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Sample records for adjacent coastal sea

  1. A regional ocean reanalysis system for coastal waters of China and adjacent seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guijun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xuefeng; Li, Dong; He, Zhongjie; Wang, Xidong; Wu, Xinrong; Yu, Ting; Ma, Jirui

    2011-05-01

    A regional ocean reanalysis system for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been developed by the National Marine Data and Information Service (NMDIS). It produces a dataset package called CORA (China ocean reanalysis). The regional ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model with a generalized coordinate system (POMgcs). The model is parallelized by NMDIS with the addition of the wave breaking and tidal mixing processes into model parameterizations. Data assimilation is a sequential three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) scheme implemented within a multigrid framework. Observations include satellite remote sensing sea surface temperature (SST), altimetry sea level anomaly (SLA), and temperature/salinity profiles. The reanalysis fields of sea surface height, temperature, salinity, and currents begin with January 1986 and are currently updated every year. Error statistics and error distributions of temperature, salinity and currents are presented as a primary evaluation of the reanalysis fields using sea level data from tidal gauges, temperature profiles, as well as the trajectories of Argo floats. Some case studies offer the opportunity to verify the evolution of certain local circulations. These evaluations show that the reanalysis data produced provide a good representation of the ocean processes and phenomena in the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  2. A new version of regional ocean reanalysis for coastal waters of China and adjacent seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guijun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Xidong; Wu, Xinrong; Fu, Hongli; Zhang, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Lianxin; Li, Dong

    2013-07-01

    A new regional ocean reanalysis over multiple decades (1958-2008) for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been completed by the National Marine Data and Information Service (NMDIS) under the CORA (China Ocean ReAnalysis) project. Evaluations were performed on three aspects: (1) the improvement of general reanalysis quality; (2) eddy structures; and (3) decadal variability of sea surface height anomalies (SSHAs). Results showed that the quality of the new reanalysis has been enhanced beyond ˜40% (39% for temperature, 44% for salinity) in terms of the reduction of root mean squared errors (RMSEs) for which the reanalysis values were compared to observed values in the observational space. Compared to the trial version released to public in 2009, the new reanalysis is able to reproduce more detailed eddy structures as seen in satellite and in situ observations. EOF analysis of the reanalysis SSHAs showed that the new reanalysis reconstructs the leading modes of SSHAs much better than the old version. These evaluations suggest that the new CORA regional reanalysis represents a much more useful dataset for the community of the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  3. Overview of the Pre-YMC2015 campaign over the southwestern coastal land and adjacent sea of Sumatera Island, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shuichi; Katsumata, Masaki; Yoneyama, Kunio; Suzuki, Kenji; Hayati, Noer; Syamsudin, Fadli

    2016-04-01

    An international research project named Years of the Maritime Continent (YMC) is planned during 2017-2019 to expedite the progress of improving understanding and prediction of local multi-scale variability of the Maritime Continent (MC) weather-climate system and its global impact through observations and modeling exercises. We carried out a campaign observation over the southwestern coastal land and adjacent sea of Sumatera Island, Indonesia, during November-December 2015 as a pilot study of the YMC to examine land-ocean coupling processes in mechanisms of coastal heavy rain band (CHeR) along Sumatera Island and further potential scientific themes in the coming YMC. We deployed two land observation sites at Bengkulu city (3.86S, 102.34E) in the southwestern coast of Sumatera Island with various kinds of instruments including an X-band dual polarimetric (DP) radar and a C-band Doppler radar, and the R/V Mirai approximately 50 km southwest (4.07S, 101.90E) of the land stations with a C-band DP radar. We made 3 hourly soundings at Bengkulu and the R/V Mirai during 09 November - 25 December (47 days) and 24 November - 17 December (24 days), respectively. In addition, 18 videosondes observations, which could identify precipitation particles by an onboard camera in and out of rainclouds, were performed under heavy rainfall condition to examine cloud microphysical processes as well as simultaneous RHI observations with the Mirai DP radar. Whereas rainfall amount during the period was less than that of climatological view due to the Godzilla El-Nino event in this rainy season, we found concrete diurnal variation with thunderstorms in the evening along the foothills of coastal land and widely spread stratiform precipitation mainly over the adjacent sea due to the passage of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) convection with strong westerly wind in the lower troposphere during the former and latter halves of the campaign period, respectively. Diurnally developed thunderstorms

  4. Impact of adjacent land use on coastal wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Jurasinski, Gerald; Peticzka, Robert; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-15

    Coastal wetlands link terrestrial with marine ecosystems and are influenced from both land and sea. Therefore, they are ecotones with strong biogeochemical gradients. We analyzed sediment characteristics including macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Ni) of two coastal wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis at the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain, a lagoon system at the Southern Baltic Sea, to identify the impact of adjacent land use and to distinguish between influences from land or sea. In the wetland directly adjacent to cropland (study site Dabitz) heavy metal concentrations were significantly elevated. Fertilizer application led to heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of the adjacent wetland zones. In contrast, at the other study site (Michaelsdorf), where the hinterland has been used as pasture, heavy metal concentrations were low. While the amount of macronutrients was also influenced by vegetation characteristics (e.g. carbon) or water chemistry (e.g. sulfate), the accumulation of heavy metals is regarded as purely anthropogenic influence. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on the sediment data showed that the wetland fringes of the two study sites are not distinguishable, neither in their macronutrient status nor in their concentrations of heavy metals, whereas the interior zones exhibit large differences in terms of heavy metal concentrations. This suggests that seaside influences are minor compared to influences from land. Altogether, heavy metal concentrations were still below national precautionary and action values. However, if we regard the macronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the wetland fringes as the natural background values, an accumulation of trace elements from agricultural production in the hinterland is apparent. Thus, coastal wetlands bordering croplands may function as effective pollutant buffers today, but the future development has to be monitored closely to avoid

  5. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  6. Mercury Export from Mainland China to Adjacent Seas and Its Influence on the Marine Mercury Balance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Maodian; Chen, Long; Wang, Xuejun; Zhang, Wei; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Xie, Han; Shen, Huizhong; Ye, Xuejie; Deng, Chunyan; Wang, Huanhuan

    2016-06-21

    Exports from mainland China are a significant source of mercury (Hg) in the adjacent seas (Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea) near China. A total of 240 ± 23 Mg was contributed in 2012 (30% from natural sources and 70% from anthropogenic sources), including Hg from rivers, industrial wastewater, domestic sewage, groundwater, nonpoint sources, and coastal erosion. Among the various sources, the Hg from rivers amounts to 160 ± 21 Mg and plays a dominant role. The Hg that is exported from mainland China increased from 1984 to 2013; the contributions from rivers, industrial wastewater, domestic sewage and groundwater increased, and the contributions from nonpoint sources and coastal erosion remained stable. A box model is constructed to simulate the mass balance of Hg in these seas and quantify the sources, sinks and Hg biogeochemical cycle in the seas. In total, 160 Mg of Hg was transported to the Pacific Ocean and other oceans from these seas through oceanic currents in 2012, which could have negative impacts on the marine ecosystem. A prediction of the changes in Hg exportation through 2030 shows that the impacts of terrestrial export might worsen without effective pollution reduction measures and that the Hg load in these seas will increase, especially in the seawater of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea and in the sea margin sediments of the Bohai Sea and East China Sea. PMID:27243109

  7. Flow and transport within a coastal aquifer adjacent to a stratified water body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oz, Imri; Yechieli, Yoseph; Eyal, Shalev; Gavrieli, Ittai; Gvirtzman, Haim

    2016-04-01

    The existence of a freshwater-saltwater interface and the circulation flow of saltwater beneath the interface is a well-known phenomenon found at coastal aquifers. This flow is a natural phenomenon that occurs due to density differences between fresh groundwater and the saltwater body. The goals of this research are to use analytical, numerical, and physical models in order to examine the configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interface and the density-driven flow patterns within a coastal aquifer adjacent to long-term stratified saltwater bodies (e.g. meromictic lake). Such hydrological systems are unique, as they consist of three different water types: the regional fresh groundwater, and low and high salinity brines forming the upper and lower water layers of the stratified water body, respectively. This research also aims to examine the influence of such stratification on hydrogeological processes within the coastal aquifer. The coastal aquifer adjacent to the Dead Sea, under its possible future meromictic conditions, serves as an ideal example to examine these processes. The results show that adjacent to a stratified saltwater body three interfaces between three different water bodies are formed, and that a complex flow system, controlled by the density differences, is created, where three circulation cells are developed. These results are significantly different from the classic circulation cell that is found adjacent to non-stratified water bodies (lakes or oceans). In order to obtain a more generalized insight into the groundwater behavior adjacent to a stratified water body, we used the numerical model to perform sensitivity analysis. The hydrological system was found be sensitive to three dimensionless parameters: dimensionless density (i.e. the relative density of the three water bodies'); dimensionless thickness (i.e. the ratio between the relative thickness of the upper layer and the whole thickness of the lake); and dimensionless flux. The results

  8. Seasonal dynamics of circulation in Hooghly Estuary and its adjacent coastal oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Shashank Kr.; Nayak, Gourav; Nayak, R. K.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    Hooghly is one of the major estuaries in Ganges, the largest and longest river in the Indian subcontinent. The Hooghly estuary is a coastal plain estuary lying approximately between 21°-23° N and 87°-89° E. We used a terrain following ocean model to study tide driven residual circulations, seasonal mean flow patterns and its energetics in the Hooghly estuary and adjacent coastal oceans on the north eastern continental shelf of India. The model is driven by tidal levels at open ocean end and winds at the air-sea interface. The sources of forcing fields for tides were from FES2012, winds from ECMWF. Harmonic analysis is carried out to compute the tidal and non-tidal components of currents and sea level from the model solutions. The de-tidal components were averaged for the entire period of simulation to describe residual and mean-seasonal circulations in the regions. We used tide-gauge, SARAL-ALTIKA along track sea level measurements to evaluate model solutions. Satellite measure Chla were used along with simulated currents to describe important features of the circulations in the region.

  9. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  10. Dynamics of sea level variations in the coastal Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, James; Abulnaja, Yasser; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard; Lentz, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. While considerable scientific work has been directed at tidal and seasonal variations of Red Sea water level, very little attention has been given to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods of 2-30 d, even though motions in this band account for roughly half of the sea level variance in central Red Sea. We examined the sea level signal in this band using AVISO sea level anomaly (SLA) data, COARDAS wind data and measurements from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the SLA data indicates that longer-period (10-30 d) sea level variations in the intermediate band are dominated by coherent motions in a single mode that extends over most of the Red Sea axis. Idealized model results indicate that this large-scale mode of sea level motion is principally due to variations in the large-scale gradient of the along-axis wind. Our analysis indicates that coastal sea level motions at shorter periods (2-10 d) are principally generated by a combination of direct forcing by the local wind stress and forcing associated with large-scale wind stress gradients. However, also contributing to coastal sea level variations in the intermediate frequency band are mesoscale eddies, which are prevalent throughout the Red Sea basin, have a sea level signal of 10's of cm and produce relatively small-scale (order 50 km) changes in coastal sea level.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen at Perdido Bay and Adjacent Coastal Ocean

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC), a numerical estuarine and coastal ocean circulation hydrodynamic model, was used to simulate the distribution of the salinity, temperature, nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Perdido Bay and adjacent Gulf of Mexico. External forcing fa...

  12. Sea Level Rise National Coastal Property Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of sea level rise on coastal properties depends critically on the human response to the threat, which in turn depends on several factors, including the immediacy of the risk, the magnitude of property value at risk, options for adapting to the threat and the cost of th...

  13. Sea Level Rise Coastal Property Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of sea level rise on coastal properties depends critically on the human response to the threat, which in turn depends on several factors, including the immediacy of the risk, the magnitude of property value at risk, options for adapting to the threat and the cost of th...

  14. Multisensor monitoring of sea surface state of the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrova, Olga; Mityagina, Marina; Bocharova, Tatina

    Results of many-year monitoring of the state of coastal zone based on a multisensor approach are presented. The monitoring is aimed at solving the following tasks: operational mapping of parameters characterizing the state and pollution (coastal, ship and biogenic) of water; analysis of meteorological state and its effect on the drift and spread of pollutants; study of coastal circulation patterns and their impact on the drift and spread of pollutants; deriving typical pollution distribution patterns in the coastal zone.Processing and analysis is performed using data in visual, infrared and microwave ranges from ERS-2 SAR, Envisat ASAR/MERIS, Terra and Aqua MODIS and NOAA AVHRR instruments. These are complimented with ground data from meteorological stations on the shore and results of satellite data processing of previous periods. The main regions of interest are the Russian sectors of the Black and Azov Seas, southeastern part of the Baltic Sea, and northern and central regions of the Caspian Sea. Adjacent coasts are extremely populated and have well-developed industry, agriculture and rapidly growing tourist sectors. The necessity of constant monitoring of the sea state there is obvious.The monitoring activities allow us to accumulate extensive material for the study of hydrodynamic processes in the regions, in particular water circulation. Detailing the occurrence, evolution and drift of smalland meso-scale vortex structures is crucial for the knowledge of the mechanisms determining mixing and circulation processes in the coastal zone. These mechanisms play an important role in ecological, hydrodynamic and meteorological status of a coastal zone. Special attention is paid to the sea surface state in the Kerch Strait, where a tanker catastrophe took place on November 11, 2007 causing a spillage of over 1.5 thousand tons of heavy oil. The Kerch Strait is characterized by a complex current system with current directions changing to their opposites depending on

  15. NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN LOADING SOURCES FOR THREE COASTAL LAGOONS FROM ATMOSPHERIC AND WATERSHED SOURCES, ADJACENT COASTAL MARSHES, TIDAL EXCHANGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract and Oral Presentation Gulf Estuarine Research Society.

    Standing stocks and inputs of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) to three coastal lagoons, hereafter referred to as Kee's Bayou, Gongora, and State Park, with varying adjacent land-use, geomorphology, and water re...

  16. Macrobenthos of Yenisei Bay and the adjacent Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. V.; Vedenin, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Trawl samples were collected in the northern region of Yenisei Bay and adjacent parts of the Kara Sea shelf. A total of eight stations were taken. We found more than 200 species of benthic organisms. A consecutive replacement of benthic communities is observed when going to the north from the Ob and Yenisei estuaries to the open parts of the sea. We could distinguish four different species complexes in the investigated area: a brackish-water complex where Saduria entomon is dominant; an intermediate complex where S. sibirica, S. sabini and Portlandia aestuariorum are dominant; a transitional complex with P. arctica as a dominant species and with a small amount of Ophiocten sericeum; a marine complex where O. sericeum is dominant. When salinity increased, some brackish-water species were replaced by related euryhaline species. One such example was the replacement of brackish-water Saduria entomon isopods by two euryhaline species: S. sibirica and S. sabini. The consecutive replacement of benthic communities showed a break near Sverdrup Island. In this area the marine complex was replaced by a transitional complex with P. arctica.

  17. 78 FR 14411 - Notice of Proposed Policy Clarification Concerning Designation of Adjacent Coastal States for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... provided.\\23\\ \\22\\ 40 FR 52401 (Nov. 10, 1975). \\23\\ See 33 CFR 2.1(a) (``The purpose of this part is to... internal waters, to a belt of sea adjacent to its coast, described as a territorial sea.'' \\10\\ Article...

  18. Sea-level rise and coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Blankespoor, Brian; Dasgupta, Susmita; Laplante, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    This paper seeks to quantify the impact of a1-m sea-level rise on coastal wetlands in 86 developing countries and territories. It is found that approximately 68 % of coastal wetlands in these countries are at risk. A large percentage of this estimated loss is found in Europe and Central Asia, East Asia, and the Pacific, as well as in the Middle East and North Africa. A small number of countries will be severely affected. China and Vietnam(in East Asia and the Pacific), Libya and Egypt (in the Middle East and North Africa), and Romania and Ukraine (in Europe and Central Asia) will bear most losses. In economic terms, the loss of coastal wetlands is likely to exceed $703 million per year in 2000 US dollars. PMID:24659473

  19. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  3. Studying the impact of climate change on coastal aquifers and adjacent wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigter, Tibor; Ribeiro, Luís.; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Samper, Javier; Fakir, Younes; Fonseca, Luís.; Monteiro, José Paulo; Nunes, João. Pedro; Pisani, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    program, assessing the impact of climate change on coastal groundwater resources and dependent ecosystems. These resources are often intensively exploited, potentially leading to saltwater intrusion and the degradation of groundwater and dependent wetlands. Climate change may increase this problem in Mediterranean regions, due to the combined effect of rising sea levels and decreasing aquifer recharge. CLIMWAT aims to address this problem by employing a multimethodological approach involving climate scenarios, surface and groundwater flow and transport modeling, as well as hydrochemical indicator and ecological diversity indices. Research is performed in three coastal areas: the Central Algarve in Portugal, the Ebro delta in Spain and the Atlantic Sahel in Morocco. The mean annual temperatures are 17.4 ° C, 17.2 ° C and 17.5 ° C, respectively, whereas mean annual rainfall is lower in the Atlantic Sahel (390 mm) than in the Ebro Delta (520 mm) and the Central Algarve (660 mm). Work package (WP) 1 involves the collection of existing data (in a GIS environment), baseline characterization and the selection of monitoring locations. These include wells and springs of official (water level/quality) monitoring networks, as well as additional observation points selected at strategic locations, including the wetlands receiving groundwater and adjacent aquifer sectors. In WP2 the climate scenarios are selected and integrated in hydrological models (SWAT, GISBALAN), which are developed and calibrated with existing data, prior to scenario modeling. The main focus of this WP is to estimate the evolution of surface runoff and groundwater recharge under climate change. Data on climate change scenarios and model projections are compiled from: (i) the PRUDENCE project; (ii) the ENSEMBLES project; (iii) IPCC scenarios and projections, AR4; (iv) AEMet (Spanish Meteorological Agency) for generation of regional scenarios of climate change in Spain. For Morocco, where runoff is

  4. The Potential Effect of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Property Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, J.

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that one consequence of increasing global sea level is that the frequency of flooding at low-lying coastal sites will increase. We review recent evidence that the effects coastal geometry will create substantial spatial variations in the changes in flooding frequency with scales of order 100km. Using a simple model of the evolution of coastal property values we demonstrate that a consequence of sea level rise is that the appreciation of coastal properties will peak, and then decline relative to higher properties. The time when the value reach a maximum is shown to depend upon the demand for the coastal property, and the local rate of change of flooding frequency due to sea level rise. The simple model is then extended to include, in an elementary manner, the effects on the value of adjacent but higher properties. We show that the effect of increased flooding frequency of the lower properties leads to an accelerated appreciation of the value of upland properties and an accelerated decline in the value of the coastal properties. We then provide some example calculations for selected sites. We conclude with a discussion of comparisons of the prediction of the analyses to recent data, and then comments on the impact of sea level rise on tax base of coastal communities.

  5. Coastal subsidence and relative sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface fluid-pressure declines caused by pumping of groundwater or hydrocarbons can lead to aquifer-system compaction and consequent land subsidence. This subsidence can be rapid, as much as 30 cm per year in some instances, and large, totaling more than 13 m in extreme examples. Thus anthropogenic subsidence may be the dominant contributor to relative sea-level rise in coastal environments where subsurface fluids are heavily exploited. Maximum observed rates of human-induced subsidence greatly exceed the rates of natural subsidence of unconsolidated sediments (~0.1–1 cm yr−1) and the estimated rates of ongoing global sea-level rise (~0.3 cm yr−1).

  6. Editorial: Eutrophication and hypoxia and their impacts on the ecosystem of the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Xiao, Tian; Huang, Daji; Liu, Su Mei; Fang, Jianguang

    2016-02-01

    The Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary plays an important role in the land-ocean interactions of East Asia, particularly in regard to the fate of land-derived materials and their impact on marine ecosystems in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The 12 papers included in this special issue describe results from the MEcoPAM Study, an IMBER-China project, which occurred in 2011-2015. This project used a multi-disciplinary approach to understand ecosystem function of the Changjiang Estuary in response to multiple stressors (i.e. combined external forcings). The results presented here show that human activities in the watersheds have greatly changed the flux and variation of dissolved and particulate materials from the river. Further interactions between the Changjiang Watersheds and the East China Sea can dramatically modify the pathways of biogeochemistry and food web dynamics of the estuary and adjacent coastal environment at seasonal and inter-annual scales.

  7. Pelagic ciliate communities within the Amundsen Sea polynya and adjacent sea ice zone, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yong; Liu, Qian; Yang, Eun Jin; Wang, Min; Kim, Tae Wan; Cho, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, SangHoon

    2016-01-01

    Polynyas, areas of open water surrounded by sea ice, are sites of intense primary production and ecological hotspots in the Antarctic Ocean. This study determined the spatial variation in communities of pelagic ciliates in an Amundsen Sea polynya (ASP) and adjacent sea ice zones (SIZ) during austral summer from February to March 2012, and the results were compared with biotic and abiotic environmental factors. The species number, abundance and biomass were higher in the ASP than SIZ. Canonical analysis indicated that the communities in the ASP were distinct from those under the sea ice. The pelagic ciliate community structure was closely correlated with environmental variability. Several primary environmental variables, both alone and in combination, were found to affect community spatial patterns. The ciliate biomasses in the ASP and SIZ areas were both significantly correlated with total and nano-Chl a. This analysis of the ciliated microzooplankton communities associated with high primary production provides new insights into the roles of ciliates in biogeochemical cycles in high-latitude polynyas. Additionally, our findings provide detailed data on the composition, distribution, and structure of polynya ciliate communities in the Amundsen Sea.

  8. Controlling factors of summer phytoplankton community in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary and adjacent East China Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhibing; Chen, Jianfang; Zhou, Feng; Shou, Lu; Chen, Quanzhen; Tao, Bangyi; Yan, Xiaojun; Wang, Kui

    2015-06-01

    We analyzed the composition and distribution of phytoplankton in relation to physicochemical factors in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary and adjacent East China Sea shelf in June and August 2009. Diatoms and dinoflagellates dominated the community, particularly in eutrophic inshore waters controlled by the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW), coastal current, and upwelling. However, high densities of cyanobacteria and cryptophytes were observed in the oligotrophic offshore waters influenced by the Taiwan Warm Current (TWC) and Kuroshio. In June, the northeastward CDW plume combined with the Yellow Sea Coastal Current induced algal bloom in the northern part of the CE. In August, the enhanced CDW formed two narrow, low-salinity tongues that extended eastward and southward (associated with the upwelling and coastal current), resulting in phytoplankton blooms off the CE and in the Zhejiang coastal waters, respectively. Phytoplankton abundance in August was considerably higher than in June, with increased solar radiation, CDW, and upwelling. The maximum abundance occurred on the surface in inshore turbid waters and on the subsurface (5-30 m) in offshore clear waters with increased stratification. Based on multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis, we found appreciable spatio-temporal variations in algal community composition. Different ecological groups corresponded with hydrographic distributions. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that nutrients, salinity, temperature, and suspended particulate matter were the main variables associated with community distribution. We suggest that the variations in summer phytoplankton community are highly correlated with the significant monthly and spatial variability in physicochemical properties, which are primarily controlled by the CDW and TWC.

  9. An interdisciplinary study of the estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The synoptic repetitive coverage of the multispectral imagery from the ERTS-1 satellite, when photographically reprocessed using the state-of-the-art techniques, has given indication of spectral differences in Block Island and adjacent New England waters which were heretofore unknown. Of particular interest was the possible detection of relatively small amounts of phytoplankton prior to the occurrence of the red tide in Massachusetts waters. Preparation of spatial and temporal hydrographic charts using ERTS-1 imagery and ground truth analysis will hopefully determine the environmental impact on New York coastal waters.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Western Region: Coastal ecosystem responses to influences from land and sea, Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Sea otters and the nearshore ecosystems they inhabit-from highly urbanized California to relatively pristine Alaska-are the focus of a new multidisciplinary study by scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and a suite of international, academic and government collaborators. The Coastal Ecosystem Responses to Influences from Land and Sea project will investigate the many interacting variables that influence the health of coastal ecosystems along the Northeast Pacific shore. These ecosystems face unprecedented challenges, with threats arising from the adjacent oceans and lands. From the ocean, challenges include acidification, sea level rise, and warming. From the land, challenges include elevated biological, geological and chemical pollutants associated with burgeoning human populations along coastlines. The implications of these challenges for biological systems are only beginning to be explored. Comparing sea otter population status indicators from around the northeastern Pacific Rim, will begin the process of defining factors of coastal ecosystem health in this broad region.

  11. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  12. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  13. Correlation of sea level falls interpreted from atoll stratigraphy with turbidites in adjacent basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, J.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Past sea levels can be derived from any atoll subsurface sediments deposited at or near sea level by determining the ages of deposition and correcting the present depths to the sediments for subsidence of the underlying edifice since the times of deposition. A sea level curve constructed by this method consists of discontinuous segments, each corresponding to a period of rising relative sea level and deposition of a discrete sedimentary package. Discontinuities in the sea level curve derived by this method correspond to relative sea level falls and stratigraphic hiatuses in the atoll subsurface. During intervals of relative sea level fall an atoll emerges to become a high limestone island. Sea level may fluctuate several times during a period of atoll emergence to become a high limestone island. Sea level may fluctuate several times during a period of atoll emergence without depositing sediments on top of the atoll. Furthermore, subaerial erosion may remove a substantial part of the depositional record of previous sea level fluctuations. For these reasons the authors must look to the adjacent basins to complement the incomplete record of sea level change recorded beneath atolls. During lowstands of sea level, faunas originally deposited near sea level on an atoll may be eroded and redeposited as turbidites in deep adjacent basins. Three such turbidites penetrated during deep-sea drilling at Sites 462 and 315 in the central Pacific correlate well with a late Tertiary sea level curve based on biostratigraphic ages and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr chronostratigraphy for core from Enewetak Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands. Further drilling of the archipelagic aprons adjacent to atolls will improve the sea level history that may be inferred from atoll stratigraphy.

  14. Paleoenvironments and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation of southwestern Alabama and adjacent coastal water area

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1984-09-01

    Upper Jurassic Norphlet sediments in southwestern Alabama and the adjacent coastal water area accumulated under arid climatic conditions. The Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States extended into southwestern Alabama, providing a barrier for air and water circulation during Norphlet deposition. Norphlet paleogeography was dominated by a broad desert plain rimmed to the north and east by the Appalachians and to the south by a developing shallow sea. Initiation of Norphlet sedimentation was a result of erosion of the southern Appalachians. Norphlet conglomerates were deposited in coalescing alluvial fans in proximity to an Appalachian source. The conglomeratic sandstones grade downdip into red-bed lithofacies that accumulated in distal portions of alluvial fan and wadi systems. Quartzose sandstones (Denkman Member) were deposited as dune and interdune sediments on a broad desert plain. The source of the sand was the updip and adjacent alluvial fan, plain, and wadi deposits. A marine transgression was initiated late in Denkman deposition, resulting in the reworking of previously deposited Norphlet sediments. Norphlet hydrocarbon potential in southwestern and offshore Alabama is excellent with four oil and gas fields already established. Petroleum traps discovered to date are primarily structural traps involving salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines, and extensional fault traps associated with salt movement. Reservoir rocks consist of quartzose sandstones, which are principally eolian in origin. Smackover algal carbonate mudstones were probably the source for the Norphlet hydrocarbons.

  15. Metal elements in the bottom sediments of the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent continental shelf of the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lu; Hong, Gi Hoon; Liu, Sumei

    2015-06-15

    The metal elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Ca) in the bottom sediment of the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent continental shelf of the East China Sea were studied to map their spatial distribution and to assess their potential risk to the marine biota. These metal concentrations except Ca were generally higher in the inner shelf and northeastern part, and were found to decrease from the coast to the offshore of the Changjiang Estuary. Sedimentary Ca was most abundant in the outer shelf sediments and decreased in inner shelf. Arsenic (As) appeared to be contaminated due to economic development from 1980s in the inner shelf overall, but the potential ecological risk from the selected metals was low in the coastal sea off the Changjiang. PMID:25869200

  16. Seasonal sea surface temperature anomaly prediction for coastal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Charles A.; Pegion, Kathy; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Alexander, Michael A.; Tommasi, Desiree; Bond, Nicholas A.; Fratantoni, Paula S.; Gudgel, Richard G.; Kristiansen, Trond; O'Brien, Todd D.; Xue, Yan; Yang, Xiasong

    2015-09-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are often both leading indicators and important drivers of marine resource fluctuations. Assessment of the skill of SST anomaly forecasts within coastal ecosystems accounting for the majority of global fish yields, however, has been minimal. This reflects coarse global forecast system resolution and past emphasis on the predictability of ocean basin-scale SST variations. This paper assesses monthly to inter-annual SST anomaly predictions in coastal "Large Marine Ecosystems" (LMEs). We begin with an analysis of 7 well-observed LMEs adjacent to the United States and then examine how mechanisms responsible for prediction skill in these systems are reflected in predictions for LMEs globally. Historical SST anomaly estimates from the 1/4° daily Optimal Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature reanalysis (OISST.v2) were first found to be highly consistent with in-situ measurements for 6 of the 7 U.S. LMEs. Thirty years of retrospective forecasts from climate forecast systems developed at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (CM2.5-FLOR) and the National Center for Environmental Prediction (CFSv2) were then assessed against OISST.v2. Forecast skill varied widely by LME, initialization month, and lead but there were many cases of high skill that also exceeded that of a persistence forecast, some at leads greater than 6 months. Mechanisms underlying skill above persistence included accurate simulation of (a) seasonal transitions between less predictable locally generated and more predictable basin-scale SST variability; (b) seasonal transitions between different basin-scale influences; (c) propagation of SST anomalies across seasons through sea ice; and (d) re-emergence of previous anomalies upon the breakdown of summer stratification. Globally, significant skill above persistence across many tropical systems arises via mechanisms (a) and (b). Combinations of all four mechanisms contribute to less prevalent but nonetheless

  17. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France were mapped with regard to natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. The mesoscale thermal features of the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea were also studied. The evolution of the thermal gradients generated by the main estuaries of the French coastal zones was investigated along with the modeling of diurnal heating of the sea surface and its influence on the oceanic surface layers.

  18. Soil Carbon Storage and Turnover in an Old-Growth Coastal Redwood Forest and Adjacent Prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, K. J.; Torn, M. S.; Mambelli, S.; Dawson, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests store lots of carbon in aboveground tree biomass because redwoods are very long-lived and can grow very large. Redwood is known for its high resistance to decay, a result of high levels of aromatic compounds (tannins) in the tree’s tissues. We tested the hypothesis that because coastal redwoods are highly productive and produce organic matter that is chemically resistant to decay, old-growth redwood forests should store large amounts of stabilized soil carbon. We measured soil C storage to 110 cm depth in an old-growth coastal redwood forest and used physical soil fractionation combined with radiocarbon measurements to determine soil organic matter turnover time. In addition, we measured soil C storage and turnover at an adjacent prairie experiencing the same climate and with soils derived from the same parent material. We found larger soil C stocks to 110 cm at the prairie (350 Mg C ha-1) than the redwood forest (277 Mg C ha-1) even with O-horizons included for the forest. Larger N stocks were also observed at the prairie than the redwood and these differences in stocks were driven by higher C and N concentrations in mineral soils at the prairie. Differences between ecosystems in soil C and N concentrations, C:N ratios, and C and N stocks were observed for the top 50 cm only, suggesting that the influence of the different litter types did not extend to deeper soils. Contrary to what was expected, bulk soil and heavy density-fraction Δ14C values were higher, indicating shorter turnover times, for the redwood forest than the prairie. In summary, we did not observe greater C storage or 14C-based turnover times in old-growth redwood forest compared to adjacent prairie, suggesting chemical recalcitrance of litter inputs does not drive soil C stabilization at these ecosystems.

  19. Sediment transport off the Huanghe (Yellow River) delta and in the adjacent Bohai Sea in winter and seasonal comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zuosheng; Ji, Youjun; Bi, Naishuang; Lei, Kun; Wang, Houjie

    2011-07-01

    Based on the data on the current velocity, water temperature, salinity, turbidity and concentration of suspended sediment collected in November 2006 along three survey transects at three time-series, ship-based stations off the Huanghe (Yellow River) delta, and at twenty-four grid survey stations in the adjacent Bohai Sea, sediment transport off the Huanghe delta and in the adjacent Bohai Sea under winter regime were studied and compared with those from the summer season. The homogeneous distribution of salinity, temperature and sediment in the water column indicated a well-mixed body of water. A zone of high suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) >100 mg l -1 with a width of 35 km was identified along the delta coast. Two highest SSC centers were found in the surface and middle water layers around the abandoned Diaokou Huanghe river mouth and the present Huanghe river mouth, and the third one in the bottom layer around the abandoned Qingshuigou Huanghe river mouth. These three highest SSC centers become major sediment source areas in winter. Based on the location of the high bottom shear stress zone, the prevailing wave directions and the protuberant topography of the river mouths, we identified the resuspension origin of the three highest SSC centers caused mostly by the winter storm waves, partially by tidal currents. Suspended sediment flux (SSF) along the three coastal transects indicated that the sediment in the northwest part of the delta was transported northeastward and southeastward along the coast of the recent delta lobe. The SSC and SSF were higher in winter than summer by 1.7-27.1 and 2-122.5 times, respectively, except around the present river mouth. This indicates that the intensity of sediment transport in winter is much stronger than in summer due to the powerful effect of winter storms although the river water and sediment discharges to the sea were much greater in summer. The massive Huanghe sediment to the sea was accumulated in a narrow

  20. Coastal Impact Underestimated From Rapid Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John; Milliken, Kristy; Wallace, Davin; Rodriguez, Antonio; Simms, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    A primary effect of global warming is accelerated sea level rise, which will eventually drown low-lying coastal areas, including some of the world's most populated cities. Predictions from the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggest that sea level may rise by as much as 0.6 meter by 2100 [Solomon et al., 2007]. However, uncertainty remains about how projected melting of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets will contribute to sea level rise. Further, considerable variability is introduced to these calculations due to coastal subsidence, especially along the northern Gulf of Mexico (see http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/sltrends/sltrends.shtml).

  1. Cadmium in the Coastal Upwelling Area Adjacent to the California Mexico Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segovia-Zavala, J. A.; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, F.; Alvarez-Borrego, S.

    1998-04-01

    Cadmium concentrations ([Cd]) were measured in samples from the water column of the coastal upwelling zone adjacent to the California - Mexico border. Temperature and nutrient distributions showed an intense upwelling event during our sampling. Lowest [Cd] were found at locations offshore (50 km) (0·03-0·058 nM), whereas the maximum concentrations were found inshore (0·14-0·166 nM). Both nutrients and [Cd] were enriched in coastal waters. Our inshore [Cd] values are about 25% of those reported for waters off central California. This is possibly due to the intrusion of oligotrophic waters from the eastern edge of the North Pacific Central Gyre to the Southern California Bight. Multivariate analysis indicates that high [Cd]s were associated with high phytoplankton biomass, nutrients and low temperature. Our data present no evidence of a [Cd] gradient due to the San Diego and Tijuana sewage discharges, which indicates that they maintain a very local effect.

  2. Explaining trends and variability in coastal relative sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederikse, Thomas; Riva, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Comprehensive understanding of trends and variability in coastal mean sea level is vital for protecting shores under a changing climate. To understand the behavior of coastal relative sea level (RSL), it is crucial to identify all relevant processes. We combine data from various geophysical models and observations to determine whether the trends and decadal variability observed in relative sea level at tide gauges can be explained by the sum of all known contributors. A key contributor to RSL is vertical land motion, which is caused by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), solid earth response to surface loading, tectonics, and local effects. We explicitly model low-frequency loading effects to correct GPS records, which leads to a more consistent trend than only using GIA models. Secondly, we create sea level fingerprints based on estimates of ice melt and changes in land hydrology, which provide the RSL contribution due to large-scale mass transport. Since coastal areas are often located on shallow continental shelves, steric effects will generally be small, and a large fraction of the decadal sea level variability will have a remote steric origin. Therefore, we determine a relation between coastal sea level and deep sea steric variability. For the period 1950-2012, we find that for many locations, including the European coast, the observed and modeled RSL time series agree well on decadal and secular scales.

  3. Transforming management of tropical coastal seas to cope with challenges of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Sale, Peter F; Agardy, Tundi; Ainsworth, Cameron H; Feist, Blake E; Bell, Johann D; Christie, Patrick; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Mumby, Peter J; Feary, David A; Saunders, Megan I; Daw, Tim M; Foale, Simon J; Levin, Phillip S; Lindeman, Kenyon C; Lorenzen, Kai; Pomeroy, Robert S; Allison, Edward H; Bradbury, R H; Corrin, Jennifer; Edwards, Alasdair J; Obura, David O; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne J; Samoilys, Melita A; Sheppard, Charles R C

    2014-08-15

    Over 1.3 billion people live on tropical coasts, primarily in developing countries. Many depend on adjacent coastal seas for food, and livelihoods. We show how trends in demography and in several local and global anthropogenic stressors are progressively degrading capacity of coastal waters to sustain these people. Far more effective approaches to environmental management are needed if the loss in provision of ecosystem goods and services is to be stemmed. We propose expanded use of marine spatial planning as a framework for more effective, pragmatic management based on ocean zones to accommodate conflicting uses. This would force the holistic, regional-scale reconciliation of food security, livelihoods, and conservation that is needed. Transforming how countries manage coastal resources will require major change in policy and politics, implemented with sufficient flexibility to accommodate societal variations. Achieving this change is a major challenge - one that affects the lives of one fifth of humanity. PMID:24997002

  4. Scenario simulations of future salinity and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea and adjacent North Sea areas–implications for environmental monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Vuorinen, Ilppo; Hänninen, Jari; Rajasilta, Marjut; Laine, Päivi; Eklund, Jan; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Corona, Francesco; Junker, Karin; Meier, H.E.Markus; Dippner, Joachim W.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial ecological changes occurred in the 1970s in the Northern Baltic during a temporary period of low salinity (S). This period was preceded by an episodic increase in the rainfall over the Baltic Sea watershed area. Several climate models, both global and regional, project an increase in the runoff of the Northern latitudes due to proceeding climate change. The aim of this study is to model, firstly, the effects on Baltic Sea salinity of increased runoff due to projected global change and, secondly, the effects of salinity change on the distribution of marine species. The results suggest a critical shift in the S range 5–7, which is a threshold for both freshwater and marine species distributions and diversity. We discuss several topics emphasizing future monitoring, modelling, and fisheries research. Environmental monitoring and modelling are investigated because the developing alternative ecosystems do not necessarily show the same relations to environment quality factors as the retiring ones. An important corollary is that the observed and modelled S changes considered together with species’ ranges indicate what may appear under a future climate. Consequences could include a shift in distribution areas of marine benthic foundation species and some 40–50 other species, affiliated to these. This change would extend over hundreds of kilometres, in the Baltic Sea and the adjacent North Sea areas. Potential cascading effects, in coastal ecology, fish ecology and fisheries would be extensive, and point out the necessity to develop further the “ecosystem approach in the environmental monitoring”. PMID:25737660

  5. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310 Section 165.1310 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  6. FISH-MEDIATED NUTRIENT AND ENERGY EXCHANGE BETWEEN A LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND AND ITS ADJACENT BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little has been done to quantify fluxes of organisms, nutrients, and energy between freshwater coastal habitats and adjacent offshore waters or to evaluate the ecological implications of these exchanges on a whole-lake basis. To test the hypothesis that fish-mediated transport m...

  7. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  8. Seasonal coastal sea level prediction using a dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Peter C.; Church, John A.; Miles, Elaine R.; Ridgway, Ken; Spillman, Claire M.

    2015-08-01

    Sea level varies on a range of time scales from tidal to decadal and centennial change. To date, little attention has been focussed on the prediction of interannual sea level anomalies. Here we demonstrate that forecasts of coastal sea level anomalies from the dynamical Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA) have significant skill throughout the equatorial Pacific and along the eastern boundaries of the Pacific and Indian Oceans at lead times out to 8 months. POAMA forecasts for the western Pacific generally have greater skill than persistence, particularly at longer lead times. POAMA also has comparable or greater skill than previously published statistical forecasts from both a Markov model and canonical correlation analysis. Our results indicate the capability of physically based models to address the challenge of providing skillful forecasts of seasonal sea level fluctuations for coastal communities over a broad area and at a range of lead times.

  9. A numerical study of the plume in Cape Fear River Estuary and adjacent coastal ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, M.; Xia, L.; Pietrafesa, L. J.

    2006-12-01

    Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE), located in southeast North Carolina, is the only river estuary system in the state which is directly connected to the Atlantic Ocean. It is also an important nursery for economically and ecologically important juvenile fish, crabs, shrimp, and other species because of the tidal influence and saline waters. In this study, Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) is used to simulate the salinity plume and trajectory distribution at the mouth of the CFRE and adjacent coastal ocean. Prescribed with the climatological freshwater discharge rates in the rivers, the modeling system was used to simulate the salinity plume and trajectory distribution distribution in the mouth of the CFRE under the influence of climatological wind conditions and tidal effect. We analyzed the plume formation processes and the strong relationship between the various plume distributions with respect to the wind and river discharge in the region. The simulations also indicate that strong winds tend to reduce the surface CFRE plume size and distorting the bulge region near the estuary mouth due to enhanced wind induced surface mixing. Even moderate wind speeds could fully reverse the buoyancy-driven plume structure in CFRE under normal river discharge conditions. Tide and the river discharge also are important factors to influence the plume structure. The comparions between the distribution of salinity plume and trajectory also are discussed in the study.

  10. Particle release transport in Danshuei River estuarine system and adjacent coastal ocean: a modeling assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Bo; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Kimura, Nobuaki; Hsu, Ming-Hsi

    2010-09-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was created to study the Danshuei River estuarine system and adjacent coastal ocean in Taiwan. The model was verified using measurements of the time-series water surface elevation, tidal current, and salinity from 1999. We conclude that our model is consistent with these observations. Our particle-tracking model was also used to explore the transport of particles released from the Hsin-Hai Bridge, an area that is heavily polluted. The results suggest that it takes a much longer time for the estuary to be flushed out under low freshwater discharge conditions than with high freshwater discharge. We conclude that the northeast and southwest winds minimally impact particle dispersion in the estuary. The particles fail to settle to the bottom in the absence of density-induced circulation. Our model was also used to simulate the ocean outfall at the Bali. Our experimental results suggest that the tidal current dominates the particle trajectories and influences the transport properties in the absence of a wind stress condition. The particles tend to move northeast or southwest along the coast when northeast or southwest winds prevail. Our data suggest that wind-driven currents and tidal currents play important roles in water movement as linked with ocean outfall in the context of the Danshuei River. PMID:19680754

  11. Monitoring Coastal Embankment Subsidence and Relative Sea Level Rise in Coastal Bangladesh Using Satellite Geodetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q.; Shum, C. K.; Jia, Y.; Yi, Y.; Zhu, K.; Kuo, C. Y.; Liibusk, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Bangladesh Delta is located at the confluence of the mega Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghan Rivers in the Bay of Bengal. It is home to over 160 million people and is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is prone to seasonal transboundary monsoonal flooding, potentially aggravated by more frequent and intensified cyclones resulting from anthropogenic climate change. Sea level rise, along with tectonic, sediment compaction/load and groundwater extraction induced land uplift/subsidence, have significantly exacerbated these risks and Bangladesh's coastal vulnerability. Bangladesh has built 123 coastal embankments or polders since the 1960's, to protect the coastal regions from cyclone/tidal flooding and to reduce salinity incursions. Since then, many coastal polders have suffered severe erosion and anthropogenic damage, and require repairs or rebuilding. However, the physical and anthropogenic processes governing the historic relative sea level rise and its future projection towards its quantification remain poorly understood or known, and at present not accurate enough or with an adequately fine local spatial scale for practical mitigation of coastal vulnerability or coastal resilience studies. This study reports on our work in progress to use satellite geodetic and remote sensing observations, including satellite radar altimetry/backscatter measurements over land and in coastal oceans, optical/infrared imageries, and SAR backscatter/InSAR data, to study the feasibility of coastal embankment/polder erosion monitoring, quantify seasonal polder water intrusions, observing polder subsidence, and finally, towards the goal of improving the relative sea level rise hazards assessment at the local scale in coastal Bangladesh.

  12. Coastal sea level rise and the non-climate contribution of vertical land motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcos, M.; Woppelmann, G.

    2012-12-01

    The rate of coastal sea level change and the relative importance of the non-climate contribution of vertical land movement in the Mediterranean Sea are investigated using an advanced approach of combining tide gauge and satellite altimetry data with supplemental equations from adjacent tide gauge records, suitable for enclosed basins. The sensitivity tests proved that the advanced approach is robust and accurate at the submillimeter per year level of around 0.4 mm/yr in estimating rates of vertical land movements. The average rate of coastal climate-related sea level rise in the Mediterranean Sea was consequently revisited to be of 1.7 mm/yr over the past century. The technique also enabled identifying stations displaying large rates of vertical land movements that must be taken into account when predicting future sea level rise and appraising the exposure to its impacts on populations and assets. Particular case studies will be discussed. An attempt to extend the methodology to the open ocean will be presented and the case of the North American east coast will be discussed.

  13. Isotope geochemistry and fluxes of carbon and organic matter in tropical small mountainous river systems and adjacent coastal waters of the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Ryan; Bauer, James; Grottoli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that small mountainous rivers (SMRs) may act as sources of aged and/or refractory carbon (C) to the coastal ocean, which may increase organic C burial at sea and subsidize coastal food webs and heterotrophy. However, the characteristics and spatial and temporal variability of C and organic matter (OM) exported from tropical SMR systems remain poorly constrained. To address this, the abundance and isotopic character (δ13C and Δ14C) of the three major C pools were measured in two Puerto Rico SMRs with catchments dominated by different land uses (agricultural vs. non-agricultural recovering forest). The abundance and character of C pools in associated estuaries and adjacent coastal waters were also examined. Riverine dissolved and particulate organic C (DOC and POC, respectively) concentrations were highly variable with respect to land use and sampling month, while dissolved inorganic C (DIC) was significantly higher at all times in the agricultural catchment. In both systems, riverine DOC and POC ranged from modern to highly aged (2,340 years before present), while DIC was always modern. The agricultural river and irrigation canals contained very old DOC (1,184 and 2,340 years before present, respectively), which is consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that these tropical SMRs provide a source of aged DOC to the ocean. During months of high river discharge, OM in estuarine and coastal waters had C isotope signatures reflective of direct terrestrial input, indicating that relatively unaltered OM is transported to the coastal ocean at these times. This is also consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that C transported to the coastal ocean by SMRs may differ from that of larger rivers because it is exported from smaller catchments that have steeper terrains and fewer land-use types.

  14. Monitoring coastal sea level using reflected GNSS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, Johan S.; Haas, Rüdiger; Johansson, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    A continuous monitoring of coastal sea level changes is important for human society since it is predicted that up to 332 million people in coastal and low-lying areas will be directly affected by flooding from sea level rise by the end of the 21st century. The traditional way to observe sea level is using tide gauges that give measurements relative to the Earth’s crust. However, in order to improve the understanding of the sea level change processes it is necessary to separate the measurements into land surface height changes and sea surface height changes. These measurements should then be relative to a global reference frame. This can be done with satellite techniques, and thus a GNSS-based tide gauge is proposed. The GNSS-based tide gauge makes use of both GNSS signals that are directly received and GNSS signals that are reflected from the sea surface. An experimental installation at the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) shows that the reflected GNSS signals have only about 3 dB less signal-to-noise-ratio than the directly received GNSS signals. Furthermore, a comparison of local sea level observations from the GNSS-based tide gauge with two stilling well gauges, located approximately 18 and 33 km away from OSO, gives a pairwise root-mean-square agreement on the order of 4 cm. This indicates that the GNSS-based tide gauge gives valuable results for sea level monitoring.

  15. Sea Grant Extension Crucial Link to Coastal Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumbos, John

    1997-01-01

    University of California Sea Grant Extension Program provides training and technical assistance to fishers, farmers, planners, and conservationists on projects such as coastal ecosystem health, marine environmental protection, fisheries management, aquaculture, salmon habitat restoration, and controlling nonpoint-source pollution; supports…

  16. The ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Strandzha Mountain and adjacent coastal territories (Bulgaria and Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Guéorguiev, Borislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The knowledge of the ground-beetle fauna of Strandzha is currently incomplete, and is largely based on data from the Bulgarian part of the region and on records resulting from casual collecting. This study represents a critical revision of the available literature, museum collections and a three years field study of the carabid beetles of the Bulgarian and Turkish parts of Strandzha Mountain and the adjacent Black Sea Coast territories. New information A total of 328 species and subspecies of Carabidae, belonging to 327 species from the region of Strandzha Mountain and adjacent seacoast area, have been listed. Of these, 77 taxa represent new records for the Bulgarian part of the region, and 110 taxa new records for Turkish part of the studied region. Two taxa, one subgenus (Haptotapinus Reitter, 1886) and one species (Pterostichus crassiusculus), are new to the fauna of Bulgaria. Based on a misidentification, the species Apotomus testaceus is excluded from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. Seven species (Carabus violaceus azurescens, Apotomus rufus, Platynus proximus, Molops alpestris kalofericus, M. dilatatus angulicollis, Pterostichus merklii, and Calathus metallicus) are treated as doubtful for the regional fauna, and one (Apotomus rufus) also for the Bulgarian fauna. Altogether, 43 taxa collected in the Turkish part of the region are new for European Turkey. New taxa for Turkey are the genera Myas and Oxypselaphus, the subgenus Feronidius, and nine species and subspecies (Carabus granulatus granulatus, Dyschirius tristis, Bembidion normannum apfelbecki, B. subcostatum vau, Acupalpus exiguus, Myas chalybaeus, Oxypselaphus obscurus, Pterostichus leonisi, Pt. melas). In addition, there are a further seven species that are here confirmed for Turkey. PMID:27099564

  17. Sea ice production variability in Antarctic coastal polynyas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Takeshi; Ohshima, Kay I.; Fraser, Alexander D.; Williams, Guy D.

    2016-05-01

    Enhanced sea ice production (SIP) in Antarctic coastal polynyas forms dense shelf water (DSW), leading to Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) formation that ultimately drives the lower limb of the meridional overturning circulation. Some studies suggest that the variability of SIP in Antarctic coastal polynyas is driven by the influence of atmospheric forcing, i.e., surface winds and air temperature. Our previous mapping of SIP in 13 major Antarctic coastal polynyas from 1992 to 2007, using a heat flux calculation with ice thickness data derived from satellite data, is extended here to examine the interannual and seasonal variability of SIP from 1992 to 2013. The interannual variability of total ice production correlates more strongly with polynya extent than with atmospheric forcing, with the exception of the Shackleton Polynya, which correlates well with wind. There is no coherent signal in the interannual variability between the major Antarctic coastal polynyas. We find that stochastic changes to the coastal "icescape," i.e., ice shelves, floating glaciers, fast ice, together with offshore first-year ice, are also important factors driving SIP variability on multiyear time scales. Both the Ross Ice Shelf Polynya and Mertz Glacier Polynya experienced a significant reduction in SIP due to calving events and the repositioning of icebergs and fast ice. Our results also show opposing trends between polynya-based SIP and sea ice extent in key regions of Antarctic sea ice change. Close monitoring of coastal icescape dynamics and change is essential to better understand the long-term impact of coastal polynya variability and its influence on regional AABW production.

  18. Seasonal dynamics of particulate organic matter in the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent coastal waters illustrated by amino acid enantiomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ying; Liu, Zongguang; Hu, Jun; Zhu, Zhuoyi; Liu, Sumei; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Total suspended matter (TSM) was collected in the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent areas of the East China Sea in July, August, and November 2011, to study the composition and fate of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) during an August typhoon event and bottom trawling activities. Concentrations of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN), and hydrolyzable particulate amino acids (PAA, D- and L-enantiomers) were higher during July and August than during November; however, D-arginine and alanine levels were significantly higher in November. Seasonal trends in the composition of PAAs indicate that in situ production is a key factor in their temporal distribution. No significant increase in TSM or decrease in labile organic matter was observed during the transit period following a typhoon event in August. In contrast, higher primary production was observed at this time as a result of the penetration of Changjiang Diluted Water caused by the typhoon event. Trawling effects were studied by comparing the calm season (July) with the bottom-trawling period (November) at similar sampling sites. The effect of trawling on the composition of bottom organic matter was studied by comparing D-amino acids concentrations and C/N ratios in the calm season (July) with the bottom-trawling period (November). A substantial contribution of microbial organic matter during the November cruise was indicated by a decrease in glutamic acid, an increase in TSM and D-alanine, and a lower carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio. In shallow coastal regions, anthropogenic activities (bottom trawling) may enhance the transfer of low-nutritional-value particulate organic matter into the benthic food chain.

  19. Simulation of Coastal Polynyas in the Western Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haid, Verena; Timmermann, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal polynyas play a prominent role in the formation and modification of water masses in the polar oceans. A coastal polynya is usually kept open mechanically, primarily by winds, and the ocean surface is at freezing point. Thus a major fraction of the annual ice production of the high-latitude oceans occurs in polynyas and hence the duration and extent of their appearance has a substantial effect on bottom water formation. In the western Weddell Sea, recurring coastal polynyas are formed in front of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf and in the area of the decayed Larsen A/B Ice Shelf. Simulations to study polynya formation and their impact on ice production and bottom water formation in the western Weddell Sea were performed with the Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) of Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI). FESOM is a fully coupled system of a primitive-equation, hydrostatic ocean model and a dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model. The simulations were conducted on a global grid with a resolution varying between roughly 300 km in tropical latitudes and <5 km along the coast of the southwestern Weddell Sea. In vertical direction, the grid uses terrain-following coordinates. The model results give insight into the mechanisms governing the formation of transient and persistent polynyas and their influence on ice production and deep water formation. Water mass formation and ice export rates are quantified and compared to observation-based estimates.

  20. Coastal Nurseries and Their Importance for Conservation of Sea Kraits

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François; Bonnet, Christophe; Plichon, Patrice; Fauvel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Destruction and pollution of coral reefs threaten these marine biodiversity hot stops which shelter more than two thirds of sea snake species. Notably, in many coral reef ecosystems of the Western Pacific Ocean, large populations of sea kraits (amphibious sea snakes) have drastically declined during the past three decades. Protecting remaining healthy populations is thus essential. In New Caledonia, coral reefs shelter numerous sea krait colonies spread throughout an immense lagoon (24,000 km2). Sea kraits feed on coral fish but lay their eggs on land. However, ecological information on reproduction and juveniles is extremely fragmentary, precluding protection of key habitats for reproduction. Our 10 years mark recapture study on Yellow sea kraits (L. saintgironsi >8,700 individuals marked) revealed that most neonates aggregate in highly localized coastal sites, where they feed and grow during several months before dispersal. Hundreds of females emigrate seasonally from remote populations (>50 km away) to lay their eggs in these coastal nurseries, and then return home. Protecting these nurseries is a priority to maintain recruitment rate, and to retain sea krait populations in the future. PMID:24670985

  1. Long term changes in the status of coastal fish in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, L.; Heikinheimo, O.; Svirgsden, R.; Kruze, E.; Ložys, L.; Lappalainen, A.; Saks, L.; Minde, A.; Dainys, J.; Jakubavičiūtė, E.; Ådjers, K.; Olsson, J.

    2016-02-01

    Management for sustainable coastal ecosystems is benefited by coherent large scale status assessments to support the identification of measures, but these efforts may be challenged by both data availability and natural biogeographical variation. Coastal fish are a resource for commercial and recreational fisheries as well as significant contributors to coastal ecosystem functioning, by linking lower and higher levels of the food web. This study addresses long term changes in coastal fish communities at Baltic Sea regional scale, in order to identify overall trends and support the operationalization of large scale status assessments of marine biota. The study was focused on two indicators representing the functional groups of Piscivores, which are attributed to changes in food web processes including predation/fisheries, and Cyprinids, which are associated with eutrophication. The indicators were assessed for trends within ten-year intervals, using data combined from national monitoring programs during 1991-2013. The results showed predominantly declining trends in Piscivores and of increases in Cyprinids during the studied three decades, both indicative of a deteriorating status. The pattern was however reversed in the most recent years. Similar results among adjacent areas were identified in some cases, but overall differences at local scale were high, indicating strong influence of local processes. The results suggest that coordinated local measures in order to abate cumulative effects are a preferred way of improving the overall status of coastal fish. The latest studied time intervals were the overall most stable and could be considered as potential baseline years for upcoming regional assessments.

  2. Millennial Rates of Sea Cliff Retreat Derived From Cosmogenic 10Be and Coastal Platform Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, M. D.; Ellis, M. A.; Rood, D. H.

    2014-12-01

    Observation of cliff erosion are often limited to relatively short timescales (a few decades), which are within the timeframe of anthropogenic modification of the coast and may be shorter than the recurrence interval for erosion events. Here we present long-term (centennial-millennial) averaged rates of sea cliff retreat for chalk cliffs in SE England derived from cosmogenic isotopes and coastal morphology. We determine long-term rates of sea cliff erosion from 10Be measured from in situ flint samples collected from three transects across the coastal platform in East Sussex. A numerical model of 10Be accumulation on an evolving coastal profile allows estimation of cliff retreat rate averaged over several hundred years. The model accounts for variation in 10Be accumulation with tides and sea-level rise, and takes into account platform downwear and topographic shielding by adjacent cliffs. Additionally, we use high-resolution (1m) multibeam bathymetry to map the extent of the coastal platform based on the surface texture in order to infer the position of the coast at ~8 ka. The difference in position to the current coastline provides estimates of Holocene-averaged rates of cliff erosion for all chalk cliffed coastline in the region. Comparison to historic records of cliff retreat reveals key similarities and differences between long and short-term signals. In certain locations, there are significant discrepancies (either faster or slower) between historic records and long-term rates of retreat. Each type of discrepancy may be the result of human interaction with the coastal environment, whether that interaction is local or non-local, and it is worthwhile noting that sites of relatively low historic rates of erosion are likely subject to high-magnitude, low-frequency failure events that could have devastating effects on human lives and infrastructure in areas that are considered to be low risk.

  3. Winter sea surface temperature reflected by the TEX86 proxy in core sediments from the coastal northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Wang, P.; Zhao, M.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Although TEX86 is widely used as a sea surface temperature proxy for the open ocean, the validity of TEX86 in the coastal seas has yet to be tested. In this study, three sediment cores from the coastal northwestern South China Sea (SCS) (water depth 33 m for core A9, 73 m for core, and 102 m for core A9, respectively) were analyzed using lipid biomarker approaches. The distribution of archaeal core lipids varied in core A9 and A7 but remained constant in A5. TEX86-based temperature according to Kim et al. (2010) averaged 17.2 × 0.4 οC (n=30), 20.9 × 0.3 οC (n=19) and 23.0 × 0.3 οC(n=16) in core A9, A7 and A5, respectively. These results show that temperature changed little with sediment depth at each location and increased by about 3 οC between the two adjacent locations. These are lower than the annual SST (24.5-25.7 οC) and much lower than the summer SST (>28 οC), indicating that organisms producing the TEX86-related compounds mostly lived in the winter season.

  4. SeaWiFS: California Coastal Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There was a good bit of variety in the water colors off the California coast on September 3, 2001. This SeaWiFS image shows various phytoplankton blooms that paint the water green, aquamarine, and even rust colored in places.

  5. Coastal zone - Terra (and aqua) incognita - Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyan, R. D.; Velikova, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    In the Black Sea coastal states (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has no properly established legal and institutional framework. The term "coastal zone" is undefined in national (reportedly with the exception of Bulgaria) and regional legislative documents. The interface between science and policy within ICZM remains poorly developed. Policies for streamlining efforts have been ill-managed and decisions taken in functional zoning and the balanced use and protection of coastal zones have often been shown to be incorrect. The observed proliferation of consultative committees and councils has not been much helpful, public participation has been widely neglected. Illegal practices are in place, and coastal developments continue being largely unsustainable. These problems are often explained by the low awareness of ICZM benefits, and hence, a shortage of political good will, but also by the lack of appropriate Black Sea scientific research, which would ensure a fundamental knowledge-base. There are hundreds of organizations involved in collection of data and information of relevance for ICZM, although there is a distinct lack of coordination. Consequently, there is a substantial overlap of activities, whilst important scientific and policy questions remain unanswered. We review the status of ICZM or mismanagement (ICZmisM) in the Black Sea region, building links between environmental problems and policy measures in response, and providing appropriate examples. Recommendations are put forward with regard to major gaps in ICZM at levels of its theoretical development and practical implementation within the region. The review is intended to remind of major disastrous consequences of present complacency and laissez-faire in the management of the Black Sea. This paper calls for urgent implementation of ICZM in the Black Sea at national and regional levels.

  6. Potential vulnerability implications of coastal inundation due to sea level rise for the coastal zone of Semarang city, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marfai, Muh Aris; King, Lorenz

    2008-05-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) as a result of global warming has an impact on the increasing inundation on the coastal area. Nowadays, Semarang coastal area in Indonesia is already subject to coastal hazard due to tidal inundation and land subsidence. The impact of the inundation is predicted to be even more severe with the scenario of sea level rise. This paper concentrates on the risk assessment to the population, land use, and monetary losses as a result of coastal inundation under enhanced sea level rise. This paper uses the scenario of the depth of inundation to generate coastal inundation model using GIS-Technology. Anticipatory issues including methodology development for hazard assessment would be necessary for Semarang coastal area, and therefore, geo-information technology can be considered as a useful tool to rapidly assess the impact of the coastal hazard and evaluate the economic losses.

  7. Risk Analysis of Coastal hazard Considering Sea-level Rise and Local Environment in Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangjin, P.; Lee, D. K.; KIM, H.; Ryu, J. E.; Yoo, S.; Ryoo, H.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, natural hazards has been more unpredictable with increasing frequency and strength due to climate change. Especially, coastal areas would be more vulnerable in the future because of sea-level rise (SLR). In case of Korea, it is surrounded by oceans and has many big cities at coastal area, thus a hazard prevention plan in coastal area is absolutely necessary. However, prior to making the plan, finding areas at risk would be the first step. In order to find the vulnerable area, local characteristics of coastal areas should also be considered along with SLR. Therefore, the objective of the research is to find vulnerable areas, which could be damaged by coastal hazards considering local environment and SLR of coastal areas. Spatial scope of the research was set up as 1km from the coastline according to the 'coastal management law' in Korea. The assessment was done up to the year of 2050, and the highest sea level rise scenario was used. For risk analysis, biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics were considered as to represent local characteristics of coastal area. Risk analysis was carried out through the combination of 'possibility of hazard' and the 'level of damages', and both of them reflect the above-mentioned regional characteristics. Since the range of inundation was narrowed down to the inundation from typhoon in this research, the possibility of inundation caused by typhoon was estimated by using numerical model, which calculated the height of storm surge considering wave, tide, sea-level pressure and SLR. Also the level of damage was estimated by categorizing the socioeconomic character into four factors; human, infrastructure, ecology and socioeconomic. Variables that represent each factor were selected and used in damage estimation with their classification and weighting value. The result shows that the urban coastal areas are more vulnerable and hazardous than other areas because of socioeconomic factors. The east and the south coast are

  8. Hurricanes, sea level rise, and coastal change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Sixteen hurricanes have made landfall along the U.S. east and Gulf coasts over the past decade. For most of these storms, the USGS with our partners in NASA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have flown before and after lidar missions to detect changes in beaches and dunes. The most dramatic changes occurred when the coasts were completely submerged in an inundation regime. Where this occurred locally, a new breach was cut, like during Hurricane Isabel in North Carolina. Where surge inundated an entire island, the sand was stripped off leaving marshy outcrops behind, like during Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana. Sea level rise together with sand starvation and repeated hurricane impacts could increase the probabilities of inundation and degrade coasts more than sea level rise alone.

  9. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal gradients in French coastal zones for the period of one year were mapped in order to enable a coherent study of certain oceanic features detectable by the variations in the sea surface temperature field and their evolution in time. The phenomena examined were mesoscale thermal features in the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean; thermal gradients generated by French estuary systems; and diurnal heating in the sea surface layer. The investigation was based on Heat Capacity Mapping Mission imagery.

  10. Global warming, sea-level rise, and coastal marsh survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. These wetlands at the land-ocean margin provide many direct benefits to humans, including habitat for commercially important fisheries and wildlife; storm protection; improved water quality through sediment, nutrient, and pollution removal; recreation; and aesthetic values. These valuable ecosystems will be highly vulnerable to the effects of the rapid rise in sea level predicted to occur during the next century as a result of global warming.

  11. Standing stock of deep-sea metazoan meiofauna in the Sulu Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimanaga, Motohiro; Nomaki, Hidetaka; Suetsugu, Kishiko; Murayama, Masafumi; Kitazato, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Standing stocks of deep-sea metazoan meiofauna were investigated in the Sulu Sea, one of the most isolated marginal basins with comparably warm bottom-water temperatures (˜10 °C) at depths below 1000 m. A decline in the abundance and biomass of organisms with increasing water depth occurred in the basin, but the abundances at bathyal and abyssal sites in the Sulu Basin appeared to be lower than standard values worldwide when adjusted for water depth. There is no significant correlation between meiofaunal abundance and the concentration of chloroplastic pigment equivalents (CPE) in the sediment, an indicator of the amount of organic matter derived from primary production. The ratios of meiofaunal abundance to CPE concentration at the sampling sites were as small as those observed at comparable depths in the Red Sea. These suggest that the quantity of "food" is not a primary factor limiting the density of organisms in the basin. It is hypothesized that a higher respiratory activity of benthos caused by warm bottom water and a lower food quality could be important factors regulating the metazoan meiofaunal standing stocks in the Sulu Sea.

