Science.gov

Sample records for adjacent coastal sea

  1. Overview of the Pre-YMC2015 campaign over the southwestern coastal land and adjacent sea of Sumatera Island, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shuichi; Katsumata, Masaki; Yoneyama, Kunio; Suzuki, Kenji; Hayati, Noer; Syamsudin, Fadli

    2016-04-01

    An international research project named Years of the Maritime Continent (YMC) is planned during 2017-2019 to expedite the progress of improving understanding and prediction of local multi-scale variability of the Maritime Continent (MC) weather-climate system and its global impact through observations and modeling exercises. We carried out a campaign observation over the southwestern coastal land and adjacent sea of Sumatera Island, Indonesia, during November-December 2015 as a pilot study of the YMC to examine land-ocean coupling processes in mechanisms of coastal heavy rain band (CHeR) along Sumatera Island and further potential scientific themes in the coming YMC. We deployed two land observation sites at Bengkulu city (3.86S, 102.34E) in the southwestern coast of Sumatera Island with various kinds of instruments including an X-band dual polarimetric (DP) radar and a C-band Doppler radar, and the R/V Mirai approximately 50 km southwest (4.07S, 101.90E) of the land stations with a C-band DP radar. We made 3 hourly soundings at Bengkulu and the R/V Mirai during 09 November - 25 December (47 days) and 24 November - 17 December (24 days), respectively. In addition, 18 videosondes observations, which could identify precipitation particles by an onboard camera in and out of rainclouds, were performed under heavy rainfall condition to examine cloud microphysical processes as well as simultaneous RHI observations with the Mirai DP radar. Whereas rainfall amount during the period was less than that of climatological view due to the Godzilla El-Nino event in this rainy season, we found concrete diurnal variation with thunderstorms in the evening along the foothills of coastal land and widely spread stratiform precipitation mainly over the adjacent sea due to the passage of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) convection with strong westerly wind in the lower troposphere during the former and latter halves of the campaign period, respectively. Diurnally developed thunderstorms

  2. Mercury Export from Mainland China to Adjacent Seas and Its Influence on the Marine Mercury Balance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Maodian; Chen, Long; Wang, Xuejun; Zhang, Wei; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Xie, Han; Shen, Huizhong; Ye, Xuejie; Deng, Chunyan; Wang, Huanhuan

    2016-06-21

    Exports from mainland China are a significant source of mercury (Hg) in the adjacent seas (Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea) near China. A total of 240 ± 23 Mg was contributed in 2012 (30% from natural sources and 70% from anthropogenic sources), including Hg from rivers, industrial wastewater, domestic sewage, groundwater, nonpoint sources, and coastal erosion. Among the various sources, the Hg from rivers amounts to 160 ± 21 Mg and plays a dominant role. The Hg that is exported from mainland China increased from 1984 to 2013; the contributions from rivers, industrial wastewater, domestic sewage and groundwater increased, and the contributions from nonpoint sources and coastal erosion remained stable. A box model is constructed to simulate the mass balance of Hg in these seas and quantify the sources, sinks and Hg biogeochemical cycle in the seas. In total, 160 Mg of Hg was transported to the Pacific Ocean and other oceans from these seas through oceanic currents in 2012, which could have negative impacts on the marine ecosystem. A prediction of the changes in Hg exportation through 2030 shows that the impacts of terrestrial export might worsen without effective pollution reduction measures and that the Hg load in these seas will increase, especially in the seawater of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea and in the sea margin sediments of the Bohai Sea and East China Sea. PMID:27243109

  3. Mercury Export from Mainland China to Adjacent Seas and Its Influence on the Marine Mercury Balance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Maodian; Chen, Long; Wang, Xuejun; Zhang, Wei; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Xie, Han; Shen, Huizhong; Ye, Xuejie; Deng, Chunyan; Wang, Huanhuan

    2016-06-21

    Exports from mainland China are a significant source of mercury (Hg) in the adjacent seas (Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea) near China. A total of 240 ± 23 Mg was contributed in 2012 (30% from natural sources and 70% from anthropogenic sources), including Hg from rivers, industrial wastewater, domestic sewage, groundwater, nonpoint sources, and coastal erosion. Among the various sources, the Hg from rivers amounts to 160 ± 21 Mg and plays a dominant role. The Hg that is exported from mainland China increased from 1984 to 2013; the contributions from rivers, industrial wastewater, domestic sewage and groundwater increased, and the contributions from nonpoint sources and coastal erosion remained stable. A box model is constructed to simulate the mass balance of Hg in these seas and quantify the sources, sinks and Hg biogeochemical cycle in the seas. In total, 160 Mg of Hg was transported to the Pacific Ocean and other oceans from these seas through oceanic currents in 2012, which could have negative impacts on the marine ecosystem. A prediction of the changes in Hg exportation through 2030 shows that the impacts of terrestrial export might worsen without effective pollution reduction measures and that the Hg load in these seas will increase, especially in the seawater of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea and in the sea margin sediments of the Bohai Sea and East China Sea.

  4. Flow and transport within a coastal aquifer adjacent to a stratified water body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oz, Imri; Yechieli, Yoseph; Eyal, Shalev; Gavrieli, Ittai; Gvirtzman, Haim

    2016-04-01

    The existence of a freshwater-saltwater interface and the circulation flow of saltwater beneath the interface is a well-known phenomenon found at coastal aquifers. This flow is a natural phenomenon that occurs due to density differences between fresh groundwater and the saltwater body. The goals of this research are to use analytical, numerical, and physical models in order to examine the configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interface and the density-driven flow patterns within a coastal aquifer adjacent to long-term stratified saltwater bodies (e.g. meromictic lake). Such hydrological systems are unique, as they consist of three different water types: the regional fresh groundwater, and low and high salinity brines forming the upper and lower water layers of the stratified water body, respectively. This research also aims to examine the influence of such stratification on hydrogeological processes within the coastal aquifer. The coastal aquifer adjacent to the Dead Sea, under its possible future meromictic conditions, serves as an ideal example to examine these processes. The results show that adjacent to a stratified saltwater body three interfaces between three different water bodies are formed, and that a complex flow system, controlled by the density differences, is created, where three circulation cells are developed. These results are significantly different from the classic circulation cell that is found adjacent to non-stratified water bodies (lakes or oceans). In order to obtain a more generalized insight into the groundwater behavior adjacent to a stratified water body, we used the numerical model to perform sensitivity analysis. The hydrological system was found be sensitive to three dimensionless parameters: dimensionless density (i.e. the relative density of the three water bodies'); dimensionless thickness (i.e. the ratio between the relative thickness of the upper layer and the whole thickness of the lake); and dimensionless flux. The results

  5. Coastal Impacts Due to Sea-Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Duncan M.; Fenster, Michael S.; Argow, Britt A.; Buynevich, Ilya V.

    2008-05-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) recently estimated that global sea level will rise from 0.18 to 0.59 m by the end of this century. Rising sea level not only inundates low-lying coastal regions but also contributes to the redistribution of sediment along sandy coasts. Over the long term, sea-level rise (SLR) causes barrier islands to migrate landward while conserving mass through offshore and onshore sediment transport. Under these conditions, coastal systems adjust to SLR dynamically while maintaining a characteristic geometry that is unique to a particular coast. Coastal marshes are susceptible to accelerated SLR because their vertical accretion rates are limited and they may drown. As marshes convert to open water, tidal exchange through inlets increases, which leads to sand sequestration in tidal deltas and erosion of adjacent barrier shorelines.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of circulation in Hooghly Estuary and its adjacent coastal oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Shashank Kr.; Nayak, Gourav; Nayak, R. K.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    Hooghly is one of the major estuaries in Ganges, the largest and longest river in the Indian subcontinent. The Hooghly estuary is a coastal plain estuary lying approximately between 21°-23° N and 87°-89° E. We used a terrain following ocean model to study tide driven residual circulations, seasonal mean flow patterns and its energetics in the Hooghly estuary and adjacent coastal oceans on the north eastern continental shelf of India. The model is driven by tidal levels at open ocean end and winds at the air-sea interface. The sources of forcing fields for tides were from FES2012, winds from ECMWF. Harmonic analysis is carried out to compute the tidal and non-tidal components of currents and sea level from the model solutions. The de-tidal components were averaged for the entire period of simulation to describe residual and mean-seasonal circulations in the regions. We used tide-gauge, SARAL-ALTIKA along track sea level measurements to evaluate model solutions. Satellite measure Chla were used along with simulated currents to describe important features of the circulations in the region.

  7. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  8. Dynamics of sea level variations in the coastal Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, James; Abulnaja, Yasser; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard; Lentz, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. While considerable scientific work has been directed at tidal and seasonal variations of Red Sea water level, very little attention has been given to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods of 2-30 d, even though motions in this band account for roughly half of the sea level variance in central Red Sea. We examined the sea level signal in this band using AVISO sea level anomaly (SLA) data, COARDAS wind data and measurements from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the SLA data indicates that longer-period (10-30 d) sea level variations in the intermediate band are dominated by coherent motions in a single mode that extends over most of the Red Sea axis. Idealized model results indicate that this large-scale mode of sea level motion is principally due to variations in the large-scale gradient of the along-axis wind. Our analysis indicates that coastal sea level motions at shorter periods (2-10 d) are principally generated by a combination of direct forcing by the local wind stress and forcing associated with large-scale wind stress gradients. However, also contributing to coastal sea level variations in the intermediate frequency band are mesoscale eddies, which are prevalent throughout the Red Sea basin, have a sea level signal of 10's of cm and produce relatively small-scale (order 50 km) changes in coastal sea level.

  9. Sources of Sea Salts to Coastal Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, M. A.; van Ommen, T. D.; Moy, A. D.; Vance, T.; Wong, G. J.; Goodwin, I. D.; Domensino, B.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal Antarctic sea salt aerosols are partitioned into two main sources, namely ocean sea spray and surface sea ice. The sea spray source is related to windiness over the surface ocean and the action of bubbles bursting. The sea ice source is due to frost flowers which form on the surface of sea ice, which are concentrated in sea salts and are lofted by wind action over the sea ice zone. At high accumulation coastal sites, with seasonal resolution, it is possible to estimate the sources of both using deviations of the sodium to sulphate ratio from that found in seawater. To date, from ice core records in east Antarctica (including iceberg B09B near the Mertz Glacier, Law Dome, Wilkes Land and Wilhelm II land), we have found that the source strength from surface sea ice to the Antarctic ice sheet diminishes with elevation and distance inland. We present new data from coastal ice core sites including Mill Island off the coast of east Antarctica and the upper and lower Totten glacier to the east of Law Dome. Using this combined dataset we estimate the source strengths of sea salt aerosols, their partitioning and quantify the relationship with elevation and distance inland.

  10. 33 CFR 148.510 - What happens when a petition for exemption involves the interests of an adjacent coastal State?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exemption involves the interests of an adjacent coastal State? 148.510 Section 148.510 Navigation and... petition for exemption involves the interests of an adjacent coastal State? If the petition for exemption concerns an adjacent coastal State, the Commandant (CG-5) forwards the petition to the Governor of...

  11. 33 CFR 150.35 - How may an adjacent coastal State request an amendment to the operations manual?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How may an adjacent coastal State... § 150.35 How may an adjacent coastal State request an amendment to the operations manual? (a) An adjacent coastal State connected by pipeline to the deepwater port may petition the cognizant Captain...

  12. 78 FR 14411 - Notice of Proposed Policy Clarification Concerning Designation of Adjacent Coastal States for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... internal waters, to a belt of sea adjacent to its coast, described as a territorial sea.'' \\10\\ Article 24... environment, waters of the contiguous zone, and waters of the high seas.'' \\9\\ \\7\\ 33 U.S.C. 1501(1)&(2). \\8... designation of an ACS should be measured. Article 1 of the Convention on the Territorial Sea and...

  13. Numerical Simulation of Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen at Perdido Bay and Adjacent Coastal Ocean

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC), a numerical estuarine and coastal ocean circulation hydrodynamic model, was used to simulate the distribution of the salinity, temperature, nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Perdido Bay and adjacent Gulf of Mexico. External forcing fa...

  14. Bacterial community structure in the Sulu Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Nishimura, Masahiko; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    The deep waters of the Sulu Sea are characterized by relatively high and constant water temperatures and low oxygen concentrations. To examine the effect of these characteristics on the bacterial community structure, the culture-independent molecular method was applied to samples from the Sulu Sea and the adjacent areas. DNA was extracted from environmental samples, and the analysis was carried out on PCR-amplified 16S rDNA; fragments were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis. Stations in the Sulu Sea and the adjacent areas showed much more prominent vertical stratification of bacterial community structures than horizontal variation. As predominant sequences, cyanobacteria and α-proteobacteria at 10 m depth, δ-proteobacteria at 100 m depth, and green nonsulfur bacteria below 1000 m depth were detected in all sampling areas. High temperatures and low oxygen concentrations are thought to be minor factors in controlling community structure; the quantity and quality of organic materials supplied by the sinking particles, and hydrostatic pressure are believed to be important.

  15. Sea Level Rise National Coastal Property Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of sea level rise on coastal properties depends critically on the human response to the threat, which in turn depends on several factors, including the immediacy of the risk, the magnitude of property value at risk, options for adapting to the threat and the cost of th...

  16. Multisensor monitoring of sea surface state of the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrova, Olga; Mityagina, Marina; Bocharova, Tatina

    Results of many-year monitoring of the state of coastal zone based on a multisensor approach are presented. The monitoring is aimed at solving the following tasks: operational mapping of parameters characterizing the state and pollution (coastal, ship and biogenic) of water; analysis of meteorological state and its effect on the drift and spread of pollutants; study of coastal circulation patterns and their impact on the drift and spread of pollutants; deriving typical pollution distribution patterns in the coastal zone.Processing and analysis is performed using data in visual, infrared and microwave ranges from ERS-2 SAR, Envisat ASAR/MERIS, Terra and Aqua MODIS and NOAA AVHRR instruments. These are complimented with ground data from meteorological stations on the shore and results of satellite data processing of previous periods. The main regions of interest are the Russian sectors of the Black and Azov Seas, southeastern part of the Baltic Sea, and northern and central regions of the Caspian Sea. Adjacent coasts are extremely populated and have well-developed industry, agriculture and rapidly growing tourist sectors. The necessity of constant monitoring of the sea state there is obvious.The monitoring activities allow us to accumulate extensive material for the study of hydrodynamic processes in the regions, in particular water circulation. Detailing the occurrence, evolution and drift of smalland meso-scale vortex structures is crucial for the knowledge of the mechanisms determining mixing and circulation processes in the coastal zone. These mechanisms play an important role in ecological, hydrodynamic and meteorological status of a coastal zone. Special attention is paid to the sea surface state in the Kerch Strait, where a tanker catastrophe took place on November 11, 2007 causing a spillage of over 1.5 thousand tons of heavy oil. The Kerch Strait is characterized by a complex current system with current directions changing to their opposites depending on

  17. NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN LOADING SOURCES FOR THREE COASTAL LAGOONS FROM ATMOSPHERIC AND WATERSHED SOURCES, ADJACENT COASTAL MARSHES, TIDAL EXCHANGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract and Oral Presentation Gulf Estuarine Research Society.

    Standing stocks and inputs of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) to three coastal lagoons, hereafter referred to as Kee's Bayou, Gongora, and State Park, with varying adjacent land-use, geomorphology, and water re...

  18. Macrobenthos of Yenisei Bay and the adjacent Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. V.; Vedenin, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Trawl samples were collected in the northern region of Yenisei Bay and adjacent parts of the Kara Sea shelf. A total of eight stations were taken. We found more than 200 species of benthic organisms. A consecutive replacement of benthic communities is observed when going to the north from the Ob and Yenisei estuaries to the open parts of the sea. We could distinguish four different species complexes in the investigated area: a brackish-water complex where Saduria entomon is dominant; an intermediate complex where S. sibirica, S. sabini and Portlandia aestuariorum are dominant; a transitional complex with P. arctica as a dominant species and with a small amount of Ophiocten sericeum; a marine complex where O. sericeum is dominant. When salinity increased, some brackish-water species were replaced by related euryhaline species. One such example was the replacement of brackish-water Saduria entomon isopods by two euryhaline species: S. sibirica and S. sabini. The consecutive replacement of benthic communities showed a break near Sverdrup Island. In this area the marine complex was replaced by a transitional complex with P. arctica.

  19. Sea-level rise and coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Blankespoor, Brian; Dasgupta, Susmita; Laplante, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    This paper seeks to quantify the impact of a1-m sea-level rise on coastal wetlands in 86 developing countries and territories. It is found that approximately 68 % of coastal wetlands in these countries are at risk. A large percentage of this estimated loss is found in Europe and Central Asia, East Asia, and the Pacific, as well as in the Middle East and North Africa. A small number of countries will be severely affected. China and Vietnam(in East Asia and the Pacific), Libya and Egypt (in the Middle East and North Africa), and Romania and Ukraine (in Europe and Central Asia) will bear most losses. In economic terms, the loss of coastal wetlands is likely to exceed $703 million per year in 2000 US dollars. PMID:24659473

  20. Sea-level rise and coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Blankespoor, Brian; Dasgupta, Susmita; Laplante, Benoit

    2014-12-01

    This paper seeks to quantify the impact of a1-m sea-level rise on coastal wetlands in 86 developing countries and territories. It is found that approximately 68 % of coastal wetlands in these countries are at risk. A large percentage of this estimated loss is found in Europe and Central Asia, East Asia, and the Pacific, as well as in the Middle East and North Africa. A small number of countries will be severely affected. China and Vietnam(in East Asia and the Pacific), Libya and Egypt (in the Middle East and North Africa), and Romania and Ukraine (in Europe and Central Asia) will bear most losses. In economic terms, the loss of coastal wetlands is likely to exceed $703 million per year in 2000 US dollars.

  1. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1310 - Strait of Juan de Fuca and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting-Regulated Navigation Area. 165.1310... and adjacent coastal waters of Northwest Washington; Makah Whale Hunting—Regulated Navigation Area. (a.... Datum: NAD 1983. (b) During a whale hunt, while the international numeral pennant five (5) is flown by...

  6. Air-sea feedback during coastal upwelling

    SciTech Connect

    Gallacher, P.C.

    1994-12-31

    The basic dynamics of coastal upwelling are well known. Consider a steady, curl-free, alongshore wind blowing down a coastline. This results in an Ekman divergence. If the resulting Ekman transport is offshore, coastal upwelling ensues. When this occurs, a front develops between the cold, upwelled water and the less dense offshore surface water. This front propagates offshore at a rate determined by the Ekman transport. The question is what effect does this front have on the atmosphere, and is there a feedback between the atmosphere and the ocean. The results of the FASINEX study have shown that the atmospheric boundary layer can respond dramatically to changes in the ocean surface temperature, and this may happen on small scales and quite rapidly. The author hypothesizes that an interaction can occur in which the atmospheric surface layer becomes more stable on the upwelling side of the front due the colder sea surface temperature.

  7. Studying the impact of climate change on coastal aquifers and adjacent wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigter, Tibor; Ribeiro, Luís.; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Samper, Javier; Fakir, Younes; Fonseca, Luís.; Monteiro, José Paulo; Nunes, João. Pedro; Pisani, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    program, assessing the impact of climate change on coastal groundwater resources and dependent ecosystems. These resources are often intensively exploited, potentially leading to saltwater intrusion and the degradation of groundwater and dependent wetlands. Climate change may increase this problem in Mediterranean regions, due to the combined effect of rising sea levels and decreasing aquifer recharge. CLIMWAT aims to address this problem by employing a multimethodological approach involving climate scenarios, surface and groundwater flow and transport modeling, as well as hydrochemical indicator and ecological diversity indices. Research is performed in three coastal areas: the Central Algarve in Portugal, the Ebro delta in Spain and the Atlantic Sahel in Morocco. The mean annual temperatures are 17.4 ° C, 17.2 ° C and 17.5 ° C, respectively, whereas mean annual rainfall is lower in the Atlantic Sahel (390 mm) than in the Ebro Delta (520 mm) and the Central Algarve (660 mm). Work package (WP) 1 involves the collection of existing data (in a GIS environment), baseline characterization and the selection of monitoring locations. These include wells and springs of official (water level/quality) monitoring networks, as well as additional observation points selected at strategic locations, including the wetlands receiving groundwater and adjacent aquifer sectors. In WP2 the climate scenarios are selected and integrated in hydrological models (SWAT, GISBALAN), which are developed and calibrated with existing data, prior to scenario modeling. The main focus of this WP is to estimate the evolution of surface runoff and groundwater recharge under climate change. Data on climate change scenarios and model projections are compiled from: (i) the PRUDENCE project; (ii) the ENSEMBLES project; (iii) IPCC scenarios and projections, AR4; (iv) AEMet (Spanish Meteorological Agency) for generation of regional scenarios of climate change in Spain. For Morocco, where runoff is

  8. The Potential Effect of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Property Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, J.

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that one consequence of increasing global sea level is that the frequency of flooding at low-lying coastal sites will increase. We review recent evidence that the effects coastal geometry will create substantial spatial variations in the changes in flooding frequency with scales of order 100km. Using a simple model of the evolution of coastal property values we demonstrate that a consequence of sea level rise is that the appreciation of coastal properties will peak, and then decline relative to higher properties. The time when the value reach a maximum is shown to depend upon the demand for the coastal property, and the local rate of change of flooding frequency due to sea level rise. The simple model is then extended to include, in an elementary manner, the effects on the value of adjacent but higher properties. We show that the effect of increased flooding frequency of the lower properties leads to an accelerated appreciation of the value of upland properties and an accelerated decline in the value of the coastal properties. We then provide some example calculations for selected sites. We conclude with a discussion of comparisons of the prediction of the analyses to recent data, and then comments on the impact of sea level rise on tax base of coastal communities.

  9. Storminess helps coastal marshes withstand sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-03-01

    Rising sea levels are predicted to threaten many coastal sea marshes around the world in the coming decades as the Earth's climate warms. In addition to accelerating sea level rise, global climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of storms in many places around the world. However, few studies have taken into account how an increased storminess might affect the ability of coastal marshes to withstand sea level rise.

  10. Coastal subsidence and relative sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface fluid-pressure declines caused by pumping of groundwater or hydrocarbons can lead to aquifer-system compaction and consequent land subsidence. This subsidence can be rapid, as much as 30 cm per year in some instances, and large, totaling more than 13 m in extreme examples. Thus anthropogenic subsidence may be the dominant contributor to relative sea-level rise in coastal environments where subsurface fluids are heavily exploited. Maximum observed rates of human-induced subsidence greatly exceed the rates of natural subsidence of unconsolidated sediments (~0.1–1 cm yr−1) and the estimated rates of ongoing global sea-level rise (~0.3 cm yr−1).

  11. Editorial: Eutrophication and hypoxia and their impacts on the ecosystem of the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Xiao, Tian; Huang, Daji; Liu, Su Mei; Fang, Jianguang

    2016-02-01

    The Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary plays an important role in the land-ocean interactions of East Asia, particularly in regard to the fate of land-derived materials and their impact on marine ecosystems in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The 12 papers included in this special issue describe results from the MEcoPAM Study, an IMBER-China project, which occurred in 2011-2015. This project used a multi-disciplinary approach to understand ecosystem function of the Changjiang Estuary in response to multiple stressors (i.e. combined external forcings). The results presented here show that human activities in the watersheds have greatly changed the flux and variation of dissolved and particulate materials from the river. Further interactions between the Changjiang Watersheds and the East China Sea can dramatically modify the pathways of biogeochemistry and food web dynamics of the estuary and adjacent coastal environment at seasonal and inter-annual scales.

  12. Pelagic ciliate communities within the Amundsen Sea polynya and adjacent sea ice zone, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yong; Liu, Qian; Yang, Eun Jin; Wang, Min; Kim, Tae Wan; Cho, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, SangHoon

    2016-01-01

    Polynyas, areas of open water surrounded by sea ice, are sites of intense primary production and ecological hotspots in the Antarctic Ocean. This study determined the spatial variation in communities of pelagic ciliates in an Amundsen Sea polynya (ASP) and adjacent sea ice zones (SIZ) during austral summer from February to March 2012, and the results were compared with biotic and abiotic environmental factors. The species number, abundance and biomass were higher in the ASP than SIZ. Canonical analysis indicated that the communities in the ASP were distinct from those under the sea ice. The pelagic ciliate community structure was closely correlated with environmental variability. Several primary environmental variables, both alone and in combination, were found to affect community spatial patterns. The ciliate biomasses in the ASP and SIZ areas were both significantly correlated with total and nano-Chl a. This analysis of the ciliated microzooplankton communities associated with high primary production provides new insights into the roles of ciliates in biogeochemical cycles in high-latitude polynyas. Additionally, our findings provide detailed data on the composition, distribution, and structure of polynya ciliate communities in the Amundsen Sea.

  13. An interdisciplinary study of the estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The synoptic repetitive coverage of the multispectral imagery from the ERTS-1 satellite, when photographically reprocessed using the state-of-the-art techniques, has given indication of spectral differences in Block Island and adjacent New England waters which were heretofore unknown. Of particular interest was the possible detection of relatively small amounts of phytoplankton prior to the occurrence of the red tide in Massachusetts waters. Preparation of spatial and temporal hydrographic charts using ERTS-1 imagery and ground truth analysis will hopefully determine the environmental impact on New York coastal waters.

  14. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Western Region: Coastal ecosystem responses to influences from land and sea, Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Sea otters and the nearshore ecosystems they inhabit-from highly urbanized California to relatively pristine Alaska-are the focus of a new multidisciplinary study by scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and a suite of international, academic and government collaborators. The Coastal Ecosystem Responses to Influences from Land and Sea project will investigate the many interacting variables that influence the health of coastal ecosystems along the Northeast Pacific shore. These ecosystems face unprecedented challenges, with threats arising from the adjacent oceans and lands. From the ocean, challenges include acidification, sea level rise, and warming. From the land, challenges include elevated biological, geological and chemical pollutants associated with burgeoning human populations along coastlines. The implications of these challenges for biological systems are only beginning to be explored. Comparing sea otter population status indicators from around the northeastern Pacific Rim, will begin the process of defining factors of coastal ecosystem health in this broad region.

  15. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  16. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  17. Correlation of sea level falls interpreted from atoll stratigraphy with turbidites in adjacent basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, J.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Past sea levels can be derived from any atoll subsurface sediments deposited at or near sea level by determining the ages of deposition and correcting the present depths to the sediments for subsidence of the underlying edifice since the times of deposition. A sea level curve constructed by this method consists of discontinuous segments, each corresponding to a period of rising relative sea level and deposition of a discrete sedimentary package. Discontinuities in the sea level curve derived by this method correspond to relative sea level falls and stratigraphic hiatuses in the atoll subsurface. During intervals of relative sea level fall an atoll emerges to become a high limestone island. Sea level may fluctuate several times during a period of atoll emergence to become a high limestone island. Sea level may fluctuate several times during a period of atoll emergence without depositing sediments on top of the atoll. Furthermore, subaerial erosion may remove a substantial part of the depositional record of previous sea level fluctuations. For these reasons the authors must look to the adjacent basins to complement the incomplete record of sea level change recorded beneath atolls. During lowstands of sea level, faunas originally deposited near sea level on an atoll may be eroded and redeposited as turbidites in deep adjacent basins. Three such turbidites penetrated during deep-sea drilling at Sites 462 and 315 in the central Pacific correlate well with a late Tertiary sea level curve based on biostratigraphic ages and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr chronostratigraphy for core from Enewetak Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands. Further drilling of the archipelagic aprons adjacent to atolls will improve the sea level history that may be inferred from atoll stratigraphy.

  18. Paleoenvironments and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation of southwestern Alabama and adjacent coastal water area

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1984-09-01

    Upper Jurassic Norphlet sediments in southwestern Alabama and the adjacent coastal water area accumulated under arid climatic conditions. The Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States extended into southwestern Alabama, providing a barrier for air and water circulation during Norphlet deposition. Norphlet paleogeography was dominated by a broad desert plain rimmed to the north and east by the Appalachians and to the south by a developing shallow sea. Initiation of Norphlet sedimentation was a result of erosion of the southern Appalachians. Norphlet conglomerates were deposited in coalescing alluvial fans in proximity to an Appalachian source. The conglomeratic sandstones grade downdip into red-bed lithofacies that accumulated in distal portions of alluvial fan and wadi systems. Quartzose sandstones (Denkman Member) were deposited as dune and interdune sediments on a broad desert plain. The source of the sand was the updip and adjacent alluvial fan, plain, and wadi deposits. A marine transgression was initiated late in Denkman deposition, resulting in the reworking of previously deposited Norphlet sediments. Norphlet hydrocarbon potential in southwestern and offshore Alabama is excellent with four oil and gas fields already established. Petroleum traps discovered to date are primarily structural traps involving salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines, and extensional fault traps associated with salt movement. Reservoir rocks consist of quartzose sandstones, which are principally eolian in origin. Smackover algal carbonate mudstones were probably the source for the Norphlet hydrocarbons.

  19. Seasonal sea surface temperature anomaly prediction for coastal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Charles A.; Pegion, Kathy; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Alexander, Michael A.; Tommasi, Desiree; Bond, Nicholas A.; Fratantoni, Paula S.; Gudgel, Richard G.; Kristiansen, Trond; O'Brien, Todd D.; Xue, Yan; Yang, Xiasong

    2015-09-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are often both leading indicators and important drivers of marine resource fluctuations. Assessment of the skill of SST anomaly forecasts within coastal ecosystems accounting for the majority of global fish yields, however, has been minimal. This reflects coarse global forecast system resolution and past emphasis on the predictability of ocean basin-scale SST variations. This paper assesses monthly to inter-annual SST anomaly predictions in coastal "Large Marine Ecosystems" (LMEs). We begin with an analysis of 7 well-observed LMEs adjacent to the United States and then examine how mechanisms responsible for prediction skill in these systems are reflected in predictions for LMEs globally. Historical SST anomaly estimates from the 1/4° daily Optimal Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature reanalysis (OISST.v2) were first found to be highly consistent with in-situ measurements for 6 of the 7 U.S. LMEs. Thirty years of retrospective forecasts from climate forecast systems developed at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (CM2.5-FLOR) and the National Center for Environmental Prediction (CFSv2) were then assessed against OISST.v2. Forecast skill varied widely by LME, initialization month, and lead but there were many cases of high skill that also exceeded that of a persistence forecast, some at leads greater than 6 months. Mechanisms underlying skill above persistence included accurate simulation of (a) seasonal transitions between less predictable locally generated and more predictable basin-scale SST variability; (b) seasonal transitions between different basin-scale influences; (c) propagation of SST anomalies across seasons through sea ice; and (d) re-emergence of previous anomalies upon the breakdown of summer stratification. Globally, significant skill above persistence across many tropical systems arises via mechanisms (a) and (b). Combinations of all four mechanisms contribute to less prevalent but nonetheless

  20. Metal elements in the bottom sediments of the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent continental shelf of the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lu; Hong, Gi Hoon; Liu, Sumei

    2015-06-15

    The metal elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Ca) in the bottom sediment of the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent continental shelf of the East China Sea were studied to map their spatial distribution and to assess their potential risk to the marine biota. These metal concentrations except Ca were generally higher in the inner shelf and northeastern part, and were found to decrease from the coast to the offshore of the Changjiang Estuary. Sedimentary Ca was most abundant in the outer shelf sediments and decreased in inner shelf. Arsenic (As) appeared to be contaminated due to economic development from 1980s in the inner shelf overall, but the potential ecological risk from the selected metals was low in the coastal sea off the Changjiang.

  1. Regional Jurassic geologic framework of Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent Federal waters area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    To date, numerous Jurassic hydrocarbon fields and pools have been discovered in the Cotton Valley Group, Haynesville Formation, Smackover Formation and Norphlet Formation in the tri-state area of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida, and in Alabama State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters area. Petroleum traps are basement highs, salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines and extensional faults associated with salt movement. Reservoirs include continental and marine sandstones, limestones and dolostones. Hydrocarbon types are oil, condensate and natural gas. The onshore stratigraphic and structural information can be used to establish a regional geologic framework for the Jurassic for the State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters areas. Evaluation of the geologic information along with the hydrocarbon data from the tri-state area indicates that at least three Jurassic hydrocarbon trends (oil, oil and gas condensate, and deep natural gas) can be identified onshore. These onshore hydrocarbon trends can be projected into the Mobile area in the Central Gulf of Mexico and into the Pensacola, Destin Dome and Apalachicola areas in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial reserves of natural gas are expected to be present in Alabama State waters and the northern portion of the Mobile area. Significant accumulations of oil and gas condensate may be encountered in the Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola areas. ?? 1989.

  2. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France were mapped with regard to natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. The mesoscale thermal features of the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea were also studied. The evolution of the thermal gradients generated by the main estuaries of the French coastal zones was investigated along with the modeling of diurnal heating of the sea surface and its influence on the oceanic surface layers.

  3. Soil Carbon Storage and Turnover in an Old-Growth Coastal Redwood Forest and Adjacent Prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, K. J.; Torn, M. S.; Mambelli, S.; Dawson, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests store lots of carbon in aboveground tree biomass because redwoods are very long-lived and can grow very large. Redwood is known for its high resistance to decay, a result of high levels of aromatic compounds (tannins) in the tree’s tissues. We tested the hypothesis that because coastal redwoods are highly productive and produce organic matter that is chemically resistant to decay, old-growth redwood forests should store large amounts of stabilized soil carbon. We measured soil C storage to 110 cm depth in an old-growth coastal redwood forest and used physical soil fractionation combined with radiocarbon measurements to determine soil organic matter turnover time. In addition, we measured soil C storage and turnover at an adjacent prairie experiencing the same climate and with soils derived from the same parent material. We found larger soil C stocks to 110 cm at the prairie (350 Mg C ha-1) than the redwood forest (277 Mg C ha-1) even with O-horizons included for the forest. Larger N stocks were also observed at the prairie than the redwood and these differences in stocks were driven by higher C and N concentrations in mineral soils at the prairie. Differences between ecosystems in soil C and N concentrations, C:N ratios, and C and N stocks were observed for the top 50 cm only, suggesting that the influence of the different litter types did not extend to deeper soils. Contrary to what was expected, bulk soil and heavy density-fraction Δ14C values were higher, indicating shorter turnover times, for the redwood forest than the prairie. In summary, we did not observe greater C storage or 14C-based turnover times in old-growth redwood forest compared to adjacent prairie, suggesting chemical recalcitrance of litter inputs does not drive soil C stabilization at these ecosystems.

  4. Influence of intermittent estuary outflow on coastal sediments of adjacent sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Jessica L.; Quinn, Gerry P.; Matthews, Ty G.; Barton, Jan; Bellgrove, Alecia

    2011-03-01

    Outflows from estuaries potentially contribute to the productivity of adjacent coastal waters, although most previous work has been on estuaries with considerable river discharge. We investigated the influence of estuary outflow on aspects of coastal sediments adjacent to two seasonally intermittent estuaries, the Curdies and Anglesea Rivers, in southwest Victoria, Australia. For each estuary, we measured sediment organic matter, microphytobenthic chlorophyll a and microbial utilization of carbon sources at three locations associated with each estuary: (1) inside estuary mouth, (2) estuary swash and (3) control swash (an open beach distant from any estuarine influences). Sampling occurred one week before and at one and nine weeks after both an artificial mouth opening and a separate natural flood at both estuaries. Significant temporal changes were detected for all three variables at the estuary mouth and estuary swash but the direction of change was inconsistent across the two estuaries and between the artificial mouth opening and natural flood. Organic matter in both estuaries showed no difference after the artificial mouth openings. Only Anglesea showed an increase in organic matter in the estuary mouth and estuary swash after the floods. Microphytobenthic chlorophyll a concentrations were highest when the estuary mouths were closed. Concentrations decreased at all locations at Curdies after the mouth was artificially opened. The estuary mouth at Anglesea sustained high chlorophyll concentrations and the estuary swash increased one week post artificial opening. The flood event resulted in an increase in chlorophyll a at the estuary mouth and swash at both estuaries, one week post flood. At Curdies, the microbial utilization of different carbon sources changed after both mouth events; estuary mouth and estuary swash showed similar patterns at one and nine weeks post opening. At Anglesea, the bacteria utilized different carbon sources between locations and the

  5. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Tao, Weichun; Yapici, Tahir; Warsama, Bashir; Engelbrecht, Johann P.

    2016-09-01

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used in climate

  6. Global coastal hazards from future sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornitz, Vivien

    1991-03-01

    A rise of sea level between 0.3 and 0.9 m by the end of the next century, caused by predicted greenhouse climate warming, would endanger human populations, cities, ports, and wetlands in low-lying coastal areas, through inundation, erosion and salinization. The consequences of a global sea level rise would be spatially non-uniform because of local or regional vertical crustal movements, differential resistance to erosion, varying wave climates, and changeable longshore currents. Although many factors can influence sea level, leading to a noisy record, various studies utilizing tide-gauge data find an average global rate of sea level rise of 1-2 mm/yr, over the last 100 years. This trend is part of a general rise over the last 300 years, since the low point of the Little Ice Age. Sea level rise may accelerate 3-8 times over present rates, within the next century. The permanently inundated coastal zone would extend to a depth equivalent to the vertical rise in sea level. Major river deltas, coastal wetlands and coral islands would be most affected. Episodic flooding by storm waves and surges would penetrate even farther inland. Beach and cliff erosion will be accentuated. Saltwater penetration into coastal aquifers and estuaries could contaminate urban water supplies and affect agricultural production. Research on relative risks and impacts of sea level rise on specific localities is still at an early stage. Development of a global coastal hazards data base, intended to provide an overview of the relative vulnerabilities of the world's coastlines, is described in this paper. To date, information on seven variables, associated with inundation and erosion hazards, has been compiled for the U.S., and parts of Canada and Mexico. A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) has been designed to flag high risk coastal segments. Preliminary results are presented for the eastern United States, as a test case.

  7. Low-frequency variability in coastal sea level from tide gauges and altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Sergey V.; Ponte, Rui M.

    2011-07-01

    Long sea level observations are fundamental for studies of the low-frequency changes in ocean circulation and climate. Tide gauges provide records several decades long, but their locations are geographically sparse and confined to the coastline. To assess the extent to which tide gauge point measurements represent broader-scale conditions in the adjacent ocean, we compare tide gauge records to altimeter data in their vicinity for the period 1993-2008. The analysis is based on detrended annual mean series and focuses on interannual variability. The best agreement between tide gauge and altimeter series is found for mid-ocean islands in the tropical Pacific and Indian oceans and along the coast of western Australia. Elsewhere, along most continental coasts, root-mean-square differences between the two sea level estimates can be substantial when compared to the observed variability or the expected measurement noise, with the worst correspondence found in western South America, Japan, and eastern Australia. Differences in magnitude as well as poor correlations between the tide gauge and altimeter estimates are involved. Although land motions and measurement errors can be a factor, results point to the presence of considerable short spatial structure in coastal sea level at interannual time scales, which can be related to the low-frequency dynamics of coastally trapped circulations, western boundary currents and associated eddy regimes, or response to river runoff. Knowing whether coastal sea level variability becomes more spatially homogeneous at longer time scales must await longer sea level records.

  8. Transforming management of tropical coastal seas to cope with challenges of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Sale, Peter F; Agardy, Tundi; Ainsworth, Cameron H; Feist, Blake E; Bell, Johann D; Christie, Patrick; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Mumby, Peter J; Feary, David A; Saunders, Megan I; Daw, Tim M; Foale, Simon J; Levin, Phillip S; Lindeman, Kenyon C; Lorenzen, Kai; Pomeroy, Robert S; Allison, Edward H; Bradbury, R H; Corrin, Jennifer; Edwards, Alasdair J; Obura, David O; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne J; Samoilys, Melita A; Sheppard, Charles R C

    2014-08-15

    Over 1.3 billion people live on tropical coasts, primarily in developing countries. Many depend on adjacent coastal seas for food, and livelihoods. We show how trends in demography and in several local and global anthropogenic stressors are progressively degrading capacity of coastal waters to sustain these people. Far more effective approaches to environmental management are needed if the loss in provision of ecosystem goods and services is to be stemmed. We propose expanded use of marine spatial planning as a framework for more effective, pragmatic management based on ocean zones to accommodate conflicting uses. This would force the holistic, regional-scale reconciliation of food security, livelihoods, and conservation that is needed. Transforming how countries manage coastal resources will require major change in policy and politics, implemented with sufficient flexibility to accommodate societal variations. Achieving this change is a major challenge - one that affects the lives of one fifth of humanity. PMID:24997002

  9. Transforming management of tropical coastal seas to cope with challenges of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Sale, Peter F; Agardy, Tundi; Ainsworth, Cameron H; Feist, Blake E; Bell, Johann D; Christie, Patrick; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Mumby, Peter J; Feary, David A; Saunders, Megan I; Daw, Tim M; Foale, Simon J; Levin, Phillip S; Lindeman, Kenyon C; Lorenzen, Kai; Pomeroy, Robert S; Allison, Edward H; Bradbury, R H; Corrin, Jennifer; Edwards, Alasdair J; Obura, David O; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne J; Samoilys, Melita A; Sheppard, Charles R C

    2014-08-15

    Over 1.3 billion people live on tropical coasts, primarily in developing countries. Many depend on adjacent coastal seas for food, and livelihoods. We show how trends in demography and in several local and global anthropogenic stressors are progressively degrading capacity of coastal waters to sustain these people. Far more effective approaches to environmental management are needed if the loss in provision of ecosystem goods and services is to be stemmed. We propose expanded use of marine spatial planning as a framework for more effective, pragmatic management based on ocean zones to accommodate conflicting uses. This would force the holistic, regional-scale reconciliation of food security, livelihoods, and conservation that is needed. Transforming how countries manage coastal resources will require major change in policy and politics, implemented with sufficient flexibility to accommodate societal variations. Achieving this change is a major challenge - one that affects the lives of one fifth of humanity.

  10. Distribution, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huayun; Zhuo, Shanshan; Xue, Bin; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2012-10-01

    A large portion of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from e-waste released into the coastal areas may be the potential source of PCBs to the global oceans. The paper presents data of PCBs concentrations in fifty surface sediment samples and a dated sediment core in Yangtze River Delta (YRE) and adjacent East China Sea (ECS). The total PCBs levels varied from 5.08 to 19.64 ng/g dry weight, with the highest concentrations situate within the river-sea boundary zone which is so-called "marginal filter". Concurrent with the operation of e-waste recycling over the last two decades, PCB fluxes started to rise again after 1980s and reached a maximum in this century. The full data set was used to estimate the burden of PCBs in YRE and adjacent ECS. A total sediment burdens were 192.8 tons, with the spatial density of 364 ng/cm(2) which accounts for 1.9% of all the PCBs in China.

  11. Scenario simulations of future salinity and ecological consequences in the Baltic Sea and adjacent North Sea areas–implications for environmental monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Vuorinen, Ilppo; Hänninen, Jari; Rajasilta, Marjut; Laine, Päivi; Eklund, Jan; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Corona, Francesco; Junker, Karin; Meier, H.E.Markus; Dippner, Joachim W.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial ecological changes occurred in the 1970s in the Northern Baltic during a temporary period of low salinity (S). This period was preceded by an episodic increase in the rainfall over the Baltic Sea watershed area. Several climate models, both global and regional, project an increase in the runoff of the Northern latitudes due to proceeding climate change. The aim of this study is to model, firstly, the effects on Baltic Sea salinity of increased runoff due to projected global change and, secondly, the effects of salinity change on the distribution of marine species. The results suggest a critical shift in the S range 5–7, which is a threshold for both freshwater and marine species distributions and diversity. We discuss several topics emphasizing future monitoring, modelling, and fisheries research. Environmental monitoring and modelling are investigated because the developing alternative ecosystems do not necessarily show the same relations to environment quality factors as the retiring ones. An important corollary is that the observed and modelled S changes considered together with species’ ranges indicate what may appear under a future climate. Consequences could include a shift in distribution areas of marine benthic foundation species and some 40–50 other species, affiliated to these. This change would extend over hundreds of kilometres, in the Baltic Sea and the adjacent North Sea areas. Potential cascading effects, in coastal ecology, fish ecology and fisheries would be extensive, and point out the necessity to develop further the “ecosystem approach in the environmental monitoring”. PMID:25737660

  12. FISH-MEDIATED NUTRIENT AND ENERGY EXCHANGE BETWEEN A LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND AND ITS ADJACENT BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little has been done to quantify fluxes of organisms, nutrients, and energy between freshwater coastal habitats and adjacent offshore waters or to evaluate the ecological implications of these exchanges on a whole-lake basis. To test the hypothesis that fish-mediated transport m...

