequences separated by an early Norian type 2( ) sequence boundary. The J-O unconformity at the base of the Lower Jurassic Glen Canyon Group marks a major change in tectonic setting of western North America as evidenced by (1) progressive southwestward downcutting of the unconformity to deformed Paleozoic rocks and Precambrian basement, (2) coincidence in time and space with Late Triassic to Early Jurassic thrust faults, and (3) initiation of calcalkaline volcanism.

  10. A meta-analysis of plant facilitation in coastal dune systems: responses, regions, and research gaps

    PubMed Central

    Lortie, Christopher J.; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Prado, Paulo Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies in salt marshes, arid, and alpine systems support the hypothesis that facilitation between plants is an important ecological process in severe or ‘stressful’ environments. Coastal dunes are both abiotically stressful and frequently disturbed systems. Facilitation has been documented, but the evidence to date has not been synthesized. We did a systematic review with meta-analysis to highlight general research gaps in the study of plant interactions in coastal dunes and examine if regional and local factors influence the magnitude of facilitation in these systems. The 32 studies included in the systematic review were done in coastal dunes located in 13 countries around the world but the majority was in the temperate zone (63%). Most of the studies adopt only an observational approach to make inferences about facilitative interactions, whereas only 28% of the studies used both observational and experimental approaches. Among the factors we tested, only geographic region mediates the occurrence of facilitation more broadly in coastal dune systems. The presence of a neighbor positively influenced growth and survival in the tropics, whereas in temperate and subartic regions the effect was neutral for both response variables. We found no evidence that climatic and local factors, such as life-form and life stage of interacting plants, affect the magnitude of facilitation in coastal dunes. Overall, conclusions about plant facilitation in coastal dunes depend on the response variable measured and, more broadly, on the geographic region examined. However, the high variability and the limited number of studies, especially in tropical region, indicate we need to be cautious in the generalization of the conclusions. Anyway, coastal dunes provide an important means to explore topical issues in facilitation research including context dependency, local versus regional drivers of community structure, and the importance of gradients in shaping the outcome of net

  11. Climate change in the four corners and adjacent regions: Implications for environmental restoration and land-use planning

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document contains the workshop proceedings on Climate Change in the Four Corners and Adjacent Regions: Implications for Environmental Restoration and Land-Use Planning which took place September 12-14, 1994 in Grand Junction, Colorado. The workshop addressed three ways we can use paleoenvironmental data to gain a better understanding of climate change and its effects. (1) To serve as a retrospective baseline for interpreting past and projecting future climate-induced environmental change, (2) To differentiate the influences of climate and humans on past environmental change, and (3) To improve ecosystem management and restoration practices in the future. The papers presented at this workshop contained information on the following subjects: Paleoclimatic data from the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, climate change and past cultures, and ecological resources and environmental restoration. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Reclamation by tubewell drainage in Rechna Doab and adjacent areas, Punjab region, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malmberg, Glenn T.

    1975-01-01

    Around the turn of the century, a network of more than 40,000 miles of canals was constructed to divert water from the Indus River and its tributaries to about 23 million acres of largely unused desert in the Punjab region of Pakistan. The favorable climate and the perennial supply of irrigation water made available through the canals instituted the beginning of intensive farming. However, because of generally poor drainage and the high rate of canal leakage, the water table began to rise. As the population increased and agriculture expanded, the demand for irrigation water soon exceeded the available supply. Spreading of the canal supply to meet the expanded needs locally created shortages that prevented adequate leaching. Increased evaporation from the rising water table further contributed to the progressive accumulation of soluble salts in the soil. By the late 1930's the combined effect of waterlogging and salinity had reduced the agricultural productivity of the region to one of the lowest in the world. In 1954, after several unsuccessful projects were undertaken to reclaim affected areas and to stop the progressive encroachment of waterlogging and salinization, the Government of Pakistan in cooperation with the U.S. International Cooperation Administration undertook a study of the geology and hydrology of the Indus Plain that ultimately resulted in the formulation of a ground-water reclamation program. The principal feature of the program is the utilization of a network of deep wells spaced about a mile apart for the dual purpose of lowering the water table and for providing supplemental irrigation water. Through financial assistance and technical and engineering support principally from the United States, construction began in 1960 on the first of 18 proposed reclamation projects that eventually will include 21 million acres and more than 28,000 wells having an installed capacity of more than 100,000 cubic feet per second. An area of about 1.3 million acres

  13. THE POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper assesses the potential impacts of climate change on the mid-Atlantic coastal (MAC) region of the United States. In order of increasing uncertainty, it is projected that sea level, temperature and streamflow will increase in the MAC region in response to higher levels o...

  14. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic variations between adjacent drips in three caves at increasing elevation in a temperate coastal rainforest, Vancouver Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddows, Patricia A.; Mandić, Magda; Ford, Derek C.; Schwarcz, Henry P.

    2016-01-01

    The interpretation of speleothem paleoenvironmental records requires understanding of spatial-temporal variations in vadose drip water chemistry and isotopic composition. This study reports on intra- and inter-cave differences in δD, δ18O and electrical conductivity, using 18 monthly water samples from three adjacent drips (<20 m apart) in each of three caves at increasing elevation (0, 550, and 740 m ASL) on very steep ground at the head of Tahsis Inlet fjord on the Pacific coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. All drips showed isotopic seasonal signals, despite varied patterns of drip hydrology. There was overlap in isotopic ranges (at 1 SD) between all three caves, in contrast with the expected δ18O depletion of -0.15 to -0.5‰/100 m of ascent observed in standard precipitation. The isotopic seasonality was approximated with sine curves, and compared to a GNIP data set from Victoria ∼300 km to the south. The δD and δ18O drip isotopes lagged the Victoria record by 155 ± 26 days and 165 ± 50 days respectively. The longest lag was at the slowest drip (sea level), while the shortest lag (87 days for δ18O, 550 m ASL) implies a short residence time, paradoxically from the drip with the highest mean electrical conductivity. Vadose residence time was less than one climatic year, reflecting a combination of negligible matrix porosity in the host rock and super-humid climatic conditions. Beneath the epikarst, drip hydrology was evidently by simple piston flow. Phase-shifted drip isotope records showed excellent agreement with sea level mean monthly air temperatures at the Tahsis meteorological station over the study period. The δD and δ18O drip amplitudes were damped on average 74% and 73% respectively compared to the Victoria data. The drips at 740 m ASL are tightly aligned to the global mean meteoric water line (GMWL) and 18O-depleted; the drips at 550 m ASL and at sea level plot along the GMWL, or between it and the Victoria LMWL, with the exception

  15. Episodicity in phytoplankton dynamics in a coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jönsson, Bror F.; Salisbury, Joseph E.

    2016-06-01

    Much is still unknown about the control of oceanic biological production, especially in coastal areas where daily changes can be as large as seasonal variability. Both data scarcity and a lack of methods with sufficient coverage in space and time hinder our progress. Here we present a satellite-derived proxy for net community production where simulated velocity fields are combined with satellite data to create a comprehensive accounting of spatial and temporal scales of biological production in the Southern California Bight. Statistical analyses show that rare events exert a major influence when estimating mean production over seasonal time scales: about 65% of change in biomass is caused by the 10% highest values in our data set. The results suggest that frequencies of rare events might be as important for biological production as seasonal averages. Our work highlights the need for additional data sets sampled at higher frequencies and shorter spatial scales.

  16. Two regimes of cloud water over the Okhotsk Sea and the adjacent regions around Japan in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Teruhisa; Iwasaki, Toshiki

    2015-03-01

    This study derived two regimes of cloud water with a dipole structure between over the Okhotsk Sea and over the adjacent regions around Japan in summer by using a climate index for cool summer. When the Okhotsk high develops, clouds are confined to a thin low-level layer owing to the enhanced stability in the lower atmosphere induced by the downward motion associated with the Okhotsk high. The resulting optically thin clouds allow more downward shortwave radiation to reach the surface of the Okhotsk Sea. In contrast, the low-level easterly winds blowing toward the Japanese Islands and the Eurasian continent enhance cloud formation. This is due to the convergence of the water vapor flux induced by the easterly winds associated with the Okhotsk high and the southerly winds associated with the Baiu frontal zone and the Pacific high and due to the orographic uplift of air mass. When a cyclonic circulation occurs over the Okhotsk Sea, a thick layer of low-level clouds extending close to the sea surface is formed. The convergence of the water vapor flux over the subarctic sea surface temperature (SST) frontal zone and the cool SST promote fog formation, and upward motion associated with the cyclonic circulation supports the high cloud water content from the lower to the upper troposphere. The resulting optically thick clouds reduce the downward shortwave radiation at the surface of the Okhotsk Sea. Over the regions around Japan, water vapor flux diverges owing to dry air originating from land and cloud water decreases.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinsinger, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    USGS Western Region Coastal and Ocean Science is interdisciplinary, collaborative, and integrates expertise from all USGS Disciplines, and ten of its major Science Centers, in Alaska, Hawai'i, California, Washington, and Oregon. The scientific talent, laboratories, and research vessels in the Western Region and across the Nation, strategically position the USGS to address broad geographic and oceanographic research topics. USGS information products inform resource managers and policy makers who must balance conservation mandates with increasing demands for resources that sustain the Nation's economy. This fact sheet describes but a few examples of the breadth of USGS science conducted in coastal, nearshore, and ocean environments along our Nation's West Coast and Pacific Islands.

  18. Benefits of coastal recreation in Europe: identifying trade-offs and priority regions for sustainable management.

    PubMed

    Ghermandi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the welfare dimension of the recreational services of coastal ecosystems through the application of a meta-analytical value transfer framework, which integrates Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for the characterization of climate, biodiversity, accessibility, and anthropogenic pressure in each of 368 regions of the European coastal zone. The relative contribution of international, domestic, and local recreationists to aggregated regional values is examined. The implications of the analysis for prioritization of conservation areas and identification of good management practices are highlighted through the comparative assessment of estimated recreation values, current environmental pressures, and existing network of protected sites.

  19. Benefits of coastal recreation in Europe: identifying trade-offs and priority regions for sustainable management.

    PubMed

    Ghermandi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the welfare dimension of the recreational services of coastal ecosystems through the application of a meta-analytical value transfer framework, which integrates Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for the characterization of climate, biodiversity, accessibility, and anthropogenic pressure in each of 368 regions of the European coastal zone. The relative contribution of international, domestic, and local recreationists to aggregated regional values is examined. The implications of the analysis for prioritization of conservation areas and identification of good management practices are highlighted through the comparative assessment of estimated recreation values, current environmental pressures, and existing network of protected sites. PMID:25656628

  20. Assessment of water quality using multivariate statistical techniques in the coastal region of Visakhapatnam, India.

    PubMed

    Pati, Sangeeta; Dash, Mihir K; Mukherjee, C K; Dash, B; Pokhrel, S

    2014-10-01

    The present study was intended to develop a Water Quality Index (WQI) for the coastal water of Visakhapatnam, India from multiple measured water quality parameters using different multivariate statistical techniques. Cluster analysis was used to classify the data set into three major groups based on similar water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis was used to generate a discriminant function for developing a WQI. Discriminant analysis gave the best result for analyzing the seasonal variation of water quality. It helped in data reduction and found the most discriminant parameters responsible for seasonal variation of water quality. Coastal water was classified into good, average, and poor quality considering WQI and the nutrient load. The predictive capacity of WQI was proved with random samples taken from coastal areas. High concentration of ammonia in surface water during winter was attributed to nitrogen fixation by the phytoplankton bloom which resulted due to East India Coastal Current. This study brings out the fact that water quality in the coastal region not only depends on the discharge from different pollution sources but also on the presence of different current patterns. It also illustrates the usefulness of WQI for analyzing the complex nutrient data for assessing the coastal water and identifying different pollution sources, considering reasons for seasonal variation of water quality.

  1. The chemical composition of fogs and clouds in coastal regions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, J. L.; Benedict, K. B.; Straub, D.; Lee, T.

    2013-12-01

    Clouds and fogs formed in coastal regions interact strongly with their environment. Coastal regions are especially interesting because they represent an important zone for exchange and mixing of marine and anthropogenic emissions. The chemical compositions of coastal clouds and fogs provide insight into their processing of trace gases and particles in these regional systems. Clouds and fogs both promote the cleansing of the atmosphere by direct or precipitation removal of scavenged gases and particles and enhance production of new particle mass via aqueous phase oxidation of scavenged gases. Here we review observations of coastal fog and cloud composition made along the west coast of the United States, off the coast of northern Chile, and in the northern Pacific. Observations of organic matter, sulfur, nitrogen, and sea salt species will be reviewed in the context of marine and anthropogenic emission sources. Clouds in these regions contain differing mixes of strong and weak acids and bases that give rise to a large pH range. The potential of these clouds for rapid aqueous oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide to sulfate will also be examined in light of the important role clouds play in regional and global atmospheric production of sulfate.

  2. Seismic structure beneath the Gulf of Aqaba and adjacent areas based on the tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khrepy, Sami; Koulakov, Ivan; Al-Arifi, Nassir; Petrunin, Alexey G.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first 3-D model of seismic P and S velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Gulf of Aqaba and surrounding areas based on the results of passive travel time tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed based on travel time data from ˜ 9000 regional earthquakes provided by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN), and this was complemented with data from the International Seismological Centre (ISC). The resulting P and S velocity patterns were generally consistent with each other at all depths. Beneath the northern part of the Red Sea, we observed a strong high-velocity anomaly with abrupt limits that coincide with the coastal lines. This finding may indicate the oceanic nature of the crust in the Red Sea, and it does not support the concept of gradual stretching of the continental crust. According to our results, in the middle and lower crust, the seismic anomalies beneath the Gulf of Aqaba seem to delineate a sinistral shift (˜ 100 km) in the opposite flanks of the fault zone, which is consistent with other estimates of the left-lateral displacement in the southern part of the Dead Sea Transform fault. However, no displacement structures were visible in the uppermost lithospheric mantle.

  3. Seismic hazard and seismic risk assessment based on the unified scaling law for earthquakes: Himalayas and adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasova, A. K.; Kossobokov, V. G.; Parvez, I. A.

    2015-03-01

    For the Himalayas and neighboring regions, the maps of seismic hazard and seismic risk are constructed with the use of the estimates for the parameters of the unified scaling law for earthquakes (USLE), in which the Gutenberg-Richter law for magnitude distribution of seismic events within a given area is applied in the modified version with allowance for linear dimensions of the area, namely, log N( M, L) = A + B (5 - M) + C log L, where N( M, L) is the expected annual number of the earthquakes with magnitude M in the area with linear dimension L. The spatial variations in the parameters A, B, and C for the Himalayas and adjacent regions are studied on two time intervals from 1965 to 2011 and from 1980 to 2011. The difference in A, B, and C between these two time intervals indicates that seismic activity experiences significant variations on a scale of a few decades. With a global consideration of the seismic belts of the Earth overall, the estimates of coefficient A, which determines the logarithm of the annual average frequency of the earthquakes with a magnitude of 5.0 and higher in the zone with a linear dimension of 1 degree of the Earth's meridian, differ by a factor of 30 and more and mainly fall in the interval from -1.1 to 0.5. The values of coefficient B, which describes the balance between the number of earthquakes with different magnitudes, gravitate to 0.9 and range from less than 0.6 to 1.1 and higher. The values of coefficient C, which estimates the fractal dimension of the local distribution of epicenters, vary from 0.5 to 1.4 and higher. In the Himalayas and neighboring regions, the USLE coefficients mainly fall in the intervals of -1.1 to 0.3 for A, 0.8 to 1.3 for B, and 1.0 to 1.4 for C. The calculations of the local value of the expected peak ground acceleration (PGA) from the maximal expected magnitude provided the necessary basis for mapping the seismic hazards in the studied region. When doing this, we used the local estimates of the

  4. Speed-up matching method with navigation data for UAV remote sensing images of coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Gangwu; Di, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    UAV remote sensing platform can obtain images of target regions quickly. It has distinct advantages in the detection of oil spill, the emergency response of searching and rescuing, the survey of coastal regions, etc. However, the existing UAV images are difficult to meet the needs of rapid processing, because the amount of their data is too large and the traditional processing methods take too much time in the matching stage. This paper designs a speed-up matching algorithm which utilizes navigation data in UAV to get the elements of exterior orientation. The algorithm is based on the collinearity equation with the flat terrain in the coastal regions. Those elements can be used to compute the original homography matrix and overlapping regions. After extracting interest points by SURF algorithm, the matching method only chooses some points in overlapping regions for matching stage. The algorithm can improve the matching speed , and also can decrease mismatching to improve the accuracy.

  5. Influence of bathymetry on hydrography and circulation at the region between an estuary mouth and the adjacent continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jungwoo; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2012-06-01

    Bathymetry effects on the flow field at the transition between idealized estuaries and the adjacent ocean are studied with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Estuary width, depth, and channel direction at the shelf are used to determine flow characteristics in and out of an idealized estuary. The idealized estuary connects to an upstream boundary, where freshwater discharges, and an offshore tidal boundary. Tidally averaged salinity and flow structures are examined at the estuary mouth. A recirculation feature directly affects flow at the estuary mouth, especially in shallow and wide estuarine systems. The recirculation retards the exchange flow near the edges of the estuary mouth and consequently allows strengthening of the flow in the middle. The geometric shape of the estuarine channel affects the strength of the residual flow at the estuary mouth. The presence of an extended submarine channel on the shelf enhances the baroclinic circulation and stratification, and maximizes the salinity intrusion length without additional external forces. The direction of this submarine channel affects the exchange flow structures at the estuary/ocean transition zone in such a way that the salinity intrusion length increases with a left-turning channel (in the Kelvin wave sense of the fresh water flow direction). This is attributed to the competition between centrifugal and Coriolis forces. Flow characteristics described by the Kelvin and Ekman number, which outline channel geometric effects, are similar to previous studies.

  6. Projected climate change for the coastal plain region of Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climatic patterns for the Coastal Plain region of Georgia, USA, centered on Tifton, Georgia (31 28 30N, 83 31 54W) were examined for long term patterns in precipitation and air temperature. Climate projections based upon output from seven Global Circulation Models (GCMs) and three future Green Hous...

  7. Associations between accelerated glacier mass wastage and increased summer temperature in coastal regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyurgerov, M.; McCabe, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Low-elevation glaciers in coastal regions of Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, individual ice caps around the Greenland ice sheet, and the Patagonia Ice Fields have an aggregate glacier area of about 332 ?? 103 km 2 and account for approximately 42% of all the glacier area outside the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. They have shown volume loss, especially since the end of the 1980s, increasing from about 45% in the 1960s to nearly 67% in 2003 of the total wastage from all glaciers on Earth outside those two largest ice sheets. Thus, a disproportionally large contribution of coastal glacier ablation to sea level rise is evident. We examine cumulative standardized departures (1961-2000 reference period) of glacier mass balances and air temperature data in these four coastal regions. Analyses indicate a strong association between increases in glacier volume losses and summer air temperature at regional and global scales. Increases in glacier volume losses in the coastal regions also coincide with an accelerated rate of ice discharge from outlet glaciers draining the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets. These processes imply further increases in sea level rise. ?? 2006 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  8. 77 FR 35357 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ...-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.). On January 24, 2012 (77 FR 3393... rule implementing the Atlantic HMS electronic dealer ] reporting system (76 FR 37750; June 28, 2011) or...; Commercial Atlantic Region Non-Sandbar Large Coastal Shark Fishery Opening Date AGENCY: National...

  9. IMPACTS OF GLOBAL CHANGE ON UV EXPOSURE IN COASTAL SHELF REGIONS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global change has a variety of impact on UV exposure in coastal shelf regions of the southeastern United States. Changes in solar UV reaching the water surface have been caused by human alterations of atmospheric composition such as depletion of the ozone layer.

  10. Coal geology of the U.S. Gulf Coastal region

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, P.D.; Aubourg, C.E.; Crowley, S.S.

    1999-07-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a comprehensive assessment of the major coal regions of the country. In this program, known as the National Coal Resource Assessment, the quantity and quality of coals that are expected to be mined during the next 30 years will be characterized. For the Gulf Coast region, the evaluation will include reviews of the stratigraphic setting, resource potential, and the quality of the lignites in four coal-producing areas. These areas are: the Sabine Uplift (including parts of Texas and Louisiana), Northeast Texas, Central Texas, and South Texas. The results of these efforts will be a series of digital Geographic Information System (GIS) maps, text, and tables that will be published in a CD-ROM format. These products, along with a national summary CD-ROM, are expected to be completed in 1999. This paper is to present a review of Gulf Coast coal geology and to outline the USGS assessment efforts for the Gulf Coast region. Most coal in the Gulf Coast area is produced from the Paleocene Wilcox Group, and minor amounts of coal are produced from the Ecocene Jackson and Claiborne Groups. Initial results indicate that for coals being mined in the Sabine Uplift, Northeast, and Central Texas areas mean moisture values are about 34%, mean ash yields range from 12 to 15%, and mean calorific values range from about 5,800 to 6,900 Btu/lb (all data are on an as-received basis). Detailed bed and zone analysis in all areas indicate that resource figures will be greater than previous estimates that have usually combined multiple coal horizons to estimate cumulative coal thicknesses for a formation. Ongoing research in the Sabine Uplift and Northeast study areas suggests that coal zones in both the upper and lower Wilcox may be more laterally extensive than previous studies indicate.

  11. Causes and consequences of ecosystem service regionalization in a coastal suburban watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Mark B. Green,; Pellerin, Brian A.; Morse, Nathaniel B.; Hopkinson, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    The demand for ecosystem services and the ability of natural ecosystems to provide those services evolve over time as population, land use, and management practices change. Regionalization of ecosystem service activity, or the expansion of the area providing ecosystem services to a population, is a common response in densely populated coastal regions, with important consequences for watershed water and nitrogen (N) fluxes to the coastal zone. We link biophysical and historical information to explore the causes and consequences of change in ecosystem service activity—focusing on water provisioning and N regulation—from 1850 to 2010 in a coastal suburban watershed, the Ipswich River watershed in northeastern Massachusetts, USA. Net interbasin water transfers started in the late 1800s due to regionalization of water supply for use by larger populations living outside the Ipswich watershed boundaries, reaching a peak in the mid-1980s. Over much of the twentieth century, about 20 % of river runoff was diverted from reaching the estuary, with greater proportions during drought years. Ongoing regionalization of water supply has contributed to recent declines in diversions, influenced by socioecological feedbacks resulting from the river drying and fish kills. Similarly, the N budget has been greatly perturbed since the suburban era began in the 1950s due to food and lawn fertilizer imports and human waste release. However, natural ecosystems are able to remove most of this anthropogenic N, mitigating impacts on the coastal zone. We propose a conceptual model whereby the amount and type of ecosystem services provided by coastal watersheds in urban regions expand and contract over time as regional population expands and ecosystem services are regionalized. We hypothesize that suburban watersheds can be hotspots of ecosystem service sources because they retain sufficient ecosystem function to still produce services that meet increasing demand from the local population

  12. Regional shoreline change and coastal erosion hazards in Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Harden, E.L.; Richmond, B.M.; Erikson, L.H.

    2011-01-01

    Historical shoreline positions along the mainland Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska were digitized and analyzed to determine the long-term rate of change. Average shoreline change rates and ranges from 1947 to the mid-2000s were determined every 50 meters between Barrow and Demarcation Point, at the U.S.-Canadian border. Results show that shoreline change rates are highly variable along the coast, with an average regional shoreline change rate of-2.0 m/yr and localized rates of up to -19 m/yr. The highest erosion rates were observed at headlands, points, and associated with breached thermokarst lakes. Areas of accretion were limited, and generally associated with spit extension and minor beach accretion. In general, erosion rates increase from east to west, with overall higher rates east of Harrison Bay. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  13. Regional shoreline change and coastal erosion hazards in Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Erikson, Li H.; Harden, E. Lynne; Wallendorf, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Historical shoreline positions along the mainland Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska were digitized and analyzed to determine the long-term rate of change. Average shoreline change rates and ranges from 1947 to the mid-2000s were determined every 50 meters between Barrow and Demarcation Point, at the U.S.-Canadian border. Results show that shoreline change rates are highly variable along the coast, with an average regional shoreline change rate of-2.0 m/yr and localized rates of up to -19 m/yr. The highest erosion rates were observed at headlands, points, and associated with breached thermokarst lakes. Areas of accretion were limited, and generally associated with spit extension and minor beach accretion. In general, erosion rates increase from east to west, with overall higher rates east of Harrison Bay.

  14. Subsatellite experiments in a coastal region of the Black sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhanov, V.; Bogatov, N.; Ermoshkin, A.; Kazakov, V.; Kemarskaya, O.; Lobanov, V.; Repina, I.; Titov, V.; Troitskaya, Yu.; Zuikova, E.

    2009-04-01

    The results of field experiments carried out in 2007, 2008 in a north-east part of the Black sea in region of city Gelendzhik, are given. Experiments targeted the development of a bottom topography remote (radar and optical) diagnostics. Experimental area is characterized by abrupt depth dumping (fall 50 - 1250 m), and irregularity of a bank vault (numerous canyons). Such bottom topography in the presence of alongshore current creates favorable conditions for hydrodynamic perturbations on thermocline and corresponding anomalies on sea surface and in atmospheric surface layer characteristics. The simultaneous measurement of atmospheric near-surface layer, sea surface and sea bulk parameters synchronously with reception of the radar image from the satellite ENVISAT was feature of the given experiment. The ground-based measurements were carried out simultaneously from high coast by means of X-band radar and from R/V "Aquanaut" (Institute of Oceanology RAS). The meteorological conditions during observations varied considerably. The wind velocity changed from 0 up to 10 m/c, heaving - from 0 up to 4 balls. The short-term atmospheric precipitations were observed. The bottom topography was measured by echo-sounder. Investigation of the hydrological characteristics was carried out by combined SVP-CTD probe. The current field was measured by ADCP. The surface wave characteristics in length range 4 mm - 1 m were measured by X and Ka radar and two-dimensional optical spectrum analyzer. Air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and direction were measured. Sonic anemometer-thermometer for recording horizontal and vertical components of the wind and temperature fluctuations in the surface layer was used. The connection of current field heterogeneities with a bottom configuration in region of depth dumping is investigated. The correlation of radar signal with current speed in near-surface region is observed also. For example, the slicks are observed

  15. Nomenclature of regional hydrogeologic units of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.A.; Renken, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Clastic sediments of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system can be divided into four regional aquifers separated by three regional confining units. The four regional aquifers have been named for major rivers that cut across their outcrop areas and expose the aquifer materials. From youngest to oldest, the aquifers are called the Chickasawhay River, Pearl River, Chattahoochee River, and Black Warrior River aquifers, and the regional confining units separating them are given the same name as the aquifer they overlie. Most of the regional hydrogeologic units are subdivided within each of the four States that comprise the study area. Correlation of regional units is good with hydrogeologic units delineated by a similar regional study to the west and southwest. Because of complexity created by a major geologic structure to the northeast of the study area and dramatic facies change from clastic to carbonate strata to the southeast, correlation of regional hydrogeologic units is poor in these directions. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Northeast Coastal Ocean Forecast System (NECOFS): A Multi-scale Global-Regional-Estuarine FVCOM Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsley, R. C.; Chen, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Northeast Coastal Ocean Forecast System (NECOFS) is a global-regional-estuarine integrated atmosphere/surface wave/ocean forecast model system designed for the northeast US coastal region covering a computational domain from central New Jersey to the eastern end of the Scotian Shelf. The present system includes 1) the mesoscale meteorological model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting); 2) the regional-domain FVCOM covering the Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank/New England Shelf region (GOM-FVCOM); 3) the unstructured-grid surface wave model (FVCOM-SWAVE) modified from SWAN with the same domain as GOM-FVCOM; 3) the Mass coastal FVCOM with inclusion of inlets, estuaries and intertidal wetlands; and 4) three subdomain wave-current coupled inundation FVCOM systems in Scituate, MA, Hampton River, NH and Mass Bay, MA. GOM-FVCOM grid features unstructured triangular meshes with horizontal resolution of ~ 0.3-25 km and a hybrid terrain-following vertical coordinate with a total of 45 layers. The Mass coastal FVCOM grid is configured with triangular meshes with horizontal resolution up to ~10 m, and 10 layers in the vertical. Scituate, Hampton River and Mass Bay inundation model grids include both water and land with horizontal resolution up to ~5-10 m and 10 vertical layers. GOM-FVCOM is driven by surface forcing from WRF model output configured for the region (with 9-km resolution), the COARE3 bulk air-sea flux algorithm, local river discharges, and tidal forcing constructed by eight constituents and subtidal forcing on the boundary nested to the Global-FVCOM. SWAVE is driven by the same WRF wind field with wave forcing at the boundary nested to Wave Watch III configured for the northwestern Atlantic region. The Mass coastal FVCOM and three inundation models are connected with GOM-FVCOM through one-way nesting in the common boundary zones. The Mass coastal FVCOM is driven by the same surface forcing as GOM-FVCOM. The nesting boundary conditions for the inundation models

  17. Population genetic diversity of the northern snakehead (Channa argus) in China based on the mitochondrial DNA control region and adjacent regions sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aiguo; Zhuo, Xiaolei; Zou, Qing; Chen, Jintao; Zou, Jixing

    2015-06-01

    Genetic variation and population structure of northern snakehead (Channa argus) from eight locations in China were investigated using mitochondrial DNA control region and adjacent regions sequences. Sequence analysis showed that there were 105 haplotypes in 260 individuals, 48 unique haplotypes and 57 shared haplotypes, but no common haplotype shared by all populations. As a whole, the haplotype diversity was high (h=0.989), while the nucleotide diversity was low (π=0.00482). AMOVA analysis detected significant genetic differentiation among all eight populations (FST=0.328, p<0.01) and 66.17% of the total variance was resulted from intra-population differentiation. UPGMA analysis indicated that the eight populations could be divided into four major clusters, which was consistent with that the eight sampled locations were belonged to four isolated river systems. The neutrality and mismatch distribution tests suggested that the eight populations of C. argus in the sampling locations underwent recent population expansion. Among the eight populations, the Erhai Lake population may represent a unique genetic resource and therefore needs to be conserved. PMID:24724976

  18. Population genetic diversity of the northern snakehead (Channa argus) in China based on the mitochondrial DNA control region and adjacent regions sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aiguo; Zhuo, Xiaolei; Zou, Qing; Chen, Jintao; Zou, Jixing

    2015-06-01

    Genetic variation and population structure of northern snakehead (Channa argus) from eight locations in China were investigated using mitochondrial DNA control region and adjacent regions sequences. Sequence analysis showed that there were 105 haplotypes in 260 individuals, 48 unique haplotypes and 57 shared haplotypes, but no common haplotype shared by all populations. As a whole, the haplotype diversity was high (h=0.989), while the nucleotide diversity was low (π=0.00482). AMOVA analysis detected significant genetic differentiation among all eight populations (FST=0.328, p<0.01) and 66.17% of the total variance was resulted from intra-population differentiation. UPGMA analysis indicated that the eight populations could be divided into four major clusters, which was consistent with that the eight sampled locations were belonged to four isolated river systems. The neutrality and mismatch distribution tests suggested that the eight populations of C. argus in the sampling locations underwent recent population expansion. Among the eight populations, the Erhai Lake population may represent a unique genetic resource and therefore needs to be conserved.

  19. Correlation between Focal Nodular Low Signal Changes in Hoffa's Fat Pad Adjacent to Anterior Femoral Cartilage and Focal Cartilage Defect Underlying This Region and Its Possible Implication

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wuey Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigates the association between focal nodular mass with low signal in Hoffa's fat pad adjacent to anterior femoral cartilage of the knee (FNMHF) and focal cartilage abnormality in this region. Method. The magnetic resonance fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition sequence (MR FIESTA) sagittal and axial images of the B1 and C1 region (described later) of 148 patients were independently evaluated by two reviewers and categorized into four categories: normal, FNMHF with underlying focal cartilage abnormality, FNMHF with normal cartilage, and cartilage abnormality with no FNMHF. Results. There was a significant association (p = 0.00) between FNMHF and immediate adjacent focal cartilage abnormality with high interobserver agreement. The absence of focal nodular lesions next to the anterior femoral cartilage has a very high negative predictive value for chondral injury (97.8%). Synovial biopsy of focal nodular lesion done during arthroscopy revealed some fibrocollagenous tissue and no inflammatory cells. Conclusion. We postulate that the FNMHF adjacent to the cartilage defects is a form of normal healing response to the cartilage damage. One patient with FHMHF and underlying cartilage abnormality was rescanned six months later. In this patient, the FNMHF disappeared and normal cartilage was observed in the adjacent region which may support this theory. PMID:27213085

  20. Variants in Adjacent Oxytocin/Vasopressin Gene Region and Associations with ASD Diagnosis and Other Autism Related Endophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Sunday M.; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Yan, Zhongyu; Guter, Stephen; Cook, Edwin H.; Jacob, Suma

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing interest in oxytocin (peptide: OT, gene: OXT) as a treatment pathway for neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Neurodevelopmental disorders affect functional, social, and intellectual abilities. With advances in molecular biology, research has connected multiple gene regions to the clinical presentation of ASD. Studies have also shown that the neuropeptide hormones OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP) influence mammalian social and territorial behaviors and may have treatment potential for neurodevelopmental disorders. Published data examining molecular and phenotypic variation in ASD, such as cognitive abilities, are limited. Since most studies have focused on the receptors in the OT-AVP system, we investigated genetic variation within peptide genes for association with phenotypic ASD features that help identify subgroups within the spectrum. Methods: In this study, TDT analysis was carried out utilizing FBAT in 207 probands (156 trios) and a European Ancestry (EA) subsample (108 trios).The evolutionarily related and adjacent genes of OXT and AVP were studied for associations between the tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms and ASD diagnosis, social abilities, restrictive and repetitive behaviors, and IQ for cognitive abilities. Additionally, relationships with whole blood serotonin (WB5HT) were explored because of the developmental relationships connecting plasma levels of OT and WB5HT within ASD. Results: Results indicate significant association between OXT rs6084258 (p = 0.001) and ASD. Associations with several endophenotypes were also noted: OXT rs6133010 was associated with IQ (full scale IQ, p = 0.008; nonverbal IQ, p = 0.010, verbal IQ, p = 0.006); and OXT rs4813625 and OXT rs877172 were associated with WB5HT levels (EA, p = 0.027 and p = 0.033, respectively). Additionally, we measured plasma OT (pOT) levels in a subsample (N = 54). Results show the three polymorphisms, OXT rs6084258, OXT

  1. The Power of Three: Coral Reefs, Seagrasses and Mangroves Protect Coastal Regions and Increase Their Resilience.

    PubMed

    Guannel, Greg; Arkema, Katie; Ruggiero, Peter; Verutes, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Natural habitats have the ability to protect coastal communities against the impacts of waves and storms, yet it is unclear how different habitats complement each other to reduce those impacts. Here, we investigate the individual and combined coastal protection services supplied by live corals on reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests during both non-storm and storm conditions, and under present and future sea-level conditions. Using idealized profiles of fringing and barrier reefs, we quantify the services supplied by these habitats using various metrics of inundation and erosion. We find that, together, live corals, seagrasses, and mangroves supply more protection services than any individual habitat or any combination of two habitats. Specifically, we find that, while mangroves are the most effective at protecting the coast under non-storm and storm conditions, live corals and seagrasses also moderate the impact of waves and storms, thereby further reducing the vulnerability of coastal regions. Also, in addition to structural differences, the amount of service supplied by habitats in our analysis is highly dependent on the geomorphic setting, habitat location and forcing conditions: live corals in the fringing reef profile supply more protection services than seagrasses; seagrasses in the barrier reef profile supply more protection services than live corals; and seagrasses, in our simulations, can even compensate for the long-term degradation of the barrier reef. Results of this study demonstrate the importance of taking integrated and place-based approaches when quantifying and managing for the coastal protection services supplied by ecosystems. PMID:27409584

  2. The Power of Three: Coral Reefs, Seagrasses and Mangroves Protect Coastal Regions and Increase Their Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Guannel, Greg; Arkema, Katie; Ruggiero, Peter; Verutes, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Natural habitats have the ability to protect coastal communities against the impacts of waves and storms, yet it is unclear how different habitats complement each other to reduce those impacts. Here, we investigate the individual and combined coastal protection services supplied by live corals on reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests during both non-storm and storm conditions, and under present and future sea-level conditions. Using idealized profiles of fringing and barrier reefs, we quantify the services supplied by these habitats using various metrics of inundation and erosion. We find that, together, live corals, seagrasses, and mangroves supply more protection services than any individual habitat or any combination of two habitats. Specifically, we find that, while mangroves are the most effective at protecting the coast under non-storm and storm conditions, live corals and seagrasses also moderate the impact of waves and storms, thereby further reducing the vulnerability of coastal regions. Also, in addition to structural differences, the amount of service supplied by habitats in our analysis is highly dependent on the geomorphic setting, habitat location and forcing conditions: live corals in the fringing reef profile supply more protection services than seagrasses; seagrasses in the barrier reef profile supply more protection services than live corals; and seagrasses, in our simulations, can even compensate for the long-term degradation of the barrier reef. Results of this study demonstrate the importance of taking integrated and place-based approaches when quantifying and managing for the coastal protection services supplied by ecosystems. PMID:27409584

  3. The Power of Three: Coral Reefs, Seagrasses and Mangroves Protect Coastal Regions and Increase Their Resilience.

    PubMed

    Guannel, Greg; Arkema, Katie; Ruggiero, Peter; Verutes, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Natural habitats have the ability to protect coastal communities against the impacts of waves and storms, yet it is unclear how different habitats complement each other to reduce those impacts. Here, we investigate the individual and combined coastal protection services supplied by live corals on reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests during both non-storm and storm conditions, and under present and future sea-level conditions. Using idealized profiles of fringing and barrier reefs, we quantify the services supplied by these habitats using various metrics of inundation and erosion. We find that, together, live corals, seagrasses, and mangroves supply more protection services than any individual habitat or any combination of two habitats. Specifically, we find that, while mangroves are the most effective at protecting the coast under non-storm and storm conditions, live corals and seagrasses also moderate the impact of waves and storms, thereby further reducing the vulnerability of coastal regions. Also, in addition to structural differences, the amount of service supplied by habitats in our analysis is highly dependent on the geomorphic setting, habitat location and forcing conditions: live corals in the fringing reef profile supply more protection services than seagrasses; seagrasses in the barrier reef profile supply more protection services than live corals; and seagrasses, in our simulations, can even compensate for the long-term degradation of the barrier reef. Results of this study demonstrate the importance of taking integrated and place-based approaches when quantifying and managing for the coastal protection services supplied by ecosystems.

  4. On observing high frequency dynamics in coastal regions: latest insights of the MARINA project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roblou, Laurent; Delebecque, Caroline; Vignudelli, Stefano; Jerome, Bouffard; Cipollini, Paolo; Morrow, Rosemary; Birol, Florence

    Altimetry missions in the last 16 years (TOPEX/Poseidon, ERS-1/2, GFO, Jason-1 and EN-VISAT) and the recently-launched Jason-2 mission have resulted in great advances in deep ocean research and operational oceanography. However, oceanographic applications using satellite al-timeter data become very challenging over regions extending from near-shore to the continental shelf and slope. In coastal systems, shorter spatial and temporal scales make ocean dynamics particularly complex, and the temporal and spatial sampling of current altimeter missions is not sufficiently fine to capture such variability. Moreover, the error budget of sea level in-ferred from satellite radar altimetry measurements in coastal regions is increased by intrinsic difficulties. Before the next-generation satellite altimeters (e.g. SARAL/AltiKa, Sentinel-3 or SWOT), the observation of the coastal ocean dynamics requires the reinvestigation of standard altimetry processing procedures and various groups are currently working to correct the known weaknesses in the overall processing phase that prevent the use of altimetry in coastal and shelf seas. This effort of reprocessing the existing archive can be separated into two stages. The pre-processing stage intends to reduce intrinsic limitations related to the instruments behaviour in coastal seas (mainly due to land contamination in the instruments footprint) that degrades in accuracy the altimeter-and radiometer-derived parameters (e.g. sea state bias, ionospheric path delay, dry and wet tropospheric path delays). The post-processing stage deals with the building of coastally-dedicated geophysical sea level estimates a posteriori from standard altime-try products delivery. Shortly, it means improving the data selection procedures, the dealiasing corrections (tides, atmospheric effects) and the vertical reference frame. An innovative post-processing strategy has been initiated at LEGOS/CTOH during the pio-neering effort constituted by the ALBICOCCA

  5. Archive of digital Boomer seismic reflection data collected during USGS Cruise 94CCT02, south-central South Carolina coastal region, August 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calderon, Karynna; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2005-01-01

    In August of 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Coastal Carolina University, conducted marine geophysical surveys in numerous water bodies adjacent to the south-central South Carolina coastal region. Data were collected aboard the MS Coastal in the Ashley, North Edisto, Wadmalaw, Dawho, South Edisto, and Ashepoo Rivers; the Wappoo, North, Steamboat, Bohicket, and Toogoodoo Creeks; Charleston Harbor; Wadmalaw Sound; Fenwick Cut; and the Atlantic Ocean from offshore Isle of Palms to Kiawah Island. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, GIS information, observers' logbooks, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and FGDC metadata. Filtered and gained digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided.

  6. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  7. The XIOM: 20 years of a regional coastal observatory in the Spanish Catalan coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaños, R.; Jorda, G.; Cateura, J.; Lopez, J.; Puigdefabregas, J.; Gomez, J.; Espino, M.

    2009-05-01

    The importance of coasts and the need for improving knowledge of their environment through the observation and modelling of processes is evident from human activities and ecosystems that they support. This paper presents the coastal observatory in the Spanish Catalan coast and its contribution to a better understanding of processes that take place in this area. The XIOM network for oceanographic and coastal meteorological measurements (Xarxa d'Instrumentació Oceanogràfica I Meteorològica) is owned by the Catalan regional government. XIOM buoys collect wave height data at local receiving stations, which is then validated statistically, and the subsequent results are displayed on the website. Water level recordings are based on pressure measurements and atmospheric variables recorded with typical meteorological stations. At present, there is not a continuous measurement of currents or temperatures in the Catalan shelf-slope region, but several moorings have been deployed in the area. The coastal wind field is highly heterogeneous with main components from E, NW and S. This will have some implication for the coastal wind waves. Even with the relatively short fetch in the NW Mediterranean, the Catalan coast can be impacted by damaging waves during storms. At the Ebro delta the complex winds develop bimodal spectral wave features. In the central and north coast typical unimodal spectra are found. The most important variations in sea level in the Catalan coast are due to meteorological conditions and in some areas the resonant effect of bays and harbours. Storm surges may be of the order of 1 m, a magnitude much larger than tidal range. This sea level variation has a very important effect on storm risk and coastal flooding and it is a very important factor when modelling coastal dynamics in extreme events. The continental shelf slope dynamics are dominated by a quasi-permanent slope current. The mean current intensity is not very strong (~ 10 cm/s at 100 m depth) but

  8. A preliminary analysis of atmospheric diffusion parameters in the coastal region

    SciTech Connect

    Shaojia Fan; Haiming Zhu; Xuelan Lin; Shuqin Ma

    1996-12-31

    Base on the data measured by three-axes propeller anemometers mounted on a 100m tower located in the coastal area of Guangdong, China at 10 and 75m levels and the statistical turbulence`s theory, the atmospheric diffusion parameters have been analyzed. The results indicate that, in the coastal region, the horizontal turbulence was controlled by large-scale eddies and the vertical turbulence was controlled by comparatively small-scale eddies. There is an obvious rapid change in the diffusion parameters when the sea and land breezes change their direction from sea to land and vice versa. The rapid change in lower layer is more obvious than in the upper layer.

  9. A study of the atmospheric stability and stability classifying schemes in the coastal region

    SciTech Connect

    Shaojia Fan; Ruoyu Bao; Xiaofen Luo; Jingguan Luo

    1996-12-31

    The atmospheric stability and its classifying schemes in terms of the Pasquill A-F classes have been analyzed by using the data obtained from a 100m tower located in the coastal area of Guangdong Province, China. Wind and temperature sensors were mounted on the tower at 10, 25, 50, 75, 100m levels respectively. Radiation sensors were mounted only at the ground level. Hourly averaged values of total radiation, net radiation, wind speed and standard deviation of horizontal wind direction, as well as temperature and vertical temperature difference were obtained over the period from December 1, 1992 to November 30, 1993. The results indicate that the atmospheric stability in the coastal region should be considered in terms of ground level stability (GS), vertical stability (VS) and horizontal stability (HS). The GS can be determined by the Pasquill-Turner method, the VS determined by the temperature lapse-rate and the HS determined by the - method.

  10. Promoting discovery and access to real time observations produced by regional coastal ocean observing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. M.; Snowden, D. P.; Bochenek, R.; Bickel, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the U.S. coastal waters, a network of eleven regional coastal ocean observing systems support real-time coastal and ocean observing. The platforms supported and variables acquired are diverse, ranging from current sensing high frequency (HF) radar to autonomous gliders. The system incorporates data produced by other networks and experimental systems, further increasing the breadth of the collection. Strategies promoted by the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) ensure these data are not lost at sea. Every data set deserves a description. ISO and FGDC compliant metadata enables catalog interoperability and record-sharing. Extensive use of netCDF with the Climate and Forecast convention (identifying both metadata and a structured format) is shown to be a powerful strategy to promote discovery, interoperability, and re-use of the data. To integrate specialized data which are often obscure, quality control protocols are being developed to homogenize the QC and make these data more integrate-able. Data Assembly Centers have been established to integrate some specialized streams including gliders, animal telemetry, and HF radar. Subsets of data that are ingested into the National Data Buoy Center are also routed to the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) of the World Meteorological Organization to assure wide international distribution. From the GTS, data are assimilated into now-cast and forecast models, fed to other observing systems, and used to support observation-based decision making such as forecasts, warnings, and alerts. For a few years apps were a popular way to deliver these real-time data streams to phones and tablets. Responsive and adaptive web sites are an emerging flexible strategy to provide access to the regional coastal ocean observations.

  11. Energy and resource basis of an Italian coastal resort region integrated using emergy synthesis.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Paolo; Paoli, Chiara; Tilley, David R; Fabiano, Mauro

    2009-10-01

    Sustainable development of coastal zones must balance economic development that encourages human visitation from a larger population with desires that differ from the local residents with the need to maintain opportunities for the local resident society and conserve ecological capital, which may serve as the basis for residents. We present a case study in which the sustainability level of a coastal zone (Riviera del Beigua), located along the Ligurian coast of north-western Italy, was assessed through the lens of systems ecology using emergy synthesis to integrate across economic, social and environmental sub-systems. Our purposes were (1) to quantify the environmental sustainability level of this coastal zone, (2) to evaluate the role of tourism in affecting the economy, society and environment, and (3) to compare emergy synthesis to Butler's Tourism Area Life Cycle model (TALC). Results showed that 81% of the total emergy consumption in the coastal zone was derived from external sources, indicating that this tourist-heavy community was not sustainable. Tourism, as the dominant economic sub-system, consumed 42% of the total emergy budget, while local residents used the remaining 58%. The progressive stages of the TALC model were found to parallel the dynamic changes in the ratio of external emergy inputs to local emergy inputs, suggesting that emergy synthesis could be a useful tool for detecting a tourist region's TALC stage. Use of such a quantitative tool could expedite sustainability assessment to allow administrative managers to understand the complex relationship between a region's economy, environment and resident society so sound policies can be developed to improve overall sustainability.