  12. Developing a Coastal Risk Indicator for Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, D. S.; Nerem, R.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal sea level rise is one the most important potential environmental risks. Multiple satellite altimeters flying on the same repeat orbit track have allowed estimation of global mean sea level for the past 20 years, and the time series has yielded information about the average rate of sea level increase over that time. Due to the duration, consistency, and inter-calibration of the altimeter measurements, the time series is now considered a climate record. The time series has also shown the strong dependence of sea level on interannual signals such as the ENSO and the NAO. But the most important sea level effects of climate change will be felt on the regional and local scales. At these smaller scales, local effects due to topography, tides, earth deformation (glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), subsidence, etc.), and storm surges must also be considered when estimating the risks of sea level change to coastal communities. Recently, work has begun to understand the methods applicable to estimating the risks of expected sea level change to coastal communities (Strauss et al., 2012; Tebaldi et al., 2012). Tebaldi et al (2012) merged the expected global mean sea level increase from the semi-empirical model of Vermeer and Rahmstorf (2009) with historical local tide gauges to predict increases in storm surge risk posed by increasing sea level. In this work, we will further explore the currently available data and tools that can potentially be used to provide a sea level climate change indicator and local risk assessment along US coasts. These include global and regional sea level trends from the satellite altimetry climate record, in situ tide gauge measurements and the historical extremes at each location, local tide and storm surge models, topographic surveys of vulnerable coastlines, GIA models, and measurements of local subsidence and crustal deformation rates. We will also evaluate methods to estimate the increased risk to communities from sea level change

  13. Decadal Change of the Nordic Seas Coastal Waters Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korosov, Anton; Pettersson, Lasse

    2010-12-01

    During the last decades, there has been a significant warming trend over the Arctic, corresponding in average to approximately 5°C/century [1, 2, 3]. Due to combination of marine and terrestrial abiotic factors the most evident influence of the climate change on aquatic ecosystems occurs in the coastal zones [4]. These waters are characterized by high concentrations of suspended matter and organic constituents and this is the reason why most of the standard algorithms, originally developed for open ocean waters fail. Advanced algorithms based on neural networks or multivariate optimization approach and additionally adjusted for regional conditions should be applied [5, 6]. The objective of the presented study was to detect decadal changes of water quality parameters based of consistent satellite observations of coastal aquatic ecosystems of the Nordic Seas and relate observed trends to changes in essential climate variables. We focus our research at the region shown on the map on Fig. 1. Satellite data acquired during the first ten years of SeaWIFS operation (1998 - 2007) were analyzed in the following steps: A) An archive of consistent satellite observations of the Nordic Sea coastal waters quality was created; B) Remote sensing data were processed with the developed bio-optical algorithms for retrieving water quality parameters (chlorophyll-a, total suspended matter, dissolved organic carbon, coccoliths) with account for the local hydro-optical conditions; C) An archive of essential climate variables (sea surface temperature, cloudiness, wind speed) was created ; D) Significant decadal changes of water quality parameters were detected and related to the observed changes of the essential climate variables It was found that statistically significant change of chlorophyll (decrease by ~80% in April - June in the Northern Sea and increase by ~70% in July in the Barents Sea) is reciprocally proportional to SST. Statistically significant change of coccoliths (decrease

  14. Coastal sea level rise in southern Europe and the nonclimate contribution of vertical land motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WöPpelmann, G.; Marcos, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we extend the advanced approach of combining tide gauge and satellite altimetry data with supplemental equations from adjacent tide gauge records of at least 30 years of common data to investigate the relative importance of the nonclimate contribution of vertical land movement to the observed rates of sea level change along the coasts of southern Europe. The sensitivity tests proved that the advanced approach is robust and accurate at the submillimeter per year level of around 0.4 mm yr-1in estimating rates of vertical land movements. It enabled identifying stations displaying large rates of vertical land movements that must be taken into account when predicting future sea level rise and appraising the exposure to its impacts on populations and assets. The average rate of coastal climate-related sea level rise in the Mediterranean Sea was consequently revisited to be of 1.7 mm yr-1 over the past century, whereas the Atlantic northern Iberian coast revealed a significant high rate of sea level rise in excess of 3.4 mm yr-1 for the past 70 years. Future work should consider applying this powerful approach to other geographic contexts as a useful source of supplementary data for geodynamic studies.

  15. Coastal sea level rise in southern Europe and the nonclimate contribution of vertical land motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woppelmann, G.; Marcos, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we extend the advanced approach of combining tide gauge and satellite altimetry data with supplemental equations from adjacent tide gauge records of at least 30 years of common data to investigate the relative importance of the nonclimate contribution of vertical land movement to the observed rates of sea level change along the coasts of southern Europe. The sensitivity tests proved that the advanced approach is robust and accurate at the submillimeter per year level of around 0.4 mm/yr in estimating rates of vertical land movements. It enabled identifying stations displaying large rates of vertical land movements that must be taken into account when predicting future sea level rise and appraising the exposure to its impacts on populations and assets. The average rate of coastal climate-related sea level rise in the Mediterranean Sea was consequently revisited to be of 1.7 mm/yr over the past century, whereas the Atlantic northern Iberian coast revealed a significant high rate of sea level rise in excess of 3.4 mm/yr for the past 70 years. Future work should consider applying this powerful approach to other geographic contexts as a useful source of supplementary data for geodynamic studies.

  16. The Sensitivity of Coastal Cliffs to Changes in Sea Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, N.; Lim, M.; Petley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The impact of waves upon coastal cliffs is a significant control on erosion and subsequent cliff retreat. It is widely anticipated that climatically-driven sea-level rise will result in an increase in the rate of erosion, and thus the retreat, of coastal cliffs. Quantifying the changes in the rate of coastal erosion remains problematic, primarily due to the difficulty of collecting high-precision and high-frequency monitoring data on both cliff change and the variations in environmental conditions at the coast. In the UK, local authorities now have to produce a "Shoreline Management Plan" (SMP), indicating how the coastline will be managed for the future. This requires the estimation of rates of coastal retreat over the next century, making the impact of sea-level change a critical consideration. This study presents the results from a three year monitoring survey of a section of near-vertical coastal cliffs in north-east England. Data have been collected using a high-resolution terrestrial laser scanner to obtain cliff surfaces. Analysis of successive 3D cliff models is used to derive sequential change, from which the precise nature, geometry and rate of retreat can be measured. In parallel, data has been collected on the micro-seismic impact of waves onto the cliff to gain a direct measure of the delivery of energy at any given sea-level, rather than using a function of wave and tide gauge records. The coastline studied has a significant tidal range, in excess of 6 m, in addition to a large seasonal variability in mean tide heights, allowing a range of sea-level conditions to be assessed. For comparison weather, tide and wave monitoring has been undertaken. The results suggest a close link between the magnitude and frequency of wave impact and the loss of material from the cliff face. Marked changes in wave impact are apparent as the tide level fluctuates on an inter-monthly and inter-annual basis. Thresholds are identified which appear to reflect discrete changes

  17. Sea Extremes: Integrated impact assessment in coastal climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Carlo; Knudsen, Per; Broge, Niels; Molgaard, Mads; Andersen, Ole

    2016-04-01

    We investigate effects of sea level rise and a change in precipitation pattern on coastal flooding hazards. Historic and present in situ and satellite data of water and groundwater levels, precipitation, vertical ground motion, geology, and geotechnical soil properties are combined with flood protection measures, topography, and infrastructure to provide a more complete picture of the water-related impact from climate change at an exposed coastal location. Results show that future sea extremes evaluated from extreme value statistics may, indeed, have a large impact. The integrated effects from future storm surges and other geo- and hydro-parameters need to be considered in order to provide for the best protection and mitigation efforts, however. Based on the results we present and discuss a simple conceptual model setup that can e.g. be used for 'translation' of regional sea level rise evidence and projections to concrete impact measures. This may be used by potentially affected stakeholders -often working in different sectors and across levels of governance, in a common appraisal of the challenges faced ahead. The model may also enter dynamic tools to evaluate local impact as sea level research advances and projections for the future are updated.

  18. Chinese coastal seas are facing heavy atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X. S.; Tang, A. H.; Shi, K.; Wu, L. H.; Li, W. Q.; Shi, W. Q.; Shi, X. K.; Erisman, J. W.; Zhang, F. S.; Liu, X. J.

    2014-09-01

    As the amount of reactive nitrogen (N) generated and emitted increases the amount of N deposition and its contribution to eutrophication or harmful algal blooms in the coastal zones are becoming issues of environmental concern. To quantify N deposition in coastal seas of China we selected six typical coastal sites from North to South in 2011. Concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NO2, particulate NH4+ (pNH4+) and pNO3- ranged from 1.97- 4.88, 0.46 -1.22, 3.03 -7.09, 2.24 - 4.90 and 1.13-2.63 μg N m-3 at Dalian (DL), Changdao (CD), Linshandao (LS), Fenghua (FH), Fuzhou (FZ), and Zhanjiang (ZJ) sites, respectively. Volume-weighted NO3--N and NH4+-N concentrations in precipitation varied from 0.46 to 1.67 and 0.47 to 1.31 mg N L-1 at the six sites. Dry, wet and total deposition rates of N were 7.8-23.1, 14.2-25.2 and 22.0 - 44.6 kg N ha-1 yr-1 across the six coastal sites. Average N dry deposition accounted for 45.4% of the total deposition and NH3 and pNH4+ contributed to 76.6% of the dry deposition. If we extrapolate our total N deposition of 33.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to the whole Chinese coastal sea area (0.40 million km2), total N deposition amounts to 1.36 Tg N yr-1, a large external N input to surrounding marine ecosystems.

  19. Measurements of sea ice proxies from Antarctic coastal shallow cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Vallelonga, Paul; Spolaor, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Frezzotti, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Despite its close relationship with climate, the climatic impact of sea ice remains only partially understood: an indication of this is the Arctic sea ice which is declining at a faster rate than models predict. Thus, the need for reliable sea ice proxies is of crucial importance. Among the sea ice proxies that can be extracted from ice cores, interest has recently been shown in the halogens Iodine (I) and Bromine (Br) (Spolaor, A., et al., 2013a, 2013b). The production of sea ice is a source of Sodium and Bromine aerosols through frost flower crystal formation and sublimation of salty blowing snow, while Iodine is emitted by the algae living underneath sea ice. We present here the results of Na, Br and I measurements in Antarctic shallow cores, drilled during a traverse made in late 2013 - early 2014 from Talos Dome (72° 00'S, 159°12'E) to GV7 (70° 41'S, 158° 51'E) seeking for sea ice signature. The samples were kept frozen until the analyses, that were carried out by Sector Field Mass Spectroscopy Inductive Coupled Plasma (SFMS-ICP): special precautions and experimental steps were adopted for the detection of such elements. The coastal location of the cores allows a clear signal from the nearby sea ice masses. The multiple cores are located about 50 km from each other and can help us to infer the provenance of the sea ice that contributed to the proxy signature. Moreover, by simultaneously determining other chemical elements and compounds in the snow, it is possible to determine the relative timing of their deposition, thus helping us to understand their processes of emission and deposition.

  20. Trends in trace organic and metal concentrations in the Pechora and Kara Seas and adjacent rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.M.; Champ, M.A.; Wade, T.L.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Chambers, L.; Davis, T.

    1995-12-31

    Trace organic (pesticides, PCBs, PAHs and dioxin/furan) and trace metal concentrations have been measured in surficial sediment and tissue (i.e., clam, fish liver and flesh) samples from the Pechora and Kara Seas and their adjacent rivers -- Pechora, Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Total PAH, PCB and total DDT and chlordane concentrations ranged in surficial sediments from n.d. to 810 ppb, n.d.--8.7 ppb, n.d.--1.2 ppb, and n.d.--1.2 ppb, respectively, in a suite of 40 samples from the Kara Sea and its adjacent rivers. The highest concentrations of many of the trace organic and metal contaminants were found in the lower part of the Yenisey River below the salt wedge. Some trace metals (As for example) were elevated in the Pechora River dispositional plume region. Dioxin ranged from 1.36 to 413 ppt in a subset of 20 sediment samples. Higher trace organic contaminant concentrations compared to sediments were found in tissue samples from the region, especially fish liver samples. Concentrations as high as 1,114 ppb total PAHs, 89 ppb chlordane, 1,011 ppb for total DDT and 663 ppb PCBs were found in some fish liver samples. Dioxin concentrations in tissue samples ranged from 11.7 to 61 ppt. Concentrations of many trace organic and metal contaminants in these Russian marginal seas are influenced by inputs from these large Arctic rivers. Many organic contaminant concentrations in sediments are low, however detecting these compounds in tissue show they are bioavailable.

  1. Probabilistic modelling of sea surges in coastal urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadis, Stylianos; Jomo Danielsen Sørup, Hjalte; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2016-04-01

    Urban floods are a major issue for coastal cities with severe impacts on economy, society and environment. A main cause for floods are sea surges stemming from extreme weather conditions. In the context of urban flooding, certain standards have to be met by critical infrastructures in order to protect them from floods. These standards can be so strict that no empirical data is available. For instance, protection plans for sub-surface railways against floods are established with 10,000 years return levels. Furthermore, the long technical lifetime of such infrastructures is a critical issue that should be considered, along with the associated climate change effects in this lifetime. We present a case study of Copenhagen where the metro system is being expanded at present with several stations close to the sea. The current critical sea levels for the metro have never been exceeded and Copenhagen has only been severely flooded from pluvial events in the time where measurements have been conducted. However, due to the very high return period that the metro has to be able to withstand and due to the expectations to sea-level rise due to climate change, reliable estimates of the occurrence rate and magnitude of sea surges have to be established as the current protection is expected to be insufficient at some point within the technical lifetime of the metro. The objective of this study is to probabilistically model sea level in Copenhagen as opposed to extrapolating the extreme statistics as is the practice often used. A better understanding and more realistic description of the phenomena leading to sea surges can then be given. The application of hidden Markov models to high-resolution data of sea level for different meteorological stations in and around Copenhagen is an effective tool to address uncertainty. For sea surge studies, the hidden states of the model may reflect the hydrological processes that contribute to coastal floods. Also, the states of the hidden Markov

  2. The Influence of Wind and Basin Eddies in Controlling Sea Level Variations in the Coastal Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abualnaja, Yasser O.; Churchill, James H.; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. Roughly half of the coastal sea level variance in central Red Sea is due to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods between 2 days and 1 month. We examined the sea level signal in this band using the data from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters between 20.1 and 23.5 oN. We find that the intermediate-band sea level variations are strongly correlated with the local wind stress measured at a meteorological buoy. The maximum pressure-wind correlation occurs at wind direction closely aligned with the alongshore orientation and at a lag (wind leading) of 45 hr, which is consistent with the expected response of the coastal sea level to local wind forcing. However, less than half of the sea level variance in the intermediate band is related, through linear correlation, with local wind forcing. Our analysis indicates that the residual coastal sea level signal, not associated with wind forcing, is largely driven remotely by the passage of mesoscale eddies, revealed by satellite altimeter-derived sea level anomaly fields of the central Red Sea. These eddy-driven coastal sea level changes occur on time scales of 10-30 days. They span a range of 0.5 m, and thus constitute an import component of the sea level signal in the coastal Red Sea.

  3. Basement structures of East and South China Seas and adjacent regions from gravity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Dongliang; Ke, Xiaoping; Wang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The satellite-derived gravity gives us an opportunity to investigate the basement structures of the East and South China Seas since the satellite gravimetry could provide large scale gravity data with high resolution of 1 arc-min by 1 arc-min. We isolate the residual gravity anomaly corresponding to the basement by subtracting the gravity anomalies of sediments and Moho undulations from satellite-derived free-air gravity anomalies. Two methods, namely gravity inversion method and convolution method based on flexure isostasy model, are used to calculate the Moho undulations in order to guarantee the accuracy of the Moho undulations since it occupies large percentages of the gravity anomalies. We invert the isolated gravity anomaly for the basement depths of East and South China Seas and adjacent areas with resolution of 1 arc-min by 1 arc-min. The basement depths of East and South China Seas range from 0.5 km to 12 km and the Moho depths vary between 6 km and 32 km. The basement topography reveals many tectonic depressions and two spreading axes concealed by the sediments, which are unseen in the bathymetry. The two spreading axes correspond to the spreading ridges derived from magnetic anomaly and the SW-NE oriented spreading axis extends SW much farther than that identified from magnetic anomaly, almost reaching to the Nam Con Son Basin. We also find that the faults constrain the distributions of basement depressions since the faults usually lie along the places where large changes of basement depth take place. Reversely, the basement map could be used to identify the unknown faults. Besides, according to the four profiles in the East and South China Seas, the mirror-image relation was found between the basement topography and the underlying Moho undulations that when the basement depth increases or decreases, the corresponding Moho depth decreases or increases.

  4. Modeling the rate and style of Arctic coastal retreat along the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, K. R.; Anderson, R. S.; Overeem, I.; Wobus, C. W.; Clow, G. D.; Urban, F. E.; Stanton, T. P.

    2010-12-01

    In Arctic landscapes, modern surface warming has significantly altered geomorphic process rates. Along the Beaufort Sea coastline bounding Alaska’s North Slope, the mean annual coastal erosion rate has doubled from ~7 m/yr for 1955-1979 to ~14 m/yr for 2002-2007 (Mars and Houseknecht, 2007). Locally the erosion rate can reach 30 m/yr, with short-term rates that are far greater than this. A robust understanding of the processes that govern the rate of coastal erosion is required in order to predict the response of the coast and its adjacent landscape to a rapidly changing climate, with implications for sediment and carbon fluxes, oilfield infrastructure, and animal habitat. Constrained by time-lapse imagery, and by measurements of both the oceanic and atmospheric conditions, we have developed a numerical model to capture the evolution of the permafrost bluffs on the North Slope. During the sea ice-free season, relatively warm waters melt a notch into the ice-rich silt that comprises the 4-m tall bluffs. The bluffs ultimately fail by toppling of polygonal blocks bounded by mechanically weak ice-wedges that are spaced roughly 10-20 m apart. The toppled blocks then temporarily armor the coast against further attack. The annual retreat rate is controlled by the length of the sea ice-free season, water and air temperatures, and the wave history. Honoring the high ice content of the bluff materials, we employ a positive degree day algorithm to govern subaerial melt, and an iceberg melting algorithm to determine rate of notch incision. In the iceberg melting algorithm, the local instantaneous melt rate goes as the product of the temperature difference between seawater and bluff material, the sea state, captured by the ratio of wave height to wave period, and the ratio of ice surface roughness to wave height to the 0.2 power (Kubat et al., 2007). The calculated instantaneous melt rate is adjusted to account for the ambient temperature of the permafrost and the presence of

  5. Sources and growth dynamics of fecal indicator bacteria in a coastal wetland system and potential impacts to adjacent waters.

    PubMed

    Evanson, Melissa; Ambrose, Richard F

    2006-02-01

    Coastal wetlands are receiving increased attention as a putative source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in Southern California coastal waters. We examined temporal trends of water and sediment-associated FIB after rain events along with spatial sediment characteristics at two sites within the Santa Ana River wetlands and made comparisons to FIB levels observed in adjacent surf zone waters. During the first two rain events, total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) in wetland water and sediment samples peaked either on the same day or within several days of the rain event, while the third resulted in elevated wetlands sediment TC levels only. TC in adjacent coastal waters consistently peaked on the same day as the rain event and decreased quickly thereafter (within 1 day). The TC/EC ratios of surf zone samples consistently fell below 10, indicating an increased probability of human fecal contamination whereas wetland TC/EC ratios were higher, averaging approximately 60 and 14 at each site. These results suggest sediment-associated FIB populations may be distinct from those found in the water samples, or at least have internal dynamics independent of water-borne populations. Increases in sediment-associated FIB may be due to in situ population growth and/or increased survival due to changes in environmental parameters (salinity, moisture and nutrient input) resulting from the rain events. Spatial differences in between the two sites may be due to sediment differences such as organic content and finer grain size and/or discrete sources of FIB. PMID:16386284

  6. Coastal SAR Altimetry: An Experiment in the Northern Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno; Benveniste, Jerome

    2013-04-01

    backscattered power distribution vs. Doppler beam angle as achieved integrating the SAR STACK's power echoes. This RMSS parameter is an indicator of how much specular or diffusive is the surface illuminated by the radar. The RMSS parameter will be hence fed as input in the SAMOSA Physical Model in order to adapt the model itself automatically to the changed water scenario conditions, turning the model's classic long-tail SAR waveform into a very peaky waveform. THE SAMOSA model will be implemented in its full analytical formulation (zero-order and first-order term), neglecting only the effect of the water surface skewness. The benefit of this methodology is that we use either for open ocean conditions either for coastal still water conditions the same model and re-tracker scheme, avoiding hence any bias or discontinuity in height, typically occurring when one swaps waveform model or re-tracker scheme during the same pass. The experiment will be run at the wetlands of the Volga's Delta in the Northern Caspian Sea in summer time. CryoSat-2 is covering the area in SAR mode and along the passes, the instrument is facing an abrupt transition from diffusive open sea condition to very specular water conditions over the Volga's Delta wetlands. Hence, this seems to be the ideal environment where to test the proposed methodology.

  7. Observations of Urban Heat Island Mitigation in California Coastal Cities due to a Sea Breeze Induced Coastal-Cooling ``REVERSE-REACTION'' to Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, R. D.; Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.

    2010-12-01

    The study evaluated long-term (1948-2005) air temperatures at over 300 urban and rural sites in California (CA) during summer (June-August, JJA). The aggregate CA results showed asymmetric warming, as daily min temperatures increased faster than daily max temperatures. The spatial distributions of daily max temperatures in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area air basins, however, exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation (mainly urban) coastal-areas and warming at (mainly rural) inland areas. Previous studies have suggested that cooling summer max temperatures in CA were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover. The current hypothesis, however, is that this temperature pattern arises from a “reverse-reaction” to greenhouse gas (GHG) induced global-warming. In this hypothesis, the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in coastal areas. That daytime summer coastal cooling was seen in coastal urban areas implies that urban heat island (UHI) warming was weaker than the reverse-reaction sea breeze cooling; if there was no UHI effect, then the cooling would have been even stronger. Analysis of daytime summer max temperatures at four adjacent pairs of urban and rural sites near the inland cooling-warming boundary, however, showed that the rural sites experienced cooling, while the urban sites showed warming due to UHI development. The rate of heat island growth was estimated as the sum of each urban warming rate and the absolute magnitude of the concurrent adjacent rural cooling rate. Values ranged from 0.12 to 0.55 K decade-1, and were proportional to changes in urban population and urban extent. As Sacramento, Modesto, Stockton, and San José have grown in aerial extent (21 to 59%) and population (40 to 118%), part of the observed increased JJA max values could be due to increased daytime UHI-intensity. Without UHI effects, the currently observed JJA SFBA

  8. Evaluation of MERIS products from Baltic Sea coastal waters rich in CDOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán-Abaunza, J. M.; Kratzer, S.; Brockmann, C.

    2014-05-01

    In this study, retrievals of the medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) reflectances and water quality products using four different coastal processing algorithms freely available are assessed by comparison against sea-truthing data. The study is based on a pair-wise comparison using processor-dependent quality flags for the retrieval of valid common macro-pixels. This assessment is required in order to ensure the reliability of monitoring systems based on MERIS data, such as the Swedish coastal and lake monitoring system (http://vattenkvalitet.se). The results show that the pre-processing with the Improved Contrast between Ocean and Land (ICOL) processor, correcting for adjacency effects, improves the retrieval of spectral reflectance for all processors. Therefore, it is recommended that the ICOL processor should be applied when Baltic coastal waters are investigated. Chlorophyll was retrieved best using the FUB (Free University of Berlin) processing algorithm, although overestimations in the range 18-26.5%, dependent on the compared pairs, were obtained. At low chlorophyll concentrations (< 2.5 mg m-3), data dispersion dominated in the retrievals with the MEGS (MERIS ground segment processor) processor. The lowest bias and data dispersion were obtained with MEGS for suspended particulate matter, for which overestimations in the range of 8-16% were found. Only the FUB retrieved CDOM (coloured dissolved organic matter) correlate with in situ values. However, a large systematic underestimation appears in the estimates that nevertheless may be corrected for by using a local correction factor. The MEGS has the potential to be used as an operational processing algorithm for the Himmerfjärden bay and adjacent areas, but it requires further improvement of the atmospheric correction for the blue bands and better definition at relatively low chlorophyll concentrations in the presence of high CDOM attenuation.

  9. Observational Buoy Studies of Coastal Air-Sea Fluxes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederickson, Paul A.; Davidson, Kenneth L.

    2003-02-01

    Recent advancements in measurement and analysis techniques have allowed air-sea fluxes to be measured directly from moving platforms at sea relatively easily. These advances should lead to improved surface flux parameterizations, and thus to improved coupled atmosphere-ocean modeling. The Naval Postgraduate School has developed a `flux buoy' (FB) that directly measures air-sea fluxes, mean meteorological parameters, and one-dimensional and directional wave spectra. In this study, the FB instrumentation and data analysis techniques are described, and the data collected during two U.S. east coast buoy deployments are used to examine the impact of atmospheric and surface wave properties on air-sea momentum transfer in coastal ocean regions. Data obtained off Duck, North Carolina, clearly show that, for a given wind speed, neutral drag coefficients in offshore winds are higher than those in onshore winds. Offshore wind drag coefficients observed over the wind speed range from 5 to 21 m s1 were modeled equally well by a linear regression on wind speed, and a Charnock model with a constant of 0.016. Measurements from an FB deployment off Wallops Island, Virginia, show that neutral drag coefficients in onshore winds increase as the wind-wave direction differences increase, especially beyond ±60°.

  10. Numerical study on inter-tidal transports in coastal seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xinyan; Jiang, Wensheng; Zhang, Ping; Feng, Shizuo

    2016-06-01

    Inter-tidal (subtidal) transport processes in coastal sea depend on the residual motion, turbulent dispersion and relevant sources/sinks. In Feng et al. (2008), an updated Lagrangian inter-tidal transport equation, as well as new concept of Lagrangian inter-tidal concentration (LIC), has been proposed for a general nonlinear shallow water system. In the present study, the LIC is numerically applied for the first time to passive tracers in idealized settings and salinity in the Bohai Sea, China. Circulation and tracer motion in the three idealized model seas with different topography or coastline, termed as `flat-bottom', `stairs' and `cape' case, respectively, are simulated. The dependence of the LIC on initial tidal phase suggests that the nonlinearities in the stairs and cape cases are stronger than that in the flat-bottom case. Therefore, the `flat-bottom' case still meets the convectively weakly nonlinear condition. For the Bohai Sea, the simulation results show that most parts of it still meet the weakly nonlinear condition. However, the dependence of the LIS (Lagrangian inter-tidal salinity) on initial tidal phase is significant around the southern headland of the Liaodong Peninsula and near the mouth of the Yellow River. The nonlinearity in the former region is mainly related to the complicated coastlines, and that in the latter region is due to the presence of the estuarine salinity front.

  11. Hydrography of a hypersaline coastal lagoon in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshal, Amin H.

    1987-02-01

    Temporal and spatial variations in salinity, temperature, oxygen and pH were studied in a coastal lagoon located on the eastern coast of the Red Sea during 11 cruises taken in the period from May 1983 through April 1984. The lagoon has an area of about 30 km 2 and a maximum depth of about 3 m. The study showed that the water in the lagoon had a very high salinity that varied between 51‰ in February to 113‰ in October and was believed to reach higher values in summer. Rapid fluctuations in salinity were observed in the lagoon especially in positions near its mouth due to the daily exchange of water with the Red Sea accompanying the tides. During high tide, a layer of relatively cold and low salinity water from the Red Sea entered the lagoon and spread over its warmer and more saline water. This led to the existence of a strong vertical stratification in this shallow lagoon. During low tide, the subsurface warm and high salinity water was exposed resulting in the existence of one layer of water in the lagoon. Temporal variation of salinity was correlated with the monthly changes of the mean sea level of the Red Sea and with evaporation. Spatial variations in this property at any position in the lagoon depended upon its location from the mouth of the lagoon. Temperature variation was controlled by meteorological conditions in the region and by the volume of the water in the lagoon. The marine environment of this lagoon is under natural stress due to its high temperature and to the extreme fluctuations of its high salinity. This can be reduced by increasing the rate of exchange of water between the lagoon and the Red Sea.

  12. Ocean tides in the northern North Atlantic and adjacent seas from ERS 1 altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    1994-11-01

    Twenty months of ERS 1 35-day repeat altimeter data containing 18 repeat cycles have been used to estimate the major diurnal and semidiurnal ocean tide signals in the northern parts of the North Atlantic and adjacent seas. ERS 1 provides valuable information when investigating ocean tides, owing to the repeated dense spatial sampling. However, several tidal constituents are extremely difficult to resolve using conventional harmonic analysis with the chosen sun syncronous orbit. Instead, temporal analysis at each crossover location is applied using a modified form of the orthotide formulation, which simultaneously solves for the diurnal and semidiurnal species as well as for the annual signal. The use of the response formalism ensures that the sun syncronous component S2 can be resolved, although this component is "frozen" in the orbit. Maps of the M2, S2 and K1 tidal amplitudes and phases in 0.5°×0.5° grids are presented and are seen to compare favorably with measurements at 68 pelagic tide gauges provided by the International Association for Physical Sciences of the Ocean. The major tidal constituents of the ERS 1 derived model are also in close agreement with the improved Flather (1981) ocean tide model for the northwest European continental shelf area, as well as a numerical model for the Arctic and Nordic Seas by Gjevik and Straume (1989).

  13. Seismic imaging of mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the northern Red Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A. A.; Gao, S. S.; Elsheikh, A. A.; Liu, K. H.; Yu, Y.; Fat-Helbary, R. E.

    2014-11-01

    The dramatic asymmetry in terms of surface elevation, Cenozoic volcanisms and earthquake activity across the Red Sea is an enigmatic issue in global tectonics, partially due to the unavailability of broad-band seismic data on the African Plate adjacent to the Red Sea. Here, we report the first comprehensive image of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) discontinuities using data from the Egyptian National Seismic Network, and compare the resulting depths of the 410 and 660-km discontinuities with those observed on the Arabian side. Our results show that when a standard earth model is used for time-to-depth conversion, the resulting depth of the discontinuities increases systematically towards the axis of the Afro-Arabian Dome (AAD) from both the west and east. Relative to the westernmost area, the maximum depression of the 410-km discontinuity is about 30 km, and that of the 660-km discontinuity is about 45 km. The observed systematic variations can best be explained by a model involving a hydrated MTZ and an upper-mantle low-velocity zone beneath the AAD. Models invoking one or more mantle plumes originated from the MTZ or the lower-mantle beneath the study area are not consistent with the observations.

  14. Simulating coastal to offshore interactions around the South Florida coastal seas and implications on management issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.; Kourafalou, V. H.; Hogan, P. J.; Smedstad, O.

    2008-12-01

    The South Florida coastal seas include shelf areas and shallow water bodies around ecologically fragile environments and Marine Protected Areas, such as Florida Bay, the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (around the largest coral reef system of the continental U.S.) and the Dry Tortugas Ecological Reserve. Man- made changes in the hydrology of the Everglades have caused dramatic degradation of the coastal ecosystem through discharge in Florida Bay. New management scenarios are under way to restore historical flows. The environmental impacts of the management propositions are examined with an inter-disciplinary, multi-nested modeling system. The HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) has been employed for the Regional Model for South Florida Coastal Seas (SoFLA-HYCOM, 1/25 degree resolution) and for the embedded, high resolution coastal Florida Keys model (FKEYS- HYCOM, 1/100 degree). Boundary conditions are extracted from GODAE products: the large scale North Atlantic model (ATL-HYCOM, 1/12 degree) and the intermediate scale Gulf of Mexico model (GOM-HYCOM, 1/25 degree). The study targets the impacts of large scale oceanic features on the coastal dynamics. Eddies that travel along the Loop Current/Florida Current front are known to be an important mechanism for the interaction of nearshore and offshore flows. The high resolution FKEYS simulations reveal both mescoscale and sub- mesoscale eddy passages during a targeted 2-year simulation period (2004-2005), forced with high resolution/high frequency atmospheric forcing. Eddies influence sea level changes in the vicinity of Florida Bay with possible implications on current and future flushing patterns. They also enable upwelling of cooler, nutrient-rich waters in the vicinity of the Reef Tract and they influence transport and recruitment pathways for coral fish larvae, as they carry waters of different properties (such as river-borne low-salinity/nutrient-rich waters from as far as the Mississippi River) and

  15. Coastal response to simultaneous mid-Holocene climate and sea-level changes: Lessons from ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, C. J.; FitzGerald, D. M.; Milne, G. A.; Bard, K. A.; Fattovich, R.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal evolution during the Holocene has been driven by complex interactions between changes in sea level, climate, and sedimentation processes. Along the Egyptian Red Sea coast, a post-glacial marine transgression drowned a series of wadi channels, flooding their lower reaches to create shallow lagoons. Archeological investigations at one such site, Mersa / Wadi Gawasis, have uncovered the existence of an ancient Egyptian harbor along a carbonate / conglomerate terrace located 600 m landward of the modern shoreline; this discovery documented the world's earliest (3.5 - 4.0 ka) archaeological evidence of long-distance seafaring. This site is interpreted to have been a harbor servicing trade routes along the African Red Sea coast. Sedimentological, malacological, chorological, and foraminiferal analyses indicate that this harbor was located within a low energy, 6 - 8 m deep, tidal embayment that once extended ~1 km inland of the modern shore. A buried coral-beach rock platform and tidal flat sediments are found ubiquitously along the periphery of the paleo-bay and at elevations of up to 1 m above modern mean sea level. Wave-cut notches and erosional terraces observed at 1.1 - 1.8 m above modern sea level along the modern shoreline provide additional evidence of a higher-than-present stand of sea-level during the mid-Holocene. Sea-level predictions generated using a site-specific isostatic model for the northern the Red Sea confirm the presence of 0.5 - 2 m highstand at 5 ka. Reconstructions indicate that the bay at Mersa / Wadi Gawasis reached its maximum surface area prior to the highstand. Preliminary closure was driven by sediment inputs from the adjacent wadi, enhanced by the wetter climate of the African Humid Period, combined with a slowing rate of sea-level rise, thus demonstrating the dominance of sedimentary processes during this period. Following the highstand, slowly falling sea level coincidental with climatic aridization allowed for the establishment

  16. A study of the estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. ERTS-1 imagery was received from NASA in both positive and negative form. This imagery was analyzed to determine the hydrologic features of the water mass, including current patterns, particulate in suspension, and the contacts between different water masses, as well as coastal marsh characteristics. A Spectral Data Model 64 multispectral projector/viewer was used for the analysis. Quick look analysis of the second generation negatives indicated that: (1) green spectral band lacked contrast and was overexposed; (2) red spectral had acceptable contrast, but somewhat overexposed; and (3) infrared bands overexposed for land areas, but exposure good for water. Analysis of second generation positives indicated that; (1) green spectral band extremely flat; (2) red spectral band of acceptable contrast, but too dense for projection; and (3) infrared bands lacked detail in both water and land areas. Photographs indicate that it is necessary to expose and process the multispectral imagery for the scene brightness range under consideration.

  17. 78 FR 25349 - Policy Clarification Concerning Designation of Adjacent Coastal States for Deepwater Port License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    .... 5928, 54 FR 777 (Dec. 27, 1988) (``The territorial sea of the United States henceforth extends to 12... jurisdictional definitions where such jurisdictional definitions are not otherwise provided.\\26\\ \\25\\ 40 FR 52554... MarAd published a Notice of Proposed Policy Clarification on Tuesday, March 5, 2013 (78 FR...

  18. Modern transport and deposition of settling particles in the northern South China Sea: Sediment trap evidence adjacent to Xisha Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Clift, Peter D.; Yan, Wen; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Han; Xiang, Rong; Wang, Dongxiao

    2014-11-01

    Studies on modern sediment transport and deposition, especially studies analyzing settling particles collected with sediment traps, have rarely been carried out in the northern South China Sea. Using sediment trap time series data from Site XS1 (17°24.5‧N, 110°55.0‧E, water depth 1690 m) adjacent to the Xisha Trough, variations in sediment source through time have been reconstructed. These observations include total particle flux (TPF) and current data, grain size distributions, and clay mineral compositions obtained from two sediment traps deployed in 500 m and 1500 m water depth, respectively. Time series records at Site XS1 changed seasonally for both sampled layers. TPF in the lower layer (426 mg/m2/d) was several times that of the upper layer (113 mg/m2/d) and is affected by lateral transport. However, mean grain size (Mz) of the upper layer is greater that of the lower layer (29 vs10 μm) due to contributions from biogenic materials. There are no clear seasonal changes in clay mineral assemblage in either the upper or lower layers. The annual percentages of four main clay minerals were 82-83% illite, 7-9% kaolinite, 6-8% chlorite and 1-3% smectite. Taiwan was the dominant sediment source (42-74%), while sediment contributions from the Red River and Annamite Chain account for 23-53% and 0-15%, respectively. Sediment supply from Taiwan could be explained by deep water current flow, while coastal currents may aid sediment transport from the Red River and small mountainous rivers of central Vietnam.

  19. Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments of the Pearl River Delta and adjacent South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Mai, Bixian; Chen, Shejun; Luo, Xiaojun; Chen, Laiguo; Yang, Qingshu; Sheng, Guoying; Peng, Pingan; Fu, Jiamo; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2005-05-15

    Spatial and temporal distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and adjacent South China Sea (SCS) of southern China were examined. A total of 66 surface sediment samples were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations of 10 PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -66, -100, -99, -154, -153, -138, -183, and -209). The concentrations of BDE-209 and SigmaPBDEs (defined as the sum of all targeted PBDE congeners except for BDE-209) ranged from 0.4 to 7340 and from 0.04 to 94.7 ng/g, respectively. The SigmaPBDEs concentrations were mostly < 50 ng/g, within the range for riverine and coastal sediments around the world, whereas the BDE-209 concentrations at the most contaminated sites were at the high end of the worldwide figures. Congener compositions were dominated by BDE-209 (72.6 - 99.7%), with minor contributions from penta- and octa-BDEs. Slightly different PBDE compositions were observed among samples collected from different locations, attributable to possible decomposition of highly brominated congeners and/or redistribution between particles of various sizes during atmospheric or fluvial transportation. The PBDE patterns in the SCS and Pearl River Estuary sediments were similar to those in sediments of the Zhujiang and Dongjiang Rivers, reflecting the widespread influence from local inputs. Analyses of two short sediment cores collected from the Pearl River Estuary showed that concentrations of BDE-209 rapidly increased in the upper layers of both cores, coincident with the growth of the electronics manufacturing capacities in the PRD region. The major sources of PBDEs were probably waste discharges from the cities of Guangzhou, Dongguan, and Shenzhen, the three fastest growing urban centers in the PRD. PMID:15952354

  20. Coastal vulnerability assessment of the Northern Gulf of Mexico to sea-level rise and coastal change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, E.A.; Barras, J.A.; Williams, S.J.; Twichell, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise along the Northern Gulf of Mexico from Galveston, TX, to Panama City, FL. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rate, mean tidal range, and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each variable are combined and an index value is calculated for 1-kilometer grid cells along the coast. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. The CVI assessment presented here builds on an earlier assessment conducted for the Gulf of Mexico. Recent higher resolution shoreline change, land loss, elevation, and subsidence data provide the foundation for a better assessment for the Northern Gulf of Mexico. The areas along the Northern Gulf of Mexico that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are parts of the Louisiana Chenier Plain, Teche-Vermillion Basin, and the Mississippi barrier islands, as well as most of the Terrebonne and Barataria Bay region and the Chandeleur Islands. These very high vulnerability areas have the highest rates of relative sea-level rise and the highest rates of shoreline change or land area loss. The information provided by coastal vulnerability assessments can be used in long-term coastal management and policy decision making.

  1. Coastal erosion vs riverline sediment discharge in the Arctic shelfx seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rachold, V.; Grigoriev, M.N.; Are, F.E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Reimnitz, E.; Kassens, H.; Antonow, M.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a comparison of sediment input by rivers and by coastal erosion into both the Laptev Sea and the Canadian Beaufort Sea (CBS). New data on coastal erosion in the Laptev Sea, which are based on field measurements and remote sensing information and existing data on coastal erosion in the CBS as well as riverine sediment discharge into both the Laptev Sea and the CBS are included. Strong regional differences in the percentages of coastal ero- sion and riverine sediment supply are observed. The CBS is dominated by the riverine sediment discharge (64.45x106 t a-1) mainly of the Mackenzie River. which is the largest single source of sediments in the Arctic. Riverine sediment discharge into the Laptev Sea amounts to 24.10x106 t a-1, more than 70% of which are related to the Lena River. In comparison with the CBS. the Laptev Sea coast on average delivers approximately twice as much sediment mass per kilometer, a result of higher erosion rates due to higher cliffs and seasonal ice melting. In the Laptev Sea sediment input by coastal erosion (58.4x106 t a-1) is therefore more important than in the CBS and the ratio between riverine and coastal sediment input amounts to 0.4. Coastal erosion supplying 5.6x106 t a-1 is less significant for the sediment budget of the CBS where riverine sediment discharge exceeds coastal sediment input by a factor of ca. 10.

  2. Heat flow distribution and thermal structure of the Philippine Sea Plate and its adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Chen, C.; Liang, Q.; Sun, S.

    2013-12-01

    Research on the present geothermal state is an important way to understand the lithospheric geodynamics. We studied the heat flow (HF) distribution and the geothermal structure of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and its adjacent area (100°E~155°E, 5°S~45°N) surrounded by the East China Sea, South China Sea and the West Pacific Ocean, which is aimed to provide thermal constraints for the dynamic mechanism and tectonic evolution of the PSP. Based on the observed seafloor HF data of the study area with the latest release of CRUST1.0 crustal layered model, the lithospheric geotherm was calculated using 1D steady-state heat conduction equation. However, the obtained numerous geotherms derived from the extrapolation through heat conduction equation strongly depended on the accuracy of the measured HF data, which is limited, unevenly distributed and easily affected by local factors. Therefore, as a meaningful comparison, the temperature distributions at 25 km and 50 km depth inferred from the upper mantle shear wave velocities structure (S2.9EA) are inverted. The HF distribution shows relatively high values in Ryuku Trench and nearby Izu-Boning Trench, where the crust thicken and the mantle uplift obviously as typical transition zones. The Mariana Trench located in the east (southeast) part and the Philippine Trench in the southwest both are with low HF, which is also illustrated in the upper mantle gravity map after temperature correction. The Central Basin Ridge is with unquestionable high HF, being perpendicular to which the value decreasing. The calculated temperature maps (at depth of 25 km and 50 km) by the two methods both present that the temperature in PSP is higher than that in the Western Pacific Ocean and the west Philippine Basin is lower than the east one, which consists well with the crust age. The west half parts both of the Philippine Basin and Parece Vela Basin show low temperature, but high value in Ryuku Trench, Nankai Through, Shikoku Basin, Amami

  3. Late Cenozoic fluvial development within the Sea of Azov and Black Sea coastal plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoshko, A.; Gozhik, P.; Semenenko, V.

    2009-09-01

    Late Cenozoic terrestrial deposits are widespread across the northern coastal regions of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and represent diverse fluvial, estuarine and deltaic environments. The dating and correlation of these deposits rely on stratigraphically-associated marine index beds, mammalian and molluscan faunas and magnetostratigraphy. In detail the geometries of these sediment bodies are extremely complex, typically varying between localities and representing many cycles of incision and aggradation. However, the overall disposition of the sediments reflects the transition from the uplifting sediment source region to the north and the subsiding depocentre in the interior of the Black Sea to the south. Since the Middle Miocene the area of the Paratethys/Black Sea depocentre has decreased significantly, but since the Middle Pliocene the hinge zone between uplift and subsidence has been located close to the modern coastline. A combination of regional and local differential crustal movements has given rise to the great variety of fluvial sediment bodies, to the erosion-aggradation cycles, different phases and river activity and to the various fluvial landforms that have all been important in landscape development in this region during the past 12 Ma. The fluvial erosion-accumulation cycles (during the upper Serravillian-Messinian, the Zanclean-late Gelasian, and the Pleistocene) and corresponding cycles of relief dissection and planation are reconstructed against a background of local sea-level changes and climatic variations determined from palaeobotanical data. The maximum fluvial incision occurred in the early Zanclean time with alluvial coastal plains, unique in this area, developing in the Gelasian. Increased climatic aridity during the Pleistocene caused a reduction of fluvial activity in comparison with the Late Miocene and Pliocene. The sea-level oscillations and Pleistocene glaciations affected fluvial processes in different ways. The most remarkable

  4. Regional Sea Level Variation: California Coastal Subsidence (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, G.; Hammond, W. C.; Nerem, R.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite altimetry over the last two decades has measured variations in geocentric sea level (GSL), relative to the Earth system center of mass, providing valuable data to test models of physical oceanography and the effects of global climate change. The societal impacts of sea level change however relate to variations in local sea level (LSL), relative to the land at the coast. Therefore, assessing the impacts of sea level change requires coastal measurements of vertical land motion (VLM). Indeed, ΔLSL = ΔGSL - ΔVLM, with subsidence mapping 1:1 into LSL. Measurements of secular coastal VLM also allow tide-gauge data to test models of GSL over the last century in some locations, which cannot be provided by satellite data. Here we use GPS geodetic data within 15 km of the US west coast to infer regional, secular VLM. A total of 89 GPS stations met the criteria that time series span >4.5 yr, and do not have obvious non-linear variation, as may be caused by local instability. VLM rates for the GPS stations are derived in the secular reference frame ITRF2008, which aligns with the Earth system center of mass to ×0.5 mm/yr. We find that regional VLM has different behavior north and south of the Mendocino Triple Junction (MTJ). The California coast has a coherent regional pattern of subsidence averaging 0.5 mm/yr, with an increasing trend to the north. This trend generally matches GIA model predictions. Around San Francisco Bay, the observed coastal subsidence of 1.0 mm/yr coherently decreases moving away from the Pacific Ocean to very small subsidence on the east shores of the bay. This gradient is likely caused by San Andreas-Hayward Fault tectonics, and possibly by differential surface loading across the bay and Sacramento-San Joachim River Delta. Thus in addition to the trend in subsidence from GIA going northward along the California coast, tectonics may also play a role where the plate boundary fault system approaches the coast. In contrast, we find that VLM

  5. Subsurface geology of upper Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, coastal Louisiana and adjacent Continental Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlan, E. Jr.; Leroy, D.O.

    1988-09-01

    Upper Tertiary and Quaternary deposits thicken seaward from a feather edge on the outcrop in the uplands of southern Louisiana to more than 7000 ft (2134 m) beneath the middle continental shelf. Through a study of cores and cuttings from 100 control wells and electric-log pattern correlations from 350 water and petroleum industry wells with seismic corroboration in the offshore area, these deposits have been divided into six major time-stratigraphic units, four of which correlate to outcropping terraces. This investigation presents a regional stratigraphic framework of the major upper Tertiary and Quaternary units from their updip pinch-outs in and beneath the terraced uplands, into the subsurface, across the coastal plain to the Louisiana offshore area.

  6. Influence of Land-sea Breeze on Air Quality Over Taiwan Coastal Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J. S.; Chiang, C.

    2008-12-01

    Taiwan is is an island nation in western Pacific close to Mainland China. As such Land-sea breeze is a natural processes. Many major cities and industrial developments naturally developed near coastal area. As air quality in urban and industrial centers worsened impact on coastal areas increases. Land-sea breeze naturally plays an important role in transport of pollutants to and from polluted regions to the coastal environment. In this study we analyzed a full year of Taiwan EPA monitored hourly data on O3, NOx, CO, CO2, temperature, wind direction and speed to group and identify time and place with significant land-sea breeze phenomenon. We first compare coastal air quality condition with and without land-sea breeze and then use a 3-D regional-scale transport and chemistry model to provide detailed diagnostic interpretations of the coupling of pollution source regions and coastal areas. From this we can clarify when and how land-sea breeze may play a role in determining coastal air quality. Two different subregions of Taiwan are of interest in this study, Taipei and Kaoshiung environments, in the north and south of Taiwan respectively. Taipei is about 30-50 km away from its impacted coastal area while Kaoshiung is directly at and inland of its coastal shore. For Taipei region daytime upper air pollutants can be transported out to sea and then subside and return to the coastal area at night. But under summer severely polluted condition surface Taipei urban pollutants actually extend beyond the coastal area hence at night the return flow only brings back the same air mass. In contrast, Kaoshiung area is almost always under high pollution status. Its domain of influence always extends far beyond the coastal shore. Therefore, with and without land-sea breeze, coastal pollution remains about the same. We shall present detailed 2-D and 3-D data and station by station analyses in support of these findings.

  7. A benchmark-multi-disciplinary study of the interaction between the Chesapeake Bay and adjacent waters of the Virginian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargis, W. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The social and economic importance of estuaries are discussed. Major focus is on the Chesapeake Bay and its interaction with the adjacent waters of the Virginia Sea. Associated multiple use development and management problems as well as their internal physical, geological, chemical, and biological complexities are described.

  8. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program. PMID:25421712

  9. Changing coastal oceanography of the Black Sea II: Mediterranean effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmazin, D.

    The behavior and physical mechanisms during the Mediterranean flow, entering the Black Sea from the Bosphorus, are described using existing field observations and hydrodynamic models for the vertical and along axis circulation in the strait. Soviet studies in the 1960-1970's showed that a well-defined sill north of the Bosphorus does not prevent the overflow of dense Mediterranean water onto the shelf even during unfavorable conditions (high surface elevation in the Black Sea and strong northerly winds). The stream makes a sharp westward turn after exiting from the strait and then starts its track downward to the shelf slope. Intensive dispersion of the Mediterranean water occurs at a distance of 25-50 km from the strait. Recent laboratory and mathematical models have been reviewed to describe the behavior of the density and current interfaces in the strait and the role of temporary blockage of the dense flow upon the Mediterranean effluent. Two hypothetic physical mechanisms for sill overflow are discussed. One is associated with bifurcation of the coastal flows, approaching the strait orifice, and formation of a diversion zone in the upper layer which facilitates the flow over the sill. Another hypothesis suggests that the sill exercises frictionless rotational hydraulic control in the short, 4 km continuation of the strait channel. Persistent northeasterly or southerly winds can substantially affect the intensity of the Mediterranean effluent by modifying the average flow fields and density structures in the strait. TS-analysis of far-field property distribution shows that the Mediterranean water contributes to the laminated structure of the Black Sea water column. Under average conditions, the Mediterranean waters follow the mainstream of the Black Sea current system along the Turkish coast, reaching the deepest strata in the southeastern corner of the sea. Ongoing Soviet diversions of fresh water from the northern slope of the Black Sea and projected damming

  10. Microbial water quality before and after the repair of a failing onsite wastewater treatment system adjacent to coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Habteselassie, M.Y.; Denene, Blackwood A.; Noble, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The objective was to assess the impacts of repairing a failing onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS, i.e., septic system) as related to coastal microbial water quality. Methods and Results: Wastewater, groundwater and surface water were monitored for environmental parameters, faecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and the viral tracer MS2 before and after repairing a failing OWTS. MS2 results using plaque enumeration and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) often agreed, but inhibition limited the qRT-PCR assay sensitivity. Prerepair, MS2 persisted in groundwater and was detected in the nearby creek; postrepair, it was not detected. In groundwater, total coliform concentrations were lower and E.??coli was not detected, while enterococci concentrations were similar to prerepair levels. E.??coli and enterococci surface water concentrations were elevated both before and after the repair. Conclusions: Repairing the failing OWTS improved groundwater microbial water quality, although persistence of bacteria in surface water suggests that the OWTS was not the singular faecal contributor to adjacent coastal waters. A suite of tracers is needed to fully assess OWTS performance in treating microbial contaminants and related impacts on receiving waters. Molecular methods like qRT-PCR have potential but require optimization. Significance and Impact of Study: This is the first before and after study of a failing OWTS and provides guidance on selection of microbial tracers and methods. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology ?? 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Climatology of the oceanography in the northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) and adjacent waters: Observations from satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X.; Wong, G. T.; Tai, J.; Ho, T.

    2013-12-01

    By using the observations from multiple satellite sensors, the climatology of the oceanography, including the surface wind vector, sea surface temperature (SST), surface chlorophyll a concentration (Chl_a), and vertically integrated net primary production (PPeu), in the northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) and adjacent waters is evaluated. Regional and sub-regional mechanisms in driving the coastal processes, which influence the spatial and temporal distributional patterns in water component, are assessed. Seasonal vertical convective mixing by wind and surface heating/cooling is the primary force in driving the annual changes in SST and Chl_a in the open South China Sea (SCS), in which highly negative correlation coefficients between Chl_a and SST and moderately positive correlation coefficients between Chl_a and wind speed are found. Together, the seasonal variations in SST and wind speed account for about 80% of the seasonal variation in Chl_a. In the NoSoCS as a whole, however, the contribution is reduced to about 40%, primarily due to the effect of the Pearl River plume. A tongue of water extending eastward from the mouth of the River into the middle shelf with positive correlation coefficients between Chl_a and SST and around zero or slightly negative correlation coefficients between Chl_a and wind is the most striking feature in the NoSoCS. The westward and eastward propagations of the Pearl River plume are both very small during the northeast monsoonal season, driven primarily by the Coriolis effect. The abrupt increase in the areal coverage of the River plume, which is much more pronounced in the eastward propagation, between June and August can be attributed to the prevailing southwest monsoon as well as the annual peak of the river flow. Coastal upwelling is another sub-regional phenomenon in the NoSoCS. The upwelling at the shelf edge off the Taiwan Bank may be characterized by its elevated Chl_a. Its areal coverage and average Chl_a do not vary

  12. Copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms from the Java Sea and estuarine and coastal areas around East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everaarts, J. M.; Boon, J. P.; Kastoro, W.; Fischer, C. V.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.

    A study was made of the concentrations of copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms, representing the phyla Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, from the riverine and estuarine areas of the rivers Brantas and Solo (East Java) and the adjacent coastal area. Moreover, an assessment was made of the contamination of the benthic biota with these elements in the Java Sea and Bali Sea. Benthic organisms show a species-specific uptake pattern for each element. Compared to the same type of animals from estuaries and coastal areas in temperate regions of western Europe, the concentrations of cadmium are considerably higher, while copper and zinc concentrations are somewhat lower. There is no general trend in concentration levels of the metals in specimens from rivers, estuaries, coastal zone and open sea. In some groups of organisms ( e.g. shrimp, starfish) the concentrations of copper and zinc are highest in specimens from rivers and estuaries. In contrast, cadmium concentration levels in e.g. crab, shrimp and squid are lowest in riverine and estuarine areas. Significant differences in metal concentrations in these organisms were found between the dry monsoon period (July, August) and the beginning of the wet monsoon (November, December). No relationship existed between the metal concentration of the organisms and the silt fraction of the sediment (grain size < 63 μm) or the bulk sediment.

  13. Primary production of coral ecosystems in the Vietnamese coastal and adjacent marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tac-An, Nguyen; Minh-Thu, Phan; Cherbadji, I. I.; Propp, M. V.; Odintsov, V. S.; Propp, L. H.

    2013-11-01

    Coral reef ecosystems in coastal waters and islands of Vietnam have high primary production. Average gross primary production (GPP) in coral reef waters was 0.39 g C m-2 day-1. GPP of corals ranged from 3.12 to 4.37 g C m-2 day-1. GPP of benthic microalgae in coral reefs ranged from 2 to 10 g C m-2 day-1. GPP of macro-algae was 2.34 g C m-2 day-1. Therefore, the total of GPP of whole coral reef ecosystems could reach 7.85 to 17.10 g C m-2 day-1. Almost all values of the ratio of photosynthesis to respiration in the water bodies are higher than 1, which means these regions are autotrophic systems. Wire variation of GPP in coral reefs was contributed by species abundance of coral and organisms, nutrient supports and environmental characteristics of coral ecosystems. Coral reefs play an important ecological role of biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in waters around the reefs. These results contribute valuable information for the protection, conservation and sustainable exploitation of the natural resources in coral reef ecosystems in Vietnam.

  14. Mid Pliocene sea levels along the southeast US coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Hearty, P. J.; Raymo, M. E.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Inglis, J.

    2012-12-01

    Proxy data suggest that during the Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP) atmospheric CO2 levels were roughly similar to today (between 350 and 450 ppmv) and that global average temperature was elevated by as much as 3°C with respect to preindustrial values. Estimates of sea level (SL) during the MPWP range from +10 m to >+40 m relative to present, reflecting uncertainties in our knowledge of the sensitivity to modest climate warming of the East Antarctic, West Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets. A primary objective of the PLIOMAX project (www.pliomax.org) is to combine models of paleosea-level signals with geological observations to significantly improve constraints on eustatic sea level during the MPWP. In this regard, the southeast US coastal plain is of strategic importance in MPWP sea level studies (Dowsett and Cronin, Geology, 1990). In fact, it is one of the few places where predicted glacio-isostatic effects are expected to exhibit a significant geographic variation (in this case, north-to-south). The coastal plain may also be influenced by dynamic topography driven by mantle convective flow. In this area, two factors drive the up-to-the-west dynamic tilting of the coast. The first is the descent of the Farallon slab, now located under the mid-part of the North American continent. The other is upwelling return flow under the east coast (Moucha et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2008). That is, over the last few million years, dynamic topography is responsible for potentially tens of meters of uplift (sea-level fall) of the Pliocene shoreline along the southeast US coastal plain. We have mapped an almost continuous MPWP shoreline cut into Miocene and older formations. However, as a result of multiple inter-state investigations extending over the last century, both the geomorphic escarpment and the associated deposits have been named differently across the region. In Virginia, the Chippenham Thornburg scarp is associated with the Moore House formation; in North and

  15. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; Alberotanza, Luigi; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) Project aimed at supporting ocean color research and applications, from 1995 up to the time of publication of this document, has ensured the collection of a comprehensive atmospheric and marine data set from an oceanographic tower located in the northern Adriatic Sea. The instruments and the measurement methodologies used to gather quantities relevant for bio-optical modeling and for the calibration and validation of ocean color sensors, are described. Particular emphasis is placed on four items: (1) the evaluation of perturbation effects in radiometric data (i.e., tower-shading, instrument self-shading, and bottom effects); (2) the intercomparison of seawater absorption coefficients from in situ measurements and from laboratory spectrometric analysis on discrete samples; (3) the intercomparison of two filter techniques for in vivo measurement of particulate absorption coefficients; and (4) the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility of the most relevant laboratory measurements carried out on seawater samples (i.e., particulate and yellow substance absorption coefficients, and pigment and total suspended matter concentrations). Sample data are also presented and discussed to illustrate the typical features characterizing the CoASTS measurement site in view of supporting the suitability of the CoASTS data set for bio-optical modeling and ocean color calibration and validation.

  16. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this document, the first three years of a time series of bio-optical marine and atmospheric measurements are presented and analyzed. These measurements were performed from an oceanographic tower in the northern Adriatic Sea within the framework of the Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) project, an ocean color calibration and validation activity. The data set collected includes spectral measurements of the in-water apparent (diffuse attenuation coefficient, reflectance, Q-factor, etc.) and inherent (absorption and scattering coefficients) optical properties, as well as the concentrations of the main optical components (pigment and suspended matter concentrations). Clear seasonal patterns are exhibited by the marine quantities on which an appreciable short-term variability (on the order of a half day to one day) is superimposed. This short-term variability is well correlated with the changes in salinity at the surface resulting from the southward transport of freshwater coming from the northern rivers. Concentrations of chlorophyll alpha and total suspended matter span more than two orders of magnitude. The bio-optical characteristics of the measurement site pertain to both Case-I (about 64%) and Case-II (about 36%) waters, based on a relationship between the beam attenuation coefficient at 660nm and the chlorophyll alpha concentration. Empirical algorithms relating in-water remote sensing reflectance ratios and optical components or properties of interest (chlorophyll alpha, total suspended matter, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient) are presented.

  17. Fine Resolution Termohaline Structure Of The Yuctatan Coastal Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez-Ortiz, C.; Capurro, L.; Euan-Avila, J.

    2007-05-01

    In the Yucatan peninsula there are a variety processes that drastically affect the thermohaline structure of the coastal seas. Some of these include hyperhaline lagoons that export salt to the ocean, upwelling events that propagate to the coast, persistent submarine groundwater discharges, and very high evaporation rates caused by the intense solar radiation. On July 2006 a fine resolution oceanographic campaign was performed on the Yucatan coast to study the detailed structure of thermohaline processes and currents from the shore to the 10 m isobath. A total of sixty nine transects that cover the entire northern stretch of the Yucatan coast were made. The transects extend seven kilometers in the offshore direction and have an alongshore spacing of 5 km. The temperature and salinity characteristics of the water column were monitored with a SEABIRD SBE 19 CTD performing profiles every 500 m along each transect. Ocean currents were measures along the same transect using a 1.5 MHz Acoustic Doppler Profiler (Sontek). The results clearly show the effects of coastal lagoons on the adjoining sea, with net salt export associated with hyperhaline lagoons (e.g. Ria Lagartos) or more estuarine influence of lagoons such as Celestun, where groundwater discharges play the role of rivers on the estuary. An assessment of this influence on the coastal ocean will be presented. It is well known the meteor impact at the end of the Cretacic era at Chicxulub, Yucatan, generated a crater with multiple rings which is evident from horizontal gravity gradients of the Yucatan mainland, and that associated with the outer ring there is a high concentration of cenotes (sinkholes) (Pope et al. 1991; Hildebrand, et al. 1995). It has also been shown that groundwater flows along this cenote ring towards the ocean, and the zones where the ring intersects the coast (Celestun and Dzilam Bravo) have impressive geologic features known as `submarine water springs' where freshwater springs as a fountain

  18. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic variations between adjacent drips in three caves at increasing elevation in a temperate coastal rainforest, Vancouver Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddows, Patricia A.; Mandić, Magda; Ford, Derek C.; Schwarcz, Henry P.

    2016-01-01

    The interpretation of speleothem paleoenvironmental records requires understanding of spatial-temporal variations in vadose drip water chemistry and isotopic composition. This study reports on intra- and inter-cave differences in δD, δ18O and electrical conductivity, using 18 monthly water samples from three adjacent drips (<20 m apart) in each of three caves at increasing elevation (0, 550, and 740 m ASL) on very steep ground at the head of Tahsis Inlet fjord on the Pacific coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. All drips showed isotopic seasonal signals, despite varied patterns of drip hydrology. There was overlap in isotopic ranges (at 1 SD) between all three caves, in contrast with the expected δ18O depletion of -0.15 to -0.5‰/100 m of ascent observed in standard precipitation. The isotopic seasonality was approximated with sine curves, and compared to a GNIP data set from Victoria ∼300 km to the south. The δD and δ18O drip isotopes lagged the Victoria record by 155 ± 26 days and 165 ± 50 days respectively. The longest lag was at the slowest drip (sea level), while the shortest lag (87 days for δ18O, 550 m ASL) implies a short residence time, paradoxically from the drip with the highest mean electrical conductivity. Vadose residence time was less than one climatic year, reflecting a combination of negligible matrix porosity in the host rock and super-humid climatic conditions. Beneath the epikarst, drip hydrology was evidently by simple piston flow. Phase-shifted drip isotope records showed excellent agreement with sea level mean monthly air temperatures at the Tahsis meteorological station over the study period. The δD and δ18O drip amplitudes were damped on average 74% and 73% respectively compared to the Victoria data. The drips at 740 m ASL are tightly aligned to the global mean meteoric water line (GMWL) and 18O-depleted; the drips at 550 m ASL and at sea level plot along the GMWL, or between it and the Victoria LMWL, with the exception

  19. Implementation and validation of a coastal forecasting system for wind waves in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inghilesi, R.; Catini, F.; Bellotti, G.; Franco, L.; Orasi, A.; Corsini, S.

    2012-02-01

    A coastal forecasting system was implemented to provide wind wave forecasts over the whole Mediterranean Sea area, and with the added capability to focus on selected coastal areas. The goal of the system was to achieve a representation of the small-scale coastal processes influencing the propagation of waves towards the coasts. The system was based on a chain of nested wave models and adopted the WAve Model (WAM) to analyse the large-scale, deep-sea propagation of waves; and the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) to simulate waves in key coastal areas. Regional intermediate-scale WAM grids were introduced to bridge the gap between the large-scale and each coastal area. Even applying two consecutive nestings (Mediterranean grid → regional grid → coastal grid), a very high resolution was still required for the large scale WAM implementation in order to get a final resolution of about 400 m on the shores. In this study three regional areas in the Tyrrhenian Sea were selected, with a single coastal area embedded in each of them. The number of regional and coastal grids in the system could easily be modified without significantly affecting the efficiency of the system. The coastal system was tested in three Italian coastal regions in order to optimize the numerical parameters and to check the results in orographically complex zones for which wave records were available. Fifteen storm events in the period 2004-2009 were considered.

  20. Structure of phytoplankton communities in the Yenisei estuary and over the adjacent Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhanova, I. N.; Flint, M. V.; Sergeeva, V. M.; Druzhkova, E. I.; Nedospasov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Material was collected in the Yenisei estuary and over the adjacent Kara Sea shelf at a quasimeridional transect from 71°49'70″ to 75°59'93″ N in September 2011. The structural characteristics of the phytoplankton community were determined by latitudinal zonality of environmental conditions. Two well-distinguished phytocenoses—freshwater and marine—were found in this region. Phytoplankton in the freshwater part of the estuary was composed solely of the freshwater algae species and was distinguished by the highest numbers (up to 2 × 106 cell/L) and biomass (up to 1.4 mg/L). The marine phytocenoses over the Yenisei shoal was composed of marine neritic species; the abundance and biomass of phytoplankton in this area were significantly lower (0.2 × 106 cell/L and 0.4 mg/L, respectively). The area of intensive interaction of riverine and marine waters—the estuarine frontal zone, with ~130 km latitudinal extension (from 72° to 74° N)—was characterized by a sharp halocline, which separated the desalinated upper layer from the underlying marine water. Freshwater algal species predominated above the halocline, whereas marine species predominated below. The lower border of the euphotic layer was located 8 to 15 m below the halocline. The niche between the halocline and the lower border of the euphotic layer was characterized by high nutrient concentrations, which together with sufficient illumination determined the intensive development of phytoplankton and high values of primary production.