  13. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  14. Monitoring a shelf edge current using bottom pressures or coastal sea-level data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClimans, Thomas A.; Johannessen, Bjørn Olaf; Jenserud, Trond

    1999-08-01

    Low-frequency fluctuations in ocean currents can be monitored by their effects on water level and bottom pressure gradients due to geostrophy. A predominantly barotropic current along the Norwegian continental slope is studied to show how routine monitoring of coastal sea-level, air pressure and coastal hydrography can be used to monitor fluctuations of an important source of salt and heat to arctic regions. These data are also needed as forcing boundary conditions for running models of the adjacent shelf seas. The first attempt showed a promising validation to monthly average transports measured 1300 km upstream. The evidence suggests that changes in the slope current are established on the time scale of a few days along the entire continental slope, apparently forced by sea-level changes in the northeast Atlantic. Correcting for atmospheric pressure and the buoyancy of the coastal water near the tide gauge at Bodø, we obtain five-day running average coastal sea-level fluctuations that correlate to within 15% of observed current and bottom pressure gradient fluctuations 300 km away. The extension of the derived relation for monitoring this flow over large distances, with a time resolution of 5 days is demonstrated. Improved quality of the measurements is needed to reduce the inherent sources of noise. Part of the noise is due to mesoscale variability in the coastal current. This can be reduced by averaging over longer times. The method fails at higher time resolutions due to atmospheric variability, basin modes and other processes that are unaccounted for in the simple geostrophic model.

  15. Seasonal coastal sea level prediction using a dynamical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Peter C.; Church, John A.; Miles, Elaine R.; Ridgway, Ken; Spillman, Claire M.

    2015-08-01

    Sea level varies on a range of time scales from tidal to decadal and centennial change. To date, little attention has been focussed on the prediction of interannual sea level anomalies. Here we demonstrate that forecasts of coastal sea level anomalies from the dynamical Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA) have significant skill throughout the equatorial Pacific and along the eastern boundaries of the Pacific and Indian Oceans at lead times out to 8 months. POAMA forecasts for the western Pacific generally have greater skill than persistence, particularly at longer lead times. POAMA also has comparable or greater skill than previously published statistical forecasts from both a Markov model and canonical correlation analysis. Our results indicate the capability of physically based models to address the challenge of providing skillful forecasts of seasonal sea level fluctuations for coastal communities over a broad area and at a range of lead times.

  16. Monitoring Coastal Embankment Subsidence and Relative Sea Level Rise in Coastal Bangladesh Using Satellite Geodetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q.; Shum, C. K.; Jia, Y.; Yi, Y.; Zhu, K.; Kuo, C. Y.; Liibusk, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Bangladesh Delta is located at the confluence of the mega Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghan Rivers in the Bay of Bengal. It is home to over 160 million people and is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is prone to seasonal transboundary monsoonal flooding, potentially aggravated by more frequent and intensified cyclones resulting from anthropogenic climate change. Sea level rise, along with tectonic, sediment compaction/load and groundwater extraction induced land uplift/subsidence, have significantly exacerbated these risks and Bangladesh's coastal vulnerability. Bangladesh has built 123 coastal embankments or polders since the 1960's, to protect the coastal regions from cyclone/tidal flooding and to reduce salinity incursions. Since then, many coastal polders have suffered severe erosion and anthropogenic damage, and require repairs or rebuilding. However, the physical and anthropogenic processes governing the historic relative sea level rise and its future projection towards its quantification remain poorly understood or known, and at present not accurate enough or with an adequately fine local spatial scale for practical mitigation of coastal vulnerability or coastal resilience studies. This study reports on our work in progress to use satellite geodetic and remote sensing observations, including satellite radar altimetry/backscatter measurements over land and in coastal oceans, optical/infrared imageries, and SAR backscatter/InSAR data, to study the feasibility of coastal embankment/polder erosion monitoring, quantify seasonal polder water intrusions, observing polder subsidence, and finally, towards the goal of improving the relative sea level rise hazards assessment at the local scale in coastal Bangladesh.

  17. Monitoring coastal sea level using reflected GNSS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, Johan S.; Haas, Rüdiger; Johansson, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    A continuous monitoring of coastal sea level changes is important for human society since it is predicted that up to 332 million people in coastal and low-lying areas will be directly affected by flooding from sea level rise by the end of the 21st century. The traditional way to observe sea level is using tide gauges that give measurements relative to the Earth’s crust. However, in order to improve the understanding of the sea level change processes it is necessary to separate the measurements into land surface height changes and sea surface height changes. These measurements should then be relative to a global reference frame. This can be done with satellite techniques, and thus a GNSS-based tide gauge is proposed. The GNSS-based tide gauge makes use of both GNSS signals that are directly received and GNSS signals that are reflected from the sea surface. An experimental installation at the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) shows that the reflected GNSS signals have only about 3 dB less signal-to-noise-ratio than the directly received GNSS signals. Furthermore, a comparison of local sea level observations from the GNSS-based tide gauge with two stilling well gauges, located approximately 18 and 33 km away from OSO, gives a pairwise root-mean-square agreement on the order of 4 cm. This indicates that the GNSS-based tide gauge gives valuable results for sea level monitoring.

  18. Isotope geochemistry and fluxes of carbon and organic matter in tropical small mountainous river systems and adjacent coastal waters of the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Ryan; Bauer, James; Grottoli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that small mountainous rivers (SMRs) may act as sources of aged and/or refractory carbon (C) to the coastal ocean, which may increase organic C burial at sea and subsidize coastal food webs and heterotrophy. However, the characteristics and spatial and temporal variability of C and organic matter (OM) exported from tropical SMR systems remain poorly constrained. To address this, the abundance and isotopic character (δ13C and Δ14C) of the three major C pools were measured in two Puerto Rico SMRs with catchments dominated by different land uses (agricultural vs. non-agricultural recovering forest). The abundance and character of C pools in associated estuaries and adjacent coastal waters were also examined. Riverine dissolved and particulate organic C (DOC and POC, respectively) concentrations were highly variable with respect to land use and sampling month, while dissolved inorganic C (DIC) was significantly higher at all times in the agricultural catchment. In both systems, riverine DOC and POC ranged from modern to highly aged (2,340 years before present), while DIC was always modern. The agricultural river and irrigation canals contained very old DOC (1,184 and 2,340 years before present, respectively), which is consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that these tropical SMRs provide a source of aged DOC to the ocean. During months of high river discharge, OM in estuarine and coastal waters had C isotope signatures reflective of direct terrestrial input, indicating that relatively unaltered OM is transported to the coastal ocean at these times. This is also consistent with findings in temperate SMRs and indicates that C transported to the coastal ocean by SMRs may differ from that of larger rivers because it is exported from smaller catchments that have steeper terrains and fewer land-use types.

  19. Sea Grant Extension Crucial Link to Coastal Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stumbos, John

    1997-01-01

    University of California Sea Grant Extension Program provides training and technical assistance to fishers, farmers, planners, and conservationists on projects such as coastal ecosystem health, marine environmental protection, fisheries management, aquaculture, salmon habitat restoration, and controlling nonpoint-source pollution; supports…

  20. INTEGRATED COASTAL RESERVE PLANNING: MAKING THE LAND-SEA CONNECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land use, watershed processes, and coastal biodiversity can be strongly coupled. Land-sea interactions are ignored, however, when selecting terrestrial and marine reserves with existing models, with the risk that reserves will fail to achieve their conservation objectives. The co...

  1. Sea ice production variability in Antarctic coastal polynyas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Takeshi; Ohshima, Kay I.; Fraser, Alexander D.; Williams, Guy D.

    2016-05-01

    Enhanced sea ice production (SIP) in Antarctic coastal polynyas forms dense shelf water (DSW), leading to Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) formation that ultimately drives the lower limb of the meridional overturning circulation. Some studies suggest that the variability of SIP in Antarctic coastal polynyas is driven by the influence of atmospheric forcing, i.e., surface winds and air temperature. Our previous mapping of SIP in 13 major Antarctic coastal polynyas from 1992 to 2007, using a heat flux calculation with ice thickness data derived from satellite data, is extended here to examine the interannual and seasonal variability of SIP from 1992 to 2013. The interannual variability of total ice production correlates more strongly with polynya extent than with atmospheric forcing, with the exception of the Shackleton Polynya, which correlates well with wind. There is no coherent signal in the interannual variability between the major Antarctic coastal polynyas. We find that stochastic changes to the coastal "icescape," i.e., ice shelves, floating glaciers, fast ice, together with offshore first-year ice, are also important factors driving SIP variability on multiyear time scales. Both the Ross Ice Shelf Polynya and Mertz Glacier Polynya experienced a significant reduction in SIP due to calving events and the repositioning of icebergs and fast ice. Our results also show opposing trends between polynya-based SIP and sea ice extent in key regions of Antarctic sea ice change. Close monitoring of coastal icescape dynamics and change is essential to better understand the long-term impact of coastal polynya variability and its influence on regional AABW production.

  2. The ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Strandzha Mountain and adjacent coastal territories (Bulgaria and Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Guéorguiev, Borislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The knowledge of the ground-beetle fauna of Strandzha is currently incomplete, and is largely based on data from the Bulgarian part of the region and on records resulting from casual collecting. This study represents a critical revision of the available literature, museum collections and a three years field study of the carabid beetles of the Bulgarian and Turkish parts of Strandzha Mountain and the adjacent Black Sea Coast territories. New information A total of 328 species and subspecies of Carabidae, belonging to 327 species from the region of Strandzha Mountain and adjacent seacoast area, have been listed. Of these, 77 taxa represent new records for the Bulgarian part of the region, and 110 taxa new records for Turkish part of the studied region. Two taxa, one subgenus (Haptotapinus Reitter, 1886) and one species (Pterostichus crassiusculus), are new to the fauna of Bulgaria. Based on a misidentification, the species Apotomus testaceus is excluded from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. Seven species (Carabus violaceus azurescens, Apotomus rufus, Platynus proximus, Molops alpestris kalofericus, M. dilatatus angulicollis, Pterostichus merklii, and Calathus metallicus) are treated as doubtful for the regional fauna, and one (Apotomus rufus) also for the Bulgarian fauna. Altogether, 43 taxa collected in the Turkish part of the region are new for European Turkey. New taxa for Turkey are the genera Myas and Oxypselaphus, the subgenus Feronidius, and nine species and subspecies (Carabus granulatus granulatus, Dyschirius tristis, Bembidion normannum apfelbecki, B. subcostatum vau, Acupalpus exiguus, Myas chalybaeus, Oxypselaphus obscurus, Pterostichus leonisi, Pt. melas). In addition, there are a further seven species that are here confirmed for Turkey. PMID:27099564

  3. Coastal Nurseries and Their Importance for Conservation of Sea Kraits

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François; Bonnet, Christophe; Plichon, Patrice; Fauvel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Destruction and pollution of coral reefs threaten these marine biodiversity hot stops which shelter more than two thirds of sea snake species. Notably, in many coral reef ecosystems of the Western Pacific Ocean, large populations of sea kraits (amphibious sea snakes) have drastically declined during the past three decades. Protecting remaining healthy populations is thus essential. In New Caledonia, coral reefs shelter numerous sea krait colonies spread throughout an immense lagoon (24,000 km2). Sea kraits feed on coral fish but lay their eggs on land. However, ecological information on reproduction and juveniles is extremely fragmentary, precluding protection of key habitats for reproduction. Our 10 years mark recapture study on Yellow sea kraits (L. saintgironsi >8,700 individuals marked) revealed that most neonates aggregate in highly localized coastal sites, where they feed and grow during several months before dispersal. Hundreds of females emigrate seasonally from remote populations (>50 km away) to lay their eggs in these coastal nurseries, and then return home. Protecting these nurseries is a priority to maintain recruitment rate, and to retain sea krait populations in the future. PMID:24670985

  4. Coastal nurseries and their importance for conservation of sea kraits.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François; Bonnet, Christophe; Plichon, Patrice; Fauvel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Destruction and pollution of coral reefs threaten these marine biodiversity hot stops which shelter more than two thirds of sea snake species. Notably, in many coral reef ecosystems of the Western Pacific Ocean, large populations of sea kraits (amphibious sea snakes) have drastically declined during the past three decades. Protecting remaining healthy populations is thus essential. In New Caledonia, coral reefs shelter numerous sea krait colonies spread throughout an immense lagoon (24,000 km2). Sea kraits feed on coral fish but lay their eggs on land. However, ecological information on reproduction and juveniles is extremely fragmentary, precluding protection of key habitats for reproduction. Our 10 years mark recapture study on Yellow sea kraits (L. saintgironsi >8,700 individuals marked) revealed that most neonates aggregate in highly localized coastal sites, where they feed and grow during several months before dispersal. Hundreds of females emigrate seasonally from remote populations (>50 km away) to lay their eggs in these coastal nurseries, and then return home. Protecting these nurseries is a priority to maintain recruitment rate, and to retain sea krait populations in the future.

  5. Long term changes in the status of coastal fish in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, L.; Heikinheimo, O.; Svirgsden, R.; Kruze, E.; Ložys, L.; Lappalainen, A.; Saks, L.; Minde, A.; Dainys, J.; Jakubavičiūtė, E.; Ådjers, K.; Olsson, J.

    2016-02-01

    Management for sustainable coastal ecosystems is benefited by coherent large scale status assessments to support the identification of measures, but these efforts may be challenged by both data availability and natural biogeographical variation. Coastal fish are a resource for commercial and recreational fisheries as well as significant contributors to coastal ecosystem functioning, by linking lower and higher levels of the food web. This study addresses long term changes in coastal fish communities at Baltic Sea regional scale, in order to identify overall trends and support the operationalization of large scale status assessments of marine biota. The study was focused on two indicators representing the functional groups of Piscivores, which are attributed to changes in food web processes including predation/fisheries, and Cyprinids, which are associated with eutrophication. The indicators were assessed for trends within ten-year intervals, using data combined from national monitoring programs during 1991-2013. The results showed predominantly declining trends in Piscivores and of increases in Cyprinids during the studied three decades, both indicative of a deteriorating status. The pattern was however reversed in the most recent years. Similar results among adjacent areas were identified in some cases, but overall differences at local scale were high, indicating strong influence of local processes. The results suggest that coordinated local measures in order to abate cumulative effects are a preferred way of improving the overall status of coastal fish. The latest studied time intervals were the overall most stable and could be considered as potential baseline years for upcoming regional assessments.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of particulate organic matter in the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent coastal waters illustrated by amino acid enantiomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ying; Liu, Zongguang; Hu, Jun; Zhu, Zhuoyi; Liu, Sumei; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Total suspended matter (TSM) was collected in the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent areas of the East China Sea in July, August, and November 2011, to study the composition and fate of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) during an August typhoon event and bottom trawling activities. Concentrations of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN), and hydrolyzable particulate amino acids (PAA, D- and L-enantiomers) were higher during July and August than during November; however, D-arginine and alanine levels were significantly higher in November. Seasonal trends in the composition of PAAs indicate that in situ production is a key factor in their temporal distribution. No significant increase in TSM or decrease in labile organic matter was observed during the transit period following a typhoon event in August. In contrast, higher primary production was observed at this time as a result of the penetration of Changjiang Diluted Water caused by the typhoon event. Trawling effects were studied by comparing the calm season (July) with the bottom-trawling period (November) at similar sampling sites. The effect of trawling on the composition of bottom organic matter was studied by comparing D-amino acids concentrations and C/N ratios in the calm season (July) with the bottom-trawling period (November). A substantial contribution of microbial organic matter during the November cruise was indicated by a decrease in glutamic acid, an increase in TSM and D-alanine, and a lower carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio. In shallow coastal regions, anthropogenic activities (bottom trawling) may enhance the transfer of low-nutritional-value particulate organic matter into the benthic food chain.

  7. Millennial Rates of Sea Cliff Retreat Derived From Cosmogenic 10Be and Coastal Platform Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, M. D.; Ellis, M. A.; Rood, D. H.

    2014-12-01

    Observation of cliff erosion are often limited to relatively short timescales (a few decades), which are within the timeframe of anthropogenic modification of the coast and may be shorter than the recurrence interval for erosion events. Here we present long-term (centennial-millennial) averaged rates of sea cliff retreat for chalk cliffs in SE England derived from cosmogenic isotopes and coastal morphology. We determine long-term rates of sea cliff erosion from 10Be measured from in situ flint samples collected from three transects across the coastal platform in East Sussex. A numerical model of 10Be accumulation on an evolving coastal profile allows estimation of cliff retreat rate averaged over several hundred years. The model accounts for variation in 10Be accumulation with tides and sea-level rise, and takes into account platform downwear and topographic shielding by adjacent cliffs. Additionally, we use high-resolution (1m) multibeam bathymetry to map the extent of the coastal platform based on the surface texture in order to infer the position of the coast at ~8 ka. The difference in position to the current coastline provides estimates of Holocene-averaged rates of cliff erosion for all chalk cliffed coastline in the region. Comparison to historic records of cliff retreat reveals key similarities and differences between long and short-term signals. In certain locations, there are significant discrepancies (either faster or slower) between historic records and long-term rates of retreat. Each type of discrepancy may be the result of human interaction with the coastal environment, whether that interaction is local or non-local, and it is worthwhile noting that sites of relatively low historic rates of erosion are likely subject to high-magnitude, low-frequency failure events that could have devastating effects on human lives and infrastructure in areas that are considered to be low risk.

  8. Response of the Mediterranean and Dead Sea coastal aquifers to sea level variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yechieli, Y.; Shalev, E.; Wollman, S.; Kiro, Y.; Kafri, U.

    2010-12-01

    The present study examines the response of groundwater systems to expected changes in the Mediterranean Sea (rise of <1cm/yr) and Dead Sea levels (decline of ˜1 m/yr). A fast response is observed in the Dead Sea coastal aquifer, exhibited both in the drop of the water levels and in the location of the fresh-saline water interface. No such effect is yet observed in the Mediterranean coastal aquifer, as expected. Numerical simulations, using the FeFlow software, show that the effect of global sea level rise depends on the coastal topography next to the shoreline. A slope of 2.5‰ is expected to yield a shift of the interface by 400 m, after a rise of 1m (˜100 years), whereas a vertical slope will yield no shift. Reduced recharge due to climate change or overexploitation of groundwater also enhances the inland shift of the interface.

  9. Coastal Rapid Environmental Assessment in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoncelli, Simona; Pinardi, Nadia; Oddo, Paolo; Mariano, Arthur J.; Montanari, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Attilio; Deserti, Marco

    2011-09-01

    A new Coastal Rapid Environmental Assessment (CREA) methodology, based on an operational regional forecasting system and coastal monitoring networks of opportunity, has been developed and successfully applied to the Northern Adriatic Sea. The methodology aims at improving the initial condition estimates by combining operational coarse model fields with coastal observations to improve medium to short range predictability which is required by coastal zone and emergency management. The CREA modeling framework system consists of a high resolution, O(800 m), Adriatic SHELF model (ASHELF) nested into the Adriatic Forecasting System (AFS) at 2.2 km resolution. The CREA observational system is composed of coastal networks sampling the water column temperature and salinity between depths of 5 and 40 m. The initialization technique blends the AFS fields with the available observations using a multi-input, multi-scale optimal interpolation technique and a spin-up period for the high resolution ASHELF model to dynamically adjust initial conditions from the coarser resolution AFS model. The high resolution spin up period has been investigated through a dedicated set of experiments and it was found that a week time is enough to have new energetic features in the model initial condition field estimates to be blended with observations. Five CREA study cases have been analyzed for different months of the year, one per month from May to September 2003, chosen on the basis of the availability of the coastal observations for both model initialization and validation. The CREA 7-days forecasts show skill improvements in the coastal area salinity and temperature profiles, deriving from the blending and the spin-up period in the initialization methodology. The main conclusion is that forecasting in coastal areas by nesting necessitates of the observations to correct the coarse resolution model fields providing informations where parent and child model topographies mismatch. Results

  10. Global coastal altimetry data enable an improved look at coastal dynamics and sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Cipollini, P.; Calafat, F. M.; Passaro, M.; Cotton, D.

    2015-12-01

    The field of research aiming at recovering meaningful measurements of sea level and significant wave height from satellite altimetry in the coastal strip, known as coastal altimetry, has reached maturity thanks to the concerted effort of a lively community of scientists (www.coastalt.eu/community). We illustrate the improvements in radar waveform retracking, as well as those in the corrections of atmospheric and surface effects, that together enable coastal altimetry to achieve a precision comparable to the 2-cm level at 1-Hz seen over the open ocean. We present design and implementation of a multi-mission coastal altimetry processor based on the ALES retracking algorithm that has been used to generate products from the Jason-1, Jason-2 and Envisat altimeters in the 50-km coastal band globally; these products are freely available. We show examples of the validation of satellite altimetry data against tide gauges and wave buoys in dynamically different regions of the world's coasts (Northern Adriatic, UK coast, South Africa, South-East Australia). We demonstrate the intrinsically superior performance of SAR mode (delay-Doppler) altimetry from ESA Cryosat-2 mission, showing measurement noise of around 5 cm or lower for the 20-Hz data almost all the way to the coast when the orientation of the satellite track is favourable. This is extremely promising for the Sentinel-3 altimeter, due for launch in late 2015, which will be in SAR mode everywhere. We finally illustrate with examples two very different applications of the reprocessed data, both having significant societal impact: a) the observation of the offshore-to-coast sea level profile during extreme events (storm surges), which is of great value to surge modellers and forecasters; and b) the use of long (>20 years) time series of coastal altimetry to derive the rates of global and regional sea level rise in the coastal strip, therefore enabling a link between the open-ocean estimates and those from tide gauges.

  11. Coastal zone - Terra (and aqua) incognita - Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyan, R. D.; Velikova, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    In the Black Sea coastal states (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has no properly established legal and institutional framework. The term "coastal zone" is undefined in national (reportedly with the exception of Bulgaria) and regional legislative documents. The interface between science and policy within ICZM remains poorly developed. Policies for streamlining efforts have been ill-managed and decisions taken in functional zoning and the balanced use and protection of coastal zones have often been shown to be incorrect. The observed proliferation of consultative committees and councils has not been much helpful, public participation has been widely neglected. Illegal practices are in place, and coastal developments continue being largely unsustainable. These problems are often explained by the low awareness of ICZM benefits, and hence, a shortage of political good will, but also by the lack of appropriate Black Sea scientific research, which would ensure a fundamental knowledge-base. There are hundreds of organizations involved in collection of data and information of relevance for ICZM, although there is a distinct lack of coordination. Consequently, there is a substantial overlap of activities, whilst important scientific and policy questions remain unanswered. We review the status of ICZM or mismanagement (ICZmisM) in the Black Sea region, building links between environmental problems and policy measures in response, and providing appropriate examples. Recommendations are put forward with regard to major gaps in ICZM at levels of its theoretical development and practical implementation within the region. The review is intended to remind of major disastrous consequences of present complacency and laissez-faire in the management of the Black Sea. This paper calls for urgent implementation of ICZM in the Black Sea at national and regional levels.

  12. Hurricanes, sea level rise, and coastal change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Wang, Ping; Rosati, Julie D.; Roberts, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    Sixteen hurricanes have made landfall along the U.S. east and Gulf coasts over the past decade. For most of these storms, the USGS with our partners in NASA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have flown before and after lidar missions to detect changes in beaches and dunes. The most dramatic changes occurred when the coasts were completely submerged in an inundation regime. Where this occurred locally, a new breach was cut, like during Hurricane Isabel in North Carolina. Where surge inundated an entire island, the sand was stripped off leaving marshy outcrops behind, like during Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana. Sea level rise together with sand starvation and repeated hurricane impacts could increase the probabilities of inundation and degrade coasts more than sea level rise alone.

  13. Adjacent effect and cross talk of land surfaces on coastal water in the Aster VNIR and SWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Tsutomu; Masuda, Kazuhiko; Sato, Isao; Tsuchida, Satoshi

    2002-12-01

    The adjacency effect is discussed at coastal areas of main land and peninsula using VNIR and SWIR on ASTER sensor, although the cross-talk phenomenon is apparently noted on some SWIR. The purpose of the analysis is to derive optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol. The aerosol model is in accordance to the dust-like model. This model is adopted to ASTER and MISR on Terra satellite. Data is the Atsumi Peninsula near Nagoya (34° 40'N, 134° 00'E) GMT1.55 on July 10,2000. The ASTER SWIR(1.65μm-2.395μm) cross-talk phenomenon is noted in the data. This is known as a result of a structure of ASTER sensor. It is relatively large (5-6 DN counts and 100 lines or 3km length). On the other hands, when ASTER observe heterogeneous surface of coastal water, the adjacency effect due to the scattering by atmosphere might partly be contaminated to the above effect. In the SWIR region of spectrum, molecular scattering is practically neglected. However, some aerosol model indicates strong scattering effect at SWIR wavelengths. The main results are (1) The Japan Main land indicates 6~20 times more effect than the peninsula on adjacent radiance from ocean water. (2) SWIR & VNIR exhibit similar adjacent effect which might indicate aerosol or large particles.

  14. Assessment of global coastal hazards from sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Gornitz, V.; Kanciruk, P.

    1989-01-01

    A global coastal hazards data base that contains topographic, geologic, geomorphic, erosional and subsidence information is being developed in order to predict the coastal segments at greatest risk to a rise in sea level caused by future climate warming. High risk areas are characterized by low coastal relief, an erodible substrate, past and present evidence of subsidence, extensive shoreline retreat and high wave/tide energies. Data have been assembled for the USA and are being extended to the rest of North America. Several high risk areas have been tentatively identified and include the central Gulf Coast, South Florida, the North Carolina Outer Banks, southern Delmarva peninsula, and the San Francisco Bay area. 24 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Quaternary stratigraphy and sea-level history of the U.S. Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscano, Marguerite A.; York, Linda L.

    Middle-Atlantic, inner continental shelf stratigraphic studies document a regional, Late Pleistocene, fossiliferous mud deposit, from northern New Jersey to Cape Lookout, North Carolina. Seismic reconnaissance and detailed stratigraphic analyses reveal the nature of the mud, termed unit Q2, on the Maryland inner continental shelf. Extensive amino acid relative age determinations (from the single genus Mulinia), combined with additional amino acid analyses from onshore deposits having radiometric dates for calibration, indicate an age range for unit Q2 corresponding to Oxygen Isotope Stage 5. Ostracode assemblages delineate four distinct climatic episodes in unit Q2, enabling correlation of the zones in Q2 to the deep sea isotopic record of climatic fluctuations (substages) in Stage 5. Late Stage 5 is represented, on the Maryland shelf, by the 6 meter-thick mud of unit Q2, deposited in an open-shelf environment at slightly depressed sea levels relative to Substage 5e. Late Stage 5 sea levels (including sea-level minima) can be estimated for the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain by direct measurement of the altitudes of ostracode zone boundaries offshore, and from peak transgressive facies in correlative deposits onshore. Late Stage 5 sea levels determined from the inner shelf and adjacent nearshore facies on the Atlantic coast comprise the most complete sea-level history for Stage 5 yet proposed. Some recent revisions of glacioeustatic sea-level models advocate slightly higher sea levels during late Stage 5 (Substage 5c in particular) than originally estimated from uplifting reef tracts, and support sea levels higher than estimates from deep-sea isotopic records. The sea-level record from the Maryland inner continental shelf confirms these recent estimates in an area of minimal tectonism, and adds sea-level minima estimates for Substages 5d and 5b. Offshore, a more complete record of Stage 5 is preserved than in onshore deposits, which are limited to peak transgressive

  16. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal gradients in French coastal zones for the period of one year were mapped in order to enable a coherent study of certain oceanic features detectable by the variations in the sea surface temperature field and their evolution in time. The phenomena examined were mesoscale thermal features in the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean; thermal gradients generated by French estuary systems; and diurnal heating in the sea surface layer. The investigation was based on Heat Capacity Mapping Mission imagery.

  17. Global warming, sea-level rise, and coastal marsh survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. These wetlands at the land-ocean margin provide many direct benefits to humans, including habitat for commercially important fisheries and wildlife; storm protection; improved water quality through sediment, nutrient, and pollution removal; recreation; and aesthetic values. These valuable ecosystems will be highly vulnerable to the effects of the rapid rise in sea level predicted to occur during the next century as a result of global warming.

  18. Implications of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Flood Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeber, V.; Li, N.; Cheung, K.; Lane, P.; Evans, R. L.; Donnelly, J. P.; Ashton, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent global and local projections suggest the sea level will be on the order of 1 m or higher than the current level by the end of the century. Coastal communities and ecosystems in low-lying areas are vulnerable to impacts resulting from hurricane or large swell events in combination with sea-level rise. This study presents the implementation and results of an integrated numerical modeling package to delineate coastal inundation due to storm landfalls at future sea levels. The modeling package utilizes a suite of numerical models to capture both large-scale phenomena in the open ocean and small-scale processes in coastal areas. It contains four components to simulate (1) meteorological conditions, (2) astronomical tides and surge, (3) wave generation, propagation, and nearshore transformation, and (4) surf-zone processes and inundation onto dry land associated with a storm event. Important aspects of this package are the two-way coupling of a spectral wave model and a storm surge model as well as a detailed representation of surf and swash zone dynamics by a higher-order Boussinesq-type wave model. The package was validated with field data from Hurricane Ivan of 2005 on the US Gulf coast and applied to tropical and extratropical storm scenarios respectively at Eglin, Florida and Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The results show a nonlinear increase of storm surge level and nearshore wave energy with a rising sea level. The exacerbated flood hazard can have major consequences for coastal communities with respect to erosion and damage to infrastructure.

  19. Variability of the Antarctic Coastal Current in the Amundsen Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Sin; Kim, Tae-Wan; Cho, Kyoung-Ho; Ha, Ho Kyung; Lee, SangHoon; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Lee, Jae-Hak

    2016-11-01

    The nature of the Antarctic Coastal Current (AACC) and its seasonal and non-seasonal (several-day) variability were investigated using long-term mooring data obtained near the Dotson Ice Shelf in the Amundsen Sea. The moored instruments were operated from February 2012 to January 2014 in the Dotson Trough, which is one of the deep troughs on the Amundsen Sea shelf. The hydrographic structure of sigma density distribution at the ice shelf (27.25 kg m-3 at the surface) was found to be higher than at the continental shelf (27.00 kg m-3), whereas in the middle layer, 27.45 kg m-3 isopycnal extended to 300 m depth near the ice shelf but below 200 m depth in the offshore. The surface mixed layer thickened from the shelf break toward the ice shelf. This thickening was caused partially by coastal downwelling resulting from onshore Ekman transport and by Ekman pumping in the coastal area. The baroclinic component of the AACC near the Dotson Ice Shelf increased from July to October and decreased from January to June in 2013. In comparison with other potential driving forces, the seasonal and non-seasonal (short-term) variation of the AACC correlated well with density variability, determined principally by salinity variation. Therefore, it is suggested that the variability of the isopycnocline by Ekman pumping in the coastal area is one of the important factors controlling the seasonality and non-seasonal variability of the AACC.

  20. Helium isotopes and heavier noble gas abundances of water in adjacent sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Y.; Takahata, N.; Watanabe, T.; Shirai, K.; Nishizawa, M.

    2003-12-01

    We have measured helium isotopic ratios of water samples collected with various depths in adjacent sea of Japan. The 3He/4He ratios vary significantly from 0.989 Ratm to 1.242 Ratm where Ratm is the atmospheric ratio of 1.39x10-6. It is confirmed that all deep sea water (2000 - 2500 m) of western North Pacific is affected by the mantle helium with a high 3He/4He ratio. More precisely mid-depth (750 - 1500 m) profiles of 3He/4He ratios of northwestern Philippine Sea (Nansei Trench) and east of East China Sea (northeast and southwest of Okinawa Trough) are higher than those of western North Pacific (Off Joban) and comparable to those of northern Philippine Sea (Nankai Trough). Excess 3He of the mid-depth samples may be attributable to the subduction-type mantle helium originated from high-temperature hydrothermal sites in the Okinawa Trough. Noble gas abundances (neon, argon, krypton and xenon) were measured in water samples collected in western North Pacific and northwestern Philippine Sea. Neon abundances show slight excess relative to air saturated sea water at ambient temperature and salinity. This may be due to either air bubble effect or contamination during the sampling. When these effects are corrected using the neon anomaly, heavier noble gas abundances (argon, krypton and xenon) of samples with the temperature higher than 5° C (shallower than 500m) agree well with those of calculated air saturated seawater, while the lower temperature samples (deeper than 500 m) indicate anomaly of -7% to +10%.

  1. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program.

  2. Impact of sea-level rise on sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Werner, Adrian D; Simmons, Craig T

    2009-01-01

    Despite its purported importance, previous studies of the influence of sea-level rise on coastal aquifers have focused on specific sites, and a generalized systematic analysis of the general case of the sea water intrusion response to sea-level rise has not been reported. In this study, a simple conceptual framework is used to provide a first-order assessment of sea water intrusion changes in coastal unconfined aquifers in response to sea-level rise. Two conceptual models are tested: (1) flux-controlled systems, in which ground water discharge to the sea is persistent despite changes in sea level, and (2) head-controlled systems, whereby ground water abstractions or surface features maintain the head condition in the aquifer despite sea-level changes. The conceptualization assumes steady-state conditions, a sharp interface sea water-fresh water transition zone, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer properties, and constant recharge. In the case of constant flux conditions, the upper limit for sea water intrusion due to sea-level rise (up to 1.5 m is tested) is no greater than 50 m for typical values of recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and aquifer depth. This is in striking contrast to the constant head cases, in which the magnitude of salt water toe migration is on the order of hundreds of meters to several kilometers for the same sea-level rise. This study has highlighted the importance of inland boundary conditions on the sea-level rise impact. It identifies combinations of hydrogeologic parameters that control whether large or small salt water toe migration will occur for any given change in a hydrogeologic variable.

  3. Impact of sea-level rise on sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Werner, Adrian D; Simmons, Craig T

    2009-01-01

    Despite its purported importance, previous studies of the influence of sea-level rise on coastal aquifers have focused on specific sites, and a generalized systematic analysis of the general case of the sea water intrusion response to sea-level rise has not been reported. In this study, a simple conceptual framework is used to provide a first-order assessment of sea water intrusion changes in coastal unconfined aquifers in response to sea-level rise. Two conceptual models are tested: (1) flux-controlled systems, in which ground water discharge to the sea is persistent despite changes in sea level, and (2) head-controlled systems, whereby ground water abstractions or surface features maintain the head condition in the aquifer despite sea-level changes. The conceptualization assumes steady-state conditions, a sharp interface sea water-fresh water transition zone, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer properties, and constant recharge. In the case of constant flux conditions, the upper limit for sea water intrusion due to sea-level rise (up to 1.5 m is tested) is no greater than 50 m for typical values of recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and aquifer depth. This is in striking contrast to the constant head cases, in which the magnitude of salt water toe migration is on the order of hundreds of meters to several kilometers for the same sea-level rise. This study has highlighted the importance of inland boundary conditions on the sea-level rise impact. It identifies combinations of hydrogeologic parameters that control whether large or small salt water toe migration will occur for any given change in a hydrogeologic variable. PMID:19191886

  4. The Sensitivity of Coastal Cliffs to Changes in Sea Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, N.; Lim, M.; Petley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The impact of waves upon coastal cliffs is a significant control on erosion and subsequent cliff retreat. It is widely anticipated that climatically-driven sea-level rise will result in an increase in the rate of erosion, and thus the retreat, of coastal cliffs. Quantifying the changes in the rate of coastal erosion remains problematic, primarily due to the difficulty of collecting high-precision and high-frequency monitoring data on both cliff change and the variations in environmental conditions at the coast. In the UK, local authorities now have to produce a "Shoreline Management Plan" (SMP), indicating how the coastline will be managed for the future. This requires the estimation of rates of coastal retreat over the next century, making the impact of sea-level change a critical consideration. This study presents the results from a three year monitoring survey of a section of near-vertical coastal cliffs in north-east England. Data have been collected using a high-resolution terrestrial laser scanner to obtain cliff surfaces. Analysis of successive 3D cliff models is used to derive sequential change, from which the precise nature, geometry and rate of retreat can be measured. In parallel, data has been collected on the micro-seismic impact of waves onto the cliff to gain a direct measure of the delivery of energy at any given sea-level, rather than using a function of wave and tide gauge records. The coastline studied has a significant tidal range, in excess of 6 m, in addition to a large seasonal variability in mean tide heights, allowing a range of sea-level conditions to be assessed. For comparison weather, tide and wave monitoring has been undertaken. The results suggest a close link between the magnitude and frequency of wave impact and the loss of material from the cliff face. Marked changes in wave impact are apparent as the tide level fluctuates on an inter-monthly and inter-annual basis. Thresholds are identified which appear to reflect discrete changes

  5. Sea Extremes: Integrated impact assessment in coastal climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Carlo; Knudsen, Per; Broge, Niels; Molgaard, Mads; Andersen, Ole

    2016-04-01

    We investigate effects of sea level rise and a change in precipitation pattern on coastal flooding hazards. Historic and present in situ and satellite data of water and groundwater levels, precipitation, vertical ground motion, geology, and geotechnical soil properties are combined with flood protection measures, topography, and infrastructure to provide a more complete picture of the water-related impact from climate change at an exposed coastal location. Results show that future sea extremes evaluated from extreme value statistics may, indeed, have a large impact. The integrated effects from future storm surges and other geo- and hydro-parameters need to be considered in order to provide for the best protection and mitigation efforts, however. Based on the results we present and discuss a simple conceptual model setup that can e.g. be used for 'translation' of regional sea level rise evidence and projections to concrete impact measures. This may be used by potentially affected stakeholders -often working in different sectors and across levels of governance, in a common appraisal of the challenges faced ahead. The model may also enter dynamic tools to evaluate local impact as sea level research advances and projections for the future are updated.

  6. Sea-floor drainage features of Cascadia Basin and the adjacent continental slope, northeast Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.; Karl, Herman A.; Kenyon, Neil H.

    1989-01-01

    Sea-floor drainage features of Cascadia Basin and the adjacent continental slope include canyons, primary fan valleys, deep-sea valleys, and remnant valley segments. Long-range sidescan sonographs and associated seismic-reflection profiles indicate that the canyons may originate along a mid-slope escarpment and grow upslope by mass wasting and downslope by valley erosion or aggradation. Most canyons are partly filled with sediment, and Quillayute Canyon is almost completely filled. Under normal growth conditions, the larger canyons connect with primary fan valleys or deep-sea valleys in Cascadia Basin, but development of accretionary ridges blocks or re-routes most canyons, forcing abandonment of the associated valleys in the basin. Astoria Fan has a primary fan valley that connects with Astoria Canyon at the fan apex. The fan valley is bordered by parallel levees on the upper fan but becomes obscure on the lower fan, where a few valley segments appear on the sonographs. Apparently, Nitinat Fan does not presently have a primary fan valley; none of the numerous valleys on the fan connect with a canyon. The Willapa-Cascadia-Vancouver-Juan de Fuca deep-sea valley system bypasses the submarine fans and includes deeply incised valleys to broad shallow swales, as well as within-valley terraces and hanging-valley confluences. ?? 1989.

  7. Chinese coastal seas are facing heavy atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X. S.; Tang, A. H.; Shi, K.; Wu, L. H.; Li, W. Q.; Shi, W. Q.; Shi, X. K.; Erisman, J. W.; Zhang, F. S.; Liu, X. J.

    2014-09-01

    As the amount of reactive nitrogen (N) generated and emitted increases the amount of N deposition and its contribution to eutrophication or harmful algal blooms in the coastal zones are becoming issues of environmental concern. To quantify N deposition in coastal seas of China we selected six typical coastal sites from North to South in 2011. Concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NO2, particulate NH4+ (pNH4+) and pNO3- ranged from 1.97- 4.88, 0.46 -1.22, 3.03 -7.09, 2.24 - 4.90 and 1.13-2.63 μg N m-3 at Dalian (DL), Changdao (CD), Linshandao (LS), Fenghua (FH), Fuzhou (FZ), and Zhanjiang (ZJ) sites, respectively. Volume-weighted NO3--N and NH4+-N concentrations in precipitation varied from 0.46 to 1.67 and 0.47 to 1.31 mg N L-1 at the six sites. Dry, wet and total deposition rates of N were 7.8-23.1, 14.2-25.2 and 22.0 - 44.6 kg N ha-1 yr-1 across the six coastal sites. Average N dry deposition accounted for 45.4% of the total deposition and NH3 and pNH4+ contributed to 76.6% of the dry deposition. If we extrapolate our total N deposition of 33.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to the whole Chinese coastal sea area (0.40 million km2), total N deposition amounts to 1.36 Tg N yr-1, a large external N input to surrounding marine ecosystems.

  8. Biogeochemistry of bulk organic matter and biogenic elements in surface sediments of the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent sea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Cao, Lu; Liu, Su-Mei; Zhang, Guo-Sen

    2015-07-15

    This study investigated the distribution and roles of total organic carbon (TOC), biogenic silicon (BSi), various forms of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and the stable carbon isotope (δ(13)C) in surface sediments of the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and adjacent sea. Terrestrial input accounted for 12-63% of total organic matter in the study area. The distribution of biogenic elements was affected by the Changjiang Diluted Water, the Jiangsu Coastal Current, human activities, marine biological processes, and the sediment grain size. Potentially bioavailable N and P accounted for an average 79.6% of the total N (TN) and 31.8% of the total P (TP), respectively. The burial fluxes for TOC, BSi, TN and TP were 39.74-2194.32, 17.34-517.48, 5.02-188.85 and 3.10-62.72 μmol cm(-2) yr(-1), respectively. The molar ratios of total N/P (1.2-5.0), Si/P (5.0-14.8) and Fe/P (21-61) indicated that much of the P was sequestered in sediments.

  9. Measurements of sea ice proxies from Antarctic coastal shallow cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Vallelonga, Paul; Spolaor, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Frezzotti, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Despite its close relationship with climate, the climatic impact of sea ice remains only partially understood: an indication of this is the Arctic sea ice which is declining at a faster rate than models predict. Thus, the need for reliable sea ice proxies is of crucial importance. Among the sea ice proxies that can be extracted from ice cores, interest has recently been shown in the halogens Iodine (I) and Bromine (Br) (Spolaor, A., et al., 2013a, 2013b). The production of sea ice is a source of Sodium and Bromine aerosols through frost flower crystal formation and sublimation of salty blowing snow, while Iodine is emitted by the algae living underneath sea ice. We present here the results of Na, Br and I measurements in Antarctic shallow cores, drilled during a traverse made in late 2013 - early 2014 from Talos Dome (72° 00'S, 159°12'E) to GV7 (70° 41'S, 158° 51'E) seeking for sea ice signature. The samples were kept frozen until the analyses, that were carried out by Sector Field Mass Spectroscopy Inductive Coupled Plasma (SFMS-ICP): special precautions and experimental steps were adopted for the detection of such elements. The coastal location of the cores allows a clear signal from the nearby sea ice masses. The multiple cores are located about 50 km from each other and can help us to infer the provenance of the sea ice that contributed to the proxy signature. Moreover, by simultaneously determining other chemical elements and compounds in the snow, it is possible to determine the relative timing of their deposition, thus helping us to understand their processes of emission and deposition.

  10. Simulation of Integrated Surface-Water/Ground-Water Flow and Salinity for a Coastal Wetland and Adjacent Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, Christian D.; Swain, Eric D.; Melinda A., Wolfert

    2004-01-01

    The SWIFT2D surface-water flow and transport code, which solves the St. Venant equations in two dimensions, was coupled with the SEAWAT variable-density ground-water code to represent hydrologic processes in coastal wetlands and adjacent estuaries. The integrated code was applied to the southern Everglades of Florida to quantify flow and salinity patterns and to evaluate effects of hydrologic processes. Results indicate that most surface water within Taylor Slough flows through Joe Bay and into Florida Bay through Trout Creek. Overtopping of the Buttonwood Embankment, a narrow but continuous ridge that separates the coastal wetlands from Florida Bay, does occur in response to tropical storms, but the net overflow is only 1.5 percent of creek discharge. The net leakage rate for the coastal wetland is about zero with nearly equal upward (17.1 cm/yr) and downward (17.4 cm/yr) rates. During the dry season, the coastal wetland increases in salinity to 30-35 practical salinity units but is flushed each year with the onset of the wet season. Model results demonstrate that surface-water/ground-water interactions, density-dependent flow, and wind affect flow and salinity patterns.