  12. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Lisa P.; Sousa, Ana I.; Alves, Fátima L.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-03-01

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  13. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Lisa P; Sousa, Ana I; Alves, Fátima L; Lillebø, Ana I

    2016-03-11

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  14. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Lisa P.; Sousa, Ana I.; Alves, Fátima L.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping. PMID:26964892

  15. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Lisa P; Sousa, Ana I; Alves, Fátima L; Lillebø, Ana I

    2016-01-01

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping. PMID:26964892

  16. Using Existing Coastal Models To Address Ocean Acidification Modeling Needs: An Inside Look at Several East and Gulf Coast Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewett, E.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem forecast models have been in development for many US coastal regions for decades in an effort to understand how certain drivers, such as nutrients, freshwater and sediments, affect coastal water quality. These models have been used to inform coastal management interventions such as imposition of total maximum daily load allowances for nutrients or sediments to control hypoxia, harmful algal blooms and/or water clarity. Given the overlap of coastal acidification with hypoxia, it seems plausible that the geochemical models built to explain hypoxia and/or HABs might also be used, with additional terms, to understand how atmospheric CO2 is interacting with local biogeochemical processes to affect coastal waters. Examples of existing biogeochemical models from Galveston, the northern Gulf of Mexico, Tampa Bay, West Florida Shelf, Pamlico Sound, Chesapeake Bay, and Narragansett Bay will be presented and explored for suitability for ocean acidification modeling purposes.

  17. Measuring Capacity for Resilience among Coastal Counties of the US Northern Gulf of Mexico Region

    PubMed Central

    Reams, Margaret A.; Lam, Nina S. N.; Baker, Ariele

    2016-01-01

    Many have voiced concern about the long-term survival of coastal communities in the face of increasingly intense storms and sea level rise. In this study we select indicators of key theoretical concepts from the social-ecological resilience literature, aggregate those indicators into a resilience-capacity index, and calculate an index score for each of the 52 coastal counties of Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida. Building upon Cutter’s Social Vulnerability Index work [1], we use Factor Analysis to combine 43 variables measuring demographics, social capital, economic resources, local government actions, and environmental conditions within the counties. Then, we map the counties’ scores to show the spatial distribution of resilience capacities. The counties identified as having the highest resilience capacities include the suburban areas near New Orleans, Louisiana and Tampa, Florida, and the growing beach-tourist communities of Alabama and central Florida. Also, we examine whether those counties more active in oil and gas development and production, part of the region’s “energy coast”, have greater capacity for resilience than other counties in the region. Correlation analyses between the resilience-capacity index scores and two measures of oil and gas industry activity (total employment and number of business establishments within five industry categories) yielded no statistically significant associations. By aggregating a range of important contextual variables into a single index, the study demonstrates a useful approach for the more systematic examination and comparison of exposure, vulnerability and capacity for resilience among coastal communities. PMID:27500076

  18. Contribution of the upper river, the estuarine region, and the adjacent sea to the heavy metal pollution in the Yangtze Estuary.

    PubMed

    Yin, Su; Wu, Yuehan; Xu, Wei; Li, Yangyang; Shen, Zhenyao; Feng, Chenghong

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether the discharge control of heavy metals in the Yangtze River basin can significantly change the pollution level in the estuary, this study analyzed the sources (upper river, the estuarine region, and the adjacent sea) of ten heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) in dissolved and particulate phases in the surface water of the estuary during wet, normal, and dry seasons. Metal sources inferred from section fluxes agree with those in statistical analysis methods. Heavy metal pollution in the surface water of Yangtze Estuary primarily depends on the sediment suspension and the wastewater discharge from estuary cities. Upper river only constitutes the main source of dissolved heavy metals during the wet season, while the estuarine region and the adjacent sea (especially the former) dominate the dissolved metal pollution in the normal and dry seasons. Particulate metals are mainly derived from sediment suspension in the estuary and the adjacent sea, and the contribution of the upper river can be neglected. Compared with the hydrologic seasons, flood-ebb tides exert a more obvious effect on the water flow directions in the estuary. Sediment suspension, not the upper river, significantly affects the suspended particulate matter concentration in the estuary. PMID:27155472

  19. Role of wetlands in attenuation of storm surges using coastal circulation model (ADCIRC), Chesapeake Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Mithun; Ferreira, Celso; Lawler, Seth

    2014-05-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, Virginia is subject to storm surge from extreme weather events nearly year-round; from tropical storms and hurricanes during the summer and fall, (e.g., hurricanes Isabel [2003] and Sandy [2012]), and from nor'easters during the winter (e.g., winter storms Nemo and Saturn [2013]). Coastal wetlands can deliver acute fortification against incoming hurricane storm surges. Coastal wetlands and vegetation shape the hydrodynamics of storm surge events by retaining water and slowing the propagation of storm surge, acting as a natural barrier to flooding. Consequently, a precise scheme to quantify the effect of wetlands on coastal surge levels was also prerequisite. Two wetland sites were chosen in the Chesapeake Bay region for detailed cataloging of vegetation characteristics, including: height, stem diameter, and density. A framework was developed combining these wetlands characterizations with numerical simulations. Storms surges were calculated using Coastal circulation model (ADCIRC) coupled to a wave model (SWAN) forced by an asymmetric hurricane vortex model using an unstructured mesh (comprised of 1.8 million nodes) under a High Performance Computing environment. The Hurricane Boundary Layer (HBL) model was used to compute wind and pressure fields for historical tropical storms and for all of the synthetic storms. Wetlands were characterized in the coupled numerical models by bathymetric and frictional resistance. Multiple model simulations were performed using historical hurricane data and hypothetical storms to compare the predicted storm surge inundation resulting from various levels of wetlands expansion or reduction. The results of these simulations demonstrate the efficacy of wetlands in storm surge attenuation and also the outcome will scientifically support planning of wetlands restoration projects with multi-objective benefits for society.

  20. Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the southwestern region. Volume I. Text

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the southwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Charlotte, Collier, DeSoto, Hillsborough, Lee, Manatee, Monroe, Pasco, Pinellas, and Sarasota Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. 43 figures, 98 tables.

  1. Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the northwestern region. Volume I. Text

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the Northwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Bay, Gulf, and Franklin Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. 40 figures, 108 tables.

  2. Optimal integrated management of groundwater resources and irrigated agriculture in arid coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, J.; Schütze, N.; Heck, V.

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater systems in arid coastal regions are particularly at risk due to limited potential for groundwater replenishment and increasing water demand, caused by a continuously growing population. For ensuring a sustainable management of those regions, we developed a new simulation-based integrated water management system. The management system unites process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques for managing both water quality and water quantity of a strongly coupled groundwater-agriculture system. Due to the large number of decision variables, a decomposition approach is applied to separate the original large optimisation problem into smaller, independent optimisation problems which finally allow for faster and more reliable solutions. It consists of an analytical inner optimisation loop to achieve a most profitable agricultural production for a given amount of water and an outer simulation-based optimisation loop to find the optimal groundwater abstraction pattern. Thereby, the behaviour of farms is described by crop-water-production functions and the aquifer response, including the seawater interface, is simulated by an artificial neural network. The methodology is applied exemplarily for the south Batinah re-gion/Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. Due to contradicting objectives like profit-oriented agriculture vs aquifer sustainability, a multi-objective optimisation is performed which can provide sustainable solutions for water and agricultural management over long-term periods at farm and regional scales in respect of water resources, environment, and socio-economic development.

  3. Managing saltwater intrusion in coastal arid regions and its societal implications for agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Al-Khatri, Ayisha; Schütze, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Coastal aquifers in arid and semiarid regions are particularly at risk due to intrusion of salty marine water. Since groundwater is predominantly used in irrigated agriculture, its excessive pumping - above the natural rate of replenishment - strengthen the intrusion process. Using this increasingly saline water for irrigation, leads to a destruction of valuable agricultural resources and the economic basis of farmers and their communities. The limitation of resources (water and soil) in these regions requires a societal adaptation and change in behaviour as well as the development of appropriate management strategies for a transition towards stable and sustainable future hydrosystem states. Besides a description of the system dynamics and the spatial consequences of adaptation on the resources availability, the contribution combines results of an empirical survey with stakeholders and physically based modelling of the groundwater-agriculture hydrosystem interactions. This includes an analysis of stakeholders' (farmers and decision makers) behaviour and opinions regarding several management interventions aiming on water demand and water resources management as well as the thinking of decision makers how farmers will behave. In this context, the technical counter measures to manage the saltwater intrusion by simulating different groundwater pumping strategies and scenarios are evaluated from the economic and social point of view and if the spatial variability of the aquifer's hydrogeology is taken into consideration. The study is exemplarily investigated for the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman, which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture.

  4. COUPLING BETWEEN THE COASTAL OCEAN AND YAQUINA BAY, OREGON: THE IMPORTANCE OF OCEANIC INPUTS RELATIVE TO OTHER NITROGEN SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding of the role of oceanic input in nutrient loadings is important for understanding nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics in estuaries adjacent to coastal upwelling regions as well as determining the natural background conditions. We examined the nitrogen sources to Yaqu...

  5. Simulating spatial adaption of groundwater pumping on seawater intrusion in coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Ladwig, Robert; Schütze, Niels; Walther, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Coastal aquifer systems are used intensively to meet the growing demands for water in those regions. They are especially at risk for the intrusion of seawater due to aquifer overpumping, limited groundwater replenishment and unsustainable groundwater management which in turn also impacts the social and economical development of coastal regions. One example is the Al-Batinah coastal plain in northern Oman where irrigated agriculture is practiced by lots of small scaled farms in different distances from the sea, each of them pumping their water from coastal aquifer. Due to continuous overpumping and progressing saltwater intrusion farms near the coast had to close since water for irrigation got too saline. For investigating appropriate management options numerical density dependent groundwater modelling is required which should also portray the adaption of groundwater abstraction schemes on the water quality. For addressing this challenge a moving inner boundary condition is implemented in the numerical density dependent groundwater model which adjusts the locations for groundwater abstraction according to the position of the seawater intrusion front controlled by thresholds of relative chloride concentration. The adaption process is repeated for each management cycle within transient model simulations and allows for considering feedbacks with the consumers e.g. the agriculture by moving agricultural farms more inland or towards the sea if more fertile soils at the coast could be recovered. For finding optimal water management strategies efficiently, the behaviour of the numerical groundwater model for different extraction and replenishment scenarios is approximated by an artificial neural network using a novel approach for state space surrogate model development. Afterwards the derived surrogate is coupled with an agriculture module within a simulation based water management optimisation framework to achieve optimal cropping pattern and water abstraction schemes

  6. GMES and Down-stream Services Following User Requirements: Examples on Regional And Coastal Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noehren, I.; Breitbach, G.; Schroeder, F.

    2012-04-01

    MyOcean as part of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) services provides information on the state of the oceans on a regular basis. The products are delivered on a global as well as on a regional scale like EU, covering the physical state of the ocean and primary ecosystem parameters. For local or coastal scales these Core Services very often do not meet the requirements of the potential end-user who needs information on e. g. marine safety, oil spills, marine resources and coastal management. For these local information needs Downstream Services derived from GMES Core Services, e.g. MyOcean products, but also directly from observation infrastructure are necessary. With Cosyna (Coastal Observation System for Northern and Arctic Seas) a national project between MyOcean and downstream services is established. The core of the project is an integrated pre-operational observation system which combines in-situ observations and remote sensing procedures with numerical models to obtain synoptic data sets of the southern North Sea and make basic infrastructure and continuous data available to the scientific community. The network provides intermediate products in terms of quality-assured time series and maps with high temporal and spatial resolution; end-users might produce their own end products. Integrated products cover processed information based on a combination of different observations and models, accompanied by instructions of use and optionally by interpretations. To enhance operational services in coastal areas improved forecasts with coupled models and data assimilation are developed in the EC funded FIELD_AC project (Fluxes, Interactions and Environment at the Land-Ocean Boundary. Downscaling, Assimilation and Coupling). The application area of the German partner is the German Bight. By means of a strong interaction with the Cosyna observational network main emphasis is laid on the user needs (e.g. of national agencies, coastal and harbour

  7. Transcripts of the MHM region on the chicken Z chromosome accumulate as non-coding RNA in the nucleus of female cells adjacent to the DMRT1 locus.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, M; Shimada, Y; Hori, T; Nakabayashi, O; Kikuchi, T; Macleod, T; Pym, R; Sheldon, B; Solovei, I; Macgregor, H; Mizuno, S

    2001-01-01

    The male hypermethylated (MHM) region, located near the middle of the short arm of the Z chromosome of chickens, consists of approximately 210 tandem repeats of a BamHI 2.2-kb sequence unit. Cytosines of the CpG dinucleotides of this region are extensively methylated on the two Z chromosomes in the male but much less methylated on the single Z chromosome in the female. The state of methylation of the MHM region is established after fertilization by about the 1-day embryonic stage. The MHM region is transcribed only in the female from the particular strand into heterogeneous, high molecular-mass, non-coding RNA, which is accumulated at the site of transcription, adjacent to the DMRT1 locus, in the nucleus. The transcriptional silence of the MHM region in the male is most likely caused by the CpG methylation, since treatment of the male embryonic fibroblasts with 5-azacytidine results in hypo-methylation and active transcription of this region. In ZZW triploid chickens, MHM regions are hypomethylated and transcribed on the two Z chromosomes, whereas MHM regions are hypermethylated and transcriptionally inactive on the three Z chromosomes in ZZZ triploid chickens, suggesting a possible role of the W chromosome on the state of the MHM region. PMID:11321370

  8. Chloroplast phylogeny and phylogeography of Stellera chamaejasme on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and in adjacent regions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Hong; Volis, Sergei; Sun, Hang

    2010-12-01

    Historic events such as the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (Q-T Plateau) and climatic oscillations in the Quaternary period greatly affected the evolution and modern distribution of Sino-Tibetan flora. Stellera chamaejasme, a perennial herb with flower color polymorphism that is distributed from the mountainous southeastern Q-T Plateau (Hengduan Mountains, H-D Mountains) to the vast platform of the Q-T Plateau and the adjacent plain of northern China, provides an excellent model to explore the effects of historic events on the origination and variation of species. In this study, we conducted a phylogenetic and phylogeographical study using three chloroplast sequences (trnT-L, trnL-F and rpL16) in 26 populations of S. chamaejasme and 12 outgroups from the Thymeleaceae. Phylogenetic analysis and molecular clock estimation revealed that the monophyletic origin of S. chamaejasme occurred ca. 6.5892 Ma, which is consistent with the radical environment changes caused by the rapid uplift of the Q-T Plateau ca. 7 Ma. Intra-specific differentiation of S. chamaejasme is estimated to have occurred after ca. 2.1 Ma. Twelve haplotypes were revealed from combined trnL-F and rpL16 sequences. High genetic diversity (h(T)=0.834) and population differentiation (N(ST)=0.997 and G(ST)=0.982) imply restricted gene flow among populations and significant geographical or environmental isolation. All populations from the vast plain of northern China were dominated by one haplotype (H1), and the same haplotype was fixed in most populations from the high elevation platform of the western and northern Q-T Plateau. In contrast, the majority of the haplotypes were found in the relatively narrow area of the H-D Mountains, in the southeastern distribution of S. chamaejasme. The contrasting haplotype distribution patterns suggested that the H-D Mountains were either a refugium for S. chamaejasme during the Quaternary climatic oscillations or a diversification center of this species. The present

  9. Increasing Incidence of Tuberculosis Infection in the Coastal Region of Northern Miyagi after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tatsuya; Ohuchi, Miyako; Terui, Yuki; Kiryu, Kouji; Shikano, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake struck off the northeast coast of Japan. Within an hour of the earthquake, devastating tsunamis swept over the coastal region of the Miyagi Prefecture, facing Pacific Ocean. Accordingly, more than 400,000 residents were forced to stay at evacuation shelters. We investigated the changes in tuberculosis prevalence after the disaster. Annual data for all tuberculosis patients between April 1, 2009 and March 31, 2013 were extracted from the database of the Miyagi Prefectural Government. In the coastal region of Northern Miyagi, the number of tuberculosis patients increased in the post-disaster period (p < 0.001, 9.6 vs.19.1 per 100,000 people), compared to the pre-disaster period. In contrast, its prevalence did not change in the inland region of Northern Miyagi and the coastal and inland regions of Southern Miyagi. Importantly, in the inland and coastal regions of Northern Miyagi, the number of patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) increased in the post-disaster period (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in the coastal shelters, 11 evacuees with the history of contacting tuberculosis patients were diagnosed with LTBI, whereas no cases of LTBI patients were observed in the inland shelters. Thus, staying in the coastal shelters was a risk factor for contracting tuberculosis (OR: 19.31, 95% CI: 1.11-334.80); indeed, twice as many evacuees visited each coastal shelter on April 1, 2011, compared to the inland region. We should prepare the shelters to avoid overcrowding, and long-term observation is required to detect the prevalence of tuberculosis infection. PMID:26936409

  10. Multi-objective optimisation for a sustainable groundwater resources and agricultural management in arid coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Heck, Vera; Schütze, Niels

    2014-05-01

    The scarcity of freshwater in coastal arid regions, coupled with an ongoing population growth, makes optimal water management crucial. Excessive use of groundwater for irrigation in agriculture puts those regions at risk of saltwater intrusion which limits the agricultural opportunities. To solve these problems, a simulation based integrated water management system has been developed to ensure a long-term profitable and sustainable water resources and agricultural management. Within the system, a groundwater module, assessing the water resources availability, and an agricultural module, controlling irrigation and cultivation, are connected in an optimisation module, optimising the water management. To reduce the computational complexity of the optimisation procedure, surrogate models are applied which describe the behaviour of the groundwater and agriculture process models regarding the most relevant variables for management. Furthermore, the optimisation problem is decomposed into a two-step optimisation. An analytical inner optimisation estimates irrigation practices and crop patterns, while an outer evolutionary optimisation algorithm determines the overall water abstraction scenarios, based on results of the inner optimisation. By these two features, consequent surrogate model application and decomposition of optimisation, the computational complexity of the optimisation problem is reduced considerably, allowing the consideration of specific regional and temporal aspects in the management tool. The methodology is demonstrated by an exemplary application of the south Batinah region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. Due to contradicting objectives like profit-oriented agriculture vs. aquifer sustainability, multi-objective optimisation is performed. Optimisation runs for different simulation periods and management strategies show that a

  11. Sea-Based Infrared Scene Interpretation by Background Type Classification and Coastal Region Detection for Small Target Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    Sea-based infrared search and track (IRST) is important for homeland security by detecting missiles and asymmetric boats. This paper proposes a novel scheme to interpret various infrared scenes by classifying the infrared background types and detecting the coastal regions in omni-directional images. The background type or region-selective small infrared target detector should be deployed to maximize the detection rate and to minimize the number of false alarms. A spatial filter-based small target detector is suitable for identifying stationary incoming targets in remote sea areas with sky only. Many false detections can occur if there is an image sector containing a coastal region, due to ground clutter and the difficulty in finding true targets using the same spatial filter-based detector. A temporal filter-based detector was used to handle these problems. Therefore, the scene type and coastal region information is critical to the success of IRST in real-world applications. In this paper, the infrared scene type was determined using the relationships between the sensor line-of-sight (LOS) and a horizontal line in an image. The proposed coastal region detector can be activated if the background type of the probing sector is determined to be a coastal region. Coastal regions can be detected by fusing the region map and curve map. The experimental results on real infrared images highlight the feasibility of the proposed sea-based scene interpretation. In addition, the effects of the proposed scheme were analyzed further by applying region-adaptive small target detection. PMID:26404308

  12. Sea-Based Infrared Scene Interpretation by Background Type Classification and Coastal Region Detection for Small Target Detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    Sea-based infrared search and track (IRST) is important for homeland security by detecting missiles and asymmetric boats. This paper proposes a novel scheme to interpret various infrared scenes by classifying the infrared background types and detecting the coastal regions in omni-directional images. The background type or region-selective small infrared target detector should be deployed to maximize the detection rate and to minimize the number of false alarms. A spatial filter-based small target detector is suitable for identifying stationary incoming targets in remote sea areas with sky only. Many false detections can occur if there is an image sector containing a coastal region, due to ground clutter and the difficulty in finding true targets using the same spatial filter-based detector. A temporal filter-based detector was used to handle these problems. Therefore, the scene type and coastal region information is critical to the success of IRST in real-world applications. In this paper, the infrared scene type was determined using the relationships between the sensor line-of-sight (LOS) and a horizontal line in an image. The proposed coastal region detector can be activated if the background type of the probing sector is determined to be a coastal region. Coastal regions can be detected by fusing the region map and curve map. The experimental results on real infrared images highlight the feasibility of the proposed sea-based scene interpretation. In addition, the effects of the proposed scheme were analyzed further by applying region-adaptive small target detection. PMID:26404308

  13. Sea-Based Infrared Scene Interpretation by Background Type Classification and Coastal Region Detection for Small Target Detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho

    2015-09-23

    Sea-based infrared search and track (IRST) is important for homeland security by detecting missiles and asymmetric boats. This paper proposes a novel scheme to interpret various infrared scenes by classifying the infrared background types and detecting the coastal regions in omni-directional images. The background type or region-selective small infrared target detector should be deployed to maximize the detection rate and to minimize the number of false alarms. A spatial filter-based small target detector is suitable for identifying stationary incoming targets in remote sea areas with sky only. Many false detections can occur if there is an image sector containing a coastal region, due to ground clutter and the difficulty in finding true targets using the same spatial filter-based detector. A temporal filter-based detector was used to handle these problems. Therefore, the scene type and coastal region information is critical to the success of IRST in real-world applications. In this paper, the infrared scene type was determined using the relationships between the sensor line-of-sight (LOS) and a horizontal line in an image. The proposed coastal region detector can be activated if the background type of the probing sector is determined to be a coastal region. Coastal regions can be detected by fusing the region map and curve map. The experimental results on real infrared images highlight the feasibility of the proposed sea-based scene interpretation. In addition, the effects of the proposed scheme were analyzed further by applying region-adaptive small target detection.

  14. Relationship between the Fluorescence Lifetime of Chlorophyll 'a' and Primary Productivity within the Mississippi River Plume and Adjacent Shelf Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Callie; Miller, Richard L.; Fernandez, Salvador M.; McKee, Brent A.

    2000-01-01

    In situ measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence intensity have been widely used to estimate phytoplankton biomass. However, because the fluorescence quantum yield of chlorophyll a in vivo can be highly variable, measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence intensity cannot be directly correlated with phytoplankton biomass and do not provide information on the physiological state of the phytoplankton under study. Conversely, lifetime-based measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence provide a framework in which photosynthetic rates of phytoplankton can be analyzed according to phytoplankton physiology. Along with the measurement of primary production and ambient nutrient concentrations within the Mississippi River plume in the northern Gulf of Mexico, phytoplankton fluorescence lifetimes were measured using a Fluorescence Lifetime Phytoplankton Analyzer (developed under a NASA Small Business Innovative Research contract to Ciencia, Inc.). Variability of fluorescence lifetimes within the plume can be used as a background from which to interpret variations in the maximum quantum yield of photochemistry. The extent to which nutrient and effluent loading in this dynamic coastal area affect the photosynthetic performance of phytoplankton will be presented as a function of phytoplankton fluorescence lifetimes.

  15. Osmotically driven membrane process for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenyu; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Abu-Ghdaib, Muhannad; Zhan, Tong; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Amy, Gary

    2014-01-01

    An osmotic detention pond was proposed for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions. Forward osmosis was employed as a bridge to utilize natural osmotic energy from seawater for concentrating and reusing urban runoff water, and as a barrier to reject runoff-derived contaminants. The process was demonstrated by a lab scale testing using synthetic urban runoff (as the feed solution) and synthetic seawater (as the draw solution). The submerged forward osmosis process was conducted under neutral, acidic and natural organic matter fouling condition, respectively. Forward osmosis flux decline was mainly attributed to the dilution of seawater during a semi-batch process in lab scale testing. However, it is possible to minimize flux decrease by maintaining a constant salinity at the draw solution side. Various changes in urban runoff water quality, including acidic conditions (acid rain) and natural organic matter presence, did not show significant effects on the rejection of trace metals and phosphorus, but influenced salt leakage and the rejection of nitrate and total nitrogen. Rejection of trace metals varied from 98% to 100%, phosphorus varied from 97% to 100, nitrate varied from 52% to 94% and total nitrogen varied from 65% to 85% under different feed water conditions. The work described in this study contributes to an integrated system of urban runoff management, seawater desalination and possible power generation in coastal regions to achieve a sustainable solution to the water-energy nexus.

  16. Osmotically driven membrane process for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenyu; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Abu-Ghdaib, Muhannad; Zhan, Tong; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Amy, Gary

    2014-01-01

    An osmotic detention pond was proposed for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions. Forward osmosis was employed as a bridge to utilize natural osmotic energy from seawater for concentrating and reusing urban runoff water, and as a barrier to reject runoff-derived contaminants. The process was demonstrated by a lab scale testing using synthetic urban runoff (as the feed solution) and synthetic seawater (as the draw solution). The submerged forward osmosis process was conducted under neutral, acidic and natural organic matter fouling condition, respectively. Forward osmosis flux decline was mainly attributed to the dilution of seawater during a semi-batch process in lab scale testing. However, it is possible to minimize flux decrease by maintaining a constant salinity at the draw solution side. Various changes in urban runoff water quality, including acidic conditions (acid rain) and natural organic matter presence, did not show significant effects on the rejection of trace metals and phosphorus, but influenced salt leakage and the rejection of nitrate and total nitrogen. Rejection of trace metals varied from 98% to 100%, phosphorus varied from 97% to 100, nitrate varied from 52% to 94% and total nitrogen varied from 65% to 85% under different feed water conditions. The work described in this study contributes to an integrated system of urban runoff management, seawater desalination and possible power generation in coastal regions to achieve a sustainable solution to the water-energy nexus. PMID:24099852

  17. Abundance and Distribution Characteristics of Microplastics in Surface Seawaters of the Incheon/Kyeonggi Coastal Region.

    PubMed

    Chae, Doo-Hyeon; Kim, In-Sung; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Song, Young Kyoung; Shim, Won Joon

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics in marine environments are of emerging concern due to their widespread distribution, their ingestion by various marine organisms, and their roles as a source and transfer vector of toxic chemicals. However, our understanding of their abundance and distribution characteristics in surface seawater (SSW) remains limited. We investigated microplastics in the surface microlayer (SML) and the SSW at 12 stations near-shore and offshore of the Korean west coast, Incheon/Kyeonggi region. Variation between stations, sampling media, and sampling methods were compared based on abundances, size distribution, and composition profiles of microsized synthetic polymer particles. The abundance of microplastics was greater in the SML (152,688 ± 92,384 particles/m(3)) than in SSW and showed a significant difference based on the sampling method for SSWs collected using a hand net (1602 ± 1274 particles/m(3)) and a zooplankton trawl net (0.19 ± 0.14 particles/m(3)). Ship paint particles (mostly alkyd resin polymer) accounted for the majority of microplastics detected in both SML and SSWs, and increased levels were observed around the voyage routes of large vessels. This indicates that polymers with marine-based origins become an important contributor to microplastics in coastal SSWs of this coastal region.

  18. Emissions and Distribution of Reactive Iodine from Seaweed in Coastal Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Schmitt, Stefan; Kreher, Karin; Johnston, Paul; Platt, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Emissions and Distribution of Reactive Iodine from Seaweed in Coastal Regions Reactive iodine species impact atmospheric chemistry in several ways. They play an important role in the process of ozone destruction at mid-latitudes and possibly in polar regions. Besides bromine, reactive iodine compounds also affect the atmospheric cleaning mechanisms by changing its oxidation capacity. Recent field studies indicate that reactive iodine may impact the local climate in coastal areas by playing a key role in the formation of new particles which could influence cloud micro physical properties. Particularly high concentrations of the reactive iodine are found at mid-latitude coastal sites, which are emitted by seaweed exposed to oxidative stress during low tide. However, previous measurements of iodine and iodine oxide have been performed only at very few sites, mainly at the atmospheric research station Mace Head located at the west coast of Ireland. Thus, there is still very limited knowledge on the involved seaweed species and their contribution to local, regional and global iodine emissions and also the potential iodine mediated particle formation. In order to investigate these questions, we performed extensive measurements at ten different sites along the west coast of Ireland in 2011 and 2012. We applied a mobile Long Path (LP)-DOAS for path averaged IO measurements and open path Cavity Enhanced (CE-) DOAS for IO in-situ measurements. Similar to LP-DOAS, open path CE-DOAS measures trace gases directly in the atmosphere. Additionally, another Long Path-DOAS system monitoring IO, OIO and I2, was permanently located at Mace Head. This allows an inter-comparison of the different locations with the reference station Mace Head while respecting the influence of temporally varying meteorology. We observed significant differences to former investigations and conclusions. First, IO concentrations were much higher (typically factor of 10 and more) on every measuring site

  19. Adjacent chromosomal regions can evolve at very different rates: evolution of the Drosophila 68C glue gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Meyerowitz, E M; Martin, C H

    1984-01-01

    The 68C puff is a highly transcribed region of the Drosophila melanogaster salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Three different classes of messenger RNA originate in a 5000-bp region in the puff; each class is translated to one of the salivary gland glue proteins sgs-3, sgs-7, or sgs-8. These messenger RNA classes are coordinately controlled, with each RNA appearing in the third larval instar and disappearing at the time of puparium formation. Their disappearance is initiated by the action of the steroid hormone ecdysterone. In the work reported here, we studied evolution of this hormone-regulated gene cluster in the melanogaster species subgroup of Drosophila. Genome blot hybridization experiments showed that five other species of this subgroup have DNA sequences that hybridize to D. melanogaster 68C sequences, and that these sequences are divided into a highly conserved region, which does not contain the glue genes, and an extraordinarily diverged region, which does. Molecular cloning of this DNA from D. simulans, D. erecta, D. yakuba, and D. teissieri confirmed the division of the region into a slowly and a rapidly evolving portion, and also showed that the rapidly evolving region of each species codes for third instar larval salivary gland RNAs homologous to the D. melanogaster glue mRNAs. The highly conserved region is at least 13,000 bp long, and is not known to code for any RNAs.

  20. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donald M; Burkholder, Joann M; Cochlan, William P; Glibert, Patricia M; Gobler, Christopher J; Heil, Cynthia A; Kudela, Raphael; Parsons, Michael L; Rensel, J E Jack; Townsend, David W; Trainer, Vera L; Vargo, Gabriel A

    2008-12-01

    Coastal waters of the United States (U.S.) are subject to many of the major harmful algal bloom (HAB) poisoning syndromes and impacts. These include paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and various other HAB phenomena such as fish kills, loss of submerged vegetation, shellfish mortalities, and widespread marine mammal mortalities. Here, the occurrences of selected HABs in a selected set of regions are described in terms of their relationship to eutrophication, illustrating a range of responses. Evidence suggestive of changes in the frequency, extent or magnitude of HABs in these areas is explored in the context of the nutrient sources underlying those blooms, both natural and anthropogenic. In some regions of the U.S., the linkages between HABs and eutrophication are clear and well documented, whereas in others, information is limited, thereby highlighting important areas for further research.

  1. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donald M; Burkholder, Joann M; Cochlan, William P; Glibert, Patricia M; Gobler, Christopher J; Heil, Cynthia A; Kudela, Raphael; Parsons, Michael L; Rensel, J E Jack; Townsend, David W; Trainer, Vera L; Vargo, Gabriel A

    2008-12-01

    Coastal waters of the United States (U.S.) are subject to many of the major harmful algal bloom (HAB) poisoning syndromes and impacts. These include paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and various other HAB phenomena such as fish kills, loss of submerged vegetation, shellfish mortalities, and widespread marine mammal mortalities. Here, the occurrences of selected HABs in a selected set of regions are described in terms of their relationship to eutrophication, illustrating a range of responses. Evidence suggestive of changes in the frequency, extent or magnitude of HABs in these areas is explored in the context of the nutrient sources underlying those blooms, both natural and anthropogenic. In some regions of the U.S., the linkages between HABs and eutrophication are clear and well documented, whereas in others, information is limited, thereby highlighting important areas for further research. PMID:19956363

  2. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Donald M.; Burkholder, JoAnn M.; Cochlan, William P.; Glibert, Patricia M.; Gobler, Christopher J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Kudela, Raphael; Parsons, Michael L.; Rensel, J. E. Jack; Townsend, David W.; Trainer, Vera L.; Vargo, Gabriel A.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal waters of the United States (U.S.) are subject to many of the major harmful algal bloom (HAB) poisoning syndromes and impacts. These include paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and various other HAB phenomena such as fish kills, loss of submerged vegetation, shellfish mortalities, and widespread marine mammal mortalities. Here, the occurrences of selected HABs in a selected set of regions are described in terms of their relationship to eutrophication, illustrating a range of responses. Evidence suggestive of changes in the frequency, extent or magnitude of HABs in these areas is explored in the context of the nutrient sources underlying those blooms, both natural and anthropogenic. In some regions of the U.S., the linkages between HABs and eutrophication are clear and well documented, whereas in others, information is limited, thereby highlighting important areas for further research. PMID:19956363

  3. A regional classification of the effectiveness of depressional wetlands at mitigating nitrogen transport to surface waters in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; Sekellick, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen from nonpoint sources contributes to eutrophication, hypoxia, and related ecological degradation in Atlantic Coastal Plain streams and adjacent coastal estuaries such as Chesapeake Bay and Pamlico Sound. Although denitrification in depressional (non-riparian) wetlands common to the Coastal Plain can be a significant landscape sink for nitrogen, the effectiveness of individual wetlands at removing nitrogen varies substantially due to varying hydrogeologic, geochemical, and other landscape conditions, which are often poorly or inconsistently mapped over large areas. A geographic model describing the spatial variability in the likely effectiveness of depressional wetlands in watershed uplands at mitigating nitrogen transport from nonpoint sources to surface waters was constructed for the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP), from North Carolina through New Jersey. Geographic and statistical techniques were used to develop the model. Available medium-resolution (1:100,000-scale) stream hydrography was used to define 33,799 individual watershed catchments in the study area. Sixteen landscape metrics relevant to the occurrence of depressional wetlands and their effectiveness as nitrogen sinks were defined for each catchment, based primarily on available topographic and soils data. Cluster analysis was used to aggregate the 33,799 catchments into eight wetland landscape regions (WLRs) based on the value of three principal components computed for the 16 original landscape metrics. Significant differences in topography, soil, and land cover among the eight WLRs demonstrate the effectiveness of the clustering technique. Results were used to interpret the relative likelihood of depressional wetlands in each WLR and their likely effectiveness at mitigating nitrogen transport from upland source areas to surface waters. The potential effectiveness of depressional wetlands at mitigating nitrogen transport varies substantially over different parts of the NACP

  4. H.R. 73: A Bill to protect the ecologically fragile coastal resources of south Florida by prohibiting offshore oil and gas activities and by cancelling Federal leases in the area of the Outer Continental Shelf adjacent to the south Florida coast. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This document contains H.R. 73, A Bill to protect the ecologically fragile coastal resources of south Florida by prohibiting offshore oil and gas activities and by cancelling Federal leases in the area of the Outer Continental Shelf adjacent to south Florida. This Bill was introduced in the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, First Session, January 4, 1995.

  5. Phytoplankton community structure and nitrogen nutrition in Leeuwin Current and coastal waters off the Gascoyne region of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Christine E.; Waite, Anya M.; Thompson, Peter A.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.

    2007-04-01

    Within the coastal waters of the eastern Indian Ocean adjacent to Western Australia, we tested the hypothesis that regenerated production (and, by inference, the microbial food web) would predominate in oligotrophic Leeuwin Current (LC) and offshore (OS) surface waters. Conversely, we expected that new production would be more important within the ˜5 times more productive shelf countercurrents (Ningaloo and Capes Currents; NC&CC) and the LC&OS deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Phytoplankton species composition and abundance were assessed using both light microscopy and chemotaxonomic methods, and isotopic nitrogen uptake experiments ( 15NO 3-, 15NH 4+) were performed at trace (0.05 μM) and saturating (5.0 μM) levels. Phytoplankton community structure was statistically distinct between LC&OS and countercurrent regions. Picoplankton (unicellular cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes) accounted for a mean of 55-65% of pigment biomass in LC&OS waters, with haptophytes as the other primary contributor (21-32%). Conversely, within countercurrent and shelf regions, diatoms (up to 22%) and haptophytes (up to 57%) were more abundant, although cyanobacteria still played an important role (up to 40% of pigment biomass). Absolute NO 3- uptake rates for all samples ranged between 0.5 and 7.1 nmol L -1 h -1, and in countercurrent waters were not significantly different at the surface (3.0±2.1 nmol L -1 h -1; mean±SD) compared to the DCM (2.7±2.3 nmol L -1 h -1). However, in LC&OS waters, rates were significantly lower at the surface (1.2±0.7 nmol L -1 h -1) than the DCM (3.9±2.5 nmol L -1 h -1; p=0.05). These values represent conservative estimates for the region due to methodological difficulties encountered with nitrogen uptake experiments in these oligotrophic waters. In contrast with the distinct community composition between different water types, mean estimates of the f-ratio were similar across sampling depths and water types: 0.17±0.07 at the surface and 0.16±0.06 at

  6. The mantle transition zone beneath the Afar Depression and adjacent regions: implications for mantle plumes and hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Yu, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The Afar Depression and its adjacent areas are underlain by an upper mantle marked by some of the world's largest negative velocity anomalies, which are frequently attributed to the thermal influences of a lower-mantle plume. In spite of numerous studies, however, the existence of a plume beneath the area remains enigmatic, partially due to inadequate quantities of broad-band seismic data and the limited vertical resolution at the mantle transition zone (MTZ) depth of the techniques employed by previous investigations. In this study, we use an unprecedented quantity (over 14 500) of P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) recorded by 139 stations from 12 networks to image the 410 and 660 km discontinuities and map the spatial variation of the thickness of the MTZ. Non-linear stacking of the RFs under a 1-D velocity model shows robust P-to-S conversions from both discontinuities, and their apparent depths indicate the presence of an upper-mantle low-velocity zone beneath the entire study area. The Afar Depression and the northern Main Ethiopian Rift are characterized by an apparent 40-60 km depression of both MTZ discontinuities and a normal MTZ thickness. The simplest and most probable interpretation of these observations is that the apparent depressions are solely caused by velocity perturbations in the upper mantle and not by deeper processes causing temperature or hydration anomalies within the MTZ. Thickening of the MTZ on the order of 15 km beneath the southern Arabian Plate, southern Red Sea and western Gulf of Aden, which comprise the southward extension of the Afro-Arabian Dome, could reflect long-term hydration of the MTZ. A 20 km thinning of the MTZ beneath the western Ethiopian Plateau is observed and interpreted as evidence for a possible mantle plume stem originating from the lower mantle.

  7. Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender Simulation of Three Adjacent Row-Crop Watersheds in the Claypan Region.

    PubMed

    Anomaa Senaviratne, G M M M; Udawatta, Ranjith P; Baffaut, Claire; Anderson, Stephen H

    2013-01-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX) model is used to evaluate best management practices on pollutant loading in whole farms or small watersheds. The objectives of this study were to conduct a sensitivity analysis to determine the effect of model parameters on APEX output and use the parameterized, calibrated, and validated model to evaluate long-term benefits of grass waterways. The APEX model was used to model three (East, Center, and West) adjacent field-size watersheds with claypan soils under a no-till corn ( L.)/soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation. Twenty-seven parameters were sensitive for crop yield, runoff, sediment, nitrogen (dissolved and total), and phosphorous (dissolved and total) simulations. The model was calibrated using measured event-based data from the Center watershed from 1993 to 1997 and validated with data from the West and East watersheds. Simulated crop yields were within ±13% of the measured yield. The model performance for event-based runoff was excellent, with calibration and validation > 0.9 and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients (NSC) > 0.8, respectively. Sediment and total nitrogen calibration results were satisfactory for larger rainfall events (>50 mm), with > 0.5 and NSC > 0.4, but validation results remained poor, with NSC between 0.18 and 0.3. Total phosphorous was well calibrated and validated, with > 0.8 and NSC > 0.7, respectively. The presence of grass waterways reduced annual total phosphorus loadings by 13 to 25%. The replicated study indicates that APEX provides a convenient and efficient tool to evaluate long-term benefits of conservation practices. PMID:23673939

  8. GIS and remote sensing applications in the assessment of change within a coastal environment in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Twumasi, Yaw A; Merem, Edmund C

    2006-03-01

    In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economic activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel approach for assessing

  9. GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in the Assessment of Change within a Coastal Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Twumasi, Yaw A.; Merem, Edmund C.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decades, the Niger Delta region has experienced rapid growth in population and economic activity with enormous benefits to the adjacent states and the entire Nigerian society. As the region embarks upon an unprecedented phase of economic expansion in the 21st century, it faces several environmental challenges fuelled partly by the pressures caused by human activities such as oil and gas exploration, housing development, and road construction for transportation, economic development and demographic changes. This continued growth has resulted in environmental problems such as coastal wetland loss, habitat degradation, and water pollution, gas flaring, destruction of forest vegetation as well as a host of other issues. This underscores the urgent need to design new approaches for managing remote costal resources in sensitive tropical environments effectively in order to maintain a balance between coastal resource conservation and rapid economic development in developing countries for sustainability. Notwithstanding previous initiatives, there have not been any major efforts in the literature to undertake a remote sensing and GIS based assessment of the growing incidence of environmental change within coastal zone environments of the study area. This project is an attempt to fill that void in the literature by exploring the applications of GIS and remote sensing in a tropical coastal zone environment with emphasis on the environmental impacts of development in the Niger Delta region of Southern Nigeria. To deal with some of the aforementioned issues, several research questions that are of great relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any changes in the coastal environment of the study area? What are the impacts of the changes? What forces are responsible for the changes? Has there been any major framework in place to deal with the changes? The prime objective of the paper is to provide a novel approach for assessing

  10. Estimation of regional material yield from coastal landslides based on historical digital terrain modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution historical (1942) and recent (1994) digital terrain models were derived from aerial photographs along the Big Sur coastline in central California to measure the long-term volume of material that enters the nearshore environment. During the 52-year measurement time period, an average of 21 000 ?? 3100 m3 km-1 a-1 of material was eroded from nine study sections distributed along the coast, with a low yield of 1000 ?? 240 m3 km-1 a-1 and a high of 46 700 ?? 7300 m3 km-1 a-1. The results compare well with known volumes from several deep-seated landslides in the area and suggest that the processes by which material is delivered to the coast are episodic in nature. In addition, a number of parameters are investigated to determine what influences the substantial variation in yield along the coast. It is found that the magnitude of regional coastal landslide sediment yield is primarily related to the physical strength of the slope-forming material. Coastal Highway 1 runs along the lower portion of the slope along this stretch of coastline, and winter storms frequently damage the highway. The California Department of Transportation is responsible for maintaining this scenic highway while minimizing the impacts to the coastal ecosystems that are part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. This study provides environmental managers with critical background data on the volumes of material that historically enter the nearshore from landslides, as well as demonstrating the application of deriving historical digital terrain data to model landscape evolution. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Mapping seagrass beds and coral reefs in the coastal region of Vietnam using VNREDSAT-1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, K. V.; Chen, C. F.; Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. R.; Tong Phuoc, H. S.; Nguyen, H. H.

    2015-12-01

    Seagrass beds and coral reefs are two important ecosystems in the coastal zone. They play an important role to protect and shelter various marine organisms. Both seagrass beds and coral reefs could prevent the coastline from erosion. While seagrass stabilizes sediments and acts as a biofilter, coral reefs can control carbon dioxide in the ocean water. Besides, seagrass also provides direct food for many fish and marine animals. Therefore, mapping seagrass beds and coral reefs is very important for coastal management and conservation. In May 2013, Vietnam launched the first satellite for earth observations, called Vietnam Natural Resources, Environment and Disaster Monitoring Satellite (VNREDSAT-1). It is a great opportunity for environmental monitoring in the country using the data from this satellite. The objective of this study is to use the VNREDSAT-1 data to map seagrass beds and coral reefs in the coastal region of Ninh Hai district, Ninh Thuan province, Vietnam, where the seagrass still remains in good a condition. We processed the VNREDSAT-1 image through four steps: (1) Atmospheric correction using Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum radiative transfer model (6S), (2) Sun glint removal by using Hedley method, (3) Water column correction using the depth-variant index (DII) proposed by Lyzenga, and (4) Image classification using the maximum likelihood algorithm. The mapping results verified with the ground reference data showed a good overall accuracy of 75% and Kappa coefficient of 0.7. The total area of seagrass beds was approximately 323.09 ha, which mainly distributed in My Hoa and Thai An villages. The total area of coral reefs was approximately 564.42 ha, located along the coast and on outer area to seagrass and shoreline reefs. This study demonstrates the applicability of VNREDSAT-1 for underwater habitat monitoring. The results could be useful for natural resources managers to devise strategies for management and

  12. An index for assessing salt-water vulnerability in coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattachan, A.; Emanuel, R. E.; Moody, A.

    2015-12-01

    Low-lying coastal landscapes are at risk as sea level rises. Future projections suggest that 50 cm to 100 cm sea-level rise is imminent by the end of the century. One of the responses to increasing sea level is salt-water intrusion of freshwater-dependent ecosystems with long-term negative impacts on ecosystem services. This effect is further exacerbated by the presence of human-modified artificial drainages, which serve as gateways through which salt water penetrates inland areas. We present a novel conceptual model to investigate the vulnerability of low-lying, freshwater-dependent landscapes to saltwater intrusion. The saltwater intrusion vulnerability index (SIVI) is determined by the ratio of protected elevation above sea level to the log transformed local drainage area as a proxy for freshwater subsidies. As an index, SIVI represents the balance between vulnerability to salt-water exposure on one hand and the potential for freshwater flushing on the other. To this end, we use a high resolution Lidar-derived digital elevation model (DEM) to derive protected elevation, whereas the local drainage area is derived using a downscaled 100-m DEM to reflect the natural drainage and flushing potential in the absence of man-made structures. Thus, SIVI will serve as a guiding tool to determine the potential for salt-water intrusion, initially in coastal North Carolina, but eventually in similarly low-lying coastal regions. It will also aid understanding of the natural and human influences on observed patterns of salt-water intrusion and subsequent implications for ecosystem productivity, biodiversity and associated ecological processes.

  13. Sequence of the 3'-noncoding and adjacent coding regions of human gamma-globin mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Poon, R; Kan, Y W; Boyer, H W

    1978-01-01

    In cloning human fetal globin cDNA in bacterial plasmids, we obtained a recombinant which contained a fragment of gammg-globin cDNA corresponding to the region from amino acid 99 to the poly A. We determined a sequence of 169 nucleotides which included the complete 3' non-coding region of the gamma-globin mRNA. The codon for amino acid 136 was GCA, indicating that this cloned fragment was derived from the Agamma-globin gene. In conjunction with the surrounding sequences, the GCA codon provides the Agamma-species with a unique CTGCAG hexanucleotide that is recognized by the restriction enzyme Pst I. The 3'-untranslated region of the gamma-globin mRNA consists of 90 nucleotides, and shares little homology with that of the human beta-globin mRNA. As in other mammalian mRNAs, a symmetrical sequence and the hexanucleotide AAUAAA are present. Images PMID:318163

  14. Spatial mapping of earthquake hazard parameters in the Hindukush-Pamir Himalaya and adjacent regions: Implication for future seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. B. S.; Tsapanos, T. M.; Koravos, G. Ch.; Bayrak, Yusuf; Devlioti, Kiriaki D.

    2013-07-01

    The study deals spatial mapping of earthquake hazard parameters like annual and 100-years mode along with their 90% probability of not being exceeded (NBE) in the Hindukush-Pamir Himalaya and adjoining regions. For this purpose, we applied a straightforward and most robust method known as Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution of extreme values (GIII). A homogeneous and complete earthquake catalogue during the period 1900-2010 with magnitude MW ⩾ 4.0 is utilized to estimate these earthquake hazard parameters. An equal grid point mesh, of 1° longitude X 1° latitude, is chosen to produce detailed earthquake hazard maps. This performance allows analysis of the localized seismicity parameters and representation of their regional variations as contour maps. The estimated result of annual mode with 90% probability of NBE is expected to exceed the values of MW 6.0 in the Sulaiman-Kirthar ranges of Pakistan and northwestern part of the Nepal and surroundings in the examined region. The 100-years mode with 90% probability of NBE is expected to exceed the value of MW 8.0 in the Hindukush-Pamir Himalaya with Caucasus mountain belt, the Sulaiman-Kirthar ranges of Pakistan, northwestern part of the Nepal and surroundings, the Kangra-Himanchal Pradesh and Kashmir of India. The estimated high values of earthquake hazard parameters are mostly correlated with the main tectonic regimes of the examined region. The spatial variations of earthquake hazard parameters reveal that the examined region exhibits more complexity and has high crustal heterogeneity. The spatial maps provide a brief atlas of the earthquake hazard in the region.