  1. Fluorescent whitening agents in Tokyo Bay and adjacent rivers: their application as anthropogenic molecular markers in coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuko; Managaki, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige

    2002-08-15

    Two kinds of stilbene-type fluorescent whitening agents (i.e., DSBP and DAS1), minor components of laundry detergents, were analyzed in surface waters of Tokyo Bay and adjacent rivers and in sewage effluents to examine their usefulness as molecular markers in the marine environment. Sensitive determination using HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) with fluorescence detection with postcolumn UV radiator was employed. DSBP and DAS1 were found in Tokyo rivers at concentrations of a few microg/L and approximately 1 microg/L, respectively. DSBP and DAS1 were widely distributed in Tokyo Bay waters at concentrations in the range of 0.019-0.264 microg/L and 0.021-0.127 microg/L, respectively. Comparison of these concentrations with those in sewage effluents (DSBP: 8 microg/L and DAS1: 2.5 microg/L on average) yielded sewage dilutions in Tokyo Bay on the order of 10(2). FWAs-salinity diagram in the Tamagawa Estuary showed fairly conservative behaviors of the FWAs with approximately 20% and approximately 10% removal of DSBP and DAS1, respectively. This is thought to be caused by photodegradation. The persistent nature of FWAs and their widespread distribution in coastal environments demonstrates the utility of FWAs in tracing the behavior of water from rivers and sewage outfalls. The DSBP/DAS1 ratio showed a decreasing trend from sewage effluents, to rivers, to Tokyo Bay, indicating selective photodegradation of DSBP. The DSBP/DAS1 ratio is proposed as an index of the degree of photodegradation and residence time and freshness of water mass in coastal environments. PMID:12214649

  2. Analytical model of sea level elevation during a storm: Support for coastal flood risk assessment associated with cyclone passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Natan Zambroni; Calliari, Lauro Julio; Nicolodi, João Luiz

    2016-08-01

    Sea level oscillations are a result of continuous astronomic, oceanographic, and atmospheric interactions on different time and intensity scales. Thus, the collective action of forcing factors such as tide, wind, atmospheric pressure, and wave action may lead to elevated sea levels during cyclone events over the continental shelf, abruptly impacting adjacent coasts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential risks of sea level rise and coastal flooding associated with the passage of cyclones in southern Brazil. An analytical model was developed based on extreme storm events from 1997 to 2008. The model identifies the impact of each forcing factor during temporary sea level rise. Through the development of a digital terrain model, it was possible to identify the areas most vulnerable to flooding by superimposing the terrain model onto calculated sea levels. During storm events, sea level elevations ranged from 2 to 5 m and show wind as the major forcing factor, followed by swells waves, astronomical tide and finally atmospheric pressure.

  3. Human health-related ecosystem services of avian-dense coastal wetlands adjacent to a Western Lake Erie swimming beach.

    PubMed

    Rea, Chris L; Bisesi, Michael S; Mitsch, William; Andridge, Rebecca; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-03-01

    Wetlands provide many valuable ecosystem services, including water quality improvement to protect downstream aquatic ecosystems such as lakes, rivers, and estuaries. However, their ability to improve water quality to safe levels for direct human exposure while largely surrounded by agricultural lands and hosting large wildlife populations remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the ecosystem service capabilities of an avian-dense coastal wetland surrounded by agricultural lands along the southwestern shore of Lake Erie in Ohio by assessing the quality of water as it flows through the wetland (Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge (ONWR)) and into Lake Erie beach waters. Our study used total phosphorus and fecal indicator (Escherichia coli) concentrations as water quality metrics across the wetland and at an adjacent Lake Erie swimming beach during the 2012 summer swim season. E. coli and total P levels were consistently highest at the site, where water enters the ONWR (mean E. coli = 507 CFU/100 mL; mean total P = 535 μg/L), and steadily decreased as water flowed through the wetland and into the adjacent beach (mean E. coli = 10 CFU/100 mL; mean total P = 41 μg/L). E. coli and total P showed statistically significant (α = 0.01) correlations with phycocyanin, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and pH; total P was also significantly correlated with total N. The results suggest that this wetland may be contributing to improving water quality, which is beneficial for human health as well as to downstream ecosystem health (e.g., limiting eutrophication promoting conditions, etc.). PMID:25582638

  4. Bioavailability of sinking organic matter in the Blanes canyon and the adjacent open slope (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Fernandez, P.; Bianchelli, S.; Pusceddu, A.; Calafat, A.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Danovaro, R.

    2012-12-01

    Submarine canyons are sites of intense energy and material exchange between the shelf and the deep adjacent basins. To test the hypothesis that active submarine canyons represent preferential conduits of available food for the deep-sea benthos, two mooring lines were deployed at 1200 m depth from November 2008 to November 2009 inside the Blanes canyon and on the adjacent open slope (Catalan Margin, NW Mediterranean Sea). We investigated the fluxes, biochemical composition and food quality of sinking organic carbon (OC). OC fluxes in the canyon and the open slope varied among sampling periods, though not consistently in the two sites. In particular, while in the open slope the highest OC fluxes were observed in August 2009, in the canyon the highest OC fluxes occurred in April-May 2009. For almost the entire study period, the OC fluxes in the canyon were significantly higher than those in the open slope, whereas OC contents of sinking particles collected in the open slope were consistently higher than those in the canyon. This result confirms that submarine canyons are effective conveyors of OC to the deep sea, particles transferred are predominantly of inorganic origin, significantly higher than that reaching the open slope at a similar water depth. Using multivariate statistical tests, two major clusters of sampling periods were identified: one in the canyon that grouped trap samples collected in December 2008, concurrently with the occurrence of a major storm at the sea surface, and associated with increased fluxes of nutritionally available particles from the upper shelf. Another cluster grouped samples from both the canyon and the open slope collected in March 2009, concurrently with the occurrence of the seasonal phytoplankton bloom at the sea surface, and associated with increased fluxes of total phytopigments. Our results confirm the key ecological role of submarine canyons for the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, and highlight the importance of canyons

  5. Changes in Climate over the South China Sea and Adjacent Regions: Response to and Feedback on Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song

    2016-04-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Asian monsoon have experienced significant long-term changes in the past decades. These changes, together with other factors, have in turn led to large climate change signals over the South China Sea and adjacent regions including Southeast Asia, the western Pacific, and the tropical Indian Ocean. An attribution analysis of the feedback processes of these signals indicate the predominant importance of water vapor and cloud radiative feedbacks. Experiments with multiple earth system models also show that these regional climate change signals exert significant influences on global climate. The increases in atmospheric heating over Southeast Asia and sea surface temperature in the adjacent oceans in the past decades have weakened the Indian and African monsoons, led to a drying effect over East Asia, and generated wave-train patterns in both the northern and southern hemispheres, explaining several prominent climate features in and outside Southeast Asia.

  6. Modelling coastal marsh stability in response to sea level rise: a case study in coastal Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chmura, G.L.; Costanza, R.; Kosters, E.C.

    1992-01-01

    In some regions coastal marsh stability is threatened by high rates of sea level rise. The deltaic plain of the Mississippi River is a natural laboratory for the study of marsh stability under conditions of rising sea level because it has been experiencing high rates of local submergence which cause relatively high rates of apparent sea level rise. We constructed a dynamic simulation model to study the relationship of accretion to three components of relative sea level rise: compaction, eustatic rise and submergence. The model is then used to project marsh stability under various future scenarios of sea level rise as well as enhancement of sediment supplies and marsh accretion. The model was calibrated to a 14C-dated sediment deposit which provides a long-term record of sediment accretion. Results indicate that an equilibrium between relative sea level and accretion rates can be attained, but that in this region of coastal Louisiana only the most optimistic assumptions yield coastal marshes that are stable in the long term. ?? 1992.

  7. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  8. Future Coastal Population Growth and Exposure to Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Flooding - A Global Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  9. Delayed Postglacial Uplift and Synglacial Sea Levels in Coastal Central New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koteff, C.; Robinson, G.R.; Goldsmith, R.; Thompson, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    The postglacial uplift pattern indicated by elevations of ice-marginal glaciomarine deltas in coastal New England, deposited between approximately 15,000 and 14,000 yr B.P. during ice retreat from northeastern Massachusetts into southwestern Maine, is very similar to that previously recorded for glaciolacustrine deltas of similar age from inland areas of New England. Multiple regression analyses of elevations from both sets of deltas show an extremely close fit to tilted flat surfaces that rise 0.852 m/km to the N 28.5??W along the coast and 0.889 m/km to the N 20.5??W in western New England. The close similarity of uplift pattern in areas where elevation data are from different base-level media, along with additional shore-line evidence, indicates (1) that both areas are part of the same crustal postglacial uplift block, (2) that postglacial uplift was delayed until after 14,000 yr B.P., and (3) that little or no eustatic sea-level change occurred between 15,000 and 14,000 yr B.P., during which time the margin of the late Wisconsinan Laurentide ice sheet retreated about 100 km from Boston, Massachusetts, into southwestern Maine. Elevation data from even younger glaciomarine deltas in the coastal area indicate that soon after the ice margin reached southwestern Maine and adjacent New Hampshire (ca, 14,000 yr B.P.), eustatic sea level rose rapidly 7-10 m during the time that the ice margin retreated 5-10 km, which may have occurred during an interval of only 50-100 yr, Our new data not only confirm the delayed postglacial uplift model previously described for western New England, but also indicate that little or no eustatic sea-level change occurred during a substantial period of early deglaciation. However, at about 14,000 yr B.P., sea level rose rapidly. Postglacial uplift in the region apparently began between 14,000 and 13,300 yr B.P., before the retreating ice margin reached eastern Maine.

  10. Modeling the rate and style of Arctic coastal retreat along the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, K. R.; Anderson, R. S.; Overeem, I.; Wobus, C. W.; Clow, G. D.; Urban, F. E.; Lewinter, A. L.; Stanton, T. P.

    2011-12-01

    In Arctic landscapes, modern surface warming has significantly altered geomorphic process rates. Along the Beaufort Sea coastline bounding Alaska's North Slope, the mean annual coastal erosion rate has doubled from ~7 m/yr for 1955-1979 to ~14 m/yr for 2002-2007. Locally the erosion rate reaches 30 m/yr. A robust understanding of the processes that govern the rate of erosion is required in order to predict the response of the coast and its adjacent landscape to a rapidly changing climate, with implications for sediment and carbon fluxes, oilfield infrastructure, and animal habitat. On the Beaufort Sea coast, bluffs in regions of ice-rich silt-dominated permafrost are abundant. This type of coast is vulnerable to rapid erosion due to its high ice content and the small grain size of bluff sediment. The bluff material at our study site near Drew Point is 64% ice, making the bluff susceptible to thermal erosion. Liberated sediment is removed from the system in suspension and does not form sheltering beaches or barrier islands which would provide a negative feedback to erosion. During the sea ice-free season, relatively warm waters abut the bluff and ocean water melts a notch into the 4-m tall bluffs. The bluffs ultimately fail by the toppling of polygonal blocks bounded by mechanically weak ice-wedges that are spaced roughly 10-20 m apart. The blocks then temporarily armor the coast against further attack. We document the style and the drivers of coastal erosion in this region through simultaneous measurements of the oceanic and atmospheric conditions, and time-lapse imagery. We extract proxies for erosion rate from time-lapse imagery of both a degrading block and a retreating bluff from the summer of 2010, and compare the proxy record with environmental conditions and melt rate models. These observations verify that the dominant process by which erosion occurs is thermal insertion of a notch, toppling of blocks, and subsequent melting of the ice in the block. The

  11. Food web structure of the coastal area adjacent to the Tagus estuary revealed by stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of energy sources, pathways and trophic linkages among organisms is crucial for the understanding of food web dynamics. Stable isotopes were used to identify the trophic level of food web components and track the incorporation of organic matter of different origins in the coastal ecosystem adjacent to the Tagus estuary. It was shown that the river Tagus is a major source of organic carbon to this system. Also, the wide difference in δ 13C among the primary consumers allowed the identification of the pelagic and the benthic energy pathways. The maximum trophic level observed was 2.4 for Sepia officinalis. This value is indicative of a short food web. It was concluded that the diet of the upper trophic level species relies directly on the lower food web levels to a considerable extent, instead of relying mostly on intermediate trophic level species. Moreover, the δ 15N values of primary consumers were very close to that of particulate organic matter, probably due to poorly known processes occurring at the basis of the food web. This lowers the trophic length of the whole food web. Reliance on benthic affinity prey was high for all upper trophic level secondary consumers.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal areas, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian; Yang, Qing-Shu; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution, composition, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal areas were examined. Total PAH concentrations varied from 189 to 637 ng/g in sediments and 422 to 1,850 ng/g in SPM. PAHs were dominated by 5,6-ring compounds in sediments and by 2,3-ring compounds in SPM samples. Assessment of PAH sources suggested that biomass and coal combustion is the major PAH source to the outer part of the estuary sediments and that petroleum combustion is the major PAH source to the inner part of estuary sediments. As for SPM samples, PAH isomer pair ratios indicated multiple (petroleum, petroleum combustion, and biomass and coal combustion) PAH sources, and significant temporal variations could exist for the sources of water column PAHs in the study area. The distribution of perylene in SPM samples indicated that the river was the dominant source of perylene in SPM and that perylene could be taken as an index to assess the contribution of river inflow to the total PAHs in SPM samples. The high concentration of perylene in the sediment was indicative of an in situ biogenic origin. PMID:15996803

  13. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida's Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning.

    PubMed

    Geselbracht, Laura L; Freeman, Kathleen; Birch, Anne P; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida's Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway. PMID:26207914

  14. Coastal upwelling in the East China Sea in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Fangli; Yang, Yongzeng; Lü, Xingang; Xia, Changshui; Chen, Xianyao; Wang, Baodong; Yuan, Yeli

    2006-11-01

    The dynamic mechanisms of the upwelling off the East China Sea (ECS) coast in wintertime are studied. First, the upwelling signals off the ECS coast are identified by the observed temperature, salinity, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen data obtained during the cruises in January 1999. The MASNUM wave-tide-circulation coupled model is then employed to simulate the hydrography of the ECS. Comparisons between the simulations and observations show that the model performance is satisfactory. On the basis of successful simulation, four numerical experiments are conducted to investigate the upwelling mechanisms. The results suggest that the density (or salinity) front, which separates the inshore Low Salinity Coastal Water and the offshore Taiwan Warm Current (TWC), is the primary inducement for the upwelling. Owing to strong density gradient, the baroclinic pressure gradient force (PGF) is quite large near the frontal zone, and this PGF elicits an upwelling branch along the topography slope. Wind, TWC, and tide affect the density front in extension and intensity, thus exerting subsidiary influences on the upwelling. According to Ekman's theory, the northerly monsoon is downwelling favorable. However, the net effects of wind on the upwelling off the ECS coast in winter are positive because it drives the Changjiang River Diluted Water (CDW) flowing southward and forms the density front. Similarly, the resultant effects of TWC on the upwelling are negative for obstructing the pathway of CDW. Tide contributes to the upwelling because tidal mixing facilitates the expansion of CDW.

  15. Sea Level Rise Decision Support Tools for Adaptation Planning in Vulnerable Coastal Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozum, J. S.; Marcy, D.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA is involved in a myriad of climate related research and projects that help decision makers and the public understand climate science as well as climate change impacts. The NOAA Office for Coastal Management (OCM) provides data, tools, trainings and technical assistance to coastal resource managers. Beginning in 2011, NOAA OCM began developing a sea level rise and coastal flooding impacts viewer which provides nationally consistent data sets and analyses to help communities with coastal management goals such as: understanding and communicating coastal flood hazards, performing vulnerability assessments and increasing coastal resilience, and prioritizing actions for different inundation/flooding scenarios. The Viewer is available on NOAA's Digital Coast platform: (coast.noaa.gov/ditgitalcoast/tools/slr). In this presentation we will share the lessons learned from our work with coastal decision-makers on the role of coastal flood risk data and tools in helping to shape future land use decisions and policies. We will also focus on a recent effort in California to help users understand the similarities and differences of a growing array of sea level rise decision support tools. NOAA staff and other partners convened a workshop entitled, "Lifting the Fog: Bringing Clarity to Sea Level Rise and Shoreline Change Models and Tools," which was attended by tool develops, science translators and coastal managers with the goal to create a collaborative communication framework to help California coastal decision-makers navigate the range of available sea level rise planning tools, and to inform tool developers of future planning needs. A sea level rise tools comparison matrix will be demonstrated. This matrix was developed as part of this effort and has been expanded to many other states via a partnership with NOAA, Climate Central, and The Nature Conservancy.

  16. Where the Sea Meets Land: The Coastal Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The first Coastal Society Conference discussed the present status of the coasts, coastal legislation, United States offshore oil policies, assessment of coastal environmental impacts and food and energy as resources or threats. The Society finds that management and legislation are needed for our coasts. (BT)

  17. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Hammar-Klose, Erika S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS) in Mississippi and Florida. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The Gulf Islands in Mississippi and Florida consist of stable and washover dominated portions of barrier beach backed by wetland and marsh. The areas likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest occurrence of overwash, the highest rates of shoreline change, the gentlest regional coastal slope, and the highest rates of relative sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers.

  18. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year

  19. Assessment on vulnerability of coastal wetlands to sea level rise in the Yangtze Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, L.; Ge, Z.; Zhang, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Yangtze Delta in China is vital economic hubs in terms of settlement, industry, agriculture, trade and tourism as well as of great environmental significance. In recent decades, the prospect of climate change, in particular sea level rise and its effects on low lying coastal areas have generated worldwide attention to coastal ecosystems. Coastal wetlands, as important parts of coastal ecosystem, are particularly sensitive to sea level rise. To study the responses of coastal wetlands to climate change, assess the impacts of climate change on coastal wetlands and formulate feasible and practical mitigation strategies are the important prerequisites for securing the coastal zone ecosystems. In this study, taking the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary as a case study, the potential impacts of sea-level rise to coastal wetlands habitat were analyzed by the Source-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) model. The key indicators, such as the sea-level rise rate, subsidence rate, elevation, daily inundation duration of habitat and sedimentation rate, were selected to build a vulnerability assessment system according to the IPCC definition of vulnerability, i.e. the aspects of exposure, sensitivity and adaptation. A quantitatively spatial assessment method on the GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability. The vulnerability assessment on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary under the sea level rise rate of the present trend and IPCC A1F1 scenario were performed for three sets of projections of short-term (2030s), mid-term (2050s) and long-term (2100s). The results showed that at the present trend of sea level rise rate of 0.26 cm/a, 92.3 % of the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary was in the EVI score of 0 in 2030s, i.e. the impact of sea level rise on habitats/species of coastal wetlands was negligible. While 7.4 % and 0.3 % of the coastal wetlands were in the EVI score of

  20. Blueprint for a Coastal Legacy: Connecticut Sea Grant Strategic Plan 2007-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Sea Grant (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    For nearly 20 years, the Connecticut Sea Grant College Program (CTSG) has worked to foster the wise use and conservation of coastal and marine resources of the Long Island Sound (LIS) estuary, as well as working regionally, nationally and globally. The strategy for success of any individual Sea Grant College Program must be consistent with the…

  1. Coastal alluvial fans (fan deltas) of the Gulf of Aqaba (Gulf of Eilat), Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, A. B.

    1985-04-01

    Coastal sediments of the Gulf of Aqaba are dominated by alluvial fans that prograde directly into the sea. The fans can be subdivided into four types: (1) largely inactive alluvial fans that merge into a braided fluvial system and pass seaward into sabkha flats, lagoons, mangroves and fringing reefs; (2) large alluvial fans that pass directly into the sea with one major entrenched channel and a fringing reef with a large incised canyon; both of these were formed during the Pleistocene, present fluvial activity is confined to the entrenched channels; (3) medium-sized (1-2 km long, 3-4 km wide) moderate to highly active alluvial fans with fringing reefs and backreef lagoons; and (4) small short-headed wadis that empty directly into the sea. The scale, overall sediment body geometry and facies associations of type (3) coastal alluvial fans (fan deltas) provide a close and useful modern analogue for many ancient fan-delta sedimentary sequences. On subaerial parts of the fan, disorganised cobbles and boulders, at the apex, deposited by debris flows pass downslope into longitudinal bars deposited during the high flood stage of periodic flash-flood events. The bars extend over the entire fan surface becoming progressively smaller and finer grained down fan. In general, the fans are characterised by a low proportion of floodplain deposits and extensive modification by aeolian processes, producing widespread gravel pavements and small dune fields over inactive areas of the lower fan. In the marine environment the fans are modified by a combination of wave action and longshore drift. Sand beaches are characterised by low-angle seaward-dipping lamination. On shingle beaches all gravel clasts have a strong preferred seaward dipping orientation. In areas where the fringing reefs are situated offshore from the fan, mixed quartz-bioclastic sand-filled lagoons develop. The nearshore lagoon areas are characterised by large sand bars orientated parallel to the shore. These pass

  2. Pollution status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenglong; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Zhao, Yifei; Yu, Wenwen; Li, Yali; Song, Qiaochu

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mainly produced by incomplete combustion and are used as indicators of anthropogenic activities on the environment. This study analyses the PAHs level in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE), an important component of Yangtze River and a developed and populated region in China. Surface sediments were collected from 77 sites at the YRE and its adjacent coastal zone (IACZ) for a comprehensive study of PAHs. Kriging interpolation technology and Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model were applied to explore the spatial distribution and sources of PAHs. Concentrations of 16 PAHs (ΣPAHs) varied from 27.2 ng g(-1) to 621.6 ng g(-1) dry weight, with an average value of 158.2 ng g(-1). Spatially, ΣPAHs exhibited wide fluctuation and exhibited an increasing tendency from north to south. In addition, ΣPAHs exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing distance between the estuary and IACZ. The deposition flux of PAHs indicated that more than 107.8 t a(-1) PAHs was deposited in the study area annually. The results of the PMF model revealed that anthropogenic activities were the main sources of PAHs in the study area. Vehicle emissions and marine engines were the most important sources and accounted for 40.9% of the pollution. Coal combustion, petrogenic sources, and wood combustion were other sources that contributed 23.9%, 23.6%, and 11.5%, respectively. The distribution patterns of PAHs in the YRE and IACZ were influenced by many complicated factors such as sediment grain size, hydrodynamics and so on. PMID:27485799

  3. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Point Reyes National Seashore (PORE) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2006-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Point Reyes National Seashore in Northern California. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each input variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Point Reyes National Seashore consists of sand and gravel beaches, rock cliffs, sand dune cliffs, and pocket beaches. The areas within Point Reyes that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are areas of unconsolidated sediment where the coastal slope is lowest and wave energy is high.

  4. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Cape Cod National Seashore to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammar-Klose, Erika S.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2003-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within the Cape Cod National Seashore (CACO). The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. CACO consists of high glacial cliffs, beaches, sand spits, and salt marsh wetlands. The areas most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the lowest regional coastal slopes, geomorphologic types that are susceptible to inundation, and the highest rates of shoreline change. Most of CACO's infrastructure lies on high elevation uplands away from the shore; most high use areas are accessible by foot only. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers.

  5. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Fire Island National Seashore to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Thieler, E. Robert

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS), New York. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. Fire Island consists of stable and washover dominated portions of barrier beach backed by lagoons, tidal wetlands and marsh. The areas most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest historic occurrence of overwash and the highest rates of shoreline change. Implementation of large-scale beach nourishment and other coastal engineering alternatives being considered for Fire Island could alter the CVI computed here. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers.

  6. Cryosat-2 SAR and SAR-In Altimetry for Coastal Sea Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Knudsen, Per; Abulaitijiang, Adil; Stenseng, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Cryosat-2 offers the first ever possibility to perform coastal altimetric studies using SAR-Interferometry as well as SAR altimetry. With this technological leap forward Cryosat-2 is now able to observe sea level in very small water bodies and also to provide coastal sea level very close to the shore. We perform an investigation into the retrieval of sea surface height around Denmark and Greenland. These regions have been chosen as the coastal regions around Denmark falls within the SAR mask and the coastal regions of Greenland falls in under the SAR-in mask employed on Cryosat-2. SAR-in was mainly used in coastal regions of Greenland because of its huge topographic changes as Cryosat-2 is designed to map the margins of the ice-sheet. The coastal region around Denmark is a test region of the EU sponsored project LOTUS in which With the increased spatial resolution of Cryosat-2 SAR we provide valuable sea level observations within the Straits around Denmark which are crucial to constrain the waterflow in and out of the Baltic Sea. The investigation of SAR-in data in Greenland adds an entire new dimension to coastal altimetry. An amazing result of the investigation is the ability of Cryosat-2 to detect and recover sea level even though the coast (sealevel) is up to 15 km away from the nadir location of the satellite. This ability of capture and use returns from outside the main (-3Db) loop in theory enables Cryosat-2 SAR-in to map sea level height of fjords more frequently than the 369 days repeat.

  7. Coastal Sea Level From CRYOSAT-2 SAR and SAR-In Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, O. B.; Abulaitijiang, A.; Knudsen, P.; Stenseng, L.

    2014-12-01

    Cryosat-2 offers the first ever possibility to perform coastal altimetric studies using bor SAR-altimetry and SAR-In altimetry. With this technological leap forward Cryosat-2 is now able to observe sea level in very small water bodies and also to provide coastal sea level very close to the shore. We perform an investigation into the retrieval of sea surface height around Denmark and Greenland. These regions have been chosen as the coastal regions around Denmark falls within the SAR mask and the coastal regions of Greenland falls in under the SAR-in mask employed on Cryosat-2. SAR-in was mainly used in coastal regions of Greenland because of its huge topographic changes as Cryosat-2 is designed to map the margins of the ice-sheet. The coastal region around Denmark is a test region of the EU FP7 sponsored project LOTUS esablishing SAR altimetry product in preparation for Sentinel-3. With the increased spatial resolution of Cryosat-2 SAR we provide valuable sea level observations within the Straits around Denmark which are crucial to constrain the waterflow in and out of the Baltic Sea. The investigation of SAR-in data in Greenland adds an entire new dimension to coastal altimetry. An amazing result of the investigation is the ability of Cryosat-2 to detect and recover sea level even though the coast (sealevel) is up to 15 km away from the nadir location of the satellite. This ability of capture and use returns from outside the main (-3Db) loop in theory enables Cryosat-2 SAR-in to map sea level height of fjords more frequently than the 369 days repeat.

  8. A Bayesian network to predict coastal vulnerability to sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutierrez, B.T.; Plant, N.G.; Thieler, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    Sea level rise during the 21st century will have a wide range of effects on coastal environments, human development, and infrastructure in coastal areas. The broad range of complex factors influencing coastal systems contributes to large uncertainties in predicting long-term sea level rise impacts. Here we explore and demonstrate the capabilities of a Bayesian network (BN) to predict long-term shoreline change associated with sea level rise and make quantitative assessments of prediction uncertainty. A BN is used to define relationships between driving forces, geologic constraints, and coastal response for the U.S. Atlantic coast that include observations of local rates of relative sea level rise, wave height, tide range, geomorphic classification, coastal slope, and shoreline change rate. The BN is used to make probabilistic predictions of shoreline retreat in response to different future sea level rise rates. Results demonstrate that the probability of shoreline retreat increases with higher rates of sea level rise. Where more specific information is included, the probability of shoreline change increases in a number of cases, indicating more confident predictions. A hindcast evaluation of the BN indicates that the network correctly predicts 71% of the cases. Evaluation of the results using Brier skill and log likelihood ratio scores indicates that the network provides shoreline change predictions that are better than the prior probability. Shoreline change outcomes indicating stability (-1 1 m/yr) was not well predicted. We find that BNs can assimilate important factors contributing to coastal change in response to sea level rise and can make quantitative, probabilistic predictions that can be applied to coastal management decisions. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. An ecological approach supporting the management of sea-uses and natural capital in marine coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelli, Marco; Carli, Filippo M.; Bonamano, Simone; Frattarelli, Francesco; Mancini, Emanuele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Peviani, Maximo; Piermattei, Viviana

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of our work is to create a multi-layer map of marine areas and adjacent territories (SeaUseMap), which takes into account both the different sea uses and the value of marine ecosystems, calculated on the basis of services and benefits produced by the different biocenosis. Marine coastal areas are characterized by the simultaneous presence of ecological conditions favorable to life and, at the same time, they are home to many human activities of particular economic relevance. Ecological processes occurring in coastal areas are particularly important and when we consider their contribution to the value of the "natural capital" (Costanza et Al. 1997, 2008, 2014), we can observe that this is often higher than the contribution from terrestrial ecosystems. Our work is done in northern Lazio (Civitavecchia), a highly populated area where many uses of the sea are superimposed: tourism, fisheries, industry, shipping and ports, historical and cultural heritage. Our goal is to create a tool to support decision-making, where ecosystem values and uses of the sea can be simultaneously represented. The ecosystem values are calculated based on an analysis of benthic biocoenoses: the basic ecological units that, in the Mediterranean Sea, have been identified, defined, analyzed and used since the 60s (Perez & Picard 1964) to date as a working tool (Boudouresque & Fresi 1976). Land surface, instead, was analyzed from available maps, produced within the Corine Land Cover project. Some application examples to support the decision-making are shown, with particular reference to the localization of suitable areas for wave energy production and the esteem of ecological damages generated in case of maritime accidents (e.g., Costa Concordia). According to Costanza 2008, we have developed our own operational method, which is suitable for this specific case of benefit assessment from benthic communities. In this framework, we base our strategy on the ability of the benthic

  10. Bioavailability of sinking organic matter in the Blanes canyon and the adjacent open slope (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Fernandez, P.; Bianchelli, S.; Pusceddu, A.; Calafat, A.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Danovaro, R.

    2013-05-01

    Submarine canyons are sites of intense energy and material exchange between the shelf and the deep adjacent basins. To test the hypothesis that active submarine canyons represent preferential conduits of available food for the deep-sea benthos, two mooring lines were deployed at 1200 m depth from November 2008 to November 2009 inside the Blanes canyon and on the adjacent open slope (Catalan Margin, NW Mediterranean Sea). We investigated the fluxes, biochemical composition and food quality of sinking organic carbon (OC). OC fluxes in the canyon and the open slope varied among sampling periods, though not consistently in the two sites. In particular, while in the open slope the highest OC fluxes were observed in August 2009, in the canyon the highest OC fluxes occurred in April-May 2009. For almost the entire study period, the OC fluxes in the canyon were significantly higher than those in the open slope, whereas OC contents of sinking particles collected in the open slope were consistently higher than those in the canyon. This result confirms that submarine canyons are effective conveyors of OC to the deep sea. Particles transferred to the deep sea floor through the canyons are predominantly of inorganic origin, significantly higher than that reaching the open slope at a similar water depth. Using multivariate statistical tests, two major clusters of sampling periods were identified: one in the canyon that grouped trap samples collected in December 2008, concurrently with the occurrence of a major storm at the sea surface, and associated with increased fluxes of nutritionally available particles from the upper shelf. Another cluster grouped samples from both the canyon and the open slope collected in March 2009, concurrently with the occurrence of the seasonal phytoplankton bloom at the sea surface, and associated with increased fluxes of total phytopigments. Our results confirm the key ecological role of submarine canyons for the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems

  11. Barriers to and opportunities for landward migration of coastal wetlands with sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Griffith, Kereen T.; Osland, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, accelerated sea-level rise and continued coastal development are expected to greatly alter coastal landscapes across the globe. Historically, many coastal ecosystems have responded to sea-level fluctuations via horizontal and vertical movement on the landscape. However, anthropogenic activities, including urbanization and the construction of flood-prevention infrastructure, can produce barriers that impede ecosystem migration. Here we show where tidal saline wetlands have the potential to migrate landward along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, one of the most sea-level rise sensitive and wetland-rich regions of the world. Our findings can be used to identify migration corridors and develop sea-level rise adaptation strategies to help ensure the continued availability of wetland-associated ecosystem goods and services.

  12. Analyzing the Modeled Tidal Signal in the Bab El Mandeb Strait and Adjacent Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillory, R. N. B.

    2014-12-01

    The tidal forces that dominate the Bab el Mandeb region are influenced by both the generally semi-diurnal tides in the Red Sea and mixed tides in the Gulf of Aden. Also, the tidal ranges are much greater in the Gulf of Aden (~ 2 m) than in the Red Sea (< 1m), which further complicates the tidal signal in Bab el Mandeb Strait. The Red Sea Regional Navy Coastal Model (NCOM), which includes the entire Red Sea, and the western part of the Gulf of Aden at a 1 km resolution, will be evaluated on how well it replicates the tidal signal described in literature and historical observations. In addition, the model will be compared to available temperature/salinity in situ profiles. NCOM incorporates the Oregon State University Tide Model, which should allow the ocean model to accurately reflect the transitional tides in the Bab el Mandeb Strait. Preliminary estimates indicate that the model replicates the overall circulation pattern seen in literature and the fact that there are higher tidal amplitudes in the Gulf of Aden than in the Red Sea. Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited

  13. Modeling radium distribution in coastal aquifers during sea level changes: The Dead Sea case

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiro, Yael; Yechieli, Yoseph; Voss, Clifford I.; Starinsky, Abraham; Weinstein, Yishai

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to studying the behavior of radium isotopes in a coastal aquifer. In order to simulate radium isotope distributions in the dynamic flow field of the Dead Sea aquifer, a multi-species density dependent flow model (SUTRA-MS) was used. Field data show that the activity of 226Ra decreases from 140 to 60 dpm/L upon entering the aquifer from the Dead Sea, and then further decreases linearly due to mixing with Ra-poor fresh water. On the other hand, an increase is observed in the activity of the shorter-lived isotopes (up to 52 dpm/L 224Ra and 31 dpm/L 223Ra), which are relatively low in Dead Sea water (up to 2.5 dpm/L 224Ra and 0.5 dpm/L 223Ra). The activities of the short lived radium isotopes also decrease with decreasing salinity, which is due to the effect of salinity on the adsorption of radium. The relationship between 224Ra and salinity suggests that the adsorption partition coefficient (K) is linearly related to salinity. Simulations of the steady-state conditions, show that the distance where equilibrium activity is attained for each radium isotope is affected by the isotope half-life, K and the groundwater velocity, resulting in a longer distance for the long-lived radium isotopes. K affects the radium distribution in transient conditions, especially that of the long-lived radium isotopes. The transient conditions in the Dead Sea system, with a 1 m/yr lake level drop, together with the radium field data, constrains K to be relatively low (226Ra cannot be explained by adsorption, and it is better explained by removal via coprecipitation, probably with barite or celestine.

  14. The numerical calculation of hydrological processes in the coastal zone of the Black Sea region in the city of Poti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Sh. Rustaveli National Science Foundation) The serious environmental problems started in Poti after transfer of the main flow of the river Rioni to the north. As a result the flooding of the city stopped, but the reduction of water consumption in the city channel, caused a decrease of the sediments carried away by the river, what leads to coastal erosion. The coast changes are connected with the movement of the waves and currents in the coastal part of the sea. In the paper, the three-dimensional mathematical model of sediment transport and coastal zone lithodynamics is developed. The finite element formulations for the problems of wave modes, coastal currents, sediment transport and evolution of the coastal zone of the sea, are given. The numerical algorithms, implemented in the form of software. Programs are allowing to bring the solutions of the tasks to numerical results. The numerical modeling was developed in three stages. In the first stage the topography of the coast and the initial geometry of the structures are considered as an input parameters. Then, coastal wave field is calculated for the conditions prescribed in the initial wave. In the second stage, the calculated wave field is used to estimate the spatial distribution of the radiation stresses near-bottom orbital velocity. In the third stage the coastal wave fields and flow fields are used in the sub-models of sediment transport and changes in the topography of the coast. In the numerical solution of basic equations of motion of the waves, coastal currents and changes in sea bottom topography we use: finite element, finite difference methods and the method of upper relaxation, Crank-Nicolson scheme. As an example, we are giving the results of research of the wave regime in the coastal area of the city of Poti (700X600m) adjacent to the port of Poti. The bottom profile, in this area is rather complicated. During the calculations of the average rise of

  15. Biological Soil Crusts from Coastal Dunes at the Baltic Sea: Cyanobacterial and Algal Biodiversity and Related Soil Properties.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Karoline; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Dreßler, Mirko; Leinweber, Peter; Karsten, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are known as "ecosystem-engineers" that have important, multifunctional ecological roles in primary production, in nutrient and hydrological cycles, and in stabilization of soils. These communities, however, are almost unstudied in coastal dunes of the temperate zone. Hence, for the first time, the biodiversity of cyanobacterial and algal dominated BSCs collected in five dunes from the southern Baltic Sea coast on the islands Rügen and Usedom (Germany) was investigated in connection with physicochemical soil parameters. The species composition of cyanobacteria and algae was identified with direct determination of crust subsamples, cultural methods, and diatom slides. To investigate the influence of soil properties on species composition, the texture, pH, electrical conductivity, carbonate content, total contents of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and the bioavailable phosphorus-fraction (PO4 (3-)) were analyzed in adjacent BSC-free surface soils at each study site. The data indicate that BSCs in coastal dunes of the southern Baltic Sea represent an ecologically important vegetation form with a surprisingly high site-specific diversity of 19 cyanobacteria, 51 non-diatom algae, and 55 diatoms. All dominant species of the genera Coleofasciculus, Lyngbya, Microcoleus, Nostoc, Hydrocoryne, Leptolyngbya, Klebsormidium, and Lobochlamys are typical aero-terrestrial cyanobacteria and algae, respectively. This first study of coastal sand dunes in the Baltic region provides compelling evidence that here the BSCs were dominated by cyanobacteria, algae, or a mixture of both. Among the physicochemical soil properties, the total phosphorus content of the BSC-free sand was the only factor that significantly influenced the cyanobacterial and algal community structure of BSCs in coastal dunes. PMID:26507846

  16. 90Sr dispersion and fate in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: global fallout and the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyung Tae; Maderich, Vladimir; Bezhenar, Roman; de With, Govert; Qiao, Fangli; Casacuberta, Nuria; Masque, Pere

    2014-05-01

    The 3D compartment model POSEIDON-R (Maderich et al., 2013) was applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of 90Sr in the period 1945-2010 and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of 90Sr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi (FDNPP) accident (2011-2040). The model predicts the dispersion of radioactivity in the water column and in marine sediments, and the transfer of radionuclides throughout the marine food web, and the subsequent doses to the population due to the consumption of marine products. The contamination due to runoff of 90Sr from terrestrial surfaces was taken in account using generic predictive model (Smith et al., 2004). A dynamical food-chain model is used instead of the biological concentration factor (BCF) approach. The radionuclide uptake model for fish has as a central feature the accumulation of radionuclides in the target tissue (bones for 90Sr ). The model was compared with observation data on 90Sr for the period 1955-2010 and the budget of its activity was estimated. It was found that in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea the riverine influx was 1.5% of ocean influx only with local importance. Calculated concentrations of 90Sr in water, bottom sediments and marine organisms in the coastal box around the FDNPP before and after the accident are in agreement with measurements from the Japanese databases (TEPCO, MEXT) and publications (Casacuberta et al., 2013; Oikawa et al., 2013). The dynamical food web model predicts that due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web and specific accumulation of 90Sr, the concentration for piscivorous fishes return to background level only in 2015. For the year 2011, the calculated individual dose rate for Fukushima Prefecture (except FDNPP vicinity) due to consumption of fishery products is an order less than the maximal dose rate caused by nuclear weapon testing in 1960.

  17. Adaptation to Sea Level Rise in Coastal Units of the National Park Service (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavers, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    83 National Park Service (NPS) units contain nearly 12,000 miles of coastal, estuarine and Great Lakes shoreline and their associated resources. Iconic natural features exist along active shorelines in NPS units, including, e.g., Cape Cod, Padre Island, Hawaii Volcanoes, and the Everglades. Iconic cultural resources managed by NPS include the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, Fort Sumter, the Golden Gate, and heiaus and fish traps along the coast of Hawaii. Impacts anticipated from sea level rise include inundation and flooding of beaches and low lying marshes, shoreline erosion of coastal areas, and saltwater intrusion into the water table. These impacts and other coastal hazards will threaten park beaches, marshes, and other resources and values; alter the viability of coastal roads; and require the NPS to re-evaluate the financial, safety, and environmental implications of maintaining current projects and implementing future projects in ocean and coastal parks in the context of sea level rise. Coastal erosion will increase as sea levels rise. Barrier islands along the coast of Louisiana and North Carolina may have already passed the threshold for maintaining island integrity in any scenario of sea level rise (U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Program Report 4.1). Consequently, sea level rise is expected to hasten the disappearance of historic coastal villages, coastal wetlands, forests, and beaches, and threaten coastal roads, homes, and businesses. While sea level is rising in most coastal parks, some parks are experiencing lower water levels due to isostatic rebound and lower lake levels. NPS funded a Coastal Vulnerability Project to evaluate the physical and geologic factors affecting 25 coastal parks. The USGS Open File Reports for each park are available at http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/. These reports were designed to inform park planning efforts. NPS conducted a Storm Vulnerability Project to provide ocean and coastal

  18. A Numerical Study of Sea-Spray Aerosol Motion in a Coastal Thermal Internal Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Tinghao; Yu, Xiping

    2016-03-01

    A three-dimensional large-eddy simulation model is applied to the study of sea-spray aerosol transport, dispersion and settling in the coastal thermal internal boundary layer (IBL) formed by cool airflow from the open sea to the warm land. An idealized situation with constant inflow from the ocean and constant heat flux over the coastal land is considered. The numerical results confirm that the thickness of the coastal thermal IBL increases with the distance from the coastline until the outer edge of the IBL penetrates into the capping inversion layer. The thickness increases also with time until a fully-developed thermal boundary layer is formed. In addition, the thickness of the coastal thermal IBL increases more rapidly when the heat flux over the land is greater. Existence of large-scale eddies within the thermal IBL is identified and the turbulence intensity within the thermal IBL is also found to be significantly higher than that above. It is also indicated that the vertical position of the maximum concentration does not occur at the surface but increases as sea-spray aerosols are transported inland. The vertical position of the maximum flux of sea-spray aerosols within the coastal thermal IBL is shown to coincide with that of the maximum vertical velocity fluctuations when the coastal thermal IBL is fully developed with increased distance in the airflow direction.

  19. A Numerical Study of Sea-Spray Aerosol Motion in a Coastal Thermal Internal Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Tinghao; Yu, Xiping

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional large-eddy simulation model is applied to the study of sea-spray aerosol transport, dispersion and settling in the coastal thermal internal boundary layer (IBL) formed by cool airflow from the open sea to the warm land. An idealized situation with constant inflow from the ocean and constant heat flux over the coastal land is considered. The numerical results confirm that the thickness of the coastal thermal IBL increases with the distance from the coastline until the outer edge of the IBL penetrates into the capping inversion layer. The thickness increases also with time until a fully-developed thermal boundary layer is formed. In addition, the thickness of the coastal thermal IBL increases more rapidly when the heat flux over the land is greater. Existence of large-scale eddies within the thermal IBL is identified and the turbulence intensity within the thermal IBL is also found to be significantly higher than that above. It is also indicated that the vertical position of the maximum concentration does not occur at the surface but increases as sea-spray aerosols are transported inland. The vertical position of the maximum flux of sea-spray aerosols within the coastal thermal IBL is shown to coincide with that of the maximum vertical velocity fluctuations when the coastal thermal IBL is fully developed with increased distance in the airflow direction.

  20. The dynamic effects of sea level rise on low-gradient coastal landscapes: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passeri, Davina L.; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Bilskie, Matthew V.; Alizad, Karim; Wang, Dingbao

    2015-06-01

    Coastal responses to sea level rise (SLR) include inundation of wetlands, increased shoreline erosion, and increased flooding during storm events. Hydrodynamic parameters such as tidal ranges, tidal prisms, tidal asymmetries, increased flooding depths and inundation extents during storm events respond nonadditively to SLR. Coastal morphology continually adapts toward equilibrium as sea levels rise, inducing changes in the landscape. Marshes may struggle to keep pace with SLR and rely on sediment accumulation and the availability of suitable uplands for migration. Whether hydrodynamic, morphologic, or ecologic, the impacts of SLR are interrelated. To plan for changes under future sea levels, coastal managers need information and data regarding the potential effects of SLR to make informed decisions for managing human and natural communities. This review examines previous studies that have accounted for the dynamic, nonlinear responses of hydrodynamics, coastal morphology, and marsh ecology to SLR by implementing more complex approaches rather than the simplistic "bathtub" approach. These studies provide an improved understanding of the dynamic effects of SLR on coastal environments and contribute to an overall paradigm shift in how coastal scientists and engineers approach modeling the effects of SLR, transitioning away from implementing the "bathtub" approach. However, it is recommended that future studies implement a synergetic approach that integrates the dynamic interactions between physical and ecological environments to better predict the impacts of SLR on coastal systems.

  1. Space-time dynamics of carbon and environmental parameters related to carbon dioxide emissions in the Buor-Khaya Bay and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiletov, I. P.; Shakhova, N. E.; Pipko, I. I.; Pugach, S. P.; Charkin, A. N.; Dudarev, O. V.; Kosmach, D. A.; Nishino, S.

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to improve understanding of carbon cycling in the Buor-Khaya Bay (BKB) and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea by studying the inter-annual, seasonal, and meso-scale variability of carbon and related hydrological and biogeochemical parameters in the water, as well as factors controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Here we present data sets obtained on summer cruises and winter expeditions during 12 yr of investigation. Based on data analysis, we suggest that in the heterotrophic BKB area, input of terrestrially borne organic carbon (OC) varies seasonally and inter-annually and is largely determined by rates of coastal erosion and river discharge. Two different BKB sedimentation regimes were revealed: Type 1 (erosion accumulation) and Type 2 (accumulation). A Type 1 sedimentation regime occurs more often and is believed to be the quantitatively most important mechanism for suspended particular matter (SPM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) delivery to the BKB. The mean SPM concentration observed in the BKB under a Type 1 regime was one order of magnitude greater than the mean concentration of SPM (~ 20 mg L-1) observed along the Lena River stream in summer 2003. Loadings of the BKB water column with particulate material vary by more than a factor of two between the two regimes. Higher partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), higher concentrations of nutrients, and lower levels of oxygen saturation were observed in the bottom water near the eroded coasts, implying that coastal erosion and subsequent oxidation of eroded organic matter (OM) rather than the Lena River serves as the predominant source of nutrients to the BKB. Atmospheric CO2 fluxes from the sea surface in the BKB vary from 1 to 95 mmol m-2 day-1 and are determined by specific features of hydrology and wind conditions, which change spatially, seasonally, and inter-annually. Mean values of CO2 emission from the shallow Laptev Sea were similar in September 1999 and 2005 (7.2 and 7.8 mmol m-2 day-1

  2. The role of low molecular weight organic acids on controlling pH in coastal sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, H.

    2015-12-01

    Series investigation of the Jiaozhou Bay, China, observed existences of three low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), including lactic acid, acetic acid and formic acid, with high concentration in the sea water. Generally, their amount accounted for about 20% of DOC in the sea water of the bay. Human activities around the bay were considered as the major source of the LMWOAs. Also, long term detection showed that the pH value in the Jiaozhou Bay was lower than that in the adjacent Yellow Sea. On average, the difference of pH values between the bay and the Yellow was about 0.2. Due to higher concentrations of the LMWOAs, their contribution to lower pH value of the bay should not be ignored. To validate the effect of LMWOAs on the pH value of the bay, a new software was developed to calculate the pH value in the sea water samples based on alkalinity by adding three items of the three organic acids in the expression. Compared to the traditional pH calculating software, the new software could improve the calculating results significantly. Our results confirmed that LMWOAs was an important control factor to adjust pH values in coastal area.

  3. Geologic effects and coastal vulnerability to sea-level rise, erosion, and storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S.J.; Gutierrez, B.T.; Thieler, E.R.; Pendleton, E.

    2008-01-01

    A combination of natural and human factors are driving coastal change and making coastal regions and populations increasingly vulnerable. Sea level, a major agent of coastal erosion, has varied greatly from -120 m below present during glacial period low-stands to + 4 to 6 m above present during interglacial warm periods. Geologic and tide gauge data show that global sea level has risen about 12 to 15 cm during the past century with satellite measurements indicating an acceleration since the early 1990s due to thermal expansion and ice-sheet melting. Land subsidence due to tectonic forces and sediment compaction in regions like the mid-Atlantic and Louisiana increase the rate of relative sea-level rise to 40 cm to 100 cm per century. Sea- level rise is predicted to accelerate significantly in the near future due to climate change, resulting in pervasive impacts to coastal regions and putting populations increasingly at risk. The full implications of climate change for coastal systems need to be understood better and long-term plans are needed to manage coasts in order to protect natural resources and mitigate the effects of sea-level rise and increased storms on human infrastructure. Copyright ASCE 2008.

  4. Sedimentation in the western Arabian Sea the role of coastal and open-ocean upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixen, Tim; Haake, Birgit; Ittekkot, Venugopalan

    Monsoon-induced coastal and open-ocean upwelling explain 84% of the variations of the organic carbon fluxes measured in the deep western Arabian Sea. In this paper, sea-level measurements, satellite-derived wind speeds, sea surface temperatures, and nutrient profiles are used to discern the relative importance of these factors on fluxes measured during nine years of continuous sediment trap deployments. This exercise shows: (i) the increase in fluxes observed during the initial stages of the SW monsoons are caused by open-ocean upwelling, which develops faster than the coastal upwelling; (ii) coastal upwelling triggers diatom blooms from nutrients from subsurface water and sediment resuspension and, more importantly, by injecting resting stages of diatoms back into the euphotic zone; (iii) silica depletion resulting from diatom blooms in laterally advecting water masses leads to a replacement of diatoms by other nitrate-limited organisms; (iv) organic carbon fluxes to the deep Arabian Sea increase in response to an intensification of both coastal and open-ocean upwelling; weak coastal upwelling and strong open-ocean upwelling also increase organic carbon fluxes. The varying dominance of their influence is reflected in the timing and the composition of the peak fluxes; (v) the link between organic carbon flux and monsoon strength is non-linear probably due to changes in the surface currents and to vigorous turbulence in the surface water during strong SW monsoons. These processes could reduce the organic carbon flux in the western Arabian Sea by about 65%.

  5. Remotely-sensed chlorophyll a observations of the northern Red Sea indicate seasonal variability and influence of coastal reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Shen, Suhung; Zhu, Tong; Kempler, Steven

    The biological dynamics of the open northern Red Sea (21.5°-27.5° N, 33.5°-40° E) have not been studied extensively, due in part to both the inaccessibility of this desert region and political considerations. Remotely-sensed chlorophyll a data therefore provide a framework to investigate the primary patterns of biological activity in this oceanic basin. Monthly chlorophyll a data from the 8-year Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, and data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), were analyzed with the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) online data analysis system "Giovanni". The data indicate that despite the normal low chlorophyll a concentrations (0.1-0.2 mg m - 3 ) in these oligotrophic waters, there is a characteristic seasonal bloom in March-April in the northernmost open Red Sea (24° to 27.5° N) concurrent with minimum sea surface temperature. The location of the highest chlorophyll concentrations is consistent with a linear box model [Eshel, G., and Naik, N.H., 1997. Climatological coastal jet collision, intermediate water formation, and the general circulation of the Red Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 27(7), 1233-1257.] of Red Sea circulation. Two years in the data set exhibited a different seasonal cycle consisting of a relatively weak northern spring bloom and elevated chlorophyll concentrations to the south (21.5° to 24° N). The data also indicate that large coral reef complexes may be sources of either nutrients or chlorophyll-rich detritus and sediment, enhancing chlorophyll a concentration in waters adjacent to the reefs.

  6. Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Durand, F.; Muraleedharan, P. M.

    2013-11-01

    this paper, we show that a linear, continuously stratified ocean model reproduces observed wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variability in the coastal waveguide of the Northern Indian Ocean (NIO). Sensitivity experiments with intraseasonal wind forcing selectively applied in the equatorial region, Bay of Bengal, and Arabian Sea show that a large part of the basin-scale sea level variations are driven by zonal wind fluctuations along the equator. Within the NIO coastal waveguide, the contribution of remote equatorial forcing decreases from ~80-90% in the Andaman Sea to ~50% northeast of Sri Lanka and then increases to ~60-70% along the west coast of India. During the southwest monsoon, intraseasonal wind variations become stronger over the NIO, resulting in a larger contribution of local wind forcing to sea level variability along the west (up to 60%) and east (up to 40%) coasts of India.

  7. Limits on the adaptability of coastal marshes to rising sea level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Morris, James T.; Mudd, Simon M.; Temmerman, Stijn

    2010-01-01

    Assumptions of a static landscape inspire predictions that about half of the world's coastal wetlands will submerge during this century in response to sea-level acceleration. In contrast, we use simulations from five numerical models to quantify the conditions under which ecogeomorphic feedbacks allow coastal wetlands to adapt to projected changes in sea level. In contrast to previous sea-level assessments, we find that non-linear feedbacks among inundation, plant growth, organic matter accretion, and sediment deposition, allow marshes to survive conservative projections of sea-level rise where suspended sediment concentrations are greater than ~20 mg/L. Under scenarios of more rapid sea-level rise (e.g., those that include ice sheet melting), marshes will likely submerge near the end of the 21st century. Our results emphasize that in areas of rapid geomorphic change, predicting the response of ecosystems to climate change requires consideration of the ability of biological processes to modify their physical environment.

  8. Modeling the impact of sea-spray on particle concentrations in a coastal city

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J; Schoof, J T; Binkowski, F S; Monache, L D; Stull, R B

    2006-04-19

    An atmospheric chemistry-transport model is used to assess the impacts of sea-spray chemistry on the particle composition in and downwind of a coastal city--Vancouver, British Columbia. Reactions in/on sea-spray affect the entire particle ensemble and particularly the size distribution of particle nitrate. Urban air quality, and particularly airborne particles, is a major concern in terms of human health impacts. Sea-spray is known to be a major component of the particle ensemble at coastal sites yet relatively few air quality models include the interaction of gases with sea-spray and the fate of the particles produced. Sea-spray is not an inert addition to the particle ensemble because heterogeneous chemistry in/on sea-spray droplets changes the droplets composition and the particle size distribution, which impacts deposition and the ion balance in different particle size fractions. It is shown that the ISOPART model is capable of simulating gas and particle concentrations in the coastal metropolis of Vancouver and the surrounding valley. It is also demonstrated that to accurately simulate ambient concentrations of particles and reactive/soluble gases in a coastal valley it is absolutely critical to include heterogeneous chemistry in/on sea-spray. Partitioning of total particle-NO{sub 3}{sup -} between sea-spray and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} is highly sensitive to the amount of sea-spray present, and hence the initial vertical profile, sea-spray source functions [48] and the wind speed. When a fixed wind speed is used to initialize the sea-spray vertical profiles, as expected, the sea-spray concentration decays with distance inland, but the particle-NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration decays more slowly because it is also a function of the uptake rate for HNO{sub 3}. The simulation results imply model analyses of air quality in coastal cities conducted without inclusion of sea-spray interactions may yield highly misleading results in terms of emission sensitivities of the PM

  9. Historical change and future scenarios of sea level rise in Macau and adjacent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Huang, Gang; Zhou, Wen; Chen, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Against a background of climate change, Macau is very exposed to sea level rise (SLR) because of its low elevation, small size, and ongoing land reclamation. Therefore, we evaluate sea level changes in Macau, both historical and, especially, possible future scenarios, aiming to provide knowledge and a framework to help accommodate and protect against future SLR. Sea level in Macau is now rising at an accelerated rate: 1.35 mm yr-1 over 1925-2010 and jumping to 4.2 mm yr-1 over 1970-2010, which outpaces the rise in global mean sea level. In addition, vertical land movement in Macau contributes little to local sea level change. In the future, the rate of SLR in Macau will be about 20% higher than the global average, as a consequence of a greater local warming tendency and strengthened northward winds. Specifically, the sea level is projected to rise 8-12, 22-51 and 35-118 cm by 2020, 2060 and 2100, respectively, depending on the emissions scenario and climate sensitivity. Under the +8.5 W m-2 Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP8.5) scenario the increase in sea level by 2100 will reach 65-118 cm—double that under RCP2.6. Moreover, the SLR will accelerate under RCP6.0 and RCP8.5, while remaining at a moderate and steady rate under RCP4.5 and RCP2.6. The key source of uncertainty stems from the emissions scenario and climate sensitivity, among which the discrepancies in SLR are small during the first half of the 21st century but begin to diverge thereafter.

  10. Coastal Vulnerability Assessment of Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS) to Sea-Level Rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress; Beavers, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Padre Island National Seashore in Texas. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Padre Island National Seashore consists of stable to washover dominated portions of barrier beach backed by wetland, marsh, tidal flat, or grassland. The areas within Padre that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest occurrence of overwash and the highest rates of shoreline change.

  11. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Cumberland Island National Seashore (CUIS) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Jeffress Williams, S.

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Cumberland Island National Seashore in Georgia. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each input variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Cumberland Island National Seashore consists of stable to washover-dominated portions of barrier beach backed by wetland, marsh, mudflat and tidal creek. The areas within Cumberland that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the lowest foredune ridge and highest rates of shoreline erosion.

  12. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Olympic National Park to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Hammar-Klose, Erika S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Olympic National Park (OLYM), Washington. The CVI scores the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. The Olympic National Park coast consists of rocky headlands, pocket beaches, glacial-fluvial features, and sand and gravel beaches. The Olympic coastline that is most vulnerable to sea-level rise are beaches in gently sloping areas.

  13. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Thieler, E. Robert

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1020/html/cvi.htm) was used to map relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS) in Maryland and Virginia. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. Rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Assateague Island consists of stable and washover dominated portions of barrier beach backed by wetland and marsh. The areas within Assateague that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest occurrence of overwash and the highest rates of shoreline change.

  14. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Dry Tortugas National Park (DRTO) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2005-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Dry Tortugas National Park in Florida. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each input variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Dry Tortugas National Park (DRTO) consists of relatively stable to washover-dominated portions of carbonate beach and man-made fortification. The areas within Dry Tortugas that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest rates of shoreline erosion and the highest wave energy.

  15. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Cape Hatteras National Seashore (CAHA) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Theiler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2005-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Cape Hatteras National Seashore (CAHA) in North Carolina. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range, and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value was calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Cape Hatteras National Seashore consists of stable and washover dominated segments of barrier beach backed by wetland and marsh. The areas within Cape Hatteras that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest occurrence of overwash and the highest rates of shoreline change.

  16. Implications of accelerated sea-level rise on Louisiana coastal environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Karen E.; Penland, Shea; Roberts, Harry H.

    1991-01-01

    Natural and human-induced processes have combined to produce high rates of relative sea-level rise and coastal land loss in Louisiana. This paper presents historical trends in sea-level rise and the implication of predicted accelerated rise scenarios on Louisiana's coastal environments. Mean eustatic sea-level in the Gulf of Mexico is 0.23 cm/yr. In Louisiana, relative sea-level rise, which combines eustacy and subsidence, averages from 0.50 cm/yr in the chenier plain to 1.0 cm/yr in the delta plain. Subsidence due to the compaction of Holocene sediments is believed to be the major component influencing these high rates of rise. Subsidence contributes up to 80% of the observed relative sea-level rise in coastal Louisiana. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) predicts the rate of sea-level rise to increase over the next century due to global climate change. If these predictions are accurate, a dramatic increase in the coastal land loss conditions in Louisiana can be expected.

  17. A global standard for monitoring coastal wetland vulnerability to accelerated sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Edward L.; Friess, Daniel A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Phelps, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise threatens coastal salt-marshes and mangrove forests around the world, and a key determinant of coastal wetland vulnerability is whether its surface elevation can keep pace with rising sea level. Globally, a large data gap exists because wetland surface and shallow subsurface processes remain unaccounted for by traditional vulnerability assessments using tide gauges. Moreover, those processes vary substantially across wetlands, so modelling platforms require relevant local data. The low-cost, simple, high-precision rod surface-elevation table–marker horizon (RSET-MH) method fills this critical data gap, can be paired with spatial data sets and modelling and is financially and technically accessible to every country with coastal wetlands. Yet, RSET deployment has been limited to a few regions and purposes. A coordinated expansion of monitoring efforts, including development of regional networks that could support data sharing and collaboration, is crucial to adequately inform coastal climate change adaptation policy at several scales.

  18. Potential effects of sea-level rise on coastal wetlands in southeastern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glick, Patty; Clough, Jonathan; Polaczyk, Amy; Couvillion, Brady R.; Nunley, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Coastal Louisiana wetlands contain about 37% of the estuarine herbaceous marshes in the conterminous United States. The long-term stability of coastal wetlands is often a function of a wetland's ability to maintain elevation equilibrium with mean sea level through processes such as primary production and sediment accretion. However, Louisiana has sustained more coastal wetland loss than all other states in the continental United States combined due to a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors, including sea-level rise. This study investigates the potential impact of current and accelerating sea-level rise rates on key coastal wetland habitats in southeastern Louisiana using the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM). Model calibration was conducted using a 1956–2007 observation period and hindcasting results predicted 35% versus observed 39% total marsh loss. Multiple sea-level-rise scenarios were then simulated for the period of 2007–2100. Results indicate a range of potential wetland losses by 2100, from an additional 2,188.97 km2 (218,897 ha, 9% of the 2007 wetland area) under the lowest sea-level-rise scenario (0.34 m), to a potential loss of 5,875.27 km2 (587,527 ha, 24% of the 2007 wetland area) in the highest sea-level-rise scenario (1.9 m). Model results suggest that one area of particular concern is the potential vulnerability of the region's baldcypress-water tupelo (Taxodium distichum-Nyssa aquatica) swamp habitat, much of which is projected to become permanently flooded (affecting regeneration) under all modeled scenarios for sea-level rise. These findings will aid in the development of ecosystem management plans that support the processes and conditions that result in sustainable coastal ecosystems.

  19. Nd isotopic composition and REE pattern in the surface waters of the eastern Indian Ocean and its adjacent seas

    SciTech Connect

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Alibo, D.S.; Nozaki, Yoshiyuki

    2000-05-01

    The Nd isotopic composition and dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) have been measured in the surface waters along the 1996/97 R.V. Hakuho-Maru Expedition route from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean, southwest of Australia, through the Philippine and Indonesian Archipelago, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. The radiogenic {epsilon}{sub Nd} values of {minus}1.3 and {minus}1.4 were found in the Sulu Sea and near the Lombok Strait, indicating the strong influence of surrounding volcanic islands, whereas non-radiogenic {epsilon}{sub Nd} values of less than {minus}10 were found in the Southern Ocean and the Bay of Bengal suggesting Nd of continental origin. The dissolved Nd concentrations also showed a wide range of variation from 2.8 to 19.6 pmol/kg and the trivalent REE patterns exhibited characteristic features that can be grouped into each different oceanic province. The geographical distribution of dissolved Nd is different from that of atmospherically derived {sup 210}Pb, but generally resembles that of coastally derived {sup 228}Ra. This strongly suggests that fluvial and coastal input predominates over eolian input for dissolved Nd in the surface ocean. However, the riverine dissolved Nd flux appears to be relatively minor, and remobilization of Nd from coastal and shelf sediments may play an important role in the total Nd input to the ocean. By modeling the distributions of the isotopic composition and concentration of Nd together with the activity ratio of {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra in the southeastern Indian Ocean, the authors estimate a mean residence time of Nd in the surface mixed layer to be 1.5--2.6 years. The short mean residence time is comparable with, or slightly longer than that of {sup 210}Pb suggesting similar chemical reactivity.

  20. Modeling Black Sea circulation with high resolution in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesnyi, V. B.; Gusev, A. V.; Agoshkov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    We present a numerical model of Black Sea circulation based on primitive equations with improved spatial resolution in the coastal zone. The model equations are formulated in a two-pole orthogonal coordinate system with arbitrary locations of the poles and a vertical σ coordinate. Increased horizontal resolution is gained by displacing the pole into the vicinity of the separated subdomain. The problem is solved over a grid with a variable step. The northern coordinate pole is displaced to the vicinity of Gelendzhik; the grid step varies from 150 m in the coastal zone to 4.6 km in the main basin. We simulated the fields of currents, sea level, temperature, and salinity under the given atmospheric forcing in 2007. The model is capable of reproducing the large-scale Black Sea circulation and submesoscale variations in the coastal currents.