  11. Probabilistic modelling of sea surges in coastal urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadis, Stylianos; Jomo Danielsen Sørup, Hjalte; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2016-04-01

    Urban floods are a major issue for coastal cities with severe impacts on economy, society and environment. A main cause for floods are sea surges stemming from extreme weather conditions. In the context of urban flooding, certain standards have to be met by critical infrastructures in order to protect them from floods. These standards can be so strict that no empirical data is available. For instance, protection plans for sub-surface railways against floods are established with 10,000 years return levels. Furthermore, the long technical lifetime of such infrastructures is a critical issue that should be considered, along with the associated climate change effects in this lifetime. We present a case study of Copenhagen where the metro system is being expanded at present with several stations close to the sea. The current critical sea levels for the metro have never been exceeded and Copenhagen has only been severely flooded from pluvial events in the time where measurements have been conducted. However, due to the very high return period that the metro has to be able to withstand and due to the expectations to sea-level rise due to climate change, reliable estimates of the occurrence rate and magnitude of sea surges have to be established as the current protection is expected to be insufficient at some point within the technical lifetime of the metro. The objective of this study is to probabilistically model sea level in Copenhagen as opposed to extrapolating the extreme statistics as is the practice often used. A better understanding and more realistic description of the phenomena leading to sea surges can then be given. The application of hidden Markov models to high-resolution data of sea level for different meteorological stations in and around Copenhagen is an effective tool to address uncertainty. For sea surge studies, the hidden states of the model may reflect the hydrological processes that contribute to coastal floods. Also, the states of the hidden Markov

  12. Trends in trace organic and metal concentrations in the Pechora and Kara Seas and adjacent rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.M.; Champ, M.A.; Wade, T.L.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Chambers, L.; Davis, T.

    1995-12-31

    Trace organic (pesticides, PCBs, PAHs and dioxin/furan) and trace metal concentrations have been measured in surficial sediment and tissue (i.e., clam, fish liver and flesh) samples from the Pechora and Kara Seas and their adjacent rivers -- Pechora, Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Total PAH, PCB and total DDT and chlordane concentrations ranged in surficial sediments from n.d. to 810 ppb, n.d.--8.7 ppb, n.d.--1.2 ppb, and n.d.--1.2 ppb, respectively, in a suite of 40 samples from the Kara Sea and its adjacent rivers. The highest concentrations of many of the trace organic and metal contaminants were found in the lower part of the Yenisey River below the salt wedge. Some trace metals (As for example) were elevated in the Pechora River dispositional plume region. Dioxin ranged from 1.36 to 413 ppt in a subset of 20 sediment samples. Higher trace organic contaminant concentrations compared to sediments were found in tissue samples from the region, especially fish liver samples. Concentrations as high as 1,114 ppb total PAHs, 89 ppb chlordane, 1,011 ppb for total DDT and 663 ppb PCBs were found in some fish liver samples. Dioxin concentrations in tissue samples ranged from 11.7 to 61 ppt. Concentrations of many trace organic and metal contaminants in these Russian marginal seas are influenced by inputs from these large Arctic rivers. Many organic contaminant concentrations in sediments are low, however detecting these compounds in tissue show they are bioavailable.

  13. The Influence of Wind and Basin Eddies in Controlling Sea Level Variations in the Coastal Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abualnaja, Yasser O.; Churchill, James H.; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. Roughly half of the coastal sea level variance in central Red Sea is due to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods between 2 days and 1 month. We examined the sea level signal in this band using the data from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters between 20.1 and 23.5 oN. We find that the intermediate-band sea level variations are strongly correlated with the local wind stress measured at a meteorological buoy. The maximum pressure-wind correlation occurs at wind direction closely aligned with the alongshore orientation and at a lag (wind leading) of 45 hr, which is consistent with the expected response of the coastal sea level to local wind forcing. However, less than half of the sea level variance in the intermediate band is related, through linear correlation, with local wind forcing. Our analysis indicates that the residual coastal sea level signal, not associated with wind forcing, is largely driven remotely by the passage of mesoscale eddies, revealed by satellite altimeter-derived sea level anomaly fields of the central Red Sea. These eddy-driven coastal sea level changes occur on time scales of 10-30 days. They span a range of 0.5 m, and thus constitute an import component of the sea level signal in the coastal Red Sea.

  14. Sea Level Records from Geodetic GPS Receivers: a New Coastal Sea Level Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, J. S.; Haas, R.; Larson, K. M.; Scherneck, H.

    2012-12-01

    Global sea level rise and local sea level variations due to climate change has the potential for a significant impact on coastal societies. Thus, it is of great importance to monitor and understand how the sea level is changing. Existing techniques to measure sea level have provided important insights in this field during the last decades. However, further observations are necessary in order to fully understand the underlying processes. We present the possibility of a new coastal sea level dataset based on analysis of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) data from existing permanent GPS stations at the coast. For a GPS antenna close enough to the ocean, the multipath signals, reflected off the sea surface, interfere with the direct satellite signals. This becomes especially visible as oscillations in the recorded SNR data. The analysis of the SNR oscillations provides the distance between the sea surface and the GPS antenna phase center. Thus, such an installation can be called a GPS tide gauge and can be used to monitor sea level. The advantage of a GPS tide gauge is that it allows both determination of the sea level and determination of the position with respect to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, using a single geodetic instrument. This is particularly valuable in areas with land surface motion where the usefulness of traditional tide gauges is restricted. The technique has been verified through comparison to traditional tide gauges at two sites. The comparison of more than three months long time series resulted in correlation coefficients of better than 0.97 for both sites. For the station with low and high tidal range, the root-mean-square agreement between the GPS results and the tide gauge records were better than 5 and 10 cm, respectively. In this presentation we show preliminary results for sea level records world wide by applying this technique to several existing permanent GPS stations.

  15. Modeling the rate and style of Arctic coastal retreat along the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, K. R.; Anderson, R. S.; Overeem, I.; Wobus, C. W.; Clow, G. D.; Urban, F. E.; Stanton, T. P.

    2010-12-01

    In Arctic landscapes, modern surface warming has significantly altered geomorphic process rates. Along the Beaufort Sea coastline bounding Alaska’s North Slope, the mean annual coastal erosion rate has doubled from ~7 m/yr for 1955-1979 to ~14 m/yr for 2002-2007 (Mars and Houseknecht, 2007). Locally the erosion rate can reach 30 m/yr, with short-term rates that are far greater than this. A robust understanding of the processes that govern the rate of coastal erosion is required in order to predict the response of the coast and its adjacent landscape to a rapidly changing climate, with implications for sediment and carbon fluxes, oilfield infrastructure, and animal habitat. Constrained by time-lapse imagery, and by measurements of both the oceanic and atmospheric conditions, we have developed a numerical model to capture the evolution of the permafrost bluffs on the North Slope. During the sea ice-free season, relatively warm waters melt a notch into the ice-rich silt that comprises the 4-m tall bluffs. The bluffs ultimately fail by toppling of polygonal blocks bounded by mechanically weak ice-wedges that are spaced roughly 10-20 m apart. The toppled blocks then temporarily armor the coast against further attack. The annual retreat rate is controlled by the length of the sea ice-free season, water and air temperatures, and the wave history. Honoring the high ice content of the bluff materials, we employ a positive degree day algorithm to govern subaerial melt, and an iceberg melting algorithm to determine rate of notch incision. In the iceberg melting algorithm, the local instantaneous melt rate goes as the product of the temperature difference between seawater and bluff material, the sea state, captured by the ratio of wave height to wave period, and the ratio of ice surface roughness to wave height to the 0.2 power (Kubat et al., 2007). The calculated instantaneous melt rate is adjusted to account for the ambient temperature of the permafrost and the presence of

  16. Coastal Flood Risks in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, Thailand: Combined Impacts of Land Subsidence, Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duangyiwa, C.; Yu, D.; Wilby, R.; Aobpaet, A.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the fast-changing climatic and anthropogenic conditions at coastal regions, many coastal mega-cities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to internal and external risks. The risk is particularly high for low-lying coastal cities in developing nations, with Southeast Asia recognized as a hotspot of vulnerability due to the increasing population density, rapid change of natural landscape associated with urbanization and intensified hydrological and atmospheric conditions at the coastal front in an uncertain climate future. The Bangkok Metropolitan Region is one of the largest coastal megacities in Southeast Asia that are challenged by the potential impacts due to climate change and anthropological variability in the coming decades. Climate-related risks in this region are associated with its relatively low-lying nature of the terrain and adjacency to the coast. Coastal inundation due to high tides from the sea occurs annually in the area close to the seashore. This is set to increase given a projected rising sea level and the sinking landscape due to groundwater extraction and urbanization. The aim of this research is, therefore, to evaluate the vulnerability of the city to sea level rise, land subsidence and storm surge. Distributed land subsidence rate, projected sea level rise and existing structural features such as flood defences are taken into account. The 2011 flood in Thailand is used as a baseline event. Scenarios were designed with projections of land subsidence and sea level rise to 2050s, 2080s, and 2100s. A two-dimensional flood inundation model (FloodMap, Yu and Lane 2006) is used to derive inundation depth and velocity associated with each scenario. The impacts of coastal flood risk on critical infrastructures (e.g. power supply, transportation network, rescue centers, hospitals, schools and key government buildings) are evaluated (e.g. Figure 1). Results suggest progressively increase but non-linear risks of coastal flooding to key coastal

  17. Coastal SAR Altimetry: An Experiment in the Northern Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno; Benveniste, Jerome

    2013-04-01

    backscattered power distribution vs. Doppler beam angle as achieved integrating the SAR STACK's power echoes. This RMSS parameter is an indicator of how much specular or diffusive is the surface illuminated by the radar. The RMSS parameter will be hence fed as input in the SAMOSA Physical Model in order to adapt the model itself automatically to the changed water scenario conditions, turning the model's classic long-tail SAR waveform into a very peaky waveform. THE SAMOSA model will be implemented in its full analytical formulation (zero-order and first-order term), neglecting only the effect of the water surface skewness. The benefit of this methodology is that we use either for open ocean conditions either for coastal still water conditions the same model and re-tracker scheme, avoiding hence any bias or discontinuity in height, typically occurring when one swaps waveform model or re-tracker scheme during the same pass. The experiment will be run at the wetlands of the Volga's Delta in the Northern Caspian Sea in summer time. CryoSat-2 is covering the area in SAR mode and along the passes, the instrument is facing an abrupt transition from diffusive open sea condition to very specular water conditions over the Volga's Delta wetlands. Hence, this seems to be the ideal environment where to test the proposed methodology.

  18. Stable isotopes in juvenile marine fishes and their invertebrate prey from the Thames Estuary, UK, and adjacent coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leakey, Chris D. B.; Attrill, Martin J.; Jennings, Simon; Fitzsimons, Mark F.

    2008-04-01

    Estuaries are regarded as valuable nursery habitats for many commercially important marine fishes, potentially providing a thermal resource, refuge from predators and a source of abundant prey. Stable isotope analysis may be used to assess relative resource use from isotopically distinct sources. This study comprised two major components: (1) development of a spatial map and discriminant function model of stable isotope variation in selected invertebrate groups inhabiting the Thames Estuary and adjacent coastal regions; and (2) analysis of stable isotope signatures of juvenile bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax), sole ( Solea solea) and whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) for assessment of resource use and feeding strategies. The data were also used to consider anthropogenic enrichment of the estuary and potential energetic benefits of feeding in estuarine nursery habitat. Analysis of carbon (δ 13C), nitrogen (δ 15N) and sulphur (δ 34S) isotope data identified significant differences in the 'baseline' isotopic signatures between estuarine and coastal invertebrates, and discriminant function analysis allowed samples to be re-classified to estuarine and coastal regions with 98.8% accuracy. Using invertebrate signatures as source indicators, stable isotope data classified juvenile fishes to the region in which they fed. Feeding signals appear to reflect physiological (freshwater tolerance) and functional (mobility) differences between species. Juvenile sole were found to exist as two isotopically-discrete sub-populations, with no evidence of mixing between the two. An apparent energetic benefit of estuarine feeding was only found for sole.

  19. Numerical study on inter-tidal transports in coastal seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xinyan; Jiang, Wensheng; Zhang, Ping; Feng, Shizuo

    2016-06-01

    Inter-tidal (subtidal) transport processes in coastal sea depend on the residual motion, turbulent dispersion and relevant sources/sinks. In Feng et al. (2008), an updated Lagrangian inter-tidal transport equation, as well as new concept of Lagrangian inter-tidal concentration (LIC), has been proposed for a general nonlinear shallow water system. In the present study, the LIC is numerically applied for the first time to passive tracers in idealized settings and salinity in the Bohai Sea, China. Circulation and tracer motion in the three idealized model seas with different topography or coastline, termed as `flat-bottom', `stairs' and `cape' case, respectively, are simulated. The dependence of the LIC on initial tidal phase suggests that the nonlinearities in the stairs and cape cases are stronger than that in the flat-bottom case. Therefore, the `flat-bottom' case still meets the convectively weakly nonlinear condition. For the Bohai Sea, the simulation results show that most parts of it still meet the weakly nonlinear condition. However, the dependence of the LIS (Lagrangian inter-tidal salinity) on initial tidal phase is significant around the southern headland of the Liaodong Peninsula and near the mouth of the Yellow River. The nonlinearity in the former region is mainly related to the complicated coastlines, and that in the latter region is due to the presence of the estuarine salinity front.

  20. Simulating coastal to offshore interactions around the South Florida coastal seas and implications on management issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.; Kourafalou, V. H.; Hogan, P. J.; Smedstad, O.

    2008-12-01

    The South Florida coastal seas include shelf areas and shallow water bodies around ecologically fragile environments and Marine Protected Areas, such as Florida Bay, the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (around the largest coral reef system of the continental U.S.) and the Dry Tortugas Ecological Reserve. Man- made changes in the hydrology of the Everglades have caused dramatic degradation of the coastal ecosystem through discharge in Florida Bay. New management scenarios are under way to restore historical flows. The environmental impacts of the management propositions are examined with an inter-disciplinary, multi-nested modeling system. The HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) has been employed for the Regional Model for South Florida Coastal Seas (SoFLA-HYCOM, 1/25 degree resolution) and for the embedded, high resolution coastal Florida Keys model (FKEYS- HYCOM, 1/100 degree). Boundary conditions are extracted from GODAE products: the large scale North Atlantic model (ATL-HYCOM, 1/12 degree) and the intermediate scale Gulf of Mexico model (GOM-HYCOM, 1/25 degree). The study targets the impacts of large scale oceanic features on the coastal dynamics. Eddies that travel along the Loop Current/Florida Current front are known to be an important mechanism for the interaction of nearshore and offshore flows. The high resolution FKEYS simulations reveal both mescoscale and sub- mesoscale eddy passages during a targeted 2-year simulation period (2004-2005), forced with high resolution/high frequency atmospheric forcing. Eddies influence sea level changes in the vicinity of Florida Bay with possible implications on current and future flushing patterns. They also enable upwelling of cooler, nutrient-rich waters in the vicinity of the Reef Tract and they influence transport and recruitment pathways for coral fish larvae, as they carry waters of different properties (such as river-borne low-salinity/nutrient-rich waters from as far as the Mississippi River) and

  1. Chukchi Sea coastal studies: Coastal geomorphology, environmental sensitivity, and persistence of spilled oil. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Robilliard, G.A.; Harper, J.R.; Isaacs, J.; Foget, C.

    1985-03-01

    This report: Describes the physical and biological characteristics of the northern Chukchi Sea coastline, emphasizing shore characteristics that influence the effect of oil spills or that are likely to be affected by oil spills; Describes and maps the level of oil persistence along the shoreline; Describes and maps the vulnerability and sensitivity of selected coastal biological resources to spilled oil; Describes and maps the sensitivity of selected human uses of the shoreline to spilled oil; Describes the cleanup techniques and equipment available for use in arctic conditions and recommends appropriate shoreline countermeasures.

  2. Distribution of alkylphenols in the Pearl River Delta and adjacent northern South China Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Duan, Jing-Chun; Mai, Bi-xian; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Qing-Shu; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2006-04-01

    The occurrence of alkylphenols (APs) was investigated in surface water and sediments from the Pearl River Delta and adjacent northern South China Sea. Most of the water samples contained detectable amounts of APs, ranging up to 0.628 microg l(-1) for nonylphenol (NP) and 0.068 microg l(-1) for octylphenol (OP). APs were found in all of the sediment samples with concentrations ranging from 59 to 7808 microg kg(-1) for NP and from 1 to 93 microg kg(-1) for OP. The Zhujiang River showed the highest concentrations of APs in both water and sediments. Significant decrease of APs concentrations going from the Zhujiang River to the Shiziyang River was observed. The Xijiang River contained concentrations of APs slightly higher in water but relatively lower in sediments than the Lingding Bay, which might be attributed to their different hydrodynamic and sedimentary characteristics. There was a decreasing trend of APs in water from the rivers to the estuary and further to the sea on the whole. In the Lingding Bay and its outer waters, concentrations of APs in sediments increased to a maximum and then decrease seaward, which was consistent with the distribution trend of the sediment organic carbon contents. Linear regression analyses showed the concentrations of APs were markedly correlated with the sediment organic carbon contents, indicating that the sediment organic carbon is an important factor controlling the levels of APs in sediments.

  3. Coastal response to simultaneous mid-Holocene climate and sea-level changes: Lessons from ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, C. J.; FitzGerald, D. M.; Milne, G. A.; Bard, K. A.; Fattovich, R.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal evolution during the Holocene has been driven by complex interactions between changes in sea level, climate, and sedimentation processes. Along the Egyptian Red Sea coast, a post-glacial marine transgression drowned a series of wadi channels, flooding their lower reaches to create shallow lagoons. Archeological investigations at one such site, Mersa / Wadi Gawasis, have uncovered the existence of an ancient Egyptian harbor along a carbonate / conglomerate terrace located 600 m landward of the modern shoreline; this discovery documented the world's earliest (3.5 - 4.0 ka) archaeological evidence of long-distance seafaring. This site is interpreted to have been a harbor servicing trade routes along the African Red Sea coast. Sedimentological, malacological, chorological, and foraminiferal analyses indicate that this harbor was located within a low energy, 6 - 8 m deep, tidal embayment that once extended ~1 km inland of the modern shore. A buried coral-beach rock platform and tidal flat sediments are found ubiquitously along the periphery of the paleo-bay and at elevations of up to 1 m above modern mean sea level. Wave-cut notches and erosional terraces observed at 1.1 - 1.8 m above modern sea level along the modern shoreline provide additional evidence of a higher-than-present stand of sea-level during the mid-Holocene. Sea-level predictions generated using a site-specific isostatic model for the northern the Red Sea confirm the presence of 0.5 - 2 m highstand at 5 ka. Reconstructions indicate that the bay at Mersa / Wadi Gawasis reached its maximum surface area prior to the highstand. Preliminary closure was driven by sediment inputs from the adjacent wadi, enhanced by the wetter climate of the African Humid Period, combined with a slowing rate of sea-level rise, thus demonstrating the dominance of sedimentary processes during this period. Following the highstand, slowly falling sea level coincidental with climatic aridization allowed for the establishment

  4. Degradation capability of the coastal environment adjacent to the Itata River in central Chile (36.5° S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, S.; Gutiérrez, M. H.; Ampuero, P.; Tejos, E.

    2011-08-01

    The response of the coastal ocean influenced by both river discharges and inputs of photosynthetically derived organic carbon product of upwelling, was evaluated by estimating rates of microbial hydrolysis of macromolecules with the goal of estimating the potential degradation capability of the coastal ecosystem off central Chile. Extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) in seawater was dominated by aminopeptidase activity on substrate L-leucine-4-methyl-7-coumarinylamide (MCA-leu) (1.2 to 182 nmol l-1 h-1) followed by 4-methylumbelliferyl-ß-D-glucoside (MUF-glu) (0.08-61 nmol l-1 h-1) and 4-methylumbelliferyl-ß-D-cellobiose (MUF-cel) (0.15-7 nmol l-1 h-1), with the highest rates measured during spring-summer. In riverine waters, extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis remained within the range of 45 to 131 nmol l-1 h-1 for MCA-leu and ca. 20 nmol l-1 h-1 for glucosidic substrates, year-round. Contrary to the EEA observed for the marine water column, surface sediment extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of MCA-leu (0.04 to 6.13 nmol g-1 dw h-1) was in the same order of magnitude as the rates observed for MUF-cel (0.004 to 5.1 nmol g-1 dw h-1) and MUF-glu (0.007 to 10.5 nmol g-1 dw h-1). Moreover, hydrolysis in sediments was characterized by higher rates during winter compared with spring-summer in the coastal and estuarine zone. The five years of data allowed us to evaluate the potential capability of microbial processing of organic carbon in the coastal area adjacent to the Itata river discharge where the increase in primary production in the productive seasons is accompanied by the increase in hydrolysis of macromolecules.

  5. Degradation capability of the coastal environment adjacent to the Itata River in central Chile (36.5° S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, S.; Gutiérrez, M. H.; Ampuero, P.; Tejos, E.

    2011-02-01

    The response of the coastal ocean influenced by both river discharges and inputs of photosynthetically derived organic carbon product of upwelling, was evaluated by estimating rates of microbial hydrolysis of macromolecules with the goal of estimating the degradation capability of the coastal ecosystem off central Chile. Extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis in seawater was dominated by aminopeptidase activity on substrate MCA-leu (1.2 to 182 nM h-1), which surpassed that of substrates MUF-glu (0.08-61 nM h-1) and MUF-cel (0.15-6.8 nM h-1), with the fastest rates measured during spring-summer. In riverine waters, extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis remained within the range of 45 to 131 nM h-1 for MCA-leu and ca. 20 nM h-1 for glucosidic substrates, year-round. Contrary to the observed for the marine water column, surface sediment extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of MCA-leu (0.04 to 6.13 nmol gdw-1 h-1) was in the same order of magnitude as the rates observed for MUF-cel (0.004 to 2.58 nmol gdw-1 h-1) and MUF-glu (0.007 to 10.5 nmol gdw-1 h-1). Moreover, hydrolysis was characterized by higher rates during winter compared with spring-summer in the coastal and estuarine zone. The five years of data allowed us to construct a carbon budget for winter and spring-summer in the coastal area adjacent to the Itata River discharge. The comparison of fluxes evidenced a deficit of photosynthetic carbon to fuel extracellular hydrolysis in the water column during both periods (winter 20% and spring-summer 35%). We estimated that the Itata River is a feasible source of dissolved organic carbon, specially during winter, in the form of macromolecules, although non-focal sources may be also significant for the area.

  6. 78 FR 25349 - Policy Clarification Concerning Designation of Adjacent Coastal States for Deepwater Port License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    .... 5928, 54 FR 777 (Dec. 27, 1988) (``The territorial sea of the United States henceforth extends to 12... jurisdictional definitions where such jurisdictional definitions are not otherwise provided.\\26\\ \\25\\ 40 FR 52554... MarAd published a Notice of Proposed Policy Clarification on Tuesday, March 5, 2013 (78 FR...

  7. Modern transport and deposition of settling particles in the northern South China Sea: Sediment trap evidence adjacent to Xisha Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Clift, Peter D.; Yan, Wen; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Han; Xiang, Rong; Wang, Dongxiao

    2014-11-01

    Studies on modern sediment transport and deposition, especially studies analyzing settling particles collected with sediment traps, have rarely been carried out in the northern South China Sea. Using sediment trap time series data from Site XS1 (17°24.5‧N, 110°55.0‧E, water depth 1690 m) adjacent to the Xisha Trough, variations in sediment source through time have been reconstructed. These observations include total particle flux (TPF) and current data, grain size distributions, and clay mineral compositions obtained from two sediment traps deployed in 500 m and 1500 m water depth, respectively. Time series records at Site XS1 changed seasonally for both sampled layers. TPF in the lower layer (426 mg/m2/d) was several times that of the upper layer (113 mg/m2/d) and is affected by lateral transport. However, mean grain size (Mz) of the upper layer is greater that of the lower layer (29 vs10 μm) due to contributions from biogenic materials. There are no clear seasonal changes in clay mineral assemblage in either the upper or lower layers. The annual percentages of four main clay minerals were 82-83% illite, 7-9% kaolinite, 6-8% chlorite and 1-3% smectite. Taiwan was the dominant sediment source (42-74%), while sediment contributions from the Red River and Annamite Chain account for 23-53% and 0-15%, respectively. Sediment supply from Taiwan could be explained by deep water current flow, while coastal currents may aid sediment transport from the Red River and small mountainous rivers of central Vietnam.

  8. Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments of the Pearl River Delta and adjacent South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Mai, Bixian; Chen, Shejun; Luo, Xiaojun; Chen, Laiguo; Yang, Qingshu; Sheng, Guoying; Peng, Pingan; Fu, Jiamo; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2005-05-15

    Spatial and temporal distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and adjacent South China Sea (SCS) of southern China were examined. A total of 66 surface sediment samples were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations of 10 PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -66, -100, -99, -154, -153, -138, -183, and -209). The concentrations of BDE-209 and SigmaPBDEs (defined as the sum of all targeted PBDE congeners except for BDE-209) ranged from 0.4 to 7340 and from 0.04 to 94.7 ng/g, respectively. The SigmaPBDEs concentrations were mostly < 50 ng/g, within the range for riverine and coastal sediments around the world, whereas the BDE-209 concentrations at the most contaminated sites were at the high end of the worldwide figures. Congener compositions were dominated by BDE-209 (72.6 - 99.7%), with minor contributions from penta- and octa-BDEs. Slightly different PBDE compositions were observed among samples collected from different locations, attributable to possible decomposition of highly brominated congeners and/or redistribution between particles of various sizes during atmospheric or fluvial transportation. The PBDE patterns in the SCS and Pearl River Estuary sediments were similar to those in sediments of the Zhujiang and Dongjiang Rivers, reflecting the widespread influence from local inputs. Analyses of two short sediment cores collected from the Pearl River Estuary showed that concentrations of BDE-209 rapidly increased in the upper layers of both cores, coincident with the growth of the electronics manufacturing capacities in the PRD region. The major sources of PBDEs were probably waste discharges from the cities of Guangzhou, Dongguan, and Shenzhen, the three fastest growing urban centers in the PRD.

  9. Coastal vulnerability assessment of the Northern Gulf of Mexico to sea-level rise and coastal change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, E.A.; Barras, J.A.; Williams, S.J.; Twichell, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise along the Northern Gulf of Mexico from Galveston, TX, to Panama City, FL. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rate, mean tidal range, and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each variable are combined and an index value is calculated for 1-kilometer grid cells along the coast. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. The CVI assessment presented here builds on an earlier assessment conducted for the Gulf of Mexico. Recent higher resolution shoreline change, land loss, elevation, and subsidence data provide the foundation for a better assessment for the Northern Gulf of Mexico. The areas along the Northern Gulf of Mexico that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are parts of the Louisiana Chenier Plain, Teche-Vermillion Basin, and the Mississippi barrier islands, as well as most of the Terrebonne and Barataria Bay region and the Chandeleur Islands. These very high vulnerability areas have the highest rates of relative sea-level rise and the highest rates of shoreline change or land area loss. The information provided by coastal vulnerability assessments can be used in long-term coastal management and policy decision making.

  10. Coastal erosion vs riverline sediment discharge in the Arctic shelfx seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rachold, V.; Grigoriev, M.N.; Are, F.E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Reimnitz, E.; Kassens, H.; Antonow, M.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a comparison of sediment input by rivers and by coastal erosion into both the Laptev Sea and the Canadian Beaufort Sea (CBS). New data on coastal erosion in the Laptev Sea, which are based on field measurements and remote sensing information and existing data on coastal erosion in the CBS as well as riverine sediment discharge into both the Laptev Sea and the CBS are included. Strong regional differences in the percentages of coastal ero- sion and riverine sediment supply are observed. The CBS is dominated by the riverine sediment discharge (64.45x106 t a-1) mainly of the Mackenzie River. which is the largest single source of sediments in the Arctic. Riverine sediment discharge into the Laptev Sea amounts to 24.10x106 t a-1, more than 70% of which are related to the Lena River. In comparison with the CBS. the Laptev Sea coast on average delivers approximately twice as much sediment mass per kilometer, a result of higher erosion rates due to higher cliffs and seasonal ice melting. In the Laptev Sea sediment input by coastal erosion (58.4x106 t a-1) is therefore more important than in the CBS and the ratio between riverine and coastal sediment input amounts to 0.4. Coastal erosion supplying 5.6x106 t a-1 is less significant for the sediment budget of the CBS where riverine sediment discharge exceeds coastal sediment input by a factor of ca. 10.

  11. Regional Sea Level Variation: California Coastal Subsidence (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, G.; Hammond, W. C.; Nerem, R.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite altimetry over the last two decades has measured variations in geocentric sea level (GSL), relative to the Earth system center of mass, providing valuable data to test models of physical oceanography and the effects of global climate change. The societal impacts of sea level change however relate to variations in local sea level (LSL), relative to the land at the coast. Therefore, assessing the impacts of sea level change requires coastal measurements of vertical land motion (VLM). Indeed, ΔLSL = ΔGSL - ΔVLM, with subsidence mapping 1:1 into LSL. Measurements of secular coastal VLM also allow tide-gauge data to test models of GSL over the last century in some locations, which cannot be provided by satellite data. Here we use GPS geodetic data within 15 km of the US west coast to infer regional, secular VLM. A total of 89 GPS stations met the criteria that time series span >4.5 yr, and do not have obvious non-linear variation, as may be caused by local instability. VLM rates for the GPS stations are derived in the secular reference frame ITRF2008, which aligns with the Earth system center of mass to ×0.5 mm/yr. We find that regional VLM has different behavior north and south of the Mendocino Triple Junction (MTJ). The California coast has a coherent regional pattern of subsidence averaging 0.5 mm/yr, with an increasing trend to the north. This trend generally matches GIA model predictions. Around San Francisco Bay, the observed coastal subsidence of 1.0 mm/yr coherently decreases moving away from the Pacific Ocean to very small subsidence on the east shores of the bay. This gradient is likely caused by San Andreas-Hayward Fault tectonics, and possibly by differential surface loading across the bay and Sacramento-San Joachim River Delta. Thus in addition to the trend in subsidence from GIA going northward along the California coast, tectonics may also play a role where the plate boundary fault system approaches the coast. In contrast, we find that VLM

  12. Subsurface geology of upper Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, coastal Louisiana and adjacent Continental Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlan, E. Jr.; Leroy, D.O.

    1988-09-01

    Upper Tertiary and Quaternary deposits thicken seaward from a feather edge on the outcrop in the uplands of southern Louisiana to more than 7000 ft (2134 m) beneath the middle continental shelf. Through a study of cores and cuttings from 100 control wells and electric-log pattern correlations from 350 water and petroleum industry wells with seismic corroboration in the offshore area, these deposits have been divided into six major time-stratigraphic units, four of which correlate to outcropping terraces. This investigation presents a regional stratigraphic framework of the major upper Tertiary and Quaternary units from their updip pinch-outs in and beneath the terraced uplands, into the subsurface, across the coastal plain to the Louisiana offshore area.

  13. Copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms from the Java Sea and estuarine and coastal areas around East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everaarts, J. M.; Boon, J. P.; Kastoro, W.; Fischer, C. V.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.

    A study was made of the concentrations of copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms, representing the phyla Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, from the riverine and estuarine areas of the rivers Brantas and Solo (East Java) and the adjacent coastal area. Moreover, an assessment was made of the contamination of the benthic biota with these elements in the Java Sea and Bali Sea. Benthic organisms show a species-specific uptake pattern for each element. Compared to the same type of animals from estuaries and coastal areas in temperate regions of western Europe, the concentrations of cadmium are considerably higher, while copper and zinc concentrations are somewhat lower. There is no general trend in concentration levels of the metals in specimens from rivers, estuaries, coastal zone and open sea. In some groups of organisms ( e.g. shrimp, starfish) the concentrations of copper and zinc are highest in specimens from rivers and estuaries. In contrast, cadmium concentration levels in e.g. crab, shrimp and squid are lowest in riverine and estuarine areas. Significant differences in metal concentrations in these organisms were found between the dry monsoon period (July, August) and the beginning of the wet monsoon (November, December). No relationship existed between the metal concentration of the organisms and the silt fraction of the sediment (grain size < 63 μm) or the bulk sediment.

  14. A benchmark-multi-disciplinary study of the interaction between the Chesapeake Bay and adjacent waters of the Virginian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargis, W. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The social and economic importance of estuaries are discussed. Major focus is on the Chesapeake Bay and its interaction with the adjacent waters of the Virginia Sea. Associated multiple use development and management problems as well as their internal physical, geological, chemical, and biological complexities are described.

  15. Microbial water quality before and after the repair of a failing onsite wastewater treatment system adjacent to coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Habteselassie, M.Y.; Denene, Blackwood A.; Noble, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The objective was to assess the impacts of repairing a failing onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS, i.e., septic system) as related to coastal microbial water quality. Methods and Results: Wastewater, groundwater and surface water were monitored for environmental parameters, faecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and the viral tracer MS2 before and after repairing a failing OWTS. MS2 results using plaque enumeration and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) often agreed, but inhibition limited the qRT-PCR assay sensitivity. Prerepair, MS2 persisted in groundwater and was detected in the nearby creek; postrepair, it was not detected. In groundwater, total coliform concentrations were lower and E.??coli was not detected, while enterococci concentrations were similar to prerepair levels. E.??coli and enterococci surface water concentrations were elevated both before and after the repair. Conclusions: Repairing the failing OWTS improved groundwater microbial water quality, although persistence of bacteria in surface water suggests that the OWTS was not the singular faecal contributor to adjacent coastal waters. A suite of tracers is needed to fully assess OWTS performance in treating microbial contaminants and related impacts on receiving waters. Molecular methods like qRT-PCR have potential but require optimization. Significance and Impact of Study: This is the first before and after study of a failing OWTS and provides guidance on selection of microbial tracers and methods. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology ?? 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Radioactive waste disposal in seas adjacent to the territory of the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Yablokov, A V

    2001-01-01

    The former USSR illegally dumped into the ocean liquid and solid radioactive wastes (RW) originating from nuclear-powered vessels and ships. The Russian President created a special Commission to analyse both the scale and consequences of this activity. According to documentary data and expert estimates at the Commission's disposal, the maximum activity of RW that entered the seas adjacent to Russian territory could have been as much as 2,500 kCi at the time of disposal. The greatest radio-ecological hazard comes from reactors from nuclear submarines and core plates of the nuclear icebreaker 'Lenin', which had spent nuclear fuel in place and which were dumped in shallow water in the Kara Sea near Novaya Zemlya. Editor's note: This article extracts material from a Commission which published a report produced in Russia in 1993. Numerous sources in many Ministries and other government agencies, noted in the text, formed the basis for the final draft. The authors of the draft report were A. Yablokov, V. Karasev, V. Rumyantsev, M. Kokeev, O. Petrov, V. Lystsov, A. Yemelyanenkov and P. Rubtsov. After approving the draft report, the Commission submitted the report to the President of the Russian Federation in February 1993. By Presidential decision, this report (after several technical corrections) was open to the public: it is known variously as 'the Yablokov Commission report, or more simply the 'Yablokov Report', the 'White Book' or 'Yablokov White Paper'. During April-May 1993, 500 copies were distributed among governmental agencies inside Russia, and abroad through a net of Russian Embassies. This article was later sent to Dr Mike Champ as part of the ongoing collections of papers on the Arctic published in this journal (edited by Champ et al.: 1997 'Contaminants in the Arctic', Marine Pollution Bulletin 35, pp. 203-385 and in Marine Pollution Bulletin 2000, vol. 40, pp. 801-868, and continued with the present collection).

  17. Radioactive waste disposal in seas adjacent to the territory of the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Yablokov, A V

    2001-01-01

    The former USSR illegally dumped into the ocean liquid and solid radioactive wastes (RW) originating from nuclear-powered vessels and ships. The Russian President created a special Commission to analyse both the scale and consequences of this activity. According to documentary data and expert estimates at the Commission's disposal, the maximum activity of RW that entered the seas adjacent to Russian territory could have been as much as 2,500 kCi at the time of disposal. The greatest radio-ecological hazard comes from reactors from nuclear submarines and core plates of the nuclear icebreaker 'Lenin', which had spent nuclear fuel in place and which were dumped in shallow water in the Kara Sea near Novaya Zemlya. Editor's note: This article extracts material from a Commission which published a report produced in Russia in 1993. Numerous sources in many Ministries and other government agencies, noted in the text, formed the basis for the final draft. The authors of the draft report were A. Yablokov, V. Karasev, V. Rumyantsev, M. Kokeev, O. Petrov, V. Lystsov, A. Yemelyanenkov and P. Rubtsov. After approving the draft report, the Commission submitted the report to the President of the Russian Federation in February 1993. By Presidential decision, this report (after several technical corrections) was open to the public: it is known variously as 'the Yablokov Commission report, or more simply the 'Yablokov Report', the 'White Book' or 'Yablokov White Paper'. During April-May 1993, 500 copies were distributed among governmental agencies inside Russia, and abroad through a net of Russian Embassies. This article was later sent to Dr Mike Champ as part of the ongoing collections of papers on the Arctic published in this journal (edited by Champ et al.: 1997 'Contaminants in the Arctic', Marine Pollution Bulletin 35, pp. 203-385 and in Marine Pollution Bulletin 2000, vol. 40, pp. 801-868, and continued with the present collection). PMID:11601536

  18. HCH and DDT in sediments from marine and adjacent riverine areas of North Bohai Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenyou; Wang, Tieyu; Khim, Jong Seong; Luo, Wei; Jiao, Wentao; Lu, Yonglong; Naile, Jonathan E; Chen, Chunli; Zhang, Xiang; Giesy, John P

    2010-07-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and their environmental risks in surface sediments collected from marine and adjacent riverine/estuarine areas in the northern Bohai Sea, China, were investigated. Concentrations of SigmaHCH and SigmaDDT in sediments ranged from below detection (Sea, China were lower than suggested SQGs in general, their concentrations in some locations were close to or above the SQGs for adverse effects in benthic organisms and, thus, remain a cause for concern.

  19. SEA-ICE INFLUENCE ON ARCTIC COASTAL RETREAT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, Erk; Barnes, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies document the effectiveness of sea ice in reshaping the seafloor of the inner shelf into sharp-relief features, including ice gouges with jagged flanking ridges, ice-wallow relief, and 2- to 6-m-deep strudel-scour craters. These ice-related relief forms are in disequilibrium with classic open-water hydraulic processes and thus are smoothed over by waves and currents in one to two years. Such alternate reworking of the shelf by ice and currents - two diverse types of processes, which in the case of ice wallow act in unison-contributes to sediment mobility and, thus, to sediment loss from the coast and inner shelf. The bulldozing action by ice results in coast-parallel sediment displacement. Additionally, suspension of sediment by frazil and anchor ice, followed by ice rafting, can move large amounts of bottom-derived materials. Our understanding of all these processes is insufficient to model Arctic coastal processes.

  20. Climatology of the oceanography in the northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) and adjacent waters: Observations from satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X.; Wong, G. T.; Tai, J.; Ho, T.

    2013-12-01

    By using the observations from multiple satellite sensors, the climatology of the oceanography, including the surface wind vector, sea surface temperature (SST), surface chlorophyll a concentration (Chl_a), and vertically integrated net primary production (PPeu), in the northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) and adjacent waters is evaluated. Regional and sub-regional mechanisms in driving the coastal processes, which influence the spatial and temporal distributional patterns in water component, are assessed. Seasonal vertical convective mixing by wind and surface heating/cooling is the primary force in driving the annual changes in SST and Chl_a in the open South China Sea (SCS), in which highly negative correlation coefficients between Chl_a and SST and moderately positive correlation coefficients between Chl_a and wind speed are found. Together, the seasonal variations in SST and wind speed account for about 80% of the seasonal variation in Chl_a. In the NoSoCS as a whole, however, the contribution is reduced to about 40%, primarily due to the effect of the Pearl River plume. A tongue of water extending eastward from the mouth of the River into the middle shelf with positive correlation coefficients between Chl_a and SST and around zero or slightly negative correlation coefficients between Chl_a and wind is the most striking feature in the NoSoCS. The westward and eastward propagations of the Pearl River plume are both very small during the northeast monsoonal season, driven primarily by the Coriolis effect. The abrupt increase in the areal coverage of the River plume, which is much more pronounced in the eastward propagation, between June and August can be attributed to the prevailing southwest monsoon as well as the annual peak of the river flow. Coastal upwelling is another sub-regional phenomenon in the NoSoCS. The upwelling at the shelf edge off the Taiwan Bank may be characterized by its elevated Chl_a. Its areal coverage and average Chl_a do not vary

  1. Radium Isotope Ratios as Tracers for Estimating the Influence of Changjiang Outflow Water to the Adjacent Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, S.

    2006-12-01

    In order to understand the influence of Changjiang (Yangtze River) outflow water to the adjacent seas during rainy and draught seasons, we studied the origin and mixing of surface water masses in the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea. We used Ra-228/Ra-226 activity ratio and salinity as two conservative tracers in three end-members: Changjiang water (CW); Yellow Sea water (YSW); and Kuroshio water (KW). Radium isotopes in each 300-liter of surface water samples were extracted by passing through manganese-fiber cartridges, dissolved in hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution, coprecipitated as barium sulfate, dried and measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Results show that surface water of the East China Sea includes all three end-member waters during the rainy season, in the order of KW (50-80%), YSW (20-50%) and CW (5-15%). Surface water of the South Sea of Korea, however, includes a little fraction of, or almost no, CW in drought season. These are the preliminary results from an ongoing 6-year project ending in 2009 which aims to predict the influence of heavily polluted Changjiang outflow water to the adjacent seas after the completion of the gigantic Three Gorges (Sanxia) Dam.

  2. Mid Pliocene sea levels along the southeast US coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Hearty, P. J.; Raymo, M. E.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Inglis, J.

    2012-12-01

    Proxy data suggest that during the Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP) atmospheric CO2 levels were roughly similar to today (between 350 and 450 ppmv) and that global average temperature was elevated by as much as 3°C with respect to preindustrial values. Estimates of sea level (SL) during the MPWP range from +10 m to >+40 m relative to present, reflecting uncertainties in our knowledge of the sensitivity to modest climate warming of the East Antarctic, West Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets. A primary objective of the PLIOMAX project (www.pliomax.org) is to combine models of paleosea-level signals with geological observations to significantly improve constraints on eustatic sea level during the MPWP. In this regard, the southeast US coastal plain is of strategic importance in MPWP sea level studies (Dowsett and Cronin, Geology, 1990). In fact, it is one of the few places where predicted glacio-isostatic effects are expected to exhibit a significant geographic variation (in this case, north-to-south). The coastal plain may also be influenced by dynamic topography driven by mantle convective flow. In this area, two factors drive the up-to-the-west dynamic tilting of the coast. The first is the descent of the Farallon slab, now located under the mid-part of the North American continent. The other is upwelling return flow under the east coast (Moucha et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2008). That is, over the last few million years, dynamic topography is responsible for potentially tens of meters of uplift (sea-level fall) of the Pliocene shoreline along the southeast US coastal plain. We have mapped an almost continuous MPWP shoreline cut into Miocene and older formations. However, as a result of multiple inter-state investigations extending over the last century, both the geomorphic escarpment and the associated deposits have been named differently across the region. In Virginia, the Chippenham Thornburg scarp is associated with the Moore House formation; in North and

  3. Assessment of dissolved heavy metal in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent sea, China.

    PubMed

    An, Qiang; Wu, Yanqing; Wang, Jinhui; Li, Zhien

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the concentrations of dissolved heavy metals namely mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu) and to investigate the relationships between nutrients (nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate) and dissolved heavy metals. For this purpose, the concentrations of dissolved heavy metals were measured through 51 voyages form 1984 to 2006 in the Yangtze river estuary and its adjacent sea. Results analysis showed that dissolved heavy metals were not the main pollutants in the Yangtze river estuary, and the main source of heavy metal contamination was industrial wastewater from terrestrial pollution during the past 20 years. Heavy metal values showed significant abundance in the south branch of the Yangtze River estuary and Hangzhou Bay. In addition, Pb showed negative correlation with nutrients, while the positive correlations between Hg, Cd, and nutrients were shown. The obtained molar ratios, DeltaCd/DeltaN = 1.68 x 10(-5) and DeltaCd/DeltaP = 1.66 x 10(-4), are close to those in plankton, showing the biogeochemical behavior and process of dissolved cadmium.

  4. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this document, the first three years of a time series of bio-optical marine and atmospheric measurements are presented and analyzed. These measurements were performed from an oceanographic tower in the northern Adriatic Sea within the framework of the Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) project, an ocean color calibration and validation activity. The data set collected includes spectral measurements of the in-water apparent (diffuse attenuation coefficient, reflectance, Q-factor, etc.) and inherent (absorption and scattering coefficients) optical properties, as well as the concentrations of the main optical components (pigment and suspended matter concentrations). Clear seasonal patterns are exhibited by the marine quantities on which an appreciable short-term variability (on the order of a half day to one day) is superimposed. This short-term variability is well correlated with the changes in salinity at the surface resulting from the southward transport of freshwater coming from the northern rivers. Concentrations of chlorophyll alpha and total suspended matter span more than two orders of magnitude. The bio-optical characteristics of the measurement site pertain to both Case-I (about 64%) and Case-II (about 36%) waters, based on a relationship between the beam attenuation coefficient at 660nm and the chlorophyll alpha concentration. Empirical algorithms relating in-water remote sensing reflectance ratios and optical components or properties of interest (chlorophyll alpha, total suspended matter, and the diffuse attenuation coefficient) are presented.