  15. Constraints on the deep structure and dynamic processes beneath the Alps and adjacent regions from an analysis of gravity anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon-Caen, Helene; Molnar, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Gravity anomalies over the Alps and the Molasse Basin are examined, focusing on the relationship between the anomalies and the tectonic processes beneath the region. Bouguer gravity anomalies measured in France, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland are analyzed. No large isostatic anomalies are observed over the Alps and an elastic model is unable to account for gravity anomalies over the Molasse Basin. These results suggest that the dynamic processes that flexed the European plate down, forming the Molasse Basin and building the Alpine chain, have waned. It is proposed that the late Cenozoic uplift of the region may be due to a diminution or termination of downwelling of mantle material.

  16. On the tectonic problems of the southern East China Sea and adjacent regions: Evidence from gravity and magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Luning; Zhang, Xunhua; Han, Bo; Du, Runlin

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, two sets of gravity and magnetic data were used to study the tectonics of the southern East China Sea and Ryukyu trench-arc system: one data set was from the `Geological-geophysical map series of China Seas and adjacent areas' database and the other was newly collected by R/V Kexue III in 2011. Magnetic and gravity data were reorganized and processed using the software MMDP, MGDP and RGIS. In addition to the description of the anomaly patterns in different areas, deep and shallow structure studies were performed by using several kinds of calculation, including a spectrum analysis, upward-continuation of the Bouguer anomaly and horizontal derivatives of the total-field magnetic anomaly. The depth of the Moho and magnetic basement were calculated. Based on the above work, several controversial tectonic problems were discussed. Compared to the shelf area and Ryukyu Arc, the Okinawa Trough has an obviously thinned crust, with the thinnest area having thickness less than 14 km in the southern part. The Taiwan-Sinzi belt, which terminates to the south by the NW-SE trending Miyako fault belt, contains the relic volcanic arc formed by the splitting of the paleo Ryukyu volcanic arc as a result of the opening of the Okinawa Trough. As an important tectonic boundary, the strike-slip type Miyako fault belt extends northwestward into the shelf area and consists of several discontinuous segments. A forearc terrace composed of an exotic terrane collided with the Ryukyu Arc following the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate. Mesozoic strata of varying thicknesses exist beneath the Cenozoic strata in the shelf basin and significantly influence the magnetic pattern of this area. The gravity and magnetic data support the existence of a Great East China Sea, which suggests that the entire southern East China Sea shelf area was a basin in the Mesozoic without alternatively arranged uplifts and depressions, and might have extended southwestward and connected with the

  17. Assessment of Aerosol Radiative Impact over Oceanic Regions Adjacent to Indian Subcontinent using Multi-Satellite Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Satheesh, S. K.; Vinoj, V.; Krishnamoorthy, K.

    2010-10-01

    Using data from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments, we have retrieved regional distribution of aerosol column single scattering albedo (parameter indicative of the relative dominance of aerosol absorption and scattering effects), a most important, but least understood aerosol property in assessing its climate impact. Consequently we provide improved assessment of short wave aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) (on both regional and seasonal scales) estimates over this region. Large gradients in north-south ARF were observed as a consequence of gradients in single scattering albedo as well as aerosol optical depth. The highest ARF (-37 W m-2 at the surface) was observed over the northern Arabian Sea during June to August period (JJA). In general, ARF was higher over northern Bay of Bengal (NBoB) during winter and pre-monsoon period, whereas the ARF was higher over northern Arabian Sea (NAS) during the monsoon and post- monsoon period. The largest forcing observed over NAS during JJA is the consequence of large amounts of desert dust transported from the west Asian dust sources. High as well as seasonally invariant aerosol single scattering albedos (~0.98) were observed over the southern Indian Ocean region far from continents. The ARF estimates based on direct measurements made at a remote island location, Minicoy (8.3°N, 73°E) in the southern Arabian Sea are in good agreement with the estimates made following multisatellite analysis.

  18. Interaction Between Two Distinct Mesoscale Circulations During Summer in the Coastal Region of Eastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Aaron P.; Raman, Sethu

    2016-07-01

    The interaction of two phenomena, a sea-breeze front and a thermally-driven local circulation, is investigated during the summer season. The sea-breeze circulation in the coastal Carolinas (USA) can be quite strong and the sea-breeze front often propagates well inland. The Sandhills, an area of sandy soils, is oriented roughly parallel to the coast and is located approximately 180 km inland. Differential heating is a strong driving force for convective development in this coastal region and the Sandhills front develops from the thermally-driven circulation caused by the differential heating of differing soil types. The sea-breeze and the Sandhills circulations have been previously studied independently, however, the interaction of these two phenomena is not well known. A combination of remote sensing, in situ observations, and numerical simulations is used to examine the interaction of these two fronts with remote sensing and in situ observations revealing the differential heating that occurs along the Sandhills region. Radar reflectivity is used to identify the two frontal features that converge and result in enhanced convection. A modelling simulation reveals the vertical structure of the frontal features, their propagation, and interaction, highlighting the interaction of the two fronts that results in enhanced convection between the Sandhills and the coast. Over the Sandhills region, differential heating triggers convective storms. Radar reflectivity and numerical simulation indicate the outflows from these convective storms to produce a shallow Sandhills front that in turn propagates toward the coast. As the two opposing fronts, the Sandhills front and the sea-breeze front, converge and interact, intense convection occurs resulting in additional storms.

  19. Biogenic halocarbons from coastal oceanic upwelling regions as tropospheric halogen source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Kirstin; Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Hepach, Helmke; Fiehn, Alina; Atlas, Elliot; Quack, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    Halogenated very short lived substances (VSLS) are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. Recently, oceanic upwelling regions in the tropical East Atlantic were identified as strong sources of brominated halocarbons to the troposphere. During a cruise of R/V METEOR in December 2012 the oceanic sources and emissions of various halogenated trace gases and their mixing ratios in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) were investigated above the Peruvian Upwelling for the first time. This study presents novel observations of the three VSLS bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide together with high resolution meteorological measurements and Lagrangian transport modelling. Although relatively low oceanic emissions were observed, except for methyl iodide, surface atmospheric abundances were elevated. Radiosonde launches during the cruise revealed a low, stable MABL and a distinct trade inversion above acting both as strong barriers for convection and trace gas transport in this region. Significant correlations between observed atmospheric VSLS abundances, sea surface temperature, relative humidity and MABL height were found. We used a simple source-loss estimate to identify the contribution of oceanic emissions to observed atmospheric concentrations which revealed that the observed marine VSLS abundances were dominated by horizontal advection below the trade inversion. The observed VSLS variations can be explained by the low emissions and their accumulation under different MABL and trade inversion conditions. Finally, observations from a second Peruvian Upwelling cruise with R/V SONNE during El Nino in October 2015 will be compared to highlight the role of different El Nino Southern Oscillation conditions. This study confirms the importance of coastal oceanic upwelling and trade wind systems on creating effective transport barriers in the lowermost atmosphere controlling the distribution of VSLS abundances above coastal ocean upwelling

  20. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosman, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Although Cenozoic deposits are not uniformly differentiated, interstate correlations of major Paleocene and Eocene units are generally established throughout the area. Younger deposits are not as well differentiated. Some stratigraphic designations made at surface exposures cannot be extended into the sub-surface, and the scarcity of distinct geologic horizons has hampered differentiation on a regional scale. The complexities of facies development in Oligocene and younger coastal deposits preclude the development of extensive recognizable horizons needed for stratigraphic applications. Coastal deposits are a heterogeneous assemblage of deltaic, lagoonal, lacustrine, palustrine, eolian, and fluvial clastic facies and local calcareous reef facies. Even major time boundaries, as between geologic series, are not fully resolved. Surficial Quaternary deposits overlie the truncated subcrops of Tertiary strata and generally are distinguishable, although some contacts between Pleistocene and underlying Pliocene deposits have been a ?lstoncal source of controversy. Glacially related terraces are characteristic of the Pleistocene Epoch, and alluvium of aggrading streams typifies the Holocene. 

  1. Sea-level Rise Increases the Frequency of Nuisance Flooding in Coastal Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moftakhari Rostamkhani, H.; Aghakouchak, A.; Sanders, B. F.; Feldman, D.; Sweet, W.; Matthew, R.; Luke, A.

    2015-12-01

    The global warming-drivensea-level rise (SLR) posesa serious threat for population and assets in flood-prone coastal zones over the next century. The rate of SLR is accelerated in recent decades and is expected to increase based on current trajectories of anthropogenic activities and greenhouse gas emissions. Over the 20th century, an increase in the frequency of nuisance (minor) flooding has been reported due to the reduced gap between tidal datum and flood stage. Nuisance flooding (NF), however non-destructive, causes public inconvenience, business interruption, and substantial economic losses due to impacts such as road closures and degradation of infrastructure. It also portends an increased risk in severe floods. Here we report substantial increases in NF along the coasts of United States due to SLR over the past decades. We then take the projected SLR under the least and the most extreme representative concentration pathways (e.gRCP2.6 and RCP 8.5) to estimate the increase in NF in the near- (2030) and mid-term (2050) future. The results suggest that projected SLR will cause up to two-fold more frequent NF by 2050, compared with the 20th century. The projected increase in NF will have significant socio-economic impacts and pose public health risks especially in rapidly urbanized coastal regions.

  2. Documentation of revisions to the regional aquifer system analysis model of the New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voronin, Lois M.

    2004-01-01

    The model, which simulates flow in the New Jersey Coastal Plain sediments, developed for the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) program was revised. The RASA model was revised with (1) a rediscretization of the model parameters with a finer cell size, (2) a spatially variable recharge rate that is based on rates determined by recent studies and, (3) ground-water withdrawal data from 1981 to 1998. The RASA model framework, which subdivided the Coastal Plain sediments into 10 aquifers and 9 confining units, was preserved in the revised model. A transient model that simulates flow conditions from January 1, 1968 to December 31, 1998, was constructed using 21 stress periods. The model was calibrated by attempting to match the simulated results with (1) estimated base flow for five river basins, (2) measured water levels in long-term hydrographs for 28 selected observation wells, and (3) potentiometric surfaces in the model area for 1978, 1983, 1998, 1993, and 1998 conditions. The estimated and simulated base flow in the five river basins compare well. In general, the simulated water levels matched the interpreted potentiometric surfaces and the measured water levels of the hydrographs within 25 feet.

  3. Density and magnetic suseptibility values for rocks in the Talkeetna Mountains and adjacent region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanger, Elizabeth A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a compilation and statistical analysis of 306 density and 706 magnetic susceptibility measurements of rocks from south-central Alaska that were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS) scientists between the summers of 1999 and 2002. This work is a product of the USGS Talkeetna Mountains Transect Project and was supported by USGS projects in the Talkeetna Mountains and Iron Creek region, and by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) projects in the Delta River Mining District that aim to characterize the subsurface structures of the region. These data were collected to constrain potential field models (i.e., gravity and magnetic) that are combined with other geophysical methods to identify and model major faults, terrane boundaries, and potential mineral resources of the study area. Because gravity and magnetic field anomalies reflect variations in the density and magnetic susceptibility of the underlying lithology, these rock properties are essential components of potential field modeling. In general, the average grain density of rocks in the study region increases from sedimentary, felsic, and intermediate igneous rocks, to mafic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on rock outcrops and hand samples from the study area also reveal lower magnetic susceptibilities for sedimentary and felsic intrusive rocks, moderate susceptibility values for metamorphic, felsic extrusive, and intermediate igneous rocks, and higher susceptibility values for mafic igneous rocks. The density and magnetic properties of rocks in the study area are generally consistent with general trends expected for certain rock types.

  4. COPII coat subunit interactions: Sec24p and Sec23p bind to adjacent regions of Sec16p.

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, R E; Espenshade, P; Kaiser, C A

    1996-01-01

    Formation of COPII-coated vesicles at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires assembly onto the membrane of five cytosolic coat proteins, Sec23p, Sec24p, Sec13p, Sec31p, and Sar1p. A sixth vesicle coat component, Sec16p, is tightly associated with the ER membrane and has been proposed to act as a scaffold for membrane association of the soluble coat proteins. We previously showed that Sec23p binds to the C-terminal region of Sec16p. Here we use two-hybrid and coprecipitation assays to demonstrate that the essential COPII protein Sec24p binds to the central region of Sec16p. In vitro reconstitution of binding with purified recombinant proteins demonstrates that the interaction of Sec24p with the central domain of Sec16p does not depend on the presence of Sec23p. However, Sec23p facilitates binding of Sec24p to Sec16p, and the three proteins can form a ternary complex in vitro. Truncations of Sec24p demonstrate that the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of Sec24p display different binding specificities. The C terminus binds to the central domain of Sec16p, whereas the N terminus of Sec24p binds to both the central domain of Sec16p and to Sec23p. These findings define binding to Sec16p as a new function for Sec24p and support the idea that Sec16p organizes assembly of the COPII coat. Images PMID:8930902

  5. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Alaska Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland-Bartels, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a bureau of the Department of the Interior (DOI), is the Nation's largest water, earth, and biological science and mapping agency. The bureau's science strategy 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges - U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017' describes the USGS vision for its science in six integrated areas of societal concern: Understanding Ecosystems and Predicting Ecosystem Change; Climate Variability and Change; Energy and Minerals; Hazards, Risk, and Resilience; Environment and Wildlife in Human Health; and Water Census of the United States. USGS has three Regions that encompass nine geographic Areas. This fact sheet describes examples of USGS science conducted in coastal, nearshore terrestrial, and ocean environments in the Alaska Area.

  6. A third-generation wave model for coastal regions: 1. Model description and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booij, N.; Ris, R. C.; Holthuijsen, L. H.

    1999-04-01

    A third-generation numerical wave model to compute random, short-crested waves in coastal regions with shallow water and ambient currents (Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN)) has been developed, implemented, and validated. The model is based on a Eulerian formulation of the discrete spectral balance of action density that accounts for refractive propagation over arbitrary bathymetry and current fields. It is driven by boundary conditions and local winds. As in other third-generation wave models, the processes of wind generation, whitecapping, quadruplet wave-wave interactions, and bottom dissipation are represented explicitly. In SWAN, triad wave-wave interactions and depth-induced wave breaking are added. In contrast to other third-generation wave models, the numerical propagation scheme is implicit, which implies that the computations are more economic in shallow water. The model results agree well with analytical solutions, laboratory observations, and (generalized) field observations.

  7. Chemistry and quality of groundwater in a coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Subba; Vidyasagar, G.; Surya Rao, P.; Bhanumurthy, P.

    2014-11-01

    The chemistry of groundwater in the coastal region between Chirala and Ongole of Andhra Pradesh, India shows pollution to varying extent. The relative contribution of ions in six zones divided based on TDS indicates unsuitability of groundwater here for drinking, irrigation and industrial use. The water is brackish except in first zone and further alkaline. TDS is less than 1,000 mg/L in first zone, while it is more in other zones. This classification of groundwater into zones is also investigated by hydrogeochemical facies, genetic classification, mechanisms of groundwater chemistry and geochemical signatures. Hydrogeochemical facies of Na+>Mg2+>Ca2+: {{HCO}}3^{ - } > Cl- > SO 4^{2 - } is observed from zone I, while that of Na+>Mg2+>Ca2+:Cl- > HCO 3^{ - } > SO 4^{2 - } from second to sixth zones. The genetic classification of groundwater in first and second zones is HCO 3^{ - } type and supported by good drainage conditions, while zones III to VI belong to Cl- category evident from poor drainage scenario. The location of six zones on mechanisms of groundwater chemistry supports sluggish drainage conditions of second to six zones, while predominate rock-water interaction in first zone. The geochemical signatures (HCO 3^{ - } :Cl- > 1 and Na+:Cl- < 1) also endorse the pollution. The quantities of chemical species (Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO 3^{ - } , Cl ^{ - } , SO 4^{2 - } , NO 3^{ - } and F ^{ - } ) and TDS in all zones are far greater than the stipulated limits for drinking. The United States Salinity Laboratory plots discriminated the suitability of groundwater in second to sixth zones for irrigation after only special soil treatment. Higher concentrations of TDS, HCO 3^{ - } , Cl- and SO 4^{2 - } in all zones render it unsuitable for industry too. This information is crucial for public and civic authorities for taking up strategic management plan for preventing further deterioration of hydrogeochemical environmental conditions of this part of the coastal region.

  8. Diurnal warming in shallow coastal seas: Observations from the Caribbean and Great Barrier Reef regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Minnett, P. J.; Berkelmans, R.; Hendee, J.; Manfrino, C.

    2014-07-01

    A good understanding of diurnal warming in the upper ocean is important for the validation of satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) against in-situ buoy data and for merging satellite SSTs taken at different times of the same day. For shallow coastal regions, better understanding of diurnal heating could also help improve monitoring and prediction of ecosystem health, such as coral reef bleaching. Compared to its open ocean counterpart which has been studied extensively and modeled with good success, coastal diurnal warming has complicating localized characteristics, including coastline geometry, bathymetry, water types, tidal and wave mixing. Our goal is to characterize coastal diurnal warming using two extensive in-situ temperature and weather datasets from the Caribbean and Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Results showed clear daily warming patterns in most stations from both datasets. For the three Caribbean stations where solar radiation is the main cause of daily warming, the mean diurnal warming amplitudes were about 0.4 K at depths of 4-7 m and 0.6-0.7 K at shallower depths of 1-2 m; the largest warming value was 2.1 K. For coral top temperatures of the GBR, 20% of days had warming amplitudes >1 K, with the largest >4 K. The bottom warming at shallower sites has higher daily maximum temperatures and lower daily minimum temperatures than deeper sites nearby. The averaged daily warming amplitudes were shown to be closely related to daily average wind speed and maximum insolation, as found in the open ocean. Diurnal heating also depends on local features including water depth, location on different sections of the reef (reef flat vs. reef slope), the relative distance from the barrier reef chain (coast vs. lagoon stations vs. inner barrier reef sites vs. outer rim sites); and the proximity to the tidal inlets. In addition, the influence of tides on daily temperature changes and its relative importance compared to solar radiation was quantified by

  9. Analysis of Stakeholder's Behaviours for an Improved Management of an Agricultural Coastal Region in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Ayisha Al; Jens, Grundmann; der Weth Rüdiger, van; Niels, Schütze

    2015-04-01

    Al Batinah coastal area is the main agricultural region in Oman. Agriculture is concentrated in Al Batinah, because of more fertile soils and easier access to water in the form of groundwater compared to other administrative areas in the country. The region now is facing a problem as a result of over abstraction of fresh groundwater for irrigation from the main aquifer along the coast. This enforces the inflow of sea water into the coastal aquifer and causes salinization of the groundwater. As a consequence the groundwater becomes no longer suitable for irrigation which impacts the social and economical situation of farmers as well as the environment. Therefore, the existing situation generates conflicts between different stakeholders regarding water availability, sustainable aquifer management, and profitable agricultural production in Al Batinah region. Several management measures to maintain the groundwater aquifer in the region, were implemented by the government. However, these solutions showed only limited successes for the existing problem. The aim of this study now is to evaluate the implementation potential of several management interventions and their combinations by analysing opinions and responses of all relevant stakeholders in the region. This is done in order to identify potential conflicts among stakeholders to a participatory process within the frame of an integrated water resources management and to support decision makers in taking more informed decisions. Questionnaires were designed for collecting data from different groups of stakeholders e.g. water professionals, farmers from the study area and decision makers of different organizations and ministries. These data were analysed statistically for each group separately as well as regarding relations amongst groups by using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) software package. Results show, that the need to improve the situation is supported by all groups. However, significant

  10. Multi-Scale Interactions Associated with the Monsoon Onset Over South China Sea and Adjacent Regions during SCSMEX-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Li, X.; Wu, H.-T.

    1999-01-01

    Using data collected during The South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) (1998) as well as from the TRMM Microwave-Imager (TMI) and precipitation radar (PR), we have studied the multi-scale interactions (meso-synoptic-intraseasonal) associated with monsoon onset over South China Sea (SCS) and its subsequent evolution. Results show that the monsoon onset (defined by development of steady wind direction and heavy precipitation) over the northern SCS occurred around May 15 -17. Prevailing southerlies and southwesterlies developed over the central SCS after May 20. Shortly after, monsoon convection developed over the whole SCS region around May 23-27. The entire onset process appeared to be delayed by about a week to 10 days compared with climatology. During late spring of 1998, mid-latitude frontal systems were particularly active. These systems strongly impacted the northern SCS convection and may have been instrumental in triggering the onset of the SCS monsoon. The Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) and Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC) radar showed a wide variety of convective systems over the Intensive Flux Array, from frontal bands to shear-banded structure, deep convection, pop-corn type shallow convection, slow moving "fine lines" to water spout. Analysis of SSM/I wind and moisture data suggested that the delayed convective activity over the SCS may be linked to the weakened northward propagation of monsoon rain band, hence contributing to a persistence of the rainband south of the Yangtze River and the disastrous flood that occurred over this region during mid to late June, 1998.

  11. Estimating the Regional Flux of Nitrate and Agricultural Herbicide Compounds from Groundwater to Headwater Streams of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ator, S.; Denver, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture is common in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP, including New Jersey through North Carolina), and groundwater discharge provides nitrogen (primarily in the form of nitrate) and herbicide compounds from agricultural sources along with the majority of flow to NACP streams. Poor water quality has contributed to ecological degradation of tidal streams and estuaries along much of the adjacent mid-Atlantic coast. Although statistical models have provided estimates of total instream nutrient flux in the Coastal Plain, the regional flux of nitrogen and herbicides during base flow is less well understood. We estimated the regional flux of nitrate and selected commonly used herbicide compounds from groundwater to non-tidal headwater streams of the NACP on the basis of late-winter or spring base-flow samples from 174 such streams. Sampled streams were selected using an unequal-probability random approach, and flux estimates are based on resulting population estimates rather than empirical models, which are commonly used for such estimates. Base-flow flux in the estimated 8,834 NACP non-tidal headwater streams are an estimated 21,200 kilograms per day of nitrate (as N) and 5.83, 0.565, and 20.7 kilograms per day of alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor (including selected degradates), respectively. Base-flow flux of alachlor and metolachlor is dominated by degradates; flux of parent compounds is less than 3 percent of the total flux of parent plus degradates. Base-flow flux of nitrate and herbicides as a percentage of applications generally varies predictably with regional variations in hydrogeology. Abundant nonpoint (primarily agricultural) sources and hydrogeologic conditions, for example, contribute to particularly large base-flow flux from the Delmarva Peninsula to Chesapeake Bay. In the Delmarva Peninsula part of the Chesapeake Watershed, more than 10 percent of total nonpoint nitrogen applications is transported through groundwater to stream base flow

  12. Study plan for the regional aquifer-system analysis of alluvial basins in south-central Arizona and adjacent states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has started a 4-year study of the alluvial basins in south-central Arizona and parts of California , Nevada, and New Mexico to describe the hydrologic setting, available groundwater resources, and effects of historical development on the groundwater system. To aid in the study, mathematical models of selected basins will be developed for appraising local and regional flow systems. Major components necessary to accomplish the study objectives include the accumulation of existing data on groundwater quantity and quality, entering the data into a computer file, identification of data deficiencies, and development of a program to remedy the deficiencies by collection of additional data. The approach to the study will be to develop and calibrate models of selected basins for which sufficient data exist and to develop interpretation-transfer techniques whereby general predevelopment and postdevelopment conceptual models of the hydrologic system in other basins may be synthesized. The end result of the project will be a better definition of the hydrologic parameters and a better understanding of the workings of the hydrologic system. The models can be used to study the effects of management alternatives and water-resources development on the system. (USGS)

  13. Regional Comparisons of Coastal Sediment Contamination Detected by a Biomarker (P450 HRGS; EPA Method 4425)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jack W.; Hartwell, S I.; Hameedi, M J.

    2005-01-01

    Pollution investigations by the Center for Coastal Assessment and Monitoring of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been conducted since 1984 and have incorporated extensive biological and chemical analyses. Since 1993, one of the suites of biological tests utilized in these studies has been the biomarker P450HRGS, which is more recently referred to as EPA Method 4425. Extracts of sediments are applied to a human cell line with a reporter gene at the CYP1A1 site. Light produced by the extracts is a function of the concentrations and potencies of those compounds with an affinity for Ah-receptor (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dioxins/furans). These compounds are carcinogenic, can produce chronic toxicity, and those containing chlorine are persistent and bioaccumulated. Nineteen coastal regions and 1309 samples from the three U.S. coasts have been evaluated as part of the NOAA investigations. The stratified random sampling approach used by NOAA provides estimates of the areas (km2) of each region containing levels of the compounds above thresholds. From analysis of the data base, sediments with concentrations at or below 11 ?g benzo[a]pyrene equivalents (B[a]PEq)/g would not be expected to produce effects on the benthos. At 32 ?g B[a]PEq/g and above there is the potential for impacts on the biota, and above 60 ?g/g, the degradation of the benthic community has been observed. Several of the regional surveys found no samples at or above 60 ?g B[a]PEq/g, but 60% of the samples from New York Harbor (280 km2) were above this level. Analyses of data from Puget Sound and Chesapeake Bay demonstrate an increase in samples above 32 ?g B[a]PEq/g in more populated and industrial regions. A targeted investigation of the distribution of the three important classes of compounds identified by Method 4425 would be more cost effective by first screening samples by this method before expending substantial funds in

  14. The Application of DNA Barcodes for the Identification of Marine Crustaceans from the North Sea and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Barco, Andrea; Steinke, Dirk; Beermann, Jan; Laakmann, Silke; Mohrbeck, Inga; Neumann, Hermann; Kihara, Terue C.; Pointner, Karin; Radulovici, Adriana; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Wesse, Christina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last years DNA barcoding has become a popular method of choice for molecular specimen identification. Here we present a comprehensive DNA barcode library of various crustacean taxa found in the North Sea, one of the most extensively studied marine regions of the world. Our data set includes 1,332 barcodes covering 205 species, including taxa of the Amphipoda, Copepoda, Decapoda, Isopoda, Thecostraca, and others. This dataset represents the most extensive DNA barcode library of the Crustacea in terms of species number to date. By using the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), unique BINs were identified for 198 (96.6%) of the analyzed species. Six species were characterized by two BINs (2.9%), and three BINs were found for the amphipod species Gammarus salinus Spooner, 1947 (0.4%). Intraspecific distances with values higher than 2.2% were revealed for 13 species (6.3%). Exceptionally high distances of up to 14.87% between two distinct but monophyletic clusters were found for the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832, supporting the results of previous studies that indicated the existence of an overlooked sea louse species. In contrast to these high distances, haplotype-sharing was observed for two decapod spider crab species, Macropodia parva Van Noort & Adema, 1985 and Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761), underlining the need for a taxonomic revision of both species. Summarizing the results, our study confirms the application of DNA barcodes as highly effective identification system for the analyzed marine crustaceans of the North Sea and represents an important milestone for modern biodiversity assessment studies using barcode sequences. PMID:26417993

  15. Receiver function constraints on crustal seismic velocities and partial melting beneath the Red Sea rift and adjacent regions, Afar Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Cory A.; Almadani, Sattam; Gao, Stephen S.; Elsheikh, Ahmed A.; Cherie, Solomon; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Thurmond, Allison K.; Liu, Kelly H.

    2014-03-01

    The Afar Depression is an ideal locale for the investigation of crustal processes involved in the transition from continental rifting to oceanic spreading. To provide relatively high resolution images of the crust beneath the Red Sea rift (RSR) represented by the Tendaho graben in the Afar Depression, we deployed an array of 18 broadband seismic stations in 2010 and 2011. Stacking of about 2300 receiver functions from the 18 and several nearby stations along the ~200 km long array reveals an average crustal thickness of 22±4 km, ranging from ~17 km near the RSR axis to 30 km within the overlap zone between the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts. The resulting anomalously high Vp/Vs ratios decrease from 2.40 in the southwest to 1.85 within the overlap zone. We utilize theoretical Vp and melt fraction relationships to obtain an overall highly reduced average crustal Vp of ~5.1 km/s. The melt percentage is about 10% beneath the RSR while the overlap zone contains minor quantities of partial melt. The observed high Vp/Vs values beneath most of the study area indicate widespread partial melting beneath the southwest half of the profile, probably as a result of gradual eastward migration of the RSR axis. Our results also suggest that the current extensional strain in the lower crust beneath the region is diffuse, while the strain field in the upper crust is localized along narrow volcanic segments. These disparate styles of deformation imply a high degree of decoupling between the upper and lower crust.

  16. Review of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in coastal zones of the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions of the United States with management implications.

    PubMed

    McCoy, C A; Corbett, D R

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater serves as the primary drinking water source for over half of the coastal populations of the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions, two of the fastest growing regions in the United States. Increased demand for this resource has exceeded sustainable yields in many areas and induced saltwater intrusion of coastal aquifers. A process associated with coastal groundwater, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), has been documented as a source of subsurface fluids to coastal ocean environments throughout the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions and is potentially a significant contributor to nearshore water and geochemical budgets (i.e., nutrients, carbon, trace metals) in many coastal regions. The importance of groundwater as a drinking water source for coastal populations and the influences of submarine groundwater discharge to the coastal ocean warrant increased research and management of this resource. This paper highlights findings from recent SGD studies on three hydrogeologically different continental margins (Onslow Bay, NC, southern Florida, and the Louisiana margin), provides background on the common methods of assessing SGD, and suggests a regional management plan for coastal groundwater resources. Suggested strategies call for assessments of SGD in areas of potentially significant discharge, development of new monitoring networks, and the incorporation of a regional coastal groundwater resources council. PMID:18602208

  17. Review of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in coastal zones of the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions of the United States with management implications.

    PubMed

    McCoy, C A; Corbett, D R

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater serves as the primary drinking water source for over half of the coastal populations of the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions, two of the fastest growing regions in the United States. Increased demand for this resource has exceeded sustainable yields in many areas and induced saltwater intrusion of coastal aquifers. A process associated with coastal groundwater, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), has been documented as a source of subsurface fluids to coastal ocean environments throughout the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions and is potentially a significant contributor to nearshore water and geochemical budgets (i.e., nutrients, carbon, trace metals) in many coastal regions. The importance of groundwater as a drinking water source for coastal populations and the influences of submarine groundwater discharge to the coastal ocean warrant increased research and management of this resource. This paper highlights findings from recent SGD studies on three hydrogeologically different continental margins (Onslow Bay, NC, southern Florida, and the Louisiana margin), provides background on the common methods of assessing SGD, and suggests a regional management plan for coastal groundwater resources. Suggested strategies call for assessments of SGD in areas of potentially significant discharge, development of new monitoring networks, and the incorporation of a regional coastal groundwater resources council.

  18. Monitoring Coastal Processes at Local and Regional Geographic Scales with UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starek, M. J.; Bridges, D.; Prouty, D.; Berryhill, J.; Williams, D.; Jeffress, G.

    2014-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) provide a powerful tool for coastal mapping due to attractive features such as low cost data acquisition, flexibility in data capture and resolution, rapid response, and autonomous flight. We investigate two different scales of UAS platforms for monitoring coastal processes along the central Texas Gulf coast. Firstly, the eBee is a small-scale UAS weighing ~0.7 kg designed for localized mapping. The imaging payload consists of a hand held RGB digital camera and NIR digital camera, both with 16.1 megapixel resolutions. The system can map up to 10 square kilometers on a single flight and is capable of acquiring imagery down to 1.5 cm ground sample distance. The eBee is configured with a GPS receiver, altitude sensor, gyroscope and a radio transmitter enabling autonomous flight. The system has a certificate of authorization (COA) from the FAA to fly over the Ward Island campus of Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (TAMUCC). The campus has an engineered beach, called University Beach, located along Corpus Christi Bay. A set of groins and detached breakwaters were built in an effort to protect the beach from erosive wave action. The eBee is being applied to periodically survey the beach (Figure 1A). Through Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques, eBee-derived image sequences are post-processed to extract 3D topography and measure volumetric change. Additionally, when water clarity suffices, this approach enables the extraction of shallow-water bathymetry. Results on the utilization of the eBee to monitor beach morphodynamics will be presented including a comparison of derived estimates to RTK GPS and airborne lidar. Secondly, the RS-16 UAS has a 4 m wingspan and 11 kg sensor payload. The system is remotely piloted and has a flight endurance of 12 to 16 hours making it suitable for regional scale coastal mapping. The imaging payload consists of a multispectral sensor suite measuring in the visible, thermal IR, and ultraviolet ranges of the

  19. REGIONAL AND STATE VIEWS OF ESTUARINE CONDITION IN NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATE BASED ON 2001 AND 2001 NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Assessment (NCA) is a probability-based survey that permits assessment of estuarine conditions at national, regional, or large-system scales. Additionally, states may use these data to comply with requirements of the Clean Water Act (CWA), which mandates re...

  20. REGIONAL AND STATE VIEWS OF ESTURAINE CONDITION IN NORTHEAST US BASED ON 2000 AND 2001 COASTAL ASSESSMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Assessment (NCA) is a probability-based survey that permits assessment of estuarine conditions at national, regional, or large-system scales. Additionally, states may use these data to comply with requirements of the Clean Water Act (CWA), which mandates re...

  1. COASTAL ZONES, A REPORT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT TEAM FOR THE GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Impacts of climate change on coastal areas can be expected to have a regional signature that depends on the local climate change and the local geomorphological, biogeochemical, ecological and social factors that affect the sensitivity to climate. Here we present an assessment of...

  2. PHOTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF CDOM IN WATERS FROM SELECTED COASTAL REGIONS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological and photochemical degradation of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were investigated in controlled experiments using waters from southeastern U.S. estuaries, from the Mississippi River plume and Gulf of Mexico, and from the coastal shelf region in the Florida Key...

  3. Time-Series Analysis of Remotely-Sensed SeaWiFS Chlorophyll in River-Influenced Coastal Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; McMahon, Erin; Shen, Suhung; Hearty, Thomas; Casey, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The availability of a nearly-continuous record of remotely-sensed chlorophyll a data (chl a) from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, now longer than ten years, enables examination of time-series trends for multiple global locations. Innovative data analysis technology available on the World Wide Web facilitates such analyses. In coastal regions influenced by river outflows, chl a is not always indicative of actual trends in phytoplankton chlorophyll due to the interference of colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments; significant chl a timeseries trends for coastal regions influenced by river outflows may nonetheless be indicative of important alterations of the hydrologic and coastal environment. Chl a time-series analysis of nine marine regions influenced by river outflows demonstrates the simplicity and usefulness of this technique. The analyses indicate that coastal time-series are significantly influenced by unusual flood events. Major river systems in regions with relatively low human impact did not exhibit significant trends. Most river systems with demonstrated human impact exhibited significant negative trends, with the noteworthy exception of the Pearl River in China, which has a positive trend.

  4. A Comparative Study of Clam and Squid. Biting Flies of the Coastal Region. Diatoms: Nature's Aquatic Gems. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 227, 231, 232. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are three units related to coastal and oceanic awareness. The units are: (1) A Comparative Study of Clam and Squid; (2) Biting Flies of the Coastal Region; and (3) Diatoms: Nature's Aquatic Gems. All three units were designed for secondary school students. Each unit contains teacher background materials, student activity materials,…

  5. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Clahan, K.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Allen, J.R.; Deino, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10-8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8-2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ?? 0.06 and 9.13 ?? 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the RodgersCreek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek-Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and was

  6. Fluoride occurrence in the groundwater in a coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Subba; Rao, P. Surya; Dinakar, A.; Rao, P. V. Nageswara; Marghade, Deepali

    2015-09-01

    Fluoride (F-) content varies from 0.60 to 1.80 mg/L in the coastal region between Chirala and Ongole of Andhra Pradesh, India. It exceeds the threshold limit of 1.20 mg/L in 20 % of the total groundwater samples. The aim of the present study is to assess the controlling factors of F- content. The study area experiences a dry climate and is underlain by Charnockite Group of rocks over which the river and coastal alluvium occur. The results of the study identify the four factors that control the high F- content. First one is related to alkalinity, leading to active dissolution and leaching of F--bearing minerals, which supports the positive correlation of F- with pH and HCO3 -. A longer water residence time in the clays is the second factor, which activates not only solubility and dissolution of F--bearing minerals, but also anion exchange between F- and OH-. Third factor is a result of higher Na+ due to impact of saline water, ion exchange between Na+ and Ca2+, and precipitation of CaCO3. This reduces the Ca2+ content, causing dissolution of CaF2 to maintain the chemical equilibria, which is supported by positive correlation between Na2+ and F-. The influence of anthropogenic activities is the last factor, which acts as an additional source of F-. Thus, the shallow groundwater shows higher content of F- and the hydrogeochemical facies also support this hypothesis. The study suggests the remedial measures to reduce the F- content.

  7. Impact of oil spill from ship on air quality around coastal regions of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Song, Sang-Keun

    2010-05-01

    Regional air quality around coastal regions, where regular maritime traffic emissions from cargo, other commercial, fishing and military vessels are significantly active, can be affected by their direct emission of primary air pollutants (NOx, SO2, particulate matter (PM), etc.). For instance, harbor traffic exerted an important impact on NO2, SO2, O3, and PM levels. In addition, regional air quality around coastal regions is also affected by oil spill caused by ship accident in the coast. On 7 Dec., 2007, a barge carrying a crane hit the oil tanker MT Hebei Sprit off the west coast of the Republic of Korea, Yellow Sea (approximately 10 km off the coast), at 0700 local time, causing the spill of total estimated 12,547 tons of Iranian heavy (IH) and Kuwait Export (KE) crude oils. Since then, oil began coming on shore late in the night on 7 Dec. More than 150 km of coastline had been identified as being impacted by 17 Dec. Much of the affected area is part of the Taean-gun National Park and the nearest coastal city to spilled area is Taean. On 8 Dec., the flow of oil from the tanker was stopped when the holes were patched. The accident is the worst oil spill in Korea and the spill area is about one-third of the size of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The short- and long-term effects of oil spill on marine environment have been numerously studied, not on atmospheric environment. In this study, the air quality impact near spilled area by the evaporation of hydrocarbons from the oil spill is studied in detail. The evaporation rates of the volatile fractions of the crude oils released by oil spill were estimated based on their mole fractions of crude oils and mass transfer coefficients. Based on a molecular diffusion process, the flux of spilled oil component (Fivap, mol m-2 s-1) can be expressed as follows: Fivap = Kivap(Civap - C∞vap) (1) where Civap is concentration (mol m-3) of a component i of crude oil vapor in the air at the oil-air interface; C∞vap is the

  8. Dependence of waterbirds and shorebirds on shallow-water habitats in the Mid-Atlantic coastal region: An ecological profile and management recommendations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Waterbirds (waterfowl, colonially nesting wading and seabirds, ospreys [Pandion haliaetus], and bald eagles [Haliaeetus leucocephalus]) and shorebirds (sandpipers, plovers, and relatives) may constitute a large fraction of the top level carnivore trophic component in many shallow-water areas of the mid-Atlantic region. The large biomass of many species (>1 kg body mass for the two raptors and some waterfowl) and enormous populations (e.g., >1 million shorebirds in late May in parts of Delaware Bay) reveal the importance of waterbirds as consumers and as linkages in nutrient flux in many shallow-water habitats. Salt and brackish marsh shallow-water habitats, including marsh pannes and tidal pools and creeks as well as constructed impoundments, are used intensively during most months of the year; in fall and winter, mostly by dabbling ducks, in spring and summer by migrant shorebirds and breeding colonial wading birds and seabirds. In adjacent estuaries, the intertidal flats and littoral zones of shallow embayments are heavily used by shorebirds, raptors, and colonial waterbirds in the May to September periods, with use by duck and geese heaviest from October to March. With the regional degradation of estuarine habitats and population declines of many species of waterbirds in the past 20 yr, some management recommendations relevant to shallow waters include: better protection, enhancement, and creation of small bay islands (small and isolated to preclude most mammalian predators) for nesting and brooding birds, especially colonial species; establishment of sanctuaries from human disturbance (e.g., boating, hunting) both in open water (waterfowl) and on land, better allocation of sandy dredged materials to augment islands or stabilize eroding islands; improvement in water management of existing impoundments to ensure good feeding, resting, and nesting opportunities for all the waterbirds, support for policies to preclude point and nonpoint source runoff of chemicals

  9. Regional policy models for forest biodiversity analysis: lessons from coastal Oregon.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K Norman; Duncan, Sally; Spies, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    The crisis in the early 1990s over conservation of biodiversity in the forests of the Pacific Northwest caused an upheaval in forest policies for public and private landowners. These events led to the development of the Coastal Landscape Assessment and Modeling Study (CLAMS) for the Coast Range Physiographic Province of Oregon, a province containing over two million hectares of forest with a complex mixture of public and private ownership. Over a decade, CLAMS scientists developed regional data bases and tools to enable assessments of the implications of current policies for biodiversity and have begun using these data and tools to test ideas for solving policy problems. We summarize here four main lessons from our work: (1) Regional ecosystem perspectives, while rewarding, are difficult to achieve. Helping policy makers and the public understand biodiversity policies for an entire province can assist in developing more reasoned policies. However, this result is difficult to achieve because needed scientific building blocks generally do not exist, few policy institutions address regional cross-ownership issues, people can find it difficult to take a regional view, and the appropriate region for analysis changes with the policy problem. (2) Interest in environmental policy analysis may come as much from a pursuit of power as a pursuit of understanding. Biodiversity policy analyses are often viewed as weapons in an ongoing political battle. Also, results that might destabilize existing policies generally will not be well received by those in power. (3) The relationship of regional analyses to civic processes remains challenging and unsettled. Communication between citizens and scientists takes real effort. Also, collaborative processes both inspire and constrain regional policy analysis, and scientific work often proceeds at a different pace than these processes. In the end, CLAMS's most important effect on the civic dialogue may be to change how people think about

  10. A new interpretation of deformation rates in the Snake River Plain and adjacent basin and range regions based on GPS measurements

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. Payne; R. McCaffrey; R.W. King; S.A. Kattenhorn

    2012-04-01

    We evaluate horizontal Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities together with geologic, volcanic, and seismic data to interpret extension, shear, and contraction within the Snake River Plain and the Northern Basin and Range Province, U.S.A. We estimate horizontal surface velocities using GPS data collected at 385 sites from 1994 to 2009 and present an updated velocity field within the Stable North American Reference Frame (SNARF). Our results show an ENE-oriented extensional strain rate of 5.9 {+-} 0.7 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Centennial Tectonic belt and an E-oriented extensional strain rate of 6.2 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} in the Intermountain Seismic belt combined with the northern Great Basin. These extensional strain rates contrast with the regional north-south contraction of -2.6 {+-} 1.1 x 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1} calculated in the Snake River Plain and Owyhee-Oregon Plateau over a 125 x 650 km region. Tests that include dike-opening reveal that rapid extension by dike intrusion in volcanic rift zones does not occur in the Snake River Plain at present. This slow internal deformation in the Snake River Plain is in contrast to the rapidly-extending adjacent Basin and Range provinces and implies shear along boundaries of the Snake River Plain. We estimate right-lateral shear with slip rates of 0.5-1.5 mm/yr along the northwestern boundary adjacent to the Centennial Tectonic belt and left-lateral oblique extension with slip rates of <0.5 to 1.7 mm/yr along the southeastern boundary adjacent to the Intermountain Seismic belt. The fastest lateral shearing occurs near the Yellowstone Plateau where strike-slip focal mechanisms and faults with observed strike-slip components of motion are documented. The regional GPS velocity gradients are best fit by nearby poles of rotation for the Centennial Tectonic belt, Idaho batholith, Snake River Plain, Owyhee-Oregon Plateau, and central Oregon, indicating that clockwise rotation is driven by extension to the

  11. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  12. Detecting Changes of Thermal Environment over the Bohai Coastal Region by Spectral Change Vector Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Jia, G.

    2009-12-01

    Change vector analysis (CVA) is an effective approach for detecting and characterizing land-cover change by comparing pairs of multi-spectral and multi-temporal datasets over certain area derived from various satellite platforms. NDVI is considered as an effective detector for biophysical changes due to its sensitivity to red and near infrared signals, while land surface temperature (LST) is considered as a valuable indicator for changes of ground thermal conditions. Here we try to apply CVA over satellite derived LST datasets to detect changes of land surface thermal properties parallel to climate change and anthropogenic influence in a city cluster since 2001. In this study, monthly land surface temperature datasets from 2001-2008 derived from MODIS collection 5 were used to examine change pattern of thermal environment over the Bohai coastal region by using spectral change vector analysis. The results from principle component analysis (PCA) for LST show that the PC 1-3 contain over 80% information on monthly variations and these PCA components represent the main processes of land thermal environment change over the study area. Time series of CVA magnitude combined with land cover information show that greatest change occurred in urban and heavily populated area, featured with expansion of urban heat island, while moderate change appeared in grassland area in the north. However few changes were observed over large plain area and forest area. Strong signals also are related to economy level and especially the events of surface cover change, such as emergence of railway and port. Two main processes were also noticed about the changes of thermal environment. First, weak signal was detected in mostly natural area influenced by interannual climate change in temperate broadleaf forest area. Second, land surface temperature changes were controlled by human activities as 1) moderate change of LST happened in grassland influenced by grazing and 2) urban heat island was

  13. [Concentration distribution of metal elements in atmospheric aerosol under different weather conditions in Qingdao Coastal Region].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Jian-Hua; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Xiang-Yu; Shen, Heng-Qing; Liu, Ming-Xu

    2014-10-01

    To know the influence of different weather conditions on the concentration of metal elements in aerosols in the coastal region, total suspended particles (TSP) samples were collected from April to May 2012, and August 2012 to March 2013 in the Qingdao coastal region, and common trace metals were analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results showed that Al, Ca, Fe, Na, K and Mg were the dominant metal elements in TSP, and the sum of the six elements accounted for 94.2% of the sum of all metals. TSP and metal elements had significant monthly variations, Fe, Al, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Ba, Mn, Ti, Sr and Li had the highest concentration in November and January, while Be, Sc, Co, Ni and Cr showed the highest value in January. Na had the highest concentration in August, November and February, and the lowest in December. Pb had the highest concentration in January and February, and the lowest in August and December. Enrichment factors indicated that Be, Co, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Sr and Ti were mainly affected by natural sources; Li, Cr, Ni, Zn, Ba and Na were affected by natural sources and part of anthropogenic sources; Pb was mainly from anthropogenic sources. Different weather conditions had great impact on TSP and metal elements concentrations, all the measured metals had the highest concentrations in smog except Ti. Compared with the sunny day, the concentration of atmospheric particulate Ti decreased, while the other elements increased by 1 to 4 times in smog. Li, Be, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe, Mg and Mn had little variation in concentration in foggy day, and the concentration of Pb and Na increased considerably. The concentration of Co, Ca and Ti reduced obviously in fog. Except for Cr, Co and Ti, the other elements increased by 1 to 3 times in haze. Most of the elements had the minimal enrichment factors in sunny day, while the other had the maximal enrichment factor in

  14. [Concentration distribution of metal elements in atmospheric aerosol under different weather conditions in Qingdao Coastal Region].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Jing; Qi, Jian-Hua; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Xiang-Yu; Shen, Heng-Qing; Liu, Ming-Xu

    2014-10-01

    To know the influence of different weather conditions on the concentration of metal elements in aerosols in the coastal region, total suspended particles (TSP) samples were collected from April to May 2012, and August 2012 to March 2013 in the Qingdao coastal region, and common trace metals were analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results showed that Al, Ca, Fe, Na, K and Mg were the dominant metal elements in TSP, and the sum of the six elements accounted for 94.2% of the sum of all metals. TSP and metal elements had significant monthly variations, Fe, Al, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Ba, Mn, Ti, Sr and Li had the highest concentration in November and January, while Be, Sc, Co, Ni and Cr showed the highest value in January. Na had the highest concentration in August, November and February, and the lowest in December. Pb had the highest concentration in January and February, and the lowest in August and December. Enrichment factors indicated that Be, Co, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Sr and Ti were mainly affected by natural sources; Li, Cr, Ni, Zn, Ba and Na were affected by natural sources and part of anthropogenic sources; Pb was mainly from anthropogenic sources. Different weather conditions had great impact on TSP and metal elements concentrations, all the measured metals had the highest concentrations in smog except Ti. Compared with the sunny day, the concentration of atmospheric particulate Ti decreased, while the other elements increased by 1 to 4 times in smog. Li, Be, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe, Mg and Mn had little variation in concentration in foggy day, and the concentration of Pb and Na increased considerably. The concentration of Co, Ca and Ti reduced obviously in fog. Except for Cr, Co and Ti, the other elements increased by 1 to 3 times in haze. Most of the elements had the minimal enrichment factors in sunny day, while the other had the maximal enrichment factor in

  15. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rajen, Gauray

    1999-06-01

    The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy

  16. Supporting Coastal Management Decisions in the Face of Sea-Level Rise: Case Study for the Chesapeake Bay Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, A. C.; Glick, P.; Clough, J. S.; Nunley, B.