  1. Large-Scale Distribution and Activity of Prokaryotes in Deep-Sea Surface Sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the Adjacent Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Giovannelli, Donato; Molari, Massimiliano; d’Errico, Giuseppe; Baldrighi, Elisa; Pala, Claudia; Manini, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The deep-sea represents a substantial portion of the biosphere and has a major influence on carbon cycling and global biogeochemistry. Benthic deep-sea prokaryotes have crucial roles in this ecosystem, with their recycling of organic matter from the photic zone. Despite this, little is known about the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes in the surface deep-sea sediments. To assess the influence of environmental and trophic variables on the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes, we investigated the prokaryotic assemblage composition (Bacteria to Archaea and Euryarchaeota to Crenarchaeota ratio) and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent North Atlantic Ocean. Prokaryotic abundance and biomass did not vary significantly across the Mediterranean Sea; however, there were depth-related trends in all areas. The abundance of prokaryotes was positively correlated with the sedimentary concentration of protein, an indicator of the quality and bioavailability of organic matter. Moving eastwards, the Bacteria contribution to the total prokaryotes decreased, which appears to be linked to the more oligotrophic conditions of the Eastern Mediterranean basins. Despite the increased importance of Archaea, the contributions of Crenarchaeota Marine Group I to the total pool was relatively constant across the investigated stations, with the exception of Matapan-Vavilov Deep, in which Euryarchaeota Marine Group II dominated. Overall, our data suggest that deeper areas of the Mediterranean Sea share more similar communities with each other than with shallower sites. Freshness and quality of sedimentary organic matter were identified through Generalized Additive Model analysis as the major factors for describing the variation in the prokaryotic community structure and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments. Longitude was also important in explaining the observed variability, which suggests that the overlying water masses might have a

  2. Autotrophic Microbe Metagenomes and Metabolic Pathways Differentiate Adjacent Red Sea Brine Pools

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Cao, Huiluo; Zhang, Guishan; Bougouffa, Salim; Lee, On On; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    In the Red Sea, two neighboring deep-sea brine pools, Atlantis II and Discovery, have been studied extensively, and the results have shown that the temperature and concentrations of metal and methane in Atlantis II have increased over the past decades. Therefore, we investigated changes in the microbial community and metabolic pathways. Here, we compared the metagenomes of the two pools to each other and to those of deep-sea water samples. Archaea were generally absent in the Atlantis II metagenome; Bacteria in the metagenome were typically heterotrophic and depended on aromatic compounds and other extracellular organic carbon compounds as indicated by enrichment of the related metabolic pathways. In contrast, autotrophic Archaea capable of CO2 fixation and methane oxidation were identified in Discovery but not in Atlantis II. Our results suggest that hydrothermal conditions and metal precipitation in the Atlantis II pool have resulted in elimination of the autotrophic community and methanogens. PMID:23624511

  3. Benthic meiofaunal composition and community structure in the Sethukuda mangrove area and adjacent open sea, East coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilagavathi, Balasubramanaian; Das, Bandana; Saravanakumar, Ayyappan; Raja, Kuzhanthaivel

    2011-06-01

    The ecological aspects of meiofaunal communities in the Muthupettai mangrove forest, East coast of India, has not been investigated in the last two decades. Surface water temperature ranged from 23.5 °C to 31.8 °C. Salinity varied from 24 to 34 ppt, while water pH fluctuated from 7.4 to 8.3. Dissolved oxygen concentration ranged from 3.86 to 5.33 mg/l. Meiofauna analysis in this study identified a total of 106 species from the mangrove and adjacent open sea area of Sethukuda. Among these, 56 species of foraminiferans, 20 species of nematodes, 7 species of harpacticoid copepods, 4 species of ostrocodes, and 2 species of rotifers were identified. Furthermore, a single species was identified from the following groups: ciliophora, cnidaria, gnathostomulida, insecta, propulida, bryozoa and polychaete larvae. Meiofaunal density varied between 12029 to 23493 individuals 10 cm/m2. The diversity index ranged from 3.515 to 3.680, species richness index varied from 6.384 to 8.497, and evenness index varied from 0.839 to 0876 in the mangrove area and adjacent open sea.

  4. Helicopter Observations of the Sea Breeze over a Coastal Area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Osamu; Kobayashi, Fumiaki; Naito, Gen'ichi; Sassa, Koji

    1999-04-01

    Thermodynamical observations by a helicopter have been conducted to study the internal structure of the sea breeze blowing inland from Tosa Bay during three periods (September 1993, November 1994 and 1995). Inland-intrusion distances of the midday sea breeze observed at each flight leg were in the 10-25-km range, depending on the intensity of the ambient flow associated with the gradient wind, atmospheric stratification, and the geographical features of the observed area.The sea breeze observed over the sea had well-defined features, in particular a turbulent wake behind the head of the sea-breeze front and a closed sea-breeze circulation cell containing the subsidence of the return flow. In addition, a moist layer distributed around 15-20 km offshore forms because the land breeze moves in this region. Moreover, a calm condition exists from the coast to about 10 km offshore. Both phenomena are found before the onset of the sea breeze in the early morning. Such remarkable characteristics of the sea breeze are found over the sea, with a background of land-sea configuration that consists of a flat plain with small mountains and a bay opened out to sea.

  5. Organic micropollutants in coastal waters from NW Mediterranean Sea: sources distribution and potential risk.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Avila, Juan; Tauler, Romà; Lacorte, Silvia

    2012-10-01

    This study provides a first estimation on the sources, distribution and risk of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in coastal waters from NW Mediterranean Sea. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates and alkylphenols were analyzed by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-EI-MS/MS). River waters and wastewater treatment plant effluents discharging to the sea were identified as the main sources of OMPs to coastal waters, with an estimated input amount of around of 25,800 g d(-1). The concentration of ΣOMPs in coastal areas ranged from 17.4 to 8442 ng L(-1), and was the highest in port waters, followed by coastal and river mouth seawaters. A summarized overview of the patterns and sources of OMP contamination on the investigated coastal sea waters of NW Mediterranean Sea, as well as of their geographical distribution was obtained by Principal Component Analysis of the complete data set after its adequate pretreatment. Alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates were the main contributors to ΣOMPs and produced an estimated significant pollution risk for fish, algae and the sensitive mysid shrimp organisms in seawater samples. The combination of GC-MS/MS, chemometrics and risk analysis is proven to be useful for a better control and management of OMP discharges. PMID:22706016

  6. Accelerating sea-level rise and coastal marsh stability: Insights from an early Holocene stratigraphic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Tornqvist, T. E.; Kohl, B.; Kuykendall, J.

    2011-12-01

    The increasingly recognized economic and ecologic value of coastal ecosystems and growing concerns about the fate of coastal wetlands in the face of anticipated accelerating sea-level rise in the next century provide the impetus to understand coastal marsh stability under climate warming conditions. This problem is strikingly exemplified by the Mississippi Delta, where wetland loss rates are among the highest in the world. Direct field observations of marsh responses to rising seas are helpful to understand marsh stability over short (annual to decadal) timescales. However, knowledge about marsh stability over longer timescales is largely lacking. Here we present an early Holocene stratigraphic and foraminiferal record from the Mississippi Delta to examine marsh responses to relative sea-level (RSL) rise at rates within the range of what is commonly predicted for the latter portion of the 21st century. While field monitoring of modern marshes has suggested that they may survive rates of RSL rise on the order of 1 cm/yr, our results show that marshes can persist only for up to a century, and often much shorter, with rates of RSL rise of ~0.7 cm/yr. We therefore conclude that the tipping point beyond which coastal marshes in this region become unsustainable may be reached earlier than what previous studies have suggested. These findings may be instrumental in long-term planning and mitigating impacts of anticipated sea-level rise on coastal ecosystems.

  7. Increasing eutrophication in the coastal seas of China from 1970 to 2050.

    PubMed

    Strokal, Maryna; Yang, He; Zhang, Yinchen; Kroeze, Carolien; Li, Lili; Luan, Shengji; Wang, Huanzhi; Yang, Shunshun; Zhang, Yisheng

    2014-08-15

    We analyzed the potential for eutrophication in major seas around China: the Bohai Gulf, Yellow Sea and South China Sea. We model the riverine inputs of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and silica (Si) to coastal seas from 1970 to 2050. Between 1970 and 2000 dissolved N and P inputs to the three seas increased by a factor of 2-5. In contrast, inputs of particulate N and P and dissolved Si, decreased due to damming of rivers. Between 2000 and 2050, the total N and P inputs increase further by 30-200%. Sewage is the dominant source of dissolved N and P in the Bohai Gulf, while agriculture is the primary source in the other seas. In the future, the ratios of Si to N and P decrease, which increases the risk of harmful algal blooms. Sewage treatment may reduce this risk in the Bohai Gulf, and agricultural management in the other seas. PMID:24981103

  8. Diversity and distribution of Porifera in the bathyal and abyssal Weddell Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janussen, Dorte; Tendal, Ole Secher

    2007-08-01

    During the ANDEEP I-III expeditions, we obtained a rich and highly diverse sponge collection from the deep Weddell Sea. All the three Poriferan classes, Calcarea, Demospongiae and Hexactinellida, were well represented. Among this material, we have identified a total of 76 species from 47 genera and 30 families. Of these, 17 species (22%) are new to science and 37 (49%) new for the Southern Ocean. Particularly remarkable is the considerable depth of the boundary between bathyal and abyssal sponge faunas. Both Demospongiae and Hexactinellida show a strong shift in their taxonomic composition from a typical shelf assemblage to a more cosmopolitan deep-sea fauna at around 2500 m. Within the Demospongiae, the families Polymastiidae and Cladorhizidae (carnivorous sponges) are particularly abundant and very diverse. The Calcarea are recorded for the first time from the Antarctic deep sea. The type of sampling gear used, especially the epibenthic sledge, was an important factor for the successful collection of deep-sea sponges during the ANDEEP campaigns.

  9. Global Projection of Coastal Exposure Associated with Sea-level Rise beyond Tipping Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawatari, R.; Miyazaki, C.; Iseri, Y.; Kiguchi, M.; Kanae, S.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-level rise due to global warming becomes a great matter of concern for global coastal area. Additionally, it has reported in fifth report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) that deglaciation of Greenland ice sheet and Antarctic ice sheet would occur rapidly and enhance sea-level rise if temperature passes certain "Tipping point". In terms of projecting damage induced by sea-level rise globally, some previous studies focused on duration until mainly 2100. Furthermore long-term estimations on centuries to millennial climatic response of the ice sheets which are supposed to be triggered within this or next century would be also important to think about future climate and lifestyle in coastal . In this study, I estimated the long term sea-level which take into account the tipping points of Greenland ice sheet (1.4℃) as sum of 4 factors (thermal expansion, glacier and ice cap, Greenland ice sheet, Antarctic ice sheet). The sea-level follows 4 representative concentration pathways up to 3000 obtained through literature reviewing since there were limited available sea-level projections up to 3000. I also estimated a number of affected population lives in coastal area up to 3000 with using the estimated sea-level. The cost for damage, adaptation and mitigation would be also discussed. These estimations would be useful when decision-makers propose policies for construction of dikes and proposing mitigation plans for sustainable future. The result indicates there would be large and relatively rapid increases in both sea-level rise and coastal exposure if global mean temperature passes the tipping point of Greenland ice sheet. However the tipping points, melting rate and timescale of response are highly uncertain and still discussed among experts. Thus more precise and credible information is required for further accurate estimation of long-term sea-level rise and population exposure in the future.

  10. Antibiotics in South Indian coastal sea and farmed prawns (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Venkatesh; Nagalingam, Arun Kumar; Ranganathan, Hari Prasad; Kandhikuppam, Krishnamoorthy Bharathi; Kothandam, Hari Prasath; Vasu, Soumya

    2013-01-01

    Sulphonamides and chloramphenicol antibiotics were analysed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in sea and farmed prawn (Penaeus monodon) samples obtained from the coastal region of southern India during 2011-2012. Average recoveries were 77-99% and precision was between 1% and 8%. The results revealed that in sea prawn samples neither of the two antibiotics was detected, but in farmed samples from coastal Andhra Pradesh some sulphonamides were detected in a concentration range greater than the maximum residual limit as set by Council Directive 2377/90 EC. PMID:24779904

  11. Contrasts Between Precipitation over Mediterranean Sea and Adjacent Continental Areas Based on Decadal Scale Satellite Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    Most knowledge concerning the last century's climatology and climate dynamics of precipitation over the Mediterranean Sea basin is based on observations taken from rain gauges surrounding the sea itself. In turn, most of the observations come from Southern Europe, with many fewer measurements taken from widely scattered sites situated over North Africa, the Middle East, and the Balkans. This aspect of research on the Mediterranean Sea basin is apparent in a recent compilation of studies presented in book form concerning climate variability of the Mediterranean region [Lionello, P., P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, and R. Boscolo (eds.), 2006: Mediterranean Climate Variability. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 9 chapters.] In light of this missing link to over-water observations, this study (in conjunction with four companion studies by Z. Haddad, A. Mugnai, T. Nakazawa, and G. Stephens) will contrast the nature of precipitation variability directly over the Mediterranean Sea to precipitation variability over the surrounding land areas based on three decades of satellite-based precipitation estimates which have stood up well to validation scrutiny. The satellite observations are drawn from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) dataset extending back to 1979 and the TRMM Merged Algorithm 3b42 dataset extending back to 1998. Both datasets are mostly produced from microwave measurements, excepting the period from 1979 to mid-1987 when only infrared satellite measurements were available for the GPCP estimates. The purpose of this study is to emphasize how the salient properties of precipitation variability over land and sea across a hierarchy of space and time scales, and the salient differences in these properties, might be used in guiding short-term climate models to better predictions of future climate states under different regional temperature-change scenarios.

  12. Influence of seasonal variations in sea level on the salinity regime of a coastal groundwater-fed wetland.

    PubMed

    Wood, Cameron; Harrington, Glenn A

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sea level are often neglected in studies of coastal aquifers; however, they may have important controls on processes such as submarine groundwater discharge, sea water intrusion, and groundwater discharge to coastal springs and wetlands. We investigated seasonal variations in salinity in a groundwater-fed coastal wetland (the RAMSAR listed Piccaninnie Ponds in South Australia) and found that salinity peaked during winter, coincident with seasonal sea level peaks. Closer examination of salinity variations revealed a relationship between changes in sea level and changes in salinity, indicating that sea level-driven movement of the fresh water-sea water interface influences the salinity of discharging groundwater in the wetland. Moreover, the seasonal control of sea level on wetland salinity seems to override the influence of seasonal recharge. A two-dimensional variable density model helped validate this conceptual model of coastal groundwater discharge by showing that fluctuations in groundwater salinity in a coastal aquifer can be driven by a seasonal coastal boundary condition in spite of seasonal recharge/discharge dynamics. Because seasonal variations in sea level and coastal wetlands are ubiquitous throughout the world, these findings have important implications for monitoring and management of coastal groundwater-dependent ecosystems. PMID:24571421

  13. Sea-level rise and coastal change: the past as a guide to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, Colin D.; Murray-Wallace, Colin V.

    2012-10-01

    There is a broader awareness than ever that we live in a changing environment. The spectre of climate change is of wide concern, and the observed trends and anticipated consequences of an acceleration of sea-level rise pose a series of threats for the future of people who live in coastal communities. Coastal geoscientists are able to reconstruct the position of former sea levels; they can also explain much of the geographical variation in relative sea-level history. Successive collaborative projects (many under the auspices of international programmes sponsored by IGCP and INQUA) derived local sea-level histories and compiled atlases of relative sea-level curves, and some addressed past coastal behaviour in response to these changes. The most recent International Geological Correlation programme project 588, 'Preparing for coastal change', continues this impressive lineage of projects that have laid the foundations for our understanding of sea-level behaviour over the late Quaternary. Today, these issues are a major focus in the debate about climate change, its impacts, and the need for adaptation on the most vulnerable shorelines. There is clearly a role for the palaeoenvironmental skillset honed through successive geoscientific projects. Investigations of past coastal environments have provided the tools for delineating past levels of the sea, but the stratigraphical and geochronological studies which were necessary to reconstruct the sea-level position also provide insights into where the shoreline lay and how the coast behaved as sea level changed. If the present is the key to the past, then the past, seen from the context of the present, can be a guide to the future. Collaborative projects and international co-operation between scientists from different disciplines can play important roles in future debates about how our world will change. First, the lessons learnt about the patterns of variation of relative sea level need to be more widely recognised by

  14. Mesoscale vortices in the Ligurian Sea and their effect on coastal upwelling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Elisa; Molcard, Anne; Provenzale, Antonello

    2011-10-01

    We study numerically the dynamics of intense anticyclonic eddies in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea). To this end, we use the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) with a resolution of 3 km for a domain covering the whole Ligurian Sea, with an embedded child grid covering the northwestern part of Ligurian Sea at resolution 1 km. The model is forced with daily boundary conditions obtained from the MFS dataset for the year 2006 at the open lateral boundaries. Surface heat and evapotranspiration fluxes are provided by the monthly climatological dataset COADS at 1/2° spatial resolution. For wind forcing, we consider two configurations. In the first setting, the model is forced by the COADS climatological monthly mean wind stresses; in a second configuration, the model is forced by the daily mean wind stresses provided by a mesoscale meteorological model for the area of interest in the year 2006. The latter setting shows the formation of intense anticyclonic eddy structures in the coastal area, generated by the variable winds and by the interaction of transient currents with bottom and coastal topography (in the NW part of the Ligurian Sea). Comparison of model output with satellite SST data shows definite agreement between numerical results and observations. Analysis of the simulation results over the whole year 2006 and of SST satellite images in 2006 and 2007 indicates that coastal anticyclonic eddies are of common occurrence in the Ligurian Sea, with several events per year, mainly concentrated in autumn and winter. The eddies are characterized by a complex pattern of intense vertical velocities and induce strong, long-lasting coastal upwelling events. For this reason, anticyclonic vortices in the coastal area can generate bursts of nutrient input in the euphotic layer and contribute to the fertilization of the Ligurian Sea, with potentially important effects on the dynamics of phyto- and zooplankton.

  15. Comment [on “Sea level rise shown to drive coastal erosion”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Young, Robert S.; Bush, David M.

    Leatherman et al. [2000] (Eos, Trans., AGU, February 8, 2000, p.55) affirm that global eustatic sea-level rise is driving coastal erosion. Furthermore, they argue that the long-term average rate of shoreline retreat is 150 times the rate of sea-level rise. This rate, they say, is more than a magnitude greater than would be expected from a simple response to sea-level rise through inundation of the shoreline. We agree that sea-level rise is the primary factor causing shoreline retreat in stable coastal areas.This is intuitive. We also believe, however, that the Leatherman et al. [2000] study has greatly underestimated the rate of coastal recession along most low slope shorelines. Slopes along the North Carolina continental shelf/coastal plain approach 10,000:1. To us, this suggests that we should expect rates of shoreline recession 10,000 times the rate of sea-level rise through simple inundation of the shoreline.

  16. Impacts on the Deep-Sea Ecosystem by a Severe Coastal Storm

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Calafat, Antoni M.; Lastras, Galderic; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Menéndez, Melisa; Medina, Raúl; Company, Joan B.; Hereu, Bernat; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Major coastal storms, associated with strong winds, high waves and intensified currents, and occasionally with heavy rains and flash floods, are mostly known because of the serious damage they can cause along the shoreline and the threats they pose to navigation. However, there is a profound lack of knowledge on the deep-sea impacts of severe coastal storms. Concurrent measurements of key parameters along the coast and in the deep-sea are extremely rare. Here we present a unique data set showing how one of the most extreme coastal storms of the last decades lashing the Western Mediterranean Sea rapidly impacted the deep-sea ecosystem. The storm peaked the 26th of December 2008 leading to the remobilization of a shallow-water reservoir of marine organic carbon associated with fine particles and resulting in its redistribution across the deep basin. The storm also initiated the movement of large amounts of coarse shelf sediment, which abraded and buried benthic communities. Our findings demonstrate, first, that severe coastal storms are highly efficient in transporting organic carbon from shallow water to deep water, thus contributing to its sequestration and, second, that natural, intermittent atmospheric drivers sensitive to global climate change have the potential to tremendously impact the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth, the deep-sea ecosystem. PMID:22295084

  17. Comment [on “Sea level rise shown to drive coastal erosion”

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Young, Robert S.; Bush, David M.

    2000-01-01

    Leatherman et al. [2000] (Eos, Trans., AGU, February 8, 2000, p.55) affirm that global eustatic sea-level rise is driving coastal erosion. Furthermore, they argue that the long-term average rate of shoreline retreat is 150 times the rate of sea-level rise. This rate, they say, is more than a magnitude greater than would be expected from a simple response to sea-level rise through inundation of the shoreline. We agree that sea-level rise is the primary factor causing shoreline retreat in stable coastal areas.This is intuitive. We also believe, however, that the Leatherman et al. [2000] study has greatly underestimated the rate of coastal recession along most low slope shorelines. Slopes along the North Carolina continental shelf/coastal plain approach 10,000:1. To us, this suggests that we should expect rates of shoreline recession 10,000 times the rate of sea-level rise through simple inundation of the shoreline.

  18. Recent seasonal hypoxia on the Western Black Sea shelf recorded in adjacent slope sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roepert, Anne; Jilbert, Tom S.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2015-04-01

    Bottom water hypoxia is a major environmental problem afflicting estuarine and marine environments across the globe (Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008). Hypoxia is often attributed to human-induced increased nutrient discharge from rivers and related eutrophication. The Western Black Sea shelf is a typical example of a system where such anthropogenic impacts are thought to have contributed to the development of seasonal hypoxia in the late 20th century. However, due to the lack of spatially and temporally consistent monitoring in the region, questions remain about the evolution, causes and consequences of the seasonal hypoxia on the Western Black Sea shelf and whether or not the ecological state has recently improved (Capet et al., 2013). In this study a resin-embedded sediment core from a location below the chemocline on the Western Black Sea slope (water depth 377 m) was analyzed for its elemental composition by means of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), recovering a continuous geochemical record at a sub-annual resolution for the last 100 years. Relative enrichments in organic carbon, Pb, Fe, S, and Mo were observed in the depth interval corresponding to the 1970s until the 1990s, suggesting an increased carbon flux to the sediments as well as an anthropogenic pollution signal. We propose that the expansion of eutrophication on the Western Black Sea shelf was responsible for the enhanced carbon flux to our study site, while the associated hypoxia enhanced the shuttling of redox-sensitive elements to locations below the chemocline. The subsequent decrease in organic carbon and metal enrichments at the core top suggests a recent rise in oxygen concentrations and improvement of the ecological state of the Western Black Sea shelf. References: Capet, A., Beckers, J.-M., Grégoire, M. (2013). "Drivers, mechanisms and long-term variability of seasonal hypoxia on the Black Sea northwestern shelf-is there any recovery after eutrophication

  19. Land-sea correlation between Late Holocene coastal and infralittoral deposits in the SE Iberian Peninsula (Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Salas, L. M.; Dabrio, C. J.; Goy, J. L.; Díaz del Río, V.; Zazo, C.; Lobo, F. J.; Sanz, J. L.; Lario, J.

    2009-03-01

    The well-exposed systems of prograding beach ridges on the Carchuna-Calahonda (Granada) and Campo de Dalías-Roquetas (Almería) coastal plains continue offshore as infralittoral prograding wedges (IPW). The Holocene IPW is a narrow morpho-sedimentary unit up to 2.5 km wide which develops seaward from the lower edge of the shoreface to 15-20 m depth, extending to a well-defined break of slope at water depths of 35-40 m. These IPWs have been recognized and studied using very high-resolution seismic profiles (TOPAS) and multibeam data (EM-3000D). In detail they are complex morpho-sedimentary units in which internal structures are closely linked to the pattern of progradation of the adjacent coastal plains. When longshore currents produce significant littoral drift, the IPWs are composed of several minor units arranged in offlap, which accrete parallel or oblique to the main shoreline. Therefore, it is possible to correlate progradational units in the coastal plain (H-units, sensu[Goy, J.L., Zazo, C., Dabrio, C.J., 2003. A beach-ridge progradation complex reflecting periodical sea-level and climate variability during the Holocene (Gulf of Almería, Western Mediterranean). Geomorphology 50, 251-268]) and subunits in the IPW, but special care is required depending on the local arrangement of morpho-sedimentary units. Besides, it is not realistic to draw conclusions regarding the age of the subunits inside a given IPW without adequate dating, as the number of subunits will greatly vary from place to place depending on local factors, magnitude of sea-level oscillations, and sediment supply.

  20. Impact of coastal polynyas on sea ice production and water mass modification in the southwestern Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haid, V.; Timmermann, R.; Ebner, L.; Heinemann, G.

    2012-04-01

    The thermohaline circulation of the world ocean is partly driven by deep water formation at high-latitudes. In the Southern Ocean, deep and bottom water formation in the marginal seas is induced by high freezing rates as generally found at coastal polynyas. Atmospheric cooling and brine-release enable the production of very cold and saline water masses. In the southwestern Weddell Sea, wide shelves allow for a strong salinification of the whole water column and the formation of High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). The impact of coastal polynyas on ice production and water mass formation in the southwestern Weddell Sea was studied employing the Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) of the Alfred Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven. FESOM is a coupled system of a primitive-equation, hydrostatic ocean model and a dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model. Simulations were conducted on a global unstructured mesh with a strong focus on the southwestern Weddell Sea coastline (up to 3 km resolution). In vertical direction, the grid features 37 z-coordinate depth levels of which 6 are within the uppermost 100 m. The model runs were initialised in 1980 and forced with NCEP reanalysis data (daily resolution). The year 2008 was also simulated with higher-resolution GME and regional COSMO forcing data. For data evaluation and analysis the period 1990-2009 is used. A comparison of AMSR sea ice concentration and model results shows good accordance in spatial and temporal polynya extent. Also, calculated vertical temperature and salinity profiles agree well with CTD measurements. Our simulations feature a 20-year winter mean area of coastal polynyas of 6.7 · 103 km2 (0.4% of the continental shelf area) in the southwestern Weddell Sea which is in good agreement with observations. Winter sea ice production within the coastal polynyas exceeds the ice production of the surrounding ice-covered area by a factor of 7 in the 20-year mean, so that the polynya contribution to total sea ice

  1. Environmental Gradients Explain Species Richness and Community Composition of Coastal Breeding Birds in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Nord, Maria; Forslund, Pär

    2015-01-01

    Scientifically-based systematic conservation planning for reserve design requires knowledge of species richness patterns and how these are related to environmental gradients. In this study, we explore a large inventory of coastal breeding birds, in total 48 species, sampled in 4646 1 km2 squares which covered a large archipelago in the Baltic Sea on the east coast of Sweden. We analysed how species richness (α diversity) and community composition (β diversity) of two groups of coastal breeding birds (specialists, i.e. obligate coastal breeders; generalists, i.e. facultative coastal breeders) were affected by distance to open sea, land area, shoreline length and archipelago width. The total number of species per square increased with increasing shoreline length, but increasing land area counteracted this effect in specialists. The number of specialist bird species per square increased with decreasing distance to open sea, while the opposite was true for the generalists. Differences in community composition between squares were associated with differences in land area and distance to open sea, both when considering all species pooled and each group separately. Fourteen species were nationally red-listed, and showed similar relationships to the environmental gradients as did all species, specialists and generalists. We suggest that availability of suitable breeding habitats, and probably also proximity to feeding areas, explain much of the observed spatial distributions of coastal birds in this study. Our findings have important implications for systematic conservation planning of coastal breeding birds. In particular, we provide information on where coastal breeding birds occur and which environments they seem to prefer. Small land areas with long shorelines are highly valuable both in general and for red-listed species. Thus, such areas should be prioritized for protection against human disturbance and used by management in reserve selection. PMID:25714432

  2. Macrobenthos of the southern part of St. Anna trough and the adjacent Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. V.; Vedenin, A. A.; Minin, K. V.; Rogacheva, A. V.; Molodtsova, T. N.; Rajskiy, A. K.; Kucheruk, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    Taxonomic composition and ecological structure of benthic communities of the southern part of St. Anna Trough were investigated during the 54th and 59th cruises of RV Akademik Mstislav Keldysh. Material was collected using Sigsbee trawl at 10 stations arranged in two transects (depth range 57-554 m). It was shown that benthic communities of the western arm of the St. Anna Trough differ considerably from the communities of the eastern arm. The western arm communities develop under the influence of active near-bottom hydrodynamics in conditions of rugged topography and a coarse-grained sediment or hard substrate. The wastern arm of the trough is characterized by the predomination of the soft sediment, smooth topography, and weak currents. In the western arm of the trough the influence of the Barents Sea fauna is traced down to the edge of the internal shelf (about 150 m depth). The community of the eastern arm of the trough situated out from the direct influence of the Barents Sea waters represents a continuation of the Ophiocten sericeum community, typical for external Kara Sea shelf. With increasing depth, Ophiopleura borealis becomes the dominant species of the community. In the greatest explored depths some deep-water High-Arctic species, such as echinoids Pourtalesia jeffreysi, were observed. The major factors determining the distribution of benthic communities in the investigated area are the microrelief pattern, the sediment structure, and near-bottom hydrodynamics.

  3. Spatial and temporal variations and controlling factors of sediment accumulation in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent sea area in the Holocene, especially in the Early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhibing; Liu, Baohua; Zhao, Yuexia; Li, Xishuang; Jiang, Li; Si, Shaokun

    2016-08-01

    The sub-bottom and collected borehole data provide insight into the transport and accumulation processes of the Yangtze-derived sediment in the study area since ~11 kyr BP. Five seismic units were identified according to six major acoustic surfaces. The sedimentary strata consist of fluvial, estuarine and deltaic systems from the bottom up, characterized by two different trends in sediment accumulation rates, i.e., low-high-low, and high-low-high. On the inner shelf of the East China Sea, the terrain with trough and ridge was formed by the Early Holocene transgression strata (formed in ~10 to 12 kyr BP) scoured by the later rectilinear tidal current due to postglacial sea-level transgression, and the sharply protruding seismic units are interpreted to be bedrocks outcropping on the seafloor. An analysis of the sedimentary characteristics in the boreholes and such factors as difference in accumulation rates, and tectonic subsidence led us to conclude that the paleo-coastline was located not far away from and to the east of Core ZK09 at ~9 kyr BP, and the southern bank of the Yangtze River estuary was located to the south of Core ZK09. At ~9 kyr, large volume of sediments was deposited in the northern isles of the Zhoushan archipelago and their adjacent bedrocks, forming a barrier effect on later sediment transport. During 7.5-8 kyr BP, the Yangtze-derived sediments were transported eastwards along the southern bank of the Yangtze River and the barrier due to the influence of the paleo-coastal current from the north, the direction of the Yangtze-derived sediment transport was split on the northeast of the Zhoushan archipelago, and the sediments covered the terrain with trough and ridge. During the high sea level period (7 kyr BP-present), the eastward migration of paleo-coastline had resulted in the increase in accumulation rate. We also conclude that the sharp increase in accumulation rate near the Yangtze River estuary after ~2 kyr BP was not primarily caused by

  4. Sea level variations in relation to coastal flow around the Gulf of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.K.; Schumacher, J.D.

    1981-07-20

    Adjusted sea level deviations at six tide stations around the Gulf of Alaska were examined in light of our recent knowledge of the flow regime. On the east side of the gulf a maximum in the deviations seems to be caused by winter barotropic flow on the shelf. On the north side of the gulf, the maximum in fall is apparently produced by a marked increase in flow of the baroclinic coastal current. Farther west the seasonal sea level signal is appreciably reduced.

  5. Decadal changes in climate and ecosystems in the North Atlantic Ocean and adjacent seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaugrand, Grégory

    2009-04-01

    Climate change is unambiguous and its effects are clearly detected in all functional units of the Earth system. This study presents new analyses of sea-surface temperature changes and show that climate change is affecting ecosystems of the North Atlantic. Changes are seen from phytoplankton to zooplankton to fish and are modifying the dominance of species and the structure, the diversity and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Changes also range from phenological to biogeographical shifts and have involved in some regions of the Atlantic abrupt ecosystem shifts. These alterations reflect a response of pelagic ecosystems to a warmer temperature regime. Mechanisms are complex because they are nonlinear exhibiting tipping points and varying in space and time. Sensitivity of organisms to temperature changes is high, implicating that a small temperature modification can have sustained ecosystem effects. Implications of these changes for biogeochemical cycles are discussed. Two observed changes detected in the North Sea that could have opposite effects on carbon cycle are discussed. Increase in phytoplankton, as inferred from the phytoplankton colour index derived from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey, has been detected in the North Sea. This pattern has been accompanied by a reduction in the abundance of the herbivorous species Calanus finmarchicus. This might have reduced the grazing pressure and increase diatomaceous 'fluff', therefore carbon export in the North Sea. Therefore, it could be argued that the biological carbon pump might increase in this region with sea warming. In the meantime, however, the mean size of organisms (calanoid copepods) has dropped. Such changes have implications for the turnover time of biogenic carbon in plankton organisms and the mean residence time of particulate carbon they produce. The system characterising the warmer period is more based on recycling and less on export. The increase in the minimum turnover time

  6. Sea-air CO2 exchange in the western Arctic coastal ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Cross, Jessica N.; Bates, Nicholas R.; Frey, Karen E.; Else, Brent G. T.; Papkyriakou, Tim N.; DeGrandpre, Mike D.; Islam, Fakhrul; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chen, Baoshan; Yamamoto-Kawai, Michiyo; Carmack, Eddy; Williams, William. J.; Takahashi, Taro

    2015-08-01

    The biogeochemical seascape of the western Arctic coastal ocean is in rapid transition. Changes in sea ice cover will be accompanied by alterations in sea-air carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange, of which the latter has been difficult to constrain owing to sparse temporal and spatial data sets. Previous assessments of sea-air CO2 flux have targeted specific subregional areas of the western Arctic coastal ocean. Here a holistic approach is taken to determine the net sea-air CO2 flux over this broad region. We compiled and analyzed an extensive data set of nearly 600,000 surface seawater CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) measurements spanning 2003 through 2014. Using space-time colocated, reconstructed atmospheric pCO2 values coupled with the seawater pCO2 data set, monthly climatologies of sea-air pCO2 differences (ΔpCO2) were created on a 0.2° latitude × 0.5° longitude grid. Sea-air CO2 fluxes were computed using the ΔpCO2 grid and gas transfer rates calculated from climatology of wind speed second moments. Fluxes were calculated with and without the presence of sea ice, treating sea ice as an imperfect barrier to gas exchange. This allowed for carbon uptake by the western Arctic coastal ocean to be assessed under existing and reduced sea ice cover conditions, in which carbon uptake increased 30% over the current 10.9 ± 5.7 Tg C (1 Tg = 1012 g) yr-1 of sea ice-adjusted exchange in the region. This assessment extends beyond previous subregional estimates in the region in an all-inclusive manner and points to key unresolved aspects that must be targeted by future research.

  7. Understanding the Effects of Sea-Level Rise on Coastal Wetlands: The Human Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Denise

    2010-05-01

    In the 21st century coastal systems are subject to the pressures of centuries of population growth and resource exploitation. In 2003, in the US approximately 153 million people (53 percent of the population) lived in coastal counties, an increase of 33 million people since 1980 and this is expected to increase by approximately 7 million by the year 2008. Eight of the world's top ten largest cities are located at the coast, 44 % of the world's population (more people than inhabited the entire globe in 1950) live within 150 km of the coast and in 2001 over half the world's population lived within 200 km of a coastline. . Increased population density at the coasts often brings pollution and habitat degradation - decreasing the value of many of the resources that initially attract the coastal development - and it also means the effect of sea-level rise on coastal geomorphic systems must be seen in the context of additional human pressures. For global sea-level debate centers on the magnitude and rate of the rise around most of the world; the exception being those areas still experiencing falling sea-levels due to isostatic rebound. Many coastal island states are clearly vulnerable. While the ‘lurid and misleading maps' of the 1980's used by many to indicate areas to be flooded by rising seas in the future, have been replaced by more considered discussion of the response of coastal dynamics to rising seas there is still considerable debate about the amount of sea-level rise shorelines will experience in the 21st century. For coastal wetlands four main sets of physical factors - fine sediment regime; tidal conditions; coastal configuration; and relative sea-level change - define the geomorphic context for coastal marsh development and survival during the 21st century. Each of these factors is influenced by changes in climate and human alterations to coastal and inshore environments. In turn changes in sediment dynamics are mediated by both physical forcing and biotic

  8. Modeling the impact of sea-spray on particle concentrations in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J; Schoof, J T; Binkowski, F S; Delle Monache, L; Stull, R

    2008-02-25

    With the worlds population becoming increasingly focused on coastal locations there is a need to better understand the interactions between anthropogenic emissions and marine atmospheres. Herein an atmospheric chemistry-transport model is used to assess the impacts of sea-spray chemistry on the particle composition in and downwind of a coastal city--Vancouver, British Columbia. It is shown that the model can reasonably represent the average features of the gas phase and particle climate relative to in situ measurements. It is further demonstrated that reactions in/on sea-spray affect the entire particle ensemble and particularly the size distribution of particle nitrate, but that the importance of these heterogeneous reactions is critically dependent on both the initial vertical profile of sea spray and the sea-spray source functions. The results emphasize the need for improved understanding of sea spray production and dispersion and further that model analyses of air quality in coastal cities conducted without inclusion of sea-spray interactions may yield mis-leading results in terms of emission sensitivities of particle composition and concentrations. PMID:18061242

  9. The Egyptian Red Sea coastal microbiome: A study revealing differential microbial responses to diverse anthropogenic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ghada A; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Ouf, Amged; Siam, Rania

    2016-07-01

    The Red Sea is considered one of the youngest oceanic systems, with unique physical, geochemical and biological characteristics. Tourism, industrialization, extensive fishing, oil processing and shipping are extensive sources of pollution in the Red Sea. We analyzed the geochemical characteristics and microbial community of sediments along the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. Our sites mainly included 1) four ports used for shipping aluminum, ilmenite and phosphate; 2) a site previously reported to have suffered extensive oil spills; and 3) a site impacted by tourism. Two major datasets for the sediment of ten Red Sea coastal sites were generated; i) a chemical dataset included measurements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur, metals and selected semi-volatile oil; and ii) a 16S rRNA Pyrotags bacterial metagenomic dataset. Based on the taxonomic assignments of the 16S rRNA Pyrotags to major bacterial groups, we report 30 taxa constituting an Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome. Bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons were predominant in the majority of the sites, particularly in two ports where they reached up to 76% of the total identified genera. In contrast, sulfate-reducing and sulfate-oxidizing bacteria dominated two lakes at the expense of other hydrocarbon metabolizers. Despite the reported "Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome," sites with similar anthropogenic pollutants showed unique microbial community abundances. This suggests that the abundance of a specific bacterial community is an evolutionary mechanism induced in response to selected anthropogenic pollutants. PMID:27179234

  10. Phase I for the Use of TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason-1 Radar Altimetry to Monitor Coastal Wetland Inundation and Sea Level Rise in Coastal Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brozen, Madeline; Batina, Matthew; Parker, Stephen; Brooks, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the first phase of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying satellite altimetry data to monitor sea level rise and inundation within coastal Louisiana. Global sea level is rising, and coastal Louisiana is subsiding. Therefore, there is a need to monitor these trends over time for coastal restoration and hazard mitigation efforts. TOPEX/POSEIDON and Jason-data are used for global sea level estimates and have also been demonstrated successfully in water level studies of lakes, river basins, and floodplains throughout the world. To employ TOPEX/POSEIDON and Jason-1 data in coastal regions, the numerous steps involved in processing the data over non-open ocean areas must be assessed. This project outlined the appropriate methodology for processing non-open ocean data, including retracking and atmospheric corrections. It also inventoried the many factors in coastal land loss including subsidence, sea level rise, coastal geomorphology, and salinity levels, among others, through a review of remote sensing and field methods. In addition, the project analyzed the socioeconomic factors within the Coastal Zone as compared to the rest of Louisiana. While sensor data uncertainty must be addressed, it was determined that it is feasible to apply radar altimetry data from TOPEX/POSEIDON and Jason 1 to see trends in change within Coastal Louisiana since

  11. Spatiotemporal distribution of bacterioplankton and bacteriobenthos in the Amur Liman and adjacent sea areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karetnikova, E. A.; Garetova, L. A.

    2015-09-01

    Data on the abundance and the ecological-trophic structure of bacterioplankton and bacteriobenthos communities in the Amur Liman and adjacent waters collected in June 2007 have been compared to the relevant data of 2006. Interyear changes of bacterioplankton abundance have been found to depend on the intensity of the Amur River runoff. Correlation analysis has revealed a negative dependence of the abundance of bacterioplankton, bacteriobenthos, and their ecological-trophic groups on water salinity, as well as direct relations between these biotic components and organic matter in water and bottom sediments. The microbiological indicators of water quality ranked the studied waters as classes III-IV in 2006 and as classes II-III in 2007. The high total abundance of bacteriobenthos (109-1010 cells/g) is a result of the functioning of a marginal filter rather than the direct pollution of the liman.

  12. Underwater, low-frequency noise in a coastal sea turtle habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Y.; Morreale, S. J.; Clark, C. W.; Greene, C. H.; Richmond, M. E.

    2005-03-01

    Underwater sound was recorded in one of the major coastal foraging areas for juvenile sea turtles in the Peconic Bay Estuary system in Long Island, New York. The recording season of the underwater environment coincided with the sea turtle activity season in an inshore area where there is considerable boating and recreational activity, especially during the summer between Independence Day and Labor Day. Within the range of sea turtle hearing, average noise pressure reached 110 dB during periods of high human activity and diminished proportionally, down to 80 dB, with decreasing human presence. Therefore, during much of the season when sea turtles are actively foraging in New York waters, their coastal habitats are flooded with underwater noise. During the period of highest human activity, average noise pressures within the range of frequencies heard by sea turtles were greater by over two orders of magnitude (26 dB) than during the lowest period of human activity. Sea turtles undoubtedly are exposed to high levels of noise, most of which is anthropogenic. Results suggest that continued exposure to existing high levels of pervasive anthropogenic noise in vital sea turtle habitats and any increase in noise could affect sea turtle behavior and ecology. .

  13. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  14. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  15. Cross-shore transport pathways between coastal aquifers and coastal seas: Archetype of a nearshore variable-density contaminant plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, D. A.; Bakhtyar, R.; Brovelli, A.; Li, L.; Robinson, C. E.; Xin, P.

    2012-12-01

    On permeable beaches, tides and waves lead to an upper saline plume underneath the beach face in addition to the saltwater wedge. The transport and fate of land-derived chemicals depend on process dynamics at the land-sea interface, which can be examined using a nearshore variable-density contaminant plume. Such a plume can be taken as an archetype, since it includes tracer transport as a special case, or can become unstable if a suitable density contrast is imposed. Using this archetype, we consider three features of coastal aquifers: (i) Dense plumes interact with groundwater to produce features that resemble instabilities but are, instead, distinct features that depend on the flow regime and aquifer geometry. While evident in the laboratory, such features are unlikely to occur in the field. (ii) In oceanic settings, coastal aquifers respond and interact with tides and waves. Simulations confirm that beach morphology and in/exfiltration across the beach face are both linked to wave breaking on short time scales, i.e., linkages between beach morphology and in/exfiltration both reflect their relationship with coastal waves. On longer time scales, tide and wave effects are roughly additive, with tides usually being more important. (iii) The density of inland contaminant plume and the coastal aquifer depth both impact on the distribution of travel times from the contaminant site to the beachface. Tracer plume breakthrough curves resemble a Gaussian distribution, with increasing skewness as the plume density increases.

  16. Nonlinear responses of coastal salt marshes to nutrient additions and sea level rise

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing nutrients and accelerated sea level rise (SLR) can cause marsh loss in some coastal systems. Responses to nutrients and SLR are complex and vary with soil matrix, marsh elevation, sediment inputs, and hydroperiod. We describe field and greenhouse studies examining sing...

  17. Coastal seas in a changing world: Anthropogenic impact and environmental responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Gao, Xuelu; Ishizaka, Joji; Lebel, Louis

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades, human-driven environmental change caused by the modification of river discharges, the exploitation of marine resources, the burning of fossil fuels, and various shoreline developments and engineering activities, has accelerated; and evidence of this is seen around the world. Linking continents with open oceans, coastal seas trap most land-based discharge and consequently face varying degrees of anthropogenic change.

  18. Preliminary study on pisionids (Annelida: Polychaeta Pisionidae) from Hainan Island coastal waters, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bao-Ling; Ding, Zhi-Hu; Huang, Feng-Peng

    1998-06-01

    Of the four species of Pisione Grube (1856) collected from the coastal waters of Hainan Island, the South China Sea, and described in this paper, Pisione hainanensis n. sp. is new to science; Pisione oerstedii Grube, 1857; Pisione complexa Alikunhi, 1947, and Pisione levisetosa Zhao, Westheide & Wu, 1991 are reported for the first time from this area.

  19. Remotely-sensed sea surface temperatuares (SST) of Northeaster Pacific Coastal Zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important indicator of long-term trends and geographical temperature patterns; however there have been relatively few long-term records of SST in near-coastal habitats. In situ SST measurements are irregular in both space and time. Therefore, w...

  20. Hydrophysical and hydrochemical characteristics of the sea areas adjacent to the estuaries of small rivers of the Russian coast of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavialov, P. O.; Makkaveev, P. N.; Konovalov, B. V.; Osadchiev, A. A.; Khlebopashev, P. V.; Pelevin, V. V.; Grabovskiy, A. B.; Izhitskiy, A. S.; Goncharenko, I. V.; Soloviev, D. M.; Polukhin, A. A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the results of long-term in situ and satellite measurements at shelf areas adjacent to the estuaries of the small rivers of the Russian coast of the Black Sea (Mezyb, Pshada, Vulan, Tuapse, Bitkha, Sochi, Cudepsta, Mzymta). The quantitative characteristics of the response of the hydrophysical and hydrochemical fields at the sea shelf on the influence of the continental river discharge are presented for each of these areas. A number of indicators of the water quality (the concentrations of the nitrate and nitrite forms of nitrogen, the phosphorus, the silica, the dissolved oxygen, the value of the total alkalinity and pH, the mineral and organic suspended matter, and the chlorophyll a) are considered in the context of the anthropogenic and terrigenous influence. In this paper, the emphasis was placed on the Mzymta River plume at the shelf area adjacent to the city of Sochi, where the measurements were repeatedly performed during the spring flooding conditions in the period from 2007 until 2012. The interannual variability of the water quality indicators and the seasonal and short-term variability of the area and the configuration of the plume, which transports suspended matter and anthropogenic pollution, were considered.

  1. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Verger, F.; Monget, J. M.; Crepon, M. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an investigation to map the various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France are presented. Paricular emphasis is given to the natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. It is shown that a close correlation exist between wind speed direction and the offshore width of the effluent.

  2. Twentieth century sea-ice trends in the Ross Sea from a high-resolution, coastal ice-core record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Kate E.; Bertler, Nancy A. N.; Bowen, Melissa M.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-05-01

    We present the first proxy record of sea-ice area (SIA) in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, from a 130 year coastal ice-core record. High-resolution deuterium excess data show prevailing stable SIA from the 1880s until the 1950s, a 2-5% reduction from the mid-1950s to the early-1990s, and a 5% increase after 1993. Additional support for this reconstruction is derived from ice-core methanesulphonic acid concentrations and whaling records. While SIA has continued to decline around much of the West Antarctic coastline since the 1950s, concurrent with increasing air and ocean temperatures, the underlying trend is masked in the Ross Sea by a switch to positive SIA anomalies since the early-1990s. This increase is associated with a strengthening of southerly winds and the enhanced northward advection of sea ice.

  3. An European historical reconstruction of sea surface dynamics (waves and storm surge) for coastal impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, Melisa; Perez, Jorge; Cid, Alba; Castanedo, Sonia; Losada, Inigo; Medina, Raul; Mendez, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Despite their outstanding relevance in coastal processes, a study of the sea surface dynamics due to atmospheric wind and pressure variations are rather limited in comparison with the mean sea level rise. Data of waves and surges along the European region are scarce and in-homogeneous, not only in terms of spatial coverage but also in terms of temporal coverage. This study presents two databases focused on a historical reconstruction of: (i) the wind-generated waves (GOW) and (ii) the meteorological sea level component (GOS). The GOW and GOS datasets cover the whole European coast (North Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea) at high-spatial resolution from 1979 to present. The meteorological sea level component (storm surge) has been generated by the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). To take into account non-linear interactions between tides and surges, both dynamics were simulated jointly. Final results of meteorological component of sea level were obtained by subtracting the astronomical tide from the simulated sea surface. The model was set-up for Europe using an orthogonal grid, with a horizontal resolution ranging between 3.5 to 11 km. A spatial domain of approximately 5 km was used for the Black Sea. Local coastal waves can be the integrated result of the ocean surface over a large region of influence. GOW-Europe is designed from a multigrid approach based on the overlapping of two-way nested domains. The coarser spatial resolution along the European coast of GOW is 15 km. The generation and propagation of the sea surface waves of GOW-Europe are simulated with the model WAVEWATCH III v4.18. Effects of non-linear wave-wave interactions, whitecapping and depth-induced refraction are considered in the propagation model. In order to validate GOW and GOS over Europe with available observations, an exhaustive comparison with in-situ and remote measurements was developed. In-situ buoys and tide-gauges are used to compare hourly time

  4. Relationships between pesticides and organic carbon fractions in sediments of the Danshui River estuary and adjacent coastal areas of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Chen, Hung-Yu; Hsieh, Hwey-Lian; Santschi, Peter H; Wade, Terry L; Sericano, Jose L

    2007-07-01

    In order to understand the fate of pesticides in marine environments, concentrations of pesticides and different carbonaceous fractions were determined for surface sediments in the Danshui River and nearby coastal areas of Taiwan. The major compounds detected were tetrachlorobenzene, HCHs, chlordane, aldrin, DDDs, DDEs and DDTs. Total concentrations of pesticides in the sediments ranged from not detectable to 23 ng g(-1), with the maximum value detected near the discharge point of the marine outfall from the Pali sewage treatment plant. These results confirm that pesticides persist in estuarine and nearby coastal environments of the Danshui River well after their ban. Concentrations of total pesticides significantly correlate with concentrations of total organic carbon and black carbon in these sediments, suggesting that total organic carbon and black carbon regulate the distribution of trace organic pollutants in fluvial and coastal marine sediments. PMID:17395347

  5. Imaging heterogeneity of the crust adjacent to the Dead Sea fault using ambient seismic noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, Vladimir; Meirova, Tatiana; Levshin, Anatoli; Hofstetter, Abraham; Kraeva, Nadezda; Barmin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    For the purpose of studying the Earth's crust by means of tomography, we investigated cross-correlation functions emerging from long-term observations of propagating ambient seismic noise at pairs of broadband stations in Israel and Jordan. The data was provided by the eight permanent broadband stations of the Israel Seismic Network evenly distributed over Israel and the 30 stations of the DESERT2000 experiment distributed across the Arava Fault (South of the Dead Sea basin). To eliminate the influence of earthquakes and explosions, we have applied the methodology of Bensen et al. (Geophys J Int 169:1239-1260, 2007), including bandpass filtering and amplitude normalization in time and frequency domain. The cross-correlation functions estimated from continuous recordings of a few months were used to extract Rayleigh waves group velocity dispersion curves using automatic version of the frequency-time analysis procedure. Subsequently, these curves have been converted into the Rayleigh wave group velocity maps in the period range 5-20 s and S waves velocity maps in the depth range 5-15 km. In these maps, four velocity anomalies are prominent. Two of them are outlined by the previous reflection-refraction profiles and body wave tomography studies, i.e. a low velocity anomaly corresponds to the area of the extremely deep (down to 14 km) sedimentary infill in the Southern Dead Sea Basin and a high velocity anomaly in the Southern Jordan corresponds to the area of the Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Nubian Shield on the flanks of the Red Sea. The two other anomalies have not been reported before - the high velocity zone close to the Beersheba city and the low velocity anomaly in the region of Samaria-Carmel mountains - Southern Galilee. They have relatively low resolution and hence need further investigations for approving and contouring. The highest contrast between the average Rayleigh wave group velocity (2.7 km/s) and the anomalies is 10-13 %, comparable, however

  6. Are coastal North Sea sediments an efficient filter for anthropogenic nitrogen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dähnke, Kirstin; Deek, Astrid; Neumann, Andreas; Newham, Michael; Emeis, Kay

    2013-04-01

    Coastal oceans like the North Sea and German Bight nowadays receive very high amounts of surplus nitrogen from anthropogenic sources such as rivers or atmospheric deposition. The subsequent removal of these excess nutrient loads hence is a critical feature of coastal and marine sediments, with the strong potential to alleviate negative eutrophication phenomena. However, massive dredging of riverine and estuarine sediments and a long history of diverse anthropogenic pressures can potentially alter this natural filter function of marine/coastal sediments, and we accordingly aimed to quantify denitrification along a gradient from the Elbe River estuary to the German Bight and North Sea. In a joint approach, we measured natural and potential denitrification rates along a gradient from the Elbe estuary to the Wadden Sea and further off-shore sediments. We used both in situ and incubation techniques, aiming to quantify natural and potential rates of denitrification. Based on our data, we also tried to unravel the influence of different factors that limit denitrification. A statistical data analysis suggests that TOC and water column nitrate are main controlling factors, with surprisingly little influence of oxygen penetration depth. We find that bulk N2 production is largely fuelled by coupled nitrification-denitrification, with an equivalent of 19-43% of the Elbe River nitrate load being removed via this process in spring and summer. In contrast, the direct removal of nitrate from the water column is of subordinate role. Overall, our results show that the sedimentary filter function is only able to remove small portions of anthropogenic nitrogen entrained to the coastal North Sea along the coastal strip. An extrapolation of rates to different natural sediment types and their respective areas suggests that ~ 2-3 kt, representing 5% of the spring/summer nitrate load of the Elbe River, are removed in the near-shore region. This accordingly leaves a vast amount of surplus

  7. Numerical modeling of electromagnetic waves scattering from 2D coastal breaking sea waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairi, Refzul; Coatanhay, Arnaud; Khenchaf, Ali; Scolan, Yves Marie

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work is to model the interaction of L-band electromagnetic waves with coastal breaking sea waves. The breaking sea waves' profiles are generated using the desingularized technique and the electromagnetic waves scattering is computed using the high-order method of moments (HO-MoM) combined with non uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) geometry. Our study mainly focuses upon the electromagnetic waves behavior in the crest and the cavity of breaking sea waves. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Numelec 2012", Edited by Adel Razek.

  8. Spatial distribution and controlling factors of sedimentary bodies in Jiaozhou Bay and Adjacent Sea Areas, Qingdao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Heping; Li, Guangxue; Li, Shuanglin; Li, Shaoquan; Li, Chun

    2011-06-01

    The distributions of thickness of unconsolidated Quaternary sedimentary layers in Jiaozhou Bay and Qingdao offshore area were studied by using 1079-km high-resolution shallow seismic profiles and drilling core data, and the factors controlling the Quaternary evolution were discussed. The results show that such thickness distributions resulted from the coactions of geologic structures and marine hydrodynamic conditions since the Holocene. The geologic structures controlled the slope deposit, proluvial and fluvial fillings since the late Pleistocene. Holocene marine hydrodynamics eroded away sediments at the bay mouth, and tides carried these eroded materials to the sides of the bay mouth and released them there, forming channel-ridge-alternating geomorphic features. During transgressive processes, the sea level rose rapidly, and insufficient sediment supply and tidal actions yielded the relict sediments in the east of Qingdao offshore area.

  9. On the tectonic problems of the southern East China Sea and adjacent regions: Evidence from gravity and magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Luning; Zhang, Xunhua; Han, Bo; Du, Runlin

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, two sets of gravity and magnetic data were used to study the tectonics of the southern East China Sea and Ryukyu trench-arc system: one data set was from the `Geological-geophysical map series of China Seas and adjacent areas' database and the other was newly collected by R/V Kexue III in 2011. Magnetic and gravity data were reorganized and processed using the software MMDP, MGDP and RGIS. In addition to the description of the anomaly patterns in different areas, deep and shallow structure studies were performed by using several kinds of calculation, including a spectrum analysis, upward-continuation of the Bouguer anomaly and horizontal derivatives of the total-field magnetic anomaly. The depth of the Moho and magnetic basement were calculated. Based on the above work, several controversial tectonic problems were discussed. Compared to the shelf area and Ryukyu Arc, the Okinawa Trough has an obviously thinned crust, with the thinnest area having thickness less than 14 km in the southern part. The Taiwan-Sinzi belt, which terminates to the south by the NW-SE trending Miyako fault belt, contains the relic volcanic arc formed by the splitting of the paleo Ryukyu volcanic arc as a result of the opening of the Okinawa Trough. As an important tectonic boundary, the strike-slip type Miyako fault belt extends northwestward into the shelf area and consists of several discontinuous segments. A forearc terrace composed of an exotic terrane collided with the Ryukyu Arc following the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate. Mesozoic strata of varying thicknesses exist beneath the Cenozoic strata in the shelf basin and significantly influence the magnetic pattern of this area. The gravity and magnetic data support the existence of a Great East China Sea, which suggests that the entire southern East China Sea shelf area was a basin in the Mesozoic without alternatively arranged uplifts and depressions, and might have extended southwestward and connected with the

  10. Interannual to Decadal Variability of Atlantic Water in the Nordic and Adjacent Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Reagan, James; Haekkinen, Sirpa

    2011-01-01

    Warm salty Atlantic Water is the main source water for the Arctic Ocean and thus plays an important role in the mass and heat budget of the Arctic. This study explores interannual to decadal variability of Atlantic Water properties in the Nordic Seas area where Atlantic Water enters the Arctic, based on a reexamination of the historical hydrographic record for the years 1950-2009, obtained by combining multiple data sets. The analysis shows a succession of four multi-year warm events where temperature anomalies at 100m depth exceed 0.4oC, and three cold events. Three of the four warm events lasted 3-4 years, while the fourth began in 1999 and persists at least through 2009. This most recent warm event is anomalous in other ways as well, being the strongest, having the broadest geographic extent, being surface-intensified, and occurring under exceptional meteorological conditions. Three of the four warm events were accompanied by elevated salinities consistent with enhanced ocean transport into the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the event spanning July 1989-July 1993. Of the three cold events, two lasted for four years, while the third lasted for nearly 14 years. Two of the three cold events are associated with reduced salinities, but the cold event of the 1960s had elevated salinities. The relationship of these events to meteorological conditions is examined. The results show that local surface heat flux variations act in some cases to reinforce the anomalies, but are too weak to be the sole cause.

  11. Temporal distribution of bacterial community structure in the Changjiang Estuary hypoxia area and the adjacent East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Min; Xiao, Tian; Wu, Ying; Zhou, Feng; Huang, Huiqin; Bao, Shixiang; Zhang, Wuchang

    2012-06-01

    Bacterial community structure and the effects of environmental factors on the microbial community distribution were investigated in the Changjiang Estuary hypoxia area and its adjacent area in the East China Sea (ECS) in June, August and October, 2006. Profiles of bacterial communities were generated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes followed by DNA sequence analysis. The dominant bacterial groups were affiliated to Gammaproteobacteria, Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides (CFB), Deltaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes, which were mostly from the marine seawater ecosystem. Effects of environmental factors on the bacterial community distribution were analyzed by the ordination technique of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The environmental factors significantly influencing bacterial community structure were different in the three months; dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and temperature in June and nitrite in August. No environmental variables displayed significant influence on the bacterial community at the 5% level in October. The seasonal environmental heterogeneity in the Changjiang Estuary and the adjacent ECS, such as seasonal hydrodynamic conditions and riverine input of nutrients, might be the reason for the difference in the key environmental factors determining the bacterial community in the three months.

  12. Climate change and adaptational impacts in coastal systems: the case of sea defences.

    PubMed

    Firth, Louise B; Mieszkowska, Nova; Thompson, Richard C; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2013-09-01

    We briefly review how coastal ecosystems are responding to and being impacted by climate change, one of the greatest challenges facing society today. In adapting to rising and stormier seas associated with climate change, coastal defence structures are proliferating and becoming dominant coastal features, particularly in urbanised areas. Whilst the primary function of these structures is to protect coastal property and infrastructure, they inevitably have a significant secondary impact on the local environment and ecosystems. In this review we outline some of the negative and positive effects of these structures on physical processes, impacts on marine species, and the novel engineering approaches that have been employed to improve the ecological value of these structures in recent years. Finally we outline guidelines for an environmentally sensitive approach to design of such structures in the marine environment. PMID:23900344

  13. Coastal Sensitivity to Sea Level: Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to coastal sensitivity to sea level includes: • A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the U.S. East Coast (1992) • A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the U.S. Gulf Coast (1993) • A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the U.S. West Coast (1997)

  14. Top 10 principles for designing healthy coastal ecosystems like the Salish Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaydos, Joseph K.; Dierauf, Leslie; Kirby, Grant; Brosnan, Deborah; Gilardi, Kirsten; Davis, Gary E.

    2008-01-01

    Like other coastal zones around the world, the inland sea ecosystem of Washington (USA) and British Columbia (Canada), an area known as the Salish Sea, is changing under pressure from a growing human population, conversion of native forest and shoreline habitat to urban development, toxic contamination of sediments and species, and overharvest of resources. While billions of dollars have been spent trying to restore other coastal ecosystems around the world, there still is no successful model for restoring estuarine or marine ecosystems like the Salish Sea. Despite the lack of a guiding model, major ecological principles do exist that should be applied as people work to design the Salish Sea and other large marine ecosystems for the future. We suggest that the following 10 ecological principles serve as a foundation for educating the public and for designing a healthy Salish Sea and other coastal ecosystems for future generations: (1) Think ecosystem: political boundaries are arbitrary; (2) Account for ecosystem connectivity; (3) Understand the food web; (4) Avoid fragmentation; (5) Respect ecosystem integrity; (6) Support nature's resilience; (7) Value nature: it's money in your pocket; (8) Watch wildlife health; (9) Plan for extremes; and (10) Share the knowledge.

  15. Regional long-term model of radioactivity dispersion and fate in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: application to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident.

    PubMed

    Maderich, V; Bezhenar, R; Heling, R; de With, G; Jung, K T; Myoung, J G; Cho, Y-K; Qiao, F; Robertson, L

    2014-05-01

    The compartment model POSEIDON-R was modified and applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of radioactivity in the period 1945-2010, and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of radioactivity due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident for the period 2011-2040. The model predicts the dispersion of radioactivity in the water column and in sediments, the transfer of radionuclides throughout the marine food web, and subsequent doses to humans due to the consumption of marine products. A generic predictive dynamic food-chain model is used instead of the biological concentration factor (BCF) approach. The radionuclide uptake model for fish has as a central feature the accumulation of radionuclides in the target tissue. The three layer structure of the water column makes it possible to describe the vertical structure of radioactivity in deep waters. In total 175 compartments cover the Northwestern Pacific, the East China and Yellow Seas and the East/Japan Sea. The model was validated from (137)Cs data for the period 1945-2010. Calculated concentrations of (137)Cs in water, bottom sediments and marine organisms in the coastal compartment, before and after the accident, are in close agreement with measurements from the Japanese agencies. The agreement for water is achieved when an additional continuous flux of 3.6 TBq y(-1) is used for underground leakage of contaminated water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, during the three years following the accident. The dynamic food web model predicts that due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web, the concentration of (137)Cs for piscivorous fishes returns to background level only in 2016. For the year 2011, the calculated individual dose rate for Fukushima Prefecture due to consumption of fishery products is 3.6 μSv y(-1). Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident the collective dose due to ingestion of marine products for Japan increased in 2011 by a

  16. Reconstruction of Redox Conditions and Productivity in Coastal Waters of the Bothnian Sea during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, N.; Quintana Krupinski, N. B.; Slomp, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Hypoxia is a growing problem in coastal waters worldwide, and is a well-known cause of benthic mortality. The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea is currently the world's largest human-induced dead zone. During the early Holocene, it experienced several periods of natural hypoxia following the intrusion of seawater into the previous freshwater lake. Recent studies suggest that at that time, the hypoxia expanded north to include the deep basin of the Bothnian Sea. In this study, we assess whether the coastal zone of the Bothnian Sea was also hypoxic during the early Holocene. We analysed a unique sediment record (0 - 30 mbsf) from the Ångermanälven estuary, which was retrieved during the International Ocean Discovery Programme (IODP) Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 in 2013. Using geochemical proxies and foraminifera abundances, we reconstruct the changes in redox conditions, salinity and productivity in the estuary. Our preliminary results suggest that bottom waters in this coastal basin became anoxic upon the intrusion of brackish seawater in the early Holocene and that the productivity was elevated. The presence of benthic foraminifera in this estuary during the mid-Holocene suggests more saline conditions in the Bothnian Sea than today. Due to isostatic uplift, the estuary likely gradually became more isolated from the Bothnian Sea, which itself became more isolated from the Baltic Sea. Both factors likely explain the subsequent re-oxygenation of bottom waters and gradual refreshening of the estuary as recorded in the sediments. Interestingly, the upper meters of sediment are enriched in minerals that contain iron, phosphorus and manganese. We postulate that the refreshening of the estuary triggered the formation of these minerals, thereby increasing the phosphorus retention in these sediments and further reducing primary productivity. This enhanced retention linked to refreshening may contribute to the current oligotrophic conditions in the Bothnian Sea.

  17. Flux and budget of BC in the continental shelf seas adjacent to Chinese high BC emission source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yin; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Lin, Tian; Hu, Limin; Huang, Guopei; Tang, Jianhui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2015-07-01

    This study conducted the first comprehensive investigation of sedimentary black carbon (BC) concentration, flux, and budget in the continental shelves of "Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS)," based on measurements of BC in 191 surface sediments, 36 riverine water, and 2 seawater samples, as well as the reported data set of the atmospheric samples from seven coastal cities in the Bohai Rim. BC concentrations in these matrices were measured using the method of thermal/optical reflectance. The spatial distribution of the BC concentration in surface sediments was largely influenced by the regional hydrodynamic conditions, with high values mainly occurring in the central mud areas where fine-grained particles (median diameters > 6 Φ (i.e., <0.0156 mm)) were deposited. The BC burial flux in the BS and YS ranged from 4 to 1100 µg/cm2 yr, and averaged 166 ± 200 µg/cm2 yr, which was within the range of burial fluxes reported in other continental shelf regimes. The area-integrated sedimentary BC sink flux in the entire BS and YS was ~325 Gg/yr, and the BS alone contributed ~50% (~157 Gg/yr). The BC budget calculated in the BS showed that atmospheric deposition, riverine discharge, and import from the Northern Yellow Sea (NYS) each contributed ~51%, ~47%, and ~2%. Therefore, atmospheric deposition and riverine discharge dominated the total BC influx (~98%). Sequestration to bottom sediments was the major BC output pattern, accounting for ~88% of the input BC. Water exchange between the BS and the NYS was also an important BC transport route, with net BC transport from the BS to the NYS.