  5. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; Alberotanza, Luigi; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) Project aimed at supporting ocean color research and applications, from 1995 up to the time of publication of this document, has ensured the collection of a comprehensive atmospheric and marine data set from an oceanographic tower located in the northern Adriatic Sea. The instruments and the measurement methodologies used to gather quantities relevant for bio-optical modeling and for the calibration and validation of ocean color sensors, are described. Particular emphasis is placed on four items: (1) the evaluation of perturbation effects in radiometric data (i.e., tower-shading, instrument self-shading, and bottom effects); (2) the intercomparison of seawater absorption coefficients from in situ measurements and from laboratory spectrometric analysis on discrete samples; (3) the intercomparison of two filter techniques for in vivo measurement of particulate absorption coefficients; and (4) the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility of the most relevant laboratory measurements carried out on seawater samples (i.e., particulate and yellow substance absorption coefficients, and pigment and total suspended matter concentrations). Sample data are also presented and discussed to illustrate the typical features characterizing the CoASTS measurement site in view of supporting the suitability of the CoASTS data set for bio-optical modeling and ocean color calibration and validation.

  6. Fine Resolution Termohaline Structure Of The Yuctatan Coastal Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez-Ortiz, C.; Capurro, L.; Euan-Avila, J.

    2007-05-01

    In the Yucatan peninsula there are a variety processes that drastically affect the thermohaline structure of the coastal seas. Some of these include hyperhaline lagoons that export salt to the ocean, upwelling events that propagate to the coast, persistent submarine groundwater discharges, and very high evaporation rates caused by the intense solar radiation. On July 2006 a fine resolution oceanographic campaign was performed on the Yucatan coast to study the detailed structure of thermohaline processes and currents from the shore to the 10 m isobath. A total of sixty nine transects that cover the entire northern stretch of the Yucatan coast were made. The transects extend seven kilometers in the offshore direction and have an alongshore spacing of 5 km. The temperature and salinity characteristics of the water column were monitored with a SEABIRD SBE 19 CTD performing profiles every 500 m along each transect. Ocean currents were measures along the same transect using a 1.5 MHz Acoustic Doppler Profiler (Sontek). The results clearly show the effects of coastal lagoons on the adjoining sea, with net salt export associated with hyperhaline lagoons (e.g. Ria Lagartos) or more estuarine influence of lagoons such as Celestun, where groundwater discharges play the role of rivers on the estuary. An assessment of this influence on the coastal ocean will be presented. It is well known the meteor impact at the end of the Cretacic era at Chicxulub, Yucatan, generated a crater with multiple rings which is evident from horizontal gravity gradients of the Yucatan mainland, and that associated with the outer ring there is a high concentration of cenotes (sinkholes) (Pope et al. 1991; Hildebrand, et al. 1995). It has also been shown that groundwater flows along this cenote ring towards the ocean, and the zones where the ring intersects the coast (Celestun and Dzilam Bravo) have impressive geologic features known as `submarine water springs' where freshwater springs as a fountain

  7. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic variations between adjacent drips in three caves at increasing elevation in a temperate coastal rainforest, Vancouver Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddows, Patricia A.; Mandić, Magda; Ford, Derek C.; Schwarcz, Henry P.

    2016-01-01

    The interpretation of speleothem paleoenvironmental records requires understanding of spatial-temporal variations in vadose drip water chemistry and isotopic composition. This study reports on intra- and inter-cave differences in δD, δ18O and electrical conductivity, using 18 monthly water samples from three adjacent drips (<20 m apart) in each of three caves at increasing elevation (0, 550, and 740 m ASL) on very steep ground at the head of Tahsis Inlet fjord on the Pacific coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. All drips showed isotopic seasonal signals, despite varied patterns of drip hydrology. There was overlap in isotopic ranges (at 1 SD) between all three caves, in contrast with the expected δ18O depletion of -0.15 to -0.5‰/100 m of ascent observed in standard precipitation. The isotopic seasonality was approximated with sine curves, and compared to a GNIP data set from Victoria ∼300 km to the south. The δD and δ18O drip isotopes lagged the Victoria record by 155 ± 26 days and 165 ± 50 days respectively. The longest lag was at the slowest drip (sea level), while the shortest lag (87 days for δ18O, 550 m ASL) implies a short residence time, paradoxically from the drip with the highest mean electrical conductivity. Vadose residence time was less than one climatic year, reflecting a combination of negligible matrix porosity in the host rock and super-humid climatic conditions. Beneath the epikarst, drip hydrology was evidently by simple piston flow. Phase-shifted drip isotope records showed excellent agreement with sea level mean monthly air temperatures at the Tahsis meteorological station over the study period. The δD and δ18O drip amplitudes were damped on average 74% and 73% respectively compared to the Victoria data. The drips at 740 m ASL are tightly aligned to the global mean meteoric water line (GMWL) and 18O-depleted; the drips at 550 m ASL and at sea level plot along the GMWL, or between it and the Victoria LMWL, with the exception

  8. Implementation and validation of a coastal forecasting system for wind waves in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inghilesi, R.; Catini, F.; Bellotti, G.; Franco, L.; Orasi, A.; Corsini, S.

    2012-02-01

    A coastal forecasting system was implemented to provide wind wave forecasts over the whole Mediterranean Sea area, and with the added capability to focus on selected coastal areas. The goal of the system was to achieve a representation of the small-scale coastal processes influencing the propagation of waves towards the coasts. The system was based on a chain of nested wave models and adopted the WAve Model (WAM) to analyse the large-scale, deep-sea propagation of waves; and the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) to simulate waves in key coastal areas. Regional intermediate-scale WAM grids were introduced to bridge the gap between the large-scale and each coastal area. Even applying two consecutive nestings (Mediterranean grid → regional grid → coastal grid), a very high resolution was still required for the large scale WAM implementation in order to get a final resolution of about 400 m on the shores. In this study three regional areas in the Tyrrhenian Sea were selected, with a single coastal area embedded in each of them. The number of regional and coastal grids in the system could easily be modified without significantly affecting the efficiency of the system. The coastal system was tested in three Italian coastal regions in order to optimize the numerical parameters and to check the results in orographically complex zones for which wave records were available. Fifteen storm events in the period 2004-2009 were considered.

  9. Analytical model of sea level elevation during a storm: Support for coastal flood risk assessment associated with cyclone passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, Natan Zambroni; Calliari, Lauro Julio; Nicolodi, João Luiz

    2016-08-01

    Sea level oscillations are a result of continuous astronomic, oceanographic, and atmospheric interactions on different time and intensity scales. Thus, the collective action of forcing factors such as tide, wind, atmospheric pressure, and wave action may lead to elevated sea levels during cyclone events over the continental shelf, abruptly impacting adjacent coasts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential risks of sea level rise and coastal flooding associated with the passage of cyclones in southern Brazil. An analytical model was developed based on extreme storm events from 1997 to 2008. The model identifies the impact of each forcing factor during temporary sea level rise. Through the development of a digital terrain model, it was possible to identify the areas most vulnerable to flooding by superimposing the terrain model onto calculated sea levels. During storm events, sea level elevations ranged from 2 to 5 m and show wind as the major forcing factor, followed by swells waves, astronomical tide and finally atmospheric pressure.

  10. Structure of phytoplankton communities in the Yenisei estuary and over the adjacent Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhanova, I. N.; Flint, M. V.; Sergeeva, V. M.; Druzhkova, E. I.; Nedospasov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Material was collected in the Yenisei estuary and over the adjacent Kara Sea shelf at a quasimeridional transect from 71°49'70″ to 75°59'93″ N in September 2011. The structural characteristics of the phytoplankton community were determined by latitudinal zonality of environmental conditions. Two well-distinguished phytocenoses—freshwater and marine—were found in this region. Phytoplankton in the freshwater part of the estuary was composed solely of the freshwater algae species and was distinguished by the highest numbers (up to 2 × 106 cell/L) and biomass (up to 1.4 mg/L). The marine phytocenoses over the Yenisei shoal was composed of marine neritic species; the abundance and biomass of phytoplankton in this area were significantly lower (0.2 × 106 cell/L and 0.4 mg/L, respectively). The area of intensive interaction of riverine and marine waters—the estuarine frontal zone, with ~130 km latitudinal extension (from 72° to 74° N)—was characterized by a sharp halocline, which separated the desalinated upper layer from the underlying marine water. Freshwater algal species predominated above the halocline, whereas marine species predominated below. The lower border of the euphotic layer was located 8 to 15 m below the halocline. The niche between the halocline and the lower border of the euphotic layer was characterized by high nutrient concentrations, which together with sufficient illumination determined the intensive development of phytoplankton and high values of primary production.

  11. Fluorescent whitening agents in Tokyo Bay and adjacent rivers: their application as anthropogenic molecular markers in coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuko; Managaki, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige

    2002-08-15

    Two kinds of stilbene-type fluorescent whitening agents (i.e., DSBP and DAS1), minor components of laundry detergents, were analyzed in surface waters of Tokyo Bay and adjacent rivers and in sewage effluents to examine their usefulness as molecular markers in the marine environment. Sensitive determination using HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) with fluorescence detection with postcolumn UV radiator was employed. DSBP and DAS1 were found in Tokyo rivers at concentrations of a few microg/L and approximately 1 microg/L, respectively. DSBP and DAS1 were widely distributed in Tokyo Bay waters at concentrations in the range of 0.019-0.264 microg/L and 0.021-0.127 microg/L, respectively. Comparison of these concentrations with those in sewage effluents (DSBP: 8 microg/L and DAS1: 2.5 microg/L on average) yielded sewage dilutions in Tokyo Bay on the order of 10(2). FWAs-salinity diagram in the Tamagawa Estuary showed fairly conservative behaviors of the FWAs with approximately 20% and approximately 10% removal of DSBP and DAS1, respectively. This is thought to be caused by photodegradation. The persistent nature of FWAs and their widespread distribution in coastal environments demonstrates the utility of FWAs in tracing the behavior of water from rivers and sewage outfalls. The DSBP/DAS1 ratio showed a decreasing trend from sewage effluents, to rivers, to Tokyo Bay, indicating selective photodegradation of DSBP. The DSBP/DAS1 ratio is proposed as an index of the degree of photodegradation and residence time and freshness of water mass in coastal environments.

  12. Human health-related ecosystem services of avian-dense coastal wetlands adjacent to a Western Lake Erie swimming beach.

    PubMed

    Rea, Chris L; Bisesi, Michael S; Mitsch, William; Andridge, Rebecca; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-03-01

    Wetlands provide many valuable ecosystem services, including water quality improvement to protect downstream aquatic ecosystems such as lakes, rivers, and estuaries. However, their ability to improve water quality to safe levels for direct human exposure while largely surrounded by agricultural lands and hosting large wildlife populations remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the ecosystem service capabilities of an avian-dense coastal wetland surrounded by agricultural lands along the southwestern shore of Lake Erie in Ohio by assessing the quality of water as it flows through the wetland (Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge (ONWR)) and into Lake Erie beach waters. Our study used total phosphorus and fecal indicator (Escherichia coli) concentrations as water quality metrics across the wetland and at an adjacent Lake Erie swimming beach during the 2012 summer swim season. E. coli and total P levels were consistently highest at the site, where water enters the ONWR (mean E. coli = 507 CFU/100 mL; mean total P = 535 μg/L), and steadily decreased as water flowed through the wetland and into the adjacent beach (mean E. coli = 10 CFU/100 mL; mean total P = 41 μg/L). E. coli and total P showed statistically significant (α = 0.01) correlations with phycocyanin, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and pH; total P was also significantly correlated with total N. The results suggest that this wetland may be contributing to improving water quality, which is beneficial for human health as well as to downstream ecosystem health (e.g., limiting eutrophication promoting conditions, etc.). PMID:25582638

  13. Human health-related ecosystem services of avian-dense coastal wetlands adjacent to a Western Lake Erie swimming beach.

    PubMed

    Rea, Chris L; Bisesi, Michael S; Mitsch, William; Andridge, Rebecca; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-03-01

    Wetlands provide many valuable ecosystem services, including water quality improvement to protect downstream aquatic ecosystems such as lakes, rivers, and estuaries. However, their ability to improve water quality to safe levels for direct human exposure while largely surrounded by agricultural lands and hosting large wildlife populations remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the ecosystem service capabilities of an avian-dense coastal wetland surrounded by agricultural lands along the southwestern shore of Lake Erie in Ohio by assessing the quality of water as it flows through the wetland (Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge (ONWR)) and into Lake Erie beach waters. Our study used total phosphorus and fecal indicator (Escherichia coli) concentrations as water quality metrics across the wetland and at an adjacent Lake Erie swimming beach during the 2012 summer swim season. E. coli and total P levels were consistently highest at the site, where water enters the ONWR (mean E. coli = 507 CFU/100 mL; mean total P = 535 μg/L), and steadily decreased as water flowed through the wetland and into the adjacent beach (mean E. coli = 10 CFU/100 mL; mean total P = 41 μg/L). E. coli and total P showed statistically significant (α = 0.01) correlations with phycocyanin, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and pH; total P was also significantly correlated with total N. The results suggest that this wetland may be contributing to improving water quality, which is beneficial for human health as well as to downstream ecosystem health (e.g., limiting eutrophication promoting conditions, etc.).

  14. [Vulnerability assessment on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary under sea-level rise].

    PubMed

    Cui, Li-Fang; Wang, Ning; Ge, Zhen-Ming; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2014-02-01

    To study the response of coastal wetlands to climate change, assess the impacts of climate change on the coastal wetlands and formulate feasible and practical mitigation strategies are the important prerequisite for securing coastal ecosystems. In this paper, the possible impacts of sea level rise caused by climate change on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary were analyzed by the Source-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) model and IPCC definition on the vulnerability. An indicator system for vulnerability assessment was established, in which sea-level rise rate, subsidence rate, habitat elevation, inundation threshold of habitat and sedimentation rate were selected as the key indicators. A quantitatively spatial assessment method based on the GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability index for the assessment of coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary under the scenarios of sea-level rise. The vulnerability assessments on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary in 2030 and 2050 were performed under two sea-level rise scenarios (the present sea-level rise trend over recent 30 years and IPCC A1F1 scenario). The results showed that with the projection in 2030 under the present trend of sea-level rise (0.26 cm x a(-1)), 6.6% and 0.1% of the coastal wetlands were in the low and moderate vulnerabilities, respectively; and in 2050, 9.8% and 0.2% of the coastal wetlands were in low and moderate vulnerabilities, respectively. With the projection in 2030 under the A1F1 scenario (0.59 cm x a(-1)), 9.0% and 0.1% of the coastal wetlands were in the low and moderate vulnerabilities, respectively; and in 2050, 9.5%, 1.0% and 0.3% of the coastal wetlands were in the low, moderate and high vulnerabilities, respectively.

  15. Delayed Postglacial Uplift and Synglacial Sea Levels in Coastal Central New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koteff, C.; Robinson, G.R.; Goldsmith, R.; Thompson, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    The postglacial uplift pattern indicated by elevations of ice-marginal glaciomarine deltas in coastal New England, deposited between approximately 15,000 and 14,000 yr B.P. during ice retreat from northeastern Massachusetts into southwestern Maine, is very similar to that previously recorded for glaciolacustrine deltas of similar age from inland areas of New England. Multiple regression analyses of elevations from both sets of deltas show an extremely close fit to tilted flat surfaces that rise 0.852 m/km to the N 28.5??W along the coast and 0.889 m/km to the N 20.5??W in western New England. The close similarity of uplift pattern in areas where elevation data are from different base-level media, along with additional shore-line evidence, indicates (1) that both areas are part of the same crustal postglacial uplift block, (2) that postglacial uplift was delayed until after 14,000 yr B.P., and (3) that little or no eustatic sea-level change occurred between 15,000 and 14,000 yr B.P., during which time the margin of the late Wisconsinan Laurentide ice sheet retreated about 100 km from Boston, Massachusetts, into southwestern Maine. Elevation data from even younger glaciomarine deltas in the coastal area indicate that soon after the ice margin reached southwestern Maine and adjacent New Hampshire (ca, 14,000 yr B.P.), eustatic sea level rose rapidly 7-10 m during the time that the ice margin retreated 5-10 km, which may have occurred during an interval of only 50-100 yr, Our new data not only confirm the delayed postglacial uplift model previously described for western New England, but also indicate that little or no eustatic sea-level change occurred during a substantial period of early deglaciation. However, at about 14,000 yr B.P., sea level rose rapidly. Postglacial uplift in the region apparently began between 14,000 and 13,300 yr B.P., before the retreating ice margin reached eastern Maine.

  16. Evaluation of ground-water contribution to streamflow in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Priest, Sherlyn

    2004-01-01

    Stream-aquifer relations in the coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of Florida and South Carolina were evaluated as part of the Coastal Georgia Sound Science Initiative, the Georgia Environmental Protection Division's strategy to protect the Upper Floridan aquifer from saltwater intrusion. Ground-water discharge to streams was estimated using three methods: hydrograph separation, drought-streamflow measurements, and linear-regression analysis of streamflow duration. Ground-water discharge during the drought years of 1954, 1981, and 2000 was analyzed for minimum ground-water contribution to streamflow. Hydrograph separation was used to estimate baseflow at eight streamflow gaging stations during the 31-year period 1971?2001. Six additional streamflow gaging stations were evaluated using linear-regression analysis of flow duration to determine mean annual baseflow. The study area centers on three major river systems ? the Salkehatchie?Savannah?Ogeechee, Altamaha?Satilla?St Marys, and Suwannee ? that interact with the underlying ground-water system to varying degrees, largely based on the degree of incision of the river into the aquifer and on the topography. Results presented in this report are being used to calibrate a regional ground-water flow model to evaluate ground-water flow and stream-aquifer relations of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Hydrograph separation indicated decreased baseflow to streams during drought periods as water levels declined in the aquifer. Average mean annual baseflow ranged from 39 to 74 percent of mean annual streamflow, with a mean contribution of 58 percent for the period 1971?2001. In a wet year (1997), baseflow composed from 33 to 70 percent of mean annual streamflow. Drought-streamflow analysis estimated baseflow contribution to streamflow ranged from 0 to 24 percent of mean annual streamflow. Linear-regression analysis of streamflow duration estimated the Q35 (flow that is equaled or exceeded 35 percent of the time) as the most

  17. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  18. Future Coastal Population Growth and Exposure to Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Flooding - A Global Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  19. Future coastal population growth and exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding--a global assessment.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Barbara; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Zimmermann, Juliane; Nicholls, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Coastal zones are exposed to a range of coastal hazards including sea-level rise with its related effects. At the same time, they are more densely populated than the hinterland and exhibit higher rates of population growth and urbanisation. As this trend is expected to continue into the future, we investigate how coastal populations will be affected by such impacts at global and regional scales by the years 2030 and 2060. Starting from baseline population estimates for the year 2000, we assess future population change in the low-elevation coastal zone and trends in exposure to 100-year coastal floods based on four different sea-level and socio-economic scenarios. Our method accounts for differential growth of coastal areas against the land-locked hinterland and for trends of urbanisation and expansive urban growth, as currently observed, but does not explicitly consider possible displacement or out-migration due to factors such as sea-level rise. We combine spatially explicit estimates of the baseline population with demographic data in order to derive scenario-driven projections of coastal population development. Our scenarios show that the number of people living in the low-elevation coastal zone, as well as the number of people exposed to flooding from 1-in-100 year storm surge events, is highest in Asia. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Viet Nam are estimated to have the highest total coastal population exposure in the baseline year and this ranking is expected to remain largely unchanged in the future. However, Africa is expected to experience the highest rates of population growth and urbanisation in the coastal zone, particularly in Egypt and sub-Saharan countries in Western and Eastern Africa. The results highlight countries and regions with a high degree of exposure to coastal flooding and help identifying regions where policies and adaptive planning for building resilient coastal communities are not only desirable but essential. Furthermore, we

  20. Modeling the rate and style of Arctic coastal retreat along the Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, K. R.; Anderson, R. S.; Overeem, I.; Wobus, C. W.; Clow, G. D.; Urban, F. E.; Lewinter, A. L.; Stanton, T. P.

    2011-12-01

    In Arctic landscapes, modern surface warming has significantly altered geomorphic process rates. Along the Beaufort Sea coastline bounding Alaska's North Slope, the mean annual coastal erosion rate has doubled from ~7 m/yr for 1955-1979 to ~14 m/yr for 2002-2007. Locally the erosion rate reaches 30 m/yr. A robust understanding of the processes that govern the rate of erosion is required in order to predict the response of the coast and its adjacent landscape to a rapidly changing climate, with implications for sediment and carbon fluxes, oilfield infrastructure, and animal habitat. On the Beaufort Sea coast, bluffs in regions of ice-rich silt-dominated permafrost are abundant. This type of coast is vulnerable to rapid erosion due to its high ice content and the small grain size of bluff sediment. The bluff material at our study site near Drew Point is 64% ice, making the bluff susceptible to thermal erosion. Liberated sediment is removed from the system in suspension and does not form sheltering beaches or barrier islands which would provide a negative feedback to erosion. During the sea ice-free season, relatively warm waters abut the bluff and ocean water melts a notch into the 4-m tall bluffs. The bluffs ultimately fail by the toppling of polygonal blocks bounded by mechanically weak ice-wedges that are spaced roughly 10-20 m apart. The blocks then temporarily armor the coast against further attack. We document the style and the drivers of coastal erosion in this region through simultaneous measurements of the oceanic and atmospheric conditions, and time-lapse imagery. We extract proxies for erosion rate from time-lapse imagery of both a degrading block and a retreating bluff from the summer of 2010, and compare the proxy record with environmental conditions and melt rate models. These observations verify that the dominant process by which erosion occurs is thermal insertion of a notch, toppling of blocks, and subsequent melting of the ice in the block. The

  1. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida's Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning.

    PubMed

    Geselbracht, Laura L; Freeman, Kathleen; Birch, Anne P; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida's Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway. PMID:26207914

  2. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida's Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning.

    PubMed

    Geselbracht, Laura L; Freeman, Kathleen; Birch, Anne P; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida's Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway.

  3. Sediment-associated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal British Columbia, Canada: concentrations, composition, and associated risks to protected sea otters.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kate A; Yunker, Mark B; Dangerfield, Neil; Ross, Peter S

    2011-10-01

    Sediment-associated hydrocarbons can pose a risk to wildlife that rely on benthic marine food webs. We measured hydrocarbons in sediments from the habitat of protected sea otters in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Alkane concentrations were dominated by higher odd-chain n-alkanes at all sites, indicating terrestrial plant inputs. While remote sites were dominated by petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), small harbour sites within sea otter habitat and sites from an urban reference area reflected weathered petroleum and biomass and fossil fuel combustion. The partitioning of hydrocarbons between sediments and adjacent food webs provides an important exposure route for sea otters, as they consume ∼25% of their body weight per day in benthic invertebrates. Thus, exceedences of PAH sediment quality guidelines designed to protect aquatic biota at 20% of the sites in sea otter habitat suggest that sea otters are vulnerable to hydrocarbon contamination even in the absence of catastrophic oil spills.

  4. Aquaculture-derived enrichment of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in coastal sediments of Hong Kong and adjacent mainland China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Cheng, Zhang; Du, Jun; Man, Yu-Bon; Leung, Ho-Man; Giesy, John P; Wong, Chris K C; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate contamination of sediments along the coast of Hong Kong and adjacent mainland China, concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in surface and core sediments were measured in six mariculture zones. In surface sediments (0 to 5 cm), concentrations of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs in mariculture sediments were approximately 1.3- and 7.7-fold greater, respectively, than those detected in sediments at corresponding reference sites, which were 1 to 2 km away in areas where there was no mariculture. Similarly, in cores of sediments, concentrations of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs were 1.2- and 14-fold greater in mariculture zones, respectively. Enrichment relative to regional background concentrations, expressed as percentages was as large as 8.67 × 10(3)% for o,p'-DDD. The major sources of the enriched organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were hypothesized to be derived from the use of contaminated fish feeds and anti-fouling paints for maintaining fish cages. Results of ecological risk assessments revealed that enriched OCPs had a large potential to contaminate the surrounding marine environment and lead to adverse effects on the associated biota. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the differences of OCP contaminations between mariculture and natural coastal sediments.

  5. Food web structure of the coastal area adjacent to the Tagus estuary revealed by stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of energy sources, pathways and trophic linkages among organisms is crucial for the understanding of food web dynamics. Stable isotopes were used to identify the trophic level of food web components and track the incorporation of organic matter of different origins in the coastal ecosystem adjacent to the Tagus estuary. It was shown that the river Tagus is a major source of organic carbon to this system. Also, the wide difference in δ 13C among the primary consumers allowed the identification of the pelagic and the benthic energy pathways. The maximum trophic level observed was 2.4 for Sepia officinalis. This value is indicative of a short food web. It was concluded that the diet of the upper trophic level species relies directly on the lower food web levels to a considerable extent, instead of relying mostly on intermediate trophic level species. Moreover, the δ 15N values of primary consumers were very close to that of particulate organic matter, probably due to poorly known processes occurring at the basis of the food web. This lowers the trophic length of the whole food web. Reliance on benthic affinity prey was high for all upper trophic level secondary consumers.

  6. Effects of Typhoon Haikui on Nutrient Concentrations and Biological Production in the Yangtze Estuary and Its Adjacent Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water temperature, salinity, turbidity, nutrient concentrations, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured at four sampling stations in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and its adjacent sea before and after the passage of typhoon HAIKUI. The structure of the estuarine water column and nutrient concentrations changed greatly due to the typhoon, as strong winds and heavy precipitation caused offshore water intrusion into the YRE as well as increased freshwater discharge. Vertical mixing affected the water column within a short period after the typhoon passed over the area. As the wind subsided, the Yangtze Diluted Water (YDW) had a strong effect on the surface water, whereas the offshore water intrusion primarily influenced the bottom water. Nutrient concentrations in the surface layer increased significantly after HAIKUI, whereas complicated trends were detected in the middle and bottom layers. After the typhoon, the concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, phosphate, and silicate increased by 1.14, 0.08, and 0.31 × 109 mol, respectively, relative to the values before the typhoon. Moreover, we estimate that typhoons have contributed about 118.56, 8.32, and 32.24 × 109 mol of these nutrients to the YRE and its adjacent sea over the past 60 years. The increased nutrient concentrations greatly accelerated the growth of phytoplankton, although the biomass started to decline rapidly in the first few days after the typhoon because of opposing conditions. These results suggest that typhoon HAIKUI had a profound influence on water cycling and biological production in the YRE and its adjacent sea.

  7. Sea Level Rise Decision Support Tools for Adaptation Planning in Vulnerable Coastal Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozum, J. S.; Marcy, D.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA is involved in a myriad of climate related research and projects that help decision makers and the public understand climate science as well as climate change impacts. The NOAA Office for Coastal Management (OCM) provides data, tools, trainings and technical assistance to coastal resource managers. Beginning in 2011, NOAA OCM began developing a sea level rise and coastal flooding impacts viewer which provides nationally consistent data sets and analyses to help communities with coastal management goals such as: understanding and communicating coastal flood hazards, performing vulnerability assessments and increasing coastal resilience, and prioritizing actions for different inundation/flooding scenarios. The Viewer is available on NOAA's Digital Coast platform: (coast.noaa.gov/ditgitalcoast/tools/slr). In this presentation we will share the lessons learned from our work with coastal decision-makers on the role of coastal flood risk data and tools in helping to shape future land use decisions and policies. We will also focus on a recent effort in California to help users understand the similarities and differences of a growing array of sea level rise decision support tools. NOAA staff and other partners convened a workshop entitled, "Lifting the Fog: Bringing Clarity to Sea Level Rise and Shoreline Change Models and Tools," which was attended by tool develops, science translators and coastal managers with the goal to create a collaborative communication framework to help California coastal decision-makers navigate the range of available sea level rise planning tools, and to inform tool developers of future planning needs. A sea level rise tools comparison matrix will be demonstrated. This matrix was developed as part of this effort and has been expanded to many other states via a partnership with NOAA, Climate Central, and The Nature Conservancy.

  8. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Hammar-Klose, Erika S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS) in Mississippi and Florida. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The Gulf Islands in Mississippi and Florida consist of stable and washover dominated portions of barrier beach backed by wetland and marsh. The areas likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest occurrence of overwash, the highest rates of shoreline change, the gentlest regional coastal slope, and the highest rates of relative sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers.

  9. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year

  10. Towards The Operational Oceanographic Model System In Estonian Coastal Sea, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kõuts, T.; Elken, J.; Raudsepp, U.

    An integrated system of nested 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models together with real time forcing data asquisition is designed and set up in pre-operational mode in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. Along the Estonian coast, implicit time-stepping 3D models are used in the deep bays and 2D models in the shallow bays with ca 200 m horizontal grid step. Specific model setups have been verified by in situ current measurements. Optimum configuration of initial parameters has been found for certain critical locations, usually ports, oil terminals, etc. Operational system in- tegrates also section of historical database of most important hydrologic parameters in the region, allowing use of certain statistical analysis and proper setup of initial conditions for oceanographic models. There is large variety of applications for such model system, ranging from environmental impact assessment at local coastal sea pol- lution problems to forecast of offshore blue algal blooms. Most probable risk factor in the coastal sea engineering is oil pollution, therefore current operational model sys- tem has direct custom oriented output the oil spill forecast for critical locations. Oil spill module of the operational system consist the automatic weather and hydromet- ric station (distributed in real time to internet) and prognostic model of sea surface currents. System is run using last 48 hour wind data and wind forecast and estimates probable oil deposition areas on the shoreline under certain weather conditions. Cal- culated evolution of oil pollution has been compared with some real accidents in the past and there was found good agreement between model and measurements. Graphi- cal user interface of oil spill model is currently installed at location of port authorities (eg. Muuga port), so in case of accidents it could be used in real time supporting the rescue operations. In 2000 current pre-operational oceanographic model system has been sucessfully used to

  11. Coastal alluvial fans (fan deltas) of the Gulf of Aqaba (Gulf of Eilat), Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, A. B.

    1985-04-01

    Coastal sediments of the Gulf of Aqaba are dominated by alluvial fans that prograde directly into the sea. The fans can be subdivided into four types: (1) largely inactive alluvial fans that merge into a braided fluvial system and pass seaward into sabkha flats, lagoons, mangroves and fringing reefs; (2) large alluvial fans that pass directly into the sea with one major entrenched channel and a fringing reef with a large incised canyon; both of these were formed during the Pleistocene, present fluvial activity is confined to the entrenched channels; (3) medium-sized (1-2 km long, 3-4 km wide) moderate to highly active alluvial fans with fringing reefs and backreef lagoons; and (4) small short-headed wadis that empty directly into the sea. The scale, overall sediment body geometry and facies associations of type (3) coastal alluvial fans (fan deltas) provide a close and useful modern analogue for many ancient fan-delta sedimentary sequences. On subaerial parts of the fan, disorganised cobbles and boulders, at the apex, deposited by debris flows pass downslope into longitudinal bars deposited during the high flood stage of periodic flash-flood events. The bars extend over the entire fan surface becoming progressively smaller and finer grained down fan. In general, the fans are characterised by a low proportion of floodplain deposits and extensive modification by aeolian processes, producing widespread gravel pavements and small dune fields over inactive areas of the lower fan. In the marine environment the fans are modified by a combination of wave action and longshore drift. Sand beaches are characterised by low-angle seaward-dipping lamination. On shingle beaches all gravel clasts have a strong preferred seaward dipping orientation. In areas where the fringing reefs are situated offshore from the fan, mixed quartz-bioclastic sand-filled lagoons develop. The nearshore lagoon areas are characterised by large sand bars orientated parallel to the shore. These pass

  12. Blueprint for a Coastal Legacy: Connecticut Sea Grant Strategic Plan 2007-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Sea Grant (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    For nearly 20 years, the Connecticut Sea Grant College Program (CTSG) has worked to foster the wise use and conservation of coastal and marine resources of the Long Island Sound (LIS) estuary, as well as working regionally, nationally and globally. The strategy for success of any individual Sea Grant College Program must be consistent with the…

  13. Assessment on vulnerability of coastal wetlands to sea level rise in the Yangtze Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, L.; Ge, Z.; Zhang, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Yangtze Delta in China is vital economic hubs in terms of settlement, industry, agriculture, trade and tourism as well as of great environmental significance. In recent decades, the prospect of climate change, in particular sea level rise and its effects on low lying coastal areas have generated worldwide attention to coastal ecosystems. Coastal wetlands, as important parts of coastal ecosystem, are particularly sensitive to sea level rise. To study the responses of coastal wetlands to climate change, assess the impacts of climate change on coastal wetlands and formulate feasible and practical mitigation strategies are the important prerequisites for securing the coastal zone ecosystems. In this study, taking the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary as a case study, the potential impacts of sea-level rise to coastal wetlands habitat were analyzed by the Source-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) model. The key indicators, such as the sea-level rise rate, subsidence rate, elevation, daily inundation duration of habitat and sedimentation rate, were selected to build a vulnerability assessment system according to the IPCC definition of vulnerability, i.e. the aspects of exposure, sensitivity and adaptation. A quantitatively spatial assessment method on the GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability. The vulnerability assessment on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary under the sea level rise rate of the present trend and IPCC A1F1 scenario were performed for three sets of projections of short-term (2030s), mid-term (2050s) and long-term (2100s). The results showed that at the present trend of sea level rise rate of 0.26 cm/a, 92.3 % of the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary was in the EVI score of 0 in 2030s, i.e. the impact of sea level rise on habitats/species of coastal wetlands was negligible. While 7.4 % and 0.3 % of the coastal wetlands were in the EVI score of

  14. Two regimes of cloud water over the Okhotsk Sea and the adjacent regions around Japan in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Teruhisa; Iwasaki, Toshiki

    2015-03-01

    This study derived two regimes of cloud water with a dipole structure between over the Okhotsk Sea and over the adjacent regions around Japan in summer by using a climate index for cool summer. When the Okhotsk high develops, clouds are confined to a thin low-level layer owing to the enhanced stability in the lower atmosphere induced by the downward motion associated with the Okhotsk high. The resulting optically thin clouds allow more downward shortwave radiation to reach the surface of the Okhotsk Sea. In contrast, the low-level easterly winds blowing toward the Japanese Islands and the Eurasian continent enhance cloud formation. This is due to the convergence of the water vapor flux induced by the easterly winds associated with the Okhotsk high and the southerly winds associated with the Baiu frontal zone and the Pacific high and due to the orographic uplift of air mass. When a cyclonic circulation occurs over the Okhotsk Sea, a thick layer of low-level clouds extending close to the sea surface is formed. The convergence of the water vapor flux over the subarctic sea surface temperature (SST) frontal zone and the cool SST promote fog formation, and upward motion associated with the cyclonic circulation supports the high cloud water content from the lower to the upper troposphere. The resulting optically thick clouds reduce the downward shortwave radiation at the surface of the Okhotsk Sea. Over the regions around Japan, water vapor flux diverges owing to dry air originating from land and cloud water decreases.

  15. Importance of coastal change variables in determining vulnerability to sea- and lake-level change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, E.A.; Thieler, E.R.; Williams, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey began conducting scientific assessments of coastal vulnerability to potential future sea- and lake-level changes in 22 National Park Service sea- and lakeshore units. Coastal park units chosen for the assessment included a variety of geological and physical settings along the U.S. Atlantic, Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of Alaska, Caribbean, and Great Lakes shorelines. This research is motivated by the need to understand and anticipate coastal changes caused by accelerating sea-level rise, as well as lake-level changes caused by climate change, over the next century. The goal of these assessments is to provide information that can be used to make long-term (decade to century) management decisions. Here we analyze the results of coastal vulnerability assessments for several coastal national park units. Index-based assessments quantify the likelihood that physical changes may occur based on analysis of the following variables: tidal range, ice cover, wave height, coastal slope, historical shoreline change rate, geomorphology, and historical rate of relative sea- or lake-level change. This approach seeks to combine a coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, and it provides a measure of the system's potential vulnerability to the effects of sea- or lake-level change. Assessments for 22 park units are combined to evaluate relationships among the variables used to derive the index. Results indicate that Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico parks have the highest vulnerability rankings relative to other park regions. A principal component analysis reveals that 99% of the index variability can be explained by four variables: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, water-level change rate, and mean significant wave height. Tidal range, ice cover, and historical shoreline change are not as important when the index is evaluated at large spatial scales (thousands of kilometers

  16. Impacts of sea-level rise on the Moroccan coastal zone: Quantifying coastal erosion and flooding in the Tangier Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoussi, Maria; Ouchani, Tachfine; Khouakhi, Abdou; Niang-Diop, Isabelle

    2009-06-01

    As part of a broad assessment of climate change impacts in Morocco, an assessment of vulnerability and adaptation of coastal zones to sea-level rise was conducted. Tangier Bay which is the most important socio-economic pole in Northern Morocco represents one of the cases studies. Using a GIS-based inundation analysis and an erosion modelling approach, the potential physical vulnerability to accelerated sea-level rise was investigated, and the most vulnerable socio-economic sectors were assessed. Results indicate that 10% and 24% of the area will be at risk of flooding respectively for minimum (4 m) and maximum (11 m) inundation levels. The most severely impacted sectors are expected to be the coastal defences and the port, the urban area, tourist coastal infrastructures, the railway, and the industrial area. Shoreline erosion would affect nearly 20% and 45% of the total beach areas respectively in 2050 and 2100. Potential response strategies and adaptation options identified include: sand dune fixation, beach nourishment and building of seawalls to protect the urban and industrial areas of high value. It was also recommended that an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan for the region, including upgrading awareness, building regulation and urban growth planning should be the most appropriate tool to ensure a long-term sustainable development, while addressing the vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise.

  17. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Fire Island National Seashore to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Thieler, E. Robert

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS), New York. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. Fire Island consists of stable and washover dominated portions of barrier beach backed by lagoons, tidal wetlands and marsh. The areas most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest historic occurrence of overwash and the highest rates of shoreline change. Implementation of large-scale beach nourishment and other coastal engineering alternatives being considered for Fire Island could alter the CVI computed here. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers.

  18. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Point Reyes National Seashore (PORE) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2006-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Point Reyes National Seashore in Northern California. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each input variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Point Reyes National Seashore consists of sand and gravel beaches, rock cliffs, sand dune cliffs, and pocket beaches. The areas within Point Reyes that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are areas of unconsolidated sediment where the coastal slope is lowest and wave energy is high.

  19. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Cape Cod National Seashore to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammar-Klose, Erika S.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2003-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within the Cape Cod National Seashore (CACO). The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. CACO consists of high glacial cliffs, beaches, sand spits, and salt marsh wetlands. The areas most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the lowest regional coastal slopes, geomorphologic types that are susceptible to inundation, and the highest rates of shoreline change. Most of CACO's infrastructure lies on high elevation uplands away from the shore; most high use areas are accessible by foot only. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers.

  20. An ecological approach supporting the management of sea-uses and natural capital in marine coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelli, Marco; Carli, Filippo M.; Bonamano, Simone; Frattarelli, Francesco; Mancini, Emanuele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Peviani, Maximo; Piermattei, Viviana

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of our work is to create a multi-layer map of marine areas and adjacent territories (SeaUseMap), which takes into account both the different sea uses and the value of marine ecosystems, calculated on the basis of services and benefits produced by the different biocenosis. Marine coastal areas are characterized by the simultaneous presence of ecological conditions favorable to life and, at the same time, they are home to many human activities of particular economic relevance. Ecological processes occurring in coastal areas are particularly important and when we consider their contribution to the value of the "natural capital" (Costanza et Al. 1997, 2008, 2014), we can observe that this is often higher than the contribution from terrestrial ecosystems. Our work is done in northern Lazio (Civitavecchia), a highly populated area where many uses of the sea are superimposed: tourism, fisheries, industry, shipping and ports, historical and cultural heritage. Our goal is to create a tool to support decision-making, where ecosystem values and uses of the sea can be simultaneously represented. The ecosystem values are calculated based on an analysis of benthic biocoenoses: the basic ecological units that, in the Mediterranean Sea, have been identified, defined, analyzed and used since the 60s (Perez & Picard 1964) to date as a working tool (Boudouresque & Fresi 1976). Land surface, instead, was analyzed from available maps, produced within the Corine Land Cover project. Some application examples to support the decision-making are shown, with particular reference to the localization of suitable areas for wave energy production and the esteem of ecological damages generated in case of maritime accidents (e.g., Costa Concordia). According to Costanza 2008, we have developed our own operational method, which is suitable for this specific case of benefit assessment from benthic communities. In this framework, we base our strategy on the ability of the benthic

  1. A Bayesian network to predict coastal vulnerability to sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutierrez, B.T.; Plant, N.G.; Thieler, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    Sea level rise during the 21st century will have a wide range of effects on coastal environments, human development, and infrastructure in coastal areas. The broad range of complex factors influencing coastal systems contributes to large uncertainties in predicting long-term sea level rise impacts. Here we explore and demonstrate the capabilities of a Bayesian network (BN) to predict long-term shoreline change associated with sea level rise and make quantitative assessments of prediction uncertainty. A BN is used to define relationships between driving forces, geologic constraints, and coastal response for the U.S. Atlantic coast that include observations of local rates of relative sea level rise, wave height, tide range, geomorphic classification, coastal slope, and shoreline change rate. The BN is used to make probabilistic predictions of shoreline retreat in response to different future sea level rise rates. Results demonstrate that the probability of shoreline retreat increases with higher rates of sea level rise. Where more specific information is included, the probability of shoreline change increases in a number of cases, indicating more confident predictions. A hindcast evaluation of the BN indicates that the network correctly predicts 71% of the cases. Evaluation of the results using Brier skill and log likelihood ratio scores indicates that the network provides shoreline change predictions that are better than the prior probability. Shoreline change outcomes indicating stability (-1 1 m/yr) was not well predicted. We find that BNs can assimilate important factors contributing to coastal change in response to sea level rise and can make quantitative, probabilistic predictions that can be applied to coastal management decisions. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Pollution status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenglong; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Zhao, Yifei; Yu, Wenwen; Li, Yali; Song, Qiaochu

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mainly produced by incomplete combustion and are used as indicators of anthropogenic activities on the environment. This study analyses the PAHs level in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE), an important component of Yangtze River and a developed and populated region in China. Surface sediments were collected from 77 sites at the YRE and its adjacent coastal zone (IACZ) for a comprehensive study of PAHs. Kriging interpolation technology and Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model were applied to explore the spatial distribution and sources of PAHs. Concentrations of 16 PAHs (ΣPAHs) varied from 27.2 ng g(-1) to 621.6 ng g(-1) dry weight, with an average value of 158.2 ng g(-1). Spatially, ΣPAHs exhibited wide fluctuation and exhibited an increasing tendency from north to south. In addition, ΣPAHs exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing distance between the estuary and IACZ. The deposition flux of PAHs indicated that more than 107.8 t a(-1) PAHs was deposited in the study area annually. The results of the PMF model revealed that anthropogenic activities were the main sources of PAHs in the study area. Vehicle emissions and marine engines were the most important sources and accounted for 40.9% of the pollution. Coal combustion, petrogenic sources, and wood combustion were other sources that contributed 23.9%, 23.6%, and 11.5%, respectively. The distribution patterns of PAHs in the YRE and IACZ were influenced by many complicated factors such as sediment grain size, hydrodynamics and so on. PMID:27485799

  3. Diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in sediments from the coastal Pearl River estuary to the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yiguo; Li, Meng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2011-11-01

    In the present study the diversity and abundance of nitrifying microbes including ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and betaproteobacteria (beta-AOB) were investigated, along with the physicochemical parameters potentially affecting them, in a transect of surface sediments from the coastal margin adjacent to the Pearl River estuary to the slope in the deep South China Sea. Nitrifying microbial diversity was determined by detecting the amoA (ammonia monooxygenase subunit A) gene. An obvious community structure shift for both AOA and beta-AOB from the coastal marginal areas to the slope in the deep-sea was detected, while the OTU numbers of AOA amoA were more stable than those of the beta-AOB. The OTUs of beta-AOB increased with the distance from the coastal margin areas to the slope in the deep-sea. Beta-AOB showed lower diversity with dominant strains in a polluted area but higher diversity without dominant strains in a clean area. Moreover, the diversity of beta-AOB was correlated with pH values, while no noticeable relationships were established between AOA and physicochemical parameters. Beta-AOB was more sensitive to transect environmental variability and might be a potential indicator for environmental changes. Additionally, the surface sediments surveyed in the South China Sea harboured diverse and distinct AOA and beta-AOB phylotypes different from other environments, suggesting the endemicity of some nitrifying prokaryotes in the South China Sea.