    2008-12-01

    Sea-level rise needs to be a major consideration in regional coastal management and ecological restoration plans. The National Wildlife Federation has initiated a multi-pronged strategy for assisting decision makers at government agencies that manage near-shore ecosystems in several vulnerable coastal regions. Results from our work in the Chesapeake Bay region will be presented. This strategy involves: (1) Detailed modeling of how coastal habitats will migrate in response to a range of sea-level rise scenarios. For this work, we used the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM), which simulates the dominant processes involved in wetland conversions and shoreline modifications during long-term sea-level rise and takes into consideration localized changes in land elevation due to geological and ecological factors. These model results provide specific information about the locations that are likely to experience shifts in coastal marshes, swamps, beaches, and other habitats due to sea-level rise at a scale that is relevant to regional decision making. (2) Extensive literature review and analysis of habitat, fish, and wildlife impacts potentially resulting from expected sea-level rise and other local climate changes. Synthesizing the available research is an important service for natural resource agencies that are only beginning to consider climate impacts on ecosystems and natural resources. (3) Analysis of government programs and policies relevant to coastal management and identification of opportunities to revise these policies in light of projected climate changes. An important aspect of this analysis is meeting with key decision makers at relevant state fish and wildlife agencies to better understand the factors that affect their abilities to effect policy changes. (4) Proactive campaign to share our results with diverse audiences. We have developed different research products, ranging from a technical report of the modeling results to short report briefs, to

  17. The numerical calculation of hydrological processes in the coastal zone of the Black Sea region in the city of Poti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Sh. Rustaveli National Science Foundation) The serious environmental problems started in Poti after transfer of the main flow of the river Rioni to the north. As a result the flooding of the city stopped, but the reduction of water consumption in the city channel, caused a decrease of the sediments carried away by the river, what leads to coastal erosion. The coast changes are connected with the movement of the waves and currents in the coastal part of the sea. In the paper, the three-dimensional mathematical model of sediment transport and coastal zone lithodynamics is developed. The finite element formulations for the problems of wave modes, coastal currents, sediment transport and evolution of the coastal zone of the sea, are given. The numerical algorithms, implemented in the form of software. Programs are allowing to bring the solutions of the tasks to numerical results. The numerical modeling was developed in three stages. In the first stage the topography of the coast and the initial geometry of the structures are considered as an input parameters. Then, coastal wave field is calculated for the conditions prescribed in the initial wave. In the second stage, the calculated wave field is used to estimate the spatial distribution of the radiation stresses near-bottom orbital velocity. In the third stage the coastal wave fields and flow fields are used in the sub-models of sediment transport and changes in the topography of the coast. In the numerical solution of basic equations of motion of the waves, coastal currents and changes in sea bottom topography we use: finite element, finite difference methods and the method of upper relaxation, Crank-Nicolson scheme. As an example, we are giving the results of research of the wave regime in the coastal area of the city of Poti (700X600m) adjacent to the port of Poti. The bottom profile, in this area is rather complicated. During the calculations of the average rise of

  18. Carbon Sequestration in Wetland Soils of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coastal Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands play an important but complex role in the global carbon cycle, contributing to the ecosystem service of greenhouse gas regulation through carbon sequestration. Although coastal wetlands occupy a small percent of the total US land area, their potential for carbon...

  19. Recurrence Times for Eartthquakes at the Coastal Region of Oaxaca - Guerrero, MEXICO (Zone 8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.

    2013-05-01

    Oaxaca is the most seismic active region in Mexico with 68 larger events, (mb > 6.5; Ms> 7.0) from 1542 to 1989, which implies roughly a large earthquake every 6.5 years; including an earthquake with M=8.5 which generate the most important historical tsunami in Mexico. It is also the most studied from a seismic point of view. Three types of earthquakes take place in the region: low angle thrust fault (associated to the subduction process) with a depth between 15 to 25 km; normal fault with a depth between 65 and 120 km with epicenters north of Oaxaca City (17°N); normal fault with a depth between 25 to 40 km with epicenters between the coast and Oaxaca City. A seismogenic zoning based in seismic, tectonic and historical seismicity studies zones was proposed in 1989; eight zones were defined, two zone along the coast, one for the isthmus and rest inland. 23 Years later, 4 larger earthquake have occurred in the region that seems agreed with the recurrence models proposed. Here the Zone 8 (Oaxaca - Guerrero coastal) is revised, 12 earthquakes have taken place in this Zone since 1655. However, special mention for the earthquakes in this Zone is the San Sixto Earthquake (March, 28, 1787, M=8.4) which is the biggest historical earthquake in Mexico, and generates the most important local tsunami in Mexico with 18 m high waves at a distance of 6 km inland (Núñez-Cornú et al, 2009). After this earthquake there was a seismic quiescence of 141 years, for the next earthquake in the Zone (1928), after that this Zone became the most seismic active Zone in Mexico (Núñez-Cornú. 1996) with 7 earthquakes in 85 years.

  20. Glacial erosion of bedrock and preliminary Quaternary stratigraphy in the western Lake Erie coastal region

    SciTech Connect

    Shideler, G.I. ); Stone, B.D. )

    1994-04-01

    An analysis of 120 km of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and onshore well records in the southwestern Lake Erie coastal zone shows a highly dissected bedrock surface. Regional subsurface data confirm extensive glacial modification of the preglacial landscape and the differential erosion of bedrock units. Areas of deep glacial scour coincide with shale and dolostone subcrop belts, in which bedrock strike direction was subparallel to glacial flow directions during early and late phases of glaciation. Locally, deep scouring also occurred over zones of fractured bedrock. In southeastern Michigan, large bedrock valleys, widened and deepened by glacial erosion, are preserved on the north side of the area of the Erie ice lobe. To the south in areas of axial flow of the Erie lobe and southerly ice flow during glacial maxima, traces of preglacial valleys have been more severely modified by glacial erosion in diverging directions. Striations in the region record three such diverging ice-flow directions of the last ice sheet. In one quarry, the position and cross-cutting erosional relationships of the three striation sets indicate their relative ages, from oldest to youngest: SSW, SW, and W. The SSW-trending set is overlain by a compact, loamy till containing abundant Canadian-shield crystalline gravel clasts. The till and the striations record the initial Late Wisconsinan ice advance into the region. The younger striation sets are overlain by the clayey, shale-rich till of the Erie lobe. Onshore, glaciolacustrine massive silty clay overlies the clayey till and fills broad troughs between areas of till at the surface. Offshore, seismic profiles reveal stratification in the clay, which is overlain by late Holocene mud. A nearby test hole through the beach west of Turtle Creek suggests a valley-fill sequence consisting of Late Wisconsinan till overlain by 5 m of organic mud deposited during the late Holocene transgression of Late Erie.

  1. Denudation and topographic responses of coastal drainages near the Mendocino Triple Junction region (MTJ), northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, S.; Merritts, D. J.; Snyder, N. P.; Sanquini, A.; Fosdick, J. C.; Hilley, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's surface forms by interactions among surface processes, tectonics, climate, and underlying lithology. In an equilibrium landscape where denudation rates equal uplift rates, topography reflects the response of surface processes to spatial variations in uplift rates, climate, and rock erodibility. The Mendocino Triple Junction region (MTJ) in northern California has been investigated as a possible example of a dynamic equilibrium landscape. The region has formed in response to a range in uplift rates that spans an order of magnitude, with highest uplift rates closest to the MTJ. However, no study has explicitly shown that dynamic equilibrium exists between basin-wide denudation and rock uplift rates in the MTJ region. In this study, we measure 10Be- and 26Al-derived denudation rates from coastal drainage basins, and compare them with uplift rates inferred from marine terraces that were formed and preserved by uplift during the last ~305 ka. Denudation rates from a slowly uplifting zone range from 0.2-0.4 mm/yr, which are consistent with rock uplift rates over 305 ka. However, in the northern transition zone and King Range rapid uplift zone, denudation rates are potentially less than recent uplift rates inferred for the past ~72 ka, but close to previous uplift rates from 96-305 ka. This difference is likely related to a lagged response of hillslopes and tributaries to changes in uplift rates, and/or the uncertainties in rate estimates. Topographic analyses based on a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) also show potential disequilibrium features in the tributaries and hillslopes within drainage basins near the MTJ. This study suggests that measurements of both denudation and uplift rates are crucial in assessing the equilibrium state of landscapes and in understanding the topographic features made by surface and tectonic processes.

  2. Regional long-term model of radioactivity dispersion and fate in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: application to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident.

    PubMed

    Maderich, V; Bezhenar, R; Heling, R; de With, G; Jung, K T; Myoung, J G; Cho, Y-K; Qiao, F; Robertson, L

    2014-05-01

    The compartment model POSEIDON-R was modified and applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of radioactivity in the period 1945-2010, and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of radioactivity due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident for the period 2011-2040. The model predicts the dispersion of radioactivity in the water column and in sediments, the transfer of radionuclides throughout the marine food web, and subsequent doses to humans due to the consumption of marine products. A generic predictive dynamic food-chain model is used instead of the biological concentration factor (BCF) approach. The radionuclide uptake model for fish has as a central feature the accumulation of radionuclides in the target tissue. The three layer structure of the water column makes it possible to describe the vertical structure of radioactivity in deep waters. In total 175 compartments cover the Northwestern Pacific, the East China and Yellow Seas and the East/Japan Sea. The model was validated from (137)Cs data for the period 1945-2010. Calculated concentrations of (137)Cs in water, bottom sediments and marine organisms in the coastal compartment, before and after the accident, are in close agreement with measurements from the Japanese agencies. The agreement for water is achieved when an additional continuous flux of 3.6 TBq y(-1) is used for underground leakage of contaminated water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, during the three years following the accident. The dynamic food web model predicts that due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web, the concentration of (137)Cs for piscivorous fishes returns to background level only in 2016. For the year 2011, the calculated individual dose rate for Fukushima Prefecture due to consumption of fishery products is 3.6 μSv y(-1). Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident the collective dose due to ingestion of marine products for Japan increased in 2011 by a

  3. Observed and modeled surface Lagrangian transport between coastal regions in the Adriatic Sea with implications for marine protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Daniel F.; Griffa, Annalisa; Zambianchi, Enrico; Suaria, Giuseppe; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Russo, Aniello; Bellomo, Lucio; Mantovani, Carlo; Celentano, Paolo; Molcard, Anne; Borghini, Mireno

    2016-04-01

    Surface drifters and virtual particles are used to investigate transport between seven coastal regions in the central and southern Adriatic Sea to estimate the degree to which these regions function as a network. Alongshore coastal currents and cyclonic gyres are the primary circulation features that connected regions in the Adriatic Sea. The historical drifter observations span 25 years and, thus, provide estimates of transport between regions realized by the mean surface circulation. The virtual particle trajectories and a dedicated drifter experiment show that southeasterly Sirocco winds can drive eastward cross-Adriatic transport from the Italian coast near the Gargano Promontory to the Dalmatian Islands in Croatia. Southeasterly winds disrupt alongshore transport on the west coast. Northwesterly Mistral winds enhanced east-to-west transport and resulted in stronger southeastward coastal currents in the western Adriatic current (WAC) and export to the northern Ionian Sea. The central Italian regions showed strong connections from north to south, likely realized by alongshore transport in the WAC. Alongshore, downstream transport was weaker on the east coast, likely due to the more complex topography introduced by the Dalmatian Islands of Croatia. Cross-Adriatic connection percentages were higher for east-to-west transport. Cross-Adriatic transport, in general, occurred via the cyclonic sub-gyres, with westward (eastward) transport observed in the northern (southern) arms of the central and southern gyres.

  4. Scintillation-producing Fresnel-scale irregularities associated with the regions of steepest TEC gradients adjacent to the equatorial ionization anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muella, M. T. A. H.; Kherani, E. A.; de Paula, E. R.; Cerruti, A. P.; Kintner, P. M.; Kantor, I. J.; Mitchell, C. N.; Batista, I. S.; Abdu, M. A.

    2010-03-01

    Using ground-based GPS and digital ionosonde instruments, we have built up at latitudes of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA), in the Brazilian sector, a time-evolving picture of total electron content (TEC), L-band amplitude scintillations, and F region heights, and we have investigated likely reasons for the occurrence or suppression of equatorial scintillations during the disturbed period of 18-23 November 2003. During the prestorm quiet nights, scintillations are occurring postsunset, as expected; however, during the storm time period, their spatial-temporal characteristics and intensity modify significantly owing to the dramatic changes in the ionospheric plasma density distribution and in the temporal evolution of TEC. The two-dimensional maps showing both TEC and amplitude scintillations revealed strong evidence of turbulences at the Fresnel length (causing scintillations) concurrent with those regions of steepest TEC gradients adjacent to the crests of the EIA. The largest density gradients have been found to occur in an environment of increased background electron density, and their spatial distribution and location during the disturbed period may differ significantly from the magnetic quiet night pattern. However, in terms of magnitude the gradients at equatorial and low latitudes appear to not change during both magnetic quiet and disturbed conditions. The scenarios for the formation or suppression of scintillation-producing Fresnel-scale irregularities during the prestorm quiet nights and disturbed nights are discussed in view of different competing effects computed from numerical simulation techniques.

  5. Non-coding RNA derived from the region adjacent to the human HO-1 E2 enhancer selectively regulates HO-1 gene induction by modulating Pol II binding

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Atsushi; Mimura, Junsei; Itoh, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have disclosed the function of enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), which are long non-coding RNAs transcribed from gene enhancer regions, in transcriptional regulation. However, it remains unclear whether eRNAs are involved in the regulation of human heme oxygenase-1 gene (HO-1) induction. Here, we report that multiple nuclear-enriched eRNAs are transcribed from the regions adjacent to two human HO-1 enhancers (i.e. the distal E2 and proximal E1 enhancers), and some of these eRNAs are induced by the oxidative stress-causing reagent diethyl maleate (DEM). We demonstrated that the expression of one forward direction (5′ to 3′) eRNA transcribed from the human HO-1 E2 enhancer region (named human HO-1enhancer RNA E2-3; hereafter called eRNA E2-3) was induced by DEM in an NRF2-dependent manner in HeLa cells. Conversely, knockdown of BACH1, a repressor of HO-1 transcription, further increased DEM-inducible eRNA E2-3 transcription as well as HO-1 expression. In addition, we showed that knockdown of eRNA E2-3 selectively down-regulated DEM-induced HO-1 expression. Furthermore, eRNA E2-3 knockdown attenuated DEM-induced Pol II binding to the promoter and E2 enhancer regions of HO-1 without affecting NRF2 recruitment to the E2 enhancer. These findings indicate that eRNAE2-3 is functional and is required for HO-1 induction. PMID:25404134

  6. Long-term fluctuations of water resources availability and its implications for a sustainable management of arid agricultural coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Schütze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Freshwater scarcity and ongoing population growth associated with increasing water demands are major challenges for water management in coastal arid regions. Excessive use of groundwater for irrigation in agriculture puts those regions at risk of saltwater intrusion which limits agricultural opportunities. Additionally, some arid regions are characterised by a cyclic climate in which longer periods of dry years are followed by longer periods of wet years. This results also in long-term fluctuations of groundwater replenishment rates and water resources availability which may reach the same order of magnitude like long-term average values. Therefore, these long-term fluctuations should be considered for water resources management planning and operation. In order to evaluate their impact a simulation-based integrated water management system for coastal arid regions is used. The management system couples a groundwater module, assessing the water resources availability, and an agricultural module, controlling irrigation and cultivation within an optimisation module which allow for multi-objective optimisation of the water management regarding profitable and sustainable water resources and agricultural management on farm and regional scale. To achieve a fast and robust operation of the water management system, surrogate models are used which emulate the behaviour of physically based process models and a hierarchical optimisation scheme is applied. The water management system is driven by different scenarios of the water resources availability which were generated by using time series analyses and modelling of local groundwater replenishment rates. An application is performed for the south Batinah coastal region in the Sultanate of Oman which is affected by saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer system due to excessive groundwater withdrawal for irrigated agriculture. Several scenarios of water resources availability are used to compare long-term and adaptive

  7. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the Coastal Region of South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    McElligott, Kevin; McElligott, James; Rivell, Guillermo; Rolfe, Robert; Sharpe, Robert; Lambright, Kelly; Charles, Laurine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess risk factors for cardiovascular disease, barriers to health care, and desired health care education topics for Hispanics in the coastal region of South Carolina known as the Lowcountry. Methods 174 Hispanic adults were surveyed at visits at the Mexican consulate using a novel interview instrument. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was compared to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), an annual telephone survey, to evaluate the validity of the survey instrument. Results Results are comparable to the BRFSS telephone study of the Hispanics in the same area. However, participants in our study were older (Age >35 = 41.4% vs. 34.9%) and reported fewer years of formal education (higher level education = 12.9% vs. 44.2%). Cost of care (72.8%) and language barriers (46.8%) were the main difficulties reported in obtaining health care access. The main educational topics of interest were diabetes (61.5%), hypertension (43.7%), stress (42.5%), and cardiac disease (40.2%). Conclusion Our study supports the evidence that there is a demand and need for cardiovascular disease and diabetes education among Hispanics. Our study also shows that a large proportion of Hispanics experience barriers to health care. and that large telephone studies may underrepresent higher risk Hispanic populations. PMID:24804360

  8. Nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, T.; Nagata, T.; Ijichi, M.; Furuya, K.

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen fixation in temperate oceans is a potentially important, but poorly understood process that may influence the marine nitrogen budget. This study determined seasonal variations in nitrogen fixation and the diazotroph community within the euphotic zone in the temperate coastal region of the northwestern North Pacific. Nitrogen fixation as high as 13.6 nmol N L-1 d-1 was measured from early summer to fall when the surface temperature exceeded 14.2 °C (but was lower than 24.3 °C) and the surface nitrate concentration was low (≤ 0.30 μM), although we also detected nitrogen fixation in subsurface layers (42-62 m) where nitrate concentrations were high (> 1 μM). Clone library analysis results indicated that nifH gene sequences were omnipresent throughout the investigation period. During the period when nitrogen fixation was detected (early summer to fall), the genes affiliated with UCYN-A, Trichodesmium, and γ-proteobacterial phylotype γ-24774A11 were frequently recovered. In contrast, when nitrogen fixation was undetectable (winter to spring), many sequences affiliated with Cluster III diazotrophs (putative anaerobic bacteria) were recovered. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that UCYN-A was relatively abundant from early to late summer compared with Trichodesmium and γ-24774A11, whereas Trichodesmium abundance was the highest among the three groups during fall.

  9. Seasonal distribution of microbial activity in bioaerosols in the outdoor environment of the Qingdao coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xi; Qi, Jianhua; Li, Hongtao; Dong, Lijie; Gao, Dongmei

    2016-09-01

    Microbial activities in the atmosphere can indicate the physiological processes of microorganisms and can indirectly affect cloud formation and environmental health. In this study, the microbial activity in bioaerosols collected in the Qingdao coastal region was investigated using the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis method to detect the enzyme activity of microorganisms. The results showed that the microbial activity ranged from 5.49 to 102 ng/m3 sodium fluorescein from March 2013 to February 2014; the average value was 34.4 ng/m3. Microbial activity has no statistical correlation with total microbial quantity. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that meteorological factors such as atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and wind speed accounted for approximately 35.7% of the variation of the microbial activity, although their individual impacts on microbial activity varied. According to the correlation analysis, atmospheric temperature and wind speed had a significant positive and negative influence on microbial activity, respectively, whereas relative humidity and wind direction had no significant influence. The seasonal distribution of microbial activity in bioaerosols was in the order of summer > autumn > winter > spring, with high fluctuations in the summer and autumn. Microbial activity in bioaerosols differed in different weather conditions such as the sunny, foggy, and hazy days of different seasons. Further in situ observations in different weather conditions at different times and places are needed to understand the seasonal distribution characteristics of microbial activity in bioaerosols and the influence factors of microbial activity.

  10. Multi-sensor observation of precipitation in a coastal region of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, Alexis; Grazioli, Jacopo; Genthon, Christophe; DelGuasta, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of a Italian-French-Swiss collaboration, a suite of instruments dedicated to the observation of solid precipitation was deployed at the French Antarctic station Dumont d'Urville on the coast of Adélie Land in Antarctica during (southern) summer 2015-2016. On the remote sensing side, a depolarization lidar (531 nm), a 24-GHz vertical Doppler profiler (MRR from Metek) and a scanning X-band polarimetric radar (called MXPol) were nearly collocated. For measurement at the ground level, a weather station (for local meteorological conditions), a weighing gauge (Pluvio2 from OTT, with wind shield), an optical disdrometer (Biral) and a multi-angle snowflake camera (MASC) were complementing the remote sensing instruments. In addition, daily radiosounding records collected by MeteoFrance were available. This experimental set up was built in order to investigate the added value of remote sensing for the monitoring and understanding of Antarctic precipitation (variability, microphysics), as well as to collect reference data for the evaluation of satellite precipitation products derived from CloudSat and simulated from numerical prediction weather models. Moreover, the potential of radar measurement to distinguish blowing snow from precipitation, an acute problem in the windy coastal regions of Antarctica, was also investigated. This contribution presents the motivation, the set-up and a first analysis of this unprecedented data set about Antarctic precipitation.

  11. A third-generation wave model for coastal regions: 2. Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ris, R. C.; Holthuijsen, L. H.; Booij, N.

    1999-04-01

    A third-generation spectral wave model (Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN)) for small-scale, coastal regions with shallow water, (barrier) islands, tidal flats, local wind, and ambient currents is verified in stationary mode with measurements in five real field cases. These verification cases represent an increasing complexity in two-dimensional bathymetry and added presence of currents. In the most complex of these cases, the waves propagate through a tidal gap between two barrier islands into a bathymetry of channels and shoals with tidal currents where the waves are regenerated by a local wind. The wave fields were highly variable with up to 3 orders of magnitude difference in energy scale in individual cases. The model accounts for shoaling, refraction, generation by wind, whitecapping, triad and quadruplet wave-wave interactions, and bottom and depth-induced wave breaking. The effect of alternative formulations of these processes is shown. In all cases a relatively large number of wave observations is available, including observations of wave directions. The average rms error in the computed significant wave height and mean wave period is 0.30 m and 0.7 s, respectively, which is 10% of the incident values for both.

  12. Ambient acrolein concentrations in coastal, remote, and urban regions in California.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Acrolein (2-propenal) is a reactive chemical that is very toxic and has many sources. Acrolein is commonly detected in the atmosphere, but understanding the ambient concentrations of this compound has been hampered by analytical difficulties. The objective of this research was to utilize an analytical method specifically designed for acrolein to determine acrolein concentrations in remote regions. The purpose was to determine the natural background concentrations of acrolein which were simply lacking in the literature. In addition, rural and urban areas were sampled to determine the degree of anthropogenic enrichment in polluted environments. The results from the coastal and remote inland areas suggest that the median natural summertime background of acrolein was near 40 ng/m(3), which was higher than the Environmental Protection Agency's Reference Concentration (RfC) of 20 ng/m(3). Acrolein concentrations in urban areas were approximately 3- to 8-fold higher than background concentrations, which was a lower degree of urban enrichment than expected. The results suggest that additional research is needed to understand the natural background concentrations of acrolein.

  13. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in surface sediments of the west Guangdong coastal region, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangming; Lu, Qingyuan; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Ding, Xigui; Wang, Jin

    2016-07-15

    Heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn), organic carbon and grain size of 237 surface sediment samples and one sediment core, taken from the west Guangdong coastal region in January 2008, were analyzed to evaluate the spatial distribution and pollution status. Results show that the ranges of the measured heavy metal concentrations in sediments are as follows: 8.33-39.49mg/kg for As, 0.1-1.49mg/kg for Cd, 33-108mg/kg for Cr, 11.5-78.8mg/kg for Cu, 0.04-0.26mg/kg for Hg, 21-73mg/kg for Pb, 56-248mg/kg for Zn. The heavy metal enrichment is closely associated with Corg and grain size. Both the metal enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index indicate that there was no detected pollution on metals As, Cr, Cu, Pb in our study area and a slight to moderate contamination of Cd, Hg and Zn. However, As, Cr and Cu have showed a certain risk. PMID:27197765

  14. New remains of Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) (Megatheriidae, Xenarthra) from the coastal region of Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tito, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    New remains of Eremotherium were recovered from the Pacific coast of Ecuador's Manabi province. The Machalilla fossiliferous locality records the northernmost presence of Eremotherium along the Pacific coast of South America. Most of the fossil remains belong to the same individual, mainly its posterior half, but other individuals are represented. Among the better-preserved specimens are skull fragments, most of the hind limb bones and a number of trunk and caudal centra. These remains were compared with samples collected during the 20th century along the southern coastal regions of Ecuador and northern Peru. Many characters of the long bones and tarsals testify to a possibly different lineage despite the closeness of other Eremotherium populations. Some metric and morphological aspects suggest a different space-temporal southern Caribbean provenance. Other Eremotherium specimens, coming from other Ecuadorian localities, were studied and compared with classic Eremotherium samples. Interesting morpho-functional aspects are pointed out with regard to the tail and its importance in the bipedal stance.

  15. [Concentration and community diversity of microbes in bioaerosols in the Qingdao coastal region].

    PubMed

    Qi, Jian-Hua; Wu, Li-Jing; Gao, Dong-Mei; Jin, Chuan

    2014-03-01

    Bioaerosol samples were collected in Qingdao coastal region during July 2009 - June 2010 to investigate the concentration and community diversity of microbes in bioaerosols. Microbe concentrations (bacteria and fungi) in marine and terrestrial bioaerosols were determined and diversity indices including Shannon-Weiner index, Simpson's index and Pielou index were calculated in this study. Monthly average concentrations of terrestrial bacteria, marine bacteria, terrestrial fungi and marine fungi were in the ranges of 12-436 CFU x m(-3), 25-561 CFU x m(-3), 0-817 CFU x m(-3) and 11-1346 CFU x m(-3), respectively. There were consistent seasonal variations of these four types of microbe, with higher concentrations in spring and summer and lowest during winter, especially in February. Compared to terrestrial microbes, marine microbes account for higher proportion to the total culturable microbes, with a percentage of 63%. The number of microbial species varied from 17 to 102, and was partially correlated with microbial concentrations, however, it did not show obvious seasonal variation. Based on the analysis of calculated diversity indices, we found that the community diversities of four types of microbe were much higher in January, November and May than in February. The community diversity varied with the season, space and different microbial species, and showed a different seasonal variation from the microbial concentration.

  16. Environmental Impact Assessment of Shrimp Culture Practice in Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. M.; Rouf, M. A.; Hambrey, J.

    2008-12-01

    The rapid unplanned expansion of coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh poses risks in degrading environment. The unsustainable aquaculture practices are suspected to impart significant nutrient load to the ecosystem. Nevertheless, shrimp production is very less and susceptible to sever mortality. For this, the study aimed to understand the management practices and nutrient flux from some represented shrimp ponds in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. A comprehensive study from 2002 to 2004 was done in an aquatic system comprising a river (Semi diurnal tidal system), a canal and 10 shrimp ponds along with wider area survey to verify the issues under a DFID-funded research project involving Nautilus Consultants Ltd. (UK). In the study area (Dumuria under the district Khulna) shrimp culture practices were mostly improved extensive. Shrimp were being produced without proper pond preparation, fry nursing, stocking or feed management due to lack of technical somehow and the risks involved with higher levels of investment. Consequently production rates were very low, averaging only 191 Kg/ha. Very high mortality of shrimp was reported in some of the farms using shallow ponds immediately after heavy rainfall. This may due to the sudden fluctuation of water pH and/or water temperature and salinity. The water quality in shrimp ponds during grow out period was in acceptable range except lower trend of DO and ammonia nitrogen. Year round water quality observations indicated that there were no major differences among the river, canal and pond water that might be due to the high water flushing rate (468%). The nutrient dynamics estimation indicates that 48.7 kg/ha/cycle of nitrogen and 28.96 kg/ha/cycle of phosphorus were added to the pond as an input mostly from fertilizer and feed. Among the inputs, only 33.4% of nitrogen and 6% of phosphorus were removed as harvested form. A large portion, 39.1% N and 92% P were remained in the sediments and unaccounted for. Average intake of

  17. The Lower Chesapeake Bay LTAR: A coastal urban-agricultural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mccarty, G.; Alfieri, J. G.; Cavigelli, M.; Cosh, M. H.; Hapeman, C. J.; Kustas, W. P.; Maul, J.; Mirsky, S.; Pooler, M.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Schomberg, H.; Timlin, D. J.; Rice, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, located in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S., is the largest estuary in North America. The watershed area includes six states from New York to Virginia and is nearly 167,000 km2 in size with more than 150 rivers and streams entering the 300-km Bay main stem. Forested and agricultural lands make up 58 and 22 percent of the land use, respectively. Nearly 9 percent is urban and suburban use, and the watershed is home to over 17 million people. However, the population is expected to reach 19 million by 2025, raising the potential for conflict between the agricultural and urban communities over land and water use and in protecting natural resources, especially in the lower portion of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The Lower Chesapeake Bay study area, part of the USDA-ARS Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network, will provide much-needed data to support decisions at this critical agriculture-urban interface. Current long-term projects seek to assess the economic, production, and environmental performance of conventional and organic cropping systems and to evaluate the resilience of these systems to climate change. Large-scale studies are being conducted to examine the effects of land-use and landscape characteristics on ecosystem services and on energy, water, nutrient, carbon, and pest dynamics within watersheds. New in-situ measurement and remote sensor technologies are being considered with the expectancy that the data streams will be available on-line and for use in modeling. Results and outcomes of these research efforts will greatly benefit the national LTAR network and will be applicable to other US coastal urban-agricultural regions.

  18. Going Coastal: Shared Evolutionary History between Coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska Wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Weckworth, Byron V.; Dawson, Natalie G.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Flamme, Melanie J.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. PMID:21573241

  19. Going coastal: Shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.

  20. Remote sensing in the coastal and marine environment. Proceedings of the US North Atlantic Regional Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaitzeff, J. B. (Editor); Cornillon, P. (Editor); Aubrey, D. A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Presentations were grouped in the following categories: (1) a technical orientation of Earth resources remote sensing including data sources and processing; (2) a review of the present status of remote sensing technology applicable to the coastal and marine environment; (3) a description of data and information needs of selected coastal and marine activities; and (4) an outline of plans for marine monitoring systems for the east coast and a concept for an east coast remote sensing facility. Also discussed were user needs and remote sensing potentials in the areas of coastal processes and management, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine physical processes.

  1. Investigation of Long-Term Impacts of Urbanization and Global Warming in a Coastal Tropical Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comarazamy, D. E.; Gonzalez, J.; Luvall, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this project is to gain a better understanding of the climate impacts caused by the combined effects of land cover and land use (LCLU) changes and increasing global concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in tropical coastal areas, taking as the test case the densely populated northeast region of the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. The research uses an integrated approach of high-resolution remote sensing information linked to the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), which was employed to perform ensembles of climate simulations (combining 2-LCLU and 2-GHG concentration scenarios). Reconstructed agricultural maps are used to define past LCLU, and combined with reconstructed sea surface temperatures (SST) for the same period form the PAST climate scenario (1951-1956); while the PRESENT scenario (2000-2004) was additionally supported by the high resolution remote sensing data. The climate reconstruction approach is validated with available observed climate data from surface weather stations for both periods simulated. The selection of the past and present climate scenarios considers large-scale biases (i.e. ENSO/NAO) as reflected in the region of interest. Direct and cross comparison of the results is allowing quantifying single, combined, and competitive effects. Results indicate that urban sprawl dominates the pattern and magnitude of maximum temperature differences, while global GHG have dominant effects on minimum temperatures (following regional tendencies). To further investigate impacts of land use the Thermal Response Number (TRN) and Bowen ratio are analyzed. The TRN is a surface property defined as the ratio of the surface net radiation to the rate of change in surface temperature over shorts periods of time, it expresses how a particular surface partitions energy into non-radiative surface energy budget terms (i.e., latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and soil heat flux or storage). Natural vegetated surfaces have a greater TRN

  2. Coastal currents and mass transport of surface sediments over the shelf regions of Monterey Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, S.C.

    1970-01-01

    In Monterey Bay, the highest concentrations of medium and fine sands occur nearshore between ten and thirty fathoms. Silt and clay accumulate in greater depths. Contours of median diameter roughly parallel the isobaths. Fine-grained materials are supplied to the bay region from erosion of cliffs which partly surround Monterey Bay, from sediment laden river discharge, and from continual reworking of widespread Pleistocene and Recent sea floor sediments. These sediments in turn are picked up by coastal currents and distributed over the shelf regions by present day current regimes. Studies of bottom currents over the shelf regions and in Monterey Canyon have revealed patterns which vary with seasonal changes. Current patterns during August and September exhibit remarkable symmetry about the axis of Monterey Submarine Canyon. Central Shelf currents north and south of Monterey Canyon flowed northwest at an average rate of 0.2 knots and south at 0.3 knots respectively. On the North Shelf between January and March currents flowed east to southeast at 0.3-0.5 knots with mirror image patterns above the South Shelf during the same period. Irregular current flow in the canyon indicates a complex current structure with frequent shifts in counterclockwise and clockwise direction over very short periods of time. Bottom topography of the canyon complex often causes localization of canyon currents. One particular observation at a depth of 51 fathoms indicated up-canyon flow at a rate of 0.2 knots. Most of the observed currents are related to seasonal variations, upwelling, ocean swell patterns, and to changes in the California and Davidson currents. Changes in current regimes are reflected in the patterns of sediment distribution and transport. Sediment transport is chiefly parallel to the isobaths, particularly on the North and South Shelf regions. Complex dispersal patterns are observed near Monterey Canyon and Moss Landing Harbor jetties. Longshore currents move sediments

  3. [Regional distribution and ecological risk evaluation of heavy metals in surface sediments from coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Jie; Li, Pei-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Li, Ping; Zhu, Long-Hai

    2012-04-01

    Characteristics of heavy metal distributions in surface sediments of different areas in the Yellow River Delta coastal wetland are analyzed, and the influences of sediment environment on heavy metal distributions are discussed. Heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risk in surface sediments of the Yellow River Delta coastal wetland are estimated by using Hakanson potential ecological risk (PER) factors method. The analyzed results indicate that the average contents of Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr are 0.034, 18.733, 19.393, 65.317, 0.235 and 62.940 microg x g(-1), respectively. The heavy metal distributions vary with regional environment changes. The accumulating index of heavy metals in the current outfall area is the highest of the three regions assigned by author,the second is that of the ancient Yellow River Delta in the north of Shandong province, and the lowest is that of the abandoned delta. Heavy metal distributions in the Yellow River Delta coastal wetland are affected significantly by hydrodynamic system. In addition, the content of clay in surface sediments plays an important role in the distribution and accumulation of heavy metals. The results also suggest that the heavy metal pollution in the Yellow River Delta coastal wetland is in a low pollution level, with a comprehensive pollution index varying from 0.10 to 4.14. And element Cr is the major pollution factor and its average of single pollution index is 0.63. The order of pollution extents of six typical pollutants is Cr > Cu > Zn > Cd > Pb > Hg. The comprehensive potential ecological risk index is between 0.46 and 51.88, indicating a low potential ecological risk. The order of potential ecological risk parameter is Cd > Hg > Cu > Cr > Pb > Zn. Element Cd is also the major factor of potential ecological risks in the Yellow River Delta coastal wetland.

  4. Organic and Inorganic Matter in Louisiana Coastal Waters: Vermilion, Atchafalaya, Terrebonne, Barataria, and Mississippi Regions.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) spectral absorption, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, and the particulate fraction of inorganic (PIM) and organic matter (POM) were measured in Louisiana coastal waters at Vermilion, Atchafalaya, Terrebonne, Barataria, and...

  5. SEDIMENTATION IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL STREAMS -- EVIDENCE FROM REGIONAL SURVEY OF BED SUBSTRATE SIZE AND STABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excessive erosion, transport and deposition of sediment are major problems in streams and rivers throughout the United States. We examined evidence of anthropogenic sedimentation in Oregon and Washington coastal streams using relatively rapid measurements taken from surveys duri...

  6. Regional assessment of sediment contamination from marshes to the continental shelf: Results of the western component of the US EPA National Coastal Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA) program on the U.S. West Coast was designed as a pilot project to explore assessment of new components of coastal resources not previously incorporated in the NCA. The Western Regional component of the NCA program began with a two yea...

  7. Plant molecular phylogeography in China and adjacent regions: Tracing the genetic imprints of Quaternary climate and environmental change in the world's most diverse temperate flora.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Fu, Cheng-Xing; Comes, Hans Peter

    2011-04-01

    The Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) of East Asia harbors the most diverse of the world's temperate flora, and was the most important glacial refuge for its Tertiary representatives ('relics') throughout Quaternary ice-age cycles. A steadily increasing number of phylogeographic studies in the SJFR of mainland China and adjacent areas, including the Qinghai-Tibetan-Plateau (QTP) and Sino-Himalayan region, have documented the population histories of temperate plant species in these regions. Here we review this current literature that challenges the oft-stated view of the SJFR as a glacial sanctuary for temperate plants, instead revealing profound effects of Quaternary changes in climate, topography, and/or sea level on the current genetic structure of such organisms. There are three recurrent phylogeographic scenarios identified by different case studies that broadly agree with longstanding biogeographic or palaeo-ecological hypotheses: (i) postglacial re-colonization of the QTP from (south-)eastern glacial refugia; (ii) population isolation and endemic species formation in Southwest China due to tectonic shifts and river course dynamics; and (iii) long-term isolation and species survival in multiple localized refugia of (warm-)temperate deciduous forest habitats in subtropical (Central/East/South) China. However, in four additional instances, phylogeographic findings seem to conflict with a priori predictions raised by palaeo-data, suggesting instead: (iv) glacial in situ survival of some hardy alpine herbs and forest trees on the QTP platform itself; (v) long-term refugial isolation of (warm-)temperate evergreen taxa in subtropical China; (vi) 'cryptic' glacial survival of (cool-)temperate deciduous forest trees in North China; and (vii) unexpectedly deep (Late Tertiary/early-to-mid Pleistocene) allopatric-vicariant differentiation of disjunct lineages in the East China-Japan-Korea region due to past sea transgressions. We discuss these and other consequences

  8. Plant molecular phylogeography in China and adjacent regions: Tracing the genetic imprints of Quaternary climate and environmental change in the world's most diverse temperate flora.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Fu, Cheng-Xing; Comes, Hans Peter

    2011-04-01

    The Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) of East Asia harbors the most diverse of the world's temperate flora, and was the most important glacial refuge for its Tertiary representatives ('relics') throughout Quaternary ice-age cycles. A steadily increasing number of phylogeographic studies in the SJFR of mainland China and adjacent areas, including the Qinghai-Tibetan-Plateau (QTP) and Sino-Himalayan region, have documented the population histories of temperate plant species in these regions. Here we review this current literature that challenges the oft-stated view of the SJFR as a glacial sanctuary for temperate plants, instead revealing profound effects of Quaternary changes in climate, topography, and/or sea level on the current genetic structure of such organisms. There are three recurrent phylogeographic scenarios identified by different case studies that broadly agree with longstanding biogeographic or palaeo-ecological hypotheses: (i) postglacial re-colonization of the QTP from (south-)eastern glacial refugia; (ii) population isolation and endemic species formation in Southwest China due to tectonic shifts and river course dynamics; and (iii) long-term isolation and species survival in multiple localized refugia of (warm-)temperate deciduous forest habitats in subtropical (Central/East/South) China. However, in four additional instances, phylogeographic findings seem to conflict with a priori predictions raised by palaeo-data, suggesting instead: (iv) glacial in situ survival of some hardy alpine herbs and forest trees on the QTP platform itself; (v) long-term refugial isolation of (warm-)temperate evergreen taxa in subtropical China; (vi) 'cryptic' glacial survival of (cool-)temperate deciduous forest trees in North China; and (vii) unexpectedly deep (Late Tertiary/early-to-mid Pleistocene) allopatric-vicariant differentiation of disjunct lineages in the East China-Japan-Korea region due to past sea transgressions. We discuss these and other consequences

  9. Evaluation of High-Resolution Ocean Surface Vector Winds Measured by QuikSCAT Scatterometer in Coastal Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Wenqing; Liu, W. Timothy; Stiles, Bryan W.

    2004-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT covers approximately 90% of the global ocean under clear and cloudy condition in 24 h, and the standard data product has 25-km spatial resolution. Such spatial resolution is not sufficient to resolve small-scale processes, especially in coastal oceans. Based on range-compressed normalized backscatter and a modified wind retrieval algorithm, a coastal wind dataset at 12.5-km resolution was produced. Even with larger error, the high-resolution winds, in medium to high strength, would still be useful over coastal ocean. Using measurements from moored buoys from the National Buoy Data Center, the high-resolution QuikSCAT wind data are found to have similar accuracy as standard data in the open ocean. The accuracy of both high- and standard-resolution winds, particularly in wind directions, is found to degrade near shore. The increase in error is likely caused by the inadequacy of the geophysical model function/ambiguity removal scheme in addressing coastal conditions and light winds situations. The modified algorithm helps to bring the directional accuracy of the high-resolution winds to the accuracy of the standard-resolution winds in near-shore regions, particularly in the nadir and far zones across the satellite track.

  10. Deterioration of coastal groundwater quality in Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Venkataramann; Ramachandramoorthy, Thiagarajan; Chandramohan, A

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out in the Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District to characterize the physico-chemical characteristics of 87 groundwater samples in Island and 112 groundwater samples in mainland which include pH, EC, TDS, salinity, total alkalinity, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total hardness, chloride and fluoride. Heavy inorganic load in majority of the groundwater samples has been estimated due to the salinity, TDS, TH and chloride beyond the threshold level which substantiates the percolation of sea water into the freshwater confined zones. Although the groundwater sources are available in plenty, the scarcity of potable water is most prevalent in this coastal area. The Water Quality Index (WQI) and Langeleir Saturation Index (LSI) have also been calculated to know the potable and corrosive/incrusting nature of the water samples. The statistical tools such as principal component analysis, box plots and correlation matrix have also been used to explain the influence of different physico-chemical parameters with respect to one another among the groundwater samples. The percentage of groundwater samples in mainland was more than that in Island with respect to the acceptable limit of WHO drinking standard, especially in TDS, CH, TH and chloride but the converse is observed in the case of fluoride. About 8% of the mainland aquifers and 42% of Island aquifers were identified to have fluoride greater than 1.5 mg/l. The signature of salt-water intrusion is observed from the ratio of Cl/CO(3)(2-) + HCO(3) and TA/TH. A proper management plan to cater potable water to the immediate needs of the people is to be envisaged. PMID:22527453

  11. Paleoclimatic significance of Middle Pleistocene glacial deposits in the Kotzebue Sound region, northwest coastal Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Roof, S.R.; Brigham-Grette, J. )

    1992-01-01

    During Middle Pleistocene time, glaciers extended from the western Brooks Range in NW Alaska to the coast at Kotzebue Sound, forming Baldwin Peninsula, a 120 km-long terminal moraine. Marine, glacigenic, and fluvial facies exposed along coastal bluffs surrounding Kotzebue Sound and Hotham Inlet indicate that at least the initial stages of the glacial advance occurred while sea level was high enough to cover the shallow Bering Shelf. Although it is presently uncertain if the ice actually reached tidewater before extensive middle-latitude ice-sheet formation, the marine and glacigenic facies clearly indicate that this advance must have occurred significantly out-of-phase with lower latitude glaciation. The authors believe an ice-free Bering Sea provided the moisture for glacier growth during the waning phases of a global interglacial climate. Although the magnitude of the Baldwin Peninsula advance was large compared to late Pleistocene advances, the timing with respect to sea level is consistent with observations by Miller and de Vernal that late Pleistocene polar glaciations also occurred near the end of interglacial periods, when global sea level was high, high-latitude oceans were relatively warm, and summer insolation was decreasing. An important implication of this out-of-phase glaciation hypothesis is that the critical transition point between climate states may be earlier in the interglacial-glacial cycle than previously thought. Because it appears that climate change is initiated in polar regions while the rest of Earth is experiencing an interglacial climate, many of their climate models must be revised. The glacial record at Baldwin Peninsula provides an opportunity to test, revise, and perhaps extend this out-of-phase glaciation hypothesis to the middle Pleistocene interval.

  12. Towards a unified modeling system of predicting the transport of radionuclides in coastal sea regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyung Tae; Brovchenko, Igor; Maderich, Vladimir; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Qiao, Fangli

    2016-04-01

    We present in this talk a recent progress in developing a unified modeling system of predicting three-dimensional transport of radionuclides coupled with multiple-scale circulation, wave and suspended sediment modules, keeping in mind the application to coastal sea regions with non-uniform distribution of suspended and bed sediments of both cohesive and non-cohesive types. The model calculates the concentration fields of dissolved and particulate radionuclides in bottom sediment as well as in water column. The transfer of radioactivity between the water column and the pore water in the upper layer of the bottom sediment is governed by diffusion processes. The phase change between dissolved and particulate radionuclides is written in terms of absorption/desorption rates and distribution coefficients. The dependence of distribution coefficients is inversely proportional to the sediment particle size. The hydrodynamic numerical model SELFE that solves equations for the multiple-scale circulation, the wave action and sand transport on the unstructured grids has been used as a base model. We have extended the non-cohesive sediment module of SELFE to the form applicable to mixture of cohesive and non-cohesive sedimentary regimes by implementing an extended form of erosional rate and a flocculation model for the determination of settling velocity of cohesive flocs. Issues related to the calibration of the sediment transport model in the Yellow Sea are described. The radionuclide transport model with one-step transfer kinetics and single bed layer has been initially developed and then applied to Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. The model has been in this study verified through the comparison with measurements of 137Cs concentration in bed sediments. Preliminary application to the Yellow and East China Seas with a hypothetical release scenario are described. On-going development of the radionuclide transport model using two-step transfer kinetics and multiple bed layers

  13. Deterioration of coastal groundwater quality in Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Venkataramann; Ramachandramoorthy, Thiagarajan; Chandramohan, A

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out in the Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District to characterize the physico-chemical characteristics of 87 groundwater samples in Island and 112 groundwater samples in mainland which include pH, EC, TDS, salinity, total alkalinity, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total hardness, chloride and fluoride. Heavy inorganic load in majority of the groundwater samples has been estimated due to the salinity, TDS, TH and chloride beyond the threshold level which substantiates the percolation of sea water into the freshwater confined zones. Although the groundwater sources are available in plenty, the scarcity of potable water is most prevalent in this coastal area. The Water Quality Index (WQI) and Langeleir Saturation Index (LSI) have also been calculated to know the potable and corrosive/incrusting nature of the water samples. The statistical tools such as principal component analysis, box plots and correlation matrix have also been used to explain the influence of different physico-chemical parameters with respect to one another among the groundwater samples. The percentage of groundwater samples in mainland was more than that in Island with respect to the acceptable limit of WHO drinking standard, especially in TDS, CH, TH and chloride but the converse is observed in the case of fluoride. About 8% of the mainland aquifers and 42% of Island aquifers were identified to have fluoride greater than 1.5 mg/l. The signature of salt-water intrusion is observed from the ratio of Cl/CO(3)(2-) + HCO(3) and TA/TH. A proper management plan to cater potable water to the immediate needs of the people is to be envisaged.