  18. Sea-level rise risks to coastal cities: what are the limits to adaptation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Reeder, T.; Brown, S.; Haigh, I. D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the consequence of sea-level rise for coastal cities has long lead times and huge political implications. Civilisation has emerged and developed during a period of several thousand years during which in geological terms sea level has been unusually stable. We have now moved out of this period raising important challenges for the future. In 2005 there were 136 coastal cities with a population exceeding one million people and a collective population of 400 million people. All these cities are threatened by flooding from the sea to varying degrees and these risks are increasing due to growing exposure (people and assets), rising sea levels due to climate change, and in some cities, significant coastal subsidence due to human agency (drainage and groundwater withdrawals from susceptible soils). City abandonment due to sea-level rise is widely discussed in the media, but most of the discussion is speculative. The limits to adaptation and abandonment of cities are not predictable in a formal sense - while the rise in mean sea level raises the likelihood of a catastrophic flood, extreme events are what cause damage and trigger a response, be it abandonment or a defence upgrade. Several types of potential adaptation limits can be recognised: (1) physical/engineering limits; (2) economic/financial limits; and (3) socio-political limits. The latter two types of limits are much less understood, and yet issues such as loss of confidence rather than a simple engineering failure may be instrumental in the future of a coastal city. There are few studies which quantify the sea-level rise threshold at which cities will be challenged, especially for large rises exceeding a metre or more. Exceptions include London and the Thames Estuary and the Amsterdam and Rotterdam (the Netherlands) where adaptation to a rise of sea level of up to 4 m or more appears feasible. This lack of knowledge on sea-level rise thresholds for coastal cities is of concern, and similar

  19. Seismic anisotropy and subduction-induced mantle fabrics beneath the Arabian and Nubian Plates adjacent to the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed A.; Gao, Stephen S.; Liu, Kelly H.; Mohamed, Abdelnasser A.; Yu, Youqiang; Fat-Helbary, Raafat E.

    2014-04-01

    For most continental areas, the mechanisms leading to mantle fabrics responsible for the observed anisotropy remain ambiguous, partially due to the lack of sufficient spatial coverage of reliable seismological observations. Here we report the first joint analysis of shear-wave splitting measurements obtained at stations on the Arabian and Nubian Plates adjacent to the Red Sea. More than 1100 pairs of high-quality splitting parameters show dominantly N-S fast orientations at all 47 stations and larger-than-normal splitting times beneath the Afro-Arabian Dome (AAD). The uniformly N-S fast orientations and large splitting times up to 1.5 s are inconsistent with significant contributions from the lithosphere, which is about 50-80 km thick beneath the AAD and even thinner beneath the Red Sea. The results can best be explained by simple shear between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere associated with northward subduction of the African/Arabian Plates over the past 150 Ma.

  20. Alongshore wind forcing of coastal sea level as a function of frequency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, H.F.; Noble, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The amplitude of the frequency response function between coastal alongshore wind stress and adjusted sea level anomalies along the west coast of the United States increases linearly as a function of the logarithm (log10) of the period for time scales up to at least 60, and possibly 100, days. The amplitude of the frequency response function increases even more rapidly at longer periods out to at least 5 yr. At the shortest periods, the amplitude of the frequency response function is small because sea level is forced only by the local component of the wind field. The regional wind field, which controls the wind-forced response in sea level for periods between 20 and 100 days, not only has much broader spatial scales than the local wind, but also propagates along the coast in the same direction as continental shelf waves. Hence, it has a stronger coupling to and an increased frequency response for sea level. At periods of a year or more, observed coastal sea level fluctuations are not only forced by the regional winds, but also by joint correlations among the larger-scale climatic patterns associated with El Nin??o. Therefore, the amplitude of the frequency response function is large, despite the fact that the energy in the coastal wind field is relatively small. These data show that the coastal sea level response to wind stress forcing along the west coast of the United States changes in a consistent and predictable pattern over a very broad range of frequencies with time scales from a few days to several years.

  1. Development of an operational coastal model of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kei; Yamanaka, Goro; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Hideyuki; Urakawa, Shogo; Usui, Norihisa; Hirabara, Mikitoshi; Ogawa, Koji

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a coastal model of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, for a monitoring and forecasting system operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). We executed a hindcast experiment using reanalysis datasets for the atmospheric and lateral boundaries without ocean initialization by data assimilation. The seasonal variability is verified to be realistic by comparing sea surface temperature and salinity of the hindcast experiment with observations. With a horizontal resolution of approximately 2 km, the model represents explicitly various coastal phenomena with a scale of 10-100 km, such as the Kuroshio water intrusion into Japanese coasts. This leads to good representation of intramonthly variations. For example, intensity of the sea level undulations with a period shorter than 23 days shows 1.6-fold improvement, as compared to the present model of JMA with the horizontal resolution of approximately 10 km. In addition to the increased resolution, the model is optimized for coastal modeling as follows. Incorporation of a tidal mixing parameterization reduces a high temperature bias in the Bungo Channel (a western channel of the Seto Inland Sea) and contributes to formation of a frontal structure. An accurate dataset of the river discharges is used for runoff, which has a strong impact on salinity. Enhancement of coastal friction improves surface currents. Owing to the increased resolution and these optimizations, the model shows realistic variability in a wide temporal range from several days to seasons. Root-mean-square errors of sea surface temperature and heights are evaluated as 1-2 K and 7-10 cm, respectively, without data assimilation. In the eastern part, however, the predictability is relatively low, which might be related to representation of an eastward mean flow in the Seto Inland Sea.

  2. Coastal erosion impacts under climate change scenarios at the regional scale in the North Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critto, A.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Rizzi, J.; Zabeo, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Marcomini, A.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate change is likely to pose additional pressures on coastal ecosystems by accelerating sea level rise, storms, flooding and erosion. Specifically, coastal erosion is an issue of major concern for estuarine and deltaic coastal areas and ecosystems and it is expected to increase in size and magnitude due to climate change forcing. Accordingly, the use of climate change scenarios in the assessment of coastal erosion risks could improve the development of sustainable adaptation strategies. In order to analyze the potential consequences of climate change on coastal erosion processes and evaluate the related impacts on coastal receptors (i.e. beaches, river mouths, wetlands and protected areas), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to the North Adriatic coast (Italy). Climate induced hazards were analyzed by means of regional hydrodynamic models that provide information about the main coastal erosion stressors (i.e. increases in mean sea-level, changes in wave height and variations in the extent of sediments deposition at the sea bottom) under climate change scenarios (i.e. regional climate projections). Site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators (e.g. vegetation cover, geomorphology, sediment budget, protection level, population density and wetland extension) and hazard metrics were aggregated in the RRA methodology in order to develop exposure, susceptibility, risk and damage maps that identify and prioritize hot-spot areas and vulnerable targets at the regional scale. Future seasonal exposure maps of coastal erosion at the regional scale depict a worse situation in winter and autumn for the future period 2070-2100 and highlight hot-spot exposure areas surrounding the Po River Delta. Moreover, risk maps highlighted that the receptors (i.e. exposure units) at higher risk to coastal erosion are beaches, wetlands and river mouths with relevant percentages of the territory characterized by higher risk scores

  3. Denitrification in restored and constructed wetlands adjacent to crop fields on the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fertilizer applications on crop fields are a significant source of nitrate (NO3), and groundwater concentrations are frequently 500-1000 µM. We show that groundwater transport of agricultural NO3 results in significant denitrification in adjacent wetlands in the Choptank Basin on the Delmarva Penins...

  4. Topographic controls on bioproductivity and organic carbon deposition, Oman Arabian Sea coastal upwelling region

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, J.C.; Hay, W.W.

    1989-03-01

    Ocean boundary currents impinging on swallow shelves and coastal capes may undergo oceanward divergence driven by the conservation of potential vorticity. This process may result in local upwelling, enhanced primary productivity, and increased organic richness in sediments. Combined with reconstructions of past coastline configurations and models of paleo-ocean circulation, the recognition of this process should enable the hindcasting of more specific sites of organic carbon enrichment than has previously been possible. Preliminary investigations of ocean circulation along the southeastern coast of Arabia during recent southwest monsoon seasons suggest that continental shelf topography and coastal promontories act to focus upwelling. Thermal infrared NOAA advanced very high resolution radiometer images acquired during the 1981, 1982, 1983, and 1985 southwest monsoon seasons depict localized regions of depressed sea surface temperature near a major shelf break and coastal capes. These regions of cooler surface water may result from topographically focused upwelling plumes. Present work includes the development of a numerical ocean model to predict the effect of topography on the southwest monsoon current as it encounters the Omani coast. Thermal infrared and visible band satellite remote sensing is being integrated with in-situ vertical temperature profiles and sea surface temperature observations in order to assess horizontal and vertical water motion and surface layer bioproductivity during the monsoonal upwelling season. The effects of topographically focused coastal upwelling on organic carbon deposition are being assessed by the mapping of the total organic carbon content of surface sea-floor sediments.

  5. Northwestern Black Sea coastal zone environmental changes detection by satellite remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.

    2004-02-01

    The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, climatic change effects. A multitemporal data set consisting of LANDSAT MSS, TM and SAR ERS-1 images was used for comparing and mapping landcover change via change detection. Synergetic use of quasi-simultaneously acquired multi-sensor data may therefore allow for a better approach of change detection of coastal area. The main aim of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive analysis based on existing historical and more recent in situ and remote sensing data to establish the link between phytoplankton bloom development, increasing erosion and diminishing of beaches and related coastal zone harmful phenomena.

  6. Coastal flooding by tropical cyclones and sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Jonathan D; Irish, Jennifer L; Camargo, Suzana J

    2013-12-01

    The future impacts of climate change on landfalling tropical cyclones are unclear. Regardless of this uncertainty, flooding by tropical cyclones will increase as a result of accelerated sea-level rise. Under similar rates of rapid sea-level rise during the early Holocene epoch most low-lying sedimentary coastlines were generally much less resilient to storm impacts. Society must learn to live with a rapidly evolving shoreline that is increasingly prone to flooding from tropical cyclones. These impacts can be mitigated partly with adaptive strategies, which include careful stewardship of sediments and reductions in human-induced land subsidence. PMID:24305147

  7. On the significance of incorporating shoreline changes for evaluating coastal hydrodynamics under sea level rise scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passeri, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) threatens coastal environments with loss of land, inundation of coastal wetlands, and increased flooding during extreme storm events. Research has shown that SLR is a major factor in the long-term, gradual retreat of shorelines (Fitzgerald et al., 2008). Along sandy shorelines, retreat has a more dynamic effect than just inundation due to rising water levels, including the physical process of erosion in which sand is removed from the shoreface and deposited offshore. This has the potential to affect ecological habitats as well as coastal communities. Although SLR induces seaward retreat of shorelines, many shorelines especially within the vicinity of inlets may experience accretion due to sediment trapping or beach replenishment (Aubrey and Giese, 1993, Browder and R.G., 1999). This study examines the influence of including projected shoreline changes under future sea states into hydrodynamic modeling within the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). The NGOM coastline is an economically and ecologically significant area, comprised of various bays, barrier islands and mainland beaches. Projected shorelines and nearshore morphology for the year 2050 are derived from the Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) shoreline change rates (Thieler and Hammer-Klose, 1999) and used in conjunction with the 'Bruun Rule effect'(Bruun, 1962). A large scale hydrodynamic model forced by astronomic tides and hurricane winds and pressures is used to simulate present conditions, a high projection of the 2050 sea state (18 in of SLR in accordance with Parris et al. (2012)) and the 2050 high sea state with 2050 shorelines to test the sensitivity of the system to the projected shoreline changes. Results show that shoreline changes coupled with sea level rise increases tidal inundation along shorelines, amplifies overtopping of barrier islands during storm surge events, and heightens inland storm surge inundation. It is critical to include estimates of shoreline and barrier

  8. The main characteristics, problems, and prospects for Western European coastal seas.

    PubMed

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Located to the far West of Western Europe, France has a western maritime coastal zone of more than 3800 km, which is widely influenced by the North-eastern Atlantic. The English Channel, an epi-continental shallow sea with very strong tides, runs along 650 km of the French coast and 1100 km of the English coast. It is also a bio-geographical crossroad encompassing a much wider range of ecological conditions than other European seas. France's Atlantic coast north of the Gironde estuary is a succession of rocky and sandy shorelines, including a sizeable intertidal zone, a wide continental shelf, and two major estuaries (Loire and Gironde). South of the Gironde, the 260 km of coastline is low, sandy and straight, with a narrowing continental shelf further on South due to the presence of the Cape Breton canyon in the bathyal and abyssal zones. Interface between the continental and oceanic systems, these bordering seas--North Sea, English Channel and Atlantic Ocean--have been the subject of many recent research programmes (the European Mast-FLUXMANCHE and INTERREG programmes; the national coastal environment programme and the LITEAU programme in France), designed to improve comprehension of the functions, production, and dynamics of these seas as well as their future evolution. Given the many conflicting practices in these littoral zones, integrated coastal zone management appears to be essential in order to cope with both natural phenomena, such as the infilling of estuarine zones, cliff erosion, and rising sea levels, and chronic anthropogenic pressures, such as new harbour installations (container dikes, marinas), sea aggregate extraction for human constructions, and offshore wind mill farms. This article provides as complete an overview as possible of the research projects on these bordering seas, both those that have recently been accomplished and those that are currently in progress, in order to highlight the main characteristics of these ecosystems and to

  9. Understanding salinisation processes for a restored coastal wetland at the Baltic Sea in Germany using Generalised Additive Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selle, Benny; Gräff, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    This contribution reports on the analysis of monitoring data for a 490 ha coastal wetland called Hütelmoor at the Baltic Sea in Germany. Protection measures against sand erosion on the adjacent coastline began in 1963 and stopped seawater intrusions. The wetland was intensively drained and agriculturally used from 1970 until 1989. During the last 25 years, a realignment scheme was implemented which included the termination of beach and dune nourishment, drainage measures as well as agricultural activity. From 2011, water levels and the electrical conductivity were measured for several monitoring wells in the area to better understand the re-salinisation and re-wetting processes including its implications for the development of habitat for flora and fauna. Time series of electrical conductivity were analysed using Generalised Additive Models with additional data on the hydraulic gradient between the water levels in the observation wells and the Baltic sea, rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Using this analysis, we were able to separate out different processes governing groundwater salinity for the Hütelmoor including dilution from groundwater recharge and seawater intrusion.

  10. Quaternary climates and sea levels of the u.s. Atlantic coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Cronin, T M; Szabo, B J; Ager, T A; Hazel, J E; Owens, J P

    1981-01-16

    Uranium-series dating of corals from marine deposits of the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain coupled with paleoclimatic reconstructions based on ostracode (marine) and pollen (continent) data document at least five relatively warm intervals during the last 500,000 years. On the basis of multiple paleoenvironmental criteria, we determined relative sea level positions during the warm intervals, relative to present mean sea level, were 7 +/- 5 meters at 188,000 years ago, 7.5 +/- 1.5 meters at 120,000 years ago, 6.5 +/- 3.5 meters at 94,000 years ago, and 7 +/- 3 meters at 72,000 years ago. The composite sea level chronology for the Atlantic Coastal Plain is inconsistent with independent estimates of eustatic sea level positions during interglacial intervals of the last 200,000 years. Hydroisostatic adjustment from glacial-interglacial sea level fluctuations, lithospheric flexure, and isostatic uplift from sediment unloading due to erosion provide possible mechanisms to account for the discrepancies. Alternatively, current eustatic sea level estimates for the middle and late Quaternary may require revision. PMID:17748008

  11. Quaternary climates and sea levels of the U.S. atlantic coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Szabo, B. J.; Ager, T.A.; Hazel, J.E.; Owens, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium-series dating of corals from marine deposits of the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain coupled with paleodimatic reconstructions based on ostracode (marine) and pollen (continent) data document at least five relatively warm intervals during the last 500,000 years. On the basis of multiple paleoenvironmental criteria, we determined relative sea level positions during the warm intervals, relative to present mean sea level, were 7 ?? 5 meters at 188,000 years ago, 7.5 ??1.5 meters at 120,000 years ago, 6.5 ?? 3.5 meters at 94,000 years ago, and 7 ?? 3 meters at 72,000 years ago. The composite sea level chronology for the Atlantic Coastal Plain is inconsistent with independent estimates of eustatic sea level positions during interglacial intervals of the last 200,000 years. Hydroisostatic adjustment from glacial-interglacial sea level fluctuations, lithospheric flexure, and isostatic uplift from sediment unloading due to erosion provide possible mechanisms to account for the discrepancies. Alternatively, current eustatic sea level estimates for the middle and late Quaternary may require revision.

  12. Coastal sea level measurements using a single geodetic GPS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Löfgren, Johan S.; Haas, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a method to derive local sea level variations using data from a single geodetic-quality Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver using GPS (Global Positioning System) signals. This method is based on multipath theory for specular reflections and the use of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) data. The technique could be valuable for altimeter calibration and validation. Data from two test sites, a dedicated GPS tide gauge at the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) in Sweden and the Friday Harbor GPS site of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) in USA, are analyzed. The sea level results are compared to independently observed sea level data from nearby and in situ tide gauges. For OSO, the Root-Mean-Square (RMS) agreement is better than 5 cm, while it is in the order of 10 cm for Friday Harbor. The correlation coefficients are better than 0.97 for both sites. For OSO, the SNR-based results are also compared with results from a geodetic analysis of GPS data of a two receivers/antennae tide gauge installation. The SNR-based analysis results in a slightly worse RMS agreement with respect to the independent tide gauge data than the geodetic analysis (4.8 cm and 4.0 cm, respectively). However, it provides results even for rough sea surface conditions when the two receivers/antennae installation no longer records the necessary data for a geodetic analysis.

  13. Unstructured-grid coastal ocean modelling in Southern Adriatic and Northern Ionian Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Ivan; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Oddo, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian coastal Forecasting System (SANIFS) is a short-term forecasting system based on unstructured grid approach. The model component is built on SHYFEM finite element three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The operational chain exploits a downscaling approach starting from the Mediterranean oceanographic-scale model MFS (Mediterranean Forecasting System, operated by INGV). The implementation set-up has been designed to provide accurate hydrodynamics and active tracer processes in the coastal waters of Southern Eastern Italy (Apulia, Basilicata and Calabria regions), where the model is characterized by a variable resolution in range of 50-500 m. The horizontal resolution is also high in open-sea areas, where the elements size is approximately 3 km. The model is forced: (i) at the lateral open boundaries through a full nesting strategy directly with the MFS (temperature, salinity, non-tidal sea surface height and currents) and OTPS (tidal forcing) fields; (ii) at surface through two alternative atmospheric forcing datasets (ECMWF and COSMOME) via MFS-bulk-formulae. Given that the coastal fields are driven by a combination of both local/coastal and deep ocean forcings propagating along the shelf, the performance of SANIFS was verified first (i) at the large and shelf-coastal scales by comparing with a large scale CTD survey and then (ii) at the coastal-harbour scale by comparison with CTD, ADCP and tide gauge data. Sensitivity tests were performed on initialization conditions (mainly focused on spin-up procedures) and on surface boundary conditions by assessing the reliability of two alternative datasets at different horizontal resolution (12.5 and 7 km). The present work highlights how downscaling could improve the simulation of the flow field going from typical open-ocean scales of the order of several km to the coastal (and harbour) scales of tens to hundreds of meters.

  14. Coastal and mesoscale dynamics characterization combining glider and altimetry: case study over the Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerome, Bouffard; Pascual, Ananda; Ruiz, Simon; Isabelle Pujol, Marie; Faugere, Yannice; Larnicol, Gilles; Tintore, Joaquin

    Satellite altimetry allows a direct computation of geostrophic velocity anomalies. However, conventional altimetry measurements remain largely spurious in coastal zone, due to several factors such as inaccurate geophysical corrections (e.g. atmospheric and tidal signals) as well as environmental issues (land contamination in the altimetric and radiometric footprints). At the present time and in the attempt of future relevant technologies (cf. SWOT satellite), experimen-tal coastal altimeter products are under development (XTRACK, PISTACH, COASTALT. . . ). The main efforts consist in the application of coastal-oriented corrections and the review of the data recovery strategies near the coast. The new coastal altimetric products need to be assessed with independent data before to be used in synergy with other measurements and fully exploited for scientific applications. This is the frame of this study as part of an intensive observational program conducted in the Western Mediterranean Sea. We present here the main outcomes resulting from the combination of coastal altimetry and gliders. Gliders -autonomous underwater vehicles -allow to provide precise and high resolution data complementary to altimetry (temperature, salinity, pressure, velocity. . . ) both at surface and over the whole water column. Since July 2007, several glider missions have been performed along Jason-1, Jason-2 and ENVISAT altimeters. The altimetric sea level anomalies have been processed from both standard and coastal-oriented strategies. Furthermore, new methodologies have also been developed in order to combine surface glider geostrophic velocities (derived from CTD measurements) with integrated currents estimated by the glider (derived from GPS locations every 6 hours). These approaches prove to be very efficient to improve the budget errors and homogenize the physical contents of altimetry and glider data. Further, the combined analysis of the two datasets provides interesting insights of

  15. Assessment of Eutrophication Quality in Greek Coastal Ecosystem (Eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, Alexandra; Rousselaki, Eleni; Assimakopoulou, Georgia; Tsapakis, Manolis; Simboura, Nomiki

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has always been considered as one of the most oligotrophic areas in the world, especially in the Eastern part of the Sea. However, eutrophication problems occur in some coastal areas of the Mediterranean (e.g. eastern coasts of Spain, Gulf of Lions, northern Adriatic Sea, Apulian coasts, Saronikos Gulf, Thessaloniki Bay, northern coasts of Greece, etc.). This work is focused on the assessment of the Eutrophication Quality in different coastal areas of Greece affected by various anthropogenic and natural pressures and was performed under the Water Framework Directive. A network of 28 sampling stations was used during two relevant sampling periods, April - May 2012 and March - April 2013, in the framework of the National Monitoring Project of Greece. The Eutrophication assessment method integrates chemical and biological parameters of the water column. A synthetic Eutrophication Index (E.I.) was produced for the greek coastal areas by Primpas et al. quality classification scheme, combining the concentrations of nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia) and chlorophyll-α biomass into a single formula. The E.I. assesses the eutrophication status using a five scale scheme according to the requirements of WFD: (High) less than 0.04; (Good) 0.04-0.38; (moderate) 0.38-0.85; (poor) 0.85-1.51; (bad) >1.51. Nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentrations revealed significant spatial variation among the various coastal areas of Greece influenced by different point and/or diffuse anthropogenic pressures (related to nutrient enrichment), reflecting the level of human-induced impairment where an increase in nutrient loads leads to increased water quality problems. The assessment of E.I showed that during 2012, 32% of the selected coastal areas were characterized as Good, 54% as Moderate and 14% of the selected greek coastal areas were characterized as Poor. During 2012, none of the study areas corresponded to High or Bad eutrophication status. During 2013

  16. Constraining coastal change: A morpho-sedimentological concept to infer sea-level oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauz, Barbara; Shen, Zhixiong

    2016-04-01

    One of the responders to Milankovitch-scale climate changes is sea level which, in turn, is a driver of coastal change. In literature, the sedimentary sequences representing the coastal change are often linked to high sea-level stands, to intermediate sea-level positions or to regressive shorelines. We note apparent contradictions that indicate a lack of concept and inconsistent usage of sea level-related terms. To overcome this, we combine an integrated morpho-sedimentological concept for microtidal, mid-latitudinal coasts with chronologies based on Bayesian statistics. The concept regards the coastal sedimentary system as a depositional complex consisting of shallow-marine, aeolian and alluvial facies. These facies are in juxtaposition and respond simultaneously to external forcing. Bayesian statistics constrains the timing of the sequence based on optical or radiocarbon ages. Here, we present the site Hergla located on the North African coast of the central Mediterranean Sea as a case study to illustrate how the approach helps eliminating contradictions. The site has been cited frequently for confirming the hypothesis of a global two peak sea-level highstand during the last interglacial (MIS 5e). The ~2 km cliff exposure at Hergla was surveyed, mapped, logged and sampled for further describing the sediments and their depositional environment through thin section and Bayesian modelling of optical ages. Using our concept based on sequence stratigraphy tools, the section is interpreted as representing a coastal barrier with two bounding surfaces in the succession. Both surfaces mark the falling sea level of, first, MIS 5e and, second, MIS 5a and hence bound the falling stage system tract of a forced regression. Part of the deposits between the two surfaces are pulled up onto the shoulder of a small rising horst and the associated tectonic event coincided with the MIS 5a sea-level rise enhancing locally the accommodation space for a second foreshore environment. Our

  17. Measures for environmental conservation in enclosed coastal seas.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Akio; Nakura, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Takuya

    2016-01-30

    With putting a focus on the balance among the nutrient salts such as nitrogen and phosphorus, the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) developed the Action Plan for Healthy Material Circulation in Ocean (just called the Healthy Plan). The plan aims to facilitate the healthy and smooth circulation of the nutrients with an integrated management over land and sea as a package in respective sea areas. The Healthy Plan is now in a pilot phase and is to be implemented for some selected model regions. Meanwhile, devastating tsunamis caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11th, 2011 severely damaged the natural environments in the affected regions. In the affected bays, seaweed beds and spawning grounds disappeared in a blink. MOE has launched on the recovery activities of Zostera (eelgrass) beds, using the concepts and the methods used in the "Sato-umi Creation" activity which is a purposeful environmental recovery project. PMID:26969298

  18. Rising Seas: Threat to Coastal Areas, A General Study about the Sea Level Rises on Coastal Areas of Earth, its Consequences and Preventive Measures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, A.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific research indicates that sea levels worldwide have been rising at a rate of 3 millimeters per year since the early 1990s (IPCC), which is much higher than the previous century. The recent measurements (march 2015; NASA) tells us that the present rise of sea level is 64.4 mm. Most recent satellite measurements and tide gauge readings (NASA) tell us that present rate sea level rise is 3.20 mm per year. A recent study says we can expect the oceans to rise between 2.5 and 6.5 feet (0.8 and 2 meters) by 2100. The two main causes of rising seas are thermal expansion and glacier melting which further corresponds to the root cause of sea level rise: Green House effect. For every degree Celsius that global average temperature rises, we can expect 2.3 meters of sea-level rise sometime over the ensuing 2,000 years. The main consequence of Sea level rise is increase in oceanic acidity as it releases the entrapped carbon dioxide in between the glaciers. The problem goes from bad to worse when we take into consideration that one third of the world population lives in a 60 km range from the coast. In the event of a flood, this massive population would have to move away from the coasts. The main objective of research is to find all the most vulnerable areas, to make people aware about the consequences and to take proper measurements to fight with such natural calamities. The rise in sea level would inevitably cause massive migration like never seen before. Over 25% of the world population could disappear if sea levels continues to rise with same or faster rate as present. The oceans, sea life and life of people at coastal areas will get extremely effected unless there are considerable cuts in the carbon dioxide emissions. What we need to do is just to apply all the methods and measurements in our daily life that can help reduce the green house gases emissions. Also we need to plan that how to prevent all these cities in case of such natural hazards.

  19. Sea-breeze front effects on boundary-layer aerosols at a tropical coastal station

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, K.K.; Murthy, B.V.K.; Nair, P.R. )

    1993-07-01

    The effects of sea breeze on optical depth, size distribution, and columnar loading of aerosols at the tropical coastal station of Trivandrum are studied. It has been observed that sea-breeze front activity results in a significant and short-lived enhancement in aerosol optical depth and columnar loading in contrast to the effects seen on normal sea-breeze days. Examination of the changes in columnar aerosol size distribution associated with sea-breeze activity revealed an enhancement of small-particle (size less than 0.28 [mu]m) concentration. The aerosol size distribution deduced from optical depth measurements generally show a pronounced bimodal structure associated with the frontal activity. 22 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Dynamics of sea level rise and coastal flooding on a changing landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Passeri, D. L.

    2014-02-01

    Standard approaches to determining the impacts of sea level rise (SLR) on storm surge flooding employ numerical models reflecting present conditions with modified sea states for a given SLR scenario. In this study, we advance this paradigm by adjusting the model framework so that it reflects not only a change in sea state but also variations to the landscape (morphologic changes and urbanization of coastal cities). We utilize a numerical model of the Mississippi and Alabama coast to simulate the response of hurricane storm surge to changes in sea level, land use/land cover, and land surface elevation for past (1960), present (2005), and future (2050) conditions. The results show that the storm surge response to SLR is dynamic and sensitive to changes in the landscape. We introduce a new modeling framework that includes modification of the landscape when producing storm surge models for future conditions.

  1. Magmatic history of Red Sea rifting: perspective from the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An early stage of magmatism related to Red Sea rifting is recorded by a Tertiary dyke complex and comagmatic volcanic rocks exposed on the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain. Field relations and new K/Ar dates indicate episodic magmatism from approx 30 m.y. to the present day and rift-related magmatism as early as 50 m.y. Localized volcanism and sheeted dyke injection ceased at approx 20 m.y. and were replaced by the intrusion of thick gabbro dykes, marking the onset of sea-floor spreading in the central Red Sea. Differences in the depths and dynamics of mantle-melt extraction and transport may account for the transition from mixed alkaline-subalkaline bimodal magmatism of the pre-20 m.y. rift basin to exclusively subalkaline (tholeiitic) magmatism of the Red Sea spreading axis and the alkali basalt volcanism inland.-L.C.H.

  2. Modeling landscape dynamics and effects of sea-level rise on coastal wetlands of northwest Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, T.W.; Day, R.H.; Biagas, J.M.

    1997-06-01

    A research study to examine the ability to predict changes in coastal vegetation caused by sea level rise is very briefly summarized. A field survey was carried out on the northwest coast of Florida. A predictive elevation model was then generated from digitized US Geologic Survey 1:2400 hypsographic data using surface modeling techniques. Sea-level rise model simulations were generated to predict a likelihood index of habitat change and conversions under different scenarios. Maps were produced depicting location of the coastline and inland extent of salt marsh using a range of sea level rise rates through the year 2100. This modeling approach offers a technological tool to researchers and wetland managers for effective cumulative impact analysis of wetlands affected by sea-level rise.

  3. Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations and human evolution on the southern coastal plain of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, John S.

    2011-03-01

    Humans evolved in Africa, but where and how remain unclear. Here it is proposed that the southern coastal plain (SCP) of South Africa may have served as a geographical point of origin through periodic expansion and contraction (isolation) in response to glacial/interglacial changes in sea level and climate. During Pleistocene interglacial highstands when sea level was above -75 m human populations were isolated for periods of 360-3400 25-yr generations on the SCP by the rugged mountains of the Cape Fold Belt, climate and vegetation barriers. The SCP expands five-fold as sea level falls from -75 to -120 m during glacial maxima to form a continuous, unobstructed coastal plain accessible to the interior. An expanded and wet glacial SCP may have served as a refuge to humans and large migratory herds and resulted in the mixing of previously isolated groups. The expansive glacial SCP habitat abruptly contracts, by as much as one-third in 300 yr, during the rapid rise in sea level associated with glacial terminations. Rapid flooding may have increased population density and competition on the SCP to select for humans who expanded their diet to include marine resources or hunted large animals. Successful adaptations developed on an isolated SCP are predicted to widely disperse during glacial terminations when the SCP rapidly contracts or during the initial opening of the SCP in the transition to glacial maxima. The hypothesis that periodic expansion and contraction of the SCP, as well as the coastal plain of North Africa, contributed to the stepwise origin of our species over the last 800 thousand years (kyr) is evaluated by comparing the archeological, DNA and sea-level records. These records generally support the hypothesis, but more complete and well dated records are required to resolve the extent to which sea-level fluctuations influenced the complex history of human evolution.

  4. A flexible and national scale approach to coastal decision tools incorporating sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, B.; Kulp, S. A.; Tebaldi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate science and sea level models constantly evolve. In this context, maps and analyses of exposure to sea level rise - or coastal flooding aggravated by rise - quickly fall out of date when based upon a specific model projection or projection set. At the same time, policy makers and planners prefer simple and stable risk assessments for their future planning. Here, using Climate Central's Surging Seas Risk Finder, we describe and illustrate a decision tool framework that separates the spatial and temporal dimensions of coastal exposure in order to help alleviate this tension. The Risk Finder presents local maps and exposure analyses simply as functions of a discrete set of local water levels. In turn, each water level may be achieved at different times, with different probabilities, according to different combinations of sea level change, storm surge and tide. This temporal dimension is expressed in a separate module of the Risk Finder, so that users may explore the probabilities and time frames of different water levels, as a function of different sea level models and emissions scenarios. With such an approach, decision-makers can quickly get a sense of the range of risks for each water level given current understanding. At the same time, the models and scenarios can easily be updated over time as the science evolves, while avoiding the labor of regenerating maps and exposure analyses. In this talk, we will also use the tool to highlight key findings from a new U.S. national assessment of sea level and coastal flood risk. For example, more than 2.5 million people and $500 billion dollars of property value sit on land less than 2 meters above the high tide line in Florida alone.

  5. Effects of sea level rise on deltaic coastal marshlands, Mississippi River deltaic plain

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, K.E.; Penland, S. ); Roberts, H.H.; Coleman, J.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Low-relief deltaic coastal plains commonly experience land loss because of the cumulative effects of natural and human-induced processes. Although it is difficult to separate the individual factors within the overall process, interplay between these factors can result in a rate of relative sea level rise greater than the natural rate of coastal-plain aggradation that causes land loss. Between 1956 and 1978, about 11,400 and 2,490 ha of marsh were lost in east Texas and Mississippi, respectively. Louisiana's loss was 18,755 ha. Relative sea level rise over the last 65 yr has averaged 0.23 cm/yr in the Gulf and as much as 1-1.5 cm/yr in the delta plain. The Environmental Protection Agency predicts the rate of sea level rise to increase over the next century. Rates of relative sea level rise for the Gulf of Mexico are expected to increase from 0.23-1.5 cm/yr to 0.6-3.7 cm/yr. The current rate of relative sea level rise and land loss in the subsiding Mississippi delta is a response that can be expected for many US coastal areas over the next century. With the predicted change, the Mississippi River delta complex will experience dramatically increased rates of land loss. Isles Dernieres will disappear by the year 2000, and Plaquemines and Terrebonne marshes will be gone between 2020 and 2080. Based on the lowest predicted sea level rise rate, by the year 2100, the delta plain could be reduced from 150.9 {times} 10{sup 3} ha to 29.8 x 10{sup 3} ha or to 4.9 {times} 10{sup 3} ha if calculations are based on the highest rate.

  6. Integrating space geodesy and coastal sea level observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, J. S.; Haas, R.; Larson, K.; Scherneck, H.-G.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) is to monitor the Earth system, in particular with observations of the three fundamental geodetic observables: the Earth's shape, the Earth's gravity field and the Earth's rotational motion. A central part of GGOS is the network of globally distributed fundamental geodetic stations that allow the combination and integration of the different space geodetic techniques. One of these stations is the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO), on the west coast of Sweden, which operates equipment for geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and superconducting gravimetry measurements, and additionally water vapour radiometers. The newest addition to the OSO fundamental geodetic station is a GNSS-based tide gauge (GNSS-TG). This installation integrates space geodesy with remote sensing of the local sea level. The GNSS-TG uses both direct GNSS-signals and GNSS-signals that are reflected off the sea surface. This is done using a zenith-looking Right Hand Circular Polarized (RHCP) and a nadir-looking Left Hand Circular Polarized (LHCP) antenna, respectively. Each of the two antennas is connected to a standard geodetic-type GNSS-receiver. The analysis of the data received with the RHCP-antenna allows one to determine land motion, while the analysis of the data received with the LHCP-antenna allows one to determine the sea surface height. Analysing both data sets together results in local sea level that is automatically corrected for land motion, meaning that the GNSS-TG can provide reliable sea-level estimates even in tectonically active regions. Previous results from the GNSS-TG, using carrier phase data, show a Root-Mean-Square (RMS) agreement of less than 5.9 cm with stilling well gauges located 18 km and 33 km away from OSO (Löfgren et al., 2011). This is lower than the RMS agreement between the two stilling well gauges (6.1 cm). Furthermore, significant ocean tidal signals have

  7. Effect of rising sea level on runoff and groundwater discharge to coastal ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuttle, W.K.; Portnoy, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Rising sea level can cause an increase in surface runoff from coastal areas by raising the watertable and thus increasing the incidence of saturated soil conditions in low-lying areas. As surface runoff increases, less rainfall will infiltrate into the ground and groundwater discharge to the coast will decrease. The link between sea level rise and runoff is critically dependent on the sensitivity of surface runoff to changes in the elevation of the watertable. A significant relation between the two is demonstrated for a coastal watershed on Cape Cod, where it is estimated that a 10 cm rise in the watertable will increase surface runoff by 70% and decrease groundwater discharge by 20%. Effects on near-shore ecosystems include changes in nutrient fluxes and in the salinity of the sediments.

  8. Coastal sea level projections with improved accounting for vertical land motion

    PubMed Central

    Han, Guoqi; Ma, Zhimin; Chen, Nan; Yang, Jingsong; Chen, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Regional and coastal mean sea level projections in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) account only for vertical land motion (VLM) associated with glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), which may significantly under- or over-estimate sea level rise. Here we adjust AR5-like regional projections with the VLM from Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) measurements and/or from a combination of altimetry and tide-gauge data, which include both GIA and non-GIA VLM. Our results at selected tide-gauge locations on the North American and East Asian coasts show drastically different projections with and without non-GIA VLM being accounted for. The present study points to the importance of correcting IPCC AR5 coastal projections for the non-GIA VLM in making adaptation decisions. PMID:26526287

  9. Coastal sea level projections with improved accounting for vertical land motion.

    PubMed

    Han, Guoqi; Ma, Zhimin; Chen, Nan; Yang, Jingsong; Chen, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Regional and coastal mean sea level projections in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) account only for vertical land motion (VLM) associated with glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), which may significantly under- or over-estimate sea level rise. Here we adjust AR5-like regional projections with the VLM from Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) measurements and/or from a combination of altimetry and tide-gauge data, which include both GIA and non-GIA VLM. Our results at selected tide-gauge locations on the North American and East Asian coasts show drastically different projections with and without non-GIA VLM being accounted for. The present study points to the importance of correcting IPCC AR5 coastal projections for the non-GIA VLM in making adaptation decisions. PMID:26526287

  10. Salinization processes in an alluvial coastal lowland plain and effect of sea water level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Don, Nguyen Cao; Hang, Nguyen Thi Minh; Araki, Hiroyuki; Yamanishi, Hiroyuki; Koga, Kenichi

    2006-03-01

    In coastal areas, groundwater and aquifer systems are easily prone to pollution and contamination. Moreover, sea level rises also threaten the viability of many coastal zones and small islands. In the Shiroishi lowland plain, southwestern Kyushu Island of Japan, some environmental problems such as land subsidence and salinity intrusion due to over pumping of groundwater have long been recognized as water problems and become causes for public concern. In this study, an integrated surface and groundwater model was established and applied to the Shiroishi site to simulate groundwater flow hydraulics and predict the salinity intrusion process in the alluvial lowland plain. The simulated results show that groundwater levels in the aquifer greatly vary in response to varying climatic and pumping conditions. It is also found that sea water intrusion would be expected along the coast if the current rates of groundwater exploitation continue. Furthermore, sea water intrusion with a relative rise in sea water level due to aquifer compression and global climatic change was also considered. As a result, sea water intrusion appears to extend much farther in land from the coast compared to a reference case. The study also suggests a possible alternative to mitigate the inverse effects by pumping groundwater.

  11. Interaction of the sea breeze with a river breeze in an area of complex coastal heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, Shiyuan; Takle, Eugene S.; Leone, John M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of the sea-breeze circulation with a river-breeze circulation in an area of complex coastal heating (east coast of Florida) was studied using a 3D finite-element mesoscale model. The model simulations are compared with temperature and wind fields observed on a typical fall day during the Kennedy Space Center Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment. The results from numerical experiments designed to isolate the effect of the river breeze indicate that the convergence in the sea-breeze front is suppressed when it passes over the cooler surface of the rivers.

  12. Coastal Seafloor Observatory Of The East China Sea At Xiaoqushan And Its Primary Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Xu, C.; Qin, R.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, H.

    2010-12-01

    The seafloor observation system becomes increasingly important infrastructure in ocean sciences, which transforms oceanic research from temporal investigation to long term observation. The East China Sea coastal seafloor observatory, located between 30°31'44"N,122°15'12"E and 30°31'34"N,122°14'40"E, is built near the Xiaoqushan island outside the Yangtze River estuary, on the inner East China Sea continental shelf. The East China Sea coastal seafloor observatory is part of the East China Sea seafloor observational network. The observatory consists of a composite power cable made of optical fiber and extending for more than 1 kilometer and a special junction box, which provide power and signal communication for different instruments. The special junction box, which has various waterproof plugs, connects to three different instruments installed in a trawl preventer. The submarine optical fiber composite power cable is landed on the platform by The East China Sea Branch, State Oceanic Administration of the People’s Republic of China, and the power is continuously supplied by the solar panels and solar battery on the top of the platform. The real time data are directly sent through the cable to the platform and are transmitted by CDMA wireless to the receiver at the State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology of Tongji University. Measurements at the observatory have been taken since 26 April, 2009. The observations include current speeds and their directions at different depths, suspended sediment concentration, temperature and salinity nearby the seabed. The more than one year preliminary results show that the current field and fine suspended sediment transport of East China Sea are complex and show considerable seasonal variation affected by the integrated influence of Changjiang diluted water, Taiwan warm current and the Yellow Sea coastal current. The successful establishment of the coastal seafloor observatory is the first step toward future development of the

  13. High Resolution Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment for Coastal Utilities; Case Studies in the Sea of Marmara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalciner, A. C.; Aytore, B.; Cankaya, C.; Guler, H. G.; Suzen, L.; Zaytsev, A.; Arikawa, T.; Takashi, T.

    2014-12-01

    Resilience of coastal utilities against earthquakes and tsunamis have major importance for efficient and proper rescue and recovery operations soon after disasters. Istanbul as a mega city have long coastline and strongly interact with Marmara sea with its dense coastal utilization. Yenikapi region and Haydarpasa port are two of major coastal utilities. Haydarpasa port has critical components such as the main transportation hub at Asian side of megacity Istanbul, cargo and container stock areas, ro-ro handling operations and passenger terminals. Yenikapi area serves different coastal activities and marine passenger transportation in the Marmara sea. High resolution GIS database of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM) is analyzed and detaled bathymetry and topography database is developed considering vulnerability of the near shore structures and buildings. Two different tsunami numerical models i) NAMIDANCE code (2-Dimensional, depth averaged shallow water model with dispersion hybrid model) and ii) STOC-CADMAS System (Quasi 3-Dimensional in large domains and 3-Dimensional in small domains hybrid model) are used in nested domain in simulations. In this study the accurate vulnerability assessments of these coastal utilities are performed by utilizing high performance computing technology with high resolution bathymetry and topography data for Haydarpasa and Yenikapi regions based on accurate GIS data. The results of computed 2D and 3D numerical models and also the achievements by high performance Computing systems are evaluated. As the result, the computed tsunami parameters inside the coastal utilities are compared and discussed to clarify the benefits of using high resolution data and using the 2D and 3D numerical models.

  14. Subsatellite experiments in a coastal region of the Black sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhanov, V.; Bogatov, N.; Ermoshkin, A.; Kazakov, V.; Kemarskaya, O.; Lobanov, V.; Repina, I.; Titov, V.; Troitskaya, Yu.; Zuikova, E.

    2009-04-01

    The results of field experiments carried out in 2007, 2008 in a north-east part of the Black sea in region of city Gelendzhik, are given. Experiments targeted the development of a bottom topography remote (radar and optical) diagnostics. Experimental area is characterized by abrupt depth dumping (fall 50 - 1250 m), and irregularity of a bank vault (numerous canyons). Such bottom topography in the presence of alongshore current creates favorable conditions for hydrodynamic perturbations on thermocline and corresponding anomalies on sea surface and in atmospheric surface layer characteristics. The simultaneous measurement of atmospheric near-surface layer, sea surface and sea bulk parameters synchronously with reception of the radar image from the satellite ENVISAT was feature of the given experiment. The ground-based measurements were carried out simultaneously from high coast by means of X-band radar and from R/V "Aquanaut" (Institute of Oceanology RAS). The meteorological conditions during observations varied considerably. The wind velocity changed from 0 up to 10 m/c, heaving - from 0 up to 4 balls. The short-term atmospheric precipitations were observed. The bottom topography was measured by echo-sounder. Investigation of the hydrological characteristics was carried out by combined SVP-CTD probe. The current field was measured by ADCP. The surface wave characteristics in length range 4 mm - 1 m were measured by X and Ka radar and two-dimensional optical spectrum analyzer. Air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and direction were measured. Sonic anemometer-thermometer for recording horizontal and vertical components of the wind and temperature fluctuations in the surface layer was used. The connection of current field heterogeneities with a bottom configuration in region of depth dumping is investigated. The correlation of radar signal with current speed in near-surface region is observed also. For example, the slicks are observed

  15. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida’s Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Anne P.; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R.

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida’s Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway. PMID:26207914

  16. Health status of seabirds and coastal birds found at the German North Sea coast

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Systematic pathological investigations to assess the health status of seabirds and coastal birds in Germany were performed. The investigation was conducted to obtain data on possible causes of decline in seabird and coastal bird populations. Methods 48 individuals of 11 different species of seabirds and coastal birds were collected by the stranding network along the entire German North Sea coast from 1997 to 2008, including mainly waders such as Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) and red knots (Calidris canutus) as well as seabirds such as northern fulmars (Fulmaris glacialis) and common scoters (Melanitta nigra). For most birds (n = 31) found dead along the shore no obvious cause of death was evident, while 17 individuals were killed by collisions with lighthouses. Results Overall, the nutritional status of the investigated birds was very poor, and the body mass in most cases was significantly lower compared to masses of living birds caught during the same periods of the year. This is partly linked to chronic parasitic or bacterial infections in different organs or to septicaemia. In some cases infections with zoonotic tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium spp. were found. Avian influenza was not found in any of the collected birds. Conclusion The presented data contribute to the evaluation of the health status of birds in the German North Sea. Moreover, they present an important tool for the assessment of potential pathogens with an impact on the health status of seabirds and coastal birds. PMID:22812640

  17. Coastal Vertebrate Exposure to Predicted Habitat Changes Due to Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Elizabeth A.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Alexander, Clark R.; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F.; Guy, Rachel K.; Moore, Clinton T.; Cooper, Robert J.

    2015-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species' fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species ( n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species' foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.

  18. Coastal Vertebrate Exposure to Predicted Habitat Changes Due to Sea Level Rise.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Elizabeth A; Nibbelink, Nathan P; Alexander, Clark R; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F; Guy, Rachel K; Moore, Clinton T; Cooper, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species' fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species (n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species' foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR. PMID:26163199

  19. Coastal vertebrate exposure to predicted habitat changes due to sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Elizabeth A.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Alexander, Clark R.; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F.; Guy, Rachel; Moore, Clinton; Cooper, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species’ fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species (n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species’ foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.

  20. Quantifying coastal inundation vulnerability of Turkey to sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Demirkesen, Ali C; Evrendilek, Fatih; Berberoglu, Suha

    2008-03-01

    The vulnerability of low-lying coastal areas in Turkey to inundation was quantified based on the sea-level rise scenarios of 1, 2, and 3 m by 2205. Through digital elevation model (DEM) acquired by the shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM), the extent and distribution of the high to low-risk coastal plains were identified. The spatio-temporal analysis revealed the inundated coastal areas of 545, 1,286, and 2,125 km2 at average rates of 5, 10, and 15 mm yr(-1) for 200 years, respectively. This is equivalent to minimum and maximum land losses by 2205 of 0.1-0.3% of the total area and of 1.3-5.2% of the coastal areas with elevations of less than 100 m in the country, respectively. This study provides an initial assessment of vulnerability to sea-level rise to help decision-makers, and other concerned stakeholders to develop appropriate public policies and land-use planning measures. PMID:17503205

  1. Distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae in submarine canyons and adjacent continental slope areas in Toyama Bay, Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjo, Nobuaki; Katayama, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae, which included larval stages and postlarval or later stages, were investigated in Toyama Bay located in central Japan. The horizontal distributions in the inner part of the bay were investigated by oblique hauls from 10 m above the sea-bottom to the surface using a Remodeled NORPAC net (LNP net) in May, August, November 2005, January, March, April, July, September, December 2006, March-September, November-December 2007, and January-March 2008. The vertical distributions were investigated by concurrent horizontal hauls at the depths of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 m using a Motoda net (MTD net) in January, March, April, July, September, and December 2006. Mean density of larvae was higher in submarine canyons which dissect the continental shelf and run to the mouth of river, than adjacent continental slope areas. Larvae densely aggregated in the canyon head. Vertical distribution of the larval stages concentrated in the depth range of 100-150 m in both daytime and nighttime, and larvae in the postlarval or later stages showed diel vertical distribution over a wider depth range than larval stages. Our results indicate the possibility of a larval aggregation in energy-rich habitats, and indicated two important roles of submarine canyons, which were larval retention and high food supply.

  2. Virulence Profiles of Vibrio vulnificus in German Coastal Waters, a Comparison of North Sea and Baltic Sea Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bier, Nadja; Jäckel, Claudia; Dieckmann, Ralf; Brennholt, Nicole; Böer, Simone I.; Strauch, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic bacterium of coastal environments known for sporadically causing severe foodborne or wound infections. Global warming is expected to lead to a rising occurrence of V. vulnificus and an increasing incidence of human infections in Northern Europe. So far, infections in Germany were exclusively documented for the Baltic Sea coast, while no cases from the North Sea region have been reported. Regional variations in the prevalence of infections may be influenced by differences in the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus populations in both areas. This study aimed to compare the distribution of virulence-associated traits and genotypes among 101 V. vulnificus isolates from the Baltic Sea and North Sea in order to assess their pathogenicity potential. Furthermore, genetic relationships were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A high diversity of MLST sequences (74 sequence types) and differences regarding the presence of six potential pathogenicity markers were observed in the V. vulnificus populations of both areas. Strains with genotypes and markers associated with pathogenicity are not restricted to a particular geographic region. This indicates that lack of reported cases in the North Sea region is not caused by the absence of potentially pathogenic strains. PMID:26694432

  3. Virulence Profiles of Vibrio vulnificus in German Coastal Waters, a Comparison of North Sea and Baltic Sea Isolates.

    PubMed

    Bier, Nadja; Jäckel, Claudia; Dieckmann, Ralf; Brennholt, Nicole; Böer, Simone I; Strauch, Eckhard

    2015-12-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic bacterium of coastal environments known for sporadically causing severe foodborne or wound infections. Global warming is expected to lead to a rising occurrence of V. vulnificus and an increasing incidence of human infections in Northern Europe. So far, infections in Germany were exclusively documented for the Baltic Sea coast, while no cases from the North Sea region have been reported. Regional variations in the prevalence of infections may be influenced by differences in the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus populations in both areas. This study aimed to compare the distribution of virulence-associated traits and genotypes among 101 V. vulnificus isolates from the Baltic Sea and North Sea in order to assess their pathogenicity potential. Furthermore, genetic relationships were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A high diversity of MLST sequences (74 sequence types) and differences regarding the presence of six potential pathogenicity markers were observed in the V. vulnificus populations of both areas. Strains with genotypes and markers associated with pathogenicity are not restricted to a particular geographic region. This indicates that lack of reported cases in the North Sea region is not caused by the absence of potentially pathogenic strains. PMID:26694432

  4. Sea level change impacts on the coastal infrastructures of the Basque Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, Ainhoa; Chust, Guillem; Liria, Pedro; Marcos, Marta

    2010-05-01

    Analyses of coastal tide gauges have revealed a sea level rise between 1954 and 2004 in the Bay of Biscay (Northeast Atlantic) (Chust et al., 2009). The impact a sustained sea level rise will have over the Basque coast (north-eastern corner of the Bay of Biscay) must be evaluated since the 60% of the population and the 30% of the industry of the Basque Country is concentrated in the coast (Cearreta et al., 2004). The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact a possible sea level rise within the Bay of Biscay, will have over the coastal infrastructures of the Basque Country along the 21st century. To do that, sea level projections have been computed for the region of study, from temperature projections under three climate scenarios (Committed, SRES A1B and SRES A2). The temperature projections have been extracted for the study area from different Atmosphere-Ocean Coupled General Climate Models (AOGCM) and then the thermosteric sea level has been computed. The results show that at the end of the century, in the studied region, sea level will increase on average near 50 cm, due to thermal expansion and ice melting. With the aim of knowing the future shoreline evolution, the projected sea level rise has been introduced into a high-resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM), extracted from airborne laser altimetry data (LIDAR). The results indicate that for the end of the 21st century, some industrial and residential areas will be below the Highest Astronomical Tide levels associated with the projected mean sea level; as well as transport infrastructures, such as roads and an airport. Nowadays, some of these areas are protected by flood retaining walls that will be not overtopped. Nevertheless, these structures will support highest hydrostatic pressure and they probably should be reinforced. Furthermore, the drainage systems of many impacted areas should be recalculated. The distance among the levels of the Highest Astronomical Tide and of the piers inside the main

  5. Sea-level rise modeling handbook: Resource guide for coastal land managers, engineers, and scientists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Chivoiu, Bogdan; Enwright, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Global sea level is rising and may accelerate with continued fossil fuel consumption from industrial and population growth. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted more than 30 training and feedback sessions with Federal, State, and nongovernmental organization (NGO) coastal managers and planners across the northern Gulf of Mexico coast to evaluate user needs, potential benefits, current scientific understanding, and utilization of resource aids and modeling tools focused on sea-level rise. In response to the findings from the sessions, this sea-level rise modeling handbook has been designed as a guide to the science and simulation models for understanding the dynamics and impacts of sea-level rise on coastal ecosystems. The review herein of decision-support tools and predictive models was compiled from the training sessions, from online research, and from publications. The purpose of this guide is to describe and categorize the suite of data, methods, and models and their design, structure, and application for hindcasting and forecasting the potential impacts of sea-level rise in coastal ecosystems. The data and models cover a broad spectrum of disciplines involving different designs and scales of spatial and temporal complexity for predicting environmental change and ecosystem response. These data and models have not heretofore been synthesized, nor have appraisals been made of their utility or limitations. Some models are demonstration tools for non-experts, whereas others require more expert capacity to apply for any given park, refuge, or regional application. A simplified tabular context has been developed to list and contrast a host of decision-support tools and models from the ecological, geological, and hydrological perspectives. Criteria were established to distinguish the source, scale, and quality of information input and geographic datasets; physical and biological constraints and relations; datum characteristics of water and land components

  6. Vulnerability of the Nile Delta coastal areas to inundation by sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Hassaan, M A; Abdrabo, M A

    2013-08-01

    Sea level changes are typically caused by several natural phenomena, including ocean thermal expansion, glacial melt from Greenland and Antarctica. Global average sea level is expected to rise, through the twenty-first century, according to the IPCC projections by between 0.18 and 0.59 cm. Such a rise in sea level will significantly impact coastal area of the Nile Delta, consisting generally of lowland and is densely populated areas and accommodates significant proportion of Egypt's economic activities and built-up areas. The Nile Delta has been examined in several previous studies, which worked under various hypothetical sea level rise (SLR) scenarios and provided different estimates of areas susceptible to inundation due to SLR. The paper intends, in this respect, to identify areas, as well as land use/land cover, susceptible to inundation by SLR based upon most recent scenarios of SLR, by the year 2100 using GIS. The results indicate that about 22.49, 42.18, and 49.22 % of the total area of coastal governorates of the Nile Delta would be susceptible to inundation under different scenarios of SLR. Also, it was found that 15.56 % of the total areas of the Nile Delta that would be vulnerable to inundation due to land subsidence only, even in the absence of any rise in sea level. Moreover, it was found that a considerable proportion of these areas (ranging between 32.32 and 53.66 %) are currently either wetland or undeveloped areas. Furthermore, natural and/or man-made structures, such as the banks of the International Coastal Highway, were found to provide unintended protection to some of these areas. This suggests that the inundation impact of SLR on the Nile Delta is less than previously reported. PMID:23271694

  7. Modeling Coastal Erosion, Passive Inundation, and Dynamic Wave Inundation under Higher Sea Level in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Hawaii State legislators recently formed the Interagency Committee on Climate Adaptation to investigate community vulnerability to sea level rise. We developed modeling to provide the committee with assessments of exposure to coastal erosion, wave inundation, and passive flooding based on the IPCC RCP 8.5 model of sea level rise over the 21st Century. We model the exposure to coastal erosion using a hybrid equilibrium profile model (Anderson et al., 2015) that combines historical rates of shoreline change with a Bruun-type model of beach profile translation. Results are mapped in a GIS showing the 80th percentile probability of potential erosion at years 2030, 2050, 2075, and 2100. Wave inundation is modeled using XBeach. We use a 3 m significant wave height to represent a seasonal high swell event. A separate simulation was run for each heightened sea level (corresponding to the years previously mentioned); which accounts for changes in wave dynamics due to the change in water level over the reef platform. We use a bare earth topo/bathy LiDAR DEM derived from data collected during the 2013 JBLTX survey of the Hawaiian Islands. XBeach modeling is done along one-dimensional profiles spaced 20 m apart. From this, we develop a gridded product of water depth and velocity for use in a vulnerability analysis. Passive inundation due to sea level rise, the so-called "bath tub" method, provide estimates of storm drain flooding and groundwater inundation. Our analysis of these three impacts of sea level rise, combined - coastal erosion, wave inundation, and passive flooding - are used with other available data in the FEMA Hazus software to estimate exposure and loss of upland assets.

  8. A stochastic model for the sea level in the Estonian coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raudsepp, Urmas; Toompuu, Aleksander; Kõuts, Tarmo

    1999-09-01

    A stochastic model is suggested to perform the space-time optimal analysis of the sea level data recorded in 1978-1982 at 20 stations at the Estonian coast and along a part of the Latvian coast surrounding the Gulf of Riga. The original time series recorded with the time lag of 1, 6 or 12 h are divided into mean and fluctuation components. The mean field is modeled as the sum of the linear trend and annual harmonic. The mean sea level is generally higher at the stations located in the river mouth area. The estimated linear trend yielding the sea level rise of 1-3 cm/year is an approximation of the interannual variability over the selected 5-year period. The dominating annual harmonic with amplitude of 20 cm describes 40-45% of the total variability of the time series of the monthly mean sea level values. The temporal and spatial correlations of the sea level fluctuation field were estimated on the basis of the suggested stochastic model. The correlation functions were approximated by Gaussian functions yielding the temporal correlation radius (e-folding scale) of about 10 days and spatial correlation radius of 200-400 nm. According to the developed criterion, proceeding from the suggested stochastic model, at least 90% of the sea level data from the Estonian coastal area should be considered as meeting the quality requirements. There was no significant difference in the quality of data measured either continuously by mareographs or observed by reading the bench sticks. After removal of outliers, the approach was utilized to reconstruct the sea level field in the Estonian coastal area in 1978-1982 with an acceptable low reconstruction error.

  9. In situ spectroradiometric calibration of EREP imagery and estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island sound and adjacent New York coastal waters. [Willcox, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The first part of the study resulted in photographic procedures for making multispectral positive images which greatly enhance the color differences in land detail using an additive color viewer. An additive color analysis of the geologic features near Willcox, Arizona using enhanced black and white multispectral positives allowed compilation of a significant number of unmapped geologic units which do not appear on geologic maps of the area. The second part demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing Skylab remote sensor data to monitor and manage the coastal environment by relating physical, chemical, and biological ship sampled data to S190A, S190B, and S192 image characteristics. Photographic reprocessing techniques were developed which greatly enhanced subtle low brightness water detail. Using these photographic contrast-stretch techniques, two water masses having an extinction coefficient difference of only 0.07 measured simultaneously with the acquisition of S190A data were readily differentiated.

  10. Experimental and numerical characterization of sea-state and coastal currents close to the Giglio island.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandini, Carlo; Taddei, Stefano; Doronzo, Bartolomeo; Costanza, Letizia; Fattorini, Maria; Serafino, Francesco; Ludeno, Giovanni; Ciarravano, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The study of sub-mesoscale circulation phenomena in coastal areas is complicated by the high resolution requested for both the observation and the simulation of such currents, and by the difficulty of appropriately validating the remote sensing and the numerical data. In this work we present the results of a long period of waves and coastal currents observations, produced by the X-band radar that was implemented in 2012 at the Giglio Island, after the accident of the Costa Concordia ship. The radar installation has allowed to verify the structure of particular sea states and hydrodynamic phenomena that can be reproduced also by means of some numerical models implemented in the area: in particular, SWAN for waves prediction, and ROMS for coastal circulation . The models were configured through multiple nesting in order to reach resolutions comparable to coastal radar observations. The measurements have been validated independently through the use of drifters in experimental campaigns around the island. The complete view of the 2D spectrum, as recorded by the radar, allowed to fully characterize sea states with crossed-seas and also coastal refraction phenomena (due to the southwest sea that turns all around the island), diffracted and even reflected wave patterns (Ludeno et al., 2014). The circulation phenomena are even more complex, as they are produced by a combination of local forcing conditions and tides, and by the interaction of the large-scale circulation with the local conformation of the bathymetry and the coastline. Circulation cells have been often observed, even in the form of a double-gyre configuration, also due to the non-stationarity of the atmospheric forcing and to multiple interaction effects. In our work we attempt to reproduce some of these phenomena, which are difficult to model also for their inherent non-linearity. We have considered the use of the native ROMS algorithm for multiple nested domains, by implementing it up to 50 m resolution

  11. Vulnerability assessment of the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary, China to sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Lifang; Ge, Zhenming; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Liquan

    2015-04-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) caused by global climate change will have significant impacts on the low-lying coastal zone. The coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary, with their low elevation, are particularly sensitive to SLR. In this study, the potential impacts of SLR on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary were analyzed by adopting the SPRC (Source-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence) model. Based on the SPRC model and IPCC vulnerability definition, an indicator system for vulnerability assessment on the coastal wetlands to SLR was developed, in which the rate of SLR, subsidence rate, habitat elevation, mean daily inundation duration of habitat and sedimentation rate were selected as the key indicators. A spatial assessment method based on a GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability. Vulnerability assessment, based on the projection of SLR rates from the present trend (0.26 cm/yr) and IPCC's A1F1 scenario (0.59 cm/yr), were performed for three time periods: short-term (2030s), medium-term (2050s) and long-term (2100s). The results indicated that in the 2030s, 6.6% and 9.0% of the coastal wetlands were within the grade of low vulnerability under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. In the 2050s, the percentage of coastal wetlands within the grades of low and moderate vulnerability increases to 9.8% and 0.2%, 9.5% and 1.0% under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. In the 2100s, 8.1% and 3.0% of the coastal wetlands were within the grade of low vulnerability, 0.8% and 2.8% were within the grade of moderate vulnerability under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. The percentage of coastal wetlands within the grade of high vulnerability increases significantly, amounting to 2.3% and 6.9% under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. The application of the SPRC model, the methodology developed and the results could assist

  12. Surging Seas Risk Finder: A Tool for Local-Scale Flood Risk Assessments in Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, S. A.; Strauss, B.

    2015-12-01

    Local decision makers in coastal cities require accurate, accessible, and thorough assessments of flood exposure risk within their individual municipality, in their efforts to mitigate against damage due to future sea level rise. To fill this need, we have developed Climate Central's Surging Seas Risk Finder, an interactive data toolkit which presents our sea level rise and storm surge analysis for every coastal town, city, county, and state within the USA. Using this tool, policy makers can easily zoom in on their local place of interest to receive a detailed flood risk assessment, which synthesizes a wide range of features including total population, socially vulnerable population, housing, property value, road miles, power plants, schools, hospitals, and many other critical facilities. Risk Finder can also be used to identify specific points of interest in danger of exposure at different flood levels. Additionally, this tool provides localized storm surge probabilities and sea level rise projections at tidal gauges along the coast, so that users can quickly understand the risk of flooding in their area over the coming decades.

  13. Implementation of remote sensing data in research of coastal dynamics at the Baydaratskaya Bay, Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, D. E.; Belova, N.; Noskov, A.; Ogorodov, S.