  4. Barriers to and opportunities for landward migration of coastal wetlands with sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Griffith, Kereen T.; Osland, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, accelerated sea-level rise and continued coastal development are expected to greatly alter coastal landscapes across the globe. Historically, many coastal ecosystems have responded to sea-level fluctuations via horizontal and vertical movement on the landscape. However, anthropogenic activities, including urbanization and the construction of flood-prevention infrastructure, can produce barriers that impede ecosystem migration. Here we show where tidal saline wetlands have the potential to migrate landward along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, one of the most sea-level rise sensitive and wetland-rich regions of the world. Our findings can be used to identify migration corridors and develop sea-level rise adaptation strategies to help ensure the continued availability of wetland-associated ecosystem goods and services.

  5. Modeling radium distribution in coastal aquifers during sea level changes: The Dead Sea case

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiro, Yael; Yechieli, Yoseph; Voss, Clifford I.; Starinsky, Abraham; Weinstein, Yishai

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to studying the behavior of radium isotopes in a coastal aquifer. In order to simulate radium isotope distributions in the dynamic flow field of the Dead Sea aquifer, a multi-species density dependent flow model (SUTRA-MS) was used. Field data show that the activity of 226Ra decreases from 140 to 60 dpm/L upon entering the aquifer from the Dead Sea, and then further decreases linearly due to mixing with Ra-poor fresh water. On the other hand, an increase is observed in the activity of the shorter-lived isotopes (up to 52 dpm/L 224Ra and 31 dpm/L 223Ra), which are relatively low in Dead Sea water (up to 2.5 dpm/L 224Ra and 0.5 dpm/L 223Ra). The activities of the short lived radium isotopes also decrease with decreasing salinity, which is due to the effect of salinity on the adsorption of radium. The relationship between 224Ra and salinity suggests that the adsorption partition coefficient (K) is linearly related to salinity. Simulations of the steady-state conditions, show that the distance where equilibrium activity is attained for each radium isotope is affected by the isotope half-life, K and the groundwater velocity, resulting in a longer distance for the long-lived radium isotopes. K affects the radium distribution in transient conditions, especially that of the long-lived radium isotopes. The transient conditions in the Dead Sea system, with a 1 m/yr lake level drop, together with the radium field data, constrains K to be relatively low (226Ra cannot be explained by adsorption, and it is better explained by removal via coprecipitation, probably with barite or celestine.

  6. Modeling radium distribution in coastal aquifers during sea level changes: The Dead Sea case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiro, Yael; Yechieli, Yoseph; Voss, Clifford I.; Starinsky, Abraham; Weinstein, Yishai

    2012-07-01

    We present a new approach to studying the behavior of radium isotopes in a coastal aquifer. In order to simulate radium isotope distributions in the dynamic flow field of the Dead Sea aquifer, a multi-species density dependent flow model (SUTRA-MS) was used. Field data show that the activity of 226Ra decreases from 140 to 60 dpm/L upon entering the aquifer from the Dead Sea, and then further decreases linearly due to mixing with Ra-poor fresh water. On the other hand, an increase is observed in the activity of the shorter-lived isotopes (up to 52 dpm/L 224Ra and 31 dpm/L 223Ra), which are relatively low in Dead Sea water (up to 2.5 dpm/L 224Ra and 0.5 dpm/L 223Ra). The activities of the short lived radium isotopes also decrease with decreasing salinity, which is due to the effect of salinity on the adsorption of radium. The relationship between 224Ra and salinity suggests that the adsorption partition coefficient (K) is linearly related to salinity. Simulations of the steady-state conditions, show that the distance where equilibrium activity is attained for each radium isotope is affected by the isotope half-life, K and the groundwater velocity, resulting in a longer distance for the long-lived radium isotopes. K affects the radium distribution in transient conditions, especially that of the long-lived radium isotopes. The transient conditions in the Dead Sea system, with a 1 m/yr lake level drop, together with the radium field data, constrains K to be relatively low (<10). Thus, the sharp decrease in 226Ra cannot be explained by adsorption, and it is better explained by removal via coprecipitation, probably with barite or celestine.

  7. Numerical simulation and preliminary analysis on ocean waves during Typhoon Nesat in South China Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jichao; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Jungang

    2014-05-01

    Using the wave model WAVEWATCH III (WW3), we simulated the generation and propagation of typhoon waves in the South China Sea and adjacent areas during the passage of typhoon Nesat (2011). In the domain 100°-145°E and 0°-35°N, the model was forced by the cross-calibrated multi-platform (CCMP) wind fields of September 15 to October 5, 2011. We then validated the simulation results against wave radar data observed from an oil platform and altimeter data from the Jason-2 satellite. The simulated waves were characterized by five points along track using the Spectrum Integration Method (SIM) and the Spectrum Partitioning Method (SPM), by which wind sea and swell components of the 1D and 2D wave spectra are separated. There was reasonable agreement between the model results and observations, although the WW3 wave model may underestimate swell wave height. Significant wave heights are large along the typhoon track and are noticeably greater on the right of the track than on the left. Swells from the east are largely unable to enter the South China Sea because of the obstruction due to the Philippine Islands. During the initial stage and later period of the typhoon, swells at the five points were generated by the propagation of waves that were created by typhoons Haitang and Nalgae. Of the two methods, the 2D SPM method is more accurate than the 1D SIM which overestimates the separation frequency under low winds, but the SIM method is more convenient because it does not require wind speed and wave direction. When the typhoon left the area, the wind sea fractions decreased rapidly. Under similar wind conditions, the points located in the South China Sea are affected less than those points situated in the open sea because of the influence of the complex internal topography of the South China Sea. The results reveal the characteristic wind sea and swell features of the South China Sea and adjacent areas in response to typhoon Nesat, and provide a reference for swell

  8. Biological Soil Crusts from Coastal Dunes at the Baltic Sea: Cyanobacterial and Algal Biodiversity and Related Soil Properties.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Karoline; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Dreßler, Mirko; Leinweber, Peter; Karsten, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are known as "ecosystem-engineers" that have important, multifunctional ecological roles in primary production, in nutrient and hydrological cycles, and in stabilization of soils. These communities, however, are almost unstudied in coastal dunes of the temperate zone. Hence, for the first time, the biodiversity of cyanobacterial and algal dominated BSCs collected in five dunes from the southern Baltic Sea coast on the islands Rügen and Usedom (Germany) was investigated in connection with physicochemical soil parameters. The species composition of cyanobacteria and algae was identified with direct determination of crust subsamples, cultural methods, and diatom slides. To investigate the influence of soil properties on species composition, the texture, pH, electrical conductivity, carbonate content, total contents of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and the bioavailable phosphorus-fraction (PO4 (3-)) were analyzed in adjacent BSC-free surface soils at each study site. The data indicate that BSCs in coastal dunes of the southern Baltic Sea represent an ecologically important vegetation form with a surprisingly high site-specific diversity of 19 cyanobacteria, 51 non-diatom algae, and 55 diatoms. All dominant species of the genera Coleofasciculus, Lyngbya, Microcoleus, Nostoc, Hydrocoryne, Leptolyngbya, Klebsormidium, and Lobochlamys are typical aero-terrestrial cyanobacteria and algae, respectively. This first study of coastal sand dunes in the Baltic region provides compelling evidence that here the BSCs were dominated by cyanobacteria, algae, or a mixture of both. Among the physicochemical soil properties, the total phosphorus content of the BSC-free sand was the only factor that significantly influenced the cyanobacterial and algal community structure of BSCs in coastal dunes.

  9. The numerical calculation of hydrological processes in the coastal zone of the Black Sea region in the city of Poti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Sh. Rustaveli National Science Foundation) The serious environmental problems started in Poti after transfer of the main flow of the river Rioni to the north. As a result the flooding of the city stopped, but the reduction of water consumption in the city channel, caused a decrease of the sediments carried away by the river, what leads to coastal erosion. The coast changes are connected with the movement of the waves and currents in the coastal part of the sea. In the paper, the three-dimensional mathematical model of sediment transport and coastal zone lithodynamics is developed. The finite element formulations for the problems of wave modes, coastal currents, sediment transport and evolution of the coastal zone of the sea, are given. The numerical algorithms, implemented in the form of software. Programs are allowing to bring the solutions of the tasks to numerical results. The numerical modeling was developed in three stages. In the first stage the topography of the coast and the initial geometry of the structures are considered as an input parameters. Then, coastal wave field is calculated for the conditions prescribed in the initial wave. In the second stage, the calculated wave field is used to estimate the spatial distribution of the radiation stresses near-bottom orbital velocity. In the third stage the coastal wave fields and flow fields are used in the sub-models of sediment transport and changes in the topography of the coast. In the numerical solution of basic equations of motion of the waves, coastal currents and changes in sea bottom topography we use: finite element, finite difference methods and the method of upper relaxation, Crank-Nicolson scheme. As an example, we are giving the results of research of the wave regime in the coastal area of the city of Poti (700X600m) adjacent to the port of Poti. The bottom profile, in this area is rather complicated. During the calculations of the average rise of

  10. Analyzing the Modeled Tidal Signal in the Bab El Mandeb Strait and Adjacent Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillory, R. N. B.

    2014-12-01

    The tidal forces that dominate the Bab el Mandeb region are influenced by both the generally semi-diurnal tides in the Red Sea and mixed tides in the Gulf of Aden. Also, the tidal ranges are much greater in the Gulf of Aden (~ 2 m) than in the Red Sea (< 1m), which further complicates the tidal signal in Bab el Mandeb Strait. The Red Sea Regional Navy Coastal Model (NCOM), which includes the entire Red Sea, and the western part of the Gulf of Aden at a 1 km resolution, will be evaluated on how well it replicates the tidal signal described in literature and historical observations. In addition, the model will be compared to available temperature/salinity in situ profiles. NCOM incorporates the Oregon State University Tide Model, which should allow the ocean model to accurately reflect the transitional tides in the Bab el Mandeb Strait. Preliminary estimates indicate that the model replicates the overall circulation pattern seen in literature and the fact that there are higher tidal amplitudes in the Gulf of Aden than in the Red Sea. Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited

  11. Adaptation to Sea Level Rise in Coastal Units of the National Park Service (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavers, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    83 National Park Service (NPS) units contain nearly 12,000 miles of coastal, estuarine and Great Lakes shoreline and their associated resources. Iconic natural features exist along active shorelines in NPS units, including, e.g., Cape Cod, Padre Island, Hawaii Volcanoes, and the Everglades. Iconic cultural resources managed by NPS include the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, Fort Sumter, the Golden Gate, and heiaus and fish traps along the coast of Hawaii. Impacts anticipated from sea level rise include inundation and flooding of beaches and low lying marshes, shoreline erosion of coastal areas, and saltwater intrusion into the water table. These impacts and other coastal hazards will threaten park beaches, marshes, and other resources and values; alter the viability of coastal roads; and require the NPS to re-evaluate the financial, safety, and environmental implications of maintaining current projects and implementing future projects in ocean and coastal parks in the context of sea level rise. Coastal erosion will increase as sea levels rise. Barrier islands along the coast of Louisiana and North Carolina may have already passed the threshold for maintaining island integrity in any scenario of sea level rise (U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Program Report 4.1). Consequently, sea level rise is expected to hasten the disappearance of historic coastal villages, coastal wetlands, forests, and beaches, and threaten coastal roads, homes, and businesses. While sea level is rising in most coastal parks, some parks are experiencing lower water levels due to isostatic rebound and lower lake levels. NPS funded a Coastal Vulnerability Project to evaluate the physical and geologic factors affecting 25 coastal parks. The USGS Open File Reports for each park are available at http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/. These reports were designed to inform park planning efforts. NPS conducted a Storm Vulnerability Project to provide ocean and coastal

  12. 90Sr dispersion and fate in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: global fallout and the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyung Tae; Maderich, Vladimir; Bezhenar, Roman; de With, Govert; Qiao, Fangli; Casacuberta, Nuria; Masque, Pere

    2014-05-01

    The 3D compartment model POSEIDON-R (Maderich et al., 2013) was applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of 90Sr in the period 1945-2010 and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of 90Sr after the Fukushima Dai-ichi (FDNPP) accident (2011-2040). The model predicts the dispersion of radioactivity in the water column and in marine sediments, and the transfer of radionuclides throughout the marine food web, and the subsequent doses to the population due to the consumption of marine products. The contamination due to runoff of 90Sr from terrestrial surfaces was taken in account using generic predictive model (Smith et al., 2004). A dynamical food-chain model is used instead of the biological concentration factor (BCF) approach. The radionuclide uptake model for fish has as a central feature the accumulation of radionuclides in the target tissue (bones for 90Sr ). The model was compared with observation data on 90Sr for the period 1955-2010 and the budget of its activity was estimated. It was found that in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea the riverine influx was 1.5% of ocean influx only with local importance. Calculated concentrations of 90Sr in water, bottom sediments and marine organisms in the coastal box around the FDNPP before and after the accident are in agreement with measurements from the Japanese databases (TEPCO, MEXT) and publications (Casacuberta et al., 2013; Oikawa et al., 2013). The dynamical food web model predicts that due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web and specific accumulation of 90Sr, the concentration for piscivorous fishes return to background level only in 2015. For the year 2011, the calculated individual dose rate for Fukushima Prefecture (except FDNPP vicinity) due to consumption of fishery products is an order less than the maximal dose rate caused by nuclear weapon testing in 1960.

  13. A Numerical Study of Sea-Spray Aerosol Motion in a Coastal Thermal Internal Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Tinghao; Yu, Xiping

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional large-eddy simulation model is applied to the study of sea-spray aerosol transport, dispersion and settling in the coastal thermal internal boundary layer (IBL) formed by cool airflow from the open sea to the warm land. An idealized situation with constant inflow from the ocean and constant heat flux over the coastal land is considered. The numerical results confirm that the thickness of the coastal thermal IBL increases with the distance from the coastline until the outer edge of the IBL penetrates into the capping inversion layer. The thickness increases also with time until a fully-developed thermal boundary layer is formed. In addition, the thickness of the coastal thermal IBL increases more rapidly when the heat flux over the land is greater. Existence of large-scale eddies within the thermal IBL is identified and the turbulence intensity within the thermal IBL is also found to be significantly higher than that above. It is also indicated that the vertical position of the maximum concentration does not occur at the surface but increases as sea-spray aerosols are transported inland. The vertical position of the maximum flux of sea-spray aerosols within the coastal thermal IBL is shown to coincide with that of the maximum vertical velocity fluctuations when the coastal thermal IBL is fully developed with increased distance in the airflow direction.

  14. The dynamic effects of sea level rise on low-gradient coastal landscapes: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passeri, Davina; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Bilskie, Matthew V.; Alizad, Karim; Wang, Dingbao

    2015-01-01

    Coastal responses to sea level rise (SLR) include inundation of wetlands, increased shoreline erosion, and increased flooding during storm events. Hydrodynamic parameters such as tidal ranges, tidal prisms, tidal asymmetries, increased flooding depths and inundation extents during storm events respond nonadditively to SLR. Coastal morphology continually adapts toward equilibrium as sea levels rise, inducing changes in the landscape. Marshes may struggle to keep pace with SLR and rely on sediment accumulation and the availability of suitable uplands for migration. Whether hydrodynamic, morphologic, or ecologic, the impacts of SLR are interrelated. To plan for changes under future sea levels, coastal managers need information and data regarding the potential effects of SLR to make informed decisions for managing human and natural communities. This review examines previous studies that have accounted for the dynamic, nonlinear responses of hydrodynamics, coastal morphology, and marsh ecology to SLR by implementing more complex approaches rather than the simplistic “bathtub” approach. These studies provide an improved understanding of the dynamic effects of SLR on coastal environments and contribute to an overall paradigm shift in how coastal scientists and engineers approach modeling the effects of SLR, transitioning away from implementing the “bathtub” approach. However, it is recommended that future studies implement a synergetic approach that integrates the dynamic interactions between physical and ecological environments to better predict the impacts of SLR on coastal systems.

  15. The role of low molecular weight organic acids on controlling pH in coastal sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, H.

    2015-12-01

    Series investigation of the Jiaozhou Bay, China, observed existences of three low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), including lactic acid, acetic acid and formic acid, with high concentration in the sea water. Generally, their amount accounted for about 20% of DOC in the sea water of the bay. Human activities around the bay were considered as the major source of the LMWOAs. Also, long term detection showed that the pH value in the Jiaozhou Bay was lower than that in the adjacent Yellow Sea. On average, the difference of pH values between the bay and the Yellow was about 0.2. Due to higher concentrations of the LMWOAs, their contribution to lower pH value of the bay should not be ignored. To validate the effect of LMWOAs on the pH value of the bay, a new software was developed to calculate the pH value in the sea water samples based on alkalinity by adding three items of the three organic acids in the expression. Compared to the traditional pH calculating software, the new software could improve the calculating results significantly. Our results confirmed that LMWOAs was an important control factor to adjust pH values in coastal area.

  16. Geologic effects and coastal vulnerability to sea-level rise, erosion, and storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S.J.; Gutierrez, B.T.; Thieler, E.R.; Pendleton, E.

    2008-01-01

    A combination of natural and human factors are driving coastal change and making coastal regions and populations increasingly vulnerable. Sea level, a major agent of coastal erosion, has varied greatly from -120 m below present during glacial period low-stands to + 4 to 6 m above present during interglacial warm periods. Geologic and tide gauge data show that global sea level has risen about 12 to 15 cm during the past century with satellite measurements indicating an acceleration since the early 1990s due to thermal expansion and ice-sheet melting. Land subsidence due to tectonic forces and sediment compaction in regions like the mid-Atlantic and Louisiana increase the rate of relative sea-level rise to 40 cm to 100 cm per century. Sea- level rise is predicted to accelerate significantly in the near future due to climate change, resulting in pervasive impacts to coastal regions and putting populations increasingly at risk. The full implications of climate change for coastal systems need to be understood better and long-term plans are needed to manage coasts in order to protect natural resources and mitigate the effects of sea-level rise and increased storms on human infrastructure. Copyright ASCE 2008.

  17. Coastal Vulnerability Due to Sea-level Rise Hazard in the Bangladesh Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, Ck; Ballu, Valérie; Calmant, Stéphane; Duan, Jianbin; Guo, Junyi; Hossain, Fasial; Jenkins, Craig; Haque Khan, Zahirul; Kim, Jinwoo; Kuhn, Michael; Kusche, Jürgen; Papa, Fabrice; Tseng, Kuohsin; Wan, Junkun

    2014-05-01

    Approximately half of the world's population or 3.2 billion people lives within 200 km of coastlines and many of them in the world's deltaic plains. Sea-level rise, widely recognized as one of consequences resulting from anthropogenic climate change, has induced substantial coastal vulnerability globally and in particular, in the deltaic regions, such as coastal Bangladesh, and Yangtze Delta. Bangladesh, a low-lying, one of the most densely populated countries in the world located at the Bay of Bengal, is prone to transboundary monsoonal flooding, potentially aggravated by more frequent and intensified cyclones resulting from anthropogenic climate change. Sea-level rise, along with tectonic, sediment load and groundwater extraction induced land uplift/subsidence, have exacerbated Bangladesh's coastal vulnerability. Here we describe the physical science component of the integrated approach based on both physical and social sciences to address the adaption and potential mitigation of coastal Bangladesh vulnerability. The objective is to quantify the estimates of spatial varying sea-level trend separating the vertical motion of the coastal regions using geodetic and remote-sensing measurements (tide gauges, 1950-current; satellite altimetry, 1992-present, GRACE, 2003-present, Landsat/MODIS), reconstructed sea-level trends (1950-current), and GPS and InSAR observed land subsidence. Our goal is to conduct physically based robust projection of relative sea-level change at the end of the 21st century for the Bangladesh Delta to enable quantitative measures of social science based adaption and possible mitigation.

  18. Coastal Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise and Erosion in Northwest Alaska (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorokhovich, Y.; Leiserowitz, A.

    2009-12-01

    Northwest Alaska is experiencing significant climate change and human impacts. The study area includes the coastal zone of Kotzebue Sound and the Chukchi Sea and provides the local population (predominantly Inupiaq Eskimo) with critical subsistence resources of meat, fish, berries, herbs, and wood. The geomorphology of the coast includes barrier islands, inlets, estuaries, deltas, cliffs, bluffs, and beaches that host modern settlements and infrastructure. Coastal dynamics and sea-level rise are contributing to erosion, intermittent erosion/accretion patterns, landslides, slumps and coastal retreat. These factors are causing the sedimentation of deltas and lagoons, and changing local bathymetry, morphological parameters of beaches and underwater slopes, rates of coastal dynamics, and turbidity and nutrient cycling in coastal waters. This study is constructing vulnerability maps to help local people and federal officials understand the potential consequences of sea-level rise and coastal erosion on local infrastructure, subsistence resources, and culturally important sites. A lack of complete and uniform data (in terms of methods of collection, geographic scale and spatial resolution) creates an additional level of uncertainty that complicates geographic analysis. These difficulties were overcome by spatial modeling with selected spatial resolution using extrapolation methods. Data include subsistence resource maps obtained using Participatory GIS with local hunters and elders, geological and geographic data on coastal dynamics from satellite imagery, aerial photos, bathymetry and topographic maps, and digital elevation models. These data were classified and ranked according to the level of coastal vulnerability (Figure 1). The resulting qualitative multicriteria model helps to identify the coastal areas with the greatest vulnerability to coastal erosion and of the potential loss of subsistence resources. Acknowldgements: Dr. Ron Abileah (private consultant, j

  19. Limits on the adaptability of coastal marshes to rising sea level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Morris, James T.; Mudd, Simon M.; Temmerman, Stijn

    2010-01-01

    Assumptions of a static landscape inspire predictions that about half of the world's coastal wetlands will submerge during this century in response to sea-level acceleration. In contrast, we use simulations from five numerical models to quantify the conditions under which ecogeomorphic feedbacks allow coastal wetlands to adapt to projected changes in sea level. In contrast to previous sea-level assessments, we find that non-linear feedbacks among inundation, plant growth, organic matter accretion, and sediment deposition, allow marshes to survive conservative projections of sea-level rise where suspended sediment concentrations are greater than ~20 mg/L. Under scenarios of more rapid sea-level rise (e.g., those that include ice sheet melting), marshes will likely submerge near the end of the 21st century. Our results emphasize that in areas of rapid geomorphic change, predicting the response of ecosystems to climate change requires consideration of the ability of biological processes to modify their physical environment.

  20. Modeling the impact of sea-spray on particle concentrations in a coastal city

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J; Schoof, J T; Binkowski, F S; Monache, L D; Stull, R B

    2006-04-19

    An atmospheric chemistry-transport model is used to assess the impacts of sea-spray chemistry on the particle composition in and downwind of a coastal city--Vancouver, British Columbia. Reactions in/on sea-spray affect the entire particle ensemble and particularly the size distribution of particle nitrate. Urban air quality, and particularly airborne particles, is a major concern in terms of human health impacts. Sea-spray is known to be a major component of the particle ensemble at coastal sites yet relatively few air quality models include the interaction of gases with sea-spray and the fate of the particles produced. Sea-spray is not an inert addition to the particle ensemble because heterogeneous chemistry in/on sea-spray droplets changes the droplets composition and the particle size distribution, which impacts deposition and the ion balance in different particle size fractions. It is shown that the ISOPART model is capable of simulating gas and particle concentrations in the coastal metropolis of Vancouver and the surrounding valley. It is also demonstrated that to accurately simulate ambient concentrations of particles and reactive/soluble gases in a coastal valley it is absolutely critical to include heterogeneous chemistry in/on sea-spray. Partitioning of total particle-NO{sub 3}{sup -} between sea-spray and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} is highly sensitive to the amount of sea-spray present, and hence the initial vertical profile, sea-spray source functions [48] and the wind speed. When a fixed wind speed is used to initialize the sea-spray vertical profiles, as expected, the sea-spray concentration decays with distance inland, but the particle-NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration decays more slowly because it is also a function of the uptake rate for HNO{sub 3}. The simulation results imply model analyses of air quality in coastal cities conducted without inclusion of sea-spray interactions may yield highly misleading results in terms of emission sensitivities of the PM

  1. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Cape Hatteras National Seashore (CAHA) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Theiler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2005-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Cape Hatteras National Seashore (CAHA) in North Carolina. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range, and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value was calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Cape Hatteras National Seashore consists of stable and washover dominated segments of barrier beach backed by wetland and marsh. The areas within Cape Hatteras that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest occurrence of overwash and the highest rates of shoreline change.

  2. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Cumberland Island National Seashore (CUIS) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Jeffress Williams, S.

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Cumberland Island National Seashore in Georgia. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each input variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Cumberland Island National Seashore consists of stable to washover-dominated portions of barrier beach backed by wetland, marsh, mudflat and tidal creek. The areas within Cumberland that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the lowest foredune ridge and highest rates of shoreline erosion.

  3. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Thieler, E. Robert

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2004/1020/html/cvi.htm) was used to map relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS) in Maryland and Virginia. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. Rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Assateague Island consists of stable and washover dominated portions of barrier beach backed by wetland and marsh. The areas within Assateague that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest occurrence of overwash and the highest rates of shoreline change.

  4. Implications of accelerated sea-level rise on Louisiana coastal environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Karen E.; Penland, Shea; Roberts, Harry H.

    1991-01-01

    Natural and human-induced processes have combined to produce high rates of relative sea-level rise and coastal land loss in Louisiana. This paper presents historical trends in sea-level rise and the implication of predicted accelerated rise scenarios on Louisiana's coastal environments. Mean eustatic sea-level in the Gulf of Mexico is 0.23 cm/yr. In Louisiana, relative sea-level rise, which combines eustacy and subsidence, averages from 0.50 cm/yr in the chenier plain to 1.0 cm/yr in the delta plain. Subsidence due to the compaction of Holocene sediments is believed to be the major component influencing these high rates of rise. Subsidence contributes up to 80% of the observed relative sea-level rise in coastal Louisiana. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) predicts the rate of sea-level rise to increase over the next century due to global climate change. If these predictions are accurate, a dramatic increase in the coastal land loss conditions in Louisiana can be expected.

  5. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Dry Tortugas National Park (DRTO) to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2005-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Dry Tortugas National Park in Florida. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each input variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Dry Tortugas National Park (DRTO) consists of relatively stable to washover-dominated portions of carbonate beach and man-made fortification. The areas within Dry Tortugas that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest rates of shoreline erosion and the highest wave energy.

  6. Coastal Vulnerability Assessment of Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS) to Sea-Level Rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress; Beavers, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Padre Island National Seashore in Texas. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Padre Island National Seashore consists of stable to washover dominated portions of barrier beach backed by wetland, marsh, tidal flat, or grassland. The areas within Padre that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest occurrence of overwash and the highest rates of shoreline change.

  7. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Olympic National Park to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Hammar-Klose, Erika S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2004-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Olympic National Park (OLYM), Washington. The CVI scores the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. The Olympic National Park coast consists of rocky headlands, pocket beaches, glacial-fluvial features, and sand and gravel beaches. The Olympic coastline that is most vulnerable to sea-level rise are beaches in gently sloping areas.

  8. A global standard for monitoring coastal wetland vulnerability to accelerated sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Edward L.; Friess, Daniel A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Phelps, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    Sea-level rise threatens coastal salt-marshes and mangrove forests around the world, and a key determinant of coastal wetland vulnerability is whether its surface elevation can keep pace with rising sea level. Globally, a large data gap exists because wetland surface and shallow subsurface processes remain unaccounted for by traditional vulnerability assessments using tide gauges. Moreover, those processes vary substantially across wetlands, so modelling platforms require relevant local data. The low-cost, simple, high-precision rod surface-elevation table-marker horizon (RSET-MH) method fills this critical data gap, can be paired with spatial data sets and modelling and is financially and technically accessible to every country with coastal wetlands. Yet, RSET deployment has been limited to a few regions and purposes. A coordinated expansion of monitoring efforts, including development of regional networks that could support data sharing and collaboration, is crucial to adequately inform coastal climate change adaptation policy at several scales.

  9. A global standard for monitoring coastal wetland vulnerability to accelerated sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Edward L.; Friess, Daniel A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Phelps, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise threatens coastal salt-marshes and mangrove forests around the world, and a key determinant of coastal wetland vulnerability is whether its surface elevation can keep pace with rising sea level. Globally, a large data gap exists because wetland surface and shallow subsurface processes remain unaccounted for by traditional vulnerability assessments using tide gauges. Moreover, those processes vary substantially across wetlands, so modelling platforms require relevant local data. The low-cost, simple, high-precision rod surface-elevation table–marker horizon (RSET-MH) method fills this critical data gap, can be paired with spatial data sets and modelling and is financially and technically accessible to every country with coastal wetlands. Yet, RSET deployment has been limited to a few regions and purposes. A coordinated expansion of monitoring efforts, including development of regional networks that could support data sharing and collaboration, is crucial to adequately inform coastal climate change adaptation policy at several scales.

  10. Potential effects of sea-level rise on coastal wetlands in southeastern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glick, Patty; Clough, Jonathan; Polaczyk, Amy; Couvillion, Brady R.; Nunley, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Coastal Louisiana wetlands contain about 37% of the estuarine herbaceous marshes in the conterminous United States. The long-term stability of coastal wetlands is often a function of a wetland's ability to maintain elevation equilibrium with mean sea level through processes such as primary production and sediment accretion. However, Louisiana has sustained more coastal wetland loss than all other states in the continental United States combined due to a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors, including sea-level rise. This study investigates the potential impact of current and accelerating sea-level rise rates on key coastal wetland habitats in southeastern Louisiana using the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM). Model calibration was conducted using a 1956–2007 observation period and hindcasting results predicted 35% versus observed 39% total marsh loss. Multiple sea-level-rise scenarios were then simulated for the period of 2007–2100. Results indicate a range of potential wetland losses by 2100, from an additional 2,188.97 km2 (218,897 ha, 9% of the 2007 wetland area) under the lowest sea-level-rise scenario (0.34 m), to a potential loss of 5,875.27 km2 (587,527 ha, 24% of the 2007 wetland area) in the highest sea-level-rise scenario (1.9 m). Model results suggest that one area of particular concern is the potential vulnerability of the region's baldcypress-water tupelo (Taxodium distichum-Nyssa aquatica) swamp habitat, much of which is projected to become permanently flooded (affecting regeneration) under all modeled scenarios for sea-level rise. These findings will aid in the development of ecosystem management plans that support the processes and conditions that result in sustainable coastal ecosystems.

  11. Historical change and future scenarios of sea level rise in Macau and adjacent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Huang, Gang; Zhou, Wen; Chen, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Against a background of climate change, Macau is very exposed to sea level rise (SLR) because of its low elevation, small size, and ongoing land reclamation. Therefore, we evaluate sea level changes in Macau, both historical and, especially, possible future scenarios, aiming to provide knowledge and a framework to help accommodate and protect against future SLR. Sea level in Macau is now rising at an accelerated rate: 1.35 mm yr-1 over 1925-2010 and jumping to 4.2 mm yr-1 over 1970-2010, which outpaces the rise in global mean sea level. In addition, vertical land movement in Macau contributes little to local sea level change. In the future, the rate of SLR in Macau will be about 20% higher than the global average, as a consequence of a greater local warming tendency and strengthened northward winds. Specifically, the sea level is projected to rise 8-12, 22-51 and 35-118 cm by 2020, 2060 and 2100, respectively, depending on the emissions scenario and climate sensitivity. Under the +8.5 W m-2 Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP8.5) scenario the increase in sea level by 2100 will reach 65-118 cm—double that under RCP2.6. Moreover, the SLR will accelerate under RCP6.0 and RCP8.5, while remaining at a moderate and steady rate under RCP4.5 and RCP2.6. The key source of uncertainty stems from the emissions scenario and climate sensitivity, among which the discrepancies in SLR are small during the first half of the 21st century but begin to diverge thereafter.

  12. Pollution of the Black Sea coastal waters: Sources, present-day level, annual variability

    SciTech Connect

    Fashchuk, D.Ya.; Shaporenko, S.I.

    1995-05-01

    Results of regular (for the last 10 years) observations at marine and coastal hydrometeorological posts are analyzed. These are observations of volumes and concentrations of pollutants entering the sea with the flow of the Danube and Dnieper rivers and wastewaters of coastal industrial enterprises, as a result of oil spills caused by ship accidents, pipeline damage, and sea shipping. An integral criterion used to estimate the overall specific anthropogenic load of pollutants in the coastal zone is calculated. The pollutants were compared with regard to their overall specific load, taking into account the percentage of each of them. A water pollution index is calculated for 19 regions of the sea; water quality is evaluated for three types of pollutants and oxygen content. Pollution structure is revealed, physical and dynamic causes of its changes are investigated.

  13. Aerial transport of pesticides over the Northern Indian ocean and adjacent seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidleman, Terry F.; Leonard, Ross

    Between 1976 and 1978 airborne organochlorines were measured over the northern Indian Ocean and the North Atlantic. Shipboard measurements in the Indian Ocean were made in the equatorial and northern Arabian Sea, the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. In the North Atlantic samples were collected at Barbados, the southern tip of Newfoundland, and from shipboard on a cruise across the trades region. Collections were made by pulling air through a glass fiber filter followed by a column of polyurethane foam. Analyses were done by packed and glass capillary gas chromatography using electron capture detection. The most striking difference in organochlorine patterns between the two oceans is the much higher DDT concentrations over the eastern seas. Average DDT levels in the Arabian Sea-Persian Gulf-Red Sea area were 25-40 times the 3.0 pg m -3 North Atlantic background value. These higher levels most likely result from the continued use of DDT in countries bordering these areas. By contrast, DDT use in the United States, Canada and most northern European countries has ceased. The most prevalent chlorinated pesticides over the North Atlantic were chlordane and polychloroterpenes, both of which are still used in the United States.

  14. Large-scale distribution and activity of prokaryotes in deep-sea surface sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Donato; Molari, Massimiliano; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Baldrighi, Elisa; Pala, Claudia; Manini, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The deep-sea represents a substantial portion of the biosphere and has a major influence on carbon cycling and global biogeochemistry. Benthic deep-sea prokaryotes have crucial roles in this ecosystem, with their recycling of organic matter from the photic zone. Despite this, little is known about the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes in the surface deep-sea sediments. To assess the influence of environmental and trophic variables on the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes, we investigated the prokaryotic assemblage composition (Bacteria to Archaea and Euryarchaeota to Crenarchaeota ratio) and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent North Atlantic Ocean. Prokaryotic abundance and biomass did not vary significantly across the Mediterranean Sea; however, there were depth-related trends in all areas. The abundance of prokaryotes was positively correlated with the sedimentary concentration of protein, an indicator of the quality and bioavailability of organic matter. Moving eastwards, the Bacteria contribution to the total prokaryotes decreased, which appears to be linked to the more oligotrophic conditions of the Eastern Mediterranean basins. Despite the increased importance of Archaea, the contributions of Crenarchaeota Marine Group I to the total pool was relatively constant across the investigated stations, with the exception of Matapan-Vavilov Deep, in which Euryarchaeota Marine Group II dominated. Overall, our data suggest that deeper areas of the Mediterranean Sea share more similar communities with each other than with shallower sites. Freshness and quality of sedimentary organic matter were identified through Generalized Additive Model analysis as the major factors for describing the variation in the prokaryotic community structure and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments. Longitude was also important in explaining the observed variability, which suggests that the overlying water masses might have a

  15. Large-Scale Distribution and Activity of Prokaryotes in Deep-Sea Surface Sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the Adjacent Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Giovannelli, Donato; Molari, Massimiliano; d’Errico, Giuseppe; Baldrighi, Elisa; Pala, Claudia; Manini, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The deep-sea represents a substantial portion of the biosphere and has a major influence on carbon cycling and global biogeochemistry. Benthic deep-sea prokaryotes have crucial roles in this ecosystem, with their recycling of organic matter from the photic zone. Despite this, little is known about the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes in the surface deep-sea sediments. To assess the influence of environmental and trophic variables on the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes, we investigated the prokaryotic assemblage composition (Bacteria to Archaea and Euryarchaeota to Crenarchaeota ratio) and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent North Atlantic Ocean. Prokaryotic abundance and biomass did not vary significantly across the Mediterranean Sea; however, there were depth-related trends in all areas. The abundance of prokaryotes was positively correlated with the sedimentary concentration of protein, an indicator of the quality and bioavailability of organic matter. Moving eastwards, the Bacteria contribution to the total prokaryotes decreased, which appears to be linked to the more oligotrophic conditions of the Eastern Mediterranean basins. Despite the increased importance of Archaea, the contributions of Crenarchaeota Marine Group I to the total pool was relatively constant across the investigated stations, with the exception of Matapan-Vavilov Deep, in which Euryarchaeota Marine Group II dominated. Overall, our data suggest that deeper areas of the Mediterranean Sea share more similar communities with each other than with shallower sites. Freshness and quality of sedimentary organic matter were identified through Generalized Additive Model analysis as the major factors for describing the variation in the prokaryotic community structure and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments. Longitude was also important in explaining the observed variability, which suggests that the overlying water masses might have a

  16. Nd isotopic composition and REE pattern in the surface waters of the eastern Indian Ocean and its adjacent seas

    SciTech Connect

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Alibo, D.S.; Nozaki, Yoshiyuki

    2000-05-01

    The Nd isotopic composition and dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) have been measured in the surface waters along the 1996/97 R.V. Hakuho-Maru Expedition route from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean, southwest of Australia, through the Philippine and Indonesian Archipelago, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. The radiogenic {epsilon}{sub Nd} values of {minus}1.3 and {minus}1.4 were found in the Sulu Sea and near the Lombok Strait, indicating the strong influence of surrounding volcanic islands, whereas non-radiogenic {epsilon}{sub Nd} values of less than {minus}10 were found in the Southern Ocean and the Bay of Bengal suggesting Nd of continental origin. The dissolved Nd concentrations also showed a wide range of variation from 2.8 to 19.6 pmol/kg and the trivalent REE patterns exhibited characteristic features that can be grouped into each different oceanic province. The geographical distribution of dissolved Nd is different from that of atmospherically derived {sup 210}Pb, but generally resembles that of coastally derived {sup 228}Ra. This strongly suggests that fluvial and coastal input predominates over eolian input for dissolved Nd in the surface ocean. However, the riverine dissolved Nd flux appears to be relatively minor, and remobilization of Nd from coastal and shelf sediments may play an important role in the total Nd input to the ocean. By modeling the distributions of the isotopic composition and concentration of Nd together with the activity ratio of {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra in the southeastern Indian Ocean, the authors estimate a mean residence time of Nd in the surface mixed layer to be 1.5--2.6 years. The short mean residence time is comparable with, or slightly longer than that of {sup 210}Pb suggesting similar chemical reactivity.

  17. Increasing eutrophication in the coastal seas of China from 1970 to 2050.

    PubMed

    Strokal, Maryna; Yang, He; Zhang, Yinchen; Kroeze, Carolien; Li, Lili; Luan, Shengji; Wang, Huanzhi; Yang, Shunshun; Zhang, Yisheng

    2014-08-15

    We analyzed the potential for eutrophication in major seas around China: the Bohai Gulf, Yellow Sea and South China Sea. We model the riverine inputs of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and silica (Si) to coastal seas from 1970 to 2050. Between 1970 and 2000 dissolved N and P inputs to the three seas increased by a factor of 2-5. In contrast, inputs of particulate N and P and dissolved Si, decreased due to damming of rivers. Between 2000 and 2050, the total N and P inputs increase further by 30-200%. Sewage is the dominant source of dissolved N and P in the Bohai Gulf, while agriculture is the primary source in the other seas. In the future, the ratios of Si to N and P decrease, which increases the risk of harmful algal blooms. Sewage treatment may reduce this risk in the Bohai Gulf, and agricultural management in the other seas.

  18. Incorporating Infrastructure and Vegetation Effects on Sea Level Rise Predictions in Low-Gradient Coastal Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. F.; Sandi Rojas, S.; Trivisonno, F.; Saco, P. M.; Riccardi, G.

    2015-12-01

    At the regional and global scales, coastal management and planning for future sea level rise scenarios is typically supported by modelling tools that predict the expected inundation extent. These tools rely on a number of simplifying assumptions that, in some cases, may result in important overestimation or underestimation of the inundation extent. One of such cases is coastal wetlands, where vegetation strongly affects both the magnitude and the timing of inundation. Many coastal wetlands display other forms of flow restrictions due to, for example, infrastructure or drainage works, which also alters the inundation patterns. In this contribution we explore the effects of flow restrictions on inundation patterns under sea level rise conditions in coastal wetlands. We use a dynamic wetland evolution model that not only incorporates the effects of flow restrictions due to culverts, bridges and weirs as well as vegetation, but also considers that vegetation changes as a consequence of increasing inundation. We apply our model to a coastal wetland in Australia and compare predictions of our model to predictions using conventional approaches. We found that some restrictions accentuate detrimental effects of sea level rise while others moderate them. We also found that some management strategies based on flow redistribution that provide short term solution may result more damaging in the long term if sea level rise is considered.

  19. Organic micropollutants in coastal waters from NW Mediterranean Sea: sources distribution and potential risk.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Avila, Juan; Tauler, Romà; Lacorte, Silvia

    2012-10-01

    This study provides a first estimation on the sources, distribution and risk of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in coastal waters from NW Mediterranean Sea. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates and alkylphenols were analyzed by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-EI-MS/MS). River waters and wastewater treatment plant effluents discharging to the sea were identified as the main sources of OMPs to coastal waters, with an estimated input amount of around of 25,800 g d(-1). The concentration of ΣOMPs in coastal areas ranged from 17.4 to 8442 ng L(-1), and was the highest in port waters, followed by coastal and river mouth seawaters. A summarized overview of the patterns and sources of OMP contamination on the investigated coastal sea waters of NW Mediterranean Sea, as well as of their geographical distribution was obtained by Principal Component Analysis of the complete data set after its adequate pretreatment. Alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates were the main contributors to ΣOMPs and produced an estimated significant pollution risk for fish, algae and the sensitive mysid shrimp organisms in seawater samples. The combination of GC-MS/MS, chemometrics and risk analysis is proven to be useful for a better control and management of OMP discharges. PMID:22706016

  20. Global Projection of Coastal Exposure Associated with Sea-level Rise beyond Tipping Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawatari, R.; Miyazaki, C.; Iseri, Y.; Kiguchi, M.; Kanae, S.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-level rise due to global warming becomes a great matter of concern for global coastal area. Additionally, it has reported in fifth report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) that deglaciation of Greenland ice sheet and Antarctic ice sheet would occur rapidly and enhance sea-level rise if temperature passes certain "Tipping point". In terms of projecting damage induced by sea-level rise globally, some previous studies focused on duration until mainly 2100. Furthermore long-term estimations on centuries to millennial climatic response of the ice sheets which are supposed to be triggered within this or next century would be also important to think about future climate and lifestyle in coastal . In this study, I estimated the long term sea-level which take into account the tipping points of Greenland ice sheet (1.4℃) as sum of 4 factors (thermal expansion, glacier and ice cap, Greenland ice sheet, Antarctic ice sheet). The sea-level follows 4 representative concentration pathways up to 3000 obtained through literature reviewing since there were limited available sea-level projections up to 3000. I also estimated a number of affected population lives in coastal area up to 3000 with using the estimated sea-level. The cost for damage, adaptation and mitigation would be also discussed. These estimations would be useful when decision-makers propose policies for construction of dikes and proposing mitigation plans for sustainable future. The result indicates there would be large and relatively rapid increases in both sea-level rise and coastal exposure if global mean temperature passes the tipping point of Greenland ice sheet. However the tipping points, melting rate and timescale of response are highly uncertain and still discussed among experts. Thus more precise and credible information is required for further accurate estimation of long-term sea-level rise and population exposure in the future.

  1. Gymnocranius superciliosus and Gymnocranius satoi, two new large-eye breams (Sparoidea: Lethrinidae) from the Coral Sea and adjacent regions.