  14. Reproductive tract infections in rural women from the highlands, jungle, and coastal regions of Peru.

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia J.; Chavez, Susana; Feringa, Barbara; Chiappe, Marina; Li, Weili; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Cárcamo, César; Holmes, King K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalences and manifestations of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in rural Peruvian women. METHODS: During 1997-98, we visited 18 rural districts in coastal, highlands, and jungle regions of Peru. We administered standardized questionnaires and pelvic examinations to members of women's community-based organizations; and collected vaginal fluid for pH, amine odour, Gram stain, microscopy, and culture for Trichomonas vaginalis; cervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae; human papilloma virus (HPV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and blood for syphilis serology. FINDINGS: The 754 participants averaged 36.9 years of age and 1.7 sex partners ever; 77% reported symptoms indicative of RTIs; 51% and 26% reported their symptoms spontaneously or only with specific questioning, respectively. Symptoms reported spontaneously included abnormal vaginal discharge (29.3% and 22.9%, respectively). One or more RTIs, found in 70.4% of participants, included bacterial vaginosis (43.7%), trichomoniasis (16.5%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (4.5%), chlamydial infection (6.8%), gonorrhoea (1.2%), syphilis seropositivity (1.7%), cervical HPV infection (4.9%), and genital warts or ulcers (2.8%). Of 715 adequate Pap smears, 7 revealed cancer, 4 high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) and 15 low-grade SIL. Clinical algorithms had very low sensitivity and predictive values for cervical infection, but over half the women with symptoms of malodorous vaginal discharge, signs of abnormal vaginal discharge, or both, had bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. CONCLUSION: Overall, 77% of women had symptoms indicative of RTIs, and 70% had objective evidence of one or more RTIs. Women with selected symptoms and signs of vaginal infection could benefit from standard metronidazole therapy. PMID:15508193

  15. The Removal of Terrestrial Dissolved Organic Matter in Coastal Regions by Photo-Flocculation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulla, H. A.; Mopper, K.

    2015-12-01

    The fate of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (tDOM) as it moves to open ocean was the focus of many studies for the last three decades, most of these studies were focused on three major removal processes: 1) Photochemical mineralization of tDOM (conversion to inorganic forms); 2) Microbial oxidation; and 3) Mixing-induced flocculation. Based on recent estimations, the combination of theses removal processes accounts for ~20-35% of the loss of tDOM in estuaries and coastal regions; which is far from closing the gap between the riverine fluxes of tDOM and the amount of tDOM detected in the open ocean. In a preliminary experiment to determine if photo-flocculation indeed occurs at pH values and ionic strengths found in estuaries. A 0.1-μm filtered riverine was diluted 1:1 with artificial seawater and MilliQ water to yield final salinities ranging from 0 - 15; the pH of the saline samples was ranged from 6-8. Photo-flocculation was observed for all salinities, with particles organic carbon (POC) values ranged from 3.2 to 8.5% of the original DOC. Interestingly, the composition of the Photo-flocculated particles in the saline samples was markedly different from the zero salinity samples as shown in their FT-IR spectra. The photo-flocculated particles that formed in the saline samples appear to be rich in carbohydrate and amide functionalities (protein-like), while containing insignificant deprotonated carboxylate. While the flocs that formed in freshwater (salinity zero) are richer in deprotonated carboxyl groups, and relatively depleted in carbohydrate functionality.

  16. Hell and High Water: Diminished Septic System Performance in Coastal Regions Due to Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jennifer A; Loomis, George W; Amador, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may affect the ability of soil-based onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) to treat wastewater in coastal regions of the Northeastern United States. Higher temperatures and water tables can affect treatment by reducing the volume of unsaturated soil and oxygen available for treatment, which may result in greater transport of pathogens, nutrients, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to groundwater, jeopardizing public and aquatic ecosystem health. The soil treatment area (STA) of an OWTS removes contaminants as wastewater percolates through the soil. Conventional STAs receive wastewater from the septic tank, with infiltration occurring deeper in the soil profile. In contrast, shallow narrow STAs receive pre-treated wastewater that infiltrates higher in the soil profile, which may make them more resilient to climate change. We used intact soil mesocosms to quantify the water quality functions of a conventional and two types of shallow narrow STAs under present climate (PC; 20°C) and climate change (CC; 25°C, 30 cm elevation in water table). Significantly greater removal of BOD5 was observed under CC for all STA types. Phosphorus removal decreased significantly from 75% (PC) to 66% (CC) in the conventional STA, and from 100% to 71-72% in shallow narrow STAs. No fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) were released under PC, whereas up to 17 and 20 CFU 100 mL-1 were released in conventional and shallow narrow STAs, respectively, under CC. Total N removal increased from 14% (PC) to 19% (CC) in the conventional STA, but decreased in shallow narrow STAs, from 6-7% to less than 3.0%. Differences in removal of FCB and total N were not significant. Leaching of N in excess of inputs was also observed in shallow narrow STAs under CC. Our results indicate that climate change can affect contaminant removal from wastewater, with effects dependent on the contaminant and STA type.

  17. Pesticide use and related health problems among greenhouse workers in Batinah Coastal Region of Oman.

    PubMed

    Esechie, Jovita O; Ibitayo, Olurominiyi O

    2011-07-01

    Pesticide practices and the health problems associated with pesticide exposure among 74 greenhouse workers in the Batinah Coastal Region of Oman were investigated. The workers were mostly migrant workers from India (37.8%), Bangladesh (28.4%), Nepal (14.9%), Sri Lanka (8.1%) and Pakistan (5.4%). Majority of the workers (44%) had some primary education, were between 31 and 40 years of age (50%), were married (85.1%) and had been applying pesticides for over 10 years (32.4%). Occupational and phytosanitary practices among the pesticide workers were poor, as most of the workers (59.5%) did not wash their hands after pesticide application, many (43.2%) did not shower and some (20.3%) did not change their clothes. Their methods of handling of partly used pesticides were questionable, with 81.1% storing them in other rooms in the house and 14.9% storing them in their bedrooms. Personal protective equipment (PPE) such as nose mask, overall and eye goggles were hardly used during pesticide application. Some of the reported health symptoms due to pesticide exposure were skin irritation (70.3%), burning sensation (39.2%), headache (33.8%), vomiting (29.7%) and salivation (21.6%). It was suggested that a provision be included in the Pesticide Laws of Oman that makes it mandatory for greenhouse owners to provide their workers with PPE. Also, regular training programs should be organized for the greenhouse pesticide workers to improve their ability to handle hazardous chemicals.

  18. Hell and High Water: Diminished Septic System Performance in Coastal Regions Due to Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jennifer A.; Loomis, George W.; Amador, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may affect the ability of soil-based onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) to treat wastewater in coastal regions of the Northeastern United States. Higher temperatures and water tables can affect treatment by reducing the volume of unsaturated soil and oxygen available for treatment, which may result in greater transport of pathogens, nutrients, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to groundwater, jeopardizing public and aquatic ecosystem health. The soil treatment area (STA) of an OWTS removes contaminants as wastewater percolates through the soil. Conventional STAs receive wastewater from the septic tank, with infiltration occurring deeper in the soil profile. In contrast, shallow narrow STAs receive pre-treated wastewater that infiltrates higher in the soil profile, which may make them more resilient to climate change. We used intact soil mesocosms to quantify the water quality functions of a conventional and two types of shallow narrow STAs under present climate (PC; 20°C) and climate change (CC; 25°C, 30 cm elevation in water table). Significantly greater removal of BOD5 was observed under CC for all STA types. Phosphorus removal decreased significantly from 75% (PC) to 66% (CC) in the conventional STA, and from 100% to 71–72% in shallow narrow STAs. No fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) were released under PC, whereas up to 17 and 20 CFU 100 mL-1 were released in conventional and shallow narrow STAs, respectively, under CC. Total N removal increased from 14% (PC) to 19% (CC) in the conventional STA, but decreased in shallow narrow STAs, from 6–7% to less than 3.0%. Differences in removal of FCB and total N were not significant. Leaching of N in excess of inputs was also observed in shallow narrow STAs under CC. Our results indicate that climate change can affect contaminant removal from wastewater, with effects dependent on the contaminant and STA type. PMID:27583363

  19. The relationship of crime and oil development in the coastal regions of Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthra, Asha D.

    This project examines the relationship between patterns of crime and the development of the oil and gas extraction industry in the coastal regions of Louisiana. The suggestion of a link between these phenomena has often been made, but little systematic research has been conducted to determine if there is indeed a crime-oil development nexus. Limited previous research has focused primarily on the issue of "boom and bust" cycles on some forms of deviant behavior, but the data and the methods used were inadequate, and thus, the resulting conclusions were often misleading or possibly erroneous. During the course of this project, a comprehensive database is constructed that facilitates a longitudinal analysis of concomitant variation in crime patterns and oil extraction activity. Annual crime data are obtained at the parish and county level for all years beginning in 1974 and merged with corresponding social and economic data. This dataset allows for a multivariate pooled time series analysis, with adequate controls, to determine the degree of influence between oil activity and crime patterns. The results from the analysis suggest that changes in oil activity and high levels of labor market involvement in the offshore oil industry are not strongly associated with community disruption in the form of crime. The only statistically significant effects due to changes in oil activity are decreased levels of homicide and aggravated assault. Oil development is not associated with any other crime in the analysis despite accounting for the boom and bust cycles of the oil industry over a 25 year period for 12 parishes that are highly involved in the industry. As the industry becomes more active and undergoes an increased labor demand, incidents of homicide and assault decline in the community. This finding does not support some previous boomtown model research that argues that energy development causes higher rates of social disruption, including higher crime rates (Seydlitz et al

  20. Hell and High Water: Diminished Septic System Performance in Coastal Regions Due to Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jennifer A; Loomis, George W; Amador, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may affect the ability of soil-based onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) to treat wastewater in coastal regions of the Northeastern United States. Higher temperatures and water tables can affect treatment by reducing the volume of unsaturated soil and oxygen available for treatment, which may result in greater transport of pathogens, nutrients, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to groundwater, jeopardizing public and aquatic ecosystem health. The soil treatment area (STA) of an OWTS removes contaminants as wastewater percolates through the soil. Conventional STAs receive wastewater from the septic tank, with infiltration occurring deeper in the soil profile. In contrast, shallow narrow STAs receive pre-treated wastewater that infiltrates higher in the soil profile, which may make them more resilient to climate change. We used intact soil mesocosms to quantify the water quality functions of a conventional and two types of shallow narrow STAs under present climate (PC; 20°C) and climate change (CC; 25°C, 30 cm elevation in water table). Significantly greater removal of BOD5 was observed under CC for all STA types. Phosphorus removal decreased significantly from 75% (PC) to 66% (CC) in the conventional STA, and from 100% to 71-72% in shallow narrow STAs. No fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) were released under PC, whereas up to 17 and 20 CFU 100 mL-1 were released in conventional and shallow narrow STAs, respectively, under CC. Total N removal increased from 14% (PC) to 19% (CC) in the conventional STA, but decreased in shallow narrow STAs, from 6-7% to less than 3.0%. Differences in removal of FCB and total N were not significant. Leaching of N in excess of inputs was also observed in shallow narrow STAs under CC. Our results indicate that climate change can affect contaminant removal from wastewater, with effects dependent on the contaminant and STA type. PMID:27583363

  1. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the coastal region of Oman using DRASTIC index method in GIS environment.

    PubMed

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Rajmohan, Natarajan; Al-Yaroubi, Saif

    2008-12-01

    A study was carried out to develop a vulnerability map for Barka region in the North Batina of Oman using DRASTIC vulnerability index method in GIS environment. DRASTIC layers were created using data from published reports and the seven DRASTIC layers were processed by the ArcGIS geographic information system. Finally, DRASTIC maps were created for 1995 and 2004 to understand the long-term changes in the vulnerability index. DRASTIC vulnerability maps were evaluated using groundwater quality data such as chemical and biological parameters. DRASTIC vulnerability maps of 1995 and 2004 indicate that the northern part of Barka is more vulnerable to pollution than southern part and the central part of Barka also shows high relative vulnerability which is mostly related to the high conductivity values. Moreover, the changes in water level due to high abstraction rate of groundwater reflect in the vulnerability maps and low vulnerability area is increased in the southern part during 2004 compared to 1995. Moreover, regional distribution maps of nitrate, chloride and total and fecal coliforms are well correlated with DRASTIC vulnerability maps. In contrast to this, even though DRASTIC method predicted the central part of the study region is highly vulnerable, both chemical and biological parameters show lower concentrations in this region compared to coastal belt, which is mainly due to agricultural and urban development. In Barka, urban development and agricultural activities are very high in coastal region compared to southern and central part of the study area. Hence, this study concluded that DRASTIC method is also applicable in coastal region having ubiquitous contamination sources.

  2. Deuterium excess in the atmospheric water vapour of a Mediterranean coastal wetland: regional vs. local signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delattre, H.; Vallet-Coulomb, C.; Sonzogni, C.

    2015-09-01

    Stable isotopes of water vapour represent a powerful tool for tracing atmospheric vapour origin and mixing processes. Laser spectrometry recently allowed high time-resolution measurements, but despite an increasing number of experimental studies, there is still a need for a better understanding of the isotopic signal variability at different time scales. We present results of in situ measurements of δ18O and δD during 36 consecutive days in summer 2011 in atmospheric vapour of a Mediterranean coastal wetland exposed to high evaporation (Camargue, Rhône River delta, France). The mean composition of atmospheric vapour (δv) is δ18O = -14.66 ‰ and δD = - 95.4 ‰, with data plotting clearly above the local meteoric water line on a δ18O-δD plot, and an average deuterium excess (d) of 21.9 ‰. Important diurnal d variations are observed, and an hourly time scale analysis is necessary to interpret the main processes involved in its variability. After having classified the data according to air mass back trajectories, we analyse the average daily cycles relating to the two main meteorological situations, i.e. air masses originating from North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. In both situations, we show that diurnal fluctuations are driven by (1) the influence of local evaporation, culminating during daytime, and leading to an increase in absolute water vapour concentration associated to a δv enrichment and d increase; (2) vertical air mass redistribution when the Planetary Boundary Layer collapses in the evening, leading to a d decrease, and (3) dew formation during the night, producing a δv depletion with d remaining stable. Using a two-component mixing model, we calculate the average composition of the locally evaporated vapour (δE). We find higher d(E) under North Atlantic air mass conditions, which is consistent with lower humidity conditions. We also suggest that δv measured when the PBL collapses is the most representative of a regional signal

  3. Hydraulic and thermal soil Parameter combined with TEM data at quaternary coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Ima; Kirsch, Reinhard; Scheer, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    In order to generate a more efficient method of planning and dimensioning small- and medium sized geothermal power plants at quaternary subsurface a basic approach has been attempted. Within the EU-project CLIWAT, the coastal region of Denmark, Germany, Netherlands and Belgium has been investigated and air borne electro magnetic data was collected. In this work the regional focus was put on the isle of Föhr. To describe the subsurface with relevant parameters one need the information from drillings and geophysical well logging data. The approach to minimize costs and use existing data from state agencies led the investigation to the combination of specific electrical resistivity data and hydraulic and thermal conductivity. We worked out a basic soil/hydraulic conductivity statistic for the isle of Föhr by gathering all well logging data from the island and sorted the existing soil materials to associated kf -values. We combined specific electrical resistivity with hydraulic soil properties to generate thermal conductivity values by extracting porosity. Until now we generated a set of rough data for kf - values and thermal conductivity. The air borne TEM data sets are reliable up to 150 m below surface, depending on the conductivity of the layers. So we can suppose the same for the differentiated parameters. Since this is a very rough statistic of kf -values, further more investigation has to be made. Although the close connection to each area of investigation either over existing logging data or laboratory soil property values will remain necessary. Literature: Ahmed S, de Marsily G, Talbot A (1988): Combined Use of Hydraulic and Electrical Properties of an Aquifer in a Geostatistical Estimation of Transmissivity. - Groundwater, vol. 26 (1) Burschil T, Scheer W, Wiederhold H, Kirsch R (2012): Groundwater situation on a glacially affected barrier island. Submitted to Hydrology and Earth System Sciences - an Interactive Open Access Journal of the European

  4. Planning report for the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubb, Hayes F.

    1984-01-01

    Large quantities of water for municipal, industrial and agriculture use are supplied from the aquifers in Tertiary and younger sediments over an area of about 225,000 square miles in the Coastal Plain of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas. Three regional aquifer systems, the Mississippi Embayment aquifer system, the Coastal Lowlands aquifer system, and the Texas Coastal Uplands aquifer system have been developed to varying degrees throughout the area. A variety of problems has resulted from development such as movement of the saline-freshwater interface into parts of aquifers that were previously fresh, lowering of the potentiometric surface with resulting increases in pumping lift, and land-surface subsidence due to the compaction of clays within the aquifer. Increased demand for ground water is anticipated to meet the needs of urban growth, expanded energy development, and growth of irrigated agriculture. The U. S. Geological Survey initiated an eightyear study in 1981 to define the geohydrologic framework, describe the chemistry of the ground water, and to analyze the regional ground-water flow patterns. The objectives, plan, and organization of the study are described in this report and the major tasks to be undertaken are outlined.

  5. Unsafe Practice of Extracting Potable Water From Aquifers in the Southwestern Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, S. H.; Ahmed, A. U.; Iqbal, M. Z.

    2009-05-01

    The groundwater resource is of paramount importance to the lives and livelihoods of the millions of people in Bangladesh. Unfortunately, high levels of arsenic have been found in groundwater in many parts of Bangladesh. Besides, the salinity in water systems in the coastal areas has increased as a consequence of the flow diversion from the upper reaches of Ganges River by the neighboring country India. Since hand- pumped groundwater (tube) wells are the only viable sources of drinking water, maintaining drinking water security for over 6 million people in the south-west (SW) region has been a major challenge for the Bangladesh Government. Due to rapid exploitation of groundwater resources in excess of recharge capacity, non-saline water sources in the SW region have already been depleted and the hand tube wells have mostly been abandoned. Meanwhile, shrimp farming has resulted in saline water infiltration into the perched aquifer system in many areas. A recent survey covering123 wells out of 184, extending to a depth of 330 m, showed high salinity in water. Combined factors of rapid exploitation of shallow groundwater, depletion of the deep aquifers and the subsequent saline water intrusion into these aquifers have put long-term sustainability of the remaining fresh groundwater resource into jeopardy. Very high concentrations of nitrite are found in this study in many tube wells in the area where samples have been drawn from aquifer systems up to 244 m deep. Nitrite concentrations in 35 wells randomly sampled in this study range from 16.98 to 43.11 mg/L, averaging 27.55 mg/L. This is much higher than the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 1 mg/L set by the U.S. EPA for human consumption. Simultaneously, dissolved oxygen (DO) is found to be very low (0.1 to 2 mg/L). There are numerous reports and anecdotal evidences of "Blue Baby Syndrome" (methemoglobinemia) in the region, which is generally due to gradual suffocation caused by poor transport of oxygen from the

  6. Landslide susceptibility mapping in the coastal region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvala, R. C.; Camarinha, P. I.; Canavesi, V.

    2013-05-01

    The exposure of populations in risk areas is a matter of global concern, because it is a determining factor for the natural disasters occurrences. Furthermore, it has also been observed an intensification of extreme hydrometeorological events that has triggered disasters in various parts of the globe, further increasing the need for monitoring and alerting for natural disasters, aiming the safeguarding of life and minimize economic losses. Accordingly, different methodologies for risk assessment have been proposed, focusing on the specific natural hazards. Particularly for Brazil, which has economic axis of development in the regions near the coast, it is common to observe the process of urbanization advancing on steep slopes of the mountain regions. This characteristic causes the population exposure to the natural hazards related to the mass movements, which the landslides stood out as the cause of many deaths and economic losses every year. Thus, prior to risk analysis (when human occupation intersect with natural hazard), it is essential to analyze the susceptibility, which reflects the physical and environmental conditions that trigger for such phenomena. However, this task becomes a major challenge due to the difficulty of finding databases with good quality. In this context, this paper presents a methodology based only on spatial information in the public domain, integrated into a Geographic Information System free, in order to analyze the landslides susceptibility. In a first effort, we evaluated four counties of Southeastern Brazil - Santos, Cubatão, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba - located in a region that includes the rugged reliefs of Serra do Mar and the transition to the coastal region, that have historic of disasters related. It is noteworthy that the methodology takes into account many variables that was weighted and crossed by Fuzzy Gamma technique, such as: topography (horizontal and vertical curvature of the slopes), geology, geomorphology, slope

  7. Climatic stress events in the source region of modern man - Matching the last 20 ka of the Chew Bahir climate record with occupation history of adjacent refugia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, Verena; Vogelsang, Ralf; Junginger, Annett; Asrat, Asfawossen; Lamb, Henry F.; Viehberg, Finn; Trauth, Martin H.; Schaebitz, Frank

    2014-05-01

    A rapidly changing environment is considered an important driver not just for human evolution but also for cultural and technological innovation and migration. To evaluate the impact that climatic shifts on different timescales might have had on the living conditions of prehistoric humans is one of the cornerstones in current research, but continuous paleo-climate records in the vicinity of archaeological sites are still rare. As a contribution towards a better understanding of this human-climate interaction we here present a match between the last 20 ka of the just recently developed paleo-climate record from Chew Bahir in southern Ethiopia and the settlement history of adjacent possible refugia. The Chew Bahir basin, as a newly explored reliable climatic archive, lies in a biogeographically highly sensitive transition zone between the Main Ethiopian Rift and the Omo-Turkana basin and hence represents an ideal site to study climatic variability in the source region of modern man. The climatic history with a temporal resolution of up to 3 years is showing besides orbitally driven long-term transitions in and out of favourable living conditions several short abrupt excursions towards drier or wetter episodes. Comparing the frequency of archaeological findings as a parameter for human occupation to this close-by climate record that allows us to outline how complex the interplay between humans and environment during the last 20 ka really was, which dynamics might have been involved and which role the temporal dimension of environmental changes could have played for the adaption of humans.

  8. Ocean-Atmosphere Environments of Antarctic-Region Cold-Air Mesocyclones: Evaluation of Reanalyses for Contrasting Adjacent 10-Day Periods ("Macro-Weather") in Winter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleton, A. M.; Auger, J.; Birkel, S. D.; Maasch, K. A.; Mayewski, P. A.; Claud, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale cyclones in cold-air outbreaks (mesocyclones) feature in the weather and climate of the Antarctic (e.g., Ross Sea) and sub-antarctic (Drake Passage). They adversely impact field operations, and influence snowfall, the ice-sheet mass balance, and sea-air energy fluxes. Although individual mesocyclones are poorly represented on reanalyses, these datasets robustly depict the upper-ocean and troposphere environments in which multiple mesocyclones typically form. A spatial metric of mesocyclone activity—the Meso-Cyclogenesis Potential (MCP)—used ERA-40 anomaly fields of: sea surface temperature (SST) minus marine air temperature (MAT), near-surface winds, 500 hPa air temperature, and the sea-ice edge location. MCP maps composited by teleconnection phases for 1979-2001, broadly correspond to short-period satellite "climatologies" of mesocyclones. Here, we assess 3 reanalysis datasets (CFSR, ERA-I and MERRA) for their reliably to depict MCP patterns on weekly to sub-monthly periods marked by strong regional shifts in mesocyclone activity (frequencies, track densities) occurring during a La Niña winter: June 21-30, 1999 (SE Indian Ocean) and September 1-10, 1999 (Ross Sea sector). All reanalyses depict the marked variations in upper ocean and atmosphere variables between adjacent 10-day periods. Slight differences may owe to model resolution or internal components (land surface, coupled ocean models), and/or how the observations are assimilated. For June 21-30, positive SST-MAT, southerly winds, proximity to the ice edge, and negative T500, accompany increased meso-cyclogenesis. However, for September 1-10, surface forcing does not explain frequent comma cloud "polar lows" north-east of the Ross Sea. Inclusion of the upper-level diffluence (e.g., from Z300 field) in the MCP metric, better depicts the observed mesocyclone activity. MCP patterns on these "macro-weather" time scales appear relatively insensitive to the choice of reanalysis.

  9. Regional patterns in prevalence of principal external diseases of dab Limanda limanda in the North Sea and adjacent areas 1992-1997.

    PubMed

    Dethlefsen, V; Lang, T; Köves, P

    2000-08-31

    The prevalence and spatial distribution of major diseases of dab Limanda limanda in the North Sea and adjacent areas were studied in the summers 1992 to 1997. Areas covered were the North Sea, Irish Sea, northern and northeastern British Waters and the English Channel. The diseases studied were lymphocystis, epidermal hyperplasia/papilloma and skin ulceration. To standardise data, results were analysed for females >15 cm (>3 yr old). Data were subjected to median polish, and additive, extended and additive plus multiplicative models were applied to best account for effects of region and year. Annual differences in disease prevalence were low whilst differences between areas were pronounced. For lymphocystis higher prevalence was observed in the northwestern sector of the North Sea, at the northern tip of Scotland and in an area south of Iceland. Prevalence was low in the Irish Sea, the English Channel and the southern North Sea, and intermediate in the German Bight. For epidermal hyperplasia/papilloma, levels were low at Icelandic stations, in the northern Irish Sea, in the southern North Sea and the English Channel, whilst levels were high in the northwestern part of the North Sea and the German Bight. Elevated levels of skin ulceration were found on the Dogger, at 1 station in the Irish Sea (off Sellafield) and at 1 station to the south of Iceland. Lower levels were detected west of Iceland. Prevalence in all other areas was intermediate. It is concluded that a detailed analysis of available data on disease prevalence and putative causative factors is desirable and, given the good availability of data, would be a promising step forward toward elucidating possible cause and effect relationships between diseases and anthropogenic factors. PMID:11023251

  10. The cysteine-rich region of raf-1 kinase contains zinc, translocates to liposomes, and is adjacent to a segment that binds GTP-ras.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Xie, W Q; Quest, A F; Mabrouk, G M; Strum, J C; Bell, R M

    1994-04-01

    Different domains of the serine/threonine kinase, raf-1, were expressed as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity by affinity chromatography. A cysteine-rich domain of raf-1 was found to contain 2 mol of zinc (molar basis), similar to analogous cysteine-rich domains of protein kinase C. GST-fusion proteins, containing the cysteine-rich domain of raf-1, bound to liposomes in a phosphatidylserine-dependent manner. In contrast to protein kinase C, the translocation of raf-1 was not dependent upon diacylglycerol, phorbol ester, or calcium, nor did raf-1 bind phorbol esters. A GST-fusion protein encoding residues 1-147 of raf-1 bound to normal GTP-ras with high affinity, but not to mutant GTP-Ala35 ras; no binding was detected to GDP-ras. The binding of a smaller fusion protein (residues 1-130 of raf-1) was about 10-fold weaker, inferring that a 17-amino acid sequence represents a critical binding determinant in intact raf-1. These residues are adjacent to the amino-terminal end of, and partially extend into, the cysteine-rich domain (amino acids 139-184). A synthetic peptide corresponding to this 17-amino acid sequence blocked the interaction of raf-1 with ras. The function of the cysteine-rich region of raf-1 homologous to protein kinase C is to promote translocation of raf-1 kinase to membranes and to form part of the high affinity binding site for GTP-ras.

  11. Integrating Enhanced Satellite Data Maps Into Coastal Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmann, Petra M.; Foley, David G.; King, Chad; Schwing, Franklin B.; Price, Holly; Bograd, Steven J.; Palacios, Daniel M.

    2006-04-01

    Coastal areas continue to be popular destinations for tourists as well as for a large population who now reside year-round near coasts and whose size is predicted to grow steadily. Along with rapid growth in recreational and commercial marine activities, this increase in coastal development also brings issues related to urban runoff, water quality, beach access, and marine ecosystem health. All of these factors contribute to an increase in pressure on the living marine biota found in coastal waters. Coastal managers are therefore faced with the dual task of conserving and protecting marine resources as well as allowing for multiple uses within nearshore waters. A beneficial tool that has yet to be routinely integrated in discussions between regional planners and various stakeholders is a data map depicting representative oceanic conditions of coastal and adjacent waters. Classifying the state of the pelagic realm provides much needed information when deliberating such issues as the creation of marine reserves.

  12. Groundwater-quality data and regional trends in the Virginia Coastal Plain, 1906-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, E. Randolph

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed regional perspective of the hydrogeology of the Virginia Coastal Plain incorporates updated information on groundwater quality in the area. Local-scale groundwater-quality information is provided by a comprehensive dataset compiled from multiple Federal and State agency databases. Groundwater-sample chemical-constituent values and related data are presented in tables, summaries, location maps, and discussions of data quality and limitations. Spatial trends in groundwater quality and related processes at the regional scale are determined from interpretive analyses of the sample data. Major ions that dominate the chemical composition of groundwater in the deep Piney Point, Aquia, and Potomac aquifers evolve eastward and with depth from (1) 'hard' water, dominated by calcium and magnesium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, to (2) 'soft' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, and lastly to (3) 'salty' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and chloride anions. Chemical weathering of subsurface sediments is followed by ion exchange by clay and glauconite, and subsequently by mixing with seawater along the saltwater-transition zone. The chemical composition of groundwater in the shallower surficial and Yorktown-Eastover aquifers, and in basement bedrock along the Fall Zone, is more variable as a result of short flow paths between closely located recharge and discharge areas and possibly some solutes originating from human sources. The saltwater-transition zone is generally broad and landward-dipping, based on groundwater chloride concentrations that increase eastward and with depth. The configuration is convoluted across the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, however, where it is warped and mounded along zones having vertically inverted chloride concentrations that decrease with depth. Fresh groundwater has flushed seawater from subsurface sediments preferentially around the impact crater

  13. U.S. EPA NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT: PROVIDING A REGIONAL CONTEXT FOR ESTUARINE NUTRIENT CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation presents a summary of the National Coastal Assessment program on the West Coast, including goals and objectives, methodological approaches, and indicators used. The estuarine nutrient data collected from 1999-2000 in Washington, Oregon and California are used t...

  14. Future riverine nitrogen export to US coastal regions: Prospects for improving water quality considering population growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess nitrogen (N) in the environment degrades ecosystems and adversely affects human health. Here we examine predictions of contemporary (2000) and future (2030) coastal N loading in the continental US by the Nutrient Export from WaterSheds (NEWS) model. Future output is from s...

  15. Future riverine nitrogen export to US coastal regions: Prospects for improving water quality amid population growth.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess nitrogen (N) in the environment degrades ecosystems and adversely affects human health. Here we examine predictions of contemporary (2000) and future (2030) coastal N loading in the continental US by the Nutrient Export from WaterSheds (NEWS) model. Future scenarios were b...

  16. MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL STREAMS STUDY: STATISTICAL DESIGN FOR REGIONAL ASSESSMENT AND LANDSCAPE MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A network of stream-sampling sites was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) a collaborative study between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Geological Survey. A stratified random sampling with unequal weighting was u...

  17. MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL STREAMS STUDY: STATISTICAL DESIGN FOR REGIONAL ASSESSMENT AND LANDSCAPE MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A network of stream-sampling sites was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) as part of collaborative research between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Geological Survey. A stratified random sampling with unequal wei...

  18. Growth and invasive potential of Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae) within the coastal prairie region: the effects of soil and moisture regime

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrilleaux, T.C.; Grace, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The introduced tree Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae) is considered a serious threat to the preservation of the coastal prairie region of Louisiana and Texas, although it is currently uncommon in the western part of the region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of location, soils, and available moisture on the growth and survival of S. sebiferum in coastal prairie. In a field experiment, S. sebiferum mortality was significantly greater at a western site than at central and eastern sites. The greatest mortality and least growth of surviving plants occurred on a soil from the western region, regardless of site. A greenhouse study also found that S. sebiferum growth was lowest on the western soil. Watering frequency significantly affected S. sebiferum growth, except on the western soil. Sapium sebiferum growth responded to both nitrogen and phosphorum additions for all soils. Soil analyses revealed the highest sand, sodium, and phosphorus contents, and much higher electrical conductivity in the western soil. It is concluded that the soil examined from the western region is unfavorable for S. sebiferum growth, though not to the extent to preclude S. sebiferum completely. Evidence suggests that soil salinity may be the primary cause of the poor S. sebiferum growth at the western site.

  19. Geohazards and myths: ancient memories of rapid coastal change in the Asia-Pacific region and their value to future adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid coastal change is common in the Asia-Pacific region yet an understanding of its causes, recurrence times, and impacts is not always clear through the use of conventional geological methods. It is suggested that myths (traditional [oral] tales) are underutilized sources of information about coastal change in this region. This is illustrated by consideration of myths likely to recall (early) Holocene sea-level rise, particularly along the coasts of India and Australia, as well as myths recalling rapid episodic coastal emergence and submergence, the latter including the disappearance of entire landmasses (islands). Two examples of how details in such myths can inform geological understanding of coastal change are given. The first argues that myths recalling the rapid flooding of coastal cities/lowlands are likely to represent memories of extreme wave events superimposed on a rising (postglacial) sea level. The second suggests that many myths about landmass/island disappearance fail to report the occurrence of rapid (coseismic and aseismic) subsidence even though they provide inferential evidence that this occurred. Few such myths are known to the author from many parts of Asia yet it is likely they exist and could, as elsewhere in the world, help illuminate the understanding of the nature and chronology of rapid coastal change. The challenges involved in helping communities in the Asia-Pacific region adapt to future coastal changes might be partly overcome by the use of appropriate myths to demonstrate precedents and engender local participation in adaptation strategies.

  20. Post-tsunami Assessment in the Coastal Region Between Kanyakumari and Ovari, Tamil Nadu—A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, S.; Chandrasekar, N.; Hentry, C.; Rajamanickam, M.; Immanuel, J. Loveson; Subramanian, P. Siva

    Coastal zones are dynamic areas that are constantly undergoing change in response to a multitude of factors including sea level rise, wave and current patterns, hurricanes and human influences. On 26th December 2004, huge waves smashed across the shore between Kanyakumari and Ovari. As they crossed the beach, the waves up to 30 feet tall. Many people are dead due to crush and pull to sea and drowned as the mighty waves withdraw. Many villages have been obliterated, the death tale could exceed 300 but the damage to the property is very high. The size of the tsunami is related to the area that moves on the ocean bottom and how far it moves. This region is manifested with marine terrace, sand dunes, beach ridges, estuaries, floodplains, beaches, mangroves, peneplains, uplands, sea cliff, etc. We have attempted the shoreline dynamics using beach profile survey, and coastal environment changes through online survey, governmental, records and coastal geomorphological studies using remote sensing technique. The major destructions are identified in this paper.

  1. Exploring the fate, transport and risk of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) in a coastal region of China using a multimedia model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shijie; Lu, Yonglong; Xie, Shuangwei; Wang, Tieyu; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and related substances have been widely applied in both industrial processes and domestic products in China. Exploring the environmental fate and transport of PFOS using modeling methods provides an important link between emission and multimedia diffusion which forms a vital part in the human health risk assessment and chemical management for these substances. In this study, the gridded fugacity based BETR model was modified to make it more suitable to model transfer processes of PFOS in a coastal region, including changes to PFOS partition coefficients to reflect the influence of water salinity on its sorption behavior. The fate and transport of PFOS in the Bohai coastal region of China were simulated under steady state with the modified version of the model. Spatially distributed emissions of PFOS and related substances in 2010 were estimated and used in these simulations. Four different emission scenarios were investigated, in which a range of half-lives for PFOS related substances were considered. Concentrations of PFOS in air, vegetation, soil, fresh water, fresh water sediment and coastal water were derived from the model under the steady-state assumption. The median modeled PFOS concentrations in fresh water, fresh water sediment and soil were 7.20ng/L, 0.39ng/g and 0.21ng/g, respectively, under Emission Scenario 2 (which assumed all PFOS related substances immediately degrade to PFOS) for the whole region, while the maximum concentrations were 47.10ng/L, 4.98ng/g and 2.49ng/g, respectively. Measured concentration data for PFOS in the Bohai coastal region around the year of 2010 were collected from the literature. The reliability of the model results was evaluated by comparing the range of modeled concentrations with the measured data, which generally matched well for the main compartments. Fate and transfer fluxes were derived from the model based on the calculated inventory within the compartments, transfer fluxes between

  2. The Impact of the Danube River Mouths Geomorphological Processes on the Ecosystem, Coastal Development and Regional Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateescu, Razvan; Malciu, Viorel; Spinu, Alina

    2013-04-01

    The anthropogenic influences on the Danube Delta Coast, with major effect on the evolution of its littoral processes are represented by the perturbation of the longshore sediment transport, due to coastal constructions, and as well due to the decrease of solid discharge, as a consequence of the hydro-technical works/dams extension in the reception basin, as well in the main course of the rivers. Certain vulnerable areas of the Danube Delta Coast are strongly influenced by inland works/development as well as Danube flow regime, at regional and local scale. In the Sulina arm area, the extension of the channel jetties had a double effect, representing the cut-off of the south coast current, carrier of a portion of the solid load on the Chilia arm, and removal of its own load out of the coastal circulation in the offshore currents. The sand dunes dynamics including the sediment changes between submerged shore and dunes system are major issues within the channel entrance. The work presents the results on the impacts of the coastal geomorphological processes of the Danube Delta on navigation and ecological areas. Thus, the variability of the sea-land interface, for a period of several decades, has been revisited on the basis of the historical maps, coastal survey of emerged beach profiles, sand dunes and recent GPS measurement, developed on the Romanian Danube Delta littoral, together with certain impact assessments in the delta areas, including the ecosystem response to shoreline variability, sediment transport on short and medium term, in the context in which the major factor is the Danube discharge, as well the sea-level rise.

  3. Deep structure of the northern North Sea and adjacent areas according to regional-scale 3D density and thermal modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy P.; Olesen, Odleiv; Ebbing, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    To analyse the regional configuration of the crystalline crust within the northern North Sea and adjacent areas of the continent, a lithosphere-scale 3D structural model has been constructed in the frame of the Crustal Onshore-Offshore Project (COOP project). Construction of the 3D model has been carried out using recently published/released data. For upper part of the model, all available data were merged into the following layers: sea water, the Cenozoic, the Upper Cretaceous, the Lower Cretaceous, the Jurassic, the Triassic, the Upper Permian (Zechstein) salt, Upper Permian clastics/carbonates and, finally, the Lower Permian-pre-Permian sedimentary rocks. Configuration of the crystalline crust and the Moho topography have been constrained by the published interpretations of deep seismic lines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary has been compiled from previously published data. To evaluate the internal structure of the crystalline crust, a 3D density modelling has been carried out by use of the software IGMAS+ (the Interactive Gravity and Magnetic Application System). According to the 3D density modeling, the crystalline crust of the study area consists of several layers. Within the upper crystalline crust, gabbro to anorthositic rocks have been included into the 3D model along the western coast of Norway. In addition, a low-density (2627 kg/m3) upper crustal layer is modelled beneath the Horda Platform. The next upper crustal layer is characterized by regional distribution and has a density of 2670 kg/m3. The modelled middle crust of the study area contains four layers with similar densities around 2700 kg/m3. The lower crust consists of three layers. The deepest crustal layer is the high-density lower crustal layer (3060 kg/m3) which corresponds to the high-velocity layer. This layer thickens strongly beneath the Norwegian-Danish Basin and the eastern part of the East-Shetland platform. The obtained Moho is strongly uplifted beneath the Central and Viking

  4. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  5. Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the southwestern region. Volume II. Data appendix, Part 3

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the southwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Charlotte, Collier, DeSoto, Hillsborough, Lee, Manatee, Monroe, Pasco, Pinellas, and Sarasota Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. This volume contains appendices presenting data on mineral and oil production, and environmental issues and regulations. 255 references, 20 figures, 91 tables.

  6. Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the southwestern region. Volume II. Data appendix, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the southwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Charlotte, Collier, DeSoto, Hillsborough, Lee, Manatee, Monroe, Pasco, Pinellas, and Sarasota Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. This volume contains appendices presenting data on population, employment, income, health services, agriculture, fish and game, and industrial development. 9 figures, 246 tables.

  7. Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the southwestern region. Volume II. Data appendix, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the southwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Charlotte, Collier, DeSoto, Hillsborough, Lee, Manatee, Monroe, Pasco, Pinellas, and Sarasota Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. This volume contains appendices presenting data on land use, public utilities, transportation, recreation and tourism. 21 figures, 141 tables.

  8. Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the Northwestern Region. Volume II. Data appendix. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the Northwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Bay, Gulf, and Franklin Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. This volume contains appendices presenting data on public utilities, transportation, recreation and tourism, mineral and oil production, and environmental issues and regulations. 31 figures, 187 tables.

  9. Florida coastal ecological characterization: a socioeconomic study of the northwestern region. Volume II. Data appendix, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    French, C.O.; Parsons, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Data are compiled from existing sources on the social and economic characteristics of the Northwestern coastal region of Florida, which is made up of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Bay, Gulf, and Franklin Counties. Described are the components and interrelationships among complex processes that include population and demographics characteristics, mineral production, multiple-use conflicts, recreation and tourism, agricultural production, sport and commercial fishing, transportation, industrial and residential development, and environmental issues and regulations. Energetics models of socioeconomic systems are also presented. This volume contains appendices presenting data on populations, employment, health services, agriculture, fish and game, industrial and residential development, and land use. 18 figures, 239 tables.

  10. Thermal response to the surface heat flux in a macrotidal coastal region (Nuevo Gulf, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, Andrés L.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Dellatorre, Fernando G.

    2016-07-01

    At mid-latitudes, sea water temperature shows a strong seasonal cycle forced by the incident surface heat flux. As depth decreases, the heat flux incidence is damped by the horizontal flux, which prevents the indefinite growth of the seasonal temperature range. In the present work, cross-shore transport in the west coast of Nuevo Gulf (Argentina) was analyzed. Processes tending to cool the coastal waters in summer and to warm the coastal waters in winter, were identified through temperature measurements, surface heat flux and tidal height. The simplified models proposed here provide a feedback mechanism that links changes in surface heat flux with changes in the horizontal heat flux during both seasons. On shorter time scales, tide produces significant variations in the height of the water column, therefore influencing temperature fluctuations and the direction of the horizontal flow.

  11. Seawater Intrusion and groundwater quality of the coastal area in Tripoli region, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Rashid; Rinder, Thomas; Dietzel, Martin; Leis, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    In Libya groundwater is the main source of freshwater, providing a vital supplement to surface water sources. Groundwater availability and quality are however, vulnerable both to climate change and over-abstraction. In Libyan cities where the water table has lowered there has been a consequent impact on agricultural activities. Groundwater aquifers are either renewable or non-renewable. The renewable aquifers are those located in the north coastal strip with high precipitation rates. The large non-renewable sedimentary groundwater basins cover extensive areas in the central and southern parts of Libya and contribute large quantities of freshwater for local use, industrial and agricultural development. Seawater intrusion is a problem in the coastal areas of Libya. Most productive agricultural fields are in the northern coastal areas of the country where irrigation predominantly relies on groundwater. Seawater has moved inland because of heavy exploitation of the Miocene-Quaternary aquifer in order to meet the increasing water demand. The physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as electrical conductivity, pH, temperature and individual ion content were determined. Most of the wells showed high values of electrical conductivity. The increase of water salinity is directly related to the extreme pumping of shallow coastal aquifers and movement of seawater towards inland. In some samples the increase of salinity corresponds to the ions abundant in seawater. In those solutions molar ratios of Cl/Br indicate influence of seawater intrusion. According to mixing calculations between fresh groundwater of the study area and Mediterranean seawater, the estimated concentration of seawater ranges from 10 to 15 wt%.

  12. Regional chloride distribution in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charles, Emmanuel G.

    2016-08-31

    Although additional offshore chloride data are available compared to 27 years ago (1989), the offshore information remains sparse, resulting in less confidence in the offshore interpretations than in the onshore interpretations. Regionally, the 250- and 10,000-mg/L isochlors tend to map progressively eastward from the deepest to the shallowest aquifers across the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system but with some exceptions. The additional data, conceptual understanding, and interpretations in the vicinity of the buried Chesapeake Bay impact structure in eastern Virginia resulted in substantial refinement of isochlors in that area. Overall, the interpretations in this study are updates of the previous regional study from 1989 but do not comprise major differences in interpretation and do not indicate regional movement of the freshwater-saltwater interface since then.

  13. Regional scenarios of sea level rise and impacts on Basque (Bay of Biscay) coastal habitats, throughout the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chust, Guillem; Caballero, Ainhoa; Marcos, Marta; Liria, Pedro; Hernández, Carlos; Borja, Ángel

    2010-03-01

    Global climate models have predicted a rise on mean sea level of between 0.18 m and 0.59 m by the end of the 21st Century, with high regional variability. The objectives of this study are to estimate sea level changes in the Bay of Biscay during this century, and to assess the impacts of any change on Basque coastal habitats and infrastructures. Hence, ocean temperature projections for three climate scenarios, provided by several atmosphere-ocean coupled general climate models, have been extracted for the Bay of Biscay; these are used to estimate thermosteric sea level variations. The results show that, from 2001 to 2099, sea level within the Bay of Biscay will increase by between 28.5 and 48.7 cm, as a result of regional thermal expansion and global ice-melting, under scenarios A1B and A2 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. A high-resolution digital terrain model, extracted from LiDAR, data was used to evaluate the potential impact of the estimated sea level rise to 9 coastal and estuarine habitats: sandy beaches and muds, vegetated dunes, shingle beaches, sea cliffs and supralittoral rock, wetlands and saltmarshes, terrestrial habitats, artificial land, piers, and water surfaces. The projected sea level rise of 48.7 cm was added to the high tide level of the coast studied, to generate a flood risk map of the coastal and estuarine areas. The results indicate that 110.8 ha of the supralittoral area will be affected by the end of the 21st Century; these are concentrated within the estuaries, with terrestrial and artificial habitats being the most affected. Sandy beaches are expected to undergo mean shoreline retreats of between 25% and 40%, of their width. The risk assessment of the areas and habitats that will be affected, as a consequence of the sea level rise, is potentially useful for local management to adopt adaptation measures to global climate change.