    2011-12-01

    The development of Arctic coastal regions is now in progress due to significant amount of hydrocarbon deposits discovered. In high latitudes, natural hazards such as coastal erosion and thermoerosion, deflation, linear erosion and thermal denudation, ice gouging can make petroleum production and transport unprofitable. A prominent feature of Kara Sea, as well as other Arctic seas, is the development of coast in permafrost conditions. Despite the long ice period (up to 9 months), during the ice free period coastal dynamics are very intensive. If pipeline landfall site occurs at a shore section with high retreat rate (1 - 3m/year and higher), danger of pipeline damage due to exposure, line sagging and mechanical deformations becomes high. Protective measures may appear inefficient, since shore sections with active coastal erosion are subject not only to bluff retreat, but also to nearshore zone and coastal slope erosion. Exposed pipeline sections also get in danger of sea ice effect. For correct definition of coastal dynamics setting we use dual approach. The first part is perennial instrumental monitoring of shore morphology, relying on system of benchmarks used for repeated measures, together with in-field geomorphologic expertise. Measures include direct observations and geodetic leveling onshore and echosounding offshore. Being the most precise method, direct measurements are expensive. The other drawback is that they can't give an overview of long-span tendencies of coastal evolution for prolonged shore sections, which is essential for shore deformation forecast complying with lifetime of structures (usually 30 to 50 years). This is where the importance of the 2nd part, analysis of the different time remote sensing data, becomes decisive. Most important sources of remote sensing data include Corona imagery from 1960s - 70s, aerial photos of different times (but most of them are inaccessible for Russian Arctic coast), Landsat imagery (covering a long time span

  14. Global coastal wetland change under sea-level rise and related stresses: The DIVA Wetland Change Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Schuerch, Mark; Nicholls, Robert J.; Hinkel, Jochen; Lincke, Daniel; Vafeidis, A. T.; Reef, Ruth; McFadden, Loraine; Brown, Sally

    2016-04-01

    The Dynamic Interactive Vulnerability Assessment Wetland Change Model (DIVA_WCM) comprises a dataset of contemporary global coastal wetland stocks (estimated at 756 × 103 km2 (in 2011)), mapped to a one-dimensional global database, and a model of the macro-scale controls on wetland response to sea-level rise. Three key drivers of wetland response to sea-level rise are considered: 1) rate of sea-level rise relative to tidal range; 2) lateral accommodation space; and 3) sediment supply. The model is tuned by expert knowledge, parameterised with quantitative data where possible, and validated against mapping associated with two large-scale mangrove and saltmarsh vulnerability studies. It is applied across 12,148 coastal segments (mean length 85 km) to the year 2100. The model provides better-informed macro-scale projections of likely patterns of future coastal wetland losses across a range of sea-level rise scenarios and varying assumptions about the construction of coastal dikes to prevent sea flooding (as dikes limit lateral accommodation space and cause coastal squeeze). With 50 cm of sea-level rise by 2100, the model predicts a loss of 46-59% of global coastal wetland stocks. A global coastal wetland loss of 78% is estimated under high sea-level rise (110 cm by 2100) accompanied by maximum dike construction. The primary driver for high vulnerability of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise is coastal squeeze, a consequence of long-term coastal protection strategies. Under low sea-level rise (29 cm by 2100) losses do not exceed ca. 50% of the total stock, even for the same adverse dike construction assumptions. The model results confirm that the widespread paradigm that wetlands subject to a micro-tidal regime are likely to be more vulnerable to loss than macro-tidal environments. Countering these potential losses will require both climate mitigation (a global response) to minimise sea-level rise and maximisation of accommodation space and sediment supply (a regional

  15. Coastal sea level variability in the eastern English Channel: Potentialities for future SWOT applicability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Imen; Laignel, Benoit; Chevalier, Laetitia; Costa, Stephane

    2014-05-01

    Scientists and engineers need to understand the sea level variability in order to provide better estimates of the sea level rise for coastal defense using tide gauges and radar altimetry missions. The natural limitation of the tide gauge records is their geographical sparsity and confinement to coastlines. The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission will be launched in 2015 over a period of 5 years and will be designated to address this issue. This research was carried out in the framework of the program Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) which is a partnership between NASA and CNES. Using a series of statistical analyses, we point to characterize the sea level variability in the eastern English Channel (western France) from four tide gauges in Dunkirk, Dieppe, Le Havre and Cherbourg for the period 1964-2012. To assess the extent to which tide gauge point observations represent tide gauge data, we compare tide gauge records to SWOT measurements in their vicinity. Results have shown that the bimodality of the sea level, provided by the distribution analysis, can be reproduced by SWOT measurements with an overestimation of both modes and also the extreme values. The rate of the linear regression was also overestimated from 1.7-4 mm/yr to 2.6-5.4 mm/yr. The continuous wavelet transform of sea level records has shown the large-scale variability of annual (1-year band) and interannual cycles (2-6- and 6-12-year bands) in sea level, which can be explained by oceanographic and hydrological factors. High frequency dynamics of the sea level variability at short time-scales were extracted from SWOT measurements. They provide a good survey of the surge events (band of 3-4 months) and the spring-neap tidal cycle (band of 28 days). Then, tide gauges should be used in conjunction with satellite data to infer the full time-scale variability. Further studies are needed to refine the SWOT applicability in coastal areas. Key words: coastal zone, sea level

  16. Modelling the impact of atmospheric and terrestrial inputs on the Black Sea coastal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourafalou, V. H.; Stanev, E. V.

    2001-02-01

    The dynamics on the North Western Shelf area of the Black Sea are examined, with an emphasis on the circulation induced by buoyancy due to the land drained fresh waters and by the interaction with the atmosphere, notably wind stress. A three-dimensional, multi-layer hydrodynamic model is employed with realistic topography and parameterisation of river plume physics. We focus on the seasonal patterns of transport of the river induced low-salinity waters within the Coastal Low Salinity Band and the conditions that influence their removal toward the shelf interior. The numerical simulations show that coastal circulation is greatly influenced by river runoff and especially in the case of the Danube, which is excessively high with monthly aver-aged values ranging from 5000 to 10000 m3 /s. A significant contribution of runoff comes from the neighbouring rivers. At the same time, the North Western Shelf is quite broad, so that the coastal dynamics are largely sheltered from the conditions in the deeper sea. Buoyancy due to river runoff thus dominates, creating a southward coastal current that is the predominant pathway for the land-drained inputs. As in all shelf areas, wind stress is a major circulation forcing mechanism and it modifies the buoyancy induced flow. It is shown that the seasonal variability in river runoff and wind stress, in combination with the shelf topography, determines the different pathways for the terrestrial inputs. Implications on the overall basin circulation are drawn, as the availability of low-salinity waters of river origin affects the upper Black Sea layer. Consequently, the formation of distinct water masses (such as the Cold Intermediate Layer) and the properties of the outflow toward the Mediterranean are also influenced.

  17. Investigation of model capability in capturing vertical coastal processes: A case study in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKiver, William; Sannino, Gianmaria; Bellafiore, Debora

    2015-04-01

    Coastal horizontal and vertical processes play an important role in ocean dynamics. Being the interface between land and sea, they are strongly influenced by winds, river inputs, tides, heat and water fluxes, topographic features, as well as human activities. In this work we perform a set of simulations using two different models, SHYFEM and MITgcm, each employing very different numerical approaches (finite elements and finite volume respectively). This allows us to access their capability to capture a number of coastal processes, specifically considering the role of upwelling and downwelling in the Northern Adriatic Sea. We focus on the Adriatic as its topography, having a very shallow northern basin becoming deeper towards the south, as well as the local atmospheric conditions and its large number of freshwater sources (about a third of the entire Mediterranean), make it prone to dense water events, when cold north-easterly winter winds induce dense water formation in the shallow northern coastal shelf. These extreme dense water events have many complex influences and thus are particularly challenging to understand and model, though their impact on the wider ocean circulation has made them an important topic of research. In this study we focus on one particularly strong dense water formation event that occurred in the beginning of 2012. This serves as an interesting test case to assess both the models strengths and weaknesses, while giving an opportunity to understand how these events affect coastal upwelling and downwelling processes. Using the two very different models we examine the impact of different resolutions (horizontal and vertical), different preconditionings as well as assessing the importance of non-hydrostatic dynamics, in order to identify the crucial model characteristics needed to best reproduce coastal processes.

  18. Relationship between carbonaceous materials and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sediments of the Danshui River and adjacent coastal areas, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Jiann, Kuo-Tung; Yeager, Kevin M; Santschi, Peter H; Wade, Terry L; Sericano, Jose L; Hsieh, Hwey-Lian

    2006-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants, POPs (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls) can seriously and deleteriously affect environmental quality and human health. These organic pollutants are exhibiting high affinities to solid phases and thus, quickly end up in sediments. To better understand the role of carbonaceous materials in the transport and distributions of POPs in terrestrial and near-shore environments, concentrations of PCBs and carbonaceous materials (including total organic carbon, black carbon and total carbohydrates), were determined in surface sediments of the Danshui River and nearby coastal areas, Taiwan. Total concentrations of PCBs in the sediments ranged from non-detectable to 83.9 ngg(-1), dry weight, with the maximum value detected near the discharge point of the marine outfall from the Pali Sewage Treatment Plant. These results suggest that the sewage treatment plant has discharged PCBs in the past and the concentrations are still high due to their persistence; alternatively, PCBs are still being discharged in the estuarine and near-shore environment of the Danshui River. Organic carbon and black carbon concentrations correlated well with those of total PCBs in the sediments, suggesting that both organic carbon and black carbon significantly affect the distribution of trace organic pollutants through either post-depositional adsorption, or by co-transport of similar source materials. The field results demonstrate that black carbon and plays an important role in the general distribution of PCBs, while concentrations of some specific PCBs are affected by both black carbon and organic carbon concentrations. PMID:16757014

  19. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ

  20. LINKING ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ACROSS SCALES: COASTAL ECOLOGY AND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN THE CASPIAN SEA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coastal regions, such as the Caspian Sea and the Gulf of Mexico face a multitude of serious environmental challenges, including energy development, overfishing and invasive species. The largest oil discovery in the past 30 years was found in the North Caspian Sea, home to the endemic Caspian Seal an...

  1. Comment [on “Sea level rise shown to drive coastal erosion”

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H., Jr.; Morton, Robert; Fletcher, Charles; Thieler, E. Robert; Howd, Peter

    2000-01-01

    In a recent article (Eos, Trans., AGU, February 8, 2000, p.55), Leatherman et al. [2000] state that they have confirmed an association between sea-level rise and coastal erosion. Applying their results to the New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland coasts and using a projected sea-level rise, the authors predict that by 2050 the shoreline will recede 60 m, about two times the average beach width. However, Leatherman et al. [2000] have not convincingly quantified a relationship between sea-level rise and shoreline erosion.We do not agree with their rationale for subsetting their data, and they have not considered other explanations for a background erosion along the U.S. east coast. Furthermore, their future projections are not supported by their analyses.

  2. Coastal Transport Integrated System in the Aegean Sea Islands: Framework, Methodology, Data Issues and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Stratakis, P.; Karathanasis, C.; Gkadolou, E.; Pagounis, V.; Chronis, K.; Gatsiou, M.; Moumouri-Frag, F.; Tsekos, P.

    2013-05-01

    Greece has more than one hundred inhabited islands, the majority of them are geographically scattered in small distances in the Aegean Sea. The Aegean Sea suffers systematically from two major issues. First, many islands are not served quite frequently with the continent or other islands' major ports. It is a situation rather problematic for the habitants of the islands who wish to travel, for the patients in need to be transferred to metropolitan hospitals, for the goods transport from and to islands. Second, there is a crucial issue in the Aegean Sea regarding the so-called "thin lines". Governments spend every year tens of million euros in subsidies in order to sustain the thin lines. Our aim is the development of an integrated and holistic spatial information system to effectively design coastal transportation lines to combat the above mentioned problems. This paper will present the project framework, the methodology followed, data issues and preliminary results.

  3. Phytoplankton and nutrient distributions in a front-eddy area adjacent to the coastal upwelling zone off Concepcion (Chile): implications for ecosystem productivity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Carmen; Anabalón, Valeria; Hormazábal, Samuel; Cornejo, Marcela; Bento, Joaquim; Silva, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    The impact that sub-mesoscale (1-10 km) to mesocale (50-100 km) oceanographic variability has on plankton and nutrient distributions (horizontal and vertical) in the coastal upwelling and transition zones off Concepcion was the focus of this study. Satellite time-series data (wind, sea-surface temperature (SST), and altimetry) were used to understand the dynamic context of in situ data derived from a short-term front survey (3 d) during the upwelling period (3-6 February, 2014). The survey included two transects perpendicular to the coast, covering the shelf and shelf-break areas just north of Punta Lavapie, a main upwelling center (˜37° S). Wind and SST time-series data indicated that the survey was undertaken just after a moderate upwelling event (end of January) which lead to a relaxation phase during early February. A submesoscale thermal front was detected previous to and during the survey and results from an eddy tracking algorithm based on altimetry data indicated that this front (F1) was flanked on its oceanic side by an anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy (M1), which was ˜25 d old at the sampling time. M1 strengthened the thermal gradient of F1 by bringing warmer oceanic water nearer to the colder coastal upwelling zone. The distributions of hydrographic variables and nutrients in the water column (<300 m depth) also denoted these two features. Phytoplankton biomass (Chl-a) and diatom abundance were highest in the surface layer (<20 m depth) between the coast and F1, with primary maxima in the latter, whereas they were highest at the subsurface (20-40 m depth) towards M1 and associated with secondary maxima. The distribution of dominant diatoms in the top layer (<100 m depth) indicated that both coastal and oceanic species were aggregated at F1 and in M1. These results suggest that the front-eddy interaction creates a complex field of submesoscale processes in the top layer, including vertical nutrient injections and lateral stirring, which contributes to the

  4. Coastal sea level response to the tropical cyclonic forcing in the northern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, P.; Soumya, M.; Vethamony, P.; Vijaykumar, K.; Balakrishnan Nair, T. M.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Jyoti, K.; Sudheesh, K.; Luis, R.; Lobo, S.; Harmalkar, B.

    2015-02-01

    The study examines the observed storm-generated sea level variation due to deep depression (event 1: E1) in the Arabian Sea from 26 November to 1 December 2011 and a cyclonic storm "THANE" (event 2: E2) over the Bay of Bengal during 25-31 December 2011. The sea level and surface meteorological measurements collected during these extreme events exhibit strong synoptic disturbances leading to storm surges of up to 43 cm on the west coast and 29 cm on the east coast of India due to E1 and E2. E1 generated sea level oscillations at the measuring stations on the west coast (Ratnagiri, Verem and Karwar) and east coast (Mandapam and Tuticorin) of India with significant energy bands centred at periods of 92, 43 and 23 min. The storm surge is a well-defined peak with a half-amplitude width of 20, 28 and 26 h at Ratnagiri, Verem and Karwar, respectively. However, on the east coast, the sea level oscillations during Thane were similar to those during calm period except for more energy in bands centred at periods of ~ 100, 42 and 24 min at Gopalpur, Gangavaram and Kakinada, respectively. The residual sea levels from tide gauge stations in Arabian Sea have been identified as Kelvin-type surges propagating northwards at a speed of ~ 6.5 m s-1 with a surge peak of almost constant amplitude. Multi-linear regression analysis shows that the local surface meteorological data (daily mean wind and atmospheric pressure) is able to account for ~ 57 and ~ 69% of daily mean sea level variability along the east and west coasts of India. The remaining part of the variability observed in the sea level may be attributed to local coastal currents and remote forcing.

  5. Holocene sea-level changes in King George Island, West Antarctica, by virtue of geomorphological coastal evidences and diatom assemblages of sediment sections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poleshchuk, Ksenia; Verkulich, Sergey; Pushina, Zina; Jozhikov, Ilya

    2015-04-01

    A new curve of relative sea-level change is presented for the Fildes peninsula, King George Island, West Antarctic. This work is based on renewed paleogeography data, including coastal geomorphological evidence, diatom assemblages of lakes bottom sediments and radiocarbon datings of organics. The new data were obtained in several sections of quaternary sediments and groups of terraces, and allows us to expand and improve relevant conception about relative sea level changes in the King George Island region. The new radiocarbon datings of organics (mosses and shells) allows reconstructing Holocene conditions that maintain and cause the sea-level changes. Sea diatom assemblages of Dlinnoye lake bottom sediment core (that complies period about 8000 years B.P.) mark altitude of marine water penetrated into the lake. The altitudes of shell remains, which have certain life habits and expect specific salinity and depth conditions, coupled with their absolute datings, indicate the probable elevation of the past sea level. The Mid-Holocene marine transgression reached its maximum level of 18-20 m by 5760 years B.P. The transgression influenced the deglaciation of the Fildes peninsula and environment conditions integrally. The ratio of glacio-isostatic adjustment velocity and Holocene transgression leaded to the decrease of relative sea level during the Late Holocene excluding the short period of rising between 2000 and 1300 years B.P. Comparing this data with the curve for Bunger oasis, East Antarctica, introduced earlier gives an interesting result. Despite the maximum altitudes of relative sea-level rise in King George region were higher and occurred later than in Bunger oasis region, the short-term period of Late Holocene sea-level rising contemporizes. Besides that, this work allow to realize a correlation between regions of Antarctica and adjacent territory. That, in turn, lets answer the question of tectonic and eustatic factors ratio and their contribution to the

  6. Species characteristics of lead in sea foods collected from coastal water of Fujian, Southeastern of China.

    PubMed

    He, Ye; Chen, Zhiqiang; Mo, Fan; Huang, Limei; Xu, LiangJun; Wu, Yongning; Xue, Zhimin; Fu, FengFu

    2016-01-01

    Various sea foods including fish, shellfish and shrimp were collected from different coastal areas of Fujian in China, and their Pb species characteristics were investigated in detail. The results indicated that there are two different species characteristics of Pb existing in sea food samples. About half of samples were detected to have only Pb(2+), and another half of samples were detected to have both Pb(2+) and trimethyl lead (TML). The results also revealed that Pb species characteristics in the sea foods rather depend on the species of sea food than the sampling area. In comparison with shellfish/shrimp samples, fish samples have higher concentrations of TML and Pb(2+). Especially, the average concentration of TML in the TML-detected fish samples is about 3 times of that in the TML-detected shellfish/shrimp samples, indicating that fish has stronger ability to uptake and accumulate TML. The concentrations of total lead in all samples are lower than the maximum allowable limit of national standard, suggesting that the sea foods collected from Fujian are safe for consumption. By considering that TAL has more toxicity than Pb(2+), the effect of TML in sea foods on the human health should be paid more attention in the future. PMID:27624560

  7. Deposit-Feeding Sea Cucumbers Enhance Mineralization and Nutrient Cycling in Organically-Enriched Coastal Sediments

    PubMed Central

    MacTavish, Thomas; Stenton-Dozey, Jeanie; Vopel, Kay; Savage, Candida

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioturbators affect multiple biogeochemical interactions and have been suggested as suitable candidates to mitigate organic matter loading in marine sediments. However, predicting the effects of bioturbators at an ecosystem level can be difficult due to their complex positive and negative interactions with the microbial community. Methodology/Principal Findings We quantified the effects of deposit-feeding sea cucumbers on benthic algal biomass (microphytobenthos, MPB), bacterial abundance, and the sediment–seawater exchange of dissolved oxygen and nutrients. The sea cucumbers increased the efflux of inorganic nitrogen (ammonium, NH4+) from organically enriched sediments, which stimulated algal productivity. Grazing by the sea cucumbers on MPB (evidenced by pheopigments), however, caused a net negative effect on primary producer biomass and total oxygen production. Further, there was an increased abundance of bacteria in sediment with sea cucumbers, suggesting facilitation. The sea cucumbers increased the ratio of oxygen consumption to production in surface sediment by shifting the microbial balance from producers to decomposers. This shift explains the increased efflux of inorganic nitrogen and concordant reduction in organic matter content in sediment with bioturbators. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrates the functional role and potential of sea cucumbers to ameliorate some of the adverse effects of organic matter enrichment in coastal ecosystems. PMID:23209636

  8. Processes contributing to resilience of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stagg, Camille L.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cormier, Nicole; Conner, William H.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify processes that contribute to resilience of coastal wetlands subject to rising sea levels and to determine whether the relative contribution of these processes varies across different wetland community types. We assessed the resilience of wetlands to sea-level rise along a transitional gradient from tidal freshwater forested wetland (TFFW) to marsh by measuring processes controlling wetland elevation. We found that, over 5 years of measurement, TFFWs were resilient, although some marginally, and oligohaline marshes exhibited robust resilience to sea-level rise. We identified fundamental differences in how resilience is maintained across wetland community types, which have important implications for management activities that aim to restore or conserve resilient systems. We showed that the relative importance of surface and subsurface processes in controlling wetland surface elevation change differed between TFFWs and oligohaline marshes. The marshes had significantly higher rates of surface accretion than the TFFWs, and in the marshes, surface accretion was the primary contributor to elevation change. In contrast, elevation change in TFFWs was more heavily influenced by subsurface processes, such as root zone expansion or compaction, which played an important role in determining resilience of TFFWs to rising sea level. When root zone contributions were removed statistically from comparisons between relative sea-level rise and surface elevation change, sites that previously had elevation rate deficits showed a surplus. Therefore, assessments of wetland resilience that do not include subsurface processes will likely misjudge vulnerability to sea-level rise.

  9. Oceanic transports through the Solomon Sea: The bend of the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparin, Florent; Ganachaud, Alexandre; Maes, Christophe; Marin, Frédéric; Eldin, Gérard

    2012-08-01

    Thermocline waters of the tropical southwest Pacific can be traced back to the center of the South Pacific basin and have a potential influence on equatorial surface conditions and on the characteristics of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on decadal timescales. The Solomon Sea is traversed by this influential flow, and therefore is an optimal place for exploring this oceanic connection to the equator. From a high-resolution hydrographic survey at which we applied an inverse box model, we describe the main pathways at the entrance of the Solomon Sea, and more particularly the extremely sharp bend of the western boundary current around the south-east tip of Papua New Guinea. Of the 30 Sv subtropical waters transported into the Coral Sea from the east, above 1300 m, 29 ± 5 Sv makes its way through the Solomon Sea with a large part transported in a boundary current, at the entrance of the Solomon Sea. Around the south-east tip of Papua New Guinea, the Gulf of Papua Current turns abruptly to the north, in a very sharp bend as it merges into the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, on its way, toward the equator. The warm currents transport large amounts of internal energy, with a total of 1.0 ± 0.3 1015W entering the Solomon Sea from the south.

  10. Recent rates of sedimentation on irregularly flooded Boreal Baltic coastal wetlands: Responses to recent changes in sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Raymond D.; Teasdale, Phillip A.; Burnside, Niall G.; Joyce, Christopher B.; Sepp, Kalev

    2014-07-01

    Boreal Baltic coastal wetlands differ markedly from temperate salt marshes by their generally low maximum elevation (between 0 and 1 m above m.s.l.), low seaward gradients and the irregular nature of flooding that is characteristic of the NE Baltic Sea coastal region. As a result of these factors these wetlands have been considered to be threatened by future sea level rise. This study presents results for two Boreal Baltic coastal wetland sites in Estonia using the 210Pb and 137Cs radiometric dating methods to investigate the sedimentary development of these coastal systems. Recent coastal evolution has been largely driven by continuing glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA), with maximum rates of 2.8 mm yr- 1 around the NW Estonian coast and the inherited geomorphological setting of generally flat-lying coastal topography, resulting in coastal emergence. Broad agreement exists between calculated rates of sedimentation identified within the core sequences. Average rates of sedimentation using the 210Pbexcess CF:CS (or ‘simple’) model range between 0.2 and 1.3 mm yr- 1. These rates are corroborated using 137Cs, which also suggests an increase in sedimentation rates during recent decades approaching maximum values for current land uplift. Additionally, the 210Pbexcess CRS model reveals periods of sedimentation greatly in excess of these values in response to coastal flooding from known storm activity. This study indicates that changes in sea level caused by variations in atmospheric pressure and storm surges can contribute a significant sedimentary component, which coupled with GIA processes has driven coastal wetland development/emergence and the historical progradation of these wetland systems. The recent acceleration in the rate of global sea-level rise may subtly alter this relationship. However current rates of GIA and sedimentation will continue to maintain the progradation of Boreal Baltic coastal wetlands in the coming decades.

  11. Extreme coastal flood risk with sea level rise: New definitions and analysis for the contiguous US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, B.; Tebaldi, C.

    2013-12-01

    The '100-year flood' - formally defined as a flood with 0.01 annual probability - is a standard policy and regulatory benchmark for risk in the United States. However, there is increasing recognition that the traditional concept does not apply in a warming world. This is particularly the case with respect to coastal flooding, because at most locations, sea level rise is increasing the risk of flooding to any given height with each passing decade. Here we propose a flexible approach to defining extreme coastal flood height that employs different periods of interest and takes changing risks into account, while maintaining some consistency with the legacy definition. We note that in a stationary world, a 0.01 annual chance flood is equivalent to a flood with cumulative probability P(N) = 1 - 0.99^N over a period of N years. We compute P(N) for N=1 to 100 years, and then estimate the corresponding extreme coastal flood height H(N) for each period length, taking into account projected local sea level rise at each of 55 water level stations distributed throughout the contiguous US, and employing various sea level rise scenarios. In one result, employing a 50-yr interval and the high-intermediate global sea level scenario developed for the National Climate Assessment, we find that the height of extreme floods increases by an average of roughly 0.4 m or 40%, as compared to the traditional definition that assumes unchanging risk. Such discrepancies are compounded when we estimate extreme flood risk under the new approach as it would be calculated for periods beginning in future years, leading to rapid expansion of 100-year flood risk zones.

  12. Response of decadal climatic variations to solar signals in the coastal region of the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raspopov, O. M.; Dergachev, V. A.; Shumilov, O. I.; Nevanlinna, H.

    2003-04-01

    Variations in annual temperatures in the coastal region of the Barents sea in Murmansk (69 N, 33 E) for the period of instrumental records since 1878 have been analyzed. Annual temperature variations have been found to exhibit a pronounced decadal periodicity of the order of 1-1.8 degrees Celsius. Comparison of temperature variations with variations in solar activity (Wolf numbers W) point to the synchronism between decadal temperature variations and the 11-year Schwabe solar cycle. Spectral analysis of the tree ring growth (Pinus Sylvestris L.) in Tuloma Valley near Murmansk for the last 350 years has revealed variations in the tree ring growth with a period of 11-12 years. Thus, decadal climatic variations with the period of the Schwabe solar cycle are typical of the coastal region of the Barents sea. The amplitudes of the observed temperature variations (1-1.8 degrees Celsius) cannot be interpreted as resulting from changes in solar irradiation during the 11-year cycle. These changes are of the order of 0.15%, which can lead to the global temperature response of the order of 0.1-0.3 degrees Celsius. Therefore, a 5-6-fold enhancement of the solar signals takes place in the coastal region of the Barents sea. A similar solar signal enhancement was revealed earlier in variations in the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the Pacific Ocean. Possible reasons for enhancement of solar signals in variations in SST in the Pacific Ocean were considered by White et al.(2000) on the basis of the model of the delayed action oscillator in the ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system. It is probable that in the Northern Atlantic region a similar solar signal enhancement occurs in the ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system. This work was supported by INTAS, Grant 97-31008; PFBR, Grant 00-05-64921 and NorFa.

  13. Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise: Advancing coastal management through integrated research and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Rising sea level represents a significant threat to coastal communities and ecosystems through land loss, altered habitats, and increased vulnerability to coastal storms and inundation. This threat is exemplified in the northern Gulf of Mexico where low topography, expansive marshes, and a prevalence of tropical storms have already resulted in extensive coastal impacts. The development of robust predictive capabilities that incorporate complex biological processes with physical dynamics are critical for informed planning and restoration efforts for coastal ecosystems. Looking to build upon existing predictive modeling capabilities and allow for use of multiple model (i.e., ensemble) approaches, NOAA initiated the Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise program in 2010 to advance physical/biological integrative modeling capabilities in the region with a goal to provide user friendly predictive tools for coastal ecosystem management. Focused on the northern Gulf of Mexico, this multi-disciplinary project led by the University of Central Florida will use in situ field studies to parameterize physical and biological models. These field studies will also result in a predictive capability for overland sediment delivery and transport that will further enhance marsh, oyster, and submerged aquatic vegetation models. Results from this integrated modeling effort are envisioned to inform management strategies for reducing risk, restoration and breakwater guidelines, and resource sustainability for project planning, among other uses. In addition to the science components, this project incorporates significant engagement of the management community through a management applications principle investigator and an advisory management committee. Routine engagement between the science team and the management committee, including annual workshops, are focused on ensuring the development of applicable, relevant, and useable products and tools at the conclusion of this project. Particular

  14. A summary of the COASTALT project and its contribution to the monitoring of coastal sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipollini, Paolo; Barbosa, Susana; Coelho, Henrique; Joana Fernandes, M.; Gómez-Enri, Jesus; Gommenginger, Christine; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Vignudelli, Stefano; Woodworth, Philip; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2010-05-01

    that allows users to add their own corrections for research and application purposes. In a related task, innovative retracking techniques have been investigated; these will pave the way to the next generation of retrackers; • in parallel to the development of the processor the project has carried out a full product definition and produced the relevant documentation including a user handbook; • the project has also investigated the use of the new CGDRs in training and outreach activities via the BRAT toolbox, issuing a series of guideline recommendations. Then we will discuss how to continue the COASTALT work in Phase 2 of the Project, in view of the lessons learned so far, in order to further improve coastal altimetry and promote the full uptake of reprocessed coastal altimetry products by the user community. We will conclude by discussing the contribution that coastal altimetry reprocessed data can give to the assessment of the rate of sea level in the very region where the impacts of changing oceans on society are most severely felt, i.e. the coastal zone.

  15. Evaluation of the swell effect on the air-sea gas transfer in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Loza, Lucía; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea gas transfer processes are one of the most important factors regarding global climate and long-term global climate changes. Despite its importance, there is still a huge uncertainty on how to better parametrize these processes in order to include them on the global climate models. This uncertainty exposes the need to increase our knowledge on gas transfer controlling mechanisms. In the coastal regions, breaking waves become a key factor to take into account when estimating gas fluxes, however, there is still a lack of information and the influence of the ocean surface waves on the air-sea interaction and gas flux behavior must be validated. In this study, as part of the "Sea Surface Roughness as Air-Sea Interaction Control" project, we evaluate the effect of the ocean surface waves on the gas exchange in the coastal zone. Direct estimates of the flux of CO2 (FCO2) and water vapor (FH2O) through eddy covariance, were carried out from May 2014 to April 2015 in a coastal station located at the Northwest of Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, México. For the same period, ocean surface waves are recorded using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (Workhorse Sentinel, Teledyne RD Instruments) with a sampling rate of 2 Hz and located at 10 m depth about 350 m away from the tower. We found the study area to be a weak sink of CO2 under moderate wind and wave conditions with a mean flux of -1.32 μmol/m2s. The correlation between the wind speed and FCO2 was found to be weak, suggesting that other physical processes besides wind may be important factors for the gas exchange modulation at coastal waters. The results of the quantile regression analysis computed between FCO2 and (1) wind speed, (2) significant wave height, (3) wave steepness and (4) water temperature, show that the significant wave height is the most correlated parameter with FCO2; Nevertheless, the behavior of their relation varies along the probability distribution of FCO2, with the linear regression

  16. Characterizing the role benthos plays in large coastal seas and estuaries: A modular approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenore, K.R.; Zajac, R.N.; Terwin, J.; Andrade, F.; Blanton, J.; Boynton, W.; Carey, D.; Diaz, R.; Holland, Austin F.; Lopez-Jamar, E.; Montagna, P.; Nichols, F.; Rosenberg, R.; Queiroga, H.; Sprung, M.; Whitlatch, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Ecologists studying coastal and estuarine benthic communities have long taken a macroecological view, by relating benthic community patterns to environmental factors across several spatial scales. Although many general ecological patterns have been established, often a significant amount of the spatial and temporal variation in soft-sediment communities within and among systems remains unexplained. Here we propose a framework that may aid in unraveling the complex influence of environmental factors associated with the different components of coastal systems (i.e. the terrestrial and benthic landscapes, and the hydrological seascape) on benthic communities, and use this information to assess the role played by benthos in coastal ecosystems. A primary component of the approach is the recognition of system modules (e.g. marshes, dendritic systems, tidal rivers, enclosed basins, open bays, lagoons). The modules may differentially interact with key forcing functions (e.g. temperature, salinity, currents) that influence system processes and in turn benthic responses and functions. Modules may also constrain benthic characteristics and related processes within certain ecological boundaries and help explain their overall spatio-temporal variation. We present an example of how benthic community characteristics are related to the modular structure of 14 coastal seas and estuaries, and show that benthic functional group composition is significantly related to the modular structure of these systems. We also propose a framework for exploring the role of benthic communities in coastal systems using this modular approach and offer predictions of how benthic communities may vary depending on the modular composition and characteristics of a coastal system. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutrients Seasonal Variability and Carbonate System Dynamics in the Laptev Sea coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelieva, Nina; Pipko, Irina; Semiletov, Igor

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic ocean has the broadest shelf in the World ocean: the continental shelves occupy about 36% of the Arctic oceanic area. Morever, greater than 90% of all organic carbon burial occurs in sediments depositing on deltas, continental shelves , and upper continental slopes, and the significant portion of organic carbon withdraw is occurred over the Siberian shelf (Macdonald et al., 2008). The coastal zone plays an important role in the East Siberian Arctic land-shelf-basin system, because the major transport of fresh water, dissolved and solid material into the Arctic Ocean is determined by 1) the riverine discharges, and 2) coastal erosion. Production in the Arctic is highly seasonal, and it is important to consider the magnitude of seasonal variations in nutrients. Here we present the results (nutrients, parameters of the carbonate system, and oxygen) obtained during ice-covered season (April of 2002 and 2007) and open water season (September of 2000 and 2005) over the south-eastern part of the Laptev Sea which is under strong influence of the Lena river and coastal erosion. High spatial-temporal variability in nutrients (ammonium, nitrates, nitrites, phosphate, and silicates) and carbonate parameters (pH, Talk, and pCO2) distributions has been found. We suggest that relatively high (vs entire oligotrophic Laptev and East Siberian seas) productivity of the coastal zone is related not only to the influence of the river inputs, but also the coastal erosion, enriching the coastal waters in nutrients and terrestrial organic matter and to the close coupling between the water and sediment, assuring a rapid reutilization of regenerated elements. Highest anomalies of all parameters (for instance: pCO2 up to 4000mkatm) are associated with the areas strongly affected by coastal erosion. References Macdonald R.W., Anderson L.G., Christensen J.P., Miller L.A., Semiletov I.P., and R. Stein, 2008. The Arctic Ocean: budgets and fluxes, In "Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in

  18. A Numerical Study of Sea Breeze and Spatiotemporal Variation in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qian-Qian; Cai, Xu-Hui; Song, Yu; Kang, Ling

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations of sea breezes and the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at Hainan Island, China during summer and winter are discussed. The different behaviour of sea breezes and the ABL on the leeward and windward sides of the island are examined, and it is found that offshore flows are more likely to create a strong sea-breeze signature, whereas the process of sea-breeze development under onshore flows is difficult to capture. At the location where the sea-breeze signal is remarkable, the height of the coastal ABL displays an abnormal decrease, corresponding to a transitional point from a continental ABL to a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formed under sea-breeze conditions. This is corroborated by the sudden increase in the water vapour mixing ratio and/or wind speed, indicating the arrival of the sea breeze. Regarding the spatial distribution, the TIBL height decreases abruptly just ahead of the sea-breeze front, and above the cold air mass. When the sea-breeze front occurs with a raised head, a cold air mass is separated from the sea-breeze flow and penetrates inland. This separation is attributed to the interaction between the sea breeze and valley breeze, while the dry airflow entraining to the sea-breeze flow may also partially contribute to this air mass separation.

  19. Holocene development of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastal zone (Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchuk, Daria; Sergeev, Alexander; Gusentsova, Tatiana; Gerasimov, Dmitry; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Amantov, Aleksey; Kulkova, Marianna; Sorokin, Peter

    2014-05-01

    In 2011-2013 geoarcheological and marine geological research of the eastern Gulf of Finland coasts and near-shore bottom were undertaken. Researches were concentrated within several key-areas (Sestroretskaya Lowland, Narva-Luga Klint Bay and southern coastal zone of the Gulf (near Bolshaya Izhora village). Study areas can provide important information about Gulf of Finland Holocene coastal development as since Ancylus time (about 10000 cal.BP). Development of numerous sand accretion forms (spits, bars, dunes) of different shape, age and genesis caused formation of lagoon systems, situated now on-land due to land uplift. Coasts of lagoons in Sestroretskaya Lowland and Narva-Luga Klint Bay were inhabited by Neolithic and Early Metal people. Analysis of coastal morphology and results of geological research (GIS relief analyses, ground penetrating radar, drilling, grain-size analyses, radiocarbon dating) and geoarcheological studies allowed to reconstruct the mechanism of large accretion bodies (bars and spits) and lagoon systems formation during last 8000 years. Geoarcheological studies carried out within eastern Gulf of Finland coasts permitted to find some features of the Neolithic - Early Metal settlements distribution. Another important features of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastal zone relief are the series of submarine terraces found in the Gulf bottom (sea water depths 10 to 2 m). Analyses of the submarine terraces morphology and geology (e.g. grain-size distribution, pollen analyses and organic matter dating) allow to suppose that several times during Holocene (including preAncylus (11000 cal.BP) and preLittorina (8500 cal.BP) regressions) the sea-water level was lower than nowadays. During the maximal stage of the Littorina transgression (7600-7200 cal. BP) several open bays connected with the Littorina Sea appeared in this area. The lagoon systems and sand accretion bodies (spits and bars) were formed during the following decreasing of the sea level. Late

  20. Surface circulation in Block Island Sound and adjacent coastal and shelf regions: A FVCOM-CODAR comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yunfang; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Ullman, Dave; Butman, Bradford; Lin, Huichan

    2016-04-01

    CODAR-derived surface currents in Block Island Sound over the period of June 2000 through September 2008 were compared to currents computed using the Northeast Coastal Ocean Forecast System (NECOFS). The measurement uncertainty of CODAR-derived currents, estimated using statistics of a screened nine-year time series of hourly-averaged flow field, ranged from 3 to 7 cm/s in speed and 4° to 14° in direction. The CODAR-derived and model-computed kinetic energy spectrum densities were in good agreement at subtidal frequencies, but the NECOFS-derived currents were larger by about 28% at semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal frequencies. The short-term (hourly to daily) current variability was dominated by the semidiurnal tides (predominantly the M2 tide), which on average accounted for ∼87% of the total kinetic energy. The diurnal tidal and subtidal variability accounted for ∼4% and ∼9% of the total kinetic energy, respectively. The monthly-averaged difference between the CODAR-derived and model-computed velocities over the study area was 6 cm/s or less in speed and 28° or less in direction over the study period. An EOF analysis for the low-frequency vertically-averaged model current field showed that the water transport in the Block Island Sound region was dominated by modes 1 and 2, which accounted for 89% and 7% of the total variance, respectively. Mode 1 represented a relatively stationary spatial and temporal flow pattern with a magnitude that varied with season. Mode 2 was characterized mainly by a secondary cross-shelf flow and a relatively strong along-shelf flow. Process-oriented model experiments indicated that the relatively stationary flow pattern found in mode 1 was a result of tidal rectification and its magnitude changed with seasonal stratification. Correlation analysis between the flow and wind stress suggested that the cross-shelf water transport and its temporal variability in mode 2 were highly correlated to the surface wind forcing. The mode 2

  1. An Adaptation Strategy to Address Sea Level Rise Along Coastal Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Historic tidal records indicate that mean sea level in San Francisco Bay has risen at a rate of about 2 mm/yr over the past 100 years. Over the past 20 years, the annual rate has accelerated to about 3 mm/yr. Recent climate change studies related to greenhouse gas emissions indicate that sea levels could rise much faster than even this rate, which would have a significant effect on coastal communities. Several communities in the San Francisco Bay area, which were not mapped to be within a flood zone by FEMA, are now prone to flooding due to rising sea levels. There is a significant amount of uncertainty associated with quantifying the rate of sea level change because climate change science is still evolving and feedback loops such as temperature-ice melt, temperature-sea levels, and CO2-temperature are still under investigation. Therefore, the traditional engineering approach to solving a problem, which includes defining the problem, assessing existing conditions, analyzing data, and developing solutions is difficult when addressing climate change induced sea level change. This paper describes work completed for two major proposed communities in the City of San Francisco. Peer-reviewed literature included the body of work by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, US federal and state agencies, and scientific papers by academia. Rates of sea level rise were statistically analyzed using the end values and start or end rates specified in the studies. Probabilistic analyses of extreme values using Generalized Extreme Value Distributions (GEVD) and the Maximum Likelihood Approach were completed to develop extreme values for water levels including the effects of astronomical tides, storm events, ocean swell events, and tsunami events. These values were subsequently combined with sea level rise estimates, and various scenarios of required coastal improvements were developed for discussions with stakeholders and project developers. Based on the analysis and

  2. Implications of multi-scale sea level and climate variability for coastal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karamperidou, Christina; Engel, Victor; Lall, Upmanu; Stabenau, Erik; Smith, Thomas J., III

    2013-01-01

    While secular changes in regional sea levels and their implications for coastal zone management have been studied extensively, less attention is being paid to natural fluctuations in sea levels, whose interaction with a higher mean level could have significant impacts on low-lying areas, such as wetlands. Here, the long record of sea level at Key West, FL is studied in terms of both the secular trend and the multi-scale sea level variations. This analysis is then used to explore implications for the Everglades National Park (ENP), which is recognized internationally for its ecological significance, and is the site of the largest wetland restoration project in the world. Very shallow topographic gradients (3–6 cm per km) make the region susceptible to small changes in sea level. Observations of surface water levels from a monitoring network within ENP exhibit both the long-term trends and the interannual-to-(multi)decadal variability that are observed in the Key West record. Water levels recorded at four long-term monitoring stations within ENP exhibit increasing trends approximately equal to or larger than the long-term trend at Key West. Time- and frequency-domain analyses highlight the potential influence of climate mechanisms, such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), on Key West sea levels and marsh water levels, and the potential modulation of their influence by the background state of the North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures. In particular, the Key West sea levels are found to be positively correlated with the NAO index, while the two series exhibit high spectral power during the transition to a cold Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The correlation between the Key West sea levels and the NINO3 Index reverses its sign in coincidence with a reversal of the AMO phase. Water levels in ENP are also influenced by precipitation and freshwater releases from the northern boundary of the Park. The analysis of both

  3. Evaluation of Dynamic Coastal Response to Sea-level Rise Modifies Inundation Likelihood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lentz, Erika E.; Thieler, E. Robert; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stippa, Sawyer R.; Horton, Radley M.; Gesch, Dean B.

    2016-01-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) poses a range of threats to natural and built environments, making assessments of SLR-induced hazards essential for informed decision making. We develop a probabilistic model that evaluates the likelihood that an area will inundate (flood) or dynamically respond (adapt) to SLR. The broad-area applicability of the approach is demonstrated by producing 30x30m resolution predictions for more than 38,000 sq km of diverse coastal landscape in the northeastern United States. Probabilistic SLR projections, coastal elevation and vertical land movement are used to estimate likely future inundation levels. Then, conditioned on future inundation levels and the current land-cover type, we evaluate the likelihood of dynamic response versus inundation. We find that nearly 70% of this coastal landscape has some capacity to respond dynamically to SLR, and we show that inundation models over-predict land likely to submerge. This approach is well suited to guiding coastal resource management decisions that weigh future SLR impacts and uncertainty against ecological targets and economic constraints.

  4. Evaluation of dynamic coastal response to sea-level rise modifies inundation likelihood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lentz, Erika E.; Thieler, E. Robert; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stippa, Sawyer R.; Horton, Radley M.; Gesch, Dean B.

    2016-01-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) poses a range of threats to natural and built environments1, 2, making assessments of SLR-induced hazards essential for informed decision making3. We develop a probabilistic model that evaluates the likelihood that an area will inundate (flood) or dynamically respond (adapt) to SLR. The broad-area applicability of the approach is demonstrated by producing 30 × 30 m resolution predictions for more than 38,000 km2 of diverse coastal landscape in the northeastern United States. Probabilistic SLR projections, coastal elevation and vertical land movement are used to estimate likely future inundation levels. Then, conditioned on future inundation levels and the current land-cover type, we evaluate the likelihood of dynamic response versus inundation. We find that nearly 70% of this coastal landscape has some capacity to respond dynamically to SLR, and we show that inundation models over-predict land likely to submerge. This approach is well suited to guiding coastal resource management decisions that weigh future SLR impacts and uncertainty against ecological targets and economic constraints.

  5. Coastal environment of the Beaufort Sea from field data and ERTS-1 imagery, summer 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimnitz, E. (Principal Investigator); Barnes, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An extensive field program during the spring and summer in the coastal Beaufort Sea test site has been completed using a wide variety of sensing techniques. Reduction of field data and ERTS-1 image analysis have shown the coastal environment to be complexly influenced by unique processes, most of which involve or are related to sea ice. Active sedimentologic processes along the Arctic coast are set in motion by the melting, flooding, and eventual overflow of rivers onto the sea ice. It is now apparent that only minor amounts of sediment are transported offshore at this stage; however, scouring of the bottom is significant beneath the strudels (drain holes) which develop in the fast ice canopy in the region of overflow. Areal salinity and turbidity patterns together with ERTS-1 imagery confirm a consistent influx of colder, clearer, saltier water towards the coast just east of the Colville River. Strong (up to 3 knots) bidirectional but intermittent currents often manifest themselves in imagery and aerial photographs as wakes behind grounded ice. Ice movement vectors generated from repetitive images indicate that ice drift is closely associated with wind direction, especially in shallow bays, and displacements of 4-22 kilometers were noted in 24 hours.

  6. Distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales in relation to environmental variables in coastal British Columbia and adjacent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Ford, John K. B.; Trites, Andrew W.

    2012-03-01

    Humpback whales are common in feeding areas off British Columbia (BC) from spring to fall, and are widely distributed along the coast. Climate change and the increase in population size of North Pacific humpback whales may lead to increased anthropogenic impact and require a better understanding of species-habitat relationships. We investigated the distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales in relation to environmental variables and processes in BC waters using GIS and generalized additive models (GAMs). Six non-systematic cetacean surveys were conducted between 2004 and 2006. Whale encounter rates and environmental variables (oceanographic and remote sensing data) were recorded along transects divided into 4 km segments. A combined 3-year model and individual year models (two surveys each) were fitted with the mgcv R package. Model selection was based primarily on GCV scores. The explained deviance of our models ranged from 39% for the 3-year model to 76% for the 2004 model. Humpback whales were strongly associated with latitude and bathymetric features, including depth, slope and distance to the 100-m isobath. Distance to sea-surface-temperature fronts and salinity (climatology) were also constantly selected by the models. The shapes of smooth functions estimated for variables based on chlorophyll concentration or net primary productivity with different temporal resolutions and time lags were not consistent, even though higher numbers of whales seemed to be associated with higher primary productivity for some models. These and other selected explanatory variables may reflect areas of higher biological productivity that favor top predators. Our study confirms the presence of at least three important regions for humpback whales along the BC coast: south Dixon Entrance, middle and southwestern Hecate Strait and the area between La Perouse Bank and the southern edge of Juan de Fuca Canyon.

  7. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Frouin, R.; Cassanet, G.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. HCMM data analysis shows some mesoscale features which were previously expected to occur: summer coastal upwellings in the Gulf of Lions, tidal fronts bordering the English Channel, and cooler surface waters at the continental shelf break. The analysis of the spectral variance density spectra show that the interpretation of the data usually is limited by the HCMM radiometric performance (noise levels) at wavenumbers below 5 km in the oceanic areas; from this analysis it may also be concluded that a decrease of the radiometric noise level down to 0.1 k against an increase of the ground resolution up to 2 km would give a better optimum of the radiometric performances in the oceanic areas. HCMM data appear to be useful for analysis of the sea surface temperature field, particularly in the very coastal area by profiting from the ground resolution of 500 m.

  8. Assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediments, seawaters and bivalves of the Mediterranean Sea coast, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S; Attiah, Abdullah

    2015-12-30

    In order to assess metal contamination on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, 45 sediment samples, seawaters and bivalve specimens were collected from Rosetta coastal area for Mg, Al, K, Fe, Sr, Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Ce, Ni, Cr and Zr analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that the coastal sediments of Rosetta area were severely enriched, strongly polluted with As, Pb and very highly contaminated with As, Pb, Ni, Ce, mostly as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with other samples from the Arabian Gulf, Red Sea and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of Fe, Pb, As, Zn and Ni. The natural sources of heavy metals in the study area are attributed to weathering and decomposition of mountain ranges of the Sudan and Ethiopia, while the anthropogenic ones are the metals produced from industrial, sewage, irrigation and urban runoff. PMID:26563548

  9. Bathing water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Lolita; Murmura, Federica; Scarano, Antonio

    2015-06-15

    The quality of bathing water is fundamental, not only from an environmental point of view but also due to the economic importance of tourism. This paper examines the water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea) with reference to the microbiological parameters Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci required by Directive 2006/07 of European Commission. The water quality of 15 coastal beaches was surveyed; data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Abruzzo Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARTA) and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2010-2013). Statistical analysis was used to confirm the aspects deduced from mean values of monitoring and control data for each stretch. The data highlight critical situations in various parts of the coast; these problems can be attributed to river pollution, mainly due to the malfunctioning of the treatment plants for urban wastewater. PMID:25934432

  10. Preliminary results in use of ERS-1 imagery for Black Sea coastal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necsoiu, Marius; Atkinson, Samuel F.

    1994-12-01

    A preliminary study of ERS-1 imagery over a portion of Romanian coastal zone is presented. After compression from 16 bit to 8 bit data and application of adaptive filter to reduce speckle and antenna pattern correction for one of the images, the mean radar return from an offshore region with uniform backscatter has been related to the wind conditions. As a particularity for Black Sea, tidal conditions do not influence much spectral signature of data. Smooth slicks, regions of low backscatter also appear to correlate with coastal outfalls. Meteo and seastate observations have been obtained during ERS-1 data acquisition, which may give an answer after ERS-1 data have been processed in future.

  11. Are Coastal Protected Areas Always Effective in Achieving Population Recovery for Nesting Sea Turtles?

    PubMed Central

    Nel, Ronel; Punt, André E.; Hughes, George R.

    2013-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly migratory and usually dispersed, but aggregate off beaches during the nesting season, rendering them vulnerable to coastal threats. Consequently, coastal Marine Protection Areas (MPAs) have been used to facilitate the recovery of turtle populations, but the effectiveness of these programs is uncertain as most have been operating for less than a single turtle generation (or<20 yr). South Africa, however, hosts one of the longest running conservation programs, protecting nesting loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) turtles since 1963 in a series of coastal MPAs. This provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the long-term effect of spatial protection on the abundance of two highly migratory turtle species with different life history characteristics. Population responses were assessed by modeling the number of nests over time in an index area (13 km) and an expanded monitoring area (53 km) with varying survey effort. Loggerhead abundance increased dramatically from∼250 to>1700 nests pa (index area) especially over the last decade, while leatherback abundance increased initially∼10 to 70 nests pa (index area), but then stabilized. Although leatherbacks have higher reproductive output per female and comparable remigration periods and hatching success to loggerheads, the leatherback population failed to expand. Our results suggest that coastal MPAs can work but do not guarantee the recovery of sea turtle populations as pressures change over time. Causes considered for the lack of population growth include factors in the MPA (expansion into unmonitored areas or incubation environment) of outside of the MPA (including carrying capacity and fishing mortality). Conservation areas for migratory species thus require careful design to account for species-specific needs, and need to be monitored to keep track of changing pressures. PMID:23671683

  12. How to Preserve Coastal Wetlands, Threatened by Climate Change-Driven Rises in Sea Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivajnšič, Danijel; Kaligarič, Mitja

    2014-10-01

    A habitat transition model, based on the correlation between individual habitats and micro-elevation intervals, showed substantial changes in the future spatial distributions of coastal habitats. The research was performed within two protected areas in Slovenia: Sečovlje Salina Nature Park and Škocjan Inlet Nature Reserve. Shifts between habitats will occur, but a general decline of 42 % for all Natura 2000 habitats is projected by 2060, according to local or global (IPCC AR4) sea level rise predictions. Three different countermeasures for the long-term conservation of targeted habitat types were proposed. The most "natural" is displacement of coastal habitats using buffer zones (1) were available. Another solution is construction of artificial islets, made of locally dredged material (2); a feasible solution in both protected areas. Twenty-two islets and a dried salt pan zone at the desired elevations suitable for those habitats that have been projected to decease in area would offer an additional 10 ha in the Sečovlje Salina. Twenty-one islets and two peninsulas at two different micro-altitudes would ensure the survival of 13 ha of three different habitats. In the area of Sečovlje Salina, abandoned salt pans could be terrestrialized by using permanent, artificial sea barriers, in a manner close to poldering (3). By using this countermeasure, another 32 ha of targeted habitat could be preserved. It can be concluded that, for each coastal area, where wetland habitats will shrink, strategic plans involving any of the three solutions should be prepared well in advance. The specific examples provided might facilitate adaptive management of coastal wetlands in general.

  13. Global DEM Errors Underpredict Coastal Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise and Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, Scott; Strauss, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Elevation data based on NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) have been widely used to evaluate threats from global sea level rise, storm surge, and coastal floods. However, SRTM data are known to include large vertical errors in densely urban or densely vegetated areas. The errors may propagate to derived land and population exposure assessments. We compare assessments based on SRTM data against references employing high-accuracy bare-earth elevation data generated from lidar data available for coastal areas of the United States. We find that both 1-arcsecond and 3-arcsecond horizontal resolution SRTM data systemically underestimate exposure across all assessed spatial scales and up to at least 10m above the high tide line. At 3m, 1-arcsecond SRTM underestimates U.S. population exposure by more than 60%, and under-predicts population exposure in 90% of coastal states, 87% of counties, and 83% of municipalities. These fractions increase with elevation, but error medians and variability fall to lower levels, with national exposure underestimated by just 24% at 10m. Results using 3-arcsecond SRTM are extremely similar. Coastal analyses based on SRTM data thus appear to greatly underestimate sea level and flood threats, especially at lower elevations. However, SRTM-based estimates may usefully be regarded as providing lower bounds to actual threats. We additionally assess the performance of NOAA's Global Land One-km Base Elevation Project (GLOBE), another publicly-available global DEM, but do not reach any definitive conclusion because of the spatial heterogeneity in its quality.

  14. Thermohaline structure and hydrochemical characteristics under the fast ice in the south-eastern Laptev Sea coastal zone (the Buor-Khaya Bay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelieva, N.; Salyuk, A.; Semiletov, I.; Spivak, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Lena River input in the Laptev Sea creates specific oceanographic conditions, which in turn play a key role in ice formation and heat exchange in the Arctic Basin. The summertime thermohaline conditions in the Lena-Laptev sea system were studied well, but the reliable wintertime data are absent. Thus we focus our attention on the Buor-Khaya Gulf where processes of interaction between the Lena River and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea are most pronounced. Observations in the estuarine zone of the Lena River have been carried out in April, 2007. CTD profiles (temperature, salinity, turbidity) and hydrochemistry sampling (silica, phosphate, nitrite, nitrate) were fulfilled under the fast ice at 53 oceanographic stations. Winter oceanographic conditions in the Buor-Khaya Bay are characterized by significant spatial variability. Below ice-cover in the central part of the Bay frontal zone are revealed. It crossed the Bay in north-south direction. Two general type of water masses are recognized: (1) surface water mass, which formed as a result of mixing river and coastal water of the Laptev Sea with high turbidity, high concentration of nutrients, low oxygen saturation; (2) near bottom water mass with negative temperature high salinity and low turbidity and less concentration of nutrients. The latter is subdivided on two modifications due to the nutrients content and oxygen saturation. Two-layer structure observed in the deeper eastern part of the Bay. The surface layer is ~ 6 m thickness (temperature 0

  15. Contribution of the upper river, the estuarine region, and the adjacent sea to the heavy metal pollution in the Yangtze Estuary.

    PubMed

    Yin, Su; Wu, Yuehan; Xu, Wei; Li, Yangyang; Shen, Zhenyao; Feng, Chenghong

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether the discharge control of heavy metals in the Yangtze River basin can significantly change the pollution level in the estuary, this study analyzed the sources (upper river, the estuarine region, and the adjacent sea) of ten heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) in dissolved and particulate phases in the surface water of the estuary during wet, normal, and dry seasons. Metal sources inferred from section fluxes agree with those in statistical analysis methods. Heavy metal pollution in the surface water of Yangtze Estuary primarily depends on the sediment suspension and the wastewater discharge from estuary cities. Upper river only constitutes the main source of dissolved heavy metals during the wet season, while the estuarine region and the adjacent sea (especially the former) dominate the dissolved metal pollution in the normal and dry seasons. Particulate metals are mainly derived from sediment suspension in the estuary and the adjacent sea, and the contribution of the upper river can be neglected. Compared with the hydrologic seasons, flood-ebb tides exert a more obvious effect on the water flow directions in the estuary. Sediment suspension, not the upper river, significantly affects the suspended particulate matter concentration in the estuary. PMID:27155472

  16. Hydrodynamic modelling of coastal seas: the role of tidal dynamics in the Messina Strait, Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucco, Andrea; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Olita, Antonio; Fazioli, Leopoldo; Ribotti, Alberto; Sinerchia, Matteo; Tedesco, Costanza; Sorgente, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    This work explores the importance of considering tidal dynamics when modelling the general circulation in the Messina Strait, a narrow passage connecting the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian subbasins in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The tides and the induced water circulation in this Strait are among the most intense oceanographic processes in the Mediterranean Sea. The quantification of these effects can be particularly relevant for operational oceanographic systems aimed to provide short-term predictions of the main hydrodynamics in the Western Mediterranean subbasins. A numerical approach based on the use of a high-resolution hydrodynamic model was followed to reproduce the tides propagation and the wind-induced and thermohaline water circulation within the Strait and in surrounding areas. A set of numerical simulations was carried out to quantify the role of the Strait dynamics on the larger-scale water circulation. The obtained results confirmed the importance of a correct representation of the hydrodynamics in the Messina Strait even when focusing on predicting the water circulation in the external sea traits. In fact, model results show that tidal dynamics deeply impact the reproduction of the instantaneous and residual circulation pattern, waters thermohaline properties and transport dynamics both inside the Messina Strait and in the surrounding coastal and open waters.

  17. How Shall We Tell Our People? The Art and Science of Communicating Sea-Level Rise to Coastal Audiences (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Improved sea-level rise projections and translation into decision-relevant information (e.g., changed flood frequencies and elevations, increased rates in coastal erosion, salinity changes in coastal aquifers) are critical for coastal managers, planners, and local elected officials to feel more confident in bringing climate change and its related coastal impacts to the attention of their communities. Those who have done so or are considering doing so, however, are not just concerned with “getting the science right” or getting the most credible and relevant information. They immediately, and sometimes primarily, are concerned with the reactions of coastal residents, developers, and business interests to the prospects of potentially difficult and substantial changes in coastal land use, their property rights, and the potential loss of their homes and establishments. How to engage the public constructively in developing adaptation strategies is a largely unmet challenge for most coastal managers. Similarly, they have not been trained in how to effectively communicate an issue that is ripe with the potential for loss, danger, and social and legal conflict - more so than they already face. Better physical science on sea-level rise alone will not meet these needs. Meanwhile, the social sciences have only begun to study public attitudes toward local impacts and adaptation responses. This paper will summarize key insights available at this time and point to important research and education/training needs to better assist practitioners faced with developing and implementing coastal adaptation strategies.

  18. Coastal dynamics and submarine permafrost in shallow water of the central Laptev Sea, East Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overduin, P.; Wetterich, S.; Günther, F.; Grigoriev, M. N.; Grosse, G.; Schirrmeister, L.; Hubberten, H.-W.; Makarov, A.

    2015-07-01

    Coastal erosion and relative sea-level rise transform terrestrial landscapes into marine environments. In the Arctic, these processes inundate terrestrial permafrost with seawater and create submarine permafrost. Permafrost begins to warm under marine conditions, which can destabilize the sea floor and may release greenhouse gases. We report on the transition of terrestrial to submarine permafrost at a site where the timing of inundation can be inferred from the rate of coastline retreat. On Muostakh Island in the central Laptev Sea, East Siberia, changes in annual coastline position have been measured for decades and vary highly spatially. We hypothesize that these rates are inversely related to the inclination of the upper surface of submarine ice-bonded permafrost (IBP) based on the consequent duration of inundation with increasing distance from the shoreline. We compared rapidly eroding and stable coastal sections of Muostakh Island and find permafrost-table inclinations, determined using direct current resistivity, of 1 and 5 %, respectively. Determinations of submarine IBP depth from a drilling transect in the early 1980s were compared to resistivity profiles from 2011. Based on boreholes drilled in 1982-1983, the thickness of unfrozen sediment overlying the IBP increased from 0 up to 14 m below sea level with increasing distance from the shoreline. The geoelectrical profiles showed thickening of the unfrozen sediment overlying ice-bonded permafrost over the 28 years since drilling took place. Parts of our geoelectrical profiles trace permafrost flooded, and showed that IBP degradation rates decreased from over 0.6 m a-1 following inundation to around 0.1 m a-1 as the duration of inundation increased to 250 years. We discuss that long-term rates are expected to be less than these values, as the depth to the IBP increases and thermal and pore water solute concentration gradients over depth decrease. For this region, it can be summarized that recent increases

  19. Modelling the coastal processes at the mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Eugen; Zanopol, Andrei

    2014-05-01

    The mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea represent the main southern entrance in the seventh Pan European transportation corridor that links the Black and the Northern seas and is the most important inland navigable waterway in Europe. For this reason the coastal area close to the Danube Delta is subjected to high navigation traffic, which is crucially affected by the strong processes mainly induced by the interactions between the waves and the currents generated by the Danube River outflow. From this perspective, the objective of the present work is to develop a computational framework based on numerical models able to evaluate properly the effects of these interactions and to provide reliable predictions concerning the wave and current conditions corresponding to various environmental patterns. Following this target, a wave modelling system, SWAN based, was implemented in the entire basin of the Black Sea and focused on the coastal sector at the entrance of the Danube Delta. As a next step of the modelling process, SWAN simulations were performed at two different computational levels, considering in parallel the situations without and with the current fields for the main environmental conditions characteristic to the target area. The first level covers the entire coastal area at the mouths of the Danube River and has a resolution in the geographical space of 500m. The second is a computational domain with the resolution of 50m that is focused on the Sulina channel, which is the main navigation gate at the mouths of the Danube River. The results show that the presence of the currents induces relevant enhancements in terms of significant wave heights. Additionally, the Benjamin Feir index (BFI) was also evaluated. This is a spectral shape parameter that is related to the kurtosis of the distribution and indicates the risk of the freak wave occurrence. The enhanced values for BFI in the case when the current fields are considered in the modelling process

  20. Spatial and temporal variability of sea-surface temperature fronts in the coastal Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, Sélima Ben; Larouche, Pierre; Dubois, Jean-Marie

    2016-08-01

    An analysis of 11 years of sea surface temperatures images allowed the determination of the frontal occurrence probability in the southeastern Beaufort Sea using the single-image edge detection method. Results showed that, as the season progresses, fronts become more detectable due to solar heating of the surface layer. Some recurrent features can be identified in the summer time frontal climatology such as the Mackenzie River plume front, the Cape Bathurst front, the Mackenzie Trough front and the Amundsen Gulf front. These areas may be playing an important role in the biological processes acting as drivers to local enhanced biological productivity.