    PubMed

    Borsa, Philippe; Béarez, Philippe; Paijo, Sobar; Chen, Wei-Jen

    2013-04-01

    Two related perciform fish species of the subfamily Monotaxinae (Sparoidea: Lethrinidae) Gymnocranius superciliosus sp. nov. and Gymnocranius satoi sp. nov. are described from specimens and tissue samples from the Coral Sea and adjacent regions. G. superciliosus sp. nov. is distinct from all other known Gymnocranius spp. by the following combination of characters: body elongated (depth 2.7-3.1 in standard length), caudal fin moderately forked with a subtle middle notch, its lobes slightly convex inside, distinctive blackish eyebrow, snout and cheek with blue speckles, and dorsal, pectoral, anal and caudal fins reddish. G. satoi sp. nov. is the red-finned 'Gymnocranius sp.' depicted in previous taxonomic revisions. While colour patterns are similar between the two species, G. satoi sp. nov. is distinct from G. superciliosus sp. nov. by the ratio of standard length to body depth (2.4-2.5 vs. 2.7-3.1) and by the shape of the caudal fin, which is more shallowly forked, its lobes convex inside and their extremities rounded. The two species are genetically distinct from each other and they are genetically distinct from G. elongatus, G. euanus, G. grandoculis, and G. oblongus sampled from the Coral Sea and adjacent regions. PMID:23849726

  2. Benthic meiofaunal composition and community structure in the Sethukuda mangrove area and adjacent open sea, East coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilagavathi, Balasubramanaian; Das, Bandana; Saravanakumar, Ayyappan; Raja, Kuzhanthaivel

    2011-06-01

    The ecological aspects of meiofaunal communities in the Muthupettai mangrove forest, East coast of India, has not been investigated in the last two decades. Surface water temperature ranged from 23.5 °C to 31.8 °C. Salinity varied from 24 to 34 ppt, while water pH fluctuated from 7.4 to 8.3. Dissolved oxygen concentration ranged from 3.86 to 5.33 mg/l. Meiofauna analysis in this study identified a total of 106 species from the mangrove and adjacent open sea area of Sethukuda. Among these, 56 species of foraminiferans, 20 species of nematodes, 7 species of harpacticoid copepods, 4 species of ostrocodes, and 2 species of rotifers were identified. Furthermore, a single species was identified from the following groups: ciliophora, cnidaria, gnathostomulida, insecta, propulida, bryozoa and polychaete larvae. Meiofaunal density varied between 12029 to 23493 individuals 10 cm/m2. The diversity index ranged from 3.515 to 3.680, species richness index varied from 6.384 to 8.497, and evenness index varied from 0.839 to 0876 in the mangrove area and adjacent open sea.

  3. Spatial and seasonal distributions of estrogens and bisphenol A in the Yangtze River Estuary and the adjacent East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianghong; Liu, Xiaowei; Chen, Qingcai; Zhang, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Surface water and sediments in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and the adjacent East China Sea (ECS) were sampled to investigate the spatial and seasonal distributions of Estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and bisphenol A (BPA). E1 and BPA were the dominant compounds detected. The zones of the highest E1 and BPA concentrations in water were located at the mouth of the Huangpu River and the outfalls of wastewater treatment plants. The zones of the highest concentrations in sediments were mainly located in the down reach of the estuary and the adjacent sea. The relationship between E1 and BPA in sediments with those in water was not significant (BPA: r=0.16, p=0.21; E1: r=0.18, p=0.24), but positive correlations with the total organic carbon (TOC) contents of sediments (BPA: r=0.57, p<0.01; E1: r=0.33, p=0.04) and negative correlations with the sand contents of sediments (BPA: r=-0.52, p<0.01; E1: r=-0.16, p=0.23) were found. The TOC contents were the major factor influencing the E1 and BPA distributions in sediments. The hierarchical cluster analysis further indicated the spatial distributions of BPA and E1 in sediments were obviously affected by TOC and sediment particle sizes, whilst the distributions varied slightly with seasons.

  4. [Source and distribution characteristic of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides in the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent South China Sea].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-qing; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiang; Peng, Xian-zhi; Zou, Shi-chun; Qi, Shi-hua

    2008-12-01

    Ship-board air samples were collected during the winter and spring cruise to the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and adjacent South China Sea (SCS) in 2003 and were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Meanwhile, air samples were collected at land-based sites in Guangzhou and Zhongshan for comparison. Results indicated that the detected OCPs were mainly of HCHs, DDTs and chlordane, its concentration ranged between 13-99, 73-390, 63-224 pg/m3 and 10-106, 429-1003, 1724-9638 pg/m3 during the winter and spring cruise, respectively. In general, the concentrations of OCPs were higher during spring cruise than in winter cruise. The measured OCPs concentration in the atmosphere over the PRE and adjacent SCS were found higher at sites close to continent and lower in outer sea, it is suggested that land-based source were to play a key role in the delivery of atmospheric OCPs. The alpha-HCH concentrations had significantly declined, higher gamma-HCH level may attribute to the present usage of lindane. Dicofol application and antifouling paints for fishing ships was suggested to be the important current "fresh" DDT source. The observed high level of chlordane during spring cruise could be related to the large amount usage of chlordane for termite control, as well as the long range transport from the west pacific region.

  5. Antibiotics in South Indian coastal sea and farmed prawns (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Venkatesh; Nagalingam, Arun Kumar; Ranganathan, Hari Prasad; Kandhikuppam, Krishnamoorthy Bharathi; Kothandam, Hari Prasath; Vasu, Soumya

    2013-01-01

    Sulphonamides and chloramphenicol antibiotics were analysed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in sea and farmed prawn (Penaeus monodon) samples obtained from the coastal region of southern India during 2011-2012. Average recoveries were 77-99% and precision was between 1% and 8%. The results revealed that in sea prawn samples neither of the two antibiotics was detected, but in farmed samples from coastal Andhra Pradesh some sulphonamides were detected in a concentration range greater than the maximum residual limit as set by Council Directive 2377/90 EC. PMID:24779904

  6. Influence of seasonal variations in sea level on the salinity regime of a coastal groundwater-fed wetland.

    PubMed

    Wood, Cameron; Harrington, Glenn A

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sea level are often neglected in studies of coastal aquifers; however, they may have important controls on processes such as submarine groundwater discharge, sea water intrusion, and groundwater discharge to coastal springs and wetlands. We investigated seasonal variations in salinity in a groundwater-fed coastal wetland (the RAMSAR listed Piccaninnie Ponds in South Australia) and found that salinity peaked during winter, coincident with seasonal sea level peaks. Closer examination of salinity variations revealed a relationship between changes in sea level and changes in salinity, indicating that sea level-driven movement of the fresh water-sea water interface influences the salinity of discharging groundwater in the wetland. Moreover, the seasonal control of sea level on wetland salinity seems to override the influence of seasonal recharge. A two-dimensional variable density model helped validate this conceptual model of coastal groundwater discharge by showing that fluctuations in groundwater salinity in a coastal aquifer can be driven by a seasonal coastal boundary condition in spite of seasonal recharge/discharge dynamics. Because seasonal variations in sea level and coastal wetlands are ubiquitous throughout the world, these findings have important implications for monitoring and management of coastal groundwater-dependent ecosystems.

  7. Sea-level rise and coastal change: the past as a guide to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, Colin D.; Murray-Wallace, Colin V.

    2012-10-01

    There is a broader awareness than ever that we live in a changing environment. The spectre of climate change is of wide concern, and the observed trends and anticipated consequences of an acceleration of sea-level rise pose a series of threats for the future of people who live in coastal communities. Coastal geoscientists are able to reconstruct the position of former sea levels; they can also explain much of the geographical variation in relative sea-level history. Successive collaborative projects (many under the auspices of international programmes sponsored by IGCP and INQUA) derived local sea-level histories and compiled atlases of relative sea-level curves, and some addressed past coastal behaviour in response to these changes. The most recent International Geological Correlation programme project 588, 'Preparing for coastal change', continues this impressive lineage of projects that have laid the foundations for our understanding of sea-level behaviour over the late Quaternary. Today, these issues are a major focus in the debate about climate change, its impacts, and the need for adaptation on the most vulnerable shorelines. There is clearly a role for the palaeoenvironmental skillset honed through successive geoscientific projects. Investigations of past coastal environments have provided the tools for delineating past levels of the sea, but the stratigraphical and geochronological studies which were necessary to reconstruct the sea-level position also provide insights into where the shoreline lay and how the coast behaved as sea level changed. If the present is the key to the past, then the past, seen from the context of the present, can be a guide to the future. Collaborative projects and international co-operation between scientists from different disciplines can play important roles in future debates about how our world will change. First, the lessons learnt about the patterns of variation of relative sea level need to be more widely recognised by

  8. Mesoscale vortices in the Ligurian Sea and their effect on coastal upwelling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Elisa; Molcard, Anne; Provenzale, Antonello

    2011-10-01

    We study numerically the dynamics of intense anticyclonic eddies in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea). To this end, we use the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) with a resolution of 3 km for a domain covering the whole Ligurian Sea, with an embedded child grid covering the northwestern part of Ligurian Sea at resolution 1 km. The model is forced with daily boundary conditions obtained from the MFS dataset for the year 2006 at the open lateral boundaries. Surface heat and evapotranspiration fluxes are provided by the monthly climatological dataset COADS at 1/2° spatial resolution. For wind forcing, we consider two configurations. In the first setting, the model is forced by the COADS climatological monthly mean wind stresses; in a second configuration, the model is forced by the daily mean wind stresses provided by a mesoscale meteorological model for the area of interest in the year 2006. The latter setting shows the formation of intense anticyclonic eddy structures in the coastal area, generated by the variable winds and by the interaction of transient currents with bottom and coastal topography (in the NW part of the Ligurian Sea). Comparison of model output with satellite SST data shows definite agreement between numerical results and observations. Analysis of the simulation results over the whole year 2006 and of SST satellite images in 2006 and 2007 indicates that coastal anticyclonic eddies are of common occurrence in the Ligurian Sea, with several events per year, mainly concentrated in autumn and winter. The eddies are characterized by a complex pattern of intense vertical velocities and induce strong, long-lasting coastal upwelling events. For this reason, anticyclonic vortices in the coastal area can generate bursts of nutrient input in the euphotic layer and contribute to the fertilization of the Ligurian Sea, with potentially important effects on the dynamics of phyto- and zooplankton.

  9. Molecular diversity and distribution pattern of ciliates in sediments from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and adjacent sea areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-10-01

    In comparison with the macrobenthos and prokaryotes, patterns of diversity and distribution of microbial eukaryotes in deep-sea hydrothermal vents are poorly known. The widely used high-throughput sequencing of 18S rDNA has revealed a high diversity of microeukaryotes yielded from both living organisms and buried DNA in marine sediments. More recently, cDNA surveys have been utilized to uncover the diversity of active organisms. However, both methods have never been used to evaluate the diversity of ciliates in hydrothermal vents. By using high-throughput DNA and cDNA sequencing of 18S rDNA, we evaluated the molecular diversity of ciliates, a representative group of microbial eukaryotes, from the sediments of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and compared it with that of an adjacent deep-sea area about 15 km away and that of an offshore area of the Yellow Sea about 500 km away. The results of DNA sequencing showed that Spirotrichea and Oligohymenophorea were the most diverse and abundant groups in all the three habitats. The proportion of sequences of Oligohymenophorea was the highest in the hydrothermal vents whereas Spirotrichea was the most diverse group at all three habitats. Plagiopyleans were found only in the hydrothermal vents but with low diversity and abundance. By contrast, the cDNA sequencing showed that Plagiopylea was the most diverse and most abundant group in the hydrothermal vents, followed by Spirotrichea in terms of diversity and Oligohymenophorea in terms of relative abundance. A novel group of ciliates, distinctly separate from the 12 known classes, was detected in the hydrothermal vents, indicating undescribed, possibly highly divergent ciliates may inhabit this environment. Statistical analyses showed that: (i) the three habitats differed significantly from one another in terms of diversity of both the rare and the total ciliate taxa, and; (ii) the adjacent deep sea was more similar to the offshore area than to the

  10. Summary of hydraulic properties of the Floridan Aquifer system in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Leeth, David C.; Taylor-Harris, DaVette; Painter, Jaime A.; Labowski, James L.

    2005-01-01

    Hydraulic-property data for the Floridan aquifer system and equivalent clastic sediments in a 67-county area of coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida were evaluated to provide data necessary for development of ground-water flow and solute-transport models. Data include transmissivity at 324 wells, storage coefficient at 115 wells, and vertical hydraulic conductivity of 72 core samples from 27 sites. Hydraulic properties of the Upper Floridan aquifer vary greatly in the study area due to the heterogeneity (and locally to anisotropy) of the aquifer and to variations in the degree of confinement provided by confining units. Prominent structural features in the areathe Southeast Georgia Embayment, the Beaufort Arch, and the Gulf Troughinfluence the thickness and hydraulic properties of the sediments comprising the Floridan aquifer system. Transmissivity of the Upper Floridan aquifer and equivalent updip units was compiled for 239 wells and ranges from 530 feet squared per day (ft2/d) at Beaufort County, South Carolina, to 600,000 ft2/d in Coffee County, Georgia. In carbonate rock settings of the lower Coastal Plain, transmissivity of the Upper Floridan aquifer generally is greater than 20,000 ft2/d, with values exceeding 100,000 ft2/d in the southeastern and southwestern parts of the study area (generally coinciding with the area of greatest aquifer thickness). Transmissivity of the Upper Floridan aquifer generally is less than 10,000 ft2/d in and near the upper Coastal Plain, where the aquifer is thin and consists largely of clastic sediments, and in the vicinity of the Gulf Trough, where the aquifer consists of low permeability rocks and sediments. Large variability in the range of transmissivity in Camden and Glynn Counties, Georgia, and Nassau County, Florida, demonstrates the anisotropic distribution of hydraulic properties that may result from fractures or solution openings in the carbonate rocks. Storage coefficient of the Upper

  11. Impacts on the Deep-Sea Ecosystem by a Severe Coastal Storm

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Calafat, Antoni M.; Lastras, Galderic; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Menéndez, Melisa; Medina, Raúl; Company, Joan B.; Hereu, Bernat; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Major coastal storms, associated with strong winds, high waves and intensified currents, and occasionally with heavy rains and flash floods, are mostly known because of the serious damage they can cause along the shoreline and the threats they pose to navigation. However, there is a profound lack of knowledge on the deep-sea impacts of severe coastal storms. Concurrent measurements of key parameters along the coast and in the deep-sea are extremely rare. Here we present a unique data set showing how one of the most extreme coastal storms of the last decades lashing the Western Mediterranean Sea rapidly impacted the deep-sea ecosystem. The storm peaked the 26th of December 2008 leading to the remobilization of a shallow-water reservoir of marine organic carbon associated with fine particles and resulting in its redistribution across the deep basin. The storm also initiated the movement of large amounts of coarse shelf sediment, which abraded and buried benthic communities. Our findings demonstrate, first, that severe coastal storms are highly efficient in transporting organic carbon from shallow water to deep water, thus contributing to its sequestration and, second, that natural, intermittent atmospheric drivers sensitive to global climate change have the potential to tremendously impact the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth, the deep-sea ecosystem. PMID:22295084

  12. Comment [on “Sea level rise shown to drive coastal erosion”

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Young, Robert S.; Bush, David M.

    2000-01-01

    Leatherman et al. [2000] (Eos, Trans., AGU, February 8, 2000, p.55) affirm that global eustatic sea-level rise is driving coastal erosion. Furthermore, they argue that the long-term average rate of shoreline retreat is 150 times the rate of sea-level rise. This rate, they say, is more than a magnitude greater than would be expected from a simple response to sea-level rise through inundation of the shoreline. We agree that sea-level rise is the primary factor causing shoreline retreat in stable coastal areas.This is intuitive. We also believe, however, that the Leatherman et al. [2000] study has greatly underestimated the rate of coastal recession along most low slope shorelines. Slopes along the North Carolina continental shelf/coastal plain approach 10,000:1. To us, this suggests that we should expect rates of shoreline recession 10,000 times the rate of sea-level rise through simple inundation of the shoreline.

  13. Impacts on the deep-sea ecosystem by a severe coastal storm.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Calafat, Antoni M; Lastras, Galderic; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Menéndez, Melisa; Medina, Raúl; Company, Joan B; Hereu, Bernat; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Major coastal storms, associated with strong winds, high waves and intensified currents, and occasionally with heavy rains and flash floods, are mostly known because of the serious damage they can cause along the shoreline and the threats they pose to navigation. However, there is a profound lack of knowledge on the deep-sea impacts of severe coastal storms. Concurrent measurements of key parameters along the coast and in the deep-sea are extremely rare. Here we present a unique data set showing how one of the most extreme coastal storms of the last decades lashing the Western Mediterranean Sea rapidly impacted the deep-sea ecosystem. The storm peaked the 26(th) of December 2008 leading to the remobilization of a shallow-water reservoir of marine organic carbon associated with fine particles and resulting in its redistribution across the deep basin. The storm also initiated the movement of large amounts of coarse shelf sediment, which abraded and buried benthic communities. Our findings demonstrate, first, that severe coastal storms are highly efficient in transporting organic carbon from shallow water to deep water, thus contributing to its sequestration and, second, that natural, intermittent atmospheric drivers sensitive to global climate change have the potential to tremendously impact the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth, the deep-sea ecosystem.

  14. Diversity and distribution of Porifera in the bathyal and abyssal Weddell Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janussen, Dorte; Tendal, Ole Secher

    2007-08-01

    During the ANDEEP I-III expeditions, we obtained a rich and highly diverse sponge collection from the deep Weddell Sea. All the three Poriferan classes, Calcarea, Demospongiae and Hexactinellida, were well represented. Among this material, we have identified a total of 76 species from 47 genera and 30 families. Of these, 17 species (22%) are new to science and 37 (49%) new for the Southern Ocean. Particularly remarkable is the considerable depth of the boundary between bathyal and abyssal sponge faunas. Both Demospongiae and Hexactinellida show a strong shift in their taxonomic composition from a typical shelf assemblage to a more cosmopolitan deep-sea fauna at around 2500 m. Within the Demospongiae, the families Polymastiidae and Cladorhizidae (carnivorous sponges) are particularly abundant and very diverse. The Calcarea are recorded for the first time from the Antarctic deep sea. The type of sampling gear used, especially the epibenthic sledge, was an important factor for the successful collection of deep-sea sponges during the ANDEEP campaigns.

  15. Sea-level rise and its impact on coastal zones.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Robert J; Cazenave, Anny

    2010-06-18

    Global sea levels have risen through the 20th century. These rises will almost certainly accelerate through the 21st century and beyond because of global warming, but their magnitude remains uncertain. Key uncertainties include the possible role of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets and the amplitude of regional changes in sea level. In many areas, nonclimatic components of relative sea-level change (mainly subsidence) can also be locally appreciable. Although the impacts of sea-level rise are potentially large, the application and success of adaptation are large uncertainties that require more assessment and consideration.

  16. Environmental Gradients Explain Species Richness and Community Composition of Coastal Breeding Birds in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Nord, Maria; Forslund, Pär

    2015-01-01

    Scientifically-based systematic conservation planning for reserve design requires knowledge of species richness patterns and how these are related to environmental gradients. In this study, we explore a large inventory of coastal breeding birds, in total 48 species, sampled in 4646 1 km2 squares which covered a large archipelago in the Baltic Sea on the east coast of Sweden. We analysed how species richness (α diversity) and community composition (β diversity) of two groups of coastal breeding birds (specialists, i.e. obligate coastal breeders; generalists, i.e. facultative coastal breeders) were affected by distance to open sea, land area, shoreline length and archipelago width. The total number of species per square increased with increasing shoreline length, but increasing land area counteracted this effect in specialists. The number of specialist bird species per square increased with decreasing distance to open sea, while the opposite was true for the generalists. Differences in community composition between squares were associated with differences in land area and distance to open sea, both when considering all species pooled and each group separately. Fourteen species were nationally red-listed, and showed similar relationships to the environmental gradients as did all species, specialists and generalists. We suggest that availability of suitable breeding habitats, and probably also proximity to feeding areas, explain much of the observed spatial distributions of coastal birds in this study. Our findings have important implications for systematic conservation planning of coastal breeding birds. In particular, we provide information on where coastal breeding birds occur and which environments they seem to prefer. Small land areas with long shorelines are highly valuable both in general and for red-listed species. Thus, such areas should be prioritized for protection against human disturbance and used by management in reserve selection. PMID:25714432

  17. Environmental gradients explain species richness and community composition of coastal breeding birds in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Nord, Maria; Forslund, Pär

    2015-01-01

    Scientifically-based systematic conservation planning for reserve design requires knowledge of species richness patterns and how these are related to environmental gradients. In this study, we explore a large inventory of coastal breeding birds, in total 48 species, sampled in 4646 1 km2 squares which covered a large archipelago in the Baltic Sea on the east coast of Sweden. We analysed how species richness (α diversity) and community composition (β diversity) of two groups of coastal breeding birds (specialists, i.e. obligate coastal breeders; generalists, i.e. facultative coastal breeders) were affected by distance to open sea, land area, shoreline length and archipelago width. The total number of species per square increased with increasing shoreline length, but increasing land area counteracted this effect in specialists. The number of specialist bird species per square increased with decreasing distance to open sea, while the opposite was true for the generalists. Differences in community composition between squares were associated with differences in land area and distance to open sea, both when considering all species pooled and each group separately. Fourteen species were nationally red-listed, and showed similar relationships to the environmental gradients as did all species, specialists and generalists. We suggest that availability of suitable breeding habitats, and probably also proximity to feeding areas, explain much of the observed spatial distributions of coastal birds in this study. Our findings have important implications for systematic conservation planning of coastal breeding birds. In particular, we provide information on where coastal breeding birds occur and which environments they seem to prefer. Small land areas with long shorelines are highly valuable both in general and for red-listed species. Thus, such areas should be prioritized for protection against human disturbance and used by management in reserve selection.

  18. Environmental gradients explain species richness and community composition of coastal breeding birds in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Nord, Maria; Forslund, Pär

    2015-01-01

    Scientifically-based systematic conservation planning for reserve design requires knowledge of species richness patterns and how these are related to environmental gradients. In this study, we explore a large inventory of coastal breeding birds, in total 48 species, sampled in 4646 1 km2 squares which covered a large archipelago in the Baltic Sea on the east coast of Sweden. We analysed how species richness (α diversity) and community composition (β diversity) of two groups of coastal breeding birds (specialists, i.e. obligate coastal breeders; generalists, i.e. facultative coastal breeders) were affected by distance to open sea, land area, shoreline length and archipelago width. The total number of species per square increased with increasing shoreline length, but increasing land area counteracted this effect in specialists. The number of specialist bird species per square increased with decreasing distance to open sea, while the opposite was true for the generalists. Differences in community composition between squares were associated with differences in land area and distance to open sea, both when considering all species pooled and each group separately. Fourteen species were nationally red-listed, and showed similar relationships to the environmental gradients as did all species, specialists and generalists. We suggest that availability of suitable breeding habitats, and probably also proximity to feeding areas, explain much of the observed spatial distributions of coastal birds in this study. Our findings have important implications for systematic conservation planning of coastal breeding birds. In particular, we provide information on where coastal breeding birds occur and which environments they seem to prefer. Small land areas with long shorelines are highly valuable both in general and for red-listed species. Thus, such areas should be prioritized for protection against human disturbance and used by management in reserve selection. PMID:25714432

  19. A Coastal Storms Intensity Scale for the Catalan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, E. T.; Jimenez, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    The impact of storms on the coastal zone produces a series of high-intensity processes such as beach erosion, overwash and inundation, usually considered as coastal hazards. When these coastal hazards verify along developed/urbanized areas, could produce large damages in existing infrastructures, affect coastal uses and disturb coastal ecosystem services. The importance of these storms and induced hazards is explicit in the Protocol on ICZM in the Mediterranean signed in 2008 by the EU and the Mediterranean countries. This Protocol includes a specific chapter on natural hazards, where the parties are advised to undertake vulnerability and hazard assessments of coastal zones and take prevention, mitigation and adaptation measures to address the effects of natural disasters. Within this context, the main aim of this work is to present an intensity scale for coastal storms developed for typical conditions of the Catalan Shelf. This follows the classic works of the hurricane (Saffir-Simpson, 1971) and the Atlantic Northeast storms (Dolan-Davis, 1992) scales although adapting them to the characteristics of Mediterranean coastal wave storms. To develop such scale, wave data recorded along the Catalan coast in 5 locations covering a coastline of about 400 km have been used. Recorded wave time series cover a total time frame of about 25 years (1984-2008). The first task was to identify storms in time series, which here were defined as those events during which the significant wave height exceeded a minimum value (threshold) of 2 m during a minimum period of 6 hours. Because our interest is to use this information to help managers to deal with coastal hazards, this definition was based not just in statistical properties of time series but on physical ones, i.e. this is the minimum event producing a significant coastal response in terms of beach erosion (estimated by means of numerical modelling of beach response to storm impacts). With this, a complete storm data set for

  20. Recent seasonal hypoxia on the Western Black Sea shelf recorded in adjacent slope sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roepert, Anne; Jilbert, Tom S.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2015-04-01

    Bottom water hypoxia is a major environmental problem afflicting estuarine and marine environments across the globe (Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008). Hypoxia is often attributed to human-induced increased nutrient discharge from rivers and related eutrophication. The Western Black Sea shelf is a typical example of a system where such anthropogenic impacts are thought to have contributed to the development of seasonal hypoxia in the late 20th century. However, due to the lack of spatially and temporally consistent monitoring in the region, questions remain about the evolution, causes and consequences of the seasonal hypoxia on the Western Black Sea shelf and whether or not the ecological state has recently improved (Capet et al., 2013). In this study a resin-embedded sediment core from a location below the chemocline on the Western Black Sea slope (water depth 377 m) was analyzed for its elemental composition by means of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), recovering a continuous geochemical record at a sub-annual resolution for the last 100 years. Relative enrichments in organic carbon, Pb, Fe, S, and Mo were observed in the depth interval corresponding to the 1970s until the 1990s, suggesting an increased carbon flux to the sediments as well as an anthropogenic pollution signal. We propose that the expansion of eutrophication on the Western Black Sea shelf was responsible for the enhanced carbon flux to our study site, while the associated hypoxia enhanced the shuttling of redox-sensitive elements to locations below the chemocline. The subsequent decrease in organic carbon and metal enrichments at the core top suggests a recent rise in oxygen concentrations and improvement of the ecological state of the Western Black Sea shelf. References: Capet, A., Beckers, J.-M., Grégoire, M. (2013). "Drivers, mechanisms and long-term variability of seasonal hypoxia on the Black Sea northwestern shelf-is there any recovery after eutrophication

  1. Macrobenthos of the southern part of St. Anna trough and the adjacent Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. V.; Vedenin, A. A.; Minin, K. V.; Rogacheva, A. V.; Molodtsova, T. N.; Rajskiy, A. K.; Kucheruk, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    Taxonomic composition and ecological structure of benthic communities of the southern part of St. Anna Trough were investigated during the 54th and 59th cruises of RV Akademik Mstislav Keldysh. Material was collected using Sigsbee trawl at 10 stations arranged in two transects (depth range 57-554 m). It was shown that benthic communities of the western arm of the St. Anna Trough differ considerably from the communities of the eastern arm. The western arm communities develop under the influence of active near-bottom hydrodynamics in conditions of rugged topography and a coarse-grained sediment or hard substrate. The wastern arm of the trough is characterized by the predomination of the soft sediment, smooth topography, and weak currents. In the western arm of the trough the influence of the Barents Sea fauna is traced down to the edge of the internal shelf (about 150 m depth). The community of the eastern arm of the trough situated out from the direct influence of the Barents Sea waters represents a continuation of the Ophiocten sericeum community, typical for external Kara Sea shelf. With increasing depth, Ophiopleura borealis becomes the dominant species of the community. In the greatest explored depths some deep-water High-Arctic species, such as echinoids Pourtalesia jeffreysi, were observed. The major factors determining the distribution of benthic communities in the investigated area are the microrelief pattern, the sediment structure, and near-bottom hydrodynamics.

  2. The Egyptian Red Sea coastal microbiome: A study revealing differential microbial responses to diverse anthropogenic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ghada A; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Ouf, Amged; Siam, Rania

    2016-07-01

    The Red Sea is considered one of the youngest oceanic systems, with unique physical, geochemical and biological characteristics. Tourism, industrialization, extensive fishing, oil processing and shipping are extensive sources of pollution in the Red Sea. We analyzed the geochemical characteristics and microbial community of sediments along the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. Our sites mainly included 1) four ports used for shipping aluminum, ilmenite and phosphate; 2) a site previously reported to have suffered extensive oil spills; and 3) a site impacted by tourism. Two major datasets for the sediment of ten Red Sea coastal sites were generated; i) a chemical dataset included measurements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur, metals and selected semi-volatile oil; and ii) a 16S rRNA Pyrotags bacterial metagenomic dataset. Based on the taxonomic assignments of the 16S rRNA Pyrotags to major bacterial groups, we report 30 taxa constituting an Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome. Bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons were predominant in the majority of the sites, particularly in two ports where they reached up to 76% of the total identified genera. In contrast, sulfate-reducing and sulfate-oxidizing bacteria dominated two lakes at the expense of other hydrocarbon metabolizers. Despite the reported "Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome," sites with similar anthropogenic pollutants showed unique microbial community abundances. This suggests that the abundance of a specific bacterial community is an evolutionary mechanism induced in response to selected anthropogenic pollutants.

  3. Modeling the impact of sea-spray on particle concentrations in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J; Schoof, J T; Binkowski, F S; Delle Monache, L; Stull, R

    2008-02-25

    With the worlds population becoming increasingly focused on coastal locations there is a need to better understand the interactions between anthropogenic emissions and marine atmospheres. Herein an atmospheric chemistry-transport model is used to assess the impacts of sea-spray chemistry on the particle composition in and downwind of a coastal city--Vancouver, British Columbia. It is shown that the model can reasonably represent the average features of the gas phase and particle climate relative to in situ measurements. It is further demonstrated that reactions in/on sea-spray affect the entire particle ensemble and particularly the size distribution of particle nitrate, but that the importance of these heterogeneous reactions is critically dependent on both the initial vertical profile of sea spray and the sea-spray source functions. The results emphasize the need for improved understanding of sea spray production and dispersion and further that model analyses of air quality in coastal cities conducted without inclusion of sea-spray interactions may yield mis-leading results in terms of emission sensitivities of particle composition and concentrations.

  4. Modeling the impact of sea-spray on particle concentrations in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J; Schoof, J T; Binkowski, F S; Delle Monache, L; Stull, R

    2008-02-25

    With the worlds population becoming increasingly focused on coastal locations there is a need to better understand the interactions between anthropogenic emissions and marine atmospheres. Herein an atmospheric chemistry-transport model is used to assess the impacts of sea-spray chemistry on the particle composition in and downwind of a coastal city--Vancouver, British Columbia. It is shown that the model can reasonably represent the average features of the gas phase and particle climate relative to in situ measurements. It is further demonstrated that reactions in/on sea-spray affect the entire particle ensemble and particularly the size distribution of particle nitrate, but that the importance of these heterogeneous reactions is critically dependent on both the initial vertical profile of sea spray and the sea-spray source functions. The results emphasize the need for improved understanding of sea spray production and dispersion and further that model analyses of air quality in coastal cities conducted without inclusion of sea-spray interactions may yield mis-leading results in terms of emission sensitivities of particle composition and concentrations. PMID:18061242

  5. The Egyptian Red Sea coastal microbiome: A study revealing differential microbial responses to diverse anthropogenic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ghada A; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Ouf, Amged; Siam, Rania

    2016-07-01

    The Red Sea is considered one of the youngest oceanic systems, with unique physical, geochemical and biological characteristics. Tourism, industrialization, extensive fishing, oil processing and shipping are extensive sources of pollution in the Red Sea. We analyzed the geochemical characteristics and microbial community of sediments along the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. Our sites mainly included 1) four ports used for shipping aluminum, ilmenite and phosphate; 2) a site previously reported to have suffered extensive oil spills; and 3) a site impacted by tourism. Two major datasets for the sediment of ten Red Sea coastal sites were generated; i) a chemical dataset included measurements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur, metals and selected semi-volatile oil; and ii) a 16S rRNA Pyrotags bacterial metagenomic dataset. Based on the taxonomic assignments of the 16S rRNA Pyrotags to major bacterial groups, we report 30 taxa constituting an Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome. Bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons were predominant in the majority of the sites, particularly in two ports where they reached up to 76% of the total identified genera. In contrast, sulfate-reducing and sulfate-oxidizing bacteria dominated two lakes at the expense of other hydrocarbon metabolizers. Despite the reported "Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome," sites with similar anthropogenic pollutants showed unique microbial community abundances. This suggests that the abundance of a specific bacterial community is an evolutionary mechanism induced in response to selected anthropogenic pollutants. PMID:27179234

  6. Understanding the Effects of Sea-Level Rise on Coastal Wetlands: The Human Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Denise

    2010-05-01

    In the 21st century coastal systems are subject to the pressures of centuries of population growth and resource exploitation. In 2003, in the US approximately 153 million people (53 percent of the population) lived in coastal counties, an increase of 33 million people since 1980 and this is expected to increase by approximately 7 million by the year 2008. Eight of the world's top ten largest cities are located at the coast, 44 % of the world's population (more people than inhabited the entire globe in 1950) live within 150 km of the coast and in 2001 over half the world's population lived within 200 km of a coastline. . Increased population density at the coasts often brings pollution and habitat degradation - decreasing the value of many of the resources that initially attract the coastal development - and it also means the effect of sea-level rise on coastal geomorphic systems must be seen in the context of additional human pressures. For global sea-level debate centers on the magnitude and rate of the rise around most of the world; the exception being those areas still experiencing falling sea-levels due to isostatic rebound. Many coastal island states are clearly vulnerable. While the ‘lurid and misleading maps' of the 1980's used by many to indicate areas to be flooded by rising seas in the future, have been replaced by more considered discussion of the response of coastal dynamics to rising seas there is still considerable debate about the amount of sea-level rise shorelines will experience in the 21st century. For coastal wetlands four main sets of physical factors - fine sediment regime; tidal conditions; coastal configuration; and relative sea-level change - define the geomorphic context for coastal marsh development and survival during the 21st century. Each of these factors is influenced by changes in climate and human alterations to coastal and inshore environments. In turn changes in sediment dynamics are mediated by both physical forcing and biotic

  7. Phase I for the Use of TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason-1 Radar Altimetry to Monitor Coastal Wetland Inundation and Sea Level Rise in Coastal Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brozen, Madeline; Batina, Matthew; Parker, Stephen; Brooks, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the first phase of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying satellite altimetry data to monitor sea level rise and inundation within coastal Louisiana. Global sea level is rising, and coastal Louisiana is subsiding. Therefore, there is a need to monitor these trends over time for coastal restoration and hazard mitigation efforts. TOPEX/POSEIDON and Jason-data are used for global sea level estimates and have also been demonstrated successfully in water level studies of lakes, river basins, and floodplains throughout the world. To employ TOPEX/POSEIDON and Jason-1 data in coastal regions, the numerous steps involved in processing the data over non-open ocean areas must be assessed. This project outlined the appropriate methodology for processing non-open ocean data, including retracking and atmospheric corrections. It also inventoried the many factors in coastal land loss including subsidence, sea level rise, coastal geomorphology, and salinity levels, among others, through a review of remote sensing and field methods. In addition, the project analyzed the socioeconomic factors within the Coastal Zone as compared to the rest of Louisiana. While sensor data uncertainty must be addressed, it was determined that it is feasible to apply radar altimetry data from TOPEX/POSEIDON and Jason 1 to see trends in change within Coastal Louisiana since

  8. Underwater, low-frequency noise in a coastal sea turtle habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Y.; Morreale, S. J.; Clark, C. W.; Greene, C. H.; Richmond, M. E.

    2005-03-01

    Underwater sound was recorded in one of the major coastal foraging areas for juvenile sea turtles in the Peconic Bay Estuary system in Long Island, New York. The recording season of the underwater environment coincided with the sea turtle activity season in an inshore area where there is considerable boating and recreational activity, especially during the summer between Independence Day and Labor Day. Within the range of sea turtle hearing, average noise pressure reached 110 dB during periods of high human activity and diminished proportionally, down to 80 dB, with decreasing human presence. Therefore, during much of the season when sea turtles are actively foraging in New York waters, their coastal habitats are flooded with underwater noise. During the period of highest human activity, average noise pressures within the range of frequencies heard by sea turtles were greater by over two orders of magnitude (26 dB) than during the lowest period of human activity. Sea turtles undoubtedly are exposed to high levels of noise, most of which is anthropogenic. Results suggest that continued exposure to existing high levels of pervasive anthropogenic noise in vital sea turtle habitats and any increase in noise could affect sea turtle behavior and ecology. .

  9. Detection of pharmaceuticals and other personal care products in groundwater beneath and adjacent to onsite wastewater treatment systems in a coastal plain shallow aquifer.

    PubMed

    Del Rosario, Katie L; Mitra, Siddhartha; Humphrey, Charles P; O'Driscoll, Michael A

    2014-07-15

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are the predominant disposal method for human waste in areas without municipal sewage treatment alternatives. Relatively few studies have addressed the release of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from OWTS to groundwater. PPCP fate and transport from OWTS are important, particularly where these systems are adjacent to sensitive aquatic ecosystems such as coastal areas or wetlands. The objectives of this study were to identify PPCPs in residential wastewater and groundwater beneath OWTS and to characterize the environmental conditions affecting the OWTS discharge of PPCPs to nearby streams. The study sites are in coastal plain aquifers, which may be considered vulnerable "end-members" for subsurface PPCP transport. The PPCPs most commonly detected in the OWTS, at concentrations ranging from 0.12 μg L(-1) to 12.04 μg L(-1) in the groundwater, included: caffeine, ibuprofen, DEET, and homosalate. Their presence was related to particulate and dissolved organic carbon abundance.

  10. Coastal seas in a changing world: Anthropogenic impact and environmental responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Gao, Xuelu; Ishizaka, Joji; Lebel, Louis

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades, human-driven environmental change caused by the modification of river discharges, the exploitation of marine resources, the burning of fossil fuels, and various shoreline developments and engineering activities, has accelerated; and evidence of this is seen around the world. Linking continents with open oceans, coastal seas trap most land-based discharge and consequently face varying degrees of anthropogenic change.

  11. Remotely-sensed sea surface temperatuares (SST) of Northeaster Pacific Coastal Zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important indicator of long-term trends and geographical temperature patterns; however there have been relatively few long-term records of SST in near-coastal habitats. In situ SST measurements are irregular in both space and time. Therefore, w...

  12. Preliminary study on pisionids (Annelida: Polychaeta Pisionidae) from Hainan Island coastal waters, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bao-Ling; Ding, Zhi-Hu; Huang, Feng-Peng

    1998-06-01

    Of the four species of Pisione Grube (1856) collected from the coastal waters of Hainan Island, the South China Sea, and described in this paper, Pisione hainanensis n. sp. is new to science; Pisione oerstedii Grube, 1857; Pisione complexa Alikunhi, 1947, and Pisione levisetosa Zhao, Westheide & Wu, 1991 are reported for the first time from this area.

  13. Nonlinear responses of coastal salt marshes to nutrient additions and sea level rise

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing nutrients and accelerated sea level rise (SLR) can cause marsh loss in some coastal systems. Responses to nutrients and SLR are complex and vary with soil matrix, marsh elevation, sediment inputs, and hydroperiod. We describe field and greenhouse studies examining sing...

  14. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  15. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  16. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Verger, F.; Monget, J. M.; Crepon, M. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an investigation to map the various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France are presented. Paricular emphasis is given to the natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. It is shown that a close correlation exist between wind speed direction and the offshore width of the effluent.

  17. Twentieth century sea-ice trends in the Ross Sea from a high-resolution, coastal ice-core record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Kate E.; Bertler, Nancy A. N.; Bowen, Melissa M.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-05-01

    We present the first proxy record of sea-ice area (SIA) in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, from a 130 year coastal ice-core record. High-resolution deuterium excess data show prevailing stable SIA from the 1880s until the 1950s, a 2-5% reduction from the mid-1950s to the early-1990s, and a 5% increase after 1993. Additional support for this reconstruction is derived from ice-core methanesulphonic acid concentrations and whaling records. While SIA has continued to decline around much of the West Antarctic coastline since the 1950s, concurrent with increasing air and ocean temperatures, the underlying trend is masked in the Ross Sea by a switch to positive SIA anomalies since the early-1990s. This increase is associated with a strengthening of southerly winds and the enhanced northward advection of sea ice.

  18. An European historical reconstruction of sea surface dynamics (waves and storm surge) for coastal impact studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, Melisa; Perez, Jorge; Cid, Alba; Castanedo, Sonia; Losada, Inigo; Medina, Raul; Mendez, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Despite their outstanding relevance in coastal processes, a study of the sea surface dynamics due to atmospheric wind and pressure variations are rather limited in comparison with the mean sea level rise. Data of waves and surges along the European region are scarce and in-homogeneous, not only in terms of spatial coverage but also in terms of temporal coverage. This study presents two databases focused on a historical reconstruction of: (i) the wind-generated waves (GOW) and (ii) the meteorological sea level component (GOS). The GOW and GOS datasets cover the whole European coast (North Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea) at high-spatial resolution from 1979 to present. The meteorological sea level component (storm surge) has been generated by the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). To take into account non-linear interactions between tides and surges, both dynamics were simulated jointly. Final results of meteorological component of sea level were obtained by subtracting the astronomical tide from the simulated sea surface. The model was set-up for Europe using an orthogonal grid, with a horizontal resolution ranging between 3.5 to 11 km. A spatial domain of approximately 5 km was used for the Black Sea. Local coastal waves can be the integrated result of the ocean surface over a large region of influence. GOW-Europe is designed from a multigrid approach based on the overlapping of two-way nested domains. The coarser spatial resolution along the European coast of GOW is 15 km. The generation and propagation of the sea surface waves of GOW-Europe are simulated with the model WAVEWATCH III v4.18. Effects of non-linear wave-wave interactions, whitecapping and depth-induced refraction are considered in the propagation model. In order to validate GOW and GOS over Europe with available observations, an exhaustive comparison with in-situ and remote measurements was developed. In-situ buoys and tide-gauges are used to compare hourly time

  19. Diversity and distribution of marine microbial eukaryotes in the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, C; Massana, R; Pedrós-Alió, C

    2006-05-01

    We analyzed microbial eukaryote diversity in perennially cold arctic marine waters by using 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. Samples were collected during concurrent oceanographic missions to opposite sides of the Arctic Ocean Basin and encompassed five distinct water masses. Two deep water Arctic Ocean sites and the convergence of the Greenland, Norwegian, and Barents Seas were sampled from 28 August to 2 September 2002. An additional sample was obtained from the Beaufort Sea (Canada) in early October 2002. The ribotypes were diverse, with different communities among sites and between the upper mixed layer and just below the halocline. Eukaryotes from the remote Canada Basin contained new phylotypes belonging to the radiolarian orders Acantharea, Polycystinea, and Taxopodida. A novel group within the photosynthetic stramenopiles was also identified. One sample closest to the interior of the Canada Basin yielded only four major taxa, and all but two of the sequences recovered belonged to the polar diatom Fragilariopsis and a radiolarian. Overall, 42% of the sequences were <98% similar to any sequences in GenBank. Moreover, 15% of these were <95% similar to previously recovered sequences, which is indicative of endemic or undersampled taxa in the North Polar environment. The cold, stable Arctic Ocean is a threatened environment, and climate change could result in significant loss of global microbial biodiversity. PMID:16672445

  20. Spatial habitat use patterns of sea otters in coastal washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laidre, K.L.; Jameson, R.J.; Gurarie, E.; Jeffries, S.J.; Allen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) movements, home range, and activity budgets were described from data collected during very-high-frequency radiotelemetry studies of 75 individuals on the outer coast of Washington State between 1992 and 1999. Sea otters were located at least once per week from 22 accessible sites along the coast. Over the 7-year study period, range expansion occurred from the core range north and east into the Strait of Juan de Fuca (SJF) as well as southward on the outer coast. Forty-three percent of the sea otters moved into the SJF at least once, most often in winter, using habitat that had not been occupied by sea otters since their extirpation 100 years ago. All sea otters spent portions of their time in the vicinity of Cape Alava, and many animals demonstrated consistent periodic seasonal shifts between specific portions of the coastline over several years. Ninety-five percent annual linear home ranges differed between sex and age classes. Adult males used the largest amount of coastline (50 km ?? 9 5D) and subadult females used the least (24 ?? 9 km). Both adult males and females demonstrated high seasonal periodicity in range use in summer and winter. Twenty-four-hour time budgets in the core portion of the range revealed on average sea otters spent 41% ?? 14% SD of the time foraging and 45% ?? 13% of the time resting (age and sex classes pooled). Adult and subadult female sea otters were most frequently found resting and foraging close to shore ( 1,000 m offshore and at depths between 10 and 30 m. Given current rates of population growth and observed mobility, sea otters in Washington have high potential for range expansion into unoccupied habitat such as Grays Harbor, Willapa Bay, the SJF, or along Vancouver Island. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  1. Coastal Sensitivity to Sea Level: Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to coastal sensitivity to sea level includes: • A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the U.S. East Coast (1992) • A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the U.S. Gulf Coast (1993) • A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the U.S. West Coast (1997)

  2. Communities of sediment ammonia-oxidizing bacteria along a coastal pollution gradient in the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Hou, Manhua; Xiong, Jinbo; Wang, Kai; Ye, Xiansen; Ye, Ran; Wang, Qiong; Hu, Changju; Zhang, Demin

    2014-09-15

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) discharges has caused eutrophication in coastal zones. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) convert ammonia to nitrite and play important roles in N transformation. Here, we used pyrosequencing based on the amoA gene to investigate the response of the sediment AOB community to an N pollution gradient in the East China Sea. The results showed that AOB assemblages were primarily affiliated with Nitrosospira-like lineages, and only 0.4% of those belonged to Nitrosomonas-like lineage. The Nitrosospira-like lineage was separated into four clusters that were most similar to the sediment AOB communities detected in adjacent marine regions. Additionally, one clade was out grouped from the AOB lineages, which shared the high similarities with pmoA gene. The AOB community structures substantially changed along the pollution gradient, which were primarily shaped by NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, SO4(2)(-)-S, TP and Eh. These results demonstrated that coastal pollution could dramatically influence AOB communities, which, in turn, may change ecosystem function.