  14. Geology of the Eel River basin and adjacent region: implications for late Cenozoic tectonics of the southern Cascadia subduction zone and Mendocino triple junction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    Two upper Cenozoic depositional sequences of principally marine strata about 4000m thick overlie accreted basement terranes of the Central and Coastal belts of the Franciscan Complex in the onshore-offshore Eel River basin of northwestern California. The older depositional sequence is early to middle Miocene in age and represents slope basin and slope-blanket deposition, whereas the younger sequence, late Miocene to middle Pleistocene in age, consists largely of forearc basin deposits. -from Author

  15. Crust structure of the Northern Margin of North China Craton and adjacent region from Sinoprobe-02 North China seismic WAR/R experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Gao, R.; Keller, G. R.; Li, Q.; Cox, C. M.; Hou, H.; Guan, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Central Asian Orogen Belt (CAOB) or Altaids, situated between the Siberian craton(SC) to the north and north China craton (NCC) with tarim to the south, is one of the world's largest accretionary orogens formed by subduction and accretion of juvenile material from the Neoproterozoic through the Paleozoic. The NCC is the oldest craton in China, which suffered Yanshan intercontinental orogenic process and lithosphere thinning in Mesozoic. In the past 20 years, remarkable studies about this region have been carried out and different tectonic models were proposed, however, some crucial geologic problems remain controversial. In order to obtain better knowledge of deep structure and properties of crust on the northern margin of north China craton, a 450 km long WAR/R section was completed jointly by Institute of Geology, CAGS and University of Oklahoma. Our 450 km long NW-SE WAR/R line extends from west end of the Yanshan orogen, across the Bainaimiao arc, Ondor sum subduction accretion complex to the Solonker suture zone. The recording of seismic waves from 8 explorations was conducted in 4 deployments of 300 reftek-125A records and single-channel 4.5Hz geophones with station spacing of 1km. The shooting procedure was employ 500 or 1500kg explosives in 4-5 or 15-23 boreholes at 40-45m depth. The sampling rate was 100 HZ, and recording time window was 1200s. The P wave field on the sections got high quality data for most part of the profile, but have low signal-to-noise for the south end, where closed to Beijing with a lot of ambient noise from traffic, industry and human activity. Arrivals from of refracted and reflected waves from sediments and basement (Pg), intracrust (Pcp, Plp) and Moho (Pmp) were typically observed, but Pn phase through the upper most mantle was only observed for 2 shots. Identification and correlation of seismic phases was done manually on computer screen Zplot software. Each trace has been bandpass filtered (1-20Hz) and normalized with AGC

  16. The regional structural setting of the 2008 Wells earthquake and Town Creek Flat Basin: implications for the Wells earthquake fault and adjacent structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Christopher S.; Colgan, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 Wells earthquake occurred on a northeast-striking, southeast-dipping fault that is clearly delineated by the aftershock swarm to a depth of 10-12 km below sea level. However, Cenozoic rocks and structures around Wells primarily record east-west extension along north- to north-northeast-striking, west-dipping normal faults that formed during the middle Miocene. These faults are responsible for the strong eastward tilt of most basins and ranges in the area, including the Town Creek Flat basin (the location of the earthquake) and the adjacent Snake Mountains and western Windermere Hills. These older west-dipping faults are locally overprinted by a younger generation of east-dipping, high-angle normal faults that formed as early as the late Miocene and have remained active into the Quaternary. The most prominent of these east-dipping faults is the set of en-échelon, north-striking faults that bounds the east sides of the Ruby Mountains, East Humboldt Range, and Clover Hill (about 5 km southwest of Wells). The northeastern-most of these faults, the Clover Hill fault, projects northward along strike toward the Snake Mountains and the approximately located surface projection of the Wells earthquake fault as defined by aftershock locations. The Clover Hill fault also projects toward a previously unrecognized, east-facing Quaternary fault scarp and line of springs that appear to mark a significant east-dipping normal fault along the western edge of Town Creek Flat. Both western and eastern projections may be northern continuations of the Clover Hill fault. The Wells earthquake occurred along this east-dipping fault system. Two possible alternatives to rupture of a northern continuation of the Clover Hill fault are that the earthquake fault (1) is antithetic to an active west-dipping fault or (2) reactivated a Mesozoic thrust fault that dips east as a result of tilting by the west-dipping faults along the west side of the Snake Mountains. Both alternatives are

  17. The MORENA Project: Shelf-ocean exchanges and transport processes along the continental margin in the European coastal upwelling region

    SciTech Connect

    Fiuza, A.F.G.; Perez, F.; Johnson, J.

    1994-12-31

    The MORENA Project (Multidisciplinary Oceanographic Research in the Eastern Boundary of the North Atlantic) is sponsored by the CEC MAST-2 Programme and has as general objective to measure, understand and model shelf-ocean exchange in a typical coastal upwelling region of the eastern boundary layer of the subtropical ocean. This is being attained through a multidisciplinary approach aimed at the quantitative understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the transfer of matter (including salt, particulates, nutrients, organic compounds, biomass), momentum and energy across and along the shelf, the shelf break and the slope, in the Iberian region of the European Atlantic. MORENA has the following components: Observations, Modelling and Combined Analysis.

  18. Propagation of coastally trapped waves in the Northern Benguela studied with hydrographic moorings and a regional circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, Lydia; Junker, Tim; Mohrholz, Volker; Schmidt, Martin; van der Plas, Anja

    2015-04-01

    Upwelling in the Northern Benguela is mainly driven by local winds but nutrient and oxygen conditions on the shelf are largely determined by the intrusion of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) through the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF). The poleward spreading of tropical waters is related to the propagation of Kelvin and continental shelf waves originating from the Equatorial Atlantic and bending poleward at the African coast. The strength of this remote forcing is thought to be especially relevant to the interannual variability of the upwelling system. We test the hypothesis that the poleward spreading of tropical water is driven by the combined action of both I) coastally trapped waves of equatorial origin bringing tropical water to the ABF zone and II) locally forced waves generating the undercurrent which advects SACW onto the shelf. Signals of poleward propagating waves were found in satellite altimeter data up to 12°S. To detect the propagation of coastally trapped waves further south in-situ measurements have been conducted. Three hydrographic moorings equipped inter alia with ADCPs have been deployed and maintained within the framework of the projects GENUS, SACUS and PREFACE. For the first time, simultaneous current measurements on the Namibian shelf have been realized at three different positions. The moorings are located in the Cunene cell, the Northern Namibian cell and the Central Namibian cell. By means of a regional circulation model based on MOM the propagation of coastally trapped waves are investigated with high spatial and temporal resolution (about 8km along the Namibian coast, 2-hour averages). It has been demonstrated that modelled meridional transports correspond well with long term measurements obtained by a mooring off Walvis Bay. The power spectral density shows sharp peaks for the tidal and inertial frequencies. A large proportion of kinetic energy accounts for the sub-inertial frequency range. Meridional transport signals were found to

  19. Interactive effects of global and regional change on a coastal ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reise, Karsten; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.

    2008-03-01

    Shallow waters and lowland meet at the same level in the Wadden Sea, but are separated by walls of coastal defense. What are the prospects of this coastal ecosystem in a warmer world? We focus on tidal waters and inshore sedimentary bottoms, expect nutrient supply from land to decline and species introductions, temperature and sea level to rise. The effects are interrelated and will have an increasing likelihood of abrupt and irreversible developments. The biotic interactions are hardly predictable but we anticipate the following changes to be more likely than others: blooms of phytoplankton will be weak mainly because of increasing pelagic and benthic grazing pressure, both facilitated by warming. Possibly birds feeding on mollusks will encounter decreasing resource availability while fish-eaters benefit. Extensive reefs of Pacific oysters could facilitate aquatic macrophytes. Sea level rise and concomitant hydrodynamics above tidal flats favor well-anchored suspension feeders as well as burrowing fauna adapted to dynamic permeable sand. With high shares of immigrants from overseas and the south, species richness will increase; yet the ecosystem stability may become lower. We suggest that for the next decades invasions of introduced species followed by warming and declining nutrient supply will be the most pressing factor on the changes in the Wadden Sea ecosystem, and the effects of sea level rise to be the key issue on the scale of the whole century and beyond.

  20. Storms or cold fronts: what is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coastal region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, L. J.; Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Ruiz-Merchan, J. K.; Higgins, A. E.; Henriquez, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms to extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean in an attempt to determine the extent of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed. Furthermore, the study wishes to establish the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the height of the wave. For this reason, it is necessary to establish the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. The significant height values for the areas focused on in the study were calculated in accordance with Gumbel's extreme value methodology. The methodology was evaluated using data from the reanalysis of the spectral National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WAVEWATCH III® (WW3) model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombian Caribbean coastline (continental and insular) between the years 1979 and 2009. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and those caused by cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira). In the central area (consisting of Baja Guajira, and the cities of Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena), the strong impact of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. However, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast (ranging from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá), the extreme values of wave heights are lower than in the previously mentioned regions, despite being dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from

  1. Geology of the Eel River basin and adjacent region: Implications for late Cenozoic tectonics of the southern Cascadia subduction zone and Mendocino triple junction

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, S.H. Jr. )

    1992-02-01

    Two upper Cenozoic depositional sequences of principally marine strata about 4,000 m thick overlie accreted basement terranes of the Central and Coastal belts of the Franciscan Complex in the onshore-offshore Eel River basin of northwestern California. The older depositional sequence is early to middle Miocene in age and represents slope basin and slope-blanket deposition, whereas the younger sequence, later Miocene to middle Pleistocene in age, consists largely of forearc basin deposits. Youthful tectonic activity related to Gorda-North American plate convergence indicates an active Cascadia subduction zone and strong partial coupling between these plates. Structures of the northeastern margin of the Eel River basin are principally north-northwest-trending, east-northeast-dipping thrust and reverse faults that form imbricate thrust fans. The Coastal belt fault, the early Tertiary accretionary suture between the Franciscan Central and Coastal belts, can be traced from Arcata Bay northward offshore to the southern Oregon border. It is tentatively extended farther northward based on aeromagnetic data to an offshore position west of Cape Blanco. Thereafter, it may coincide with the offshore Fulmar fault. The Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) does not join the Mendocino transform fault at the commonly depicted offshore location of the Mendocino triple junction (MTJ). Instead, the CSZ extends southeastward around the southern Eel River basin and shoreward along Mendocino Canyon to join the Petrolia shear zone. Similarly, the Mendocino fault may extend shoreward via Mattole Canyon and join the Cooskie shear zone. These two shear zones intersect onshore north of the King Range, and the area of their intersection is the probable location of the MTJ.

  2. 30,000 years of hydroclimatic variability in the coastal southwest United States: regional synthesis and forcings analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal southwest United States is characterized by a winter dominated hydroclimate. Far from dependable, this region's supply of winter precipitation is highly variable and often characterized by hydrologic opposites - droughts and floods. Predicting future precipitation and hydrologic dynamics requires a paleoperspective. Here, we present an up-to-date synthesis of hydroclimatic variability over the past 30,000 years. A variety of terrestrial-based studies are examined and compared to understand patterns of regional hydroclimatic change. This comparison is extended into the San Joaquin Basin of California where future climate change will impact the region's agricultural stability and economy. Particularly interesting is the apparent role that Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) play in modulating the region's hydroclimate over a variety of timescales. Are past periods of above average Pacific SSTs analogs for future global warming? If yes, the region might expect an increase in winter precipitation as SSTs rise in response to global warming. However, how this potential precipitation increase is manifest is unknown. For example, will the intensity of precipitation events increase and thus present increased flood hazards and diminished freshwater capture? Finally, we present evidence for changes in the source of winter precipitation over time as well as ecological responses to past hydrologic change.

  3. Estimation of Vulnerability of Coastal Regions Using the Central Pressure of Typhoon Based on Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimura, R.

    2014-12-01

    Typhoons strike the Kyushu Island in the west of Japan a few times a year. Damage of the maritime structures by storm surges and wind waves induced by typhoon frequently occurs in the western prefectures, for example, Kumamoto Prefecture. The coastline in this prefecture is complex. It faces open and closed seas. The coastline is divided into 4 coastal regions in this paper. Each coast has different topographical characteristics. Using data on the damage of maritime structures caused by typhoons during past 25 years from 1980 to 2004 and the path and central pressure of typhoons during past 110 years from 1902 to 2011, damage of 4 regions along the coast line of Kumamoto Prefecture in Japan for 13 groups of typhoon with different paths is estimated. All typhoons had passed through an area delineated by a latitude of 30° N and 35° N and at a longitude of 127° E and 132° E. The improved Central Pressure (iCP) Method can be used to estimate the damage of maritime structures that will occur along the coast before typhoon strikes. The improved Central Pressure Method is developed based on the 25 years from 1980 to 2004. The estimation of the damage is done using the central pressure of typhoon at a latitude of 30° N. To develop the central pressure method considering the influence of global warming, the data of the central pressure of typhoons based on the 100 years more term is needed. The trend of the depression of central pressure due to the global warming is discussed using the central pressure based on the 110 years term typhoon data. Furthermore, the risk of each coastal regions in a future is estimated using the increasing or decreasing value of central pressure which is determined on this period data.

  4. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability to flooding: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini, L.; Calabrese, L.; Salerno, G.; Ciavola, P.; Armaroli, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting and comparing two methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy, to evaluate coastal vulnerability and to produce hazard and risk maps for coastal floods, in the framework of the EU Floods Directive. The first approach was adopted before the directive had been issued. Three scenarios of damage were designed (1-, 10-, 100-year return periods), produced by the concurrent occurrence of a storm, high surge levels and high-water spring tidal levels. Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along 187 equally spaced profiles, and these were added to the tidal and atmospheric water level contributions. The result is a list of 10 vulnerability typologies. To satisfy the requirements of the directive, the Geological, Seismic and Soil Service (SGSS) recently implemented a different methodology that considers three scenarios (10-, 100- and > 100-year return periods) in terms of wave setup (not including run-up) plus the contribution of surge levels as well as the occurrence of high-water springs. The flooded area extension is determined by a series of computations that are part of a model built into ArcGIS®. The model uses as input a high-resolution lidar DEM that is then processed using a least-path cost analysis. Inundation maps are then overlapped with land use maps to produce risk maps. The qualitative validation and the comparison between the two methods are also presented, showing a positive agreement.

  5. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability to flooding: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini, L.; Calabrese, L.; Salerno, G.; Ciavola, P.; Armaroli, C.

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at presenting and comparing two methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region, northern Italy, to evaluate coastal vulnerability and to produce hazard and risk maps for coastal floods, in the framework of the EU Floods Directive. The first approach was adopted before the Directive had been issued. Three scenarios of damage were designed (1, 10, 100-year return periods), produced by the concurrent happening of a storm, high surge levels and high water spring tidal levels. Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along 187 equally spaced profiles and these were added to the tidal and atmospheric water level contributions. The result is a list of ten vulnerability typologies. To satisfy the requests of the Directive, the Geological, Seismic and Soil Service (SGSS) recently implement a different methodology that considers three scenarios (10, 100 and > 100-year return periods) in terms of set-up (not including run-up) plus the contribution of surge levels as well as the High Water Springs. The flooded area extension is determined by a series of computations that are part of a model built into ArcGIS®. The model uses as input a high resolution Lidar DEM that is then processed using the Cost-Distance tool of ArcGIS®. Inundation maps are then overlapped to land use maps to produce risk maps. The qualitative validation and the comparison between the two methods are also presented, showing a positive agreement.

  6. Biological validation of physical coastal waters classification along the NE Atlantic region based on rocky macroalgae distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Elvira; Puente, Araceli; Juanes, José Antonio; Neto, João M.; Pedersen, Are; Bartsch, Inka; Scanlan, Clare; Wilkes, Robert; Van den Bergh, Erika; Ar Gall, Erwan; Melo, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    A methodology to classify rocky shores along the North East Atlantic (NEA) region was developed. Previously, biotypes and the variability of environmental conditions within these were recognized based on abiotic data. A biological validation was required in order to support the ecological meaning of the physical typologies obtained. A database of intertidal macroalgae species occurring in the coastal area between Norway and the South Iberian Peninsula was generated. Semi-quantitative abundance data of the most representative macroalgal taxa were collected in three levels: common, rare or absent. Ordination and classification multivariate analyses revealed a clear latitudinal gradient in the distribution of macroalgae species resulting in two distinct groups: one northern and one southern group, separated at the coast of Brittany (France). In general, the results based on biological data coincided with the results based on physical characteristics. The ecological meaning of the coastal waters classification at a broad scale shown in this work demonstrates that it can be valuable as a practical tool for conservation and management purposes.

  7. Optimum contracted-for water supply for hotels in arid coastal regions.

    PubMed

    Lamei, A; von Münch, E; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water for their domestic water demands, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their domestic water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum requirement that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). This paper describes a model to determine what value a hotel should choose for its contracted-for water supply in order to minimize its total annual water costs. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.The managers of hotels with expected high occupancy rates (74% and above) can contract for more than 80%. On the other hand, hotels with expected lower occupancy rates (60% and less) can contract for less than 70% of the peak daily domestic water demand. With a green area ratio of 40 m(2)/room or less, an on-site wastewater treatment plant can satisfy the required irrigation demand for an occupancy rate as low as 42%. Increasing the ratio of green irrigated area to 100 m(2)/room does not affect the contracted-for water supply at occupancy rates above 72%; at lower occupancy rates, however, on-site treated wastewater is insufficient for irrigating the green areas. Increasing the green irrigated area to 120 m(2)/room increases the need for additional water, either from externally sourced treated wastewater or potable water. The cost of the former is much lower than the latter (0.58 versus 1.52 to 2.14 US$/m(3) in the case study area).

  8. Optimum contracted-for water supply for hotels in arid coastal regions.

    PubMed

    Lamei, A; von Münch, E; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water for their domestic water demands, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their domestic water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum requirement that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). This paper describes a model to determine what value a hotel should choose for its contracted-for water supply in order to minimize its total annual water costs. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.The managers of hotels with expected high occupancy rates (74% and above) can contract for more than 80%. On the other hand, hotels with expected lower occupancy rates (60% and less) can contract for less than 70% of the peak daily domestic water demand. With a green area ratio of 40 m(2)/room or less, an on-site wastewater treatment plant can satisfy the required irrigation demand for an occupancy rate as low as 42%. Increasing the ratio of green irrigated area to 100 m(2)/room does not affect the contracted-for water supply at occupancy rates above 72%; at lower occupancy rates, however, on-site treated wastewater is insufficient for irrigating the green areas. Increasing the green irrigated area to 120 m(2)/room increases the need for additional water, either from externally sourced treated wastewater or potable water. The cost of the former is much lower than the latter (0.58 versus 1.52 to 2.14 US$/m(3) in the case study area). PMID:19403967

  9. Combining operational models and data into a dynamic vessel risk assessment tool for coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, R.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Neves, R.

    2015-07-01

    The technological evolution in terms of computational capacity, data acquisition systems, numerical modelling and operational oceanography is supplying opportunities for designing and building holistic approaches and complex tools for newer and more efficient management (planning, prevention and response) of coastal water pollution risk events. A combined methodology to dynamically estimate time and space variable shoreline risk levels from ships has been developed, integrating numerical metocean forecasts and oil spill simulations with vessel tracking automatic identification systems (AIS). The risk rating combines the likelihood of an oil spill occurring from a vessel navigating in a study area - Portuguese Continental shelf - with the assessed consequences to the shoreline. The spill likelihood is based on dynamic marine weather conditions and statistical information from previous accidents. The shoreline consequences reflect the virtual spilled oil amount reaching shoreline and its environmental and socio-economic vulnerabilities. The oil reaching shoreline is quantified with an oil spill fate and behaviour model running multiple virtual spills from vessels along time. Shoreline risks can be computed in real-time or from previously obtained data. Results show the ability of the proposed methodology to estimate the risk properly sensitive to dynamic metocean conditions and to oil transport behaviour. The integration of meteo-oceanic + oil spill models with coastal vulnerability and AIS data in the quantification of risk enhances the maritime situational awareness and the decision support model, providing a more realistic approach in the assessment of shoreline impacts. The risk assessment from historical data can help finding typical risk patterns, "hot spots" or developing sensitivity analysis to specific conditions, whereas real time risk levels can be used in the prioritization of individual ships, geographical areas, strategic tug positioning and

  10. Combining operational models and data into a dynamic vessel risk assessment tool for coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, R.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Neves, R.

    2016-02-01

    The technological evolution in terms of computational capacity, data acquisition systems, numerical modelling and operational oceanography is supplying opportunities for designing and building holistic approaches and complex tools for newer and more efficient management (planning, prevention and response) of coastal water pollution risk events. A combined methodology to dynamically estimate time and space variable individual vessel accident risk levels and shoreline contamination risk from ships has been developed, integrating numerical metocean forecasts and oil spill simulations with vessel tracking automatic identification systems (AIS). The risk rating combines the likelihood of an oil spill occurring from a vessel navigating in a study area - the Portuguese continental shelf - with the assessed consequences to the shoreline. The spill likelihood is based on dynamic marine weather conditions and statistical information from previous accidents. The shoreline consequences reflect the virtual spilled oil amount reaching shoreline and its environmental and socio-economic vulnerabilities. The oil reaching shoreline is quantified with an oil spill fate and behaviour model running multiple virtual spills from vessels along time, or as an alternative, a correction factor based on vessel distance from coast. Shoreline risks can be computed in real time or from previously obtained data. Results show the ability of the proposed methodology to estimate the risk properly sensitive to dynamic metocean conditions and to oil transport behaviour. The integration of meteo-oceanic + oil spill models with coastal vulnerability and AIS data in the quantification of risk enhances the maritime situational awareness and the decision support model, providing a more realistic approach in the assessment of shoreline impacts. The risk assessment from historical data can help finding typical risk patterns ("hot spots") or developing sensitivity analysis to specific conditions, whereas real

  11. An evaluation of ocean color model estimates of marine primary productivity in coastal and pelagic regions across the globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, V. S.; Friedrichs, M. A. M.; Antoine, D.; Armstrong, R. A.; Asanuma, I.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Ciotti, A. M.; Dowell, M.; Hoepffner, N.; Hyde, K. J. W.; Ishizaka, J.; Kameda, T.; Marra, J.; Mélin, F.; Morel, A.; O'Reilly, J.; Scardi, M.; Smith, W. O., Jr.; Smyth, T. J.; Tang, S.; Uitz, J.; Waters, K.; Westberry, T. K.

    2011-02-01

    Nearly half of the earth's photosynthetically fixed carbon derives from the oceans. To determine global and region specific rates, we rely on models that estimate marine net primary productivity (NPP) thus it is essential that these models are evaluated to determine their accuracy. Here we assessed the skill of 21 ocean color models by comparing their estimates of depth-integrated NPP to 1156 in situ 14C measurements encompassing ten marine regions including the Sargasso Sea, pelagic North Atlantic, coastal Northeast Atlantic, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Arabian Sea, subtropical North Pacific, Ross Sea, West Antarctic Peninsula, and the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone. Average model skill, as determined by root-mean square difference calculations, was lowest in the Black and Mediterranean Seas, highest in the pelagic North Atlantic and the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone, and intermediate in the other six regions. The maximum fraction of model skill that may be attributable to uncertainties in both the input variables and in situ NPP measurements was nearly 72%. On average, the simplest depth/wavelength integrated models performed no worse than the more complex depth/wavelength resolved models. Ocean color models were not highly challenged in extreme conditions of surface chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature, nor in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters. Water column depth was the primary influence on ocean color model performance such that average skill was significantly higher at depths greater than 250 m, suggesting that ocean color models are more challenged in Case-2 waters (coastal) than in Case-1 (pelagic) waters. Given that in situ chlorophyll-a data was used as input data, algorithm improvement is required to eliminate the poor performance of ocean color NPP models in Case-2 waters that are close to coastlines. Finally, ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms are challenged by optically complex Case-2 waters, thus using satellite-derived chlorophyll-a to

  12. Advanced Regional and Decadal Predictions of Coastal Inundation for the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B.; Corbett, D. R.; Donnelly, J. P.; Kemp, A.; Lin, N.; Lindeman, K.; Mann, M. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Rahmstorf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Future inundation of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts will depend upon sea-level rise and the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones, each of which will be affected by climate change. Through ongoing, collaborative research we are employing new interdisciplinary approaches to bring about a step change in the reliability of predictions of such inundation. The rate of sea level rise along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts increased throughout the 20th century. Whilst there is widespread agreement that it continue to accelerate during the 21st century, great uncertainty surrounds its magnitude and geographic variability. Key uncertainties include the role of continental ice sheets, mountain glaciers, and ocean density changes. Insufficient understanding of these complex physical processes precludes accurate prediction of sea-level rise. New approaches using semi-empirical models that relate instrumental records of climate and sea-level rise have projected up to 2 m of sea-level rise by AD 2100. But the time span of instrumental sea-level records is insufficient to adequately constrain the climate:sea-level relationship. We produced new, high-resolution proxy sea-level reconstructions to provide crucial additional constraints to such semi-empirical models. Our dataset spans the alternation between the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' and 'Little Ice Age'. Before the models can provide appropriate data for coastal management and planning, they must be complemented with regional estimates of sea-level rise. Therefore, the proxy sea-level data has been collected from four study areas (Connecticut, New Jersey, North Carolina and Florida) to accommodate the required extent of regional variability. In the case of inundation arising from tropical cyclones, the historical and observational records are insufficient for predicting their nature and recurrence, because they are such extreme and rare events. Moreover, future storm surges will be superimposed on background sea

  13. The ecology of riparian habitats of the southern California coastal region: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, P.M.; Keller, E.; Sands, A.; Massey, B.M. , Mill Valley, CA; Keller , Santa Barbara, CA; Sands , Mill Valley, CA; Massey , Long Beach, CA )

    1989-09-01

    In the 200 years since California's settlement by Europeans, almost every river in southern California has been channelized or dammed to allow development on the floodplains, causing the loss of a highly productive ecosystem. The riparian zone occurs along streambanks where soils are fertile and water is abundant; amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals all move back and forth across the riparian zone from streams into adjacent wetland and upland areas. Irreversible alterations of the riparian ecosystem result from the diversion or loss of transported water to the system through diking, damming, channelization, levee building, or road construction. Clearing for crops, grazing, or golf courses is potentially reversible as long as the water supply remains unaltered. Successful restoration work requires early agreement on project goals, site-specific restoration design, correct project implementation, enforcement of permit conditions, a maintenance and management program, and long-range monitoring. 288 refs., 54 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Ants of three adjacent habitats of a transition region between the cerrado and caatinga biomes: the effects of heterogeneity and variation in canopy cover.

    PubMed

    Neves, F S; Queiroz-Dantas, K S; da Rocha, W D; Delabie, J H C

    2013-06-01

    Habitat heterogeneity and complexity associated with variations in climatic conditions are important factors determining the structure of ant communities in different terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to describe the horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of the ant community associated with three adjacent habitats in a transition area between the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes at the Pandeiros River, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the richness and composition of ant species and functional group structure changes between different habitats and strata; (2) habitats with higher tree species richness and density support higher ant species richness; and (3) habitats with lower variation in canopy cover support higher ant species richness. Sampling was conducted in three adjacent habitats and at three vertical strata. Ant species richness was significantly different among vertical strata. Ant species composition was different among both habitats and vertical strata and functional group structure was divergent among habitats. Partitioning of the diversity revealed that the diversity for the three components was statistically different from the one expected by the null model; α and β 2 were higher and β 1 was lower than the values expected by chance. Tree density and variation in canopy cover negatively affected ant species richness. The occurrence of different species and the changing of functional group structures in different habitats and strata suggest an ecological-evolutionary relationship between ants and their habitats and emphasize the need to implement local conservation strategies in the ecotones between biomes.

  15. Distribution and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in marine organisms in east and west Guangdong coastal regions, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Shi, Zhen; Jiang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jingping; Wang, Fei; Huang, Xiaoping

    2015-12-30

    Heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, As) concentrations, distribution and bioaccumulation were studied in marine organisms in Guangdong coastal regions. Heavy metal concentrations and distribution in organisms showed characteristics according to areas and species. Heavy metal concentrations in most organisms were higher in west than in east, tightly related to the local industry structure and the disequilibrium of metal discharge. Generally, high heavy metal concentrations were detected in molluscs and low concentrations were detected in fish. Bioaccumulation factor was used to assess the accumulation level of marine organisms to heavy metals, of which Cd, Cu and As were the most accumulated elements. Accumulation abilities to heavy metals varied among organism species, such as Distorsio reticulate accumulating Cu, Zn, Cd, As, Loligo beka Sasaki accumulating Pb, Cu, Cr, and Turritella bacillum Kiener accumulating Zn, Cd, As. By comparison, Johnius belengeri, Argyrosomus argentatus, Cynoglossus sinicus Wu had relatively low accumulation abilities.

  16. Meteo-marine parameters for highly variable environment in coastal regions from satellite radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleskachevsky, A. L.; Rosenthal, W.; Lehner, S.

    2016-09-01

    The German Bight of the North Sea is the area with highly variable sea state conditions, intensive ship traffic and with a high density of offshore installations, e.g. wind farms in use and under construction. Ship navigation and the docking on offshore constructions is impeded by significant wave heights HS > 1.3 m. For these reasons, improvements are required in recognition and forecasting of sea state HS in the range 0-3 m. Thus, this necessitates the development of new methods to determine the distribution of meteo-marine parameters from remote sensing data with an accuracy of decimetres for HS. The operationalization of these methods then allows the robust automatic processing in near real time (NRT) to support forecast agencies by providing validations for model results. A new empirical algorithm XWAVE_C (C = coastal) for estimation of significant wave height from X-band satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has been developed, adopted for coastal applications using TerraSAR-X (TS-X) and Tandem-X (TD-X) satellites in the German Bight and implemented into the Sea Sate Processor (SSP) for fully automatic processing for NRT services. The algorithm is based on the spectral analysis of subscenes and the model function uses integrated image spectra parameters as well as local wind information from the analyzed subscene. The algorithm is able to recognize and remove the influence of non-sea state produced signals in the Wadden Sea areas such as dry sandbars as well as nonlinear SAR image distortions produced by e.g. short wind waves and breaking waves. Also parameters of very short waves, which are not visible in SAR images and produce only unsystematic clutter, can be accurately estimated. The SSP includes XWAVE_C, a pre-filtering procedure for removing artefacts such as ships, seamarks, buoys, offshore constructions and slicks, and an additional procedure performing a check of results based on the statistics of the whole scene. The SSP allows an

  17. Is Vibrio fluvialis emerging as a pathogen with epidemic potential in coastal region of eastern India following cyclone Aila?

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Subhajit; Bhattacharjee, Sayantani; Bal, Baishali; Pal, Reshmi; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Sarkar, Kamalesh

    2010-08-01

    An isolated area with diarrhoea epidemic was explored at Pakhirala village of the Sundarbans, a coastal region of South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, eastern India. The Pakhirala village was surrounded by other villages affected by a similar epidemic. The affected villages experienced this epidemic following the cyclone Aila, which had hit the coastal region of the Sundarbans in eastern India. In Pakhirala, the situation was the worst. Within a span of six weeks (5 June-20 July 2009), 3,529 (91.2%) of 3,871 residents were affected by watery diarrhoea. Of all the cases (n = 3,529), 918 (26%) were affected by moderate to severe diarrhoea. In other villages, 28,550 (70%) of the 40,786 people were affected; of them, 3,997 (14%) had moderate to severe watery diarrhoea. The attack rate and the severity of the cases were significantly higher in Pakhirala village compared to other affected villages. The laboratory results revealed that Vibrio fluvialis was the predominant pathogen in Pakhirala village (5 of 6 laboratory-confirmed organisms) whereas Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa was the predominant pathogen in other villages of Gosaba block (7 of 9 bacteriologically-confirmed organisms). This result indicates that V fluvialis behaves more aggressively than V cholerae O1 in an epidemic situation with a higher attack rate and a different clinical picture. An in-depth study is required to explore its pathogenicity in detail, geographical distribution, and possible control measures, including development of specific vaccine preparation and determination of its efficacy.

  18. Natural and Human Influences on Water Quality in a Shallow Regional Unconsolidated Aquifer, Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    Data collected from more than 400 wells in the surficial unconfined aquifer in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (New York through North Carolina) were compiled and analyzed to improve understanding of multiple natural and human influences on water quality in such shallow regional aquifers. Geochemical patterns were identified and described through principal components analysis on major ions, and correlation and logistic regression were used to relate observed concentrations of nitrate and selected pesticide compounds (atrazine, metolachlor, simazine, and deethylatrazine, an atrazine degradate) and volatile organic compounds (chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachlorethene, and methyl tert-butyl ether) to likely influences, such as observed geochemical patterns, land use, hydrogeology, and soils. Variability in major-ion concentrations is primarily related to ionic strength and redox condition. Concentrations of nitrate, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are related to natural conditions, as well as the distribution of likely sources reflected in land use. Nitrate is most common in aerobic ground water and in relatively well-drained areas, for example; concentrations greater than 0.4 milligrams per liter may result from a variety of human activities, although concentrations greater than 3 milligrams per liter are more likely in agricultural areas. Atrazine, deethylatrazine, and metolachlor also are related to geochemical patterns, likely because ground-water geochemistry reflects hydrogeologic and soil conditions affecting pesticide transport to the water table. Results demonstrate the value of geochemical information along with the distribution of sources and other influences to understanding the regional occurrence of selected compounds in ground water. Such influences are not unique to the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, and thus observations and interpretations are relevant to broader areas.

  19. Levels and profiles of persistent organic pollutants in resident and migratory birds from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang Hee; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Ha, Sung Yong; Jang, Mi; Rani, Manviri; Hong, Sunwook; Yeo, Gwang Yeong

    2014-02-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels in resident and migratory birds collected from an urbanized coastal region of South Korea were investigated. As target species, resident birds that reside in different habitats-such as inland and coastal regions-were selected and their POP contamination status and accumulation features evaluated. Additionally, winter and summer migratory species were analysed for comparison with resident birds. Black-tailed gull and domestic pigeon were selected as the coastal and inland resident birds, respectively, and pacific loon and heron/egret were selected as the winter and summer migratory birds, respectively. The overall POP concentrations (unit: ng/g lipid) in resident birds were 14-131,000 (median: 13,400) for PCBs, 40-284,000 (11,200) for DDTs, <1.0-2850 (275) for CHLs, 23-2020 (406) for HCHs, 2-1520 (261) for HCB, <0.2-48 (5) for pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), 71-7120 (1840) for PBDEs, and <1.8-2300 (408) for HBCDs. In resident birds, the overall level of POPs was higher in seagull compared to pigeon. The stable isotope ratio of nitrogen and carbon indicates that seagull occupies a higher trophic position in the environment than pigeon. However, the POP accumulation profiles in these species differed. Pigeon tends to accumulate more recently used POPs such as PBDEs than seagull. The high-brominated BDE congeners, γ-HBCDs and γ-HCH (also called lindane) were enriched in pigeon compared to seagull, implying the widespread use of Deca-BDE, technical HBCDs, and lindane in the terrestrial environment of South Korea. The different accumulation profile of POPs in both resident species would be related to their habitat difference and trophic positions. For urban resident bird such as pigeon, an intentional intake of dust or soils during feeding is likely to be an additional route of exposure to POPs. Resident birds generally accumulated higher POPs concentrations than migratory birds, the exceptions being relatively volatile compounds

  20. [Community composition of phytoplankton in Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling region in summer and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Lin, Mao; Lin, Geng-Ming; Xiang, Peng

    2011-02-01

    Based on the investigation data of 133 samples from 30 grid stations in the Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling region (21.6 degrees - 24.3 degrees N,115.7 degrees -118.7 degrees E) in 11-16 June 2009, this paper studied the phytoplankton species composition and cell abundance in the region in three dimensions (vertical, horizontal, and sectional), and approached their relations with major environmental factors. A total of 159 taxa belonging to 85 genera of 4 phyla were identified, among which, diatom was predominant, followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanophyceae mainly composed of Trichodesmium also occupied a greater proportion, but Chrysophyceae was only checked out in the upper 10 m water layer at coastal stations. The dominant species were Rhizosolenia alata f. gracillma, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudonitzschia pungens, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Paralia sulcata, Guinadia striata, Trichodesmium thiebautii, Ceratium fusus, and Gyrodinium spirale. Most of the phytoplankton taxa were cosmopolitan species, followed by warm-water species, while tropic high-salinity or oceanic eurythermal species were lesser. The cell abundance of the phytoplankton was average of 67.59 x10(2) ind x L(-1). In vertical profile, the cell abundance of the phytoplankton was the highest in surface water, and decreased with water depth. In horizontal and sectional profiles, the cell abundance had no definite patterns, but the high abundance region was in Nanao Island water area, being anastomosed with the center of upwelling region, which indicated that the weak and small intensity of deep-sea water upwelling caused lesser phytoplankton cell abundance and superposition. The comparatively high phytoplankton cell abundance in the four sections (B, C, D, E) along Nanao-Zhangpu was resulted from the upwelling from Taiwan Bank. The phytoplankton cell abundance had a significant positive correlation with the PO4(3-) concentration in the upper 10 m water layer, but no

  1. [Community composition of phytoplankton in Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling region in summer and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Lin, Mao; Lin, Geng-Ming; Xiang, Peng

    2011-02-01

    Based on the investigation data of 133 samples from 30 grid stations in the Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling region (21.6 degrees - 24.3 degrees N,115.7 degrees -118.7 degrees E) in 11-16 June 2009, this paper studied the phytoplankton species composition and cell abundance in the region in three dimensions (vertical, horizontal, and sectional), and approached their relations with major environmental factors. A total of 159 taxa belonging to 85 genera of 4 phyla were identified, among which, diatom was predominant, followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanophyceae mainly composed of Trichodesmium also occupied a greater proportion, but Chrysophyceae was only checked out in the upper 10 m water layer at coastal stations. The dominant species were Rhizosolenia alata f. gracillma, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudonitzschia pungens, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Paralia sulcata, Guinadia striata, Trichodesmium thiebautii, Ceratium fusus, and Gyrodinium spirale. Most of the phytoplankton taxa were cosmopolitan species, followed by warm-water species, while tropic high-salinity or oceanic eurythermal species were lesser. The cell abundance of the phytoplankton was average of 67.59 x10(2) ind x L(-1). In vertical profile, the cell abundance of the phytoplankton was the highest in surface water, and decreased with water depth. In horizontal and sectional profiles, the cell abundance had no definite patterns, but the high abundance region was in Nanao Island water area, being anastomosed with the center of upwelling region, which indicated that the weak and small intensity of deep-sea water upwelling caused lesser phytoplankton cell abundance and superposition. The comparatively high phytoplankton cell abundance in the four sections (B, C, D, E) along Nanao-Zhangpu was resulted from the upwelling from Taiwan Bank. The phytoplankton cell abundance had a significant positive correlation with the PO4(3-) concentration in the upper 10 m water layer, but no

  2. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in coastal plain rivers.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul M; Journey, Celeste A; Chapelle, Francis H; Lowery, Mark A; Conrads, Paul A

    2010-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  3. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in Coastal Plain rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  4. International workshop: Planning for climate change through integrated coastal management. Volume 2: Country and regional reports

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This workshop included reports from the following countries: Argentina; Bulgaria; Egypt; Estonia; Fiji; Indonesia; Mozambique; Nigeria; Oman; The Philippines; Senegal; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Thailand; and Tuvalu; Regional reports were included on the following: Small Island Developing States of the Pacific; South Pacific Regional Environment Program; and Sea Level Rise Impacts on Central America.

  5. Atlantic Flyway Review: Piedmont?Coastal Plain, Region IV, Fall 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dawson, D.K.

    2002-01-01

    Ten banding stations, six inland, four coastal, monitored the fall songbird migration from Maryland to Florida. Comparing the eight stations that were operated in both 2000 and 2001, net-hours of effort declined 5.3% from 60,649 to 57,405, but birds per 100 net-hours increased from 40.1 to 46.6. Myrtle Warblers were especially abundant this year, while numbers of catbirds declined. At my Laurel station, I compared my fall catch for the first five years (1973-77) with that for the past five years (1997-2001) and found the totals nearly identical (2175 and 2169), but it took nearly three times the number of net-hours to achieve the same total in the current period. A migrating Gray-cheeked Thrush, in spite of being captured 10 times in 17 days, increased its weight from 31.0 g to a record 51.7 g in 13 days.

  6. Seasonality in planktic foraminifera of the central California coastal upwelling region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Catherine V.; Hill, Tessa M.; Russell, Ann D.; Gaylord, Brian; Jahncke, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    The close association between planktic foraminiferal assemblages and local hydrography make foraminifera invaluable proxies for environmental conditions. Modern foraminiferal seasonality is important for interpreting fossil distributions and shell geochemistry as paleoclimate proxies. Understanding this seasonality in an active upwelling area is also critical for anticipating which species may be vulnerable to future changes in upwelling intensity and ocean acidification. Two years (2012-2014) of plankton tows, along with conductivity-temperature-depth profiles and carbonate chemistry measurements taken along the north-central California shelf, offer new insights into the seasonal dynamics of planktic foraminifera in a seasonal coastal upwelling regime. This study finds an upwelling affinity for Neogloboquadrina pachyderma as well as a seasonal and upwelling associated alternation between dominance of N. pachyderma and Neogloboquadrina incompta, consistent with previous observations. Globigerina bulloides, however, shows a strong affinity for non-upwelled waters, in contrast to findings in Southern California where the species is often associated with upwelling. We also find an apparent lunar periodicity in the abundances of all species and document the presence of foraminifera even at very low saturation states of calcite.

  7. Plan of study for the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Regional Aquifer System Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meisler, Harold

    1980-01-01

    Sediments of Cretaceous to Holocene age compose the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system in an area of 50,000 square miles in parts of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. The aquifer system is a major source of water supply in the area. About 1.4 billion gallons is withdrawn from its aquifers each day. Increasing withdrawal of ground water has created or intensified several problems such as declining water levels, development of large cones of depression, saltwater intrusion, spreading of ground-water contamination, and land subsidence. The U.S. Geological Survey has begun a comprehensive study that will define the geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the aquifer system. The effects of future utilization of the aquifer system will be determined and alternative plans for water withdrawal will be evaluated through computer simulation modeling. This report describes the objectives, organization, and work plans of the study, and describes the work to be accomplished in each U.S. Geological Survey District of the study area.

  8. Composition and interannual variability of phytoplankton in a coastal upwelling region (Lisbon Bay, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A.; Palma, S.; Oliveira, P. B.; Moita, M. T.

    2009-11-01

    From July 2001 to May 2005, at a fixed station located in Lisbon Bay (Cascais: 38° 41' N, 09° 24' W), surface seawater samples were collected on a weekly basis. We aimed to describe at different temporal scales, short-term to interannual, the phytoplankton community in relation to hydrographic conditions. Maxima of the main phytoplankton groups varied according to the seasonality of upwelling/downwelling cycles and nutrient availability and were associated with particular hydrological mesoscale structures highlighted by satellite images. Short succession cycles were identified dependent on coastal upwelling events. Intermittent and weak pulses allowed the coexistence of species from different succession stages and groups, although having consecutive maxima. The interannual differences observed in the phytoplankton community, in Lisbon Bay, varied according to both the duration and strength of the upwelling events and to precipitation and Tagus river flow regimes. Diatoms developed and were dominant, during spring-summer under prevailing upwelling conditions and silicon availability. Short upwelling pulses appeared to be unfavourable for diatoms maintenance. When upwelling weakened and SST increased due to onshore advection of warmer waters, coccolithophores dominated. This assemblage was the second most abundant during the study, in particular during the short transition period from upwelling (summer) to downwelling seasons (autumn) distributing in the largest range of hydrographical conditions between diatoms (maximum turbulence) during early spring and dinoflagellates (maximum stratification) during summer to further dominate during autumn and winter. Nitrites and nitrates seemed to favour greater developments of this group. Dinoflagellates peaked mainly during summer and were the less abundant through the four years due to the decrease of lasting convergence periods. Like coccolithophores, a preference for warmer waters emerged but this group seemed to have a

  9. Pre- analysis assessment of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) products in the region of Malaysian coastal water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, M. A. H.; Omar, K. M.; Din, A. H. M.; Reba, M. N. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the pre-analysis of validation between the acquisition satellite data and in situ data. To carry out this assessment, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data are acquired to be regressed with SST In situ. With the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite with a sensor on the Terra spacecraft, data sets of the global distribution of sea surface temperature are retrieved, and need to be validated and analyzed. Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS) also has an archived data of Optimal Interpolation SST (OISST) that can be retrieved based on satellite track of altimeter. The aim of this paper is to present intercomparison study between pixel based (MODIS SST) and point based (RADS SST). The value of root mean square error (rmse) is computed to see the performance of the data product. It is an assessment and evaluation to see the performance for both data. The objective of this paper is to evaluate Malaysian coastal area through validation with in situ data. To achieve the objective, we perform pre-analysis study of the MODIS products and RADS SST to see the performance of both data in terms of spatial value during seasonal changes. However, the scope of this analysis covers only on the spatial MODIS pixel value and the OISST point value during the southwest monsoon daytime. From the result, RADS SST/RADS show higher root mean square error (rmse) at 0.731/0.677 (before calibration) and 0.6951/0.476 (after calibration). From the rmse result, we could deduce that the RADS SST has random error arising from the fact that the interpolated points are based on the track.

  10. Random error analysis of marine xCO2 measurements in a coastal upwelling region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Janet J.; Cueva, Alejandro; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Lara-Lara, Ruben; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying and identifying measurement error is an ongoing challenge for carbon cycle science to constrain measurable uncertainty related to the sources and sinks of CO2. One source of uncertainty in measurements is derived from random errors (ε); thus, it is important to quantify their magnitude and their relationship to environmental variability in order to constrain local-to-global carbon budgets. We applied a paired-observation method to determine ε associated with marine xCO2 in a coastal upwelling zone of an eastern boundary current. Continuous data (3-h resolution) from a mooring platform during upwelling and non-upwelling seasons was analyzed off of northern Baja California in the California Current. To test the rigor of the algorithm to calculate ε we propose a method for determining daily mean time series values that may be affected by ε. To do this we used either two or three variables in the function, but no significant differences for ε mean values were found due to the large variability in ε (-0.088 ± 27 ppm for two variables and -0.057 ± 28 ppm for three variables). Mean ε values were centered on zero, with low values of ε more frequent than greater values, and follow a double exponential distribution. Random error variability increased with higher magnitudes of xCO2, and in general, ε variability increased in relation to upwelling conditions (up to ∼9% of measurements). Increased ε during upwelling suggests the importance of meso-scale processes on ε variability and could have a large influence seasonal to annual CO2 estimates. This approach could be extended and modified to other marine carbonate system variables as part of data quality assurance/quality control and to quantify uncertainty (due to ε) from a wide variety of continuous oceanographic monitoring platforms.

  11. Mean circulation in the coastal ocean off northeastern North America from a regional-scale ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; He, R.

    2015-07-01

    A regional-scale ocean model was used to hindcast the coastal circulation over the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and Gulf of Maine (GOM) from 2004 to 2013. The model was nested inside a data assimilative global ocean model that provided initial and open boundary conditions. Realistic atmospheric forcing, tides and observed river runoff were also used to drive the model. Hindcast solutions were compared against observations, which included coastal sea levels, satellite altimetry sea surface height, in situ temperature and salinity measurements in the GOM, and observed mean depth-averaged velocities. Good agreements with observations suggest that the hindcast model is capable of capturing the major circulation variability in the MAB and GOM. Time- and space-continuous hindcast fields were used to depict the mean circulation, along- and cross-shelf transport and the associated momentum balances. The hindcast confirms the presence of the equatorward mean shelf circulation, which varies from 2.33 Sv over the Scotian Shelf to 0.22 Sv near Cape Hatteras. Using the 200 m isobath as the shelf/slope boundary, the mean cross-shelf transport calculations indicate that the shelfbreak segments off the Gulf of Maine (including the southern flank of Georges Bank and the Northeast Channel) and Cape Hatteras are the major sites for shelf water export. The momentum analysis reveals that the along-shelf sea level difference from Nova Scotia to Cape Hatteras is about 0.36 m. The nonlinear advection, stress, and horizontal viscosity terms all contribute to the ageostrophic circulation in the along-isobath direction, whereas the nonlinear advection plays a dominant role in determining the ageostrophic current in the cross-isobath direction.

  12. Mean circulation in the coastal ocean off northeastern North America from a regional-scale ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; He, R.

    2014-12-01

    A regional-scale ocean model was used to hindcast the coastal circulation over the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and Gulf of Maine (GOM) from 2004 to 2013. The model was nested inside a data assimilative global ocean model that provided initial and open boundary conditions. Realistic atmospheric forcing, tides and observed river runoff were also used to drive the model. Hindcast solutions were compared against observations, which included coastal sea levels, satellite altimetry sea surface height, temperature and salinity time series in the GOM, glider transects in the MAB, and observed mean depth-averaged velocities by Lentz (2008a). Good agreements with observations suggest that the hindcast model is capable of capturing the major circulation variability in the MAB and GOM. Time- and space-continuous hindcast fields were used to depict the mean circulation, along- and cross-shelf transport and the associated momentum balances. The hindcast confirms the presence of the equatorward mean shelf circulation, which varies from 2.33 Sv at Scotian Shelf to 0.22 Sv near Cape Hatteras. Using the 200 m isobath as the shelf/slope boundary, the mean cross-shelf transport calculations indicate that the shelfbreak segments off the Gulf of Maine (including the southern flank of Georges Bank and the Northeast Channel) and Cape Hatteras are the major sites for shelf water export. The momentum analysis reveals that the along-shelf sea level difference from Nova Scotia to Cape Hatteras is about 0.36 m. The nonlinear advection, stress, and horizontal viscosity terms all contribute to the ageostrophic circulation in the along-isobath direction, whereas the nonlinear advection plays a dominant role in determining the ageostrophic current in the cross-isobath direction.