  1. Uncertainties in Measuring Populations Potentially Impacted by Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Pinki; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the impact of global climate change requires information on the locations and characteristics of populations affected. For instance, with global sea level predicted to rise and coastal flooding set to become more frequent and intense, high-resolution spatial population datasets are increasingly being used to estimate the size of vulnerable coastal populations. Many previous studies have undertaken this by quantifying the size of populations residing in low elevation coastal zones using one of two global spatial population datasets available – LandScan and the Global Rural Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP). This has been undertaken without consideration of the effects of this choice, which are a function of the quality of input datasets and differences in methods used to construct each spatial population dataset. Here we calculate estimated low elevation coastal zone resident population sizes from LandScan and GRUMP using previously adopted approaches, and quantify the absolute and relative differences achieved through switching datasets. Our findings suggest that the choice of one particular dataset over another can translate to a difference of more than 7.5 million vulnerable people for countries with extensive coastal populations, such as Indonesia and Japan. Our findings also show variations in estimates of proportions of national populations at risk range from <0.1% to 45% differences when switching between datasets, with large differences predominantly for countries where coarse and outdated input data were used in the construction of the spatial population datasets. The results highlight the need for the construction of spatial population datasets built on accurate, contemporary and detailed census data for use in climate change impact studies and the importance of acknowledging uncertainties inherent in existing spatial population datasets when estimating the demographic impacts of climate change. PMID:23110208

  2. Effects of hydrogeological properties on sea-derived benzene transport in unconfined coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ci; Ni, Chuen-Fa; Tsai, Chia-Hsing; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents numerical investigations on quantifying the hydrodynamic effects of coastal environment factors, including tidal fluctuations, beach slopes, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic gradients on sea-derived benzene transport in unconfined coastal aquifers. A hydrologic transport and mixed geochemical kinetic/equilibrium reactions in saturated-unsaturated media model was used to simulate the spatial and temporal behaviors of the density flow and benzene transport for various hydrogeological conditions. Simulation results indicated that the tidal fluctuations lead to upper saline plumes (USPs) near the groundwater and seawater interfaces. Such local circulation zones trapped the seaward benzene plumes and carried them down in aquifers to the depth depending on the tide amplitudes and beach slopes across the coastal lines. Comparisons based on different tidal fluctuations, beach slopes, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic gradient were systematically conducted and quantified. The results indicated that areas with USPs increased with the tidal amplitude and decreased with the increasing beach slope. However, the variation of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradient has relatively small influence on the patterns of flow fields in the study. The increase of the USP depths was linearly correlated with the increase of the tidal amplitudes. The benzene reactive transport simulations revealed that the plume migrations are mainly controlled by the local flow dynamics and constrained in the USP circulation zones. The self-cleaning process of a coastal aquifer is time-consuming, typically requiring double the time of the contamination process that the benzene plume reach the bottom of a USP circulation zone. The presented systematic analysis can provide useful information for rapidly evaluating seaward contaminants along a coastal line with available hydrogeological properties. PMID:27106208

  3. Uncertainties in measuring populations potentially impacted by sea level rise and coastal flooding.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Pinki; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the impact of global climate change requires information on the locations and characteristics of populations affected. For instance, with global sea level predicted to rise and coastal flooding set to become more frequent and intense, high-resolution spatial population datasets are increasingly being used to estimate the size of vulnerable coastal populations. Many previous studies have undertaken this by quantifying the size of populations residing in low elevation coastal zones using one of two global spatial population datasets available - LandScan and the Global Rural Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP). This has been undertaken without consideration of the effects of this choice, which are a function of the quality of input datasets and differences in methods used to construct each spatial population dataset. Here we calculate estimated low elevation coastal zone resident population sizes from LandScan and GRUMP using previously adopted approaches, and quantify the absolute and relative differences achieved through switching datasets. Our findings suggest that the choice of one particular dataset over another can translate to a difference of more than 7.5 million vulnerable people for countries with extensive coastal populations, such as Indonesia and Japan. Our findings also show variations in estimates of proportions of national populations at risk range from <0.1% to 45% differences when switching between datasets, with large differences predominantly for countries where coarse and outdated input data were used in the construction of the spatial population datasets. The results highlight the need for the construction of spatial population datasets built on accurate, contemporary and detailed census data for use in climate change impact studies and the importance of acknowledging uncertainties inherent in existing spatial population datasets when estimating the demographic impacts of climate change. PMID:23110208

  4. Chemical characterization of dissolved organic compounds from coastal sea surface microlayers (Baltic Sea, Germany).

    PubMed

    van Pinxteren, Manuela; Müller, Conny; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Stolle, Christian; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2012-10-01

    The physicochemical properties of the sea surface microlayer (SML), i.e. the boundary layer between the air and the sea, and its impact on air-sea exchange processes have been investigated for decades. However, a detailed description about these processes remains incomplete. In order to obtain a better chemical characterization of the SML, in a case study three pairs of SML and corresponding bulk water samples were taken in the southern Baltic Sea. The samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon and dissolved total nitrogen, as well as for several organic nitrogen containing compounds and carbohydrates, namely aliphatic amines, dissolved free amino acids, dissolved free monosaccharides, sugar alcohols, and monosaccharide anhydrates. Therefore, reasonable analytical procedures with respect to desalting and enrichment were established. All aliphatic amines and the majority of the investigated amino acids (11 out of 18) were found in the samples with average concentrations between 53 ng L(-1) and 1574 ng L(-1). The concentrations of carbohydrates were slightly higher, averaging 2900 ng L(-1). Calculation of the enrichment factor (EF) between the sea surface microlayer and the bulk water showed that dissolved total nitrogen was more enriched (EF: 1.1 and 1.2) in the SML than dissolved organic carbon (EF: 1.0 and 1.1). The nitrogen containing organic compounds were generally found to be enriched in the SML (EF: 1.9-9.2), whereas dissolved carbohydrates were not enriched or even depleted (EF: 0.7-1.2). Although the investigated compounds contributed on average only 0.3% to the dissolved organic carbon and 0.4% to the total dissolved nitrogen fraction, these results underline the importance of single compound analysis to determine SML structure, function, and its potential for a transfer of compounds into the atmosphere. PMID:22475414

  5. Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Hinkel, Jochen; Lincke, Daniel; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Perrette, Mahé; Nicholls, Robert James; Tol, Richard S J; Marzeion, Ben; Fettweis, Xavier; Ionescu, Cezar; Levermann, Anders

    2014-03-01

    Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data, protection strategies, socioeconomic development and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four different climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, each combined with three land-ice scenarios based on the published range of contributions from ice sheets and glaciers. Without adaptation, 0.2-4.6% of global population is expected to be flooded annually in 2100 under 25-123 cm of global mean sea-level rise, with expected annual losses of 0.3-9.3% of global gross domestic product. Damages of this magnitude are very unlikely to be tolerated by society and adaptation will be widespread. The global costs of protecting the coast with dikes are significant with annual investment and maintenance costs of US$ 12-71 billion in 2100, but much smaller than the global cost of avoided damages even without accounting for indirect costs of damage to regional production supply. Flood damages by the end of this century are much more sensitive to the applied protection strategy than to variations in climate and socioeconomic scenarios as well as in physical data sources (topography and climate model). Our results emphasize the central role of long-term coastal adaptation strategies. These should also take into account that protecting large parts of the developed coast increases the risk of catastrophic consequences in the case of defense failure. PMID:24596428

  6. Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Hinkel, Jochen; Lincke, Daniel; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Perrette, Mahé; Nicholls, Robert James; Tol, Richard S. J.; Marzeion, Ben; Fettweis, Xavier; Ionescu, Cezar; Levermann, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data, protection strategies, socioeconomic development and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four different climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, each combined with three land-ice scenarios based on the published range of contributions from ice sheets and glaciers. Without adaptation, 0.2–4.6% of global population is expected to be flooded annually in 2100 under 25–123 cm of global mean sea-level rise, with expected annual losses of 0.3–9.3% of global gross domestic product. Damages of this magnitude are very unlikely to be tolerated by society and adaptation will be widespread. The global costs of protecting the coast with dikes are significant with annual investment and maintenance costs of US$ 12–71 billion in 2100, but much smaller than the global cost of avoided damages even without accounting for indirect costs of damage to regional production supply. Flood damages by the end of this century are much more sensitive to the applied protection strategy than to variations in climate and socioeconomic scenarios as well as in physical data sources (topography and climate model). Our results emphasize the central role of long-term coastal adaptation strategies. These should also take into account that protecting large parts of the developed coast increases the risk of catastrophic consequences in the case of defense failure. PMID:24596428

  7. Sea-Breeze and Topographic Influences on the Planetary Boundary Layer in the Coastal Upwelling Area of Cabo Frio (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Soares, J.; Oliveira, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    We use a fully coupled oceanic-atmospheric model to investigate the sources and sinks of turbulent kinetic energy in the Cabo Frio coastal area and to determine the role of topography and the sea breeze in planetary boundary-layer (PBL) development. The study area presents similar boundary-layer characteristics than other coastal upwelling areas with complex topography, such as increased stability and low-level jets. The results show that the major effect of upwelling, over the investigated area, is to maintain low temperatures in the lower atmosphere over the coastal zone, sustaining a strong temperature inversion that precludes the vertical PBL development. Therefore, the cooling effect reduces the horizontal thermal contrast between land and water, generating a negative feedback between the intensity of the sea breeze and the intensity of the upwelling. The topography at Cabo Frio prevents this cooling effect from propagating inland, since it limits the penetration of the sea-breeze circulation.

  8. Implications of sea level rise scenarios on land use /land cover classes of the coastal zones of Cochin, India.

    PubMed

    Mani Murali, R; Dinesh Kumar, P K

    2015-01-15

    Physical responses of the coastal zones in the vicinity of Cochin, India due to sea level rise are investigated based on analysis of inundation scenarios. Quantification of potential habitat loss was made by merging the Land use/Land cover (LU/LC) prepared from the satellite imagery with the digital elevation model. Scenarios were generated for two different rates of sea level rise and responses of changes occurred were made to ascertain the vulnerability and loss in extent. LU/LC classes overlaid on 1 m and 2 m elevation showed that it was mostly covered by vegetation areas followed by water and urban zones. For the sea level rise scenarios of 1 m and 2 m, the total inundation zones were estimated to be 169.11 km(2) and 598.83 km(2) respectively using Geographic Information System (GIS). The losses of urban areas were estimated at 43 km(2) and 187 km(2) for the 1 m and 2 m sea level rise respectively which is alarming information for the most densely populated state of India. Quantitative comparison of other LU/LC classes showed significant changes under each of the inundation scenarios. The results obtained conclusively point that sea level rise scenarios will bring profound effects on the land use and land cover classes as well as on coastal landforms in the study region. Coastal inundation would leave ocean front and inland properties vulnerable. Increase in these water levels would alter the coastal drainage gradients. Reduction in these gradients would increase flooding attributable to rainstorms which could promote salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers and force water tables to rise. Changes in the coastal landforms associated with inundation generate concern in the background that the coastal region may continue to remain vulnerable in the coming decades due to population growth and development pressures. PMID:25043851

  9. Allowances for evolving coastal flood risk under uncertain local sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, M. K.; Kopp, R. E.; Oppenheimer, M.; Tebaldi, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) causes estimates of flood risk made under the assumption of stationary mean sea level to be biased low. However, adjustments to flood return levels made assuming fixed increases of sea level are also inaccurate when applied to sea level that is rising over time at an uncertain rate. To accommodate both the temporal dynamics of SLR and their uncertainty, we develop an Average Annual Design Life Level (AADLL) metric and associated SLR allowances [1,2]. The AADLL is the flood level corresponding to a time-integrated annual expected probability of occurrence (AEP) under uncertainty over the lifetime of an asset; AADLL allowances are the adjustment from 2000 levels that maintain current risk. Given non-stationary and uncertain SLR, AADLL flood levels and allowances provide estimates of flood protection heights and offsets for different planning horizons and different levels of confidence in SLR projections in coastal areas. Allowances are a function primarily of local SLR and are nearly independent of AEP. Here we employ probabilistic SLR projections [3] to illustrate the calculation of AADLL flood levels and allowances with a representative set of long-duration tide gauges along U.S. coastlines. [1] Rootzen et al., 2014, Water Resources Research 49: 5964-5972. [2] Hunter, 2013, Ocean Engineering 71: 17-27. [3] Kopp et al., 2014, Earth's Future 2: 383-406.

  10. Albedo of coastal landfast sea ice in Prydz Bay, Antarctica: Observations and parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qinghua; Liu, Jiping; Leppäranta, Matti; Sun, Qizhen; Li, Rongbin; Zhang, Lin; Jung, Thomas; Lei, Ruibo; Zhang, Zhanhai; Li, Ming; Zhao, Jiechen; Cheng, Jingjing

    2016-05-01

    The snow/sea-ice albedo was measured over coastal landfast sea ice in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica (off Zhongshan Station) during the austral spring and summer of 2010 and 2011. The variation of the observed albedo was a combination of a gradual seasonal transition from spring to summer and abrupt changes resulting from synoptic events, including snowfall, blowing snow, and overcast skies. The measured albedo ranged from 0.94 over thick fresh snow to 0.36 over melting sea ice. It was found that snow thickness was the most important factor influencing the albedo variation, while synoptic events and overcast skies could increase the albedo by about 0.18 and 0.06, respectively. The in-situ measured albedo and related physical parameters (e.g., snow thickness, ice thickness, surface temperature, and air temperature) were then used to evaluate four different snow/ice albedo parameterizations used in a variety of climate models. The parameterized albedos showed substantial discrepancies compared to the observed albedo, particularly during the summer melt period, even though more complex parameterizations yielded more realistic variations than simple ones. A modified parameterization was developed, which further considered synoptic events, cloud cover, and the local landfast sea-ice surface characteristics. The resulting parameterized albedo showed very good agreement with the observed albedo.

  11. Land subsidence and sea level rise on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, George H.

    1987-06-01

    Land subsidence due to decline in head in confined aquifers, related to municipal and industrial water pumpage, is widespread in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although not a major engineering problem, subsidence greatly complicates adjustment of precise leveling and distorts prediction of future sea-level rise. When preconsolidation stress equivalent to about 20 m of head decline is exceeded compaction of fine-grained sediments of the aquifer system begins, and continues until a new head equilibrium is attained between fine and coarse units. The ratio subsidence/head decline is quite consistent, ranging from 0.0064 in southeastern Virginia to 0.0018 at Dover, Delaware and Atlantic City, New Jersey. Higher values are related to the occurrence of montmorillonite as the predominant clay mineral present. Review of tide gauge records indicates that gauges not affected by land subsidence or other local secular effects have been sinking relative to sea level since 1940 at rates averaging about 2.5 mm/yr, of which 0.6 mm/yr is ascribed to glacio-isostatic adjustment to unloading of North America resulting from melting of late Pleistocene glaciers, and about 0.9 mm/yr is ascribed to steric sea-level rise related to ocean warming. The residual 1 mm/yr of relative sea-level rise is not well understood, but may be related to regional tectonic subsidence of the Atlantic coast.

  12. Beyond just sea-level rise: considering macroclimatic drivers within coastal wetland vulnerability assessments to climate change.

    PubMed

    Osland, Michael J; Enwright, Nicholas M; Day, Richard H; Gabler, Christopher A; Stagg, Camille L; Grace, James B

    2016-01-01

    Due to their position at the land-sea interface, coastal wetlands are vulnerable to many aspects of climate change. However, climate change vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands generally focus solely on sea-level rise without considering the effects of other facets of climate change. Across the globe and in all ecosystems, macroclimatic drivers (e.g., temperature and rainfall regimes) greatly influence ecosystem structure and function. Macroclimatic drivers have been the focus of climate change-related threat evaluations for terrestrial ecosystems, but largely ignored for coastal wetlands. In some coastal wetlands, changing macroclimatic conditions are expected to result in foundation plant species replacement, which would affect the supply of certain ecosystem goods and services and could affect ecosystem resilience. As examples, we highlight several ecological transition zones where small changes in macroclimatic conditions would result in comparatively large changes in coastal wetland ecosystem structure and function. Our intent in this communication is not to minimize the importance of sea-level rise. Rather, our overarching aim is to illustrate the need to also consider macroclimatic drivers within vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands. PMID:26342186

  13. Beyond just sea-level rise: Considering macroclimatic drivers within coastal wetland vulnerability assessments to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Enwright, Nicholas M.; Day, Richard H.; Gabler, Christopher A.; Stagg, Camille L.; Grace, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their position at the land-sea interface, coastal wetlands are vulnerable to many aspects of climate change. However, climate change vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands generally focus solely on sea-level rise without considering the effects of other facets of climate change. Across the globe and in all ecosystems, macroclimatic drivers (e.g., temperature and rainfall regimes) greatly influence ecosystem structure and function. Macroclimatic drivers have been the focus of climate-change related threat evaluations for terrestrial ecosystems, but largely ignored for coastal wetlands. In some coastal wetlands, changing macroclimatic conditions are expected to result in foundation plant species replacement, which would affect the supply of certain ecosystem goods and services and could affect ecosystem resilience. As examples, we highlight several ecological transition zones where small changes in macroclimatic conditions would result in comparatively large changes in coastal wetland ecosystem structure and function. Our intent in this communication is not to minimize the importance of sea-level rise. Rather, our overarching aim is to illustrate the need to also consider macroclimatic drivers within vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands.

  14. Effects of sea-level rise on ground water flow in a coastal aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, J.P.; Garabedian, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of sea-level rise on the depth to the fresh water/salt water interface were simulated by using a density-dependent, three-dimensional numerical ground water flow model for a simplified hypothetical fresh water lens that is similar to shallow, coastal aquifers found along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Simulations of sea-level rise of 2.65 mm/year from 1929 to 2050 resulted in an increase in water levels relative to a fixed datum, yet a net decrease in water levels relative to the increased sea-level position. The net decrease in water levels was much greater near a gaining stream than farther from the stream. The difference in the change in water levels is attributed to the dampening effect of the stream on water level changes in response to sea-level rise. In response to the decreased water level altitudes relative to local sea level, the depth to the fresh water/salt water interface decreased. This reduction in the thickness of the fresh water lens varied throughout the aquifer and was greatly affected by proximity to a ground water fed stream and whether the stream was tidally influenced. Away from the stream, the thickness of the fresh water lens decreased by about 2% from 1929 to 2050, whereas the fresh water lens thickness decreased by about 22% to 31% for the same period near the stream, depending on whether the stream was tidally influenced. The difference in the change in the fresh water/salt water interface position is controlled by the difference in the net decline in water levels relative to local sea level. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  15. The effect of sea level rise on coastal plain estuaries, with examples from Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, S.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Estuaries are geologically transitory features whose evolution depends on a delicate balance among relative sea level basin geometry, shoreline erosion, fluvial sediment discharge, littoral drift, and tidal exchange. Models of modern estuarine development require specific sea level scenarios; almost all assume a continuation of the decelerating sea level rise of the last few thousand years. However, under constant external conditions, estuaries are ephemeral because they rapidly fill with fluvial and marine sediment. The rate of filling changes with time, but only a few thousand years are required to fill most estuaries. The persistence of estuaries, therefore, requires that relative sea level rises at a rate sufficient to compensate for the inherent tendency of estuaries to fill with sediment. Coastal plain estuaries, of which Chesapeake Bay is a prime example, are often referred to as drowned river valleys. Although this description is appropriate for the first-order morphology of Chesapeake Bay, the implied passivity can be misleading, especially in the high-tidal-energy area of the bay mouth where dramatic spit progradation and channel migration have occurred in the last few thousand years. Holocene sediment accumulation rates are more irregular along the length of the estuary than most models would predict; but in general, sediment accumulation has been greater at the mouth and at the head of the bay and less along the middle reaches. If relative sea level were to stabilize, the estuary would fill with sediment from both ends within a few thousand years. Evidence for two previous generations of the bay is preserved as the estuarine fill of major fluvial valleys, demonstrating that estuarine episodes have been closely tied to cyclic sea level changes.

  16. The possible physical barrier and coastal dispersal strategy for Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea: evidence from AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Gang; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Gao, Tian-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the Ariake Sea population of Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus, and assess the contemporary possible genetic barrier between the west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to detect the genetic structure of C. nasus, in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. Eighty-one individuals of C. nasus were collected from five locations and 12 individuals of Coilia mystus were sampled from the Yangtze River Estuary. A total of 371 loci were detected by five primer combinations, 310 of which were polymorphic (83.56%). Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) and pairwise fixation index (FST) revealed significant genetic differentiation among five samples, indicating limited gene flow among populations. The dendrogram for populations by neighbor-joining (NJ) cluster analysis provided evidence of a clear relationship between genetic and geographic patterns, supporting significant genetic differentiation between China coastal populations and Ariake Sea populations. Compared to the genetic divergence between C. nasus and C. mystus, the level of genetic differentiation between China and the Ariake Sea populations of C. nasus is obvious below the species level, indicating isolated populations of C. nasus in the Ariake Sea. Isolation by distance analysis revealed that direct ocean distance with deep-water at the continental slope and high salinity between west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea served as major physical barrier to C. nasus, supporting the coastal dispersal pattern in this estuarine species, and rejecting offshore dispersal strategy. PMID:25654225

  17. Diagenesis in coastal carbonates related to Pleistocene sea level, Bermuda Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Vollbrecht, R.; Meischner, D.

    1996-01-01

    Pleistocene glacioeustatic sea-level oscillation on the stable Bermuda Platform is expressed in a succession of shallow-water carbonates interrupted by lowstand unconformities. In Bermuda, the maximum highstands of the last 400,000 yr ranged within 10 m around the present level. Coastal carbonates of various highstands are exposed along the present shoreline. These carbonates were penetrated by meteoric and marine pore waters during lowstands and highstands following on deposition. Two representative Pleistocene shoreline sections were studied to see whether early diagenesis has recorded these pore-water changes. The sediments of both sections show multiple generations of cement. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microprobe studies and stable-isotope analyses were used to determine the diagenetic environments involved. Regardless of the degree of substrate cementation, freshwater alteration was mainly vadose whereas marine cementation was either phreatic or vadose or both. Early diagenetic oscillation is easier recorded in coastal successions than in lagoonal sediments, mainly because marine cementation is more active nearshore.Because the coastal environment is prone to wave destruction, the potential for preserving these diagenetic features is usually low. Data published on tectonically unstable areas suggest that early diagenetic oscillation may characterize stable coastlines.

  18. The Temporal Dynamics of Coastal Phytoplankton and Bacterioplankton in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Raveh, Ofrat; David, Niv; Rilov, Gil; Rahav, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    This study considers variability in phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterial abundances and production rates, in one of the most oligotrophic marine regions in the world–the Levantine Basin. The temporal dynamics of these planktonic groups were studied in the coastal waters of the southeastern Mediterranean Sea approximately every two weeks for a total of two years. Heterotrophic bacteria were abundant mostly during late summer and midwinter, and were positively correlated with bacterial production and with N2 fixation. Based on size fractionating, picophytoplankton was abundant during the summer, whereas nano-microphytoplankton predominated during the winter and early spring, which were also evident in the size-fractionated primary production rates. Autotrophic abundance and production correlated negatively with temperature, but did not correlate with inorganic nutrients. Furthermore, a comparison of our results with results from the open Levantine Basin demonstrates that autotrophic and heterotrophic production, as well as N2 fixation rates, are considerably higher in the coastal habitat than in the open sea, while nutrient levels or cell abundance are not different. These findings have important ecological implications for food web dynamics and for biological carbon sequestration in this understudied region. PMID:26474399

  19. Neotectonics, sea level change, and Quaternary natural gas occurrence in coastal Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.T.; Belknap, D.F.; Shipp, C.R.

    1985-02-01

    The glaciated, passive continental margin of northern New England is not a likely location for either tectonic activity or hydrocarbon accumulation, but neotectonic action has played a role in creating favorable stratigraphic traps for natural gas in the Quaternary inner-shelf and estuarine deposits of Maine. During late glacial time (13,000 year B.P.), a marine inundation accompanied ice retreat across the isostatically depressed lowlands of coastal Maine and blanketed the area with marine sediment (Presumpscot Formation) up to 50 m thick. Unloading of the ice led to rapid coastal rebound within a few thousand years, and the former sea floor became emergent to present depths of -65 m. A gullied and weathered lag surface on the muddy Presumpscot Formation marks the regression that followed deposition. Since about 8000 years B.P., sea level has risen in Maine, and within historic times it has been accompanied by seismicity and subsidence rates up to 9 mm/yr. Examinations of over 1500 km of seismic reflection profiles and limited coring reveal the presence of abundant natural gas in Holocene sediments filling ravines cut into the Presumpscot Formation during emergence. It appears that the gas is derived from and trapped by mud deposited in estuarine depocenters that migrated landward during the Holocene transgression.

  20. Coastal dynamics and submarine permafrost in shallow water of the central Laptev Sea, East Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overduin, Pier Paul; Wetterich, Sebastian; Günther, Frank; Grigoriev, Mikhail N.; Grosse, Guido; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Hubberten, Hans-Wolfgang; Makarov, Aleksandr

    2016-07-01

    Coastal erosion and flooding transform terrestrial landscapes into marine environments. In the Arctic, these processes inundate terrestrial permafrost with seawater and create submarine permafrost. Permafrost begins to warm under marine conditions, which can destabilize the sea floor and may release greenhouse gases. We report on the transition of terrestrial to submarine permafrost at a site where the timing of inundation can be inferred from the rate of coastline retreat. On Muostakh Island in the central Laptev Sea, East Siberia, changes in annual coastline position have been measured for decades and vary highly spatially. We hypothesize that these rates are inversely related to the inclination of the upper surface of submarine ice-bonded permafrost (IBP) based on the consequent duration of inundation with increasing distance from the shoreline. We compared rapidly eroding and stable coastal sections of Muostakh Island and find permafrost-table inclinations, determined using direct current resistivity, of 1 and 5 %, respectively. Determinations of submarine IBP depth from a drilling transect in the early 1980s were compared to resistivity profiles from 2011. Based on borehole observations, the thickness of unfrozen sediment overlying the IBP increased from 0 to 14 m below sea level with increasing distance from the shoreline. The geoelectrical profiles showed thickening of the unfrozen sediment overlying ice-bonded permafrost over the 28 years since drilling took place. We use geoelectrical estimates of IBP depth to estimate permafrost degradation rates since inundation. Degradation rates decreased from over 0.4 m a-1 following inundation to around 0.1 m a-1 at the latest after 60 to 110 years and remained constant at this level as the duration of inundation increased to 250 years. We suggest that long-term rates are lower than these values, as the depth to the IBP increases and thermal and porewater solute concentration gradients over depth decrease. For the

  1. Remote Sensing of Vegetation Parameters for Modeling Coastal Marsh Response to Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, K. B.; Windham-Myers, L.; Warzecha, B.; Crowe, R.; Vasey, M. C.; Ferner, M.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal planners are seeking ways to prepare for the potential impacts of future climate change, particularly sea level rise though management of future risks is complicated by uncertainty in the timing, distribution and extent of these impacts. Sea level rise impacts will be most evident at the regional level where decisions related to climate change adaptation including those related to land use planning and habitat management typically occur. To aid coastal managers with decision-making we are integrating remote sensing data with the marsh equilibrium model (MEM3) to project coastal marsh habitat response to future sea level rise. MEM3 is a 1-dimentional, calibrated Excel-based model that incorporates both physical and biological feedbacks to changing relative elevations. Modeled future elevations are then distributed at the regional scale with LiDAR DEMs to project changes to coastal habitats and dependent wildlife. Because plant biomass and structure influence both organic and inorganic accretion, MEM3 includes multiple vegetation input variables. Deriving these variables, including maximum and minimum elevations of marsh vegetation, peak aboveground biomass, and elevation at peak biomass from remote sensing will enable the model to have spatially variable inputs across sites. We are evaluating 30m Landsat 8 and 2m World View-2 (WV2) satellite data for mapping peak biomass at Rush Ranch, a highly diverse brackish marsh in the San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The high spatial resolution of WV2 produces greater variability in plant reflectance at the pixel scale than Landsat 8. Initial results show the need for plant community-specific biomass models with WV2 to account for differences in plant structure and canopy architecture. When removing plots dominated by Salicornia pacifica and Lepidium latifolium, peak biomass is best estimated with an NDVI-type vegetation index based on WV2 near infrared bands 7 and 8 (R2 = 0.21, RMSE = 318 g/m2

  2. A numerical study of the barotropic tides and tidal energy distribution in the Indonesian seas with the assimilated finite volume coastal ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yang; Bao, Xianwen; Yu, Huaming; Kuang, Liang

    2012-04-01

    The tides and tidal energetics in the Indonesian seas are simulated using a three-dimensional finite volume coastal ocean model. The high-resolution coastline-fitted model is configured to better resolve the hydrodynamic processes around the numerous barrier islands. A large model domain is adopted to minimize the uncertainty adjacent to open boundaries. The model results with elevation assimilation based on a simple nudge scheme faithfully reproduced the general features of the barotropic tides in the Indonesian Seas. The mean root-mean-square errors between the observed and simulated tidal constants are 2.3, 1.1, 2.4, and 1.5 cm for M2, S2, K1, and O1, respectively. Analysis of the model solutions indicates that the semidiurnal tides in the Indonesian Seas are primarily dominated by the Indian Ocean, whereas the diurnal tides in this region are mainly influenced by the Pacific Ocean, which is consistent with previous studies. Examinations of tidal energy transport reveal that the tidal energy for both of the simulated tidal constituents are transported from the Indian Ocean into the IS mainly through the Lombok Strait and the Timor Sea, whereas only M2 energy enters the Banda Sea and continues northward. The tidal energy dissipates the most in the passages on both sides of Timor Island, with the maximum M2 and K1 tidal energy transport reaching about 750 and 650 kW m-1, respectively. The total energy losses of the four dominant constituents in the IS are nearly 338 GW, with the M2 constituent dissipating 240.8 GW. It is also shown that the bottom dissipation rate for the M2 tide is about 1-2 order of magnitudes larger than that of the other three tidal components in the Indonesian seas.

  3. Extreme sea-levels, coastal risks and climate changes: lost in translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, Eduardo; Castro Carneiro, Juliane; Cintra, Márcio; Ribeiro, Andréa; Cardoso, Denis; Stellfeld, Carol

    2014-05-01

    Occurring commonly in Brazilian coastal (and continental) areas, floods are probably the most devastating natural hazards our local society faces nowadays. With the expected sea-level rise and tropical storms becoming stronger and more frequents, the scenarios of local impacts of sea-level rise and storm surges; causing loss of lives, environmental damages and socio-economic stress; need to be addressed and properly communicated. We present results related to the sea-level setups accordingly to IPCC's scenarios and the expected coastal floods in the Paraná State, Southern Brazil. The outcomes are displayed in scientific language accompanied by "translations" with the objective of showing the need of a different language approach to communicate with the players affected by coastal hazards. To create the "translation" of the "scientific" text we used the Up-Goer Five Text Editor, which allows writing texts using only the ten hundred most used English words. We allowed ourselves to use a maximum of five other words per box not present at this dictionary, not considering geographical names or units in the count, provided there were simple. That was necessary because words as sea, beach, sand, storm, etc., are not among the one thousand present at the Up-Goer, and they are simple enough anyhow. On the other hand, the not scientific public we targeted speaks Portuguese, not English, and we do not have an Up-Goer tool for that language. Anyhow, each Box was also produced in Portuguese, as much simple as possible, to disseminate our results to the local community. To illustrate the need of "translation", it is worthy to mention a real case of a troublesome misunderstanding caused by us, scientists, in our coastal society. Some years ago, one of our colleagues at the university, a much-respected scientist, informed through a press release that, on a given day, "we will experience the highest astronomical tide of the century". That statement (scientifically true and

  4. Recycling of suspended particulates by the interaction of sea-land breeze circulation and complex coastal terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Takahashi, S.

    2004-09-01

    The dispersion of recycled particulates in the complex coastal terrain surrounding Kangnung city, Korea was investigated using a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic numerical model and lagrangian particle model (or random walk model). The results show that particulates at the surface of the city that float to the top of thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) are then transported along the eastern slope of the mountains with the sea breeze passage and nearly reach the top of the mountains. Those particulates then disperse eastward at this upper level over the coastal sea and finally spread out over the open sea. Total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration near the surface of Kangnung city is very low. At night, synoptic scale westerly winds intensify due to the combined effect of the synoptic scale wind and land breeze descending the eastern slope of the mountains toward the coast and further seaward. This increase in speed causes development of internal gravity waves and a hydraulic jump up to a height of about 1 km above the surface over the city. Particulate matter near the top of the mountains also descends the eastern slope of the mountains during the day, reaching the central city area and merges near the surface inside the nocturnal surface inversion layer (NSIL) with a maximum ground level concentration of TSP occurring at 0300 LST. Some particulates are dispersed following the propagation area of internal gravity waves and others in the NSIL are transported eastward to the coastal sea surface, aided by the land breeze. The following morning, particulates dispersed over the coastal sea from the previous night, tend to return to the coastal city of Kangnung with the sea breeze, developing a recycling process and combine with emitted surface particulates during the morning. These processes result in much higher TSP concentration. In the late morning, those particulates float to the top of the TIBL by the intrusion of the sea breeze and the ground level TSP

  5. Stock origins of Dolly Varden collected from Beaufort Sea coastal sites of Arctic Alaska and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krueger, C.C.; Wilmot, R.L.; Everett, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Anadromous northern Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma support a summer subsistence fishery in Beaufort Sea coastal waters. These same waters coincide with areas of oil and gas exploration and development. The purpose of this study was to assess variation in stock origins of Dolly Varden collected from sites along 400 km of Beaufort Sea coast. Mixed-stock analyses (MSA) of allozyme data were used to compare collections from four sites (Endicolt near Prudhoe Bay, Mikkelsen Bay, and Kaktovik in Alaska and Phillips Bay in Canada) and to assess variation in stock contributions among summer months and between 1987 and 1988. The MSA estimates for individual stocks were summed into estimates for three stock groups: western stocks from the area near Sagavarnirktok River and Prudhoe Bay (SAG), Arctic National Wildlife Refuge stocks (Arctic Refuge), and Canadian stocks. The MSA of Endicott samples taken in 1987 and 1988 did not differ among months in terms of contributions from local SAG stocks (range, 71-95%). Contributions from nonlocal (>100 km distant) Canadian and Arctic Refuge stocks were not different from zero in 1987, but contributions from Canadian stocks were so in July (17%) and August (20%) but not in September of 1988. Thus, stock contributions to Endicott collections were different between 1987 and 1988. Samples from the Kaktovik area in 1988 were different between months in terms of contributions from nonlocal SAG stocks (July, 7%; August, 27%). Significant contributions to these samples were made both months by Canadian (25% and 17%) and local Arctic Refuge stocks (68% and 56%). Among the four coastal sites, local stocks typically contributed most to collections; however, every site had collections that contained significant contributions from nonlocal stocks. The MSA estimates clearly revealed the movement of Dolly Varden between U.S. and Canada coastal waters. If local stocks are affected by oil and gas development activities, distant subsistence fisheries

  6. The Black Sea coastal zone in the high resolution satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurovskaya, Maria; Dulov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Landsat data with spatial resolution of 30-100 m provide the ability of regular monitoring of ocean phenomena with scale of 100-1000 m. Sentinel-1 is equipped with C-band synthetic aperture radar. The images allow recognizing the features that affect either the sea surface roughness, or its color characteristics. The possibilities of using the high spatial resolution satellite data are considered for observation and monitoring of Crimean coastal zone. The analyzed database includes all Landsat-8 (Level 1) multi-channel images from January 2013 to August 2015 and all Sentinel-1 radar images in May-August 2015. The goal of the study is to characterize the descriptiveness of these data for research and monitoring of the Crimean coastal areas. The observed marine effects are reviewed and the physical mechanisms of their signatures in the satellite images are described. The effects associated with the roughness variability are usually manifested in all bands, while the subsurface phenomena are visible only in optical data. Confidently observed structures include internal wave trains, filamentous natural slicks, which reflect the eddy coastal dynamics, traces of moving ships and the oil films referred to anthropogenic pollution of marine environment. The temperature fronts in calm conditions occur due to surfactant accumulation in convergence zone. The features in roughness field can also be manifested in Sentinel-1 data. Subsurface processes observed in Landsat-8 images primarily include transport and distribution of suspended matter as a result of floods and sandy beach erosion. The surfactant always concentrates on the sea surface in contaminated areas, so that these events are also observed in Sentinel-1 images. A search of wastewater discharge manifestations is performed. The investigation provides the basis for further development of approaches to obtain quantitative characteristics of the phenomena themselves. Funding by Russian Science Foundation under grant 15

  7. Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

    2014-05-01

    The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the 150,000 local residents of the Gio Linh district and the city of Dong Ha. The coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The area has a tropical monsoon climate which is characterized by an average precipitation of 1500 to 2700 mm in nearly 180 days from August to April. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. These geological formations have a highly heterogeneous lithology. A 3D groundwater model is built to study possible seawater intrusion under the changing conditions. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and some data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Geophysical measurements have been carried out recently and in the past and are used to support the model.

  8. Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

    2013-04-01

    The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the local residents of the Gio Linh district. This coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 and is situated between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The elevation varies from 0.5 m at the seaside in the East to 19.5 m further inland. During the rainy season from August to April the precipitation is on average 2000 to 2700 mm. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Drinking water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. A SEAWAT groundwater model will be built to study the effects on the groundwater system. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Historical production records of an operational groundwater production well-field are available to be used for validation of the model. Finally, to achieve a sustainable integrated water resources management in the Gio Linh district different adaptive scenarios will be developed.

  9. Understanding salt dynamics for a restored coastal wetland at the Baltic Sea in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selle, Benny; Gräff, Thomas; Salzmann, Thomas; Oswald, Sascha; Walther, Marc; Miegel, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Coastal fens like the nature reserve „Hütelmoor und Heiligensee"(north-eastern Germany) are important landscape elements along the southern Baltic coast, which exchange fresh water and brackish water with the Baltic Sea. These exchange processes can be understood as experiments with a natural tracer, which may be used to investigate the hydrologic behaviour of these fen systems. With the establishment of coastal protection measures such as dunes and dikes, the installation of surface drainage and, more recently, also nature conservation measures, the hydrologic regime of these coastal wetlands constantly altered over the last centuries. The rehabilitated wetland „Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" is suitable for an analysis of hydrologic change as it was monitored over the time period since nature conservation measures started in the 1990s. Collected data sets include observation of groundwater levels and electrical conductivities, weather data as well as discharge at the outlet of the drainage catchment. In this study, we identifed processes and quantify process magnitudes that govern the salt balance of the study area including its variability in space and time. We found that - over the period of rehabilitation - salt water entered the catchment with episodic storm surges by wave overtopping of dunes. The intruded brackish water was then diluted, which is a slow process occurring over decades. It is governed by local groundwater recharge from precipitation and the inflow of relatively fresh groundwater from the hinterland. It is concluded that salt inputs from the Baltic Sea provide a natural tracer of hydrological processes, which can be readily monitored via electrical conductivity measurements.

  10. Large spatial variations in coastal 14C reservoir age - a case study from the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougheed, B. C.; Filipsson, H. L.; Snowball, I.

    2013-05-01

    Coastal locations are highly influenced by input from freshwater river runoff, including sources of terrestrial carbon, which can be expected to modify the 14C reservoir age, or R (t), associated with marine water. In this Baltic Sea case study, pre-bomb museum collection mollusc shells of known calendar age, from 30 locations across a strategic salinity transect of the Baltic Sea, were analysed for 14C, δ13C and δ18O. R (t) was calculated for all 30 locations. Seven locations, of which six are within close proximity of the coast, were found to have relatively higher R (t) values, indicative of hard-water effects. Whenever possible, the Macoma genus of mollusc was selected from the museum collections, in order to exclude species specific reservoir age effects as much as possible. When the Macoma samples are exclusively considered, and samples from hard-water locations excluded, a statistically significant correlation between Macoma R (t) and average salinity is found, indicating a two end-member linear mixing model between 14Cmarine and 14Crunoff. A map of Baltic Sea Macoma aragonite R (t) for the late 19th and early 20th centuries is produced. Such a map can provide an estimate for contemporary Baltic Sea Macoma R (t), although one must exercise caution when applying such estimates back in time or to 14C dates obtained from different sample material. A statistically significant correlation is found between δ18Oaragonite and Macoma R (t), suggesting that δ18Oaragonite can be used to estimate Macoma palaeo-R (t), due to the δ18Oaragonite signal being dominated by the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. A slightly increased correlation can be expected when δ18Oaragonite is corrected for temperature fractionation effects. The results of this Baltic Sea case study, which show that R (t) is affected by hydrographic conditions and local carbon inputs, have important consequences for other coastal and estuarine locations, where R (t) is also likely to significantly

  11. Assessment of marine debris in beaches or seawaters around the China Seas and coastal provinces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Zhengwen; Yang, Tiantian; Shi, Linna; Wang, Linlin; You, Suwen; Li, Min; Zhang, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    Compared with United States of America (USA), Brazil, Chile, Australia, limited attention has been paid to marine debris research in China and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this study, firstly the general status and sources of marine debris in China were assessed in the time period between 2007 and 2014, and secondly marine debris situation was evaluated in three China Sea Areas (the North China Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) from 2009 to 2013, and finally marine debris conditions and sources were analyzed in beaches or seawaters around some coastal provinces of China during 2007-2013. Based on above analysis, the primary conclusions were as follows: (1) The mean number and weight densities of beached marine debris (BMD) and submerged marine debris (SMD) were 4.30, 0.13items/100m(2) and 133.80, 22.60g/100m(2) in China from 2007 to 2014, respectively. The average number density of the large size FMD (LOSFMD) was 0.0024items/100m(2) and that of the small and medium size FMD (SMSFMD) was 0.30items/100m(2), and the mean weight density of the SMSFMD was 1.40g/100m(2) from 2008 to 2014. The SMD and FMD densities were at the low level and the BMD density was at the high level in China. (2) The marine debris primarily was comprised of plastic, Styrofoam, wood, glass, rubber, fabric/fiber and metal, which included almost all major categories of marine debris. (3) Sources of BMD and FMD were as follows: the first source was coastal/recreational activities, followed by other disposal sources, navigation/fishing activities and the activities related smoking, and the least source being those associated with medical/sanitary activities, while the source of SMD remained unknown. (4) The mean number and weight densities of BMD were the biggest in the North China Sea, while those of FMD and SMD were the highest in the northern South China Sea. The results of this study were beneficial to the establishment of

  12. Coastal vulnerability and the implications of sea level rise between the cities of Pescara and Ortona (Adriatic Sea - Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarragoni, C.; Bellotti, P.; Caputo, C.; Davoli, L.; Evangelista, S.; Pugliese, F.; Raffi, R.; Lupia Palmieri, E.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphic processes induce rapid environmental changes especially along the coast that is highly susceptible to them. In addiction, the effects of storm or wave may be amplified by the expected relative sea level rise. In a context, like Italian coast, where the almost part of coast is densely populated and many infrastructures are presents, it is very important to have adequate tools to urban planning like the coastal vulnerability map. In this study the preliminary results of the ongoing SECOA project (Solution for Environmental contrasts in COastal Areas; 7th Framework Program) are presented, with reference to the Adriatic coast between Pescara and Ortona cities, in the Abruzzo region. In this work the same analytical model applied in the Venice Lagoon has been employed (Fontolan, 2001; 2005) involving the evaluation of the effective vulnerability (Ve). Ve is calculated as the difference between the potential vulnerability (Vp) and the defence elements present along the coast (D). (Ve = Vp - D) The data used to measure quantitative features are: high-resolution DEM (LiDAR), satellite images, aero photos, bathymetric profiles and topographic maps. The variables that contribute to the evaluation are: beach amplitude, berm height, seafloor gradient, seafloor evolution, recent and historical shorelines evolution for Vp; height, slope, vegetation cover, presence of passages, incipient dunes and windbreak barriers for the dune and anthropic barriers height. In this context, the potential vulnerability results from the sum of each variable (Vn) per the relative efficacy coefficient (Kn): Vp = V1K1+V2K2+ …VnKn In the same way the defences result from the sum of each kind of defence per the relative efficacy coefficient: D = D1K1+ …. DnKn The coastal area between Pescara and Ortona cities has been segmented in different sectors characterized by homogeneous values of the considered variables and for each of these the Ve values have been calculated and referred to one

  13. Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, lagoons, and coastal ecosystems of eastern Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R. H.; Liu, S. M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G. L.; Ren, J. L.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient dynamics based on field observations made along the eastern Hainan Island during the period 2006-2009 were investigated to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes, and to provide an overview of human perturbations of coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The rivers showed seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations, with enrichment of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved silicate, and depletion of PO43-. High riverine concentrations of nitrate mainly originated from agricultural fertilizer inputs. The DIN : PO43- ratios ranged from 37 to 1063, suggesting preferential depletion of PO43- relative to nitrogen in rivers. Chemical weathering in the drainage area might explain the high levels of dissolved silicate. Aquaculture ponds contained high concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic nitrogen. The particulate phosphorus concentrations in the study area were lower than those reported for estuaries worldwide. The particulate silicate levels in rivers and lagoons were lower than the global average level. Nutrient biogeochemistry in coastal areas was affected by human activities (e.g., aquaculture, agriculture), and by natural phenomena including typhoons. The nutrient concentrations in coastal waters were low because of dispersion of land-derived nutrients in the sea. Nutrient budgets were built based on a steady-state box model, which showed that riverine fluxes are magnified by estuarine processes (e.g., regeneration, desorption) in estuaries and Laoyehai Lagoon, but not in Xiaohai Lagoon. Riverine and groundwater inputs were the major sources of nutrients to Xiaohai and Laoyehai lagoons, respectively, and riverine inputs and aquaculture effluents were the major sources for the eastern coast of Hainan Island. Nutrient inputs to the coastal ecosystem increased with typhoon-induced runoff of rainwater, elucidating the important influence of typhoons on small tropical rivers.

  14. Development 3D model of adaptation of the Azerbaijan coastal zone at the various levels of Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammadov, Ramiz

    2013-04-01

    The most characteristic feature of the Caspian Sea which difference it on relation other seas is its periodical fluctuating in its level. In many coastal regions of the world the problem of influence of change of a sea level on activities of the human is a problem of the long-term future, but in region of Caspian Sea, especially in its Azerbaijan sector, it is already actual. Also experience accumulated here, can be use at the decision of problems of optimization of wildlife management in conditions of significant change of a sea level as model of potential consequences of warming of a climate. Changeableness of the level of the Caspian sea over many years can be observed better on the basis of natural observations, a systematic basis of which has been put by the academician E. Lents in 1830 year in Baku coastal line. According these data in 1882 the average level has reached its level -25.2 m. the highest point over the observations, i.e. by 1.8 m. higher than today's level. The average level over 1830-1930 was about -25.83 m. In 1960 some stabilization in the level, about 28,4 meters, in 1970 was a sharp drop, in 1977 - sharp drop reached -29.00 rn. The drop over the whole period of observations totaled 3.8 m within diapason -25.2 -29.0 m. In 1978 the level of the sea began to increase and in 1995 its average yearly mark reach -26,62 rn. Intensiveness of the rise of the level ever that period totaled in average about 14 cm per year. As a result of this rise of a sea level about 800 km2 of a coastal zone it has been flooded, the ecological situation has worsened, and there were ecological refugees. The damage to a coastal zone of Azerbaijan was 2 billion USA dollars. Caspian sea also has within-year (seasonal) variability equal 32 sm and sleeve and pileup change of level. Its estimate in Azerbaijan coastal zone is 0.8-1.0 m. In the coastal zone also necessary take into height of the wave which in these coasts can be 3.0 m height. All these means that in the

  15. Mercury in precipitation over the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea, Poland.

    PubMed

    Siudek, Patrycja; Falkowska, Lucyna; Brodecka, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2015-02-01

    An investigation of atmospheric mercury was conducted in the urban coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea, Poland) in 2008. Rainwater samples were collected in bulk samplers and Hg concentration was determined using AAS method. Total mercury concentration ranged from 1.9 to 14.8 ng l(-1) (the mean was 8.3 ng l(-1) with standard deviation ±3.7), out of which about 34 % were water-soluble Hg(II) forms. Distribution of Hg species in rainwater was related to both the emission source and the atmospheric processes. During the sampling period, two maxima of Hg concentration in precipitation were observed: the first in the cold season and the second one in the warm season. Elevated concentrations of Hg in wintertime precipitation were generally the result of local urban atmospheric emission connected with the following anthropogenic sources: intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces, individual power/heat generating plants, and motor vehicles. During summertime, Hg° re-emitted from contaminated land and sea surfaces was photochemically oxidized by active atmospheric substances (e.g., hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, halogens) and could be an additional source of atmospherically deposited Hg. The results presented in this work indicate that rainwater Hg concentration and deposition values are not much higher in comparison with other urban locations along the Baltic Sea basin and other coastal cities. However, the elevated mercury concentration in rainwater and, consequently, higher deposition ratio could appear occasionally as an effect of intensive anthropogenic emissions (domestic heating) and/or photochemical reactions. PMID:25189806

  16. Anticipating Future Sea Level Rise and Coastal Storms in New York City (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, R. M.; Gornitz, V.; Bader, D.; Little, C. M.; Oppenheimer, M.; Patrick, L.; Orton, P. M.; Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W.

    2013-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy caused 43 fatalities in New York City and 19 billion in damages. Mayor Michael Bloomberg responded by convening the second New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC2), to provide up-to-date climate information for the City's Special Initiative for Rebuilding and Resiliency (SIRR). The Mayor's proposed 20 billion plan aims to strengthen the City's resilience to coastal inundation. Accordingly, the NPCC2 scientific and technical support team generated a suite of temperature, precipitation, and sea level rise and extreme event projections through the 2050s. The NPCC2 sea level rise projections include contributions from ocean thermal expansion, dynamic changes in sea surface height, mass changes in glaciers, ice caps, and ice sheets, and land water storage. Local sea level changes induced by changes in ice mass include isostatic, gravitational, and rotational effects. Results are derived from CMIP5 model-based outputs, expert judgment, and literature surveys. Sea level at the Battery, lower Manhattan, is projected to rise by 7-31 in (17.8-78.7cm) by the 2050s relative to 2000-2004 (10 to 90 percentile). As a result, flood heights above NAVD88 for the 100-year storm (stillwater plus waves) would rise from 15.0 ft (0.71 m) in the 2000s to 15.6-17.6 ft (4.8-5.4 m) by the 2050s (10-90 percentile). The annual chance of today's 100-year flood would increase from 1 to 1.4-5.0 percent by the 2050s.

  17. Estimating relative sea-level rise and submergence potential at a coastal wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    A tide gauge records a combined signal of the vertical change (positive or negative) in the level of both the sea and the land to which the gauge is affixed; or relative sea-level change, which is typically referred to as relative sea-level rise (RSLR). Complicating this situation, coastal wetlands exhibit dynamic surface elevation change (both positive and negative), as revealed by surface elevation table (SET) measurements, that is not recorded at tide gauges. Because the usefulness of RSLR is in the ability to tie the change in sea level to the local topography, it is important that RSLR be calculated at a wetland that reflects these local dynamic surface elevation changes in order to better estimate wetland submergence potential. A rationale is described for calculating wetland RSLR (RSLRwet) by subtracting the SET wetland elevation change from the tide gauge RSLR. The calculation is possible because the SET and tide gauge independently measure vertical land motion in different portions of the substrate. For 89 wetlands where RSLRwet was evaluated, wetland elevation change differed significantly from zero for 80 % of them, indicating that RSLRwet at these wetlands differed from the local tide gauge RSLR. When compared to tide gauge RSLR, about 39 % of wetlands experienced an elevation rate surplus and 58 % an elevation rate deficit (i.e., sea level becoming lower and higher, respectively, relative to the wetland surface). These proportions were consistent across saltmarsh, mangrove, and freshwater wetland types. Comparison of wetland elevation change and RSLR is confounded by high levels of temporal and spatial variability, and would be improved by co-locating tide gauge and SET stations near each other and obtaining long-term records for both.

  18. Anadromous sea lampreys recolonize a Maine coastal river tributary after dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogg, Robert; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River, Maine, historically supported several anadromous fishes, including the Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, AlewifeAlosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. However, two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated with removal of the lowermost dam, thus providing access to an additional 4.6 km of lotic habitat. Because Sea Lampreys utilized accessible habitat prior to dam removal, they were chosen as a focal species with which to quantify recolonization. During spawning runs of 2008–2011 (before and after dam removal), individuals were marked with PIT tags and their activity was tracked with daily recapture surveys. Open-population mark–recapture models indicated a fourfold increase in the annual abundance of spawning-phase Sea Lampreys, with estimates rising from 59±4 () before dam removal (2008) to 223±18 and 242±16 after dam removal (2010 and 2011, respectively). Accompanying the marked increase in annual abundance was a greater than fourfold increase in nesting sites: the number of nests increased from 31 in 2008 to 128 and 131 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. During the initial recolonization event (i.e., in 2010), Sea Lampreys took 6 d to move past the former dam site and 9 d to expand into the furthest upstream reaches. Conversely, during the 2011 spawning run, Sea Lampreys took only 3 d to penetrate into the upstream reaches, thus suggesting a potential positive feedback in which larval recruitment into the system may have attracted adult spawners via conspecific pheromone cues. Although more research is needed to verify the migratory pheromone hypothesis, our study clearly demonstrates that small-stream dam removal in coastal river systems has the potential to enhance recovery of declining anadromous fish populations.

  19. The effects of sea-level rise on water quality in coastal floodplain sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Vanessa; Johnston, Scott; Burton, Edward; Bush, Richard; Sullivan, Leigh; Slavich, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Sea level has risen approximately 1.2 mm/year over the last 100 years (Hennessy et al. 2004) and is predicted to rise up to 80 cm by 2100 relative to 1990 sea levels (IPCC 2007). The number of extreme events related to sea level such as higher sea levels and increased inter-annual variability have also increased in frequency in the same time period (Hennessy et al. 2004). Globally, large areas of coastal and estuarine floodplains are underlain by sulfidic sediments and acid sulfate soils (ASS). These sediments frequently contain high concentrations of acidity and trace metals. A significant portion of the stored acidity occurs in the form of exchangeable and hydrolysable acidic metal cations such as Al and Fe. Watertables in these environments are often close to the surface and intercepted by relatively shallow drains. Due to their low elevation and locations, these floodplains are highly susceptible to pulses of saline water caused by saltwater intrusion, storm surge and rising sea levels. Construction of extensive drainage systems has further increased the susceptibility of the floodplain to seawater inundation by increasing connectivity to the estuarine channel. This risk is likely to increase in the future with predicted increases in sea level and extreme events due to climate change. This study uses both batch experiments to determine the effects of increasing ionic strength on exchange processes and trace metal desorption in oxidised floodplain sediments and sulfidic drain sediments, and intact soil cores to determine the surface water-porewater interactions over the short term following seawater inundation in coastal floodplain sediments. We found that that saline inundation of oxidised ASS floodplain sediments, even by relatively brackish water may cause rapid, shorter-term water quality changes and a pulse release of acidity due to desorption of acidic metal cations (Wong et al. 2010). We also found that trace metals can be mobilised from sulfidic

  20. A modeling study of coastal circulation and landfast ice in the nearshore Beaufort and Chukchi seas using CIOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Mizobata, Kohei; Bai, Xuezhi; Hu, Haoguo; Jin, Meibing; Yu, Yanling; Ikeda, Moto; Johnson, Walter; Perie, William; Fujisaki, Ayumi

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates sea ice and ocean circulation using a 3-D, 3.8 km CIOM (Coupled Ice-Ocean Model) under daily atmospheric forcing for the period 1990-2008. The CIOM was validated using both in situ observations and satellite measurements. The CIOM successfully reproduces some observed dynamical processes in the region, including the Bering-inflow-originated coastal current that splits into three branches: Alaska Coastal Water (ACW), Central Channel branch, and Herald Valley branch. In addition, the Beaufort Slope Current (BSC), the Beaufort Gyre, the East Siberian Current (ESC), mesoscale eddies, and seasonal landfast ice are well simulated. The CIOM also reproduces reasonable interannual variability in sea ice, such as landfast ice, and anomalous open water (less sea ice) during the positive Dipole Anomaly (DA) years, vice versa during the negative DA years. Sensitivity experiments were conducted with regard to the impacts of the Bering Strait inflow (heat transport), onshore wind stress, and sea ice advection on sea ice change, in particular on the landfast ice. It is found that coastal landfast ice is controlled by the following processes: wind forcing, Bering Strait inflow, and sea ice dynamics.

  1. How sea level rise and storm climate impact the looming morpho-economic bubble in coastal property value.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D.; Keeler, A.; Smith, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Murray, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the United States, the coastal region is now the most densely populated zone in the country and as a result has become a significant source of tax revenue and has some of the highest property values in the country. The loss of land at the coastline from erosion and damage to property from storms has always been a source of vulnerability to coastal economies. To manage this vulnerability, humans have long engaged in the act of nourishing the coastline - placing sand, typically from offshore sources, onto the beach to widen the beach and increase the height of dunes. As humans alter natural coastal dynamics by nourishing, the altered natural dynamics then influence future beach management decisions. In this way human-occupied coastlines are a strongly coupled dynamical system and because of this coupling, the act of nourishment has become an intrinsic part of the economic value of a coastline. Predictions of increased rates of sea level rise and changing storminess suggest that coastal vulnerability is likely to increase. The evolving vulnerability of the coast has already caused changes to occur in the way humans manage the coastline. For example, the federal government has recently reduced subsidies to help coastal communities nourish their beaches. With a future of changing environmental forcing from sea level and storms, the prospect of changes in nourishment cost could have profound consequences on coastal value and sustainability. We utilize two modeling approaches to investigate how disappearing nourishment subsidies reduce coastal property value and to explore the potential for a bubble and subsequent crash in coastal property value as subsidies dwindle and vulnerability rises. The first model is an optimal control model that couples a cost benefit analysis to coastline dynamics. In the second model, we couple a numerical coastline model with an agent-based model for real estate markets. Results from both models suggest the total present value of coastal

  2. Large spatial variations in coastal 14C reservoir age - a case study from the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougheed, B. C.; Filipsson, H. L.; Snowball, I.

    2013-02-01

    Coastal locations are highly influenced by input from freshwater river runoff, including sources of terrestrial carbon, which can be expected to modify the 14C reservoir age, or R(t), associated with marine water. In this Baltic Sea case study, pre-bomb museum collection mollusc shells of known calendar age, from 30 locations across a strategic salinity transect of the Baltic Sea, were analysed for 14C, δ13C and δ18O. R(t) was calculated for all 30 locations. Seven locations, of which six are within close proximity of the coast, were found to have relatively higher R(t) values, indicative of hard-water effects. δ13Caragonite values were found to be indicative of hard-water influence only for certain locations, suggesting the possibility of different sources of old carbon in different locations. Whenever possible, the Macoma genus of mollusc was selected from the museum collections, in order to exclude species specific reservoir age effects as much as possible. When the Macoma samples are exclusively considered, and samples from hard-water locations excluded, a statistically significant correlation between Macoma R(t) and average salinity is found, indicating a two end-member linear mixing model between 14Cmarine and 14Crunoff. A map of Baltic Sea Macoma aragonite R(t) for the late 19th and early 20th centuries is produced. Such a map can provide an estimate for contemporary Baltic Sea Macoma R(t), although one must exercise caution when applying such estimates back in time or to 14C dates obtained from different sample material. A statistically significant correlation is also found between δ18Oaragonite and Macoma R(t), suggesting that δ18Oaragonite can be used to estimate Macoma palaeo-R(t). The results of this Baltic Sea case study, which show that R(t) is affected by hydrographic conditions and local carbon inputs, have important consequences for other coastal and estuarine locations, where R(t) is also likely to significantly vary on spatial and temporal

  3. Rapid East Asian Monsoon change during the Last Interglacial in the Bohai Sea Coastal Zone, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, S.; Li, B.; Chen, M.; Zhang, D.; Xiang, R.; Niu, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Bohai Sea coastal zone of China faces the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Eurasian continent to the west, hence, this region is influenced by both the ocean and continental landmasses. The Bohai Sea coastal zone has significant monsoon climate characteristics and a strong sensitivity to climate change. The Miaodao stratigraphical section (MDS) contains historical information about climate features in the region, especially the high-frequency variations during the last interglacial, sea level changes, and the evolution of the East Asian monsoon. By analyzing the ages of different sedimentary facies in combination with proxy paleoclimatic indices (i.e., grain <63 μm fraction, average grain size (Mz), clay + silt/sand content (SC/D), magnetic susceptibility, and the ratios of Na2O/Al2O3 and (Al2O3+TOFe)/SiO2, in the fifth segments of the MDS from the last-interglacial (MDS5), we conclude that subsections 5a, 5c, and 5e were controlled by summer monsoons, whereas subsections 5b and 5d were formed when winter monsoons prevailed. These results were similar to oxygen isotope analyses from previous studies including the Spectral Mapping Project (SPECMAP) and the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP). Five and a half comparable oscillations in proxy indices that were dated to ca. 116.1, 118.3, 121.2, 122.7, 125.9, and 128.7 ka occurred within the MDS 5e subsection when winter monsoon winds strengthened. This millennial-scale climate variability during the Eemian period may have reached up to ten and a half oscillations with a quasi-periodicity of approximately a 1,470 year cycle during the late glacial period. This rapid period of climate change has been recorded in northern and central Europe, central Asia, as well as in East Asia. The climate forming mechanism was probably initiated by changes in solar activity, and driven by the East Asian monsoon and sea level oscillations. Comparison of Miaodao section records with other paleoclimatic records during the

  4. Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment. Part 1: Two-dimensional simulations of sea-breeze and mountain effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the southern California coastal region, observations of the vertical distributions of pollutants show that maximum concentrations can occur within temperature inversion layers well above the surface. A mesoscale model is used to study the dynamical phenomena that cause such layers, including sea breezes and mountain flows, and to study the characteristics of air pollutant transport in a coastal environment capped by a temperature inversion. The mathematical and physical structure of the model is described. Two-dimensional simulations corresponding to four configurations of coastal plains and mountains are discussed. The simulations reveal that pollutant transport over a coastal plain is strongly influenced by the topographic configuration, including the height of coastal mountains and their distance from the coastline. Sea breezes induced by land-sea thermal contrasts, as well as upslope winds induced along mountain flanks, both create vertical transport that can lead to the formation of elevated pollution layers. The sea-breeze circulation generates pollution layers by undercutting the mixed layer and lofting pollutants into the stable layer. Heating of mountain slopes acts to vent pollutants above the mountain ridge during the day; during the evening, pollutants can be injected directly into the inversion layer from the decaying upslope flows. In a land-sea configuration with mountains close to the coastline, the sea breeze and heated-mountain flow are strongly coupled. In the afternoon, this interaction can produce upslope flow from which polluted air is detrained into the inversion layer as a return circulation. When the mountains lie farther inland, however, pollutants may be trapped aloft when the mixed layer stabilizes in the late afternoon. As the nocturnal boundary layer forms over the coast in the evening, polluted mixed-layer air is effectively left behind in the inversion layer. In the Los Angeles Basin, the formation mechanism for elevated

  5. A model for the atmospheric transport of sea-salt particles in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoisson, A.; Tedeschi, G.; Piazzola, J.

    2013-10-01

    A model for the aerosol transport in the lower atmosphere is of great interest for studies on air and water quality. One of the difficulties of such a model is to provide the accurate source terms. In particular, for maritime environment, the production of particles generated at the air-sea interface by breaking waves largely varies in time and space (Piazzola et al., 2009). More particularly, near the coastal zone, the sea-spray aerosol fluxes depend on the development of the wave field. The present paper proposes some improvement of the model MACMod, published by Tedeschi and Piazzola (2011), which is dedicated to the transport of aerosol particles in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). Taking benefit of the experimental campaign MIRAMER conducted in the French Mediterranean in 2008, a new sea-spray source function has been introduced in the latter version of the model MACMod. This consists in a revisited version of the whitecap dependant formulation established by Monahan et al. (1986). The simulations were then validated using aerosol size distributions recorded on board the ship “Atalante” for different wind speeds. Error calculations show a good performance of the model since it predicts the aerosol concentration to within a maximum factor of 3 for particle radii between 0.5 to 5 μm.

  6. Field observations of the relation between satellite and sea radiances in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aas, Eyvind; Sørensen, Kai

    1995-08-01

    Estimates of the different contributions to the satellite radiance above the outer Oslofjord are presented. The contribution from the sea is of the order of 10% of the total signal, and the part due to reflection from the sea surface constitutes 10-20%. The presence of land may increase the satellite radiance up to 4-9%, but such effects, which are probably reduced to 1/e at a distance of 1 km from the coast, cannot be detected in the present measurements. In situ observations of the marine radiance are corrected for shadings by ship and instrument and for varying solar altitude. The average correction for the self-shading effect of the marine instrument becomes 30-50% in these waters. The linear relations between satellite and sea radiances are determined with correlation coefficients of better than 0.95. The observed minimum value of the satellite radiance (or darkest pixel) is not a satisfactory approximation for the atmospheric correction. It is concluded that, in coastal waters and at the present stage, satellite observations have to be combined with field measurements to obtain reliable results.

  7. Modification of misovortices during landfall in the Japan Sea coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Ryohei; Kusunoki, Kenichi; Inoue, Hanako Y.; Arai, Ken-ichiro; Nishihashi, Masahide; Fujiwara, Chusei; Shimose, Ken-ichi; Mashiko, Wataru; Sato, Eiichi; Saito, Sadao; Hayashi, Syugo; Yoshida, Satoru; Suzuki, Hiroto

    2015-05-01

    Misovortices frequently occur near the coastline of the Japan Sea during wintertime cold air outbreaks, generally developing over the sea and moving inland. To clarify the behavior of misovortices during landfall, temporal changes in the intensity and tilt of 12 misovortices over the coastal region of the Japan Sea were investigated during the winters of 2010/11 and 2011/12 using an X-band Doppler radar. For 11 vortices whose diameters were more than twice the effective radar beamwidth, the temporal change in the peak tangential velocity at lower levels (averaged below 400 m AGL) was analyzed. It was found that 8 out of the 11 vortices decreased after progressing between 0 and 6 km inland. For the remaining three vortices, the patterns of Doppler velocity couplet became unclear between 0 and 5 km inland, suggesting that these vortices also decayed soon after landfall. For four of the vortices, for which the analysis of the temporal evolution of tilt with height was made possible by several successive volume scans, the forward tilt with height increased after landfall. This study showed that modification to both the intensity and tilt with height of misovortices occurred after landfall.

  8. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global sea level rise and the need to incorporate projections of rise into management plans for coastal adaptation. It also discusses the performance of a shoreline revetment; M. Ali Seawall, placed to protect the land against flooding and overtopping at coastal site, within Abu Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt along the Nile Delta coast. The assessment is conducted to examine the adequacy of the seawall under the current and progressive effects of climate change demonstrated by the anticipated sea level rise during this century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) predicts that the Mediterranean will rise 30 cm to 1 meter this century. Coastal zone management of the bay coastline is of utmost significance to the protection of the low agricultural land and the industrial complex located in the rear side of the seawall. Moreover this joint research work highlights the similarity of the nature of current and anticipated coastal zone problems, at several locations around the world, and required adaptation and protection measures. For example many barrier islands in the world such as that in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the U.S., lowland and deltas such as in Italy and the Nile Delta, and many islands are also experiencing significant levels of erosion and flooding that are exacerbated by sea level rise. Global Climatic Changes: At a global scale, an example of the effects of accelerated climate changes was demonstrated. In recent years, the impacts of natural disasters are more and more severe on coastal lowland areas. With the threats of climate change, sea level rise storm surge, progressive storm and hurricane activities and potential subsidence, the reduction of natural disasters in coastal lowland areas receives increased attention. Yet many of their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding, and conversions of land to open ocean. These global changes were recently

  9. Influence of sea-land breezes on the tempospatial distribution of atmospheric aerosols over coastal region.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsieh-Hung; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Lin, Chitsan; Lin, Yuan-Chung

    2011-04-01

    The influence of sea-land breezes (SLBs) on the spatial distribution and temporal variation of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere was investigated over coastal Taiwan. PM was simultaneously sampled at inland and offshore locations during three intensive sampling periods. The intensive PM sampling protocol was continuously conducted over a 48-hr period. During this time, PM2.5 and PM(2.5-10) (PM with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 microm and between 2.5 and 10 microm, respectively) were simultaneously measured with dichotomous samplers at four sites (two inland and two offshore sites) and PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameters < or =10 microm) was measured with beta-ray monitors at these same 4 sites and at 10 sites of the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network. PM sampling on a mobile air quality monitoring boat was further conducted along the coastline to collect offshore PM using a beta-ray monitor and a dichotomous sampler. Data obtained from the inland sites (n=12) and offshore sites (n=2) were applied to plot the PM10 concentration contour using Surfer software. This study also used a three-dimensional meteorological model (Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Meteorological Model 5) and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions to simulate surface wind fields and spatial distribution of PM10 over the coastal region during the intensive sampling periods. Spatial distribution of PM10 concentration was further used in investigating the influence of SLBs on the transport of PM10 over the coastal region. Field measurement and model simulation results showed that PM10 was transported back and forth across the coastline. In particular, a high PM10 concentration was observed at the inland sites during the day because of sea breezes, whereas a high PM10 concentration was detected offshore at night because of land breezes. This study revealed that the accumulation of PM in the near-ocean region because of SLBs influenced the

  10. Copepod communities, production and grazing in the Turkish Straits System and the adjacent northern Aegean Sea during spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zervoudaki, S.; Christou, E. D.; Assimakopoulou, G.; Örek, H.; Gucu, A. C.; Giannakourou, A.; Pitta, P.; Terbiyik, T.; Yϋcel, N.; Moutsopoulos, T.; Pagou, K.; Psarra, S.; Özsoy, E.; Papathanassiou, E.