  3. Sea-level rise and coastal groundwater inundation and shoaling at select sites in California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Daniel J.; Odigie, Kingsley; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Barnard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe study region spans coastal California, USA, and focuses on three primary sites: Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon.Study focus1 m and 2 m sea-level rise (SLR) projections were used to assess vulnerability to SLR-driven groundwater emergence and shoaling at select low-lying, coastal sites in California. Separate and combined inundation scenarios for SLR and groundwater emergence were developed using digital elevation models of study site topography and groundwater surfaces constructed from well data or published groundwater level contours.New hydrological insights for the regionSLR impacts are a serious concern in coastal California which has a long (∼1800 km) and populous coastline. Information on the possible importance of SLR-driven groundwater inundation in California is limited. In this study, the potential for SLR-driven groundwater inundation at three sites (Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon) was investigated under 1 m and 2 m SLR scenarios. These sites provide insight into the vulnerability of Northern California coastal plains, coastal developments built on beach sand or sand spits, and developed areas around coastal lagoons associated with seasonal streams and berms. Northern California coastal plains with abundant shallow groundwater likely will see significant and widespread groundwater emergence, while impacts along the much drier central and southern California coast may be less severe due to the absence of shallow groundwater in many areas. Vulnerability analysis is hampered by the lack of data on shallow coastal aquifers, which commonly are not studied because they are not suitable for domestic or agricultural use. Shallow saline aquifers may be present in many areas along coastal California, which would dramatically increase vulnerability to SLR-driven groundwater emergence and shoaling. Improved understanding of the extent and response of California coastal aquifers to SLR will help in preparing for mitigation

  4. Top 10 principles for designing healthy coastal ecosystems like the Salish Sea.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, Joseph K; Dierauf, Leslie; Kirby, Grant; Brosnan, Deborah; Gilardi, Kirsten; Davis, Gary E

    2008-12-01

    Like other coastal zones around the world, the inland sea ecosystem of Washington (USA) and British Columbia (Canada), an area known as the Salish Sea, is changing under pressure from a growing human population, conversion of native forest and shoreline habitat to urban development, toxic contamination of sediments and species, and overharvest of resources. While billions of dollars have been spent trying to restore other coastal ecosystems around the world, there still is no successful model for restoring estuarine or marine ecosystems like the Salish Sea. Despite the lack of a guiding model, major ecological principles do exist that should be applied as people work to design the Salish Sea and other large marine ecosystems for the future. We suggest that the following 10 ecological principles serve as a foundation for educating the public and for designing a healthy Salish Sea and other coastal ecosystems for future generations: (1) Think ecosystem: political boundaries are arbitrary; (2) Account for ecosystem connectivity; (3) Understand the food web; (4) Avoid fragmentation; (5) Respect ecosystem integrity; (6) Support nature's resilience; (7) Value nature: it's money in your pocket; (8) Watch wildlife health; (9) Plan for extremes; and (10) Share the knowledge.

  5. Imaging heterogeneity of the crust adjacent to the Dead Sea fault using ambient seismic noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, Vladimir; Meirova, Tatiana; Levshin, Anatoli; Hofstetter, Abraham; Kraeva, Nadezda; Barmin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    For the purpose of studying the Earth's crust by means of tomography, we investigated cross-correlation functions emerging from long-term observations of propagating ambient seismic noise at pairs of broadband stations in Israel and Jordan. The data was provided by the eight permanent broadband stations of the Israel Seismic Network evenly distributed over Israel and the 30 stations of the DESERT2000 experiment distributed across the Arava Fault (South of the Dead Sea basin). To eliminate the influence of earthquakes and explosions, we have applied the methodology of Bensen et al. (Geophys J Int 169:1239-1260, 2007), including bandpass filtering and amplitude normalization in time and frequency domain. The cross-correlation functions estimated from continuous recordings of a few months were used to extract Rayleigh waves group velocity dispersion curves using automatic version of the frequency-time analysis procedure. Subsequently, these curves have been converted into the Rayleigh wave group velocity maps in the period range 5-20 s and S waves velocity maps in the depth range 5-15 km. In these maps, four velocity anomalies are prominent. Two of them are outlined by the previous reflection-refraction profiles and body wave tomography studies, i.e. a low velocity anomaly corresponds to the area of the extremely deep (down to 14 km) sedimentary infill in the Southern Dead Sea Basin and a high velocity anomaly in the Southern Jordan corresponds to the area of the Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Nubian Shield on the flanks of the Red Sea. The two other anomalies have not been reported before - the high velocity zone close to the Beersheba city and the low velocity anomaly in the region of Samaria-Carmel mountains - Southern Galilee. They have relatively low resolution and hence need further investigations for approving and contouring. The highest contrast between the average Rayleigh wave group velocity (2.7 km/s) and the anomalies is 10-13 %, comparable, however

  6. On the tectonic problems of the southern East China Sea and adjacent regions: Evidence from gravity and magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Luning; Zhang, Xunhua; Han, Bo; Du, Runlin

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, two sets of gravity and magnetic data were used to study the tectonics of the southern East China Sea and Ryukyu trench-arc system: one data set was from the `Geological-geophysical map series of China Seas and adjacent areas' database and the other was newly collected by R/V Kexue III in 2011. Magnetic and gravity data were reorganized and processed using the software MMDP, MGDP and RGIS. In addition to the description of the anomaly patterns in different areas, deep and shallow structure studies were performed by using several kinds of calculation, including a spectrum analysis, upward-continuation of the Bouguer anomaly and horizontal derivatives of the total-field magnetic anomaly. The depth of the Moho and magnetic basement were calculated. Based on the above work, several controversial tectonic problems were discussed. Compared to the shelf area and Ryukyu Arc, the Okinawa Trough has an obviously thinned crust, with the thinnest area having thickness less than 14 km in the southern part. The Taiwan-Sinzi belt, which terminates to the south by the NW-SE trending Miyako fault belt, contains the relic volcanic arc formed by the splitting of the paleo Ryukyu volcanic arc as a result of the opening of the Okinawa Trough. As an important tectonic boundary, the strike-slip type Miyako fault belt extends northwestward into the shelf area and consists of several discontinuous segments. A forearc terrace composed of an exotic terrane collided with the Ryukyu Arc following the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate. Mesozoic strata of varying thicknesses exist beneath the Cenozoic strata in the shelf basin and significantly influence the magnetic pattern of this area. The gravity and magnetic data support the existence of a Great East China Sea, which suggests that the entire southern East China Sea shelf area was a basin in the Mesozoic without alternatively arranged uplifts and depressions, and might have extended southwestward and connected with the

  7. Spatial distribution and controlling factors of sedimentary bodies in Jiaozhou Bay and Adjacent Sea Areas, Qingdao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Heping; Li, Guangxue; Li, Shuanglin; Li, Shaoquan; Li, Chun

    2011-06-01

    The distributions of thickness of unconsolidated Quaternary sedimentary layers in Jiaozhou Bay and Qingdao offshore area were studied by using 1079-km high-resolution shallow seismic profiles and drilling core data, and the factors controlling the Quaternary evolution were discussed. The results show that such thickness distributions resulted from the coactions of geologic structures and marine hydrodynamic conditions since the Holocene. The geologic structures controlled the slope deposit, proluvial and fluvial fillings since the late Pleistocene. Holocene marine hydrodynamics eroded away sediments at the bay mouth, and tides carried these eroded materials to the sides of the bay mouth and released them there, forming channel-ridge-alternating geomorphic features. During transgressive processes, the sea level rose rapidly, and insufficient sediment supply and tidal actions yielded the relict sediments in the east of Qingdao offshore area.

  8. Interannual to Decadal Variability of Atlantic Water in the Nordic and Adjacent Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Reagan, James; Haekkinen, Sirpa

    2011-01-01

    Warm salty Atlantic Water is the main source water for the Arctic Ocean and thus plays an important role in the mass and heat budget of the Arctic. This study explores interannual to decadal variability of Atlantic Water properties in the Nordic Seas area where Atlantic Water enters the Arctic, based on a reexamination of the historical hydrographic record for the years 1950-2009, obtained by combining multiple data sets. The analysis shows a succession of four multi-year warm events where temperature anomalies at 100m depth exceed 0.4oC, and three cold events. Three of the four warm events lasted 3-4 years, while the fourth began in 1999 and persists at least through 2009. This most recent warm event is anomalous in other ways as well, being the strongest, having the broadest geographic extent, being surface-intensified, and occurring under exceptional meteorological conditions. Three of the four warm events were accompanied by elevated salinities consistent with enhanced ocean transport into the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the event spanning July 1989-July 1993. Of the three cold events, two lasted for four years, while the third lasted for nearly 14 years. Two of the three cold events are associated with reduced salinities, but the cold event of the 1960s had elevated salinities. The relationship of these events to meteorological conditions is examined. The results show that local surface heat flux variations act in some cases to reinforce the anomalies, but are too weak to be the sole cause.

  9. Interannual to decadal variability of Atlantic Water in the Nordic and adjacent seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, James A.; Chepurin, Gennady A.; Reagan, James; HäKkinen, Sirpa

    2011-11-01

    Warm salty Atlantic Water is the main source water for the Arctic Ocean and thus plays an important role in the mass and heat budget of the Arctic. This study explores interannual to decadal variability of Atlantic Water properties in the Nordic Seas area where Atlantic Water enters the Arctic, based on a reexamination of the historical hydrographic record for the years 1950-2009, obtained by combining multiple data sets. The analysis shows a succession of four multiyear warm events where temperature anomalies at 100 m depth exceed 0.4°C, and three cold events. Three of the four warm events lasted 3-4 years, while the fourth began in 1999 and persists at least through 2009. This most recent warm event is anomalous in other ways as well, being the strongest, having the broadest geographic extent, being surface-intensified, and occurring under exceptional meteorological conditions. Three of the four warm events were accompanied by elevated salinities consistent with enhanced ocean transport into the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the event spanning July 1989-July 1993. Of the three cold events, two lasted for 4 years, while the third lasted for nearly 14 years. Two of the three cold events are associated with reduced salinities, but the cold event of the 1960s had elevated salinities. The relationship of these events to meteorological conditions is examined. The results show that local surface heat flux variations act in some cases to reinforce the anomalies, but are too weak to be the sole cause.

  10. Phase I for the use of TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason-1 Radar Altimetry to Monitor Coastal Wetland Inundation and Sea Level Rise in Coastal Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozen, M.; Batina, M.; Brooks, C.; Parker, S.

    2009-12-01

    Loss of land to open water in the Coastal Zone of Louisiana is an ongoing threat to the state’s people, economy and the environment. This land loss is largely attributed to land subsidence, but also a variety of other factors. The purpose of this study is to outline the methodology in order to apply altimetry data from the TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason-1 missions to tracking land loss in the coastal zone of Louisiana. The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason -1 data is typically used to determine global sea level change rates, but has also been demonstrated successfully in water level studies of lakes, river basins, and floodplains throughout the world. Beyond land subsidence, relative sea level rise is estimated at anywhere between 0.1 - 2 cm/year along the coast of Louisiana, which is higher than the most recent estimates of global sea level rise. This study inventoried the many factors in coastal land loss including subsidence and sea level rise, but also coastal geomorphology and salinity levels among others. The many remote sensing and field methods of tracking coastal land loss in Louisiana were examined. The study included a comparison of socioeconomic factors within the Louisiana Coastal Zone as compared to the northern portion of the state. This research has the potential to provide analysis of elevation changes from 1992 to present and can contribute insight into the complex issue of coastal wetland inundation and seal level rise in Louisiana.

  11. Reconstruction of Redox Conditions and Productivity in Coastal Waters of the Bothnian Sea during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, N.; Quintana Krupinski, N. B.; Slomp, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Hypoxia is a growing problem in coastal waters worldwide, and is a well-known cause of benthic mortality. The semi-enclosed Baltic Sea is currently the world's largest human-induced dead zone. During the early Holocene, it experienced several periods of natural hypoxia following the intrusion of seawater into the previous freshwater lake. Recent studies suggest that at that time, the hypoxia expanded north to include the deep basin of the Bothnian Sea. In this study, we assess whether the coastal zone of the Bothnian Sea was also hypoxic during the early Holocene. We analysed a unique sediment record (0 - 30 mbsf) from the Ångermanälven estuary, which was retrieved during the International Ocean Discovery Programme (IODP) Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment Expedition 347 in 2013. Using geochemical proxies and foraminifera abundances, we reconstruct the changes in redox conditions, salinity and productivity in the estuary. Our preliminary results suggest that bottom waters in this coastal basin became anoxic upon the intrusion of brackish seawater in the early Holocene and that the productivity was elevated. The presence of benthic foraminifera in this estuary during the mid-Holocene suggests more saline conditions in the Bothnian Sea than today. Due to isostatic uplift, the estuary likely gradually became more isolated from the Bothnian Sea, which itself became more isolated from the Baltic Sea. Both factors likely explain the subsequent re-oxygenation of bottom waters and gradual refreshening of the estuary as recorded in the sediments. Interestingly, the upper meters of sediment are enriched in minerals that contain iron, phosphorus and manganese. We postulate that the refreshening of the estuary triggered the formation of these minerals, thereby increasing the phosphorus retention in these sediments and further reducing primary productivity. This enhanced retention linked to refreshening may contribute to the current oligotrophic conditions in the Bothnian Sea.

  12. Using very high resolution satellite images to identify coastal zone dynamics at North Western Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin Zoran, Liviu; Ionescu Golovanov, Carmen; Zoran, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The availability of updated information about the extension and characteristics of land cover is a crucial issue in the perspective of a correct landscape planning and management of marine coastal zones. Satellite remote sensing data can provide accurate information about land coverage at different scales and the recent availability of very high resolution images definitely improved the precision of coastal zone spatio-temporal changes. The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, and climatic change effects. Use of satellite images is of great help for coastal zone monitoring and environmental impact assessment. Synergetic use of in situ measurements with multisensors satellite data could provide a complex assessment of spatio-temporal changes. In this study was developed a method for extracting coastal zone features information as well as landcover dynamics from IKONOS, very high resolution images for North-Western Black Sea marine coastal zone. The main objective was obtaining reliable data about the spatio-temporal coastal zone changes in two study areas located in Constanta urban area and Danube Delta area. We used an object-oriented approach based on preliminary segmentation and classification of the resulting object. First of all, segmentation parameters were tested and selected comparing segmented polygons with

  13. Sea-level rise risks to coastal cities: what are the limits to adaptation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Reeder, T.; Brown, S.; Haigh, I. D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the consequence of sea-level rise for coastal cities has long lead times and huge political implications. Civilisation has emerged and developed during a period of several thousand years during which in geological terms sea level has been unusually stable. We have now moved out of this period raising important challenges for the future. In 2005 there were 136 coastal cities with a population exceeding one million people and a collective population of 400 million people. All these cities are threatened by flooding from the sea to varying degrees and these risks are increasing due to growing exposure (people and assets), rising sea levels due to climate change, and in some cities, significant coastal subsidence due to human agency (drainage and groundwater withdrawals from susceptible soils). City abandonment due to sea-level rise is widely discussed in the media, but most of the discussion is speculative. The limits to adaptation and abandonment of cities are not predictable in a formal sense - while the rise in mean sea level raises the likelihood of a catastrophic flood, extreme events are what cause damage and trigger a response, be it abandonment or a defence upgrade. Several types of potential adaptation limits can be recognised: (1) physical/engineering limits; (2) economic/financial limits; and (3) socio-political limits. The latter two types of limits are much less understood, and yet issues such as loss of confidence rather than a simple engineering failure may be instrumental in the future of a coastal city. There are few studies which quantify the sea-level rise threshold at which cities will be challenged, especially for large rises exceeding a metre or more. Exceptions include London and the Thames Estuary and the Amsterdam and Rotterdam (the Netherlands) where adaptation to a rise of sea level of up to 4 m or more appears feasible. This lack of knowledge on sea-level rise thresholds for coastal cities is of concern, and similar

  14. Development of an operational coastal model of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kei; Yamanaka, Goro; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Hideyuki; Urakawa, Shogo; Usui, Norihisa; Hirabara, Mikitoshi; Ogawa, Koji

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a coastal model of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, for a monitoring and forecasting system operated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). We executed a hindcast experiment using reanalysis datasets for the atmospheric and lateral boundaries without ocean initialization by data assimilation. The seasonal variability is verified to be realistic by comparing sea surface temperature and salinity of the hindcast experiment with observations. With a horizontal resolution of approximately 2 km, the model represents explicitly various coastal phenomena with a scale of 10-100 km, such as the Kuroshio water intrusion into Japanese coasts. This leads to good representation of intramonthly variations. For example, intensity of the sea level undulations with a period shorter than 23 days shows 1.6-fold improvement, as compared to the present model of JMA with the horizontal resolution of approximately 10 km. In addition to the increased resolution, the model is optimized for coastal modeling as follows. Incorporation of a tidal mixing parameterization reduces a high temperature bias in the Bungo Channel (a western channel of the Seto Inland Sea) and contributes to formation of a frontal structure. An accurate dataset of the river discharges is used for runoff, which has a strong impact on salinity. Enhancement of coastal friction improves surface currents. Owing to the increased resolution and these optimizations, the model shows realistic variability in a wide temporal range from several days to seasons. Root-mean-square errors of sea surface temperature and heights are evaluated as 1-2 K and 7-10 cm, respectively, without data assimilation. In the eastern part, however, the predictability is relatively low, which might be related to representation of an eastward mean flow in the Seto Inland Sea.

  15. Alongshore wind forcing of coastal sea level as a function of frequency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, H.F.; Noble, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The amplitude of the frequency response function between coastal alongshore wind stress and adjusted sea level anomalies along the west coast of the United States increases linearly as a function of the logarithm (log10) of the period for time scales up to at least 60, and possibly 100, days. The amplitude of the frequency response function increases even more rapidly at longer periods out to at least 5 yr. At the shortest periods, the amplitude of the frequency response function is small because sea level is forced only by the local component of the wind field. The regional wind field, which controls the wind-forced response in sea level for periods between 20 and 100 days, not only has much broader spatial scales than the local wind, but also propagates along the coast in the same direction as continental shelf waves. Hence, it has a stronger coupling to and an increased frequency response for sea level. At periods of a year or more, observed coastal sea level fluctuations are not only forced by the regional winds, but also by joint correlations among the larger-scale climatic patterns associated with El Nin??o. Therefore, the amplitude of the frequency response function is large, despite the fact that the energy in the coastal wind field is relatively small. These data show that the coastal sea level response to wind stress forcing along the west coast of the United States changes in a consistent and predictable pattern over a very broad range of frequencies with time scales from a few days to several years.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of particle-attached and free-living bacterial communities in the Columbia river, its estuary, and the adjacent coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Crump, B C; Armbrust, E V; Baross, J A

    1999-07-01

    The Columbia River estuary is a dynamic system in which estuarine turbidity maxima trap and extend the residence time of particles and particle-attached bacteria over those of the water and free-living bacteria. Particle-attached bacteria dominate bacterial activity in the estuary and are an important part of the estuarine food web. PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes from particle-attached and free-living bacteria in the Columbia River, its estuary, and the adjacent coastal ocean were cloned, and 239 partial sequences were determined. A wide diversity was observed at the species level within at least six different bacterial phyla, including most subphyla of the class Proteobacteria. In the estuary, most particle-attached bacterial clones (75%) were related to members of the genus Cytophaga or of the alpha, gamma, or delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. These same clones, however, were rare in or absent from either the particle-attached or the free-living bacterial communities of the river and the coastal ocean. In contrast, about half (48%) of the free-living estuarine bacterial clones were similar to clones from the river or the coastal ocean. These free-living bacteria were related to groups of cosmopolitan freshwater bacteria (beta-proteobacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and Verrucomicrobium spp.) and groups of marine organisms (gram-positive bacteria and alpha-proteobacteria [SAR11 and Rhodobacter spp.]). These results suggest that rapidly growing particle-attached bacteria develop into a uniquely adapted estuarine community and that free-living estuarine bacteria are similar to members of the river and the coastal ocean microbial communities. The high degree of diversity in the estuary is the result of the mixing of bacterial communities from the river, estuary, and coastal ocean.

  17. Regional long-term model of radioactivity dispersion and fate in the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas: application to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident.

    PubMed

    Maderich, V; Bezhenar, R; Heling, R; de With, G; Jung, K T; Myoung, J G; Cho, Y-K; Qiao, F; Robertson, L

    2014-05-01

    The compartment model POSEIDON-R was modified and applied to the Northwestern Pacific and adjacent seas to simulate the transport and fate of radioactivity in the period 1945-2010, and to perform a radiological assessment on the releases of radioactivity due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident for the period 2011-2040. The model predicts the dispersion of radioactivity in the water column and in sediments, the transfer of radionuclides throughout the marine food web, and subsequent doses to humans due to the consumption of marine products. A generic predictive dynamic food-chain model is used instead of the biological concentration factor (BCF) approach. The radionuclide uptake model for fish has as a central feature the accumulation of radionuclides in the target tissue. The three layer structure of the water column makes it possible to describe the vertical structure of radioactivity in deep waters. In total 175 compartments cover the Northwestern Pacific, the East China and Yellow Seas and the East/Japan Sea. The model was validated from (137)Cs data for the period 1945-2010. Calculated concentrations of (137)Cs in water, bottom sediments and marine organisms in the coastal compartment, before and after the accident, are in close agreement with measurements from the Japanese agencies. The agreement for water is achieved when an additional continuous flux of 3.6 TBq y(-1) is used for underground leakage of contaminated water from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP, during the three years following the accident. The dynamic food web model predicts that due to the delay of the transfer throughout the food web, the concentration of (137)Cs for piscivorous fishes returns to background level only in 2016. For the year 2011, the calculated individual dose rate for Fukushima Prefecture due to consumption of fishery products is 3.6 μSv y(-1). Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident the collective dose due to ingestion of marine products for Japan increased in 2011 by a

  18. Seismic anisotropy and subduction-induced mantle fabrics beneath the Arabian and Nubian Plates adjacent to the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed A.; Gao, Stephen S.; Liu, Kelly H.; Mohamed, Abdelnasser A.; Yu, Youqiang; Fat-Helbary, Raafat E.

    2014-04-01

    For most continental areas, the mechanisms leading to mantle fabrics responsible for the observed anisotropy remain ambiguous, partially due to the lack of sufficient spatial coverage of reliable seismological observations. Here we report the first joint analysis of shear-wave splitting measurements obtained at stations on the Arabian and Nubian Plates adjacent to the Red Sea. More than 1100 pairs of high-quality splitting parameters show dominantly N-S fast orientations at all 47 stations and larger-than-normal splitting times beneath the Afro-Arabian Dome (AAD). The uniformly N-S fast orientations and large splitting times up to 1.5 s are inconsistent with significant contributions from the lithosphere, which is about 50-80 km thick beneath the AAD and even thinner beneath the Red Sea. The results can best be explained by simple shear between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere associated with northward subduction of the African/Arabian Plates over the past 150 Ma.

  19. Importance of coastal primary production in the northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ask, Jenny; Rowe, Owen; Brugel, Sonia; Strömgren, Mårten; Byström, Pär; Andersson, Agneta

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we measured depth-dependent benthic microalgal primary production in a Bothnian Bay estuary to estimate the benthic contribution to total primary production. In addition, we compiled data on benthic microalgal primary production in the entire Baltic Sea. In the estuary, the benthic habitat contributed 17 % to the total annual primary production, and when upscaling our data to the entire Bothnian Bay, the corresponding value was 31 %. This estimated benthic share (31 %) is three times higher compared to past estimates of 10 %. The main reason for this discrepancy is the lack of data regarding benthic primary production in the northern Baltic Sea, but also that past studies overestimated the importance of pelagic primary production by not correcting for system-specific bathymetric variation. Our study thus highlights the importance of benthic communities for the northern Baltic Sea ecosystem in general and for future management strategies and ecosystem studies in particular. PMID:27075572

  20. Coastal flooding by tropical cyclones and sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Jonathan D; Irish, Jennifer L; Camargo, Suzana J

    2013-12-01

    The future impacts of climate change on landfalling tropical cyclones are unclear. Regardless of this uncertainty, flooding by tropical cyclones will increase as a result of accelerated sea-level rise. Under similar rates of rapid sea-level rise during the early Holocene epoch most low-lying sedimentary coastlines were generally much less resilient to storm impacts. Society must learn to live with a rapidly evolving shoreline that is increasingly prone to flooding from tropical cyclones. These impacts can be mitigated partly with adaptive strategies, which include careful stewardship of sediments and reductions in human-induced land subsidence.

  1. Spatial Variability of Land-Sea Carbon Exchange at a Coastal Area in Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, H.; Oechel, W.; Hastings, S.

    2007-12-01

    Relatively cold and low salinity sea water of the Arctic Ocean was considered to be a sink for atmospheric CO2 (Takahashi et al., 1997) because the solubility of CO2 in seawater increases as temperature decreases, and the arctic sea water transports CO2 to greater depths. However, carbon exchange in the Arctic sea is not well evaluated yet, because available data is very limited (Semiletov et al., 2007). Also, terrestrial inflows, such as thawing permafrost and coastal erosion, also affect oceanic air-sea CO2 exchange especially in the Arctic (ACIA., 2004) creating a variety of regional carbon cycles (Semiletov et al., 2007). Our aim is to quantify an air-sea CO2 exchange of a spatially wide coastal sea area, in Barrow, Alaska and to extrapolate the future carbon cycle in response to climate change. Boat cruises for pCO2 measurements operated from July 29 to August 5, 2007. The surveyed area was mainly divided into three parts: Chukchi Sea, Beaufort Sea, and Elson Lagoon. Conductivity of sea surface (CS) and sea surface temperature (SST) were also measured together with pCO2. The result showed distinct differences in pCO2 among three areas. Average delta pCO2 (dpCO2) (a difference between an atmospheric CO2 and pCO2), CS, and SST were -114.9 ppm, 47.0 mScm-1, and 8.0 C at Chukchi Sea, -53.1 ppm, 43.5 mScm-1, and 8.9 C at Beaufort Sea, and 43.7 ppm, 41.1 mScm-1, and 9.5 C at Elson Lagoon. Relatively high dpCO2 value in the Beaufort Sea implies a large terrestrial input from Elson Lagoon where dpCO2 value is positive. This is supported by lower CS in the Beaufort Sea and Elson Laggon than in the Chukchi Sea. Sea currents from Pacific Ocean, which continuously flow through the Chukchi Sea, are thought to carry warmer water. However, SST was lower in the Chukchi Sea than in the Beaufort Sea. This may be because a prevailing wind from north east creates Ekman transport causing an upwelling along the Chukchi Sea coast and this upwelling carries deep cold water to the

  2. On the significance of incorporating shoreline changes for evaluating coastal hydrodynamics under sea level rise scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passeri, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) threatens coastal environments with loss of land, inundation of coastal wetlands, and increased flooding during extreme storm events. Research has shown that SLR is a major factor in the long-term, gradual retreat of shorelines (Fitzgerald et al., 2008). Along sandy shorelines, retreat has a more dynamic effect than just inundation due to rising water levels, including the physical process of erosion in which sand is removed from the shoreface and deposited offshore. This has the potential to affect ecological habitats as well as coastal communities. Although SLR induces seaward retreat of shorelines, many shorelines especially within the vicinity of inlets may experience accretion due to sediment trapping or beach replenishment (Aubrey and Giese, 1993, Browder and R.G., 1999). This study examines the influence of including projected shoreline changes under future sea states into hydrodynamic modeling within the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). The NGOM coastline is an economically and ecologically significant area, comprised of various bays, barrier islands and mainland beaches. Projected shorelines and nearshore morphology for the year 2050 are derived from the Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) shoreline change rates (Thieler and Hammer-Klose, 1999) and used in conjunction with the 'Bruun Rule effect'(Bruun, 1962). A large scale hydrodynamic model forced by astronomic tides and hurricane winds and pressures is used to simulate present conditions, a high projection of the 2050 sea state (18 in of SLR in accordance with Parris et al. (2012)) and the 2050 high sea state with 2050 shorelines to test the sensitivity of the system to the projected shoreline changes. Results show that shoreline changes coupled with sea level rise increases tidal inundation along shorelines, amplifies overtopping of barrier islands during storm surge events, and heightens inland storm surge inundation. It is critical to include estimates of shoreline and barrier

  3. Risk Management in Coastal Engineering - Applied Research Projects for the German Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woeffler, T.; Grimm, C.; Bachmann, D.; Jensen, J.; Mudersbach, C.; Froehle, P.; Thorenz, F.; Schuettrumpf, H.

    2012-04-01

    Several islands in the northfrisian part of the UNESCO - World Natural Heritage Wadden Sea are exposed to extreme storm surges due to climate change and sea level rise. Existing coastal protection measures in this area do not consider the future sea state and are mainly based on tradition and expert knowledge. The two projects HoRisK and ZukunftHallig (supported by the German Coastal Engineering Research Council) focus on this area and implement the requirements defined in the Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risk. The main objects of the projects are the design and evaluation of new coastal protection techniques for the investigation area. With numerical simulations hydrological parameters are investigated in order to design new coastal protection- and management strategies. The decision support system PROMAIDES (Protection Measure against Inundation Decision Support) developed at the Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management of the RWTH Aachen University analyzes the effects and reliability of new coastal protection techniques and evaluates inundation areas and economic damages for different hydrological boundary conditions. As a result flood risk and hazard maps are shown in this work. Furthermore sensitivity analyses expose possible variations in future storm surges and illustrate the difference in significant wave heights for varying wind climates. This risk based approach of both projects is a suitable way to ensure life for further generations on these islands under sustainable ecological und economic conditions. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the KFKI (German Coastal Engineering Research Council) and the German Federal Ministery of Education and Research (BMBF) (Project No. 03KIS094 and 03KIS078)

  4. The main characteristics, problems, and prospects for Western European coastal seas.

    PubMed

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Located to the far West of Western Europe, France has a western maritime coastal zone of more than 3800 km, which is widely influenced by the North-eastern Atlantic. The English Channel, an epi-continental shallow sea with very strong tides, runs along 650 km of the French coast and 1100 km of the English coast. It is also a bio-geographical crossroad encompassing a much wider range of ecological conditions than other European seas. France's Atlantic coast north of the Gironde estuary is a succession of rocky and sandy shorelines, including a sizeable intertidal zone, a wide continental shelf, and two major estuaries (Loire and Gironde). South of the Gironde, the 260 km of coastline is low, sandy and straight, with a narrowing continental shelf further on South due to the presence of the Cape Breton canyon in the bathyal and abyssal zones. Interface between the continental and oceanic systems, these bordering seas--North Sea, English Channel and Atlantic Ocean--have been the subject of many recent research programmes (the European Mast-FLUXMANCHE and INTERREG programmes; the national coastal environment programme and the LITEAU programme in France), designed to improve comprehension of the functions, production, and dynamics of these seas as well as their future evolution. Given the many conflicting practices in these littoral zones, integrated coastal zone management appears to be essential in order to cope with both natural phenomena, such as the infilling of estuarine zones, cliff erosion, and rising sea levels, and chronic anthropogenic pressures, such as new harbour installations (container dikes, marinas), sea aggregate extraction for human constructions, and offshore wind mill farms. This article provides as complete an overview as possible of the research projects on these bordering seas, both those that have recently been accomplished and those that are currently in progress, in order to highlight the main characteristics of these ecosystems and to

  5. The main characteristics, problems, and prospects for Western European coastal seas.

    PubMed

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Located to the far West of Western Europe, France has a western maritime coastal zone of more than 3800 km, which is widely influenced by the North-eastern Atlantic. The English Channel, an epi-continental shallow sea with very strong tides, runs along 650 km of the French coast and 1100 km of the English coast. It is also a bio-geographical crossroad encompassing a much wider range of ecological conditions than other European seas. France's Atlantic coast north of the Gironde estuary is a succession of rocky and sandy shorelines, including a sizeable intertidal zone, a wide continental shelf, and two major estuaries (Loire and Gironde). South of the Gironde, the 260 km of coastline is low, sandy and straight, with a narrowing continental shelf further on South due to the presence of the Cape Breton canyon in the bathyal and abyssal zones. Interface between the continental and oceanic systems, these bordering seas--North Sea, English Channel and Atlantic Ocean--have been the subject of many recent research programmes (the European Mast-FLUXMANCHE and INTERREG programmes; the national coastal environment programme and the LITEAU programme in France), designed to improve comprehension of the functions, production, and dynamics of these seas as well as their future evolution. Given the many conflicting practices in these littoral zones, integrated coastal zone management appears to be essential in order to cope with both natural phenomena, such as the infilling of estuarine zones, cliff erosion, and rising sea levels, and chronic anthropogenic pressures, such as new harbour installations (container dikes, marinas), sea aggregate extraction for human constructions, and offshore wind mill farms. This article provides as complete an overview as possible of the research projects on these bordering seas, both those that have recently been accomplished and those that are currently in progress, in order to highlight the main characteristics of these ecosystems and to

  6. Coastal sea level measurements using a single geodetic GPS receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Löfgren, Johan S.; Haas, Rüdiger

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a method to derive local sea level variations using data from a single geodetic-quality Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver using GPS (Global Positioning System) signals. This method is based on multipath theory for specular reflections and the use of Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) data. The technique could be valuable for altimeter calibration and validation. Data from two test sites, a dedicated GPS tide gauge at the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) in Sweden and the Friday Harbor GPS site of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) in USA, are analyzed. The sea level results are compared to independently observed sea level data from nearby and in situ tide gauges. For OSO, the Root-Mean-Square (RMS) agreement is better than 5 cm, while it is in the order of 10 cm for Friday Harbor. The correlation coefficients are better than 0.97 for both sites. For OSO, the SNR-based results are also compared with results from a geodetic analysis of GPS data of a two receivers/antennae tide gauge installation. The SNR-based analysis results in a slightly worse RMS agreement with respect to the independent tide gauge data than the geodetic analysis (4.8 cm and 4.0 cm, respectively). However, it provides results even for rough sea surface conditions when the two receivers/antennae installation no longer records the necessary data for a geodetic analysis.

  7. Quaternary climates and sea levels of the u.s. Atlantic coastal plain.

    PubMed

    Cronin, T M; Szabo, B J; Ager, T A; Hazel, J E; Owens, J P

    1981-01-16

    Uranium-series dating of corals from marine deposits of the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain coupled with paleoclimatic reconstructions based on ostracode (marine) and pollen (continent) data document at least five relatively warm intervals during the last 500,000 years. On the basis of multiple paleoenvironmental criteria, we determined relative sea level positions during the warm intervals, relative to present mean sea level, were 7 +/- 5 meters at 188,000 years ago, 7.5 +/- 1.5 meters at 120,000 years ago, 6.5 +/- 3.5 meters at 94,000 years ago, and 7 +/- 3 meters at 72,000 years ago. The composite sea level chronology for the Atlantic Coastal Plain is inconsistent with independent estimates of eustatic sea level positions during interglacial intervals of the last 200,000 years. Hydroisostatic adjustment from glacial-interglacial sea level fluctuations, lithospheric flexure, and isostatic uplift from sediment unloading due to erosion provide possible mechanisms to account for the discrepancies. Alternatively, current eustatic sea level estimates for the middle and late Quaternary may require revision.

  8. Unstructured-grid coastal ocean modelling in Southern Adriatic and Northern Ionian Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Ivan; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Oddo, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian coastal Forecasting System (SANIFS) is a short-term forecasting system based on unstructured grid approach. The model component is built on SHYFEM finite element three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The operational chain exploits a downscaling approach starting from the Mediterranean oceanographic-scale model MFS (Mediterranean Forecasting System, operated by INGV). The implementation set-up has been designed to provide accurate hydrodynamics and active tracer processes in the coastal waters of Southern Eastern Italy (Apulia, Basilicata and Calabria regions), where the model is characterized by a variable resolution in range of 50-500 m. The horizontal resolution is also high in open-sea areas, where the elements size is approximately 3 km. The model is forced: (i) at the lateral open boundaries through a full nesting strategy directly with the MFS (temperature, salinity, non-tidal sea surface height and currents) and OTPS (tidal forcing) fields; (ii) at surface through two alternative atmospheric forcing datasets (ECMWF and COSMOME) via MFS-bulk-formulae. Given that the coastal fields are driven by a combination of both local/coastal and deep ocean forcings propagating along the shelf, the performance of SANIFS was verified first (i) at the large and shelf-coastal scales by comparing with a large scale CTD survey and then (ii) at the coastal-harbour scale by comparison with CTD, ADCP and tide gauge data. Sensitivity tests were performed on initialization conditions (mainly focused on spin-up procedures) and on surface boundary conditions by assessing the reliability of two alternative datasets at different horizontal resolution (12.5 and 7 km). The present work highlights how downscaling could improve the simulation of the flow field going from typical open-ocean scales of the order of several km to the coastal (and harbour) scales of tens to hundreds of meters.

  9. Coastal and mesoscale dynamics characterization combining glider and altimetry: case study over the Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerome, Bouffard; Pascual, Ananda; Ruiz, Simon; Isabelle Pujol, Marie; Faugere, Yannice; Larnicol, Gilles; Tintore, Joaquin

    Satellite altimetry allows a direct computation of geostrophic velocity anomalies. However, conventional altimetry measurements remain largely spurious in coastal zone, due to several factors such as inaccurate geophysical corrections (e.g. atmospheric and tidal signals) as well as environmental issues (land contamination in the altimetric and radiometric footprints). At the present time and in the attempt of future relevant technologies (cf. SWOT satellite), experimen-tal coastal altimeter products are under development (XTRACK, PISTACH, COASTALT. . . ). The main efforts consist in the application of coastal-oriented corrections and the review of the data recovery strategies near the coast. The new coastal altimetric products need to be assessed with independent data before to be used in synergy with other measurements and fully exploited for scientific applications. This is the frame of this study as part of an intensive observational program conducted in the Western Mediterranean Sea. We present here the main outcomes resulting from the combination of coastal altimetry and gliders. Gliders -autonomous underwater vehicles -allow to provide precise and high resolution data complementary to altimetry (temperature, salinity, pressure, velocity. . . ) both at surface and over the whole water column. Since July 2007, several glider missions have been performed along Jason-1, Jason-2 and ENVISAT altimeters. The altimetric sea level anomalies have been processed from both standard and coastal-oriented strategies. Furthermore, new methodologies have also been developed in order to combine surface glider geostrophic velocities (derived from CTD measurements) with integrated currents estimated by the glider (derived from GPS locations every 6 hours). These approaches prove to be very efficient to improve the budget errors and homogenize the physical contents of altimetry and glider data. Further, the combined analysis of the two datasets provides interesting insights of

  10. Sea-level, sediment supply and coastal changes: Examples from the coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, R. W. G.; Johnston, T. W.; McKenna, J.; Orford, J. D.

    Sediment supply and pre-existing shoreline morphology are crucial factors in controlling coastal changes due to sea-level rise. Using examples from both southeast and northeast Ireland, it can be shown that sea-level change may trigger a sequence of events which leads to both static and dynamic shoreline equilibrium. Cliff erosion and longshore sediment movement in east Co. Wexford has led to injection of sediment onto the shelf, and the growth, under both wave and tide regimes, of linear offshore shoals. These shoals now control the pattern of shoreline erosion and provide a template for possible stepwise evolution of the coast under any future sea-level rise. In contrast, the nearby coast of south Co. Wexford comprises a series of coarse clastic barriers moving monotonously onshore, via overwash processes. Here the behavior of the barrier is conditioned by the antecedent morphology of both the beach face and stream outlet bedforms. Finally, the rock platform coast of Co. Antrim presents a far more resistant shoreline to incident marine processes, yet even here there is strong evidence of present process control over so-called ‘raised’ platforms and embayments. It is concluded that coastal sediment supply and dynamics, together with coastal morphology and its interaction with waves, present a far more complex variety of sea-level indicators than is normally acknowledged.

  11. Assessment on the Vulnerability of Mangrove Ecosystems in the Guangxi Coastal Zone under Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Ge, Z.; Zhang, L.

    2013-12-01

    Sea level rise caused by global climate change will have significant impacts on coastal zone. The mangrove ecosystems occur at the intertidal zone in tropical and subtropical coasts and are particularly sensitive to sea level rise. To study the responses of mangrove ecosystems to sea level rise, assess the impacts of sea level rise on mangrove ecosystem and formulate the feasible and practical mitigation strategies are the important prerequisites for securing the coastal ecosystems. In this research, taking the mangrove ecosystems in the coastal zone of Guangxi province, China as a case study, the potential impacts of sea level rise on the mangrove ecosystems were analyzed by adopting the SPRC (Source-Pathway- Receptor- Consequence) model. An index system for vulnerability assessment on coastal mangrove ecosystems under sea level rise was worked out, in which rate of sea level rise, subsidence/uplift rate, habitat elevation, daily inundation duration, intertidal slope and sedimentation rate were selected as the key indicators according to the IPCC definition of vulnerability, i.e. the aspects of exposure, sensitivity and adaptation. A quantitatively spatial assessment method based on the GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability. The vulnerability assessment based on the sea-level rise rates of the present trend and IPCC A1F1 scenario were performed for three sets of projections of short-term (2030s), mid-term (2050s) and long-term (2100s). The results showed at the present trend of sea level rise rate of 0.27 cm/a, the mangrove ecosystems in the coastal zone of Guangxi was within the EVI score of 0 in the projections of 2030s, 2050s and 2100s, respectively. As the sedimentation and land uplift could offset the rate of sea level rise and the impact of sea level rise on habitats/species of mangrove ecosystems was negligible. While at the A1F1 scenario with a sea level rise rate of 0

  12. Assessment of Eutrophication Quality in Greek Coastal Ecosystem (Eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, Alexandra; Rousselaki, Eleni; Assimakopoulou, Georgia; Tsapakis, Manolis; Simboura, Nomiki

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has always been considered as one of the most oligotrophic areas in the world, especially in the Eastern part of the Sea. However, eutrophication problems occur in some coastal areas of the Mediterranean (e.g. eastern coasts of Spain, Gulf of Lions, northern Adriatic Sea, Apulian coasts, Saronikos Gulf, Thessaloniki Bay, northern coasts of Greece, etc.). This work is focused on the assessment of the Eutrophication Quality in different coastal areas of Greece affected by various anthropogenic and natural pressures and was performed under the Water Framework Directive. A network of 28 sampling stations was used during two relevant sampling periods, April - May 2012 and March - April 2013, in the framework of the National Monitoring Project of Greece. The Eutrophication assessment method integrates chemical and biological parameters of the water column. A synthetic Eutrophication Index (E.I.) was produced for the greek coastal areas by Primpas et al. quality classification scheme, combining the concentrations of nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia) and chlorophyll-α biomass into a single formula. The E.I. assesses the eutrophication status using a five scale scheme according to the requirements of WFD: (High) less than 0.04; (Good) 0.04-0.38; (moderate) 0.38-0.85; (poor) 0.85-1.51; (bad) >1.51. Nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentrations revealed significant spatial variation among the various coastal areas of Greece influenced by different point and/or diffuse anthropogenic pressures (related to nutrient enrichment), reflecting the level of human-induced impairment where an increase in nutrient loads leads to increased water quality problems. The assessment of E.I showed that during 2012, 32% of the selected coastal areas were characterized as Good, 54% as Moderate and 14% of the selected greek coastal areas were characterized as Poor. During 2012, none of the study areas corresponded to High or Bad eutrophication status. During 2013

  13. Effects of Sea Level-Rise on Carbon Accretion in Coastal Wetlands (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term storage of organic carbon in sediment is one of the key functions of coastal wetlands. Owing to the rise of sea level, a fraction of their primary production is buried annually. However, the productivity of tidelands and, hence, carbon accretion depend on their relative elevation within the tidal frame. It has been shown empirically that there is an optimum relative elevation for maximum primary production. The equilibrium elevation is a function of the rate of sea-level rise. Hence, productivity and carbon accretion are also affected by the rate of sea-level rise. Mathematically it can be shown that tidelands maintain their elevation relative to the ocean through feedbacks among primary production, flooding, and sedimentation. At the low end of the sea-level-rise spectrum, a rising sea increases the flooding of marshes, decreasing sediment salinity, stimulating primary production and increasing sedimentation. At the high end, marshes cannot keep pace with sea level and convert to tidal mud flats or open water. Consequently, the long-term storage of carbon by tidelands will depend on the future trajectory of sea-level. In general, cumulative carbon accretion of existing marshes decreases as the forecasted rise in sea level increases. Other important variables include tide range and concentration of suspended sediments. Carbon accretion will be lower in microtidal than macrotidal estuaries, particularly at high rates of sea-level rise. Sensitivity of carbon accretion to tide range decreases as the concentration of suspended sediments increases. These results indicate that future carbon accretion by coastal wetlands will not be uniform in space or time.