  13. Coastal Ecosystems of Latin America and the Caribbean. Objectives, Priorities and Activities of Unesco's COMAR Project for the Latin American and Caribbean Region, Caracas, Venezuela, 15-19 November 1982. Unesco Reports in Marine Science 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    To further the knowledge of the resources of coastal ecosystems and the general lines along which they function, Unesco implemented a "Major Interregional Project on Research and Training Leading to the Integrated Management of Coastal Systems" (COMAR). In addition, a proposed regional cooperative program called the "Regional Project for Research…

  14. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region Kasatochi Volcano Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGange, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Alaska is noteworthy as a region of frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The region contains 52 historically active volcanoes, 14 of which have had at least one major eruptive event since 1990. Despite the high frequency of volcanic activity in Alaska, comprehensive studies of how ecosystems respond to volcanic eruptions are non-existent. On August 7, 2008, Kasatochi Volcano, in the central Aleutian Islands, erupted catastrophically, covering the island with ash and hot pyroclastic flow material. Kasatochi Island was an annual monitoring site of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge (AMNWR); therefore, features of the terrestrial and nearshore ecosystems of the island were well known. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), AMNWR, and University of Alaska Fairbanks began long-term studies to better understand the effects of the eruption and the role of volcanism in structuring ecosystems in the Aleutian Islands, a volcano-dominated region with high natural resource values.

  15. Predicting the distribution of Upper Cretaceous aquifers using sea-level analysis and regional paleogeography, Alabama coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.T. Jr.; Skotnicki, M.C. )

    1991-03-01

    In the inner coastal plain of Alabama, Upper Cretaceous (i.e., Santonian-Maastrichtian) stratigraphic units containing key aquifers dip south at 7m/km; the aquifers consist mainly of porous and permeable barrier-island facies (including upper-shoreface and tidal-pass sands), barrier-related sand facies (including tidal deltas and lagoonal and marine tempestite beds), and shallow-marine sand facies (including offshore bars and conglomerate sandy turbidite tongues). Confining aquitard and aquiclude facies include lagoonal silty clays, shallow-marine glauconitic clays, clayey marls, and marine chalky marls. The gross geometry, thickness, and lateral and vertical distribution of aquifer sands in both the shallow-subsurface and outcrop (i.e., recharge) area is predictable based on regional paleogeographic reconstructions and the regional Late Cretaceous relative sea-level curve. At a local scale, facies maps and shallow-subsurface correlations provide essential data for aquifer exploration and recharge-area protection. For example, in the Eutaw Formation, barrier-island and barrier-related facies developed along a curved east-west striking shoreline; aquifers include shoreline facies, tempestite beds, and turbidite sands. In the younger, northwest-striking Blufftown-Cusseta and Ripley-Providence systems, aquifers are barrier-island and barrier-related (especially tidal-delta) facies.

  16. Distribution of polycyclic musks in surface sediments from the Pearl River Delta and Macao Coastal Region, South china.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiangying; Mai, Bixian; Sheng, Guoying; Luo, Xiaojun; Shao, Wenlan; An, Taicheng; Fu, Jiamo

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic musks were measured in surface sediments collected from the Pearl River Delta and Macao coastal region, South China, to investigate contamination from domestic sewage. Three polycyclic musk compounds-4-acetyl-1,1-dimethyl-6-tert-butylindan, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta(g)-2-benzopyran (HHCB), and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN)-were detected in sediment samples. Two polycyclic musks, HHCB and AHTN, were dominant components in sediment, consistent with the use pattern of polycyclic musks by perfume industries in the Pearl River Delta region. The concentrations of total polycyclic musks ranged from 5.76 to 167 microg/kg. Because of the large amount of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater discharged from the city of Guangzhou, the highest concentration of polycyclic musks was found in sediments from the Zhujiang River. The significant positive correlation between the HHCB to AHTN ratios and the concentrations of polycyclic musks suggested that the HHCB to AHTN ratio could be used as a tracer for source discrimination and for the degree of degradation in the environment.

  17. Concomitant flow and space variations of evapotranspiration due to changes in LUCC under seawater intrusion in a coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai; Cao, Xiaoming; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2013-09-01

    This paper provides a coherent pattern identification analysis of coastal land use and land cover (LULC) under the impact of seawater intrusion. This study analysis applied the 4-, 3-, and 2-band false color composite Landsat satellite data to characterize the LULC in the study area. The evapotranspiration (ET) and heat fluxes were estimated by using the SEBAL model with two-time phase thermal infrared band images and regional surface parameters. Our findings are as follows: 1) Due to its distance from the sea, the vegetation index gradually increases as the level of land use gradually increased. 2) The different influences of seawater intrusion in the study area resulted in significantly different influences of land surface parameters (LST, Gn, MSAVI, and Uindex) on ET. There are a variety of types of relational patterns between parameters (LST, Gn, MSAVI and Uindex) and ET (positive, negative, and no relationship). 3) Seawater intrusion significantly affected the spatial pattern of LUCC, which evidently affected the spatial distribution of ET. The spatial distribution pattern and change characteristics of ET were formed by double driving forces of seawater intrusion and LUCC under the background effects of regional climate.

  18. INTEGRATION OF COASTAL ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS FOR THE U.S. MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAlA) Project began in 1994 as a partnership between USEPA's Region III Office and Office of Research and Development. This multi-year initiative was envisioned to: (1) improve the quality of environmental science and promote the use of sou...

  19. Monitoring habitat restoration projects: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Pacific Region Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program and Coastal Program Protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Hollar, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Pacific Region (Region 1) includes more than 158 million acres (almost 247,000 square miles) of land base in Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Hawai`i, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the Republic of Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Region 1 is ecologically diverse with landscapes that range from coral reefs, broadleaf tropical forests, and tropical savannahs in the Pacific Islands, to glacial streams and lakes, lush old-growth rainforests, inland fjords, and coastal shoreline in the Pacific Northwest, to the forested mountains, shrub-steppe desert, and native grasslands in the Inland Northwest. Similarly, the people of the different landscapes perceive, value, and manage their natural resources in ways unique to their respective regions and cultures. The Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program (Partners Program) and Coastal Program work with a variety of partners in Region 1 including individual landowners, watershed councils, land trusts, Soil and Water Conservation Districts, non-governmental organizations, Tribal governments, Native Hawaiian organizations, and local, State, and Federal agencies. The Partners Program is the FWS's vanguard for working with private landowners to voluntarily restore and conserve fish and wildlife habitat. Using non-regulatory incentives, the Partners Program engages willing partners to conserve and protect valuable fish and wildlife habitat on their property and in their communities. This is accomplished by providing the funding support and technical and planning tools needed to make on-the-ground conservation affordable, feasible, and effective. The primary goals of the Pacific Region Partners Program are to: Promote citizen and community-based stewardship efforts for fish and wildlife conservation Contribute to the recovery of at-risk species, Protect the environmental integrity of the National Wildlife

  20. The U.S. Geological Survey coal assessment of the Gulf Coastal region, a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, P.D.; Aubourg, C.E.; Crowley, S.S.

    1998-12-31

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a comprehensive assessment of the major coal regions of the country. This program, known as the National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA), is focused on five major coal-bearing regions in the country: the Appalachian basin, Illinois basin, Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, Colorado Plateau, and the Gulf Coast region. In this program, the authors are characterizing the quantity and quality of coals that are expected to be mined during the next 30 years. As part of this effort, they are conducting an evaluation of the stratigraphic setting, resource potential, and the quality of the lignites in five coal-producing areas within the Gulf Coast region. The results of these efforts will be a series of digital Geographic Information System (GIS) maps, text, and tables that will be published in a CD-ROM format. These products, along with a national summary CD-ROM, are expected to be completed by 1999. The assessment of the Gulf Coast region is focused primarily on four areas that are currently producing coal as shown in a figure. These areas are the: (1) Sabine area, which includes parts of northwest Louisiana and northeast Texas; (2) northeast Texas; (3) central Texas; and (4) south Texas. In addition, a fifth area in Mississippi has been evaluated because a new surface mine has been proposed for that area. The Gulf Coast coal region produces about 57 million short tons of coal annually from the states of Louisiana and Texas from Wilcox Group coals. The primary intervals of study for this project are the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) and selected coal-producing intervals (such as the Eocene Jackson and Claiborne Groups, and Cretaceous Olmos Formation in south Texas) that are producing or have potential for producing coal in the near future. The objectives of this project are to provide high-quality, organized information and interpretations on the location, quality, and quantity of the coal to be mined in the Gulf

  1. Rockfall risk assessment for a road along the coastal rocky slope of Maratea (Basilicata Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicani, R.; Spilotro, G.; Colangelo, G.; Petraglia, A.; Pizzo, V.

    2012-04-01

    The rockfall risk has been evaluated for the Tirrena Inferiore State Road SS18 between 220+600 and 243+670 Kilometers in the coastal area of Maratea (Basilicata, Italy) through a specific multilayer technique. These results are particularly significant as validated in field through the occurrence of rockfall events after the study. The study part of "Tirrena Inferiore" SS18 road is often affected by rockfalls, which periodically (coinciding with abundant rainfalls, earthquakes and temperature lowering) cause large amount of damage and traffic interruptions. In order to assess the rockfall risk and define the countermeasure needed to mitigate the risk, an integrated index-based and physically-based approach was implemented. The roadway is subject to slopes with steep rocky vertical or sub-vertical faces affected by different systems of discontinuities, that show a widespread fracturing. The superficial parts of slopes are characterized by gaping fracturing, often karstified. Several historical rockfall events were recognized in the area and numerous geomechanical analyses, finalized to the stability analysis of rock walls, were carried out. The localization of the potentially unstable areas and the quantification of relative rockfall risk were evaluated through three successive phases of analysis. First, a map based on SMR (Slope Mass Rating) Index of Romana (1985) was produced, through a spatial analysis of both geomechanical parameters, such as the RMR Index of Bieniawski, and the distribution of the discontinuities. This approach therefore allowed the estimation of the potentially unstable zones and their classification on the basis of the resulting stability degree. Subsequently, an analysis of the rockfall trajectories in correspondence to the most unstable zones of slope was carried out by using ROTOMAP, a 3-dimensional rock-fall simulation software. The input data for computing the rockfall trajectories are the following: (1) digital terrain model (DTM), (2

  2. Crustal structure of the coastal and marine San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Tom

    2002-01-01

    In summary, these studies were carried out in an environment where background information on faults in the San Francisco Bay region was sought. Much of the structural information presented here comes from experiments of a style unlikely to be conducted by the USGS in the near future. Together, the chapters in this volume provide a structural framework for a major part of a complex strike-slip fault system.

  3. Ocean and Coastal Acidification off New England and Nova Scotia

    EPA Science Inventory

    New England coastal and adjacent Nova Scotia shelf waters have a reduced buffering capacity because of significant freshwater input, making the region’s waters potentially more vulnerable to coastal acidification. Nutrient loading and heavy precipitation events further acid...

  4. Regional background concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) in coastal sediments of the South Sea of Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Yunho; Choi, Man Sik; Lee, Ji Youn; Jang, Dong Jun

    2014-06-01

    The background concentration (BC) of metals in coastal sediments may be a useful tool for assessing the extent of sediment contamination by human activities. This study presents an approach to establish BCs that are applicable at the regional scale, particularly for coastal areas with relatively tortuous coastlines and complex coastal geology and/or geomorphology like the South Sea of Korea. The approach is based on the sorption hypothesis for metal enrichment of coastal sediments and was verified using 33 core and 187 surface sediments. The concentrations of major and heavy metals, grain size parameters, organic carbon, and sedimentation rates were determined. Cs was selected as the most suitable geochemical normalizer to correct the grain-size effect. Non-contaminated samples from core sediments were selected according to the sedimentation rate, 32 types of profile pattern based on metal concentrations and metal/Cs ratios, and their variability in past sediments. Metal concentrations in the selected non-contaminated samples were well correlated with Cs, with a given Cs amounts in surface sediments corresponding to the lowest metal concentrations. This result supported the use of a procedure based on the sorption hypothesis, which was then used to synthesize all core samples and establish the regional BC of heavy metals in the coastal sediments. Linear regression equations between metal and Cs concentrations provided the following BCs of metals in coastal sediments in the South Sea of Korea: 70 (Cr), 13 (Co), 30 (Ni), 13 (Cu), 87 (Zn), and 23 (Pb)mg/kg at 8mg/kg of Cs (mean concentration of 393 sediments). PMID:24636889

  5. Regional background concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) in coastal sediments of the South Sea of Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Yunho; Choi, Man Sik; Lee, Ji Youn; Jang, Dong Jun

    2014-06-01

    The background concentration (BC) of metals in coastal sediments may be a useful tool for assessing the extent of sediment contamination by human activities. This study presents an approach to establish BCs that are applicable at the regional scale, particularly for coastal areas with relatively tortuous coastlines and complex coastal geology and/or geomorphology like the South Sea of Korea. The approach is based on the sorption hypothesis for metal enrichment of coastal sediments and was verified using 33 core and 187 surface sediments. The concentrations of major and heavy metals, grain size parameters, organic carbon, and sedimentation rates were determined. Cs was selected as the most suitable geochemical normalizer to correct the grain-size effect. Non-contaminated samples from core sediments were selected according to the sedimentation rate, 32 types of profile pattern based on metal concentrations and metal/Cs ratios, and their variability in past sediments. Metal concentrations in the selected non-contaminated samples were well correlated with Cs, with a given Cs amounts in surface sediments corresponding to the lowest metal concentrations. This result supported the use of a procedure based on the sorption hypothesis, which was then used to synthesize all core samples and establish the regional BC of heavy metals in the coastal sediments. Linear regression equations between metal and Cs concentrations provided the following BCs of metals in coastal sediments in the South Sea of Korea: 70 (Cr), 13 (Co), 30 (Ni), 13 (Cu), 87 (Zn), and 23 (Pb)mg/kg at 8mg/kg of Cs (mean concentration of 393 sediments).

  6. The Common Occurrence of Highly Supercooled Drizzle and Rain near the Coastal Regions of the Western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; DeMott, Paul J.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Rasmussen, R M.; McDonough, Frank; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Jonsson, Haf; Suski, Kaitlyn; Cazorla, Alberto; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-09-05

    The formation of highly supercooled rain was documented by aircraft observations in clouds at a wide range of conditions near the coastal region of the western United States. Several case studies are described in detail using combined cloud and aerosol measurements to document both the highly super-cooled condition and the relatively pristine aerosol conditions under which it forms. The case studies include: (1) Marine convective clouds over the coastal waters of northern California, as measured by cloud physics probes flown on a Gulfstream-1 aircraft during the CALWATER campaign in February and early March 2011. The clouds had extensive drizzle in their tops, which extended downward to the 0°C isotherm as supercooled rain. Ice multiplication was observed only in mature parts of the clouds where cloud water was already depleted. (2) Orographically triggered convective clouds in marine air mass over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada to the east of Sacramento, as measured in CALWATER. Supercooled rain was observed down to -21°C. No indications for ice multiplication were evident. (3) Orographic layer clouds over Yosemite National Park, also measured in CALWATER. The clouds had extensive drizzle at -21°C, which intensified with little freezing lower in the cloud, and (4) Supercooled drizzle drops in layer clouds near Juneau, Alaska, as measured by the Wyoming King Air as part of a FAA project to study aircraft icing in this region. Low concentrations of CCN was a common observation in all these clouds, allowing for the formation of clouds with small concentration of large drops that coalesced into supercooled drizzle and raindrops. Another common observation was the absence of ice nuclei and/or ice crystals in measurable concentrations was associated with the persistent supercooled drizzle and rain. Average ice crystal concentrations were 0.007 l-1 at the top of convective clouds at -12°C and 0.03 l-1 in the case of layer clouds at -21°C. In combination these

  7. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3- in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  8. Temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality in sand dune at coastal region, Kamisu city, central Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umei, Yohei; Tsujimura, Maki; Sakakibara, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuto; Minema, Motomitsu

    2016-04-01

    The role of groundwater in integrated water management has become important in recent 10 years, though the surface water is the major source of drinking water in Japan. Especially, it is remarked that groundwater recharge changed due to land cover change under the anthropogenic and climatic condition factors. Therefore, we need to investigate temporal and spatial variation of groundwater in quantity and quality focusing on the change during recent 10-20 years in specific region. We performed research on groundwater level and quality in sand dune at coastal region facing Pacific Ocean, Kamisu city, Ibaraki Prefecture, which have been facing environmental issues, such as land cover change due to soil mining for construction and urbanization. We compared the present situation of groundwater with that in 2000 using existed data to clarify the change of groundwater from 2000 to 2015. The quality of water is dominantly characterized by Ca2+-HCO3‑ in both 2000 and 2015, and nitrate was not observed in 2015, though it was detected in some locations in 2000. This may be caused by improvement of the domestic wastewater treatment. The topography of groundwater table was in parallel with that of ground surface in 2015, same as that in 2000. However, a depletion of groundwater table was observed in higher elevation area in 2015 as compared with that in 2000, and this area corresponds to the locations where the land cover has changed due to soil mining and urbanization between 2015 and 2000. In the region of soil mining, the original soil is generally replaced by impermeable soil after mining, and this may cause a decrease of percolation and net groundwater recharge, thus the depletion of groundwater table occurred after the soil mining.

  9. Investigation of Long-Term Impacts of Urbanization when Considering Global Warming for a Coastal Tropical Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonalez, Jorge E.; Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Smith, T.

    2010-01-01

    The overachieving goal of this project is to gain a better understanding of the climate impacts caused by the combined effects of land cover and land use (LCLU) changes and increasing global concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in tropical coastal areas, regions where global, regional and local climate phenomena converge, taking as the test case the densely populated northeast region of the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. The research uses an integrated approach of high-resolution remote sensing information linked to a high resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), which was employed to perform ensembles of climate simulations (combining 2-LCLU and 2-GHG concentration scenarios). Reconstructed agricultural maps are used to define past LCLU, and combined with reconstructed sea surface temperatures (SST) for the same period form the PAST climate scenario (1951-1956); while the PRESENT scenario (2000-2004) was additionally supported by high resolution remote sensing data (10-m-res). The climate reconstruction approach is validated with available observed climate data from surface weather stations for both periods of time simulated. The selection of the past and present climate scenarios considers large-scale biases (i.e. ENSO/NAO) as reflected in the region of interest. Direct and cross comparison of the results is allowing quantifying single, combined, and competitive effects. Results indicate that global GHG have dominant effects on minimum temperatures (following regional tendencies), while urban sprawl dominates maximum temperatures. To further investigate impacts of land use the Bowen Ratio and the thermal response number (TRN) are analyzed. The Bowen ratio indicates that forestation of past agricultural high areas have an overwhelmingly mitigation effect on increasing temperatures observed in different LCLU scenarios, but when abandoned agricultural lands are located in plains, the resulting shrub/grass lands produce higher surface

  10. The regional steady interface between fresh water and salt water in a coastal aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishi, Yosuke; Fukuo, Yoshiaki; Kakinuma, Tadao; Ifuku, Makoto

    1982-08-01

    First, a theoretical model is presented which is useful for determining the regional steady interface between fresh water and salt water under the appropriate boundary conditions for both confined and unconfined aquifers. This model is then applied to the confined groundwater in the estuary of the Naka River, Tokushima Prefecture, Japan, and the phenomenon of the seawater intrusion into the aquifer is analyzed. Boundary conditions of the confined aquifer and the parameters necessary for analysis are determined from the data. Calculations using a finite-element method are carried out in various cases, by changing the inflow SR or the total pumping amount Q of the groundwater in this alluvial plain. It is found that the region where salt water is intruding expands rapidly inland when SR approaches Q and vice versa. It is also found that the distributions of chloride ion concentration in groundwater calculated by this model with a simplified assumption are in fairly good agreement with the results observed in deep wells.

  11. The Impact of Urbanization on the Regional Aeolian Dynamics of an Arid Coastal Dunefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alexander; Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic impact on the geomorphology of many landscapes are inextricably connected but are often neglected due to the difficulty in making a direct link between the quasi natural and human processes that impact the environment. This research focuses on the Maspalomas dunefield, located on the southern coast of Gran Canaria, in the Canary Island Archipelago. The tourism industry in Maspalomas has led to intensive urbanization since the early 1960's over an elevated alluvial terrace that extends into the dunefield. Urbanization has had a substantial impact on both the regional airflow conditions and the geomorphological development of this transverse dune system. As a result airflow and sediment has been redirected in response to the large scale construction efforts. In situ data was collected during field campaigns using high resolution three-dimensional anemometry to identify the various modifications within the dunefield relative to incipient regional airflow conditions. The goal is to analyse the flow conditions near the urbanized terrace in relation to areas that are located away from the influence of the buildings and to verify numerical modelling results. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is used in order to expand the areal extent of analysis by providing an understanding of relevant flow dynamics (e.g. flow velocity, directionality, turbulence, shear stresses, etc.) at the mesoscale. An integrative three dimensional model for CFD simulations was created to address the impact of both the urban area (i.e. hotels, commercial centers, and residential communities) as well as the dune terrain on regional flow conditions. Early modelling results show that there is significant flow modification around the urban terrace with streamline compression, acceleration, and deflection of flow on the windward side of the development. Consequently downwind of the terrace there is an area of highly turbulent flow conditions and well developed separation and

  12. The 1987 estimate of undiscovered uranium endowment in solution-collapse breccia pipes in the Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona and adjacent Uta

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, W.I.; Sutphin, H.B.; Pierson, C.T.; McCammon, R.B.; Wenrich, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    This book is based on a new method published in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 994 and is the second assessment made in accordance with the 1984 Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Department of Energy. The first estimate was published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 80-2. The endowment estimates are reported for 26 areas in the following 1{degrees} {times} 2{degrees} guadrangles: Grand Canyon, Marble Canyon, Williams, Flagstaff, Prescott, Holbrook, and St. Johns, Ariz., and Cedar City, Utah. The total uranium endowment is about eight times larger than reported in 1980 by the Department of Energy. The Grand Canyon region has the potential of becoming the second most important domestic uranium producer after the most production San Juan Basin uranium region in New Mexico.

  13. Integrating surface and mantle constraints for palaeo-ocean evolution: a tour of the Arctic and adjacent regions (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, Grace E.

    2016-04-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions heavily rely on absolute motions derived from hotspot trails or palaeomagnetic data and ocean-floor magnetic anomaies and fracture-zone geometries to constrain the detailed history of ocean basins. However, as oceanic lithosphere is progressively recycled into the mantle, kinematic data regarding the history of these now extinct-oceans is lost. In order to better understand their evolution, novel workflows, which integrate a wide range of complementary yet independent geological and geophysical datasets from both the surface and deep mantle, must be utilised. In particular, the emergence of time-dependent, semi or self-consistent geodynamic models of ever-increasing temporal and spatial resolution are revealing some critical constraints on the evolution and fate of oceanic slabs. The tectonic evolution of the circum-Arctic is no exception; since the breakup of Pangea, this enigmatic region has seen major plate reorganizations and the opening and closure of several ocean basins. At the surface, a myriad of potential kinematic scenarios including polarity, timing, geometry and location of subduction have emerged, including for systems along continental margins and intra-oceanic settings. Furthermore, recent work has reignited a debate about the origins of 'anchor' slabs, such as the Farallon and Mongol-Okhotsk slabs, which have been used to refine absolute plate motions. Moving to the mantle, seismic tomography models reveal a region peppered with inferred slabs, however assumptions about their affinities and subduction location, timing, geometry and polarity are often made in isolation. Here, by integrating regional plate reconstructions with insights from seismic tomography, satellite derived gravity gradients, slab sinking rates and geochemistry, I explore some Mesozoic examples from the palaeo-Arctic, northern Panthalassa and western margin of North America, including evidence for a discrete and previously undescribed slab under

  14. Influence of tectonic terranes adjacent to Precambrian Wyoming province of petroleum source and reservoir rock stratigraphy in northern Rocky Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnsen, J.J.

    1984-07-01

    The perimeter of the Archean Precambrian Wyoming province can be generally defined. A Proterozoic suture belt separates the province from the Archean Superior province to the east. The western margin of the Precambrian rocks lies under the western Overthrust belt, but the Precambrian province extends at least as far west as southwest Montana and southeast Idaho. The province is bounded on the north and south by more regionally extensive Proterozoic mobile belts. In the northern belt, Archean rocks have been remobilized by Proterozoic tectonic events, but the southern belt does not appear to contain rocks as old as Archean. The tectonic response of these Precambrian terranes to cratonic and continental margin vertical and horizontal forces has exerted a profound influence on Phanerozoic sedimentation and stratigraphic facies distributions. Petroleum source rock and reservoir rock stratigraphy of the Northern Rocky Mountain region has been correlated with this structural history. In particular, the Devonian, Permian, and Jurassic sedimentation patterns can be shown to have been influenced by articulation among the different terranes comprising the ancient substructure. Depositional patterns in the Chester-Morrow carbonate and clastic sequence in the Central Montana trough are also related to this substructure. Further, a correlation between these tectonic terranes and the localization of regional hydrocarbon accumulations has been observed and has been useful in basin analyses for exploration planning.

  15. Digital elevations and extents of regional hydrogeologic units in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Jason P.; Andreasen, David C.; Mcfarland, E. Randolph; Watt, Martha K.

    2016-08-31

    Digital geospatial datasets of the extents and top elevations of the regional hydrogeologic units of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina were developed to provide an updated hydrogeologic framework to support analysis of groundwater resources. The 19 regional hydrogeologic units were delineated by elevation grids and extent polygons for 20 layers: the land and bathymetric surface at the top of the unconfined surficial aquifer, the upper surfaces of 9 confined aquifers and 9 confining units, and the bedrock surface that defines the base of all Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. The delineation of the regional hydrogeologic units relied on the interpretive work from source reports for New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina rather than from re-analysis of fundamental hydrogeologic data. This model of regional hydrogeologic unit geometries represents interpolation, extrapolation, and generalization of the earlier interpretive work. Regional units were constructed from available digital data layers from the source studies in order to extend units consistently across political boundaries and approximate units in offshore areas.Though many of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain hydrogeologic units may extend eastward as far as the edge of the Atlantic Continental Shelf, the modeled boundaries of all regional hydrogeologic units in this study were clipped to an area approximately defined by the furthest offshore extent of fresh to brackish water in any part of the aquifer system, as indicated by chloride concentrations of 10,000 milligrams per liter. Elevations and extents of units that do not exist onshore in Long Island, New York, were not included north of New Jersey. Hydrogeologic units in North Carolina were included primarily to provide continuity across the Virginia-North Carolina State boundary, which was important for defining the southern edge of

  16. Verification of ECMWF, GFS and WRF forecast in coastal desert region of Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaj, Pavol; Bartoková, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    Forecast skill of different models over Middle East region is presented. ECMWF has 12.5 km resolution, while WRF with 16 km and nested 5 km grid is initialized by GFS. The comparison encompasses first half of year 2012 and 48-72 hours forecasts, which are evaluated by standard scores Bias, Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). In Dubai Emirate, the temperature RMSE of ECMWF is higher by 1.5 deg. C on average. As far as the desert terrain is flat and the station is 100km form the coast, the reason is not straightforward result of better resolution. More precise capturing of the diurnal variation especially the sea breeze phenomenon seems of higher importance. 9 other stations were examined.

  17. Characterization of Summertime Oceanic Boundary Conditions for Coastal and Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübler, G.; Parrish, D. D.; Aikin, K. C.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Ives, M.; Thouret, V.; Nédélec, P.; Cammas, J.; Team, A.

    2009-12-01

    Most detailed photochemical modeling must be carried out at regional or air basin scales in order to achieve the spatial resolution and detailed treatment of the chemical mechanisms required for realistic treatment of local air quality. Consequently these models must define upwind boundary conditions at the edge of the model domain. Uncertainty in the appropriate boundary conditions contributes significantly to the overall uncertainty of the photochemical modeling in California. Here we will investigate the available data sets to define to the extent possible the average summertime oceanic boundary conditions, the variability about that average, and the horizontal and vertical variability of the boundary conditions. The data sets considered will include ozone sondes launched from Trinidad Head CA, ozone and carbon monoxide profiles measured by MOZAIC aircraft flights into 4 west coast US cities, and the many chemical species measured on four aircraft flights conducted during the CARB-ARCTAS campaign during summer 2008

  18. Biological and physical oceanographic observations pertaining to the trawl fishery in a region of persistent coastal upwelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, J. T.; Gibson, D. B.; Evans, T. O.; Breaker, L.; Wrigley, R. C.; Broenkow, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    An upwelling episode in the Point Sal region of the central California coast is examined by using data obtained by a data buoy. The episodes was interrupted by the abrupt abatement of the strong wind which promotes coastal upwelling. The mean hourly upwelling index is calculated to be higher than the 20 year mean monthly value. During 3 days of light wind commercial bottom trawl operations were possible. Shipboard estimates of chlorophyll content in surface waters during trawling show the high concentrations that are indicative of a rich biomass of phytoplankton, a result of the upwelling episode. Satellite imagery shows the extent of the upwelling water to be of the order of 100 km offshore; the result of many upwelling episodes. Shipboard echo sounder data show the presence of various delmersal species and of zooplakton; the latter graze on the phytoplankton in the upper euphotic layers. The fish catch data are recorded according to species for 2 days of trawling, and the catch per trawl hour is recorded.

  19. Hydrogeological investigation of shallow aquifers in an arid data-scarce coastal region (El Daba'a, northwestern Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Mohamed; van Geldern, Robert; Bubenzer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogeological investigations in arid regions are particularly important to support sustainable development. The study area, El Daba'a in northwestern Egypt, faces scarce water resources as a result of reported climate change that particularly affects the southern Mediterranean coast and increases stress on the local groundwater reserves. This change in climate affects the area in terms of drought, over-pumping and unregulated exploration of groundwater for irrigation purposes. The hydrogeological investigation is based on a multidisciplinary data-layer analysis that includes geomorphology, geology, slope, drainage lines, soil type, structural lineaments, subsurface data, stable isotopes, and chemical analyses. The study area contains Pleistocene and middle Miocene marine limestone aquifers. Based on lithology and microfacies analysis, the middle Miocene aquifer is subdivided into two water-bearing zones. The area is affected by sets of faults and anticline folds, and these structures are associated with fractures and joints that increase permeability and facilitate the recharge of groundwater. Stable isotope data indicate that groundwater of both the Pleistocene and middle Miocene aquifers is recharged by modern precipitation. The high salinity values observed in some groundwater wells that tap both aquifers could be attributed to leaching and dissolution processes of marine salts from the aquifers' marine limestone matrix. In addition, human activities can also contribute to an increase in groundwater salinity. A future water exploration strategy, based on the results from the multidisciplinary data-layer analysis, is proposed for the area. The derived scientific approach is transferable to other arid coastal areas with comparable conditions.

  20. The effect of global warming scenarios on soybean and peanut yields in the Coastal Plain region of Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Laitta, M.T.; Huebner, N.J.

    1996-09-01

    This study is an evaluation of peanut and soybean yield in the Coastal Plain of Georgia as a function of seasonal water deficit scenarios. An analytical model of the Thornthwaite water balance model, based on historical temperature and precipitation data, is used to evaluate the probable response of crop productivity to climate changes in selected counties in South Georgia. The input of temperature and precipitation values for each site is based on the results of three general circulation models (GCM), which were regionally tailored to the Southeastern United States. A regression analysis was preformed to establish a numerical relationship between historical yield and moisture deficits. This model, in association with projected GCM model deficits, was used to predict future crop yields. Our results showed that given all GCM models evaluated, deficit periods for the selected sites will increase both the intensity and duration droughts in the southeastern U.S. Of the two crops analyzed, it was found that soybeans showed a higher sensitivity to moisture deficits than did peanuts.

  1. Accuracy Assessment of Aqua-MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Over Coastal Regions: Importance of Quality Flag and Sea Surface Wind Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. C.; Wang, J.; Zeng, J.; Petrenko, M.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Ichoku, C.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal regions around the globe are a major source for anthropogenic aerosols in the atmosphere, but the underlying surface characteristics are not favorable for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) algorithms designed for retrieval of aerosols over dark land or open-ocean surfaces. Using data collected from 62 coastal stations worldwide from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) from approximately 2002-2010, accuracy assessments are made for coastal aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved from MODIS aboard Aqua satellite. It is found that coastal AODs (at 550 nm) characterized respectively by the MODIS Dark Land (hereafter Land) surface algorithm, the Open-Ocean (hereafter Ocean) algorithm, and AERONET all exhibit a log-normal distribution. After filtering by quality flags, the MODIS AODs respectively retrieved from the Land and Ocean algorithms are highly correlated with AERONET (with R(sup 2) is approximately equal to 0.8), but only the Land algorithm AODs fall within the expected error envelope greater than 66% of the time. Furthermore, the MODIS AODs from the Land algorithm, Ocean algorithm, and combined Land and Ocean product show statistically significant discrepancies from their respective counterparts from AERONET in terms of mean, probability density function, and cumulative density function, which suggest a need for future improvement in retrieval algorithms. Without filtering with quality flag, the MODIS Land and Ocean AOD dataset can be degraded by 30-50% in terms of mean bias. Overall, the MODIS Ocean algorithm overestimates the AERONET coastal AOD by 0.021 for AOD less than 0.25 and underestimates it by 0.029 for AOD greater than 0.25. This dichotomy is shown to be related to the ocean surface wind speed and cloud contamination effects on the satellite aerosol retrieval. The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reveals that wind speeds over the global coastal region 25 (with a mean and median

  2. Current Land Subsidence and Sea Level Rise along the North American Coastal Region: Observations from 10-Year (2005-2014) Closely-Spaced GPS and Tide Gauge Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Yu, J.; Kearns, T.; Wang, G.

    2014-12-01

    Strong evidence has proved that the global sea-level is now rising at an increased rate and it is projected to continue to rise. However the rise of the sea-level is not uniform around the world. The local or relative sea-level rise will be of great concern to the coastal regions. The combination of the land subsidence and global sea-level rise causes the relative sea-level to rise. Relative sea-level rise increases the risk of flooding and wetland loss problems in near coastal areas, which in turn have important economic, environmental, and human health consequences for the heavily populated and ecologically important coastal region. However the role played by the coastal land subsidence is commonly absent during the discussion of sea-level rise problems. The sea-level can be measured in two ways: satellite altimetry and tide gauges. The sea-level measured by satellite is called the geocentric sea-level that is relative to earth center and the one measured by tide gauges is called local sea-level that is relative to the land. The tide gauge measurements of the local sea-level do not distinguish between whether the water is rising or the land is subsiding. In some coastal areas, land subsidence is occurring at a higher rate than the geocentric sea-level is rising. This can have a great local effect. GPS technology has proven to be efficient and accurate for measuring and tracking absolute land elevation change. There are about 300 publically available Continuously Operating Reference GPS Stations (CORS) within 15 km from the coastal line along North America. In this study, we use publicly available long-history (> 5 years) CORS data to derive current (2005-2014) coastal subsidence in North America. Absolute coastal sea-level rise will be determined by combing the land subsidence and relative sea-level measurements. This study shows that the relative sea-level of the Alaska area appears to be falling because the land is uplifting; this study also shows that the

  3. Climatic Factors Drive Population Divergence and Demography: Insights Based on the Phylogeography of a Riparian Plant Species Endemic to the Hengduan Mountains and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Shao-Tian; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Zhou, Zhuo; Deng, Tao; Sun, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary climatic factors have played a significant role in population divergence and demography. Here we investigated the phylogeography of Osteomeles schwerinae, a dominant riparian plant species of the hot/warm-dry river valleys of the Hengduan Mountains (HDM), Qinling Mountains (QLM) and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (YGP). Three chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions (trnD-trnT, psbD-trnT, petL-psbE), one single copy nuclear gene (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; G3pdh), and climatic data during the Last Interglacial (LIG; c. 120–140 ka), Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; c. 21 ka), and Current (c. 1950–2000) periods were used in this study. Six cpDNA haplotypes and 15 nuclear DNA (nDNA) haplotypes were identified in the 40 populations of O. schwerinae. Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variance, median-joining networks, and Bayesian phylogenetic trees based on the cpDNA and nDNA datasets, all suggested population divergence between the QLM and HDM-YGP regions. Our climatic analysis identified significant heterogeneity of the climatic factors in the QLM and HDM-YGP regions during the aforementioned three periods. The divergence times based on cpDNA and nDNA haplotypes were estimated to be 466.4–159.4 ka and 315.8–160.3 ka, respectively, which coincide with the time of the weakening of the Asian monsoons in these regions. In addition, unimodal pairwise mismatch distribution curves, expansion times, and Ecological Niche Modeling suggested a history of population expansion (rather than contraction) during the last glaciation. Interestingly, the expansion times were found being well consistent with the intensification of the Asian monsoons during this period. We inferred that the divergence between the two main lineages is probably caused by disruption of more continuous distribution because of weakening of monsoons/less precipitation, whilst subsequent intensification of the Asian monsoons during the last glaciation facilitated the expansion of O. schwerinae

  4. Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Chinese Bohai Sea and Its Coastal Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yawei; Pan, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS) had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g). Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution. PMID:24688410

  5. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Seabirds Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinsinger, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    From the cold, high Arctic area of Alaska to the warm, tropical Pacific area of Hawai'i, a diverse array of seabird species numbering in the millions of individuals live off the bounty of the Pacific Ocean. Many come to land only to nest and raise their young - these are species supremely adapted for life on the water, whether it be near the coast or hundreds of miles at sea. Those seabirds that reside in the North Pacific year-round are joined each summer by millions of migrant birds that leave the southern hemisphere in winter for better feeding conditions in the north. Seabirds in the Pacific remain one of the great wildlife spectacles on the earth. Yet, seabirds face a number of threats such as oil spills, introduction of predators to their nesting islands, and conflicts with fisheries. State and Federal agencies require increasingly sophisticated information on population dynamics, breeding biology, and feeding ecology to successfully manage these species and their ecosystems. Within the Western Region of the USGS, scientists from the Alaska Science Center (ASC), Western Ecological Research Center (WERC), and Pacific Islands Ecosystems Research Center are leading the way in conducting research on many of these little known species. Their aim is to improve our understanding of seabirds in the Pacific and to provide information to support informed management of the birds and their ecosystems.

  6. In-roads to the spread of antibiotic resistance: regional patterns of microbial transmission in northern coastal Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.; Goldstick, Jason; Cevallos, William; Trueba, Gabriel; Levy, Karen; Scott, James; Percha, Bethany; Segovia, Rosana; Ponce, Karina; Hubbard, Alan; Marrs, Carl; Foxman, Betsy; Smith, David L.; Trostle, James

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance (AR) increases treatment cost and probability of failure, threatening human health worldwide. The relative importance of individual antibiotic use, environmental transmission and rates of introduction of resistant bacteria in explaining community AR patterns is poorly understood. Evaluating their relative importance requires studying a region where they vary. The construction of a new road in a previously roadless area of northern coastal Ecuador provides a valuable natural experiment to study how changes in the social and natural environment affect the epidemiology of resistant Escherichia coli. We conducted seven bi-annual 15 day surveys of AR between 2003 and 2008 in 21 villages. Resistance to both ampicillin and sulphamethoxazole was the most frequently observed profile, based on antibiogram tests of seven antibiotics from 2210 samples. The prevalence of enteric bacteria with this resistance pair in the less remote communities was 80 per cent higher than in more remote communities (OR = 1.8 [1.3, 2.3]). This pattern could not be explained with data on individual antibiotic use. We used a transmission model to help explain this observed discrepancy. The model analysis suggests that both transmission and the rate of introduction of resistant bacteria into communities may contribute to the observed regional scale AR patterns, and that village-level antibiotic use rate determines which of these two factors predominate. While usually conceived as a main effect on individual risk, antibiotic use rate is revealed in this analysis as an effect modifier with regard to community-level risk of resistance. PMID:21957121

  7. Ordovician of the Sauk megasequence in the Ozark region of northern Arkansas and parts of Missouri and adjacent states: Chapter 11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ethington, Raymond L.; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The oldest formation that crops out in the region is the Jefferson City Dolomite, which may be present in outcrops along incised river valleys near the Missouri-Arkansas border. Rare fossil gastropods, bivalves, brachiopods, conodonts, and trilobites permit correlation of the Cotter through Powell Dolomites with Ibexian strata elsewhere in Laurentia. Conodonts in the Black Rock Limestone Member of the Smithville Formation and the upper part of the Powell Dolomite confirm regional relationships that have been suggested for these units; those of the Black Rock Limestone Member are consistent with deposition under more open marine conditions than existed when older and younger units were forming. Brachiopods and conodonts from the overlying Everton Formation assist in interpreting complex facies within that formation and its correlation to equivalent rocks elsewhere. The youngest conodonts in the Everton Formation provide an age limit for the Sauk-Tippecanoe unconformity near the southern extremity of the great American carbonate bank. The correlation to coeval strata in the Ouachita Mountains of central Arkansas and in the Arbuckle Mountains of Oklahoma and to rocks penetrated in wells drilled in the Reelfoot rift basin has been improved greatly in recent years by integration of biostratigraphic data with lithologic information.

  8. The Enhancer of Split Complex and Adjacent Genes in the 96f Region of Drosophila Melanogaster Are Required for Segregation of Neural and Epidermal Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schrons, H.; Knust, E.; Campos-Ortega, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Enhancer of split complex [E(spl)-C] of Drosophila melanogaster is located in the 96F region of the third chromosome and comprises at least seven structurally related genes, HLH-mδ, HLH-mγ, HLH-mβ, HLH-m3, HLH-m5, HLH-m7 and E(spl). The functions of these genes are required during early neurogenesis to give neuroectodermal cells access to the epidermal pathway of development. Another gene in the 96F region, namely groucho, is also required for this process. However, groucho is not structurally related to, and appears to act independently of, the genes of the E(spl)-C; the possibility is discussed that groucho acts upstream to the E(spl)-C genes. Indirect evidence suggests that a neighboring transcription unit (m4) may also take part in the process. Of all these genes, only gro is essential; m4 is a dispensable gene, the deletion of which does not produce detectable morphogenetic abnormalities, and the genes of the E(spl)-C are to some extent redundant and can partially substitute for each other. This redundancy is probably due to the fact that the seven genes of the E(spl)-C encode highly conserved putative DNA-binding proteins of the bHLH family. The genes of the complex are interspersed among other genes which appear to be unrelated to the neuroepidermal lineage dichotomy. PMID:1427039

  9. Revision of Errhomeninae and Aphrodinae (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha) in Italy with remarks on their variability and distribution in adjacent regions and description of three new taxa.

    PubMed

    Guglielmino, Adalgisa; Bückle, Christoph

    2015-01-15

    A revision of the subfamilies Errhomeninae and Aphrodinae in Italy is presented. Two new species, Anoscopus gorloppus and Anoscopus carlebippus, and one new subspecies Anoscopus albifrons mappus are described. Anoscopus dubius Gębicki & Bednarzyk is established as subspecies of Anoscopus flavostriatus (Donovan) (stat. nov.), Aphrodes siracusae (Matsumura) is transferred to the genus Anoscopus (comb. nov.). Anoscopus samuricus Tshmir is recorded in Italy for the first time. Information concerning ecology and regional distribution is given for all taxa present in Italy. Genital morphology and variability of colouration are figured for many taxa. A morphometric analysis based on measurements of aedeagus and body is conducted for the taxa of the Aphrodes bicincta group. Keys for the Italian species of Aphrodes and Anoscopus are given. Distribution and specific characters of Anoscopus assimilis (Signoret) and Anoscopus alpinus (Wagner) are presented. Differences between Italian populations and conspecific ones in other European regions, and reasons for the particularly high variability in the Alpine areas of Italy are discussed. A list of 19 species and two subspecies, presently recorded from Italy is given. 

  10. Sand resources, regional geology, and coastal processes for shoreline restoration: case study of Barataria shoreline, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Flocks, James G.; Kulp, Mark; Penland, Shea; Britsch, Louis D.

    2002-01-01

    The Louisiana barrier shoreline of Barataria Basin, which lies within the western Mississippi River delta, has undergone significant retreat during the past 100 years. The most practical restoration method to rebuild these shorelines is sand nourishment. Seismic and sonar interpretations verified with geologic samples (vibracores and borings) indicate that there are nine sand targets within the Barataria study area that meet or exceed the minimum criteria for potential resource sites. However, the near surface lithology in the basin is typically silts and clays. Locating suitable sand resources for shoreline restoration is challenging. The sand units are associated with geologic depositional systems such as ebb-tidal deltas, distributary mouth bars, and channel fill (undifferentiated fluvial or tidal inlet channels). The nine potential sand targets consist primarily of fine sand and can be delineated into three surficial and six buried features. The surficial features contain approximately 10% of the total sand resources identified. At least 90% of the sand resources need overburden sediment removed prior to use; almost 570 million yd3 (438.5 mil m3) of overburden will need to be removed if the entire resource is mined. In this study, we identified 396 to 532 mil yd3 (305.8 to 410.8 mil m3) of potential sand deposits for shoreline restoration. Previous studies using less dense survey methods greatly over-estimated sand resources available in this area. Many fluvial channels reported previously as sand-filled are mud-filled. Contrary to these previous studies, few fluvial subsystems in this region have abundant sand resources.

  11. The tadpole of Amazophrynella manaos Rojas, Carvalho, Gordo, Ávila, Farias and Hrbek, 2014 (Anura, Bufonidae) from the type locality and adjacent regions at Central Amazonia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Menin, Marcelo; Pegorini, Reysi Jhayne; De Carvalho, Vinicius Tadeu; Rojas, Rommel Roberto; Gordo, Marcelo

    2014-06-30

    The genus Amazophrynella, as currently recognized (Fouquet et al. 2012a, b), is represented by four nominal species (Frost 2014; Rojas et al. 2014) but the tadpoles of only one species, Amazophrynella minuta (Melin) from Ecuador, have been described (Duellman & Lynch 1969; Duellman 1978). Amazophrynella manaos Rojas, Carvalho, Gordo, Ávila, Farias and Hrbek, 2014 occurs in the leaf litter of terra firme forest in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Guiana region (Rojas et al. 2014). The tadpole of this species was briefly described in diagrammatic drawings by Hero (1990) as Dendrophryniscus minutus. Herein, we provide a detailed description of this tadpole based on individuals at 12 stages of development collected in five different sites, including the type locality, at Central Amazonia, Brazil.

  12. Prevalence and Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Near-Neighbor Species in the Malabar Coastal Region of India.