    2011-06-01

    The Mediterranean and the Black Seas are connected through Bosphorus, Marmara Sea and Dardanelles (Turkish Straits System, TSS). In this study, we examined the spatial distribution of copepods and investigate their production and grazing. The aim was to understand the transfer of phytoplankton/microzooplankton production up the food chain in TSS and Aegean Sea during spring. The phytoplankton and microzooplankton biomass and production showed a clear decreasing trend from Bosphorus to the Aegean Sea, whereas copepod biomass did not reveal any distinct trend and only the number of copepod species increased from Bosphorus to the Aegean Sea. Production of copepods and egg production showed similar trends except for the Bosphorus, where production of copepods was very low due to the low copepod biomass in this area. In all areas, the copepod carbon demand was largely met by phytoplankton and microzooplankton production. However, only a low amount of primary production was consumed by copepods and production appeared to flow mostly through other pathways (microbial loop) and/or sediment on the bottom. The results of this study confirm the hypothesis that there is a substantial differentiation within pelagic food web structure and carbon flow from Bosphorus to the Aegean Sea.

  11. Microbial processes and organic priority substances in marine coastal sediments (Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Dellisanti, Walter; Lungarini, Silvia; Miserocchi, Stefano; Patrolecco, Luisa; Langone, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    PERSEUS EU FP7 Project aims to identify the interacting patterns of natural and human-derived pressures to assess their impact on marine ecosystems and, using the objectives and principles of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) as a vehicle, to design an effective and innovative research governance framework based on sound scientific knowledge. In the frame of this Project (subtask 1.3.3 ADREX: Adriatic and Ionian Seas Experiment), monitoring surveys were conducted in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) in order to study the variation of structural and functional characteristics of native bacterial communities and the occurrence of selected classes of organic priority substances in sediments. The study area represents a good natural laboratory sensitive to climate variability and human pressure, owing to the semi-enclosed nature of the Adriatic Sea and to the increasing trend of human activities in the coastal regions. During the cruise ADRI-13 (November 2013) and ADRI-14 (October 2014) we sampled several coastal sites from the mouth of the Po River to the Otranto strait. Surface sediments were collected in all areas, while sediment cores were sampled in selected sites. Microbes associated with marine sediments play an important role in the C-flux being responsible for the transformation of organic detritus (autochthonous and allochthonous) into biomass. The sediment bacterial abundance was determined by epifluorescence microscopy and the rate of bacterial carbon production by measuring the 3H-leucine uptake rates. The community respiration rate was estimated by the measurement of the electron transport system (ETS) activity. The sediment contamination level was determined by measuring the concentration of contaminants included in the list of organic priority substances: PAHs, bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols (APs). The extraction/clean-up of PAHs, BPA and APs was performed by ultrasonic bath with the appropriate solvents, followed by analytical determination with

  12. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    significant difference in foreshore characteristics such as seasonal berm height and foreshore slope between the two types of beaches, beaches without back-beach barriers have more developed back dune systems and are significantly wider than adjacent restricted beaches, given that no extensive artificial beach nourishment has occurred. In regions such as Ventura and Imperial Beach, unrestricted beaches are 50-100% wider than adjacent beaches with back-beach barriers even with no significant differences in historical rates of shoreline change. Taking into account the nature of the back beach is just as crucial in predicting impacts of sea-level rise on beaches in California as considering inundation and retreat in the foreshore, and will be an important consideration for coastal managers in designing sea-level rise adaptation plans.

  13. Evaluation of the level of technogenic pollution in the coastal zone of the Black Sea near Gelendzhik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasovnikov, V. K.; Chjoo, V. P.; Ocherednik, O. A.; Mar'yasova, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    The content of technogenic pollutants in the coastal zone of the northeastern part of the Black Sea was evaluated. The quantitative evaluation of the level of technogenic load on the waters of Gelendzhik and Golubaya (Rybatskaya) bays was performed. A list of pollutants exceeding MPC standards was compiled.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Lewinella sp. Strain 4G2 Isolated from the Coastal Sea Surface Microlayer

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Susumu; Nakajima, Yu; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Hamasaki, Koji

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome of Lewinella sp. strain 4G2, isolated from the sea surface microlayer (SML) of a coastal marine inlet. The genome sequence of strain 4G2 should contribute to understanding the lifestyles of bacteria living in the SML. PMID:27469943

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Lewinella sp. Strain 4G2 Isolated from the Coastal Sea Surface Microlayer.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shu-Kuan; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Nakajima, Yu; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Hamasaki, Koji

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome of Lewinella sp. strain 4G2, isolated from the sea surface microlayer (SML) of a coastal marine inlet. The genome sequence of strain 4G2 should contribute to understanding the lifestyles of bacteria living in the SML. PMID:27469943

  16. Genome Sequence of Gammaproteobacterial Pseudohaliea rubra Type Strain DSM 19751, Isolated from Coastal Seawater of the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Fiebig, Anne; Riedel, Thomas; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Pseudohaliea rubra strain DSM 19751T is an aerobic marine gammaproteobacterium that was isolated from surface coastal seawater of the Mediterranean Sea. Here, we present its genome sequence and annotation. Genome analysis revealed the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll-a and the reserve compound glycogen. PMID:25414506

  17. Storms, shoreface morphodynamics, sand supply, and the accretion and erosion of coastal dune barriers in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Edward J.

    2013-10-01

    The coast of the southern North Sea is bound by dune barriers that have developed adjacent to a shallow storm- and tide-dominated shoreface comprising numerous shore-parallel to sub-shore-parallel tidal sand banks. The banks evolve under the joint control of tide-, wave- and wind-induced shore-parallel currents, which tend to ‘stretch' them, eventually leading to bank division, and to shoaling and breaking storm waves, which tend to drive them ashore. The banks, thus, modulate the delivery of storm wave energy to the coast, redirect currents alongshore and are the sand sources for the accretion of coastal dunes. Foredune accretion occurs where major sand banks have migrated shoreward over the last centuries to be finally driven ashore and weld under the impact of storm waves. Morphological changes in the bank field can impact on shoreline stability through dissipation or enhanced shoreward transmission of storm wave energy and effects on radiation stress, particularly when waves are breaking over the banks. Where banks are close to the shore, mitigation of offshore sediment transport, especially during storms, can occur because of gradients in radiation stress generated by the complex 3D bank structure. These macro-scale mechanisms involve embedded meso-scale interactions that revolve around the mobility of sand waves, mobility of beach bars and troughs and foredune mobility, and micro-scale processes of bedform mobility in the subaqueous and intertidal domains, and of swash and aeolian beach-dune sand transport. These embedded interactions and the morphodynamic feedback loops illustrate the importance of synchroneity of sand transport from shoreface to dune on this coast. Large stretches of the foredunes show either signs of stability, or mild but chronic erosion. Furthermore, a demonstrated lack of a clear relationship occurs between storminess and coastal response over the second half of the 20th century. The present situation may be indicative of conditions

  18. Reconstruction of Holocene coastal depositional environments based on sedimentological and palaeontological analyses, Zakynthos Island, Western Greece Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramidis, Pavlos; Iliopoulos, George; Papadopoulou, Penelope; Nikolaou, Konstantinos; Kontopoulos, Nikolaos; Wijngaarden, Gert

    2014-05-01

    Zakynthos Island is one of the most seismically active regions in Europe and the Holocene coastal depositional environments were influenced both by tectonic activity and sea level rise. In the present study detailed sedimentological, palaeontological and 14C dating analyses were used in order to reconstruct the Holocene coastal depositional environments as well as the different rates of sedimentation, based on data from three cores up to 30 m deep. The results of the analyses indicate changes in depositional environments from marine to brackish lagoonal and lagoon / barrier systems with temporary intrusions of marine water via storms or tsunamigenic events. High sedimentation rates in coastal areas of Zakynthos Island correspond well to the most widespread Holocene warm and humid phases. The interpretation of the sedimentological environments reveals that Zakynthos Island before 8300 BP was constituted by two islands, where the present southern part of the island was separated from the northern one by a shallow and narrow sea channel.

  19. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment. PMID:26346804

  20. Upper Cretaceous sequences and sea-level history, New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.G.; Sugarman, P.J.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.A.; Olsson, R.K.; Feigenson, M.D.; Hernandez, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a Late Cretaceous sealevel estimate from Upper Cretaceous sequences at Bass River and Ancora, New Jersey (ODP [Ocean Drilling Program] Leg 174AX). We dated 11-14 sequences by integrating Sr isotope and biostratigraphy (age resolution ??0.5 m.y.) and then estimated paleoenvironmental changes within the sequences from lithofacies and biofacies analyses. Sequences generally shallow upsection from middle-neritic to inner-neritic paleodepths, as shown by the transition from thin basal glauconite shelf sands (transgressive systems tracts [TST]), to medial-prodelta silty clays (highstand systems tracts [HST]), and finally to upper-delta-front quartz sands (HST). Sea-level estimates obtained by backstripping (accounting for paleodepth variations, sediment loading, compaction, and basin subsidence) indicate that large (>25 m) and rapid (???1 m.y.) sea-level variations occurred during the Late Cretaceous greenhouse world. The fact that the timing of Upper Cretaceous sequence boundaries in New Jersey is similar to the sea-level lowering records of Exxon Production Research Company (EPR), northwest European sections, and Russian platform outcrops points to a global cause. Because backstripping, seismicity, seismic stratigraphic data, and sediment-distribution patterns all indicate minimal tectonic effects on the New Jersey Coastal Plain, we interpret that we have isolated a eustatic signature. The only known mechanism that can explain such global changes-glacio-eustasy-is consistent with foraminiferal ??18O data. Either continental ice sheets paced sea-level changes during the Late Cretaceous, or our understanding of causal mechanisms for global sea-level change is fundamentally flawed. Comparison of our eustatic history with published ice-sheet models and Milankovitch predictions suggests that small (5-10 ?? 106 km3), ephemeral, and areally restricted Antarctic ice sheets paced the Late Cretaceous global sea-level change. New Jersey and Russian eustatic estimates

  1. Rapid coastal erosion on the Beaufort Sea coast: A triple whammy induced by climate change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. S.; Wobus, C. W.; Overeem, I.; Clow, G. D.; Urban, F. E.; Stanton, T. P.

    2009-12-01

    The effects of climate change on landscape evolution can be pronounced in polar regions due to amplification of warming at high latitudes and sensitivity of ice-rich landscapes to warming. Documented coastal erosion rates exceeding 20-30 m/yr suggest that the effects of climate change are already being felt along northern coastlines. We seek to combine direct observational evidence of coastal retreat with relevant environmental information to generate predictive models capable of describing how these erosion processes respond to climate change. We study a section of the Beaufort Sea coastline roughly midway between Point Barrow and Prudhoe Bay. Three-to five-meter high, ice-rich silty bluffs have been eroding at a consistent rate of 15-25 m/yr through two years of direct monitoring. Our onshore data includes time-lapse photography, GPS-located flag lines, meteorological observations, bluff substrate properties, and size distributions of eroded blocks. Offshore, we use models and measurements of sea-ice coverage, bathymetry, sea surface temperature, and wave dynamics. Time-lapse films collected during the summers of 2008 and 2009 indicate that episodic block failure during storm events is superimposed on a slow, steady notching of the base of the ice-rich bluffs, which appears to be driven primarily by melting from relatively warm seawater. Block failure occurs preferentially along ice wedges. Once the blocks have toppled, thermal disintegration by warm nearshore waters occurs within days. The nearshore water responsible for melting the permafrost-rich coastline is very shallow; the local shelf slopes at less than 1 m/km. The water is commonly opaque due to suspended silt: light extinction depth scales of decimeters suggest that solar radiation should be efficiently absorbed in surface waters. Nearshore temperatures display distinct diurnal histories, and are vertically uniform, implying that they are well mixed. Variations in water level are dominated by storm

  2. Retoxification by heavy metals at land-sea interface in coastal aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidelibus, Maria Dolores

    2014-05-01

    Although during the last decades a significant number of countermeasures have been put in place with respect to the release of pollutants into the environment, and emissions of many of these are in fact ceased, the signs of a generalized pollution are found with increasing frequency. The appearance of new signals may surprise, given that common sense leads us to believe that in a period of reduced emissions the environment should be in an improved state rather than in a worse one: however, the environmental effects of previous pollution are clearly appearing after a build-up of pollutants in the environment over the past decades, with a lag with respect to the activities that generated it.In particular, soils are the final receptor (sink) of pollutants as heavy metals, pesticides and fertilizers: the common belief that the heavy metals remain forever locked may, however, give a false sense of security: today it is no longer possible to ignore the fact that the soils involve potential long-term impacts.With this in mind we can open a window on some aspects of the nonlinear behavior of soils and detrital aquifers. Researches on the former are more frequent and help extending some results to the latter. As matter of fact, in response to variations in environmental conditions, sudden releases of pollutants accumulated in soils occur with a considerable delay compared to the input. The attention of the study is on coastal aquifers. The coastal areas in general are dynamic non-linear systems at the land-sea interface in perpetual chemical-physical disequilibrium: these areas are complex with regard to the constituent elements and subject to a set of variable boundary conditions (oscillating borderswith periodic and aperiodic frequency), to cyclic and non-cyclic variations of climatic conditions and anthropogenic forcing (permanent or transient), whose behavior is not easily predictable, and that act on different temporal and spatial scales.The question is: can the

  3. ERTS surveys a 500 km squared locust breeding site in Saudi Arabia. [Red Sea coastal plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedgley, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    From September 1972 to January 1973, ERTS-1 precisely located a 500 sq km area on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia within which the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria, Forsk.) bred successfully and produced many small swarms. Growth of vegetation shown by satellite imagery was confirmed from ground surveys and raingauge data. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility of detecting potential locust breeding sites by satellite, and shows that an operational satellite would be a powerful tool for routine survey of the 3 x 10 to the 7th power sq km invasion area of the Desert Locust in Africa and Asia, as well as of other locust species in the arid and semi-arid tropics.

  4. Deep-sea epibiotic hydroids from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench with description of Garveia belyaevi sp. nov. (Hydrozoa, Bougainvilliidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanjants, Sofia D.; Chernyshev, Alexey V.

    2015-01-01

    Examination of material collected by the German-Russian KuramBio Deep-Sea Expedition to the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench revealed about 17 hydroid species, including two species presumably new to science. Before the KuramBio Expedition only fragments of the unidentified hydroids and Cryptolaria sp. were collected in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench from depths exceeding 3000 m. Descriptions of three species of epibiotic hydroids (including one new species, Garveia belyaevi sp. nov.) are presented herein. A colony of G. belyaevi sp. nov. (the third deep-sea and deepest species of the wide distributed genus Garveia) was attached to the spines of unidentified irregular sea urchins from depths 5217 to 5229 m. Нalitholus (?) sp. (Hydrozoa, Anthoathecata) colonized the skin of spoon worms (Echiura) but could not be identified to species level because the mature medusa stage was absent in the material. An unidentified juvenile polyp (Pandeidae) was found on the bryozoan Tricitella minini attached to spines of irregular sea urchins Echinosigra amphora. Colonial sedentary organisms inhabiting abyssal plains with soft bottoms may colonize invertebrates which are seldom used as substrates for epibiota in shallow waters. Epibiosis among abyssal colonial invertebrates, though extremely poorly studied, appears to be rather frequent.

  5. Phytoplankton responses to atmospheric metal deposition in the coastal and open-ocean Sargasso Sea.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Katherine R M; Buck, Kristen N; Casey, John R; Cid, Abigail; Lomas, Michael W; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Paytan, Adina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of atmospheric metal deposition on natural phytoplankton communities at open-ocean and coastal sites in the Sargasso Sea during the spring bloom. Locally collected aerosols with different metal contents were added to natural phytoplankton assemblages from each site, and changes in nitrate, dissolved metal concentration, and phytoplankton abundance and carbon content were monitored. Addition of aerosol doubled the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) in the incubation water. Over the 3-day experiments, greater drawdown of dissolved metals occurred in the open ocean water, whereas little metal drawdown occurred in the coastal water. Two populations of picoeukaryotic algae and Synechococcus grew in response to aerosol additions in both experiments. Particulate organic carbon increased and was most sensitive to changes in picoeukaryote abundance. Phytoplankton community composition differed depending on the chemistry of the aerosol added. Enrichment with aerosol that had higher metal content led to a 10-fold increase in Synechococcus abundance in the oceanic experiment but not in the coastal experiment. Enrichment of aerosol-derived Co, Mn, and Ni were particularly enhanced in the oceanic experiment, suggesting the Synechococcus population may have been fertilized by these aerosol metals. Cu-binding ligand concentrations were in excess of dissolved Cu in both experiments, and increased with aerosol additions. Bioavailable free hydrated Cu(2+) concentrations were below toxicity thresholds throughout both experiments. These experiments show (1) atmospheric deposition contributes biologically important metals to seawater, (2) these metals are consumed over time scales commensurate with cell growth, and (3) growth responses can differ between distinct Synechococcus or eukaryotic algal populations despite their relatively close geographic proximity and taxonomic similarity

  6. Phytoplankton responses to atmospheric metal deposition in the coastal and open-ocean Sargasso Sea

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Katherine R. M.; Buck, Kristen N.; Casey, John R.; Cid, Abigail; Lomas, Michael W.; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Paytan, Adina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of atmospheric metal deposition on natural phytoplankton communities at open-ocean and coastal sites in the Sargasso Sea during the spring bloom. Locally collected aerosols with different metal contents were added to natural phytoplankton assemblages from each site, and changes in nitrate, dissolved metal concentration, and phytoplankton abundance and carbon content were monitored. Addition of aerosol doubled the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) in the incubation water. Over the 3-day experiments, greater drawdown of dissolved metals occurred in the open ocean water, whereas little metal drawdown occurred in the coastal water. Two populations of picoeukaryotic algae and Synechococcus grew in response to aerosol additions in both experiments. Particulate organic carbon increased and was most sensitive to changes in picoeukaryote abundance. Phytoplankton community composition differed depending on the chemistry of the aerosol added. Enrichment with aerosol that had higher metal content led to a 10-fold increase in Synechococcus abundance in the oceanic experiment but not in the coastal experiment. Enrichment of aerosol-derived Co, Mn, and Ni were particularly enhanced in the oceanic experiment, suggesting the Synechococcus population may have been fertilized by these aerosol metals. Cu-binding ligand concentrations were in excess of dissolved Cu in both experiments, and increased with aerosol additions. Bioavailable free hydrated Cu2+ concentrations were below toxicity thresholds throughout both experiments. These experiments show (1) atmospheric deposition contributes biologically important metals to seawater, (2) these metals are consumed over time scales commensurate with cell growth, and (3) growth responses can differ between distinct Synechococcus or eukaryotic algal populations despite their relatively close geographic proximity and taxonomic similarity. PMID

  7. The impact of the sea surface temperature resolution on mesoscale coastal processes during GALE IOP 2

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J.D.; Warner, T.T. )

    1993-02-01

    The Pennsylvania State University-NCAR Mesoscale Model is used to examine the sensitivity of the structure and evolution of mesoscale coastal phenomena to the sea surface temperature (SST) distribution in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream during intensive observation period 2 (IOP 2) of the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE). Experiments are performed with three different SST analyses: (1) a high-resolution 14-km analysis, (2) a medium-resolution 275-km analysis, and (3) a coarse-resolution 381-km analysis. The results indicate that numerical simulations of mesoscale phenomena embedded in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream are very sensitive to the SST distribution. The total average heat fluxes differ by less than 15% among the three experiments; however, the mesoscale distributions of the oceanic surface heat fluxes differ substantially. Significant dissimilarities occur among the three experiments in terms of the intensity and movement of the north-wall MABL front, MABL structure, coastal front, cyclone, and precipitation. The maximum values of diagnosed quantites (e.g., vorticity, divergence, thermal gradients, and frontogenesis) in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream vary by as much as a factor of 8 among the three simulations. Also, the lower-tropospheric geostrophic forcing along the coast is relatively weak in the two simulations that used lower-resolution SST analyses. This weak geostrophic forcing in the lower-resolution SST experiments results in the development of a low-level jet that is weaker than observed and simulated in the experiment with the high-resolution analysis. The use of high-resolution SST analyses in research and operational mesoscale models may be essential in some cases for the accurate prediction of coastal cyclones and their associated mesoscale structures. 43 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  8. 76 FR 79764 - Use of Foreign-Flag Anchor Handling Vessels in the Beaufort Sea or Chukchi Sea Adjacent to Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... Maritime Administration Use of Foreign-Flag Anchor Handling Vessels in the Beaufort Sea or Chukchi Sea...-flag anchor handling vessels in certain cases (and for a limited period of time) if no U.S.-flag... the Maritime Administration determines that U.S.- flag vessels are not suitable and...

  9. Increase California-Oregon Coastal Summer Sea Level Fog from 1950 to 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    An analysis is presented of the marine fog distribution based upon the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) ship observations taken during 1950-2007. Deep fog occurrence is reported in routine weather reports that are encoded in an ICOADS ship observation. Occurrence is estimated by the number of deep fog observations divided by the total present weather observations in a one-degree area centered on latitude and longitude grid point intersections. The mean fog occurrence for the summer (June-July-August) 1950-2007 was computed for each one degree point. There is a long term, deep fog occurrence maximum on the California-Oregon coast with its highest value of 16.6 % at 38° N 123° W. This fog maximum is coincident with coldest June-July-August sea surface temperatures (SST) along the coast. To compute annual averages of the maximum, a block average was based on the 19 over water grid points with the deep fog occurrences generally greater than 0.6 times the highest long term maximum value that extended along the California-Oregon coast from 37° N to 44° N. The June-July-August block averaged, annual value computed for each of the 58 summers for the period 1950-2007 has a distinct positive trend. A line fitted to the data has a deep fog percent occurrence increase of +7.4 % from 1950 through 2007 or a trend of +0.13 % per year. The Mann-Kendall test was applied and the trend is significant at the 0.05 level. The increase in long term coastal fog is coincident with a decrease in the California-Oregon coastal SST. The SST decrease is consistent with interior California land temperatures increasing, increasing the cross shore sea level pressure gradient, and increasing the along coast winds creating a positive feedback that causes more upwelling and lower SST.

  10. An Unprecedented Aggregation of Whale Sharks, Rhincodon typus, in Mexican Coastal Waters of the Caribbean Sea

    PubMed Central

    de la Parra Venegas, Rafael; Hueter, Robert; González Cano, Jaime; Tyminski, John; Gregorio Remolina, José; Maslanka, Mike; Ormos, Andrea; Weigt, Lee; Carlson, Bruce; Dove, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are often perceived as solitary behemoths that live and feed in the open ocean. To the contrary, evidence is accumulating that they are gregarious and form seasonal aggregations in some coastal waters. One such aggregation occurs annually north of Cabo Catoche, off Isla Holbox on the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Here we report a second, much denser aggregation of whale sharks (dubbed “the Afuera”) that occurs east of the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Caribbean Sea. The 2009 Afuera event comprised the largest aggregation of whale sharks ever reported, with up to 420 whale sharks observed in a single aerial survey, all gathered in an elliptical patch of ocean approximately 18 km2. Plankton studies indicated that the sharks were feeding on dense homogenous patches of fish eggs, which DNA barcoding analysis identified as belonging to little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus. This contrasts with the annual Cabo Catoche aggregation nearby, where prey consists mostly of copepods and sergestid shrimp. Increased sightings at the Afuera coincide with decreased sightings at Cabo Catoche, and both groups have the same sex ratio, implying that the same animals are likely involved in both aggregations; tagging data support this idea. With two whale shark aggregation areas, high coastal productivity and a previously-unknown scombrid spawning ground, the northeastern Yucatán marine region is a critical habitat that deserves more concerted conservation efforts. PMID:21559508

  11. An unprecedented aggregation of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, in Mexican coastal waters of the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    de la Parra Venegas, Rafael; Hueter, Robert; González Cano, Jaime; Tyminski, John; Gregorio Remolina, José; Maslanka, Mike; Ormos, Andrea; Weigt, Lee; Carlson, Bruce; Dove, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are often perceived as solitary behemoths that live and feed in the open ocean. To the contrary, evidence is accumulating that they are gregarious and form seasonal aggregations in some coastal waters. One such aggregation occurs annually north of Cabo Catoche, off Isla Holbox on the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Here we report a second, much denser aggregation of whale sharks (dubbed "the Afuera") that occurs east of the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Caribbean Sea. The 2009 Afuera event comprised the largest aggregation of whale sharks ever reported, with up to 420 whale sharks observed in a single aerial survey, all gathered in an elliptical patch of ocean approximately 18 km(2). Plankton studies indicated that the sharks were feeding on dense homogenous patches of fish eggs, which DNA barcoding analysis identified as belonging to little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus. This contrasts with the annual Cabo Catoche aggregation nearby, where prey consists mostly of copepods and sergestid shrimp. Increased sightings at the Afuera coincide with decreased sightings at Cabo Catoche, and both groups have the same sex ratio, implying that the same animals are likely involved in both aggregations; tagging data support this idea. With two whale shark aggregation areas, high coastal productivity and a previously-unknown scombrid spawning ground, the northeastern Yucatán marine region is a critical habitat that deserves more concerted conservation efforts. PMID:21559508

  12. Modeling mesoscale diffusion and transport processes for releases within coastal zones during land/sea breezes

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.A.; Keen, C.S.; Schuh, J.A.

    1983-12-01

    This document discusses the impacts of coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) upon the transport and diffusion of potential accidental radionuclide releases from a shoreline nuclear power plant. CMRs exhibit significant spatial (horizontal and vertical) and temporal variability. Case studies illustrate land breezes, sea/lake breeze inflows and return flows, thermal internal boundary layers, fumigation, plume trapping, coastal convergence zones, thunderstorms and snow squalls. The direct application of a conventional Gaussian straight-line dose assessment model, initialized only by on-site tower data, can potentially produce highly misleading guidance as to plume impact locations. Since much is known concerning CMRs, there are many potential improvements to modularized dose assessment codes, such as by proper parameterization of TIBLs, forecasting the inland penetration of convergence zones, etc. A three-dimensional primitive equation prognostic model showed excellent agreement with detailed lake breeze field measurements, giving indications that such codes can be used in both diagnostic and prognostic studies. The use of relatively inexpensive supplemental meteorological data especially from remote sensing systems (Doppler sodar, radar, lightning strike tracking) and computerized data bases should save significantly on software development costs. Better quality assurance of emergency response codes could include systems of flags providing personnel with confidence levels as to the applicability of a code being used during any given CMR.

  13. Geochemical and radiation conditions in coastal landscapes of the Kara Sea Gulf (Novaya Zemlya Archipelago)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Velichkin, V. I.; Miroshnikov, A. Yu.; Krupskaya, V. V.; Asadulin, En. E.; Semenkov, I. N.; Usacheva, A. A.; Zakusin, S. V.; Terskaya, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    This work considers terrestrial coastal landscapes of Abrosimov and Stepovoi gulfs and Yuzhnii (Southern) Island in the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago in the Kara Sea. These areas are dominated by horizons of slightly acidic leptosols and lithic leptosols of 10 cm thick (Stepovoi Gulf) and those of weak skeleton acidic lithic leptosols of 10-15 cm thick (Abrosimov Gulf) covered by moss-shrub assemblages. Kaolinite is formed in a rhizosphere fine earth layer; illite is formed along the leptosol sequence. The studied coastal landscapes are characterized by low accumulation potential of chemical elements, including radionuclides, at higher contents of them. Elements such as Fe and Ti are dispersed in sols, whereas P, S, Cl, Cu, Pb, and Zn are accumulated in soils in minor amounts. Plants accumulate S, P, Cl, Sr, Zn, and 137Cs in minor amounts as well. Elements such as Ti, Mn, Fe, Cr, V, Co, Ni, Cu, Rb, Zr, Ba, Th, Y, Nb, Pb, and As are attributed to the group of weak biological adsorption. The specific 137Cs activity (Bq kg-1) amounts to 10-150 in plants, 10-300 in moor leptosol horizons, and 1-40 in mull horizons.

  14. Volume backscattering strength of ice krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) in the Amundsen Sea coastal polynya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Hyoung Sul; Lee, Hyungbeen; Kang, Donhyug; Lee, SangHoon; Shin, Hyoung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Volume backscattering strength (Sv in dB re 1 m-1) of ice krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) was observed at two frequencies (38 and 120 kHz) with a calibrated split-beam echosounder system in the Amundsen Sea coastal polynya. The horizontal and vertical scattering layers in the upper 200 m of the water column were known with the existence of predominant ice krill (>95%) in this region. Acoustic identification using a two-frequency dB window between Sv at 38 and Sv at 120 kHz separated echoes originating from dominant ice krill from other zooplankton species. The frequency dependence of ice krill at 38 and 120 kHz was examined and the result presented that ice krill might have different acoustic characteristics from other Southern Ocean zooplankton species including Euphausia superba. This result could be applied to improve the ability of acoustic identification and precise density estimation of ice krill in the high-latitude coastal waters of Antarctica.

  15. Post-Roman sea-level changes on Pag Island (Adriatic Sea): Dating Croatia's "enigmatic" coastal notch?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Faivre, Sanja; Flaux, Clément; Vacchi, Matteo; Miko, Slobodan; Dumas, Vincent; Boetto, Giulia; Radic Rossi, Irena

    2014-09-01

    The presence of a regional-wide notch (45 to 115 cm below present biological mean sea level [BMSL]) along the Adriatic coast of Croatia, at a string of sites between Zadar and Rijeka, provides evidence for a rapid but poorly constrained subsidence event(s) after Roman times. For more than a century, this geomorphological tidal level indicator has attracted rich scientific debate but many unresolved questions remain. In this paper, we present new results from Caska Bay (Pag Island) looking at notch morphology and Holocene salt-marsh stratigraphy to constrain the chronology of this crustal deformation on Pag Island. The typical salt-marsh stratigraphy comprises low to high salt-marsh muds interjected by an unconformable marine layer (which lies between - 50 and - 100 cm BMSL) consistent with an abrupt transgression. The palaeoecological record shows an abrupt shift in assemblages across the salt-marsh mud-sand sediment contact translating abrupt coastal changes. Geochronological data constrain this event to around 1000 to 1200 cal. AD. The altitude of the layer is coeval with the submerged notch attested on limestone cliffs around the bay. The U-shape of the notch profile, coupled with the sharp palaecological contacts and submerged Roman pier, implies that sea-level rise was episodic and not gradual as suggested by regional numerical models. Together, our findings shed new light on the chronology of the "enigmatic" Croatian notch on the island of Pag, and highlight the need to couple geomorphological studies of rocky coasts with high-resolution sediment records.

  16. Modeling and water quality assessment during realisation of the coastal projects in Sochi region (Black sea coast of Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhoda-Shumskikh, L.

    2012-04-01

    Sochi region is the unique subtropical resort on the Black Sea coast of Russia. Nowadays due to Sochi is the capital of the Olympic game 2014, the government of the Russian Federation accepts the special federal program of Black Sea coast development. Program foresees the existing and creation of new coastal recreational and touristic complexes along the Russian Black Sea coast, such as complex of yacht harbors, water centers (aqua-centers), network of port localities and etc. These coastal projects are different, but the main problems of the environmental impact assessment are the same. The environmental impact and the relative damage should be assessed at the stage of construction as well as at the stage of operation. The key problem for the recreation coastal zone is water quality management. The port localities network as example is considered. To increase the accuracy and informative of forecasts for the coastal zone conditions the system-dynamic model has been developed, what allows to estimate the quality of the sea water, including that in the semi-enclosed coastal water areas with the limited water exchange. The model of water quality in the coastal zone includes the equations of deposit concentration changes and chemical substances evolution in the studied areas. The model incorporates joint description of cycles of two biogenic elements - nitrogen and phosphorus. The system is completely defined by the biogeochemical reactions. The sizes of such water areas allow the applying the full mixing and zero-dimensional models of water quality. The circulation of water inside the area is taken into account additionally. Water exchange in the semi-enclosed coastal water areas is defined by the discharge through the open parts of area border. The novelty of the offered model is its adaptation to the specific conditions of semi-enclosed coastal water areas. At the same time, the model contains details of the biogeochemical processes to complete modelling of the

  17. Regional scenarios of sea level rise and impacts on Basque (Bay of Biscay) coastal habitats, throughout the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chust, Guillem; Caballero, Ainhoa; Marcos, Marta; Liria, Pedro; Hernández, Carlos; Borja, Ángel

    2010-03-01

    Global climate models have predicted a rise on mean sea level of between 0.18 m and 0.59 m by the end of the 21st Century, with high regional variability. The objectives of this study are to estimate sea level changes in the Bay of Biscay during this century, and to assess the impacts of any change on Basque coastal habitats and infrastructures. Hence, ocean temperature projections for three climate scenarios, provided by several atmosphere-ocean coupled general climate models, have been extracted for the Bay of Biscay; these are used to estimate thermosteric sea level variations. The results show that, from 2001 to 2099, sea level within the Bay of Biscay will increase by between 28.5 and 48.7 cm, as a result of regional thermal expansion and global ice-melting, under scenarios A1B and A2 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. A high-resolution digital terrain model, extracted from LiDAR, data was used to evaluate the potential impact of the estimated sea level rise to 9 coastal and estuarine habitats: sandy beaches and muds, vegetated dunes, shingle beaches, sea cliffs and supralittoral rock, wetlands and saltmarshes, terrestrial habitats, artificial land, piers, and water surfaces. The projected sea level rise of 48.7 cm was added to the high tide level of the coast studied, to generate a flood risk map of the coastal and estuarine areas. The results indicate that 110.8 ha of the supralittoral area will be affected by the end of the 21st Century; these are concentrated within the estuaries, with terrestrial and artificial habitats being the most affected. Sandy beaches are expected to undergo mean shoreline retreats of between 25% and 40%, of their width. The risk assessment of the areas and habitats that will be affected, as a consequence of the sea level rise, is potentially useful for local management to adopt adaptation measures to global climate change.

  18. Coastal dynamics of Garabogazköl bay of Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbanov, Redzhep

    2016-04-01

    Garabogazköl is extremely interesting object for the study of coastal evolution and Caspian sea paleogeography. Bay plays an important role in evolution of the Caspian basin, as a major area of permanent loss of sea water, the volume of which varies in different years from 17 to 23 km3/year, averaging about 20.3 km3/year. Termination of runoff into the bay would provide annual Caspian Sea level rise of about 3 cm. Despite the large-scale research of the coast of the Caspian Sea during the Soviet era, Garabogazköl was generally poorly studied, mostly describing sedimentation patterns of salt deposits (associated with the production of sulfates). The basis of our study was the materials of remote sensing (satellite imagery), supported by field research, description of geomorphological structure of coasts. As known, the Caspian Sea level was at the lowest elevations from 1970 to 1985, ranging from -28.6 to -29.01 m. The creation of the dam in 1980 completely blocked Caspian water inflow into the Gulf, resulting even more drastic reduction in its area, which decreased by 3 times (from 18 to 6 thousand. km2), with depth less than 50 cm. In mid-1992, when the level of the Caspian Sea has risen by more than 2 meters over the level of 1978, the dam was destroyed. The obtained data allowed characterizing the peculiarities of the coast of the Gulf in these conditions. During the start of the coastal retreat first appeared drained relatively shallow northern and western parts. During this period the processes of accumulation were predominate. There was the deposition of thick (up to 1 m) salt horizon. Dominating wind-surge processes resulted relatively smoothed surface, filling rugged topography by terrigenous material and salt. After the explosion of the dam in 1992, the bay was quickly filled with water and in the next 3-4 years is completely covered the Gara-Bogaz depression. In general, a high stability of the coastline of the Gulf observed through analysis of the last

  19. Increasing Risks to China's Coastal Cities with Its Expansion to Low-lying Seaward under Rising Sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jing; Cheng, Xiao

    2014-05-01

    Global sea level rise has certainly accelerated through the 21st and far beyond the previous projections and will continue to rise, while the frequencies and strength of extreme events such like flood and storm will increase due to global warming. Coastal cities where always be with densely population and accumulated social wealth will be under enormous affects. Using Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite images (1990, 2010) to extract urban built-up area, 17 China's developed coastal cities, which account for only 1.2% of total land area but boast 18.3% of urban population and nearly 19.6% of GDP in 2010, are spotted a 550% increase of urban land from 1990 to 2010. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) with 90m resolution data were used to calculate average elevation of extracted urban area. Then we found that these cities are all expanding seaward, occupying the most vulnerable neighborhoods, often in low-lying areas, alongside waterways prone to flooding. 11 cities show a reducing trend of mean elevations with the total average of more than 3 meters. Particularly, Shanghai, Tianjin and Ningbo in Delta area are most serious with the mean urban elevation less than 5 meters in 2010. The rapid expansion to seawards and accumulation of population and social wealth processed in coastal cities will increase the vulnerability and exposure, which will exacerbated the existing risks of rising sea level or extreme events. Referring to Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP/OLS) city-lights data and SRTM data, we built the Urban Vulnerability Index (UVI) to do semi-quantitative assessment on vulnerabilities of coastal cities. The UVI case study in GuangZhou showed the most vulnerability region concentrated at the low-lying south area where is with the much higher relative South Sea level than other sea area of China. With relative sea level rise of 1-1.5 m by 2100 and increased frequency of extreme sea level due to cyclone propagation, and weak urban drain-off system, Chinese

  20. Evaluating coastal landscape response to sea-level rise in the northeastern United States: approach and methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lentz, Erika E.; Stippa, Sawyer R.; Thieler, E. Robert; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Gesch, Dean B.; Horton, Radley M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is examining effects of future sea-level rise on the coastal landscape from Maine to Virginia by producing spatially explicit, probabilistic predictions using sea-level projections, vertical land movement rates (due to isostacy), elevation data, and land-cover data. Sea-level-rise scenarios used as model inputs are generated by using multiple sources of information, including Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models following representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5 in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. A Bayesian network is used to develop a predictive coastal response model that integrates the sea-level, elevation, and land-cover data with assigned probabilities that account for interactions with coastal geomorphology as well as the corresponding ecological and societal systems it supports. The effects of sea-level rise are presented as (1) level of landscape submergence and (2) coastal response type characterized as either static (that is, inundation) or dynamic (that is, landform or landscape change). Results are produced at a spatial scale of 30 meters for four decades (the 2020s, 2030s, 2050s, and 2080s). The probabilistic predictions can be applied to landscape management decisions based on sea-level-rise effects as well as on assessments of the prediction uncertainty and need for improved data or fundamental understanding. This report describes the methods used to produce predictions, including information on input datasets; the modeling approach; model outputs; data-quality-control procedures; and information on how to access the data and metadata online.

  1. Coastal geomorphic processes and their relation to hydrodynamic conditions in Osmussaar Island, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõnisson, H.; Orviku, K.; Kont, A.; Suursaar, Ü.

    2012-04-01

    Osmussaar is a 5 km long relict island of the Baltic Clint, overlain by Quaternary deposits, which emerged from the Baltic Sea 3000 years ago as a result of postglacial rebound. An Ordovician limestone cliff 7m high is the most characteristic feature on the northern part of the island, whereas 2-3m high gravel-pebble ridges cover the southern part of the island. The objective of the poster is to investigate the shoreline changes on Osmussaar Island and to study coastal formations and their evolution in relation to temporal variations in climatic and hydrodynamic conditions. Topographic maps, aerial photographs and orthophotographs were compared to analyze the geomorphology, the changes in shoreline position and the nature of the shore processes. GPS-measurements were taken to assess short-term changes in shoreline positions. From 2004 until 2010, hand-held Garmin devices were used (accurate to within 3m), and after 2010, a Leica DGPS (accurate to within 1-2cm) was used. A leveling survey was carried out to evaluate changes in volumes of coastal features. The results were compared to the measurements carried out in 1970's. Several field tests have been carried out to determine the origin of accumulative material in the beach ridges, sediment flow directions and volumes of moving sediments. Among those field tests the study using painted sediments was carried out. Particles with the following diameters were used: 1-2.5cm (yellow), 2.5-5cm (red) and 5-10cm (blue). Painted limestone sediments were accumulated in 7kg piles and placed in 0.5-4m depths on limestone bench in September 2011. Their locations were recorded with DGPS. Study site was revisited in November and changes were registered. The hydrodynamic study is based on measurements of waves and currents using the Recording Doppler Current Profiler. The wave data were used to calibrate a wave model using the SMB method, which was then applied to long-term (1966-2010) wave hindcasts. Waves and sea level variations

  2. The coastal area of Togo: A space vulnerable to sea level rise hotly disputed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjoussi, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract Erosion caused in the coastal area of Togo especially in the cell to the east of the harbor of Lomé some reorganization of space and a reallocation of tasks functions of the importance of existing issues. This reorganization is an important race against time between the various stakeholders which paradoxically make this area a very dynamic environment. In spite of the disaster situation in the area, it is changing. This mutation has been observed for a decade in many ways. Fishing is a traditional activity disappears causing the emergence of new activities such as the extraction of gravel, the gardening, the informal trade of any kind, installing hotels, etc.. At the socio-economic transformation is associated with a beach in state of deficit causing the decline of the coastline that reaches approximately 500 m over a few kilometers according to the old marks missing. The decline of the coastline is by undermining the beach by the waves at high tide. These issues are reshaping the land use map that passes a distribution of fishing villages on the coast in 1980 to a suburban area exposed to sea level rise corollary to anticipated climate change. Keywords: Space, Reorganization, Vulnerability, Stakeholders, Sea Level, Fishing

  3. Blended sea level anomaly fields with enhanced coastal coverage along the U.S. West Coast.

    PubMed

    Risien, C M; Strub, P T

    2016-01-01

    We form a new 'blended' data set of sea level anomaly (SLA) fields by combining gridded daily fields derived from altimeter data with coastal tide gauge data. Within approximately 55-70 km of the coast, the altimeter data are discarded and replaced by a linear interpolation between the tide gauge and remaining offshore altimeter data. To create a common reference height for altimeter and tide gauge data, a 20-year mean is subtracted from each time series (from each tide gauge and altimeter grid point) before combining the data sets to form a blended mean sea level anomaly (SLA) data set. Daily mean fields are produced for the 22-year period 1 January 1993-31 December 2014. The primary validation compares geostrophic velocities calculated from the height fields and velocities measured at four moorings covering the north-south range of the new data set. The blended data set improves the alongshore (meridional) component of the currents, indicating an improvement in the cross-shelf gradient of the mean SLA data set. PMID:26927667

  4. The nonionic surfactant pollution profile of Israel Mediterranean Sea coastal water.

    PubMed

    Zoller, U; Hushan, M

    2001-01-01

    Anionic and nonionic surfactants, as core components of detergent formulations, contribute significantly to the pollution profile of sewage and wastewaters of all kinds. In Israel about 15% of the total amount of ca. 4 x 10(8) m3/year of sewage is discharged, directly, or via receiving streams/rivers, into the Mediterranean Sea. Based on our previous findings that about 85% of the nonionic surfactants in the country's sewage are nonbiodegradable alkylphenol-based ethoxylates, we have undertaken this study, aiming at mapping the receiving eastern Mediterranean seawater with respect to its nonionic surfactant pollution profile. The total concentrations of nonionic surfactants were found--via reverse phase HPLC determinations--to be within the range of 4.2-25.0 ppb in seawater samples taken 2-3 m off the coastline at those locations where sewage-containing streams flow into the sea. Thus, neither the existing sewage treatment facilities nor natural biodegradation processes in receiving surface water systems are capable of avoiding this coastal water pollution. The potential estrogenic health risk of such concentrations of the anthropogenic EPEOs is dependent, among other things, on their specific homological distribution, biodegradation rate (slower for those having > 10 EO units) and survival. PMID:11379138

  5. Blended sea level anomaly fields with enhanced coastal coverage along the U.S. West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Risien, C.M.; Strub, P.T.

    2016-01-01

    We form a new ‘blended’ data set of sea level anomaly (SLA) fields by combining gridded daily fields derived from altimeter data with coastal tide gauge data. Within approximately 55–70 km of the coast, the altimeter data are discarded and replaced by a linear interpolation between the tide gauge and remaining offshore altimeter data. To create a common reference height for altimeter and tide gauge data, a 20-year mean is subtracted from each time series (from each tide gauge and altimeter grid point) before combining the data sets to form a blended mean sea level anomaly (SLA) data set. Daily mean fields are produced for the 22-year period 1 January 1993–31 December 2014. The primary validation compares geostrophic velocities calculated from the height fields and velocities measured at four moorings covering the north-south range of the new data set. The blended data set improves the alongshore (meridional) component of the currents, indicating an improvement in the cross-shelf gradient of the mean SLA data set. PMID:26927667

  6. Nitrogen Fixation By Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Coastal and Deep-Sea Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertics, V. J.; Löscher, C.; Salonen, I.; Schmitz-Streit, R.; Lavik, G.; Kuypers, M. M.; Treude, T.

    2011-12-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can greatly impact benthic nitrogen (N) cycling, by for instance inhibiting coupled denitrification-nitrification through the production of sulfide or by increasing the availability of fixed N in the sediment via dinitrogen (N2)-fixation. Here, we explored several coastal and deep-sea benthic habitats within the Atlantic Ocean and Baltic Sea, for the occurrence of N2-fixation mediated by SRB. A combination of different methods including microbial rate measurements of N2-fixation and sulfate reduction, geochemical analyses (porewater nutrient profiles, mass spectrometry), and molecular analyses (CARD-FISH, HISH-SIMS, "nested" PCR, and QPCR) were applied to quantify and identify the responsible processes and organisms, respectively. Furthermore, we looked deeper into the question of whether the observed nitrogenase activity was associated with the final incorporation of N into microbial biomass or whether the enzyme activity served another purpose. At the AGU Fall Meeting, we will present and compare data from numerous stations with different water depths, temperatures, and latitudes, as well as differences in key geochemical parameters, such as organic carbon content and oxygen availability. Current metabolic and molecular data indicate that N2-fixation is occurring in many of these benthic environments and that a large part of this activity may linked to SRB.

  7. Sea level rise and coastal installations: impacts from the changing frequency of nuisance flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blohm, A.

    2015-12-01

    How might climate change and the resulting sea level rise (SLR) affect coastal facilities? The changing frequency of nuisance flooding events will likely lead to increases in costs and may require changes to the management of assets. While a significant literature exists for climate change and extreme event impacts, there is a gap in the literature for impacts from nuisance events. This presentation explores methods for analyzing the changing frequency and spatial distribution of flooding events through a case study at the United States Naval Academy located in Annapolis, Maryland. We show that `nuisance events' -- not infrequent but low impact events, will become more frequent as a result of climate change and the resultant sea level rise. An increase in nuisance flooding events could lead to negative effects on day-to-day operations. For example, a vulnerable building on the campus currently averages 0.25 flood events per year at a cost of between 2,500 - 3,700 USD (deployment of flood protection measures). By 2055 the same building in an average year would need to deploy flood protection measures 33 times at a cost of between 300,000 - 500,000 USD (assuming constant costs). The costs for the entire installation could be much higher given the number of buildings located in vulnerable areas, in addition to the risk adverse nature of operations managers. This case study identifies a need to better understand the local relationship between operations costs, thresholds, and changes in locally important climate variables.

  8. The exchange of SVOCs across the air-sea interface in Singapore's coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2010-02-01

    Coastal areas are vulnerable to the accumulation of semivolatile organic compounds, such as PAHs, OCPs and PCBs from atmospheric inputs. Dry particulate and wet depositions, and air-water diffusive exchange in the Singapore's south coastal area, where most of chemical and oil refinery industries are situated in, were estimated. Based on a yearly dataset, the mean annual dry particulate deposition fluxes of ∑16-PAHs, ∑7 OCPs and ∑21 PCBs were 1328.8±961.1 μg m-2 y-1, 5421.4±3426.7 ng m-2 y-1 and 811.8±578.3 ng m-2 y-1, and the wet deposition of ∑16-PAHs and ∑7 OCPs were 6667.1±1745.2 and 115.4±98.3 μg m-2 y-1, respectively. Seasonal variation of atmospheric depositions was influenced by meteorological conditions. Air-water gas exchange fluxes were shown to be negative values for PAHs, HCHs and DDXs, indicating Singapore's south coast as a sink for the above-mentioned SVOCs. The relative contribution of each depositional process to the total atmospheric input was assessed by annual fluxes. The profile of dry particulate deposition, wet deposition and gas exchange fluxes seemed to be correlated with individual pollutant's properties such as molecular weight and Henry's law constant, etc. For the water column partitioning, the organic carbon-normalized partition coefficients between particulate and dissolved phases (KOC) for both PAHs and OCPs were obtained. The relationships between KOC of PAHs and OCPs and their respective octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) were examined. In addition, both adsorption onto combustion-derived soot carbon and absorption into natural organic matter for PAHs in marine water column were investigated. Enrichment factors in the sea-surface microlayer (SML) of the particulate phase were 1.2-7.1 and 3.0-4.9 for PAHs and OCPs, and those of dissolved phase were 1.1-4.9 and 1.6-4.2 for PAHs and OCPs, respectively. These enrichment factors are relatively higher than those reported for nearby coastal areas, which

  9. The exchange of SVOCs across the air-sea interface in Singapore's coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2009-06-01

    Coastal areas are vulnerable to the accumulation of semi-volatile organic compounds such as PAHs, OCPs and PCBs from atmospheric inputs. Dry particulate and wet depositions, and air-water diffusive exchange in the Singapore's south coastal area, where most of chemical and oil refinery industries are situated in, were estimated. Based on a yearly dataset, the mean annual dry particulate deposition fluxes of ∑16PAHs, ∑7OCPs and ∑21PCBs were 1328.8±961.1 μg m-2 y-1, 5421.4±3426.7 ng m-2 y-1 and 811.8±578.3 ng m-2 y-1, and the wet deposition of ∑16PAHs and ∑7OCPs were 6667.1±1745.2 and 115.4±98.3 μg m-2 y-1, respectively. Seasonal variation of atmospheric depositions was influenced by meteorological conditions. Air-water gas exchange fluxes had negative values for PAHs, HCHs and DDXs, indicating Singapore's south coast as a sink for the above-mentioned SVOCs. The relative contribution of each depositional process to the total atmospheric input was assessed by annual fluxes. The profile of dry particulate deposition, wet deposition and gas exchange fluxes seemed to be correlated with individual pollutant's properties such as molecular weight and Henry's law constant, etc. For the water column partitioning, the organic carbon-normalized partition coefficients between particulate and dissolved phases (KOC) for both PAHs and OCPs were obtained. The relationships between KOC of PAHs and OCPs and their respective octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) were examined. In addition, both adsorption onto combustion-derived soot carbon and absorption into natural organic matter for PAHs in marine water column were investigated. Enrichment factors in the sea-surface microlayer (SML) of the particulate phase were 1.2~7.1 and 3.0~4.9 for PAHs and OCPs, and those of dissolved phase were 1.1~4.9 and 1.6~4.2 for PAHs and OCPs, respectively. These enrichment factors are relatively higher than those reported for nearby coastal areas, which are most likely due

  10. Trace element levels in fish from clean and polluted coastal marine sites in the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Nurit; Herut, Barak; Shefer, Edna; Hornung, Hava

    1999-12-01

    The bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe was evaluated in the muscle and liver tissue of four fish species (Siganus rivulatus, Diplodus sargus, Lithognatus mormyrus and Plathychtis flesus) from clean and polluted marine coastal sites in the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Sea within the framework of the MARS 1 program. Representative liver samples were screened for organic contaminants (DDE, PCBs and PAHs) which exhibited very low concentrations. The levels of Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn found in the muscle tissue in this study were similar among the four species and within the naturally occurring metal ranges. However, differences were found among the sites. In the Red Sea, Cu was higher in the muscle of S. rivulatus at Ardag and Zn at the Observatory (OBS). Cu, Zn and Mn were higher in the Red Sea than in the specimens from the Mediterranean. The differences were attributed to different diets derived from distinctively different natural environments. D. sargus from Haifa Bay (HB) had higher Cd, Cu and Mn values than specimens from Jaffa (JFA), and L. mormyrus higher Cd, Fe and Mn in HB, corresponding to the polluted environmental status of the Bay. No differences in metal levels were found among the North Sea sites, except for Fe that was lower at the Eider station. Hg was low in all the specimens, but the values varied with species and sites. The lowest Hg values were found in S. rivulatus, the herbivorous species, as expected from its trophic level. Hg in P. flesus was higher than in S. rivulatus but still low. Higher Hg values were found in the muscle tissue of L. mormyrus,with the highest values in D. sargus, both carnivorous species from the same family. Hg in D. sargus was higher in HB than in JFA, as expected, but in the larger specimens of L. mormyrus from JFA values were higher, while in the small specimens there were no differences in Hg values. The levels of all metals were higher in the liver than in the muscle, with enrichment factors ranging

  11. Physical and economic impacts of sea-level rise and low probability flooding events on coastal communities.

    PubMed

    Prime, Thomas; Brown, Jennifer M; Plater, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally flood mapping typically includes only a static water level (e.g. peak of a storm tide) in coastal flood inundation events. Additional factors become increasingly important when increased water-level thresholds are met during the combination of a storm tide and increased mean sea level. This research incorporates factors such as wave overtopping and river flow in a range of flood inundation scenarios of future sea-level projections for a UK case study of Fleetwood, northwest England. With increasing mean sea level it is shown that wave overtopping and river forcing have an important bearing on the cost of coastal flood events. The method presented converts inundation maps into monetary cost. This research demonstrates that under scenarios of joint extreme surge-wave-river events the cost of flooding can be increased by up to a factor of 8 compared with an increase in extent of up to a factor of 3 relative to "surge alone" event. This is due to different areas being exposed to different flood hazards and areas with common hazard where flood waters combine non-linearly. This shows that relying simply on flood extent and volume can under-predict the actual economic impact felt by a coastal community. Additionally, the scenario inundation depths have been presented as "brick course" maps, which represent a new way of interpreting flood maps. This is primarily aimed at stakeholders to increase levels of engagement within the coastal community. PMID:25710497

  12. Physical and Economic Impacts of Sea-Level Rise and Low Probability Flooding Events on Coastal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Prime, Thomas; Brown, Jennifer M.; Plater, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally flood mapping typically includes only a static water level (e.g. peak of a storm tide) in coastal flood inundation events. Additional factors become increasingly important when increased water-level thresholds are met during the combination of a storm tide and increased mean sea level. This research incorporates factors such as wave overtopping and river flow in a range of flood inundation scenarios of future sea-level projections for a UK case study of Fleetwood, northwest England. With increasing mean sea level it is shown that wave overtopping and river forcing have an important bearing on the cost of coastal flood events. The method presented converts inundation maps into monetary cost. This research demonstrates that under scenarios of joint extreme surge-wave-river events the cost of flooding can be increased by up to a factor of 8 compared with an increase in extent of up to a factor of 3 relative to “surge alone” event. This is due to different areas being exposed to different flood hazards and areas with common hazard where flood waters combine non-linearly. This shows that relying simply on flood extent and volume can under-predict the actual economic impact felt by a coastal community. Additionally, the scenario inundation depths have been presented as “brick course” maps, which represent a new way of interpreting flood maps. This is primarily aimed at stakeholders to increase levels of engagement within the coastal community. PMID:25710497

  13. What are the Potential Implications of Sea Level Rise on Carbon Stored in Coastal Freshwater Peatlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, E.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater peatlands can be dense carbon stores and are ecologically diverse with many specialised organisms. Climate-related threats to carbon storage include increases in rates of oxidation and methanogenesis, increases in drainage and dissolved organic carbon export from run off. Due to their lowland locations, coastal freshwater peatlands are at increasing risk from sea level rise and is expected to result in ecosystem shifts with impacts on carbon stores and species diversity. Fed by a network of rivers and lakes in close proximity to the coast, the Broads, UK, is a series of freshwater peatlands at risk of increased incursion of saline water coupled with increased frequency and intensity of flooding events due to an anticipated sea level rise of 3-5 cm decade-1 compounded by a predicted isotactic sinking of 0.055 cm yr-1. This study attempts to unravel the risks posed by sea level rise to carbon stored in coastal freshwater peatlands. Near surface cores (~50 cm long) collected from three sites were analysed for bulk density and carbon content, and dated radiometrically (lead-210, cesium-137) to ascertain carbon accumulation. To understand loss by leaching and microbial decomposition, mass loss from litterbags was measured over one year. Results indicated that recent carbon accumulation rate (since 1964) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) at the site inundated for the longest period throughout the year (94 ± 0.17 g C m-2 yr-1) and lowest at the least inundated site (79 ± 0.17 g C m-2 yr-1). Accretion rates over the last two years were highest in the site with the most fluctuating water table (0.55 ± 0.13 cm yr-1) and lowest at the driest site (0.25 ± 0.04 cm yr-1). Proportion of mass loss was significantly different between sites for both leaves (p < 0.001) and stems (p < 0.001). Overall, this research has shown that extent of inundation can influence recent accumulation rate and proportion of mass loss.

  14. Sea-level rise impacts on seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Review and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketabchi, Hamed; Mahmoodzadeh, Davood; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Simmons, Craig T.

    2016-04-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) influences groundwater hydraulics and in particular seawater intrusion (SWI) in many coastal aquifers. The quantification of the combined and relative impacts of influential factors on SWI has not previously been considered in coastal aquifers. In the present study, a systematic review of the available literature on this topic is first provided. Then, the potential remaining challenges are scrutinized. Open questions on the effects of more realistic complexities such as gradual SLR, parameter uncertainties, and the associated influences in decision-making models are issues requiring further investigation. We assess and quantify the seawater toe location under the impacts of SLR in combination with recharge rate variations, land-surface inundation (LSI) due to SLR, aquifer bed slope variation, and changing landward boundary conditions (LWBCs). This is the first study to include all of these factors in a single analysis framework. Both analytical and numerical models are used for these sensitivity assessments. It is demonstrated that (1) LSI caused by SLR has a significant incremental impact on the seawater toe location, especially in the flatter coasts and the flux-controlled (FC) LWBCs, however this impact is less than the reported orders of magnitude differences which were estimated using only analytical solutions; (2) LWBCs significantly influence the SLR impacts under almost all conditions considered in this study; (3) The main controlling factors of seawater toe location are the magnitudes of fresh groundwater discharge to sea and recharge rate. Regional freshwater flux entering from the landward boundary and the groundwater hydraulic gradient are the major contributors of fresh groundwater discharge to sea for both FC and head-controlled (HC) systems, respectively; (4) A larger response of the aquifer and larger seawater toe location changes are demonstrable for a larger ratio of the aquifer thickness to the aquifer length particularly in

  15. Marine habitat mapping, classification and monitoring in the coastal North Sea: Scientific vs. stakeholder interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. Christian; Mielck, Finn; Papenmeier, Svenja; Fiorentino, Dario

    2016-04-01

    Producing detailed maps of the seafloor that include both, water depth and simple textural characteristics has always been a challenge to scientists. In this context, marine habitat maps are an essential tool to comprehend the complexity, the spatial distribution and the ecological status of different seafloor types. The increasing need for more detail demands additional information on the texture of the sediment, bedforms and information on benthic sessile life. For long time, taking samples and videos/photographs followed by interpolation over larger distances was the only feasible way to gain information about sedimentary features such as grain-size distribution and bedforms. While ground truthing is still necessary, swath systems such as multibeam echo sounders (MBES) and sidescan sonars (SSS), as well as single beam acoustic ground discrimination systems (AGDS) became available to map the seafloor area-wide (MBES, SSS), fast and in great detail. Where area-wide measurements are impossible or unavailable point measurements are interpolated, classified and modeled. To keep pace with environmental change in the highly dynamic coastal areas of the North Sea (here: German Bight) monitoring that utilizes all of the mentioned techniques is a necessity. Since monitoring of larger areas is quite expensive, concepts for monitoring strategies were developed in scientific projects such as "WIMO" ("Scientific monitoring concepts for the German Bight, SE North Sea"). While instrumentation becomes better and better and interdisciplinary methods are being developed, the gap between basic scientific interests and stakeholder needs often seem to move in opposite directions. There are two main tendencies: the need to better understand nature systems (for theoretical purposes) and the one to simplify nature (for applied purposes). Science trends to resolve the most detail in highest precision employing soft gradients and/or fuzzy borders instead of crisp demarcations and

  16. Coastal morphodynamic impacts induced by main storm phenomena on the Central East Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelli, Marco; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Bonamano, Simone; Scanu, Sergio; Martellucci, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    The coastal area is a major dynamic systems of the Earth and in particular the sandy beaches are very sensitive to waves energy variation which mainly force morphological changes. Waves drive beaches morphological changes particularly when they exceed a determined threshold. In a short term (from hours to days) of storm conditions, intense erosion phenomena occur. They generate overwash, dunal erosion, loss of lands, damage to engineering structures and coastal ownerships. Several hazardous weather events take place every year in the Mediterranean region and cause relevant economic losses. The western Mediterranean Sea is an area subjected to cyclonic activity. In winter and during the negative phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), cyclonic activity generates extreme events as intense precipitation, the highest waves, landslides and surges. The study area is the Latium coast, eastern side of Central Tyrrhenian Sea.Wave data were measured by three wave buoys. In order to obtain a better spatial coverage useful to take into account the waves variability over the study area, wave data also has been calculated by WAM model. On the basis of storms events selected by a threshold criteria of events greater than 2 m for a period more than 6 hour, the Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) field was analysed through Empirical Orthogonal Function and cluster analysis obtaining 3 classes of barometric events. The storms are always induced by the lows of Gulf of Genoa to be formed in the Mediterranean region triggered from the middle latitude storms which center is located in the northern atlantic and scandinavian region. The different classes, with a probability of 28%, 23% and 49%, generate different circulation driving waves from different directions. The classes of storms show spatial differences in terms of main directions but show similar behavior in terms of distribution of wave direction. In this study the wave and wind field induced by the different barometric condition

  17. Sea-Based Infrared Scene Interpretation by Background Type Classification and Coastal Region Detection for Small Target Detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    Sea-based infrared search and track (IRST) is important for homeland security by detecting missiles and asymmetric boats. This paper proposes a novel scheme to interpret various infrared scenes by classifying the infrared background types and detecting the coastal regions in omni-directional images. The background type or region-selective small infrared target detector should be deployed to maximize the detection rate and to minimize the number of false alarms. A spatial filter-based small target detector is suitable for identifying stationary incoming targets in remote sea areas with sky only. Many false detections can occur if there is an image sector containing a coastal region, due to ground clutter and the difficulty in finding true targets using the same spatial filter-based detector. A temporal filter-based detector was used to handle these problems. Therefore, the scene type and coastal region information is critical to the success of IRST in real-world applications. In this paper, the infrared scene type was determined using the relationships between the sensor line-of-sight (LOS) and a horizontal line in an image. The proposed coastal region detector can be activated if the background type of the probing sector is determined to be a coastal region. Coastal regions can be detected by fusing the region map and curve map. The experimental results on real infrared images highlight the feasibility of the proposed sea-based scene interpretation. In addition, the effects of the proposed scheme were analyzed further by applying region-adaptive small target detection. PMID:26404308

  18. Sea-Based Infrared Scene Interpretation by Background Type Classification and Coastal Region Detection for Small Target Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    Sea-based infrared search and track (IRST) is important for homeland security by detecting missiles and asymmetric boats. This paper proposes a novel scheme to interpret various infrared scenes by classifying the infrared background types and detecting the coastal regions in omni-directional images. The background type or region-selective small infrared target detector should be deployed to maximize the detection rate and to minimize the number of false alarms. A spatial filter-based small target detector is suitable for identifying stationary incoming targets in remote sea areas with sky only. Many false detections can occur if there is an image sector containing a coastal region, due to ground clutter and the difficulty in finding true targets using the same spatial filter-based detector. A temporal filter-based detector was used to handle these problems. Therefore, the scene type and coastal region information is critical to the success of IRST in real-world applications. In this paper, the infrared scene type was determined using the relationships between the sensor line-of-sight (LOS) and a horizontal line in an image. The proposed coastal region detector can be activated if the background type of the probing sector is determined to be a coastal region. Coastal regions can be detected by fusing the region map and curve map. The experimental results on real infrared images highlight the feasibility of the proposed sea-based scene interpretation. In addition, the effects of the proposed scheme were analyzed further by applying region-adaptive small target detection. PMID:26404308