    PubMed

    Peddayelachagiri, Bhavani V; Paul, Soumya; Nagaraj, Sowmya; Gogoi, Madhurjya; Sripathy, Murali H; Batra, Harsh V

    2016-09-01

    Accurate identification of pathogens with biowarfare importance requires detection tools that specifically differentiate them from near-neighbor species. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of a fatal disease melioidosis, is one such biothreat agent whose differentiation from its near-neighbor species is always a challenge. This is because of its phenotypic similarity with other Burkholderia species which have a wide spread geographical distribution with shared environmental niches. Melioidosis is a major public health concern in endemic regions including Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In India, the disease is still considered to be emerging. Prevalence surveys of this saprophytic bacterium in environment are under-reported in the country. A major challenge in this case is the specific identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei from the growing list of species of Burkholderia genus. The objectives of this study included examining the prevalence of B. pseudomallei and near-neighbor species in coastal region of South India and development of a novel detection tool for specific identification and differentiation of Burkholderia species. Briefly, we analyzed soil and water samples collected from Malabar coastal region of Kerala, South India for prevalence of B. pseudomallei. The presumptive Burkholderia isolates were identified using recA PCR assay. The recA PCR assay identified 22 of the total 40 presumptive isolates as Burkholderia strains (22.72% and 77.27% B. pseudomallei and non-pseudomallei Burkholderia respectively). In order to identify each isolate screened, we performed recA and 16S rDNA sequencing. This two genes sequencing revealed that the presumptive isolates included B. pseudomallei, non-pseudomallei Burkholderia as well as non-Burkholderia strains. Furthermore, a gene termed D-beta hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (bdha) was studied both in silico and in vitro for accurate detection of Burkholderia genus. The optimized bdha

  13. Prevalence and Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Near-Neighbor Species in the Malabar Coastal Region of India

    PubMed Central

    Peddayelachagiri, Bhavani V.; Paul, Soumya; Nagaraj, Sowmya; Gogoi, Madhurjya; Sripathy, Murali H.; Batra, Harsh V.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification of pathogens with biowarfare importance requires detection tools that specifically differentiate them from near-neighbor species. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of a fatal disease melioidosis, is one such biothreat agent whose differentiation from its near-neighbor species is always a challenge. This is because of its phenotypic similarity with other Burkholderia species which have a wide spread geographical distribution with shared environmental niches. Melioidosis is a major public health concern in endemic regions including Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In India, the disease is still considered to be emerging. Prevalence surveys of this saprophytic bacterium in environment are under-reported in the country. A major challenge in this case is the specific identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei from the growing list of species of Burkholderia genus. The objectives of this study included examining the prevalence of B. pseudomallei and near-neighbor species in coastal region of South India and development of a novel detection tool for specific identification and differentiation of Burkholderia species. Briefly, we analyzed soil and water samples collected from Malabar coastal region of Kerala, South India for prevalence of B. pseudomallei. The presumptive Burkholderia isolates were identified using recA PCR assay. The recA PCR assay identified 22 of the total 40 presumptive isolates as Burkholderia strains (22.72% and 77.27% B. pseudomallei and non-pseudomallei Burkholderia respectively). In order to identify each isolate screened, we performed recA and 16S rDNA sequencing. This two genes sequencing revealed that the presumptive isolates included B. pseudomallei, non-pseudomallei Burkholderia as well as non-Burkholderia strains. Furthermore, a gene termed D-beta hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (bdha) was studied both in silico and in vitro for accurate detection of Burkholderia genus. The optimized bdha

  14. Meltwater and precipitation runoff to the North Atlantic, Arctic, and Gulf of Mexico from the Laurentide Ice Sheet and adjacent regions during the Younger Dryas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teller, James T.

    1990-12-01

    Runoff from North America may have played a significant role in ocean circulation and climate change during the last deglaciation. Because the driving force behind such changes may have been related to salinity of the north flowing Atlantic Ocean conveyor circulation, it is critical to know the volume, timing, and location of fresh water entering the North Atlantic from the melting Laurentide Ice Sheet. During the Younger Dryas cold episode, 11,000-10,000 years B.P., there was a two-fold increase in the volume of meltwater plus precipitation runoff, to more than 1700 km³ yr-1, flowing through the St. Lawrence valley to the North Atlantic, mainly because retreating ice allowed the glacial Lake Agassiz basin to drain eastward into the Great Lakes at this time. There was a corresponding decline in discharge from Lake Agassiz through the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. Runoff to the Arctic Ocean also increased at about the beginning of the Younger Dryas, from 740 to 900 km³ yr-1, because of the capture of what is now the headwater region of the Mackenzie River watershed. This, in combination with rising sea level and warming climate, may have increased the amount of pack ice reaching the North Atlantic through the Norwegian Sea from the Arctic Ocean. At 10,000 years B.P., eastward overflow from the western interior of North America was blocked by advancing ice, again forcing overflow to the Gulf of Mexico and, possibly, to the northwest into the Arctic Ocean. Although total runoff to the oceans from all regions draining from the Laurentide Ice Sheet did not vary substantially between 12,000 and 9000 years B.P., if discharge to the Gulf of Mexico is excluded, fresh water reaching the North Atlantic averaged 4000 km³ yr-1 during the Younger Dryas, in contrast to 2870 km³ yr-1 just before this cold episode and 3440 km³ yr-1 just after it.

  15. Distribution, risk assessment, and statistical source identification of heavy metals in aqueous system from three adjacent regions of the Yellow River.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoling; Zuo, Hang; Liu, Jingjun; Liu, Ying

    2016-05-01

    Distribution of five heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) and some physicochemical variables were studied from ten sites (S1-S10) in filtered water, suspended particles, and sediment samples from Gansu Province, Ningxia, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions of the Yellow River in Northern China. The results showed that heavy metal concentrations in filtered water were relatively lower, while they were higher and approximated in suspended particles and sediment samples. Metal chemical fractions showed that high proportions of Cd were found in the exchangeable fractions, while others likely to be existed in lithology. Heavy metal pollution index (HPI) indicated that the quality of filtered water was relatively better, and the potential ecological risk index (PERI) revealed that only Cd has the higher ecological risk in suspended particles and sediment samples, which is accordance with the results obtained by the chemical fractions analysis; at the same time, the higher ecological risks existed in S3, S6, S9, and S10 in suspended particles and sediment samples due to the waste emission of a variety of industries. Results of cluster analysis (CA) indicated that contamination sources in the sediment samples were from both natural processes and anthropogenic activities. PMID:26822214

  16. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ming-Li; Yin, Lin-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF). SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  17. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ming-Li; Yin, Lin-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF). SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity. PMID:27314028

  18. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ming-Li; Yin, Lin-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF). SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity. PMID:27314028

  19. New deep ocean Iravadiidae of the genus Ceratia (Caenogastropoda: Truncatelloidea) from an underwater canyon and adjacent regions of
    the southwestern Atlantic (northeastern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Lima, Silvio Felipe B; Júnior, Ivan Cardoso L; Guimarães, Carmen Regina P; Dominguez, José Maria L

    2016-01-14

    Previous studies on the mollusks from Brazilian underwater canyons have addressed the record and description of new species of aplacophorans, bivalves, scaphopods and/or gastropods (Leal & Simone 2000; Absalão 2010; Corrêa et al. 2014). Leal & Simone (2000) described a new bathyal gastropod of the family Pseudococculinidae collected from the continental slope and Doce River Canyon (960 m) off the state of Espírito Santo (southeastern Brazil). Absalão (2010) reported a number of species of gastropods, bivalves and scaphopods from Campos Basin off the state of Rio de Janeiro (southeastern Brazil). It is likely that some of these species reported by Absalão (2010) were collected from underwater canyons in the northern portion of the Campos Basin. Corrêa et al. (2014) recorded two species of aplacophorans of the genus Falcidens Salvini-Plawen, 1968 obtained from the continental slope and underwater canyons of Campos Basin. Certainly more species of mollusks were studied from Brazilian underwater canyons, but not duly mentioned in publications (i.e., the region of canyons may have been referred to as the continental slope or deep sea).

  20. Metagenomics of Water Column Microbes Near Brine Pool NR1 and adjacent regions of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Collected in Fall 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, A. M.; Goodwin, K. D.; Brami, D.; Schwartz, A.; Toledo, G.

    2012-12-01

    High-throughput sequencing was applied to eight water column samples collected from the Gulf of Mexico in 2009 in regions SW and west of the 2010 Macondo oil spill. Samples were collected by Niskin-equipped CTD (~200 and ~650 m depths) at two locations, including a site over a methane brine pool (Brine Pool NR1). In addition, seawater was collected ~3m lateral of the pool (649m depth) via Niskin bottle equipped on the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible. Unassembled reads were submitted to the Synthetic Genomics bioinformatics pipeline for taxonomic analysis. The distribution of Bacteria (56-73%), Archae (7-16%), Eukaryotes (12-23%), and unclassified sequences (6-10%) were similar for all samples. However, certain taxonomic classifications were relatively more abundant in deeper samples, and differences were noted for samples collected by submersible. For example, Methylophaga was classified as 38% of the order Thiotrichales for the Niskin/submersible sample compared to 0% in the 200m-depth samples and 3-11% in the 650m samples. Methylophaga is a genus of indigenous methylotrophs reported to respond during the Deepwater Horizon event of 2010. In contrast, sequence abundance for Oceanospirillales, also reported to respond during the event, was similar for all samples (6-9% of the gamma-proteobacteria).

  1. New deep ocean Iravadiidae of the genus Ceratia (Caenogastropoda: Truncatelloidea) from an underwater canyon and adjacent regions of
    the southwestern Atlantic (northeastern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Lima, Silvio Felipe B; Júnior, Ivan Cardoso L; Guimarães, Carmen Regina P; Dominguez, José Maria L

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the mollusks from Brazilian underwater canyons have addressed the record and description of new species of aplacophorans, bivalves, scaphopods and/or gastropods (Leal & Simone 2000; Absalão 2010; Corrêa et al. 2014). Leal & Simone (2000) described a new bathyal gastropod of the family Pseudococculinidae collected from the continental slope and Doce River Canyon (960 m) off the state of Espírito Santo (southeastern Brazil). Absalão (2010) reported a number of species of gastropods, bivalves and scaphopods from Campos Basin off the state of Rio de Janeiro (southeastern Brazil). It is likely that some of these species reported by Absalão (2010) were collected from underwater canyons in the northern portion of the Campos Basin. Corrêa et al. (2014) recorded two species of aplacophorans of the genus Falcidens Salvini-Plawen, 1968 obtained from the continental slope and underwater canyons of Campos Basin. Certainly more species of mollusks were studied from Brazilian underwater canyons, but not duly mentioned in publications (i.e., the region of canyons may have been referred to as the continental slope or deep sea). PMID:27395545

  2. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in sediments from three adjacent regions of the Yellow River using metal chemical fractions and multivariate analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoling; Zuo, Hang; Tian, Mengjing; Zhang, Liyang; Meng, Jia; Zhou, Xuening; Min, Na; Chang, Xinyuan; Liu, Ying

    2016-02-01

    Metal chemical fractions obtained by optimized BCR three-stage extraction procedure and multivariate analysis techniques were exploited for assessing 7 heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Zn and Ni) in sediments from Gansu province, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions of the Yellow River in Northern China. The results indicated that higher susceptibility and bioavailability of Cr and Cd with a strong anthropogenic source were due to their higher availability in the exchangeable fraction. A portion of Pb, Cd, Co, Zn, and Ni in reducible fraction may be due to the fact that they can form stable complexes with Fe and Mn oxides. Substantial amount of Pb, Co, Ni and Cu was observed as oxidizable fraction because of their strong affinity to the organic matters so that they can complex with humic substances in sediments. The high geo-accumulation indexes (I(geo)) for Cr and Cd showed their higher environmental risk to the aquatic biota. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that high toxic Cr and Cd in polluted sites (Cd in S10, S11 and Cr in S13) may be contributed to anthropogenic sources, it was consistent with the results of dual hierarchical clustering analysis (DHCA), which could give more details about contributing sources.

  3. Coastal Impacts Due to Sea-Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Duncan M.; Fenster, Michael S.; Argow, Britt A.; Buynevich, Ilya V.

    2008-05-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) recently estimated that global sea level will rise from 0.18 to 0.59 m by the end of this century. Rising sea level not only inundates low-lying coastal regions but also contributes to the redistribution of sediment along sandy coasts. Over the long term, sea-level rise (SLR) causes barrier islands to migrate landward while conserving mass through offshore and onshore sediment transport. Under these conditions, coastal systems adjust to SLR dynamically while maintaining a characteristic geometry that is unique to a particular coast. Coastal marshes are susceptible to accelerated SLR because their vertical accretion rates are limited and they may drown. As marshes convert to open water, tidal exchange through inlets increases, which leads to sand sequestration in tidal deltas and erosion of adjacent barrier shorelines.

  4. Exogenous processes study in the coastal zone of the large reservoirs in the archaeological monuments placement (Volga-Kama region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaynullin, Iskander; Usmanov, Bulat

    2014-05-01

    The problem of conservation of archaeological heritage is highly relevant for the Republic of Tatarstan (RT), because in its territory identified, studied and registered around 4,300 archaeological sites. Most of archaeological sites from the Mesolithic to the late Middle Ages, now situated in the coastal zone of reservoirs where archaeological objects destroying because of intensive abrasion processes. The Volga and Kama rivers region attracted people for millennia. This territory of the Russian Plain is abounding in archaeological sites of various ages. During the Upper Paleolithic study region was quite convenient for living activity of the first inhabitants because of its situation out of the glacier limits. The sites on the banks are deposited within deluvial sediments of the Late Valday glaciation which have been accumulated on the slope of the Volga and Kama valleys, placing the third terrace and the segmentations of the second terrace over the flood-plain and now completely or fragmentary destroyed by reservoir waters. The analysis of remote sensing (1958-2013) and field survey (2011-2013) data performed. Georeferencing and alignment of the historical maps with remote sensing data makes possible to reveal mistakes in old site plans and re-create the shape of the destroyed archaeological objects, as well to get the exact size of the monument and its correct orientation. Results showed also that the studying sites caused a great rate of destruction of coastline. Cultural heritage sites monitoring, with information about the chronology, cultural layer value, settlement specifics, etc., taking into account the methods used in landscape ecology and field archaeological survey, allows to evaluate damage and the intensity of archaeological sites destruction through the dangerous exogenous processes estimation. Exogenous processes data and archaeological GIS integration will form unified system of archaeological rescue works, will provide analysis of large amount

  5. Regional variability in bed-sediment concentrations of wastewater compounds, hormones and PAHs for portions of coastal New York and New Jersey impacted by hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Patrick J; Gibson, Catherine A; Fisher, Shawn C; Fisher, Irene J; Reilly, Timothy J; Smalling, Kelly L; Romanok, Kristin M; Foreman, William T; ReVello, Rhiannon C; Focazio, Michael J; Jones, Daniel K

    2016-06-30

    Bed sediment samples from 79 coastal New York and New Jersey, USA sites were analyzed for 75 compounds including wastewater associated contaminants, PAHs, and other organic compounds to assess the post-Hurricane Sandy distribution of organic contaminants among six regions. These results provide the first assessment of wastewater compounds, hormones, and PAHs in bed sediment for this region. Concentrations of most wastewater contaminants and PAHs were highest in the most developed region (Upper Harbor/Newark Bay, UHNB) and reflected the wastewater inputs to this area. Although the lack of pre-Hurricane Sandy data for most of these compounds make it impossible to assess the effect of the storm on wastewater contaminant concentrations, PAH concentrations in the UHNB region reflect pre-Hurricane Sandy conditions in this region. Lower hormone concentrations than predicted by the total organic carbon relation occurred in UHNB samples, suggesting that hormones are being degraded in the UHNB region. PMID:27177500

  6. Regional variability in bed-sediment concentrations of wastewater compounds, hormones and PAHs for portions of coastal New York and New Jersey impacted by hurricane Sandy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick; Gibson, Cathy A; Fisher, Shawn C.; Fisher, Irene; Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly; Romanok, Kristin; Foreman, William; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Focazio, Michael J.; Jones, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    Bed sediment samples from 79 coastal New York and New Jersey, USA sites were analyzed for 75 compounds including wastewater associated contaminants, PAHs, and other organic compounds to assess the post-Hurricane Sandy distribution of organic contaminants among six regions. These results provide the first assessment of wastewater compounds, hormones, and PAHs in bed sediment for this region. Concentrations of most wastewater contaminants and PAHs were highest in the most developed region (Upper Harbor/Newark Bay, UHNB) and reflected the wastewater inputs to this area. Although the lack of pre-Hurricane Sandy data for most of these compounds make it impossible to assess the effect of the storm on wastewater contaminant concentrations, PAH concentrations in the UHNB region reflect pre-Hurricane Sandy conditions in this region. Lower hormone concentrations than predicted by the total organic carbon relation occurred in UHNB samples, suggesting that hormones are being degraded in the UHNB region.

  7. Spatiotemporal patterns and source implications of aromatic hydrocarbons at six rural sites across China's developed coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhou; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Yang, Weiqiang; Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are important anthropogenic precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Here we measured ambient aromatic hydrocarbons from March 2012 to February 2014 at six rural sites in China's developed coastal regions. On average, benzene (B) comprised > 50% of total benzene (B), toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E), and xylenes (X) (BTEX) at sites in the Northeast China Plain (NECP) or in the North China Plain (NCP), whereas T, E, and X accounted for > 77% of total BTEX at sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta in the south. BTEX at the northern sites was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with combustion tracer-carbon monoxide (CO) but weakly correlated with traffic marker-methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), suggesting that their main sources were coal and biofuel/biomass burning with substantially elevated B levels during the winter heating period. In contrast, BTEX at the southern sites originated mainly from traffic-related and/or industrial emission sources, as indicated by the poor correlations with CO but highly significant (p < 0.01) correlations with MTBE and tetrachloroethylene, an industrial emission tracer. The B/CO emission ratios from measurement agreed within a factor of 2 with that of a previous widely used emission inventory of China, but the T/CO ratio at the NECP site and the o-X/CO ratio at the NCP site were 29% and 38% of that in the inventory, respectively; the E/CO and X/CO ratios at the YRD site were 3.2-3.5 fold that in the emission inventory.

  8. Roseovarius marisflavi sp. nov., isolated from an amphioxus breeding zone in the coastal region of the Yellow Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Zhao, Rui; Ji, Shiqi; Shi, Xiaochong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2013-09-01

    A novel Gram stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain H50(T), was isolated from an amphioxus breeding zone in the coastal region of the Yellow Sea, China. Cells were observed to be ovoid or short rods, lacked flagella and were found to contain bacteriochlorophyll a. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate was found to be accumulated. The temperature range for growth was determined to be 0-37 °C (optimum 28-37 °C). The halotolerance range for growth is 1-15 % NaCl (optimum 2-7 %). The pH range for growth is 6.0-8.0 (optimum 7.0). The major fatty acids were identified as C18:1ω7c and C16:0. The following polar lipids were found to be present: diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and a lipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was determined to be Q-10. DNA G+C content was determined to be 57.7 mol%. Strain H50(T) exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Pelagicola litoralis DSM 18290(T) (96.1 %), Roseovarius mucosus DSM 17069(T) (95.8 %) and Roseovarius tolerans DSM 11457(T) (95.7 %). In the phylogenetic trees, strain H50(T) was clustered with the genus Roseovarius but not Pelagicola. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, strain H50(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Roseovarius, for which the name Roseovarius marisflavi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H50(T) (=CGMCC 1.10799(T)=JCM 17553(T)).

  9. Mitigation of Disasters Due to Severe Climate Events: from Policy to Practice,the West African Coastal Region Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ediang, Okuku

    2016-07-01

    The distributive pattern of disaster due to severe climate events over the coast of West Africa especially Nigeria was examined using yearly mean disaster due to severe climatic events for the period of 30 years (1981-2010) from the marine stations in the coastal region of Nigeria. Graphical and isohyetal analyses were used to look into the patter of severe weather events over the area considered and to see if the severe weather events is increasing or not in the coast of West Africa especially the Nigerian coast and how to mitigate ,were policy relating to severe weather events are discussed. The paper conclude that due to the nature of coast of West Africa and Nigeria in particular, it enjoys longer severe weather events season than dry during the wet season, it is common to observe periods of enhanced or suppressed convective activity to persist over the wide areas for somedays. This paper also contributes to the wealth of knowledge already existing on Indigenous people play major roles in preserving the ecosystem especially during severe weather events . This has resulted in the recent calls for the integration of indigenous knowledge systems into global knowledge system strategies. Until now, integrating local knowledge systems into severe weather events and climate change concerns is not a completely new idea. A comprehensive review of literature using electronic and non-electronic databases formed the methodology. The paper conclude also by drawing the attention that by targeting Promoting indigenous people's participation in severe weather events and climate change issues is an important initiative towards adaptation and sustainable development in Africa and around the world. It is increasingly realized that the global knowledge system has dominated research, policies and programmes that address current severe weather events and climate change's challenges,mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  10. Chemistry of sea-salt particles and inorganic halogen species in Antarctic regions: Compositional differences between coastal and inland stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Keiichiro; Osada, Kazuo; Kido, Mizuka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Matsunaga, Katsuji; Iwasaka, Yasunobu; Yamanouchi, Takashi; Hashida, Gen; Fukatsu, Toru

    2004-10-01

    Observations of aerosol constituents and acidic gases in the Antarctic area were carried out at Syowa (39.58°E, 69.00°S) in 1997 and 1998 and Dome Fuji stations (39.62°E, 77.37°S) in 1997. Sea-salt concentrations decreased to background levels in the summer at both Syowa (Na+, ≤4 nmol m-3) and Dome Fuji (Na+, ˜0.44 nmol m-3 on average). During the winter, blizzard and strong wind may cause an increase of sea-salt particles at Syowa, whereas long-range transport from the boundary layer at midlatitudes and coastal Antarctic regions may contribute significantly to the increase in sea-salt particles observed at Dome Fuji. Particulate Cl- and Br- are liberated preferentially from sea-salt particles at Syowa and Dome Fuji in the summer. The molar ratio of Cl-/Na+ and Br-/Na+ at Syowa decreased to ˜0.5 and ≈0, respectively, in summer. At Dome Fuji more Cl- tend to be liberated from sea-salt particles thorough heterogeneous NO3- formation. The concentrations of gaseous chlorine species (mostly HCl) and bromine species ranged from 0.2 to 5.3 nmol m-3 and below detection limit (BDL) to 1.5 nmol m-3, respectively, corresponding to sea-salt modification. In the present study, SO42- depletion due to mirabilite formation was observed not only at Syowa but also at Dome Fuji. This evidence suggests that SO42- depletion might occur through sublimation on snow surfaces in addition to seawater freezing. At Syowa, sea-salt fractionation relating to Mg2+, K+, and Ca2+ was also observed mostly under strong wind conditions.

  11. Ambient air benzene at background sites in China's most developed coastal regions: exposure levels, source implications and health risks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-04-01

    Benzene is a known human carcinogen causing leukemia, yet ambient air quality objectives for benzene are not available in China. The ambient benzene levels at four background sites in China's most developed coastal regions were measured from March 2012 to February 2013. The sites are: SYNECP, in the Northeast China Plain (NECP); YCNCP, in the North China Plain (NCP); THYRD, in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and DHPRD, in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). It was found that the mean annual benzene levels (578-1297 ppt) at the background sites were alarmingly higher, especially when compared to those of 60-480 pptv monitored in 28 cities in the United States. Wintertime benzene levels were significantly elevated at both sites (SYNECP and YCNCP) in northern China due to heating with coal/biofuels. Even at these background sites, the lifetime cancer risks of benzene (1.7-3.7E-05) all exceeded 1E-06 set by USEPA as acceptable for adults. At both sites in northern China, good correlations between benzene and CO or chloromethane, together with much lower toluene/benzene (T/B) ratios, suggested that benzene was largely related to coal combustion and biomass/biofuel burning. At the DHPRD site in the PRD, benzene revealed a highly significant correlation with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), indicating that its source was predominantly from vehicle emissions. At the THYRD site in the YRD, higher T/B ratios and correlations between benzene and tetrachloroethylene, or MTBE, implied that benzene levels were probably affected by both traffic-related and industrial emissions.

  12. The effect of sea-water intrusion due to the large scale construction in a coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, S.; Jin, S.; Woo, N. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, H.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    This study was carried out for estimating the seawater intrusion at the disturbed aquifer by a large scale construction when building a power plant in a coastal region, located in southeastern part of the Korean peninsula. Groundwater sampling and vertical profiling of electrical conductivity(EC) for 8 monitoring wells were carried. EC profiling results shows that maximum EC for PW-5, 6 and 7 is over 40 mS/cm, for PZ-1, 3, 4 and 8 is 18.76, 4.46, 26.16, 21.42 mS/cm and for PZ-2 is 0.79 mS/cm,respectively. Chemical composition of water samples shows that water types of Na-Cl for PZ-5, 6, and 7 (excavated and backfilled area), Na-Cl-SO4 for PZ-4 and PZ-8, Na-Ca-Mg-Cl for PZ-1, Ca-Na-SO4-Cl for PZ-2, and Mg-Ca-Na-SO4 for PZ-3. In addition, the bivariate plot of SO4/Cl(meq ratios) and SO4(mmol/L) indicates that PZ-4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 appear to be seawater, PZ-1 is located at mixing zone between freshwater and seawater, and PZ-2 is freshwater. However, based on the high SO42- level and (HCO3-/Sum anions} ratio less than 0.8, groundwater at PZ-3 seems to show the gypsum dissolution. The gypsum dissolution was attributed to the effect of sea-water intrusion on ageing of lean concrete that was used for backfill around the PZ-3. Key words : large scale construction, EC profiling, hydrochemistry, sea-water intrusion, concrete ageing Acknowledgement This study has been carried out under the Nuclear R&D Program [No. 2010-0001070] supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Republic of Korea.

  13. Roseovarius marisflavi sp. nov., isolated from an amphioxus breeding zone in the coastal region of the Yellow Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Zhao, Rui; Ji, Shiqi; Shi, Xiaochong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2013-09-01

    A novel Gram stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain H50(T), was isolated from an amphioxus breeding zone in the coastal region of the Yellow Sea, China. Cells were observed to be ovoid or short rods, lacked flagella and were found to contain bacteriochlorophyll a. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate was found to be accumulated. The temperature range for growth was determined to be 0-37 °C (optimum 28-37 °C). The halotolerance range for growth is 1-15 % NaCl (optimum 2-7 %). The pH range for growth is 6.0-8.0 (optimum 7.0). The major fatty acids were identified as C18:1ω7c and C16:0. The following polar lipids were found to be present: diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and a lipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was determined to be Q-10. DNA G+C content was determined to be 57.7 mol%. Strain H50(T) exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Pelagicola litoralis DSM 18290(T) (96.1 %), Roseovarius mucosus DSM 17069(T) (95.8 %) and Roseovarius tolerans DSM 11457(T) (95.7 %). In the phylogenetic trees, strain H50(T) was clustered with the genus Roseovarius but not Pelagicola. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, strain H50(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Roseovarius, for which the name Roseovarius marisflavi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H50(T) (=CGMCC 1.10799(T)=JCM 17553(T)). PMID:23828179

  14. Quality of shallow groundwater and drainage water in irrigated agricultural lands in a Mediterranean coastal region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Odemiş, Berkant; Bozkurt, Sefer; Ağca, Necat; Yalçin, Mehmet

    2006-04-01

    Spatial and seasonal differences in water quality of drainage water and unconfined shallow groundwater were related to irrigation in Samandağ, a Mediterranean coastal region. Eighteen wells, seven drainage points and Orontes River were monitored bimonthly for one year for analyses of electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), cations (Na, K, Ca + Mg) and anions (CO(3), HCO(3), Cl and SO(4)). Agricultural irrigation using saline groundwater decreased water quality of Orontes River during the irrigation season (May to September) more than during the non-irrigation season (October to April). Seasonal fluctuations in water quality of shallow groundwater were greater during the irrigation season than the non-irrigation season in the study area. Excessive use of groundwater resulted in a decline in the water table levels in the irrigation season. Water table level rose up to the soil surface in areas where there was a lack of drainage or poor drainage, due to the impact of precipitation in the winter. SAR and pH values of drainage water increased in the irrigation season, while the other properties of drainage water decreased. Irrigation water quality of Orontes River was classified as C(3)S(1) in both seasons. Irrigation water quality of shallow groundwater and drainage water varied from C(2)S(1) to C(4)S(2) in one year. Drainage and well waters were found to be different on yearly basis in terms of Na, SAR (p<0.01) and Ca + Mg concentrations (p<0.001). Ca + Mg concentrations for both sources were different for all sampling dates (p<0.001). PMID:16614781

  15. Gains from trans-boundary water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems: a case study for the Minho region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roebeling, P. C.; Brito, A. G.; Rocha, J.; Alves, H.; Mamede, J.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide, aquatic and coastal ecosystems are affected by point and diffuse source water pollution originating from rural, urban and industrial land uses in catchments, even though these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental and economic perspective. Integrated Catchment and Coastal Zone Management (ICCZM) specifically takes into account this inherent relationship between terrestrial land use, surface and ground water pollution, aquatic and coastal ecosystem state, and associated environmental values. To warrant sustainable regional economic development, we need to balance the marginal costs from terrestrial water pollution abatement and the associated marginal benefits from aquatic and coastal resource appreciation. In doing so, however, we need to differentiate between intra- and trans-boundary catchments because benefactors and beneficiaries from water quality improvement are not one and the same. In trans-boundary catchments, private (national) welfare maximizing rates of water quality improvement differ across nations as benefits from water quality improvement generally accrue to one nation while the costs are paid by multiple nations. While approaches for water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems are fairly recent though existent, water quality management in trans-boundary catchments poses additional challenges. The objective of this paper is to develop and apply a deterministic optimal control approach that allows us to explore private and social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems. For a case study of the Minho region in the Iberian Peninsula, we estimate nation-specific water pollution abatement cost (based on management practice adoption) and benefit (based on aquatic and coastal environmental values) functions, to determine as well as compare private (national) and social (trans-national) welfare maximizing rates of water

  16. NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's coastal resources on a state, regional and national basis. Based on NCA monitoring from 1999-2001, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters (at over 2500 locati...

  17. NIMBUS-7 CZCS. Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery for Selected Coastal Regions. North America - Europe. South America - Africa - Antarctica. Level 2 Photographic Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) is the first spacecraft instrument devoted to the measurement of ocean color. Although instruments on other satellites have sensed ocean color, their spectral bands, spatial resolution, and dynamic range were optimized for geographical or meteorological use. In the CZCS, every parameter is optimized for use over water to the exclusion of any other type of sensing. The signal-to-noise ratios in the spectral channels sensing reflected solar radiance are higher than those required in the past. These ratios need to be high because the ocean is such a poor reflecting surface that the majority of the signal seen by the reflected energy channels at spacecraft altitudes is backscattered solar radiation from the atmosphere rather than reflected solar energy from the ocean. The CZCS is a conventional multichannel scanning radiometer utilizing a rotating plane mirror at a 45 deg angle to the optic axis of a Cassegrain telescope. The mirror scans 360 deg; however, only 80 deg of data centered on the spacecraft nadir is collected for ocean color measurements. Spatial resolution at spacecraft nadir is 825x825 m with some degradation at the edges of the scan swath. The useful swath width from a spacecraft altitude of 955 km is 1600 km.

  18. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaroli, Clara; Perini, Luisa; Calabrese, Lorenzo; Ciavola, Paolo; Salerno, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    In the last years a large number of catastrophic events have occurred along worldwide coastlines (e.g.: 2012 Super-storm Sandy, US East Coast). European countries have to face similar calamities such as those caused by the recent Xaver cyclone (December 2013). The Emilia-Romagna coastline, Italy, along the North Adriatic Sea, is affected by storms that cause extensive damages. The coast has low elevations, is highly urbanised and there is a massive presence of defence structures. The area is micro-tidal (neap/spring tide ranges = 0.4/0.8 m), low energetic (65% Hs<=1 m) but subjected to significant surge levels (1 year return period = 0.85 m). Therefore an evaluation of the vulnerability of the coastal area is an urgent matter. The Regional Geological Survey has completed an analysis of three scenarios of damage produced by the concurrent happening of a marine storm and high surge levels (1-in-1, 10, 100 year return period) and high spring tidal levels (+0.45 m MSL). Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along the whole coastline (on 187 equally spaced profiles extracted from LIDAR datasets). The result is a list of ten typology of different levels of damage obtained through the comparison between the computed water levels, for each scenario and along each profile, and the topography/human occupation of the coast. The assessment reveals that 60% of the coastline is vulnerable to the 1-in-1 year return period scenario, thus even modal meteorological conditions can generate significant losses. A comparison was made between the produced typologies and the actual damage caused by a recent storm and the correspondence is almost identical, underlining that the method is reliable. Because the above-mentioned methodology is only punctual, the Geological Survey has started a different evaluation of the areal extension of inundations. The methodology considers the concurrent happening of the same return period storms but in terms of wave set-up only (not including

  19. Monitoring habitat restoration projects: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Pacific Region Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program and Coastal Program Protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Hollar, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Pacific Region (Region 1) includes more than 158 million acres (almost 247,000 square miles) of land base in Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Hawai`i, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Guam, the Republic of Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Region 1 is ecologically diverse with landscapes that range from coral reefs, broadleaf tropical forests, and tropical savannahs in the Pacific Islands, to glacial streams and lakes, lush old-growth rainforests, inland fjords, and coastal shoreline in the Pacific Northwest, to the forested mountains, shrub-steppe desert, and native grasslands in the Inland Northwest. Similarly, the people of the different landscapes perceive, value, and manage their natural resources in ways unique to their respective regions and cultures. The Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program (Partners Program) and Coastal Program work with a variety of partners in Region 1 including individual landowners, watershed councils, land trusts, Soil and Water Conservation Districts, non-governmental organizations, Tribal governments, Native Hawaiian organizations, and local, State, and Federal agencies. The Partners Program is the FWS's vanguard for working with private landowners to voluntarily restore and conserve fish and wildlife habitat. Using non-regulatory incentives, the Partners Program engages willing partners to conserve and protect valuable fish and wildlife habitat on their property and in their communities. This is accomplished by providing the funding support and technical and planning tools needed to make on-the-ground conservation affordable, feasible, and effective. The primary goals of the Pacific Region Partners Program are to: Promote citizen and community-based stewardship efforts for fish and wildlife conservation Contribute to the recovery of at-risk species, Protect the environmental integrity of the National Wildlife

  20. Near-Surface Phytoplankton Pigment from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner in the Subantarctic Region Southeast of New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banse, Karl; English, David C.

    1997-01-01

    Primarily based on satellite images, the phytoplankton concentration southeast (down- stream) of New Zealand in the High Nitrate - Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) Subantarctic water between the Subtropical Convergence (STC) and the Polar Front (PF) is believed to be higher than in the remainder of the Pacific Sector. Iron enrichment is assumed to be the reason, To study the question, near-surface phytoplankton pigment estimates from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner for up to 7 yr were reprocessed with particular attention to interference by clouds. Monthly mean images were created for the U,S. JGOFS Box along 170 deg W and means for individual dates calculated for 7 large areas between 170 deg E and 160 deg W, 45 deg and 58 deg S, well offshore of New Zealand and principally between and away from the STC and PF. The areal means are about as low as in other HNLC regions (most values between 0.1 and 0.4 or 0.5 mg/ sq m, with very few winter images; median of seasonal means, 0.26 mg/sq m) except at times near the STC, The higher means tend to occur in late summer and autumn, However, contrary to expectations, neither the PF nor the environs of the Subantarctic Front are distinguished by a zone of increased pigment. Also, of 24 spring-summer images of oceanic islands in mostly pigment-poor water, 17 yielded no recognizable elevated pigment; islands were 5 times surrounded by approximately doubled concentrations (ca 100 km in diameter), and 2 cases may have been associated with an extensive bloom. Inspection of offshore images showed concentrations of 1 greater than or equal to(up to 5) mg/sq m in rare patches of 65 to 200 km size on approximately one-tenth of the dates; such patches were not seen in Sub-antarctic waters of the eastern Pacific Sector. A case is made for Australian airborne iron supply being the cause that, presumably, would enhance large-celled phytoplankton. Since, however, the putative iron supply from the seabed around the oceanic islands or the near

  1. Two-way multi-band optical/IR transmission measurements in the Persian Gulf coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Arie N.; Fritz, Peter J.

    2005-10-01

    The atmospheric conditions in the Persian Gulf region are significantly different from other places in the world. The particle size distribution may vary daily and during the day. The aerosols can contribute to the amount of rainfall over land, important for the nations around the Gulf. In 2004 NASNGSFC and NRL (Naval Research Laboratory) introduced a proposal to improve the modelling of aerosol transport for the Persian Gulf area. The proposal included a measurement campaign in the UAE (United Arabian Emirates), held in the summer/fall of 2004, sponsored by the DWRS (Department of Water Resources Studies) in Abu Dhabi: UAEz (Unified Aerosol Experiment in the UAE). In this campaign NASA installed a number of multi-spectral sun-photometers at various locations in the UAE (http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov). NRL installed ground based and airborne particle samplers. In addition, TNO (the Netherlands) installed its multi-band opticaUIR transmissometer, in order to collect horizontal, path-integrated transmission data. This device provides additional information on the scattering behaviour of the aerosols compared to the other instruments, which either integrate scattering over the full vertical path (the NASA sun-photometers, providing the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)) or sample the particles in-situ (the NRL particle samplers, providing size distribution and composition). This paper deals with our transmission measurement set-up, which was located in a coastal area near Abu Dhabi. This location allowed the investigation of the local variability of the atmospheric conditions: from desert dust to pollution, such as fossil fuel and biomass burning, depending on the wind direction. For logistic reasons a set-up was chosen with a retro-reflector. This choice implies consequences for the calibration procedure and measurement accuracy, which are discussed in detail. Also the effects of path-inhomogeneity and scintillation for such a two-way set-up are considered. Results are

  2. The amdR product and a CCAAT-binding factor bind to adjacent, possibly overlapping DNA sequences in the promoter region of the Aspergillus nidulans amdS gene.

    PubMed Central

    van Heeswijck, R; Hynes, M J

    1991-01-01

    The amdS gene of Aspergillus nidulans is regulated by a number of positively acting regulatory genes which act additively and independently. Using gel mobility shift assays with crude nuclear extracts we show here that the product of one of these regulatory genes, the amdR gene, binds to DNA fragments containing part of the promoter region of the amdS gene. This confirms the earlier prediction from DNA sequence data that amdR encodes a DNA-binding protein containing a cysteine-rich 'zinc finger' motif. In addition we detected the binding of another previously unidentified protein to an adjacent, possibly overlapping region of the amdS 5' sequence at the site of a consensus 'CCAAT-box' sequence. Replacement of the CCAAT sequence with CCTTT abolished the binding of this protein which we have designated as an A. nidulans 'CCAAT-box' binding factor (AnCF). The 'CCAAT-box' sequence appears to be involved in determining the basal level of transcription of amdS (T.G.Littlejohn and M.J.H., unpublished data). This suggests that AnCF is a transcription factor, and that the 'CCAAT-box' sequences found in the promoters of some filamentous fungal genes function as binding sites for these factors, as in other eucaryotes. Images PMID:2041742

  3. The amdR product and a CCAAT-binding factor bind to adjacent, possibly overlapping DNA sequences in the promoter region of the Aspergillus nidulans amdS gene.

    PubMed

    van Heeswijck, R; Hynes, M J

    1991-05-25

    The amdS gene of Aspergillus nidulans is regulated by a number of positively acting regulatory genes which act additively and independently. Using gel mobility shift assays with crude nuclear extracts we show here that the product of one of these regulatory genes, the amdR gene, binds to DNA fragments containing part of the promoter region of the amdS gene. This confirms the earlier prediction from DNA sequence data that amdR encodes a DNA-binding protein containing a cysteine-rich 'zinc finger' motif. In addition we detected the binding of another previously unidentified protein to an adjacent, possibly overlapping region of the amdS 5' sequence at the site of a consensus 'CCAAT-box' sequence. Replacement of the CCAAT sequence with CCTTT abolished the binding of this protein which we have designated as an A. nidulans 'CCAAT-box' binding factor (AnCF). The 'CCAAT-box' sequence appears to be involved in determining the basal level of transcription of amdS (T.G. Littlejohn and M.J.H., unpublished data). This suggests that AnCF is a transcription factor, and that the 'CCAAT-box' sequences found in the promoters of some filamentous fungal genes function as binding sites for these factors, as in other eucaryotes.

  4. Regional Risk Assessment for the analysis of the risks related to storm surge extreme events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Europe's coast faces a variety of climate change threats from extreme high tides, storm surges and rising sea levels. In particular, it is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels, thus posing higher risks to coastal locations currently experiencing coastal erosion and inundation processes. In 2007 the European Commission approved the Flood Directive (2007/60/EC), which has the main purpose to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks for inland and coastal areas, thus reducing the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activities. Improvements in scientific understanding are thus needed to inform decision-making about the best strategies for mitigating and managing storm surge risks in coastal areas. The CLIMDAT project is aimed at improving the understanding of the risks related to extreme storm surge events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea (Italy), considering potential climate change scenarios. The project implements a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology developed in the FP7 KULTURisk project for the assessment of physical/environmental impacts posed by flood hazards and employs the DEcision support SYstem for Coastal climate change impact assessment (DESYCO) for the application of the methodology to the case study area. The proposed RRA methodology is aimed at the identification and prioritization of targets and areas at risk from water-related natural hazards in the considered region at the meso-scale. To this aim, it integrates information about extreme storm surges with bio-geophysical and socio-economic information (e.g. vegetation cover, slope, soil type, population density) of the analyzed receptors (i.e. people, economic activities, cultural heritages, natural and semi-natural systems). Extreme storm surge hazard scenarios are defined using tide gauge time series coming from 28 tide gauge

  5. Agriculture and future riverine nitrogen export to US coastal regions: Insights from the Nutrient Export from WaterSheds Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine contemporary (2000) and future (2030) estimates of coastal N loads in the continental US by the Nutrient Export from WaterSheds (NEWS) model. Future estimates are based on Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) scenarios and two additional scenarios that reflect “...

  6. High resolution field monitoring in coastal wetlands of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic to support quantification of storm surge attenuation at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquier, A. E.; Haddad, J.; Lawler, S.; Garzon Hervas, J. L.; Ferreira, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy (2012) demonstrated the vulnerability of the US East Coast to extreme events, and motivated the exploration of resilient coastal defenses that incorporate both hard engineering and natural strategies such as the restoration, creation and enhancement of coastal wetlands and marshes. Past laboratory and numerical studies have indicated the potential of wetlands to attenuate storm surge, and have demonstrated the complexity of the surge hydrodynamic interactions with wetlands. Many factors control the propagation of surge in these natural systems including storm characteristics, storm-induced hydrodynamics, landscape complexity, vegetation biomechanical properties and the interactions of these different factors. While previous field studies have largely focused on the impact of vegetation characteristics on attenuation processes, few have been undertaken with holistic consideration of these factors and their interactions. To bridge this gap of in-situ field data and to support the calibration of storm surge and wave numerical models such that wetlands can be correctly parametrized on a regional scale, we are carrying out high resolution surveys of hydrodynamics (pressure, current intensity and direction), morphology (topo-bathymetry, micro-topography) and vegetation (e.g. stem density, height, vegetation frontal area) in 4 marshes along the Chesapeake Bay. These areas are representative of the ecosystems and morphodynamic functions present in this region, from the tidal Potomac marshes to the barrier-island back-bays of the Delmarva Peninsula. The field monitoring program supports the investigation of the influence of different types of vegetation on water level, swell and wind wave attenuation and morphological evolution during storm surges. This dataset is also used to calibrate and validate numerical simulations of hurricane storm surge propagation at regional and local scales and to support extreme weather coastal resilience planning in the region

  7. A five-year study of coastal recirculation and its effect on air pollutants over the East Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Ilan; Dayan, Uri; Mahrer, Yitzhak

    2008-08-01

    Many studies have shown that air pollutants concentrations in coastal cities may be gravely affected by coastal recirculation. In this study an attempt is made to examine the properties of coastal recirculation over a long period (5 yrs) at multiple sites along the East Mediterranean Sea (EMS). For this purpose, a single station quantitative measure of horizontal recirculation is used based on wind field measurements over periods of 1-96 hrs. The horizontal recirculation is examined with respect to the integration time period, synoptic flow, seasonality, coastline variations, elevation, and air pollutants concentrations. The interaction between synoptic and mesoscales is shown to be a governing factor by allowing or overruling the land sea breeze winds. Favorite conditions for coastal recirculation are shown to be light or variable winds such as under a Cole or a High-Pressure system. The monthly distribution of the recirculation potential has a bimodal behavior with two peaks during the transitional seasons and October in particular. This is as a result of the annual cycle of night-time land-sea temperature difference driving the land breeze and the more frequent passage of synoptic scale flows with an easterly wind component at the EMS. Two factors leading to variations along the coastline are the urban heat island, weakening the breeze winds and reducing recirculation potential, and the concaved shape of the southern shoreline that causes a convergence and strengthening of the land breeze, thus supporting recirculation. The primary pollutants NOx and SO2 have the highest concentrations during weak daily mean wind speeds. O3 levels depict an almost opposite image of NOx, with higher values for both high and low recirculation, possibly resulting from either long range transport or coastal recirculation.

  8. Previously unrecognized regional structure of the Coastal Belt of the Franciscan Complex, northern California, revealed by magnetic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.; Wentworth, C.M.; McLaughlin, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic anomalies provide surprising structural detail within the previously undivided Coastal Belt, the westernmost, youngest, and least-metamorphosed part of the Franciscan Complex of northern California. Although the Coastal Belt consists almost entirely of arkosic graywacke and shale of mainly Eocene age, new detailed aeromagnetic data show that it is pervasively marked by long, narrow, and regularly spaced anomalies. These anomalies arise from relatively simple tabular bodies composed principally of magnetic basalt or graywacke confined mainly to the top couple of kilometers, even though metamorphic grade indicates that these rocks have been more deeply buried, at depths of 5–8 km. If true, this implies surprisingly uniform uplift of these rocks. The basalt (and associated Cretaceous limestone) occurs largely in the northern part of the Coastal Belt; the graywacke is recognized only in the southern Coastal Belt and is magnetic because it contains andesitic grains. The magnetic grains were not derived from the basalt, and thus require a separate source. The anomalies define simple patterns that can be related to folding and faulting within the Coastal Belt. This apparent simplicity belies complex structure mapped at outcrop scale, which can be explained if the relatively simple tabular bodies are internally deformed, fault-bounded slabs. One mechanism that can explain the widespread lateral extent of the thin layers of basalt is peeling up of the uppermost part of the oceanic crust into the accretionary prism, controlled by porosity and permeability contrasts caused by alteration in the upper part of the subducting slab. It is not clear, however, how this mechanism might generate fault-bounded layers containing magnetic graywacke. We propose that structural domains defined by anomaly trend, wavelength, and source reflect imbrication and folding during the accretion process and local plate interactions as the Mendocino triple junction migrated north, a

  9. Previously unrecognized regional structure of the Coastal Belt of the Franciscan Complex, northern California, revealed by magnetic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, Victoria; Jachens, Robert C.; Wentworth, Carl M.; McLaughlin, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic anomalies provide surprising structural detail within the previously undivided Coastal Belt, the westernmost, youngest, and least-metamorphosed part of the Franciscan Complex of northern California. Although the Coastal Belt consists almost entirely of arkosic graywacke and shale of mainly Eocene age, new detailed aeromagnetic data show that it is pervasively marked by long, narrow, and regularly spaced anomalies. These anomalies arise from relatively simple tabular bodies composed principally of magnetic basalt or graywacke confi ned mainly to the top couple of kilometers, even though metamorphic grade indicates that these rocks have been more deeply buried, at depths of 5–8 km. If true, this implies surprisingly uniform uplift of these rocks. The basalt (and associated Cretaceous limestone) occurs largely in the northern part of the Coastal Belt; the graywacke is recognized only in the southern Coastal Belt and is magnetic because it contains andesitic grains. The magnetic grains were not derived from the basalt, and thus require a separate source. The anomalies defi ne simple patterns that can be related to folding and faulting within the Coastal Belt. This apparent simplicity belies complex structure mapped at outcrop scale, which can be explained if the relatively simple tabular bodies are internally deformed, fault-bounded slabs. One mechanism that can explain the widespread lateral extent of the thin layers of basalt is peeling up of the uppermost part of the oceanic crust into the accretionary prism, controlled by porosity and permeability contrasts caused by alteration in the upper part of the subducting slab. It is not clear, however, how this mechanism might generate fault-bounded layers containing magnetic graywacke. We propose that structural domains defined by anomaly trend, wavelength, and source reflect imbrication and folding during the accretion process and local plate interactions as the Mendocino triple junction migrated north, a

  10. Disease-Associated SNPs From non-Coding Regions in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Are Located Within or Adjacent to Functional Genomic Elements of Human Neutrophils and CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Kaiyu; Zhu, Lisha; Buck, Michael J.; Chen, Yanmin; Carrier, Bradley; Liu, Tao; Jarvis, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is considered a complex trait in which the environm