  14. Trophic structure of coastal Antarctic food webs associated with changes in sea ice and food supply.

    PubMed

    Norkko, A; Thrush, S F; Cummings, V J; Gibbs, M M; Andrew, N L; Norkko, J; Schwarz, A M

    2007-11-01

    Predicting the dynamics of ecosystems requires an understanding of how trophic interactions respond to environmental change. In Antarctic marine ecosystems, food web dynamics are inextricably linked to sea ice conditions that affect the nature and magnitude of primary food sources available to higher trophic levels. Recent attention on the changing sea ice conditions in polar seas highlights the need to better understand how marine food webs respond to changes in such broad-scale environmental drivers. This study investigated the importance of sea ice and advected primary food sources to the structure of benthic food webs in coastal Antarctica. We compared the isotopic composition of several seafloor taxa (including primary producers and invertebrates with a variety of feeding modes) that are widely distributed in the Antarctic. We assessed shifts in the trophic role of numerically dominant benthic omnivores at five coastal Ross Sea locations. These locations vary in primary productivity and food availability, due to their different levels of sea ice cover, and proximity to polynyas and advected primary production. The delta15N signatures and isotope mixing model results for the bivalves Laternula elliptica and Adamussium colbecki and the urchin Sterechinus neumeyeri indicate a shift from consumption of a higher proportion of detritus at locations with more permanent sea ice in the south to more freshly produced algal material associated with proximity to ice-free water in the north and east. The detrital pathways utilized by many benthic species may act to dampen the impacts of large seasonal fluctuations in the availability of primary production. The limiting relationship between sea ice distribution and in situ primary productivity emphasizes the role of connectivity and spatial subsidies of organic matter in fueling the food web. Our results begin to provide a basis for predicting how benthic ecosystems will respond to changes in sea ice persistence and extent

  15. Constraining coastal change: A morpho-sedimentological concept to infer sea-level oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauz, Barbara; Shen, Zhixiong

    2016-04-01

    One of the responders to Milankovitch-scale climate changes is sea level which, in turn, is a driver of coastal change. In literature, the sedimentary sequences representing the coastal change are often linked to high sea-level stands, to intermediate sea-level positions or to regressive shorelines. We note apparent contradictions that indicate a lack of concept and inconsistent usage of sea level-related terms. To overcome this, we combine an integrated morpho-sedimentological concept for microtidal, mid-latitudinal coasts with chronologies based on Bayesian statistics. The concept regards the coastal sedimentary system as a depositional complex consisting of shallow-marine, aeolian and alluvial facies. These facies are in juxtaposition and respond simultaneously to external forcing. Bayesian statistics constrains the timing of the sequence based on optical or radiocarbon ages. Here, we present the site Hergla located on the North African coast of the central Mediterranean Sea as a case study to illustrate how the approach helps eliminating contradictions. The site has been cited frequently for confirming the hypothesis of a global two peak sea-level highstand during the last interglacial (MIS 5e). The ~2 km cliff exposure at Hergla was surveyed, mapped, logged and sampled for further describing the sediments and their depositional environment through thin section and Bayesian modelling of optical ages. Using our concept based on sequence stratigraphy tools, the section is interpreted as representing a coastal barrier with two bounding surfaces in the succession. Both surfaces mark the falling sea level of, first, MIS 5e and, second, MIS 5a and hence bound the falling stage system tract of a forced regression. Part of the deposits between the two surfaces are pulled up onto the shoulder of a small rising horst and the associated tectonic event coincided with the MIS 5a sea-level rise enhancing locally the accommodation space for a second foreshore environment. Our

  16. Measures for environmental conservation in enclosed coastal seas.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Akio; Nakura, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Takuya

    2016-01-30

    With putting a focus on the balance among the nutrient salts such as nitrogen and phosphorus, the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) developed the Action Plan for Healthy Material Circulation in Ocean (just called the Healthy Plan). The plan aims to facilitate the healthy and smooth circulation of the nutrients with an integrated management over land and sea as a package in respective sea areas. The Healthy Plan is now in a pilot phase and is to be implemented for some selected model regions. Meanwhile, devastating tsunamis caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11th, 2011 severely damaged the natural environments in the affected regions. In the affected bays, seaweed beds and spawning grounds disappeared in a blink. MOE has launched on the recovery activities of Zostera (eelgrass) beds, using the concepts and the methods used in the "Sato-umi Creation" activity which is a purposeful environmental recovery project. PMID:26969298

  17. Measures for environmental conservation in enclosed coastal seas.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Akio; Nakura, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Takuya

    2016-01-30

    With putting a focus on the balance among the nutrient salts such as nitrogen and phosphorus, the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) developed the Action Plan for Healthy Material Circulation in Ocean (just called the Healthy Plan). The plan aims to facilitate the healthy and smooth circulation of the nutrients with an integrated management over land and sea as a package in respective sea areas. The Healthy Plan is now in a pilot phase and is to be implemented for some selected model regions. Meanwhile, devastating tsunamis caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11th, 2011 severely damaged the natural environments in the affected regions. In the affected bays, seaweed beds and spawning grounds disappeared in a blink. MOE has launched on the recovery activities of Zostera (eelgrass) beds, using the concepts and the methods used in the "Sato-umi Creation" activity which is a purposeful environmental recovery project.

  18. Rising Seas: Threat to Coastal Areas, A General Study about the Sea Level Rises on Coastal Areas of Earth, its Consequences and Preventive Measures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, A.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific research indicates that sea levels worldwide have been rising at a rate of 3 millimeters per year since the early 1990s (IPCC), which is much higher than the previous century. The recent measurements (march 2015; NASA) tells us that the present rise of sea level is 64.4 mm. Most recent satellite measurements and tide gauge readings (NASA) tell us that present rate sea level rise is 3.20 mm per year. A recent study says we can expect the oceans to rise between 2.5 and 6.5 feet (0.8 and 2 meters) by 2100. The two main causes of rising seas are thermal expansion and glacier melting which further corresponds to the root cause of sea level rise: Green House effect. For every degree Celsius that global average temperature rises, we can expect 2.3 meters of sea-level rise sometime over the ensuing 2,000 years. The main consequence of Sea level rise is increase in oceanic acidity as it releases the entrapped carbon dioxide in between the glaciers. The problem goes from bad to worse when we take into consideration that one third of the world population lives in a 60 km range from the coast. In the event of a flood, this massive population would have to move away from the coasts. The main objective of research is to find all the most vulnerable areas, to make people aware about the consequences and to take proper measurements to fight with such natural calamities. The rise in sea level would inevitably cause massive migration like never seen before. Over 25% of the world population could disappear if sea levels continues to rise with same or faster rate as present. The oceans, sea life and life of people at coastal areas will get extremely effected unless there are considerable cuts in the carbon dioxide emissions. What we need to do is just to apply all the methods and measurements in our daily life that can help reduce the green house gases emissions. Also we need to plan that how to prevent all these cities in case of such natural hazards.

  19. Magmatic history of Red Sea rifting: perspective from the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An early stage of magmatism related to Red Sea rifting is recorded by a Tertiary dyke complex and comagmatic volcanic rocks exposed on the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain. Field relations and new K/Ar dates indicate episodic magmatism from approx 30 m.y. to the present day and rift-related magmatism as early as 50 m.y. Localized volcanism and sheeted dyke injection ceased at approx 20 m.y. and were replaced by the intrusion of thick gabbro dykes, marking the onset of sea-floor spreading in the central Red Sea. Differences in the depths and dynamics of mantle-melt extraction and transport may account for the transition from mixed alkaline-subalkaline bimodal magmatism of the pre-20 m.y. rift basin to exclusively subalkaline (tholeiitic) magmatism of the Red Sea spreading axis and the alkali basalt volcanism inland.-L.C.H.

  20. Dynamics of sea level rise and coastal flooding on a changing landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Passeri, D. L.

    2014-02-01

    Standard approaches to determining the impacts of sea level rise (SLR) on storm surge flooding employ numerical models reflecting present conditions with modified sea states for a given SLR scenario. In this study, we advance this paradigm by adjusting the model framework so that it reflects not only a change in sea state but also variations to the landscape (morphologic changes and urbanization of coastal cities). We utilize a numerical model of the Mississippi and Alabama coast to simulate the response of hurricane storm surge to changes in sea level, land use/land cover, and land surface elevation for past (1960), present (2005), and future (2050) conditions. The results show that the storm surge response to SLR is dynamic and sensitive to changes in the landscape. We introduce a new modeling framework that includes modification of the landscape when producing storm surge models for future conditions.

  1. Modeling landscape dynamics and effects of sea-level rise on coastal wetlands of northwest Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, T.W.; Day, R.H.; Biagas, J.M.

    1997-06-01

    A research study to examine the ability to predict changes in coastal vegetation caused by sea level rise is very briefly summarized. A field survey was carried out on the northwest coast of Florida. A predictive elevation model was then generated from digitized US Geologic Survey 1:2400 hypsographic data using surface modeling techniques. Sea-level rise model simulations were generated to predict a likelihood index of habitat change and conversions under different scenarios. Maps were produced depicting location of the coastline and inland extent of salt marsh using a range of sea level rise rates through the year 2100. This modeling approach offers a technological tool to researchers and wetland managers for effective cumulative impact analysis of wetlands affected by sea-level rise.

  2. Integrating space geodesy and coastal sea level observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, J. S.; Haas, R.; Larson, K.; Scherneck, H.-G.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) is to monitor the Earth system, in particular with observations of the three fundamental geodetic observables: the Earth's shape, the Earth's gravity field and the Earth's rotational motion. A central part of GGOS is the network of globally distributed fundamental geodetic stations that allow the combination and integration of the different space geodetic techniques. One of these stations is the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO), on the west coast of Sweden, which operates equipment for geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and superconducting gravimetry measurements, and additionally water vapour radiometers. The newest addition to the OSO fundamental geodetic station is a GNSS-based tide gauge (GNSS-TG). This installation integrates space geodesy with remote sensing of the local sea level. The GNSS-TG uses both direct GNSS-signals and GNSS-signals that are reflected off the sea surface. This is done using a zenith-looking Right Hand Circular Polarized (RHCP) and a nadir-looking Left Hand Circular Polarized (LHCP) antenna, respectively. Each of the two antennas is connected to a standard geodetic-type GNSS-receiver. The analysis of the data received with the RHCP-antenna allows one to determine land motion, while the analysis of the data received with the LHCP-antenna allows one to determine the sea surface height. Analysing both data sets together results in local sea level that is automatically corrected for land motion, meaning that the GNSS-TG can provide reliable sea-level estimates even in tectonically active regions. Previous results from the GNSS-TG, using carrier phase data, show a Root-Mean-Square (RMS) agreement of less than 5.9 cm with stilling well gauges located 18 km and 33 km away from OSO (Löfgren et al., 2011). This is lower than the RMS agreement between the two stilling well gauges (6.1 cm). Furthermore, significant ocean tidal signals have

  3. A flexible and national scale approach to coastal decision tools incorporating sea level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, B.; Kulp, S. A.; Tebaldi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate science and sea level models constantly evolve. In this context, maps and analyses of exposure to sea level rise - or coastal flooding aggravated by rise - quickly fall out of date when based upon a specific model projection or projection set. At the same time, policy makers and planners prefer simple and stable risk assessments for their future planning. Here, using Climate Central's Surging Seas Risk Finder, we describe and illustrate a decision tool framework that separates the spatial and temporal dimensions of coastal exposure in order to help alleviate this tension. The Risk Finder presents local maps and exposure analyses simply as functions of a discrete set of local water levels. In turn, each water level may be achieved at different times, with different probabilities, according to different combinations of sea level change, storm surge and tide. This temporal dimension is expressed in a separate module of the Risk Finder, so that users may explore the probabilities and time frames of different water levels, as a function of different sea level models and emissions scenarios. With such an approach, decision-makers can quickly get a sense of the range of risks for each water level given current understanding. At the same time, the models and scenarios can easily be updated over time as the science evolves, while avoiding the labor of regenerating maps and exposure analyses. In this talk, we will also use the tool to highlight key findings from a new U.S. national assessment of sea level and coastal flood risk. For example, more than 2.5 million people and $500 billion dollars of property value sit on land less than 2 meters above the high tide line in Florida alone.

  4. Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations and human evolution on the southern coastal plain of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, John S.

    2011-03-01

    Humans evolved in Africa, but where and how remain unclear. Here it is proposed that the southern coastal plain (SCP) of South Africa may have served as a geographical point of origin through periodic expansion and contraction (isolation) in response to glacial/interglacial changes in sea level and climate. During Pleistocene interglacial highstands when sea level was above -75 m human populations were isolated for periods of 360-3400 25-yr generations on the SCP by the rugged mountains of the Cape Fold Belt, climate and vegetation barriers. The SCP expands five-fold as sea level falls from -75 to -120 m during glacial maxima to form a continuous, unobstructed coastal plain accessible to the interior. An expanded and wet glacial SCP may have served as a refuge to humans and large migratory herds and resulted in the mixing of previously isolated groups. The expansive glacial SCP habitat abruptly contracts, by as much as one-third in 300 yr, during the rapid rise in sea level associated with glacial terminations. Rapid flooding may have increased population density and competition on the SCP to select for humans who expanded their diet to include marine resources or hunted large animals. Successful adaptations developed on an isolated SCP are predicted to widely disperse during glacial terminations when the SCP rapidly contracts or during the initial opening of the SCP in the transition to glacial maxima. The hypothesis that periodic expansion and contraction of the SCP, as well as the coastal plain of North Africa, contributed to the stepwise origin of our species over the last 800 thousand years (kyr) is evaluated by comparing the archeological, DNA and sea-level records. These records generally support the hypothesis, but more complete and well dated records are required to resolve the extent to which sea-level fluctuations influenced the complex history of human evolution.

  5. Effects of sea level rise on deltaic coastal marshlands, Mississippi River deltaic plain

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, K.E.; Penland, S. ); Roberts, H.H.; Coleman, J.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Low-relief deltaic coastal plains commonly experience land loss because of the cumulative effects of natural and human-induced processes. Although it is difficult to separate the individual factors within the overall process, interplay between these factors can result in a rate of relative sea level rise greater than the natural rate of coastal-plain aggradation that causes land loss. Between 1956 and 1978, about 11,400 and 2,490 ha of marsh were lost in east Texas and Mississippi, respectively. Louisiana's loss was 18,755 ha. Relative sea level rise over the last 65 yr has averaged 0.23 cm/yr in the Gulf and as much as 1-1.5 cm/yr in the delta plain. The Environmental Protection Agency predicts the rate of sea level rise to increase over the next century. Rates of relative sea level rise for the Gulf of Mexico are expected to increase from 0.23-1.5 cm/yr to 0.6-3.7 cm/yr. The current rate of relative sea level rise and land loss in the subsiding Mississippi delta is a response that can be expected for many US coastal areas over the next century. With the predicted change, the Mississippi River delta complex will experience dramatically increased rates of land loss. Isles Dernieres will disappear by the year 2000, and Plaquemines and Terrebonne marshes will be gone between 2020 and 2080. Based on the lowest predicted sea level rise rate, by the year 2100, the delta plain could be reduced from 150.9 {times} 10{sup 3} ha to 29.8 x 10{sup 3} ha or to 4.9 {times} 10{sup 3} ha if calculations are based on the highest rate.

  6. How sea level rise affects sedimentation, plant growth, and carbon accumulation on coastal salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudd, S. M.; Howell, S. M.; Morris, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    The rate of accretion on coastal salt marshes depends on feedbacks between flow, macrophyte growth, and sedimentation. Under favourable conditions, marsh accretion rates will keep pace with the local rate of sea level rise. Marsh accretion is driven by both organic and inorganic sedimentation; mineral rich marshes will need less organic sedimentation to keep pace with sea level rise. Here we use a numerical model of marsh accretion, calibrated by sediment cores, to explore the relationship between sea level rise and carbon sequestration on salt marshes in the face of differing supplies of inorganic sediment. The model predicts that changes in carbon storage resulting from changing sediment supply or sea-level rise are strongly dependant on the background sediment supply: if inorganic sediment supply is reduced in an already sediment poor marsh the storage of organic carbon will increase to a far greater extent than in a sediment-rich marsh, provided that the rate of sea-level rise does not exceed a threshold. These results imply that altering sediment supply to estuaries (e.g., by damming upstream rivers or altering littoral sediment transport) could lead to significant changes in the carbon budgets of coastal salt marshes.

  7. Coastal Seafloor Observatory Of The East China Sea At Xiaoqushan And Its Primary Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Xu, C.; Qin, R.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, H.

    2010-12-01

    The seafloor observation system becomes increasingly important infrastructure in ocean sciences, which transforms oceanic research from temporal investigation to long term observation. The East China Sea coastal seafloor observatory, located between 30°31'44"N,122°15'12"E and 30°31'34"N,122°14'40"E, is built near the Xiaoqushan island outside the Yangtze River estuary, on the inner East China Sea continental shelf. The East China Sea coastal seafloor observatory is part of the East China Sea seafloor observational network. The observatory consists of a composite power cable made of optical fiber and extending for more than 1 kilometer and a special junction box, which provide power and signal communication for different instruments. The special junction box, which has various waterproof plugs, connects to three different instruments installed in a trawl preventer. The submarine optical fiber composite power cable is landed on the platform by The East China Sea Branch, State Oceanic Administration of the People’s Republic of China, and the power is continuously supplied by the solar panels and solar battery on the top of the platform. The real time data are directly sent through the cable to the platform and are transmitted by CDMA wireless to the receiver at the State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology of Tongji University. Measurements at the observatory have been taken since 26 April, 2009. The observations include current speeds and their directions at different depths, suspended sediment concentration, temperature and salinity nearby the seabed. The more than one year preliminary results show that the current field and fine suspended sediment transport of East China Sea are complex and show considerable seasonal variation affected by the integrated influence of Changjiang diluted water, Taiwan warm current and the Yellow Sea coastal current. The successful establishment of the coastal seafloor observatory is the first step toward future development of the

  8. Effect of rising sea level on runoff and groundwater discharge to coastal ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nuttle, W.K.; Portnoy, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Rising sea level can cause an increase in surface runoff from coastal areas by raising the watertable and thus increasing the incidence of saturated soil conditions in low-lying areas. As surface runoff increases, less rainfall will infiltrate into the ground and groundwater discharge to the coast will decrease. The link between sea level rise and runoff is critically dependent on the sensitivity of surface runoff to changes in the elevation of the watertable. A significant relation between the two is demonstrated for a coastal watershed on Cape Cod, where it is estimated that a 10 cm rise in the watertable will increase surface runoff by 70% and decrease groundwater discharge by 20%. Effects on near-shore ecosystems include changes in nutrient fluxes and in the salinity of the sediments.

  9. Coastal sea level projections with improved accounting for vertical land motion

    PubMed Central

    Han, Guoqi; Ma, Zhimin; Chen, Nan; Yang, Jingsong; Chen, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Regional and coastal mean sea level projections in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) account only for vertical land motion (VLM) associated with glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), which may significantly under- or over-estimate sea level rise. Here we adjust AR5-like regional projections with the VLM from Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) measurements and/or from a combination of altimetry and tide-gauge data, which include both GIA and non-GIA VLM. Our results at selected tide-gauge locations on the North American and East Asian coasts show drastically different projections with and without non-GIA VLM being accounted for. The present study points to the importance of correcting IPCC AR5 coastal projections for the non-GIA VLM in making adaptation decisions. PMID:26526287

  10. Temporal and spatial diversity of bacterial communities in coastal waters of the South china sea.

    PubMed

    Du, Jikun; Xiao, Kai; Li, Li; Ding, Xian; Liu, Helu; Lu, Yongjun; Zhou, Shining

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems. Temporal and geographical patterns in ocean bacterial communities have been observed in many studies, but the temporal and spatial patterns in the bacterial communities from the South China Sea remained unexplored. To determine the spatiotemporal patterns, we generated 16S rRNA datasets for 15 samples collected from the five regularly distributed sites of the South China Sea in three seasons (spring, summer, winter). A total of 491 representative sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 282 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Significant temporal variations of bacterial diversity were observed. Richness and diversity indices indicated that summer samples were the most diverse. The main bacterial group in spring and summer samples was Alphaproteobacteria, followed by Cyanobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, whereas Cyanobacteria dominated the winter samples. Spatial patterns in the samples were observed that samples collected from the coastal (D151, D221) waters and offshore (D157, D1512, D224) waters clustered separately, the coastal samples harbored more diverse bacterial communities. However, the temporal pattern of the coastal site D151 was contrary to that of the coastal site D221. The LIBSHUFF statistics revealed noticeable differences among the spring, summer and winter libraries collected at five sites. The UPGMA tree showed there were temporal and spatial heterogeneity of bacterial community composition in coastal waters of the South China Sea. The water salinity (P=0.001) contributed significantly to the bacteria-environment relationship. Our results revealed that bacterial community structures were influenced by environmental factors and community-level changes in 16S-based diversity were better explained by spatial patterns than by temporal patterns.

  11. Subsatellite experiments in a coastal region of the Black sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhanov, V.; Bogatov, N.; Ermoshkin, A.; Kazakov, V.; Kemarskaya, O.; Lobanov, V.; Repina, I.; Titov, V.; Troitskaya, Yu.; Zuikova, E.

    2009-04-01

    The results of field experiments carried out in 2007, 2008 in a north-east part of the Black sea in region of city Gelendzhik, are given. Experiments targeted the development of a bottom topography remote (radar and optical) diagnostics. Experimental area is characterized by abrupt depth dumping (fall 50 - 1250 m), and irregularity of a bank vault (numerous canyons). Such bottom topography in the presence of alongshore current creates favorable conditions for hydrodynamic perturbations on thermocline and corresponding anomalies on sea surface and in atmospheric surface layer characteristics. The simultaneous measurement of atmospheric near-surface layer, sea surface and sea bulk parameters synchronously with reception of the radar image from the satellite ENVISAT was feature of the given experiment. The ground-based measurements were carried out simultaneously from high coast by means of X-band radar and from R/V "Aquanaut" (Institute of Oceanology RAS). The meteorological conditions during observations varied considerably. The wind velocity changed from 0 up to 10 m/c, heaving - from 0 up to 4 balls. The short-term atmospheric precipitations were observed. The bottom topography was measured by echo-sounder. Investigation of the hydrological characteristics was carried out by combined SVP-CTD probe. The current field was measured by ADCP. The surface wave characteristics in length range 4 mm - 1 m were measured by X and Ka radar and two-dimensional optical spectrum analyzer. Air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity and direction were measured. Sonic anemometer-thermometer for recording horizontal and vertical components of the wind and temperature fluctuations in the surface layer was used. The connection of current field heterogeneities with a bottom configuration in region of depth dumping is investigated. The correlation of radar signal with current speed in near-surface region is observed also. For example, the slicks are observed

  12. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida’s Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Anne P.; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R.

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida’s Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway. PMID:26207914

  13. Quantifying coastal inundation vulnerability of Turkey to sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Demirkesen, Ali C; Evrendilek, Fatih; Berberoglu, Suha

    2008-03-01

    The vulnerability of low-lying coastal areas in Turkey to inundation was quantified based on the sea-level rise scenarios of 1, 2, and 3 m by 2205. Through digital elevation model (DEM) acquired by the shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM), the extent and distribution of the high to low-risk coastal plains were identified. The spatio-temporal analysis revealed the inundated coastal areas of 545, 1,286, and 2,125 km2 at average rates of 5, 10, and 15 mm yr(-1) for 200 years, respectively. This is equivalent to minimum and maximum land losses by 2205 of 0.1-0.3% of the total area and of 1.3-5.2% of the coastal areas with elevations of less than 100 m in the country, respectively. This study provides an initial assessment of vulnerability to sea-level rise to help decision-makers, and other concerned stakeholders to develop appropriate public policies and land-use planning measures. PMID:17503205

  14. Coastal vertebrate exposure to predicted habitat changes due to sea level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Elizabeth A.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Alexander, Clark R.; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F.; Guy, Rachel; Moore, Clinton; Cooper, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species’ fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species (n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species’ foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.

  15. Assessing Coastal Aquifer Response to Projected Sea Level Rise in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odigie, K. O.; Hoover, D. J.; Barnard, P.; Swarzenski, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    The rate of global sea-level rise (SLR) has been increasing over the past century, primarily due to global warming and associated melting of polar icecaps. Recent projections indicate that sea level could rise globally by more than 1 m by 2100. Potential impacts of SLR in coastal regions are a concern, especially in California which has a ~1,800 km long coastline and where >70% of the population live in coastal counties. However, information on potential impacts of SLR-driven groundwater inundation in California is limited. In this study, we examined potential impacts of SLR-driven groundwater inundation in select low-lying areas of California, including Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon, under +1 m and +2 m SLR scenarios. The results indicate that Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon will be impacted by SLR-driven inundation to different extents. For example, ~15% of present-day dry land in Malibu Lagoon will be inundated with groundwater and the lagoon will be expanded by >100% relative to present-day area under the +2 m SLR scenario. In addition, the area with shallow water table ≤2 m from the ground surface will increase substantially with SLR at Malibu Lagoon. SLR-driven groundwater inundation could be problematic in some low-lying coastal regions. Therefore, improved understanding of potential response of coastal aquifers to SLR could help in preparing for mitigation and adaptation.

  16. Coastal Vertebrate Exposure to Predicted Habitat Changes Due to Sea Level Rise.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Elizabeth A; Nibbelink, Nathan P; Alexander, Clark R; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F; Guy, Rachel K; Moore, Clinton T; Cooper, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species' fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species (n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species' foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.

  17. Coastal Vertebrate Exposure to Predicted Habitat Changes Due to Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Elizabeth A.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Alexander, Clark R.; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F.; Guy, Rachel K.; Moore, Clinton T.; Cooper, Robert J.

    2015-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species' fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species ( n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species' foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.

  18. Health status of seabirds and coastal birds found at the German North Sea coast

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Systematic pathological investigations to assess the health status of seabirds and coastal birds in Germany were performed. The investigation was conducted to obtain data on possible causes of decline in seabird and coastal bird populations. Methods 48 individuals of 11 different species of seabirds and coastal birds were collected by the stranding network along the entire German North Sea coast from 1997 to 2008, including mainly waders such as Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) and red knots (Calidris canutus) as well as seabirds such as northern fulmars (Fulmaris glacialis) and common scoters (Melanitta nigra). For most birds (n = 31) found dead along the shore no obvious cause of death was evident, while 17 individuals were killed by collisions with lighthouses. Results Overall, the nutritional status of the investigated birds was very poor, and the body mass in most cases was significantly lower compared to masses of living birds caught during the same periods of the year. This is partly linked to chronic parasitic or bacterial infections in different organs or to septicaemia. In some cases infections with zoonotic tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium spp. were found. Avian influenza was not found in any of the collected birds. Conclusion The presented data contribute to the evaluation of the health status of birds in the German North Sea. Moreover, they present an important tool for the assessment of potential pathogens with an impact on the health status of seabirds and coastal birds. PMID:22812640

  19. Tephrostratigraphic investigations of the Late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits in the northwestern Pacific Ocean and adjacent seas (Okhotsk and Bering)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkachev, A.; Nikolaeva, N.; Portnyagin, M.; Ponomareva, V.; Gorbarenko, S.; Malakhov, M.; Nuernberg, D.; van den Bogaard, C.; Sakamoto, T.; Lv, H.

    2012-12-01

    Ash layers (tephra) in both continental and marine deposits bear information about history and nature of volcanic eruptions which could influence climate, processes of sedimentation, and even cause ecological disasters. Tephra layers of Quaternary age have been identified in various marine and continental deposits within the northwestern part of transition zone from the Asian continent to the Pacific Ocean. Tephras from the areas adjacent to the Japanese Islands are better studied while those from the areas farther north including Okhotsk and Bering Seas have received less attention until recently. More than 40 sediment cores were obtained during numerous expeditions performed by Russian, German, Japanese and Chinese scientists during the last fifteen years. We have identified and sampled a total of 74 tephra layers and lenses from these cores including 22 layers in the Okhotsk Sea, 14 layers in the Bering Sea, and 38 layers - in the northwestern Pacific (Kronotsky Bay and Meiji Seamount). Ages of tephra layers have been estimated based on age-depth models for the cores developed in the result of litho- and biostratigraphic studies, paleomagnetic and oxygen-isotope research, and 14C dating. Tephra from all these layers have been characterized based on morphology of glass shards, optical properties (refractive indices), and chemical composition of glass (major and trace elements) and minerals (major elements). About 3500 precise and consistent electron probe and ~200 LA-ICP-MS analyses of volcanic glasses and 1200 electron probe analyses of minerals comprise the core of our new data base. Processing of these data has allowed us to correlate a number of tephra layers between the cores in each of the studied regions. Several tephra layers have been correlated between the Bering Sea and Pacific cores. These results permit direct comparisons of the paleoceanological records over the vast area in the northwestern Pacific domain. Studied tephra layers form the basis of

  20. Virulence Profiles of Vibrio vulnificus in German Coastal Waters, a Comparison of North Sea and Baltic Sea Isolates.

    PubMed

    Bier, Nadja; Jäckel, Claudia; Dieckmann, Ralf; Brennholt, Nicole; Böer, Simone I; Strauch, Eckhard

    2015-12-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic bacterium of coastal environments known for sporadically causing severe foodborne or wound infections. Global warming is expected to lead to a rising occurrence of V. vulnificus and an increasing incidence of human infections in Northern Europe. So far, infections in Germany were exclusively documented for the Baltic Sea coast, while no cases from the North Sea region have been reported. Regional variations in the prevalence of infections may be influenced by differences in the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus populations in both areas. This study aimed to compare the distribution of virulence-associated traits and genotypes among 101 V. vulnificus isolates from the Baltic Sea and North Sea in order to assess their pathogenicity potential. Furthermore, genetic relationships were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A high diversity of MLST sequences (74 sequence types) and differences regarding the presence of six potential pathogenicity markers were observed in the V. vulnificus populations of both areas. Strains with genotypes and markers associated with pathogenicity are not restricted to a particular geographic region. This indicates that lack of reported cases in the North Sea region is not caused by the absence of potentially pathogenic strains.

  1. Virulence Profiles of Vibrio vulnificus in German Coastal Waters, a Comparison of North Sea and Baltic Sea Isolates.

    PubMed

    Bier, Nadja; Jäckel, Claudia; Dieckmann, Ralf; Brennholt, Nicole; Böer, Simone I; Strauch, Eckhard

    2015-12-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic bacterium of coastal environments known for sporadically causing severe foodborne or wound infections. Global warming is expected to lead to a rising occurrence of V. vulnificus and an increasing incidence of human infections in Northern Europe. So far, infections in Germany were exclusively documented for the Baltic Sea coast, while no cases from the North Sea region have been reported. Regional variations in the prevalence of infections may be influenced by differences in the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus populations in both areas. This study aimed to compare the distribution of virulence-associated traits and genotypes among 101 V. vulnificus isolates from the Baltic Sea and North Sea in order to assess their pathogenicity potential. Furthermore, genetic relationships were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A high diversity of MLST sequences (74 sequence types) and differences regarding the presence of six potential pathogenicity markers were observed in the V. vulnificus populations of both areas. Strains with genotypes and markers associated with pathogenicity are not restricted to a particular geographic region. This indicates that lack of reported cases in the North Sea region is not caused by the absence of potentially pathogenic strains. PMID:26694432

  2. Virulence Profiles of Vibrio vulnificus in German Coastal Waters, a Comparison of North Sea and Baltic Sea Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bier, Nadja; Jäckel, Claudia; Dieckmann, Ralf; Brennholt, Nicole; Böer, Simone I.; Strauch, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic bacterium of coastal environments known for sporadically causing severe foodborne or wound infections. Global warming is expected to lead to a rising occurrence of V. vulnificus and an increasing incidence of human infections in Northern Europe. So far, infections in Germany were exclusively documented for the Baltic Sea coast, while no cases from the North Sea region have been reported. Regional variations in the prevalence of infections may be influenced by differences in the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus populations in both areas. This study aimed to compare the distribution of virulence-associated traits and genotypes among 101 V. vulnificus isolates from the Baltic Sea and North Sea in order to assess their pathogenicity potential. Furthermore, genetic relationships were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A high diversity of MLST sequences (74 sequence types) and differences regarding the presence of six potential pathogenicity markers were observed in the V. vulnificus populations of both areas. Strains with genotypes and markers associated with pathogenicity are not restricted to a particular geographic region. This indicates that lack of reported cases in the North Sea region is not caused by the absence of potentially pathogenic strains. PMID:26694432

  3. Sea level change impacts on the coastal infrastructures of the Basque Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, Ainhoa; Chust, Guillem; Liria, Pedro; Marcos, Marta

    2010-05-01

    Analyses of coastal tide gauges have revealed a sea level rise between 1954 and 2004 in the Bay of Biscay (Northeast Atlantic) (Chust et al., 2009). The impact a sustained sea level rise will have over the Basque coast (north-eastern corner of the Bay of Biscay) must be evaluated since the 60% of the population and the 30% of the industry of the Basque Country is concentrated in the coast (Cearreta et al., 2004). The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact a possible sea level rise within the Bay of Biscay, will have over the coastal infrastructures of the Basque Country along the 21st century. To do that, sea level projections have been computed for the region of study, from temperature projections under three climate scenarios (Committed, SRES A1B and SRES A2). The temperature projections have been extracted for the study area from different Atmosphere-Ocean Coupled General Climate Models (AOGCM) and then the thermosteric sea level has been computed. The results show that at the end of the century, in the studied region, sea level will increase on average near 50 cm, due to thermal expansion and ice melting. With the aim of knowing the future shoreline evolution, the projected sea level rise has been introduced into a high-resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM), extracted from airborne laser altimetry data (LIDAR). The results indicate that for the end of the 21st century, some industrial and residential areas will be below the Highest Astronomical Tide levels associated with the projected mean sea level; as well as transport infrastructures, such as roads and an airport. Nowadays, some of these areas are protected by flood retaining walls that will be not overtopped. Nevertheless, these structures will support highest hydrostatic pressure and they probably should be reinforced. Furthermore, the drainage systems of many impacted areas should be recalculated. The distance among the levels of the Highest Astronomical Tide and of the piers inside the main

  4. Significant variations in the productivity of green macroalgae in a mesotidal estuary: implications to the nutrient loading of the system and the adjacent coastal area.

    PubMed

    Martins, Irene; Lopes, R J; Lillebø, A I; Neto, J M; Pardal, M A; Ferreira, J G; Marques, J C

    2007-06-01

    A spatially dynamic model for the productivity of spores and adults of green macroalgae (Enteromorpha sp.) was developed for a mesotidal estuary (Mondego estuary, Portugal). Many of the algal processes and parameters included in the model were experimentally obtained. Model predictions were compared to a real time series (1993-1997) of macroalgal biomass variation and the two sets show a good agreement (ANOVA, P<0.001). Results suggest that algal growth is highly sensitive to small changes in depth and exhibits different patterns of variation in different seasons. On a yearly basis, global calculations for the south channel of the estuary (137 ha) suggest that during bloom years, macroalgal biomass may reach about 21,205 ton DW compared to 240 ton DW in regular years. On a seasonal basis, the difference may be even more significant. The consequences of such variations on the nitrogen and phosphorus loading of the system and the adjacent coastal area are discussed. PMID:17395214

  5. Sea-level rise modeling handbook: Resource guide for coastal land managers, engineers, and scientists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Chivoiu, Bogdan; Enwright, Nicholas M.

    2015-08-24

    Global sea level is rising and may accelerate with continued fossil fuel consumption from industrial and population growth. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted more than 30 training and feedback sessions with Federal, State, and nongovernmental organization (NGO) coastal managers and planners across the northern Gulf of Mexico coast to evaluate user needs, potential benefits, current scientific understanding, and utilization of resource aids and modeling tools focused on sea-level rise. In response to the findings from the sessions, this sea-level rise modeling handbook has been designed as a guide to the science and simulation models for understanding the dynamics and impacts of sea-level rise on coastal ecosystems. The review herein of decision-support tools and predictive models was compiled from the training sessions, from online research, and from publications. The purpose of this guide is to describe and categorize the suite of data, methods, and models and their design, structure, and application for hindcasting and forecasting the potential impacts of sea-level rise in coastal ecosystems. The data and models cover a broad spectrum of disciplines involving different designs and scales of spatial and temporal complexity for predicting environmental change and ecosystem response. These data and models have not heretofore been synthesized, nor have appraisals been made of their utility or limitations. Some models are demonstration tools for non-experts, whereas others require more expert capacity to apply for any given park, refuge, or regional application. A simplified tabular context has been developed to list and contrast a host of decision-support tools and models from the ecological, geological, and hydrological perspectives. Criteria were established to distinguish the source, scale, and quality of information input and geographic datasets; physical and biological constraints and relations; datum characteristics of water and land components

  6. Sea-level rise modeling handbook: Resource guide for coastal land managers, engineers, and scientists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Chivoiu, Bogdan; Enwright, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Global sea level is rising and may accelerate with continued fossil fuel consumption from industrial and population growth. In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted more than 30 training and feedback sessions with Federal, State, and nongovernmental organization (NGO) coastal managers and planners across the northern Gulf of Mexico coast to evaluate user needs, potential benefits, current scientific understanding, and utilization of resource aids and modeling tools focused on sea-level rise. In response to the findings from the sessions, this sea-level rise modeling handbook has been designed as a guide to the science and simulation models for understanding the dynamics and impacts of sea-level rise on coastal ecosystems. The review herein of decision-support tools and predictive models was compiled from the training sessions, from online research, and from publications. The purpose of this guide is to describe and categorize the suite of data, methods, and models and their design, structure, and application for hindcasting and forecasting the potential impacts of sea-level rise in coastal ecosystems. The data and models cover a broad spectrum of disciplines involving different designs and scales of spatial and temporal complexity for predicting environmental change and ecosystem response. These data and models have not heretofore been synthesized, nor have appraisals been made of their utility or limitations. Some models are demonstration tools for non-experts, whereas others require more expert capacity to apply for any given park, refuge, or regional application. A simplified tabular context has been developed to list and contrast a host of decision-support tools and models from the ecological, geological, and hydrological perspectives. Criteria were established to distinguish the source, scale, and quality of information input and geographic datasets; physical and biological constraints and relations; datum characteristics of water and land components

  7. Vulnerability of the Nile Delta coastal areas to inundation by sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Hassaan, M A; Abdrabo, M A

    2013-08-01

    Sea level changes are typically caused by several natural phenomena, including ocean thermal expansion, glacial melt from Greenland and Antarctica. Global average sea level is expected to rise, through the twenty-first century, according to the IPCC projections by between 0.18 and 0.59 cm. Such a rise in sea level will significantly impact coastal area of the Nile Delta, consisting generally of lowland and is densely populated areas and accommodates significant proportion of Egypt's economic activities and built-up areas. The Nile Delta has been examined in several previous studies, which worked under various hypothetical sea level rise (SLR) scenarios and provided different estimates of areas susceptible to inundation due to SLR. The paper intends, in this respect, to identify areas, as well as land use/land cover, susceptible to inundation by SLR based upon most recent scenarios of SLR, by the year 2100 using GIS. The results indicate that about 22.49, 42.18, and 49.22 % of the total area of coastal governorates of the Nile Delta would be susceptible to inundation under different scenarios of SLR. Also, it was found that 15.56 % of the total areas of the Nile Delta that would be vulnerable to inundation due to land subsidence only, even in the absence of any rise in sea level. Moreover, it was found that a considerable proportion of these areas (ranging between 32.32 and 53.66 %) are currently either wetland or undeveloped areas. Furthermore, natural and/or man-made structures, such as the banks of the International Coastal Highway, were found to provide unintended protection to some of these areas. This suggests that the inundation impact of SLR on the Nile Delta is less than previously reported.

  8. Modeling Coastal Erosion, Passive Inundation, and Dynamic Wave Inundation under Higher Sea Level in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Hawaii State legislators recently formed the Interagency Committee on Climate Adaptation to investigate community vulnerability to sea level rise. We developed modeling to provide the committee with assessments of exposure to coastal erosion, wave inundation, and passive flooding based on the IPCC RCP 8.5 model of sea level rise over the 21st Century. We model the exposure to coastal erosion using a hybrid equilibrium profile model (Anderson et al., 2015) that combines historical rates of shoreline change with a Bruun-type model of beach profile translation. Results are mapped in a GIS showing the 80th percentile probability of potential erosion at years 2030, 2050, 2075, and 2100. Wave inundation is modeled using XBeach. We use a 3 m significant wave height to represent a seasonal high swell event. A separate simulation was run for each heightened sea level (corresponding to the years previously mentioned); which accounts for changes in wave dynamics due to the change in water level over the reef platform. We use a bare earth topo/bathy LiDAR DEM derived from data collected during the 2013 JBLTX survey of the Hawaiian Islands. XBeach modeling is done along one-dimensional profiles spaced 20 m apart. From this, we develop a gridded product of water depth and velocity for use in a vulnerability analysis. Passive inundation due to sea level rise, the so-called "bath tub" method, provide estimates of storm drain flooding and groundwater inundation. Our analysis of these three impacts of sea level rise, combined - coastal erosion, wave inundation, and passive flooding - are used with other available data in the FEMA Hazus software to estimate exposure and loss of upland assets.

  9. Warm Water and Swift Currents: Two Years of Data From Moorings Under Coastal Sea Ice in the Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, A. R.; Eicken, H.; Ohshima, K. I.; Fukamachi, Y.; Simizu, D.; Iwamoto, K.; Takatsuka, T.

    2011-12-01

    The nearshore regions of the Arctic are challenging environments in which to collect long-term oceanographic data. The shallowness of the water means that bottom-moored instruments face the risk of damage by deep-keeled ice ridges, while instruments tethered to the landfast ice are at risk from ice breakout or deformation events. Also, Arctic landfast sea ice is typically seasonal, so ice-tethered moorings can only deployed for part of the year. For these reasons ocean data from beneath Arctic landfast sea ice are sparse. Moreover, the few datasets that have been published suggest that stable, quiescent conditions prevail, which appears to be at odds with traditional knowledge held by indigenous local ice experts who report that currents beneath landfast ice can be strong and be responsible for significant thinning. Here, we present temperature, salinity and current measurements from two moorings deployed in the Chukchi Sea near Barrow, Alaska from August 2009 to August 2011. These data show that currents underneath landfast ice commonly exceeded 20 cm s-1 while break-out events were associated with currents of up to 118 cm s-1. This supports the observations of local hunters in Barrow, who indicate that currents under the landfast ice are the most effective means of destabilizing landfast sea ice. The mooring data also show frequent pulses of water significantly above the freezing point throughout the winter. The similarity of peak temperatures and salinities associated with these pulses suggests they all originate from the same reservoir of warm, saline water. These observations contribute to an integrated sea ice observatory established in Barrow as part of the Seasonal Ice Zone Observing Network (SIZONet; www.sizonet.org). In addition to helping both the scientific community and local residents better understand the processes affecting landfast sea ice stability, these data will also benefit studies of regional sea ice variability, migration of marine mammals

  10. The ENSO signature and other hydrological characteristics in Patos and adjacent coastal lagoons, south-eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquini, Andrea I.; Niencheski, Luis F. H.; Depetris, Pedro J.

    2012-10-01

    With a surface area of over 10,000 km2, Patos Lagoon is Brazil's largest (choked) coastal lagoon. Directly or indirectly, Patos is associated with two other coastal lagoons, Mirim and Mangueira. Patos Lagoon reaches maximum water level height during the austral winter, in coherence with the rainy season. The longest (1961-2011) available rainfall (recorded at nearby Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil) and river discharge time series (1940-2011, in the tributary Jacuí River, at Rio Pardo) shows an overall increasing trend through the application of Mann-Kendall analysis. If, however, the series are split in two segments, negative trends become evident for the 1990-2011 period; in both cases earlier data showed a positive trend until ˜1989. Coherent with water inflow, the lagoon's water height level shows a seasonal Kendall's τ coefficient that is consistently negative for the month of April (statistically significant p). Rainfall over Patos' drainage basin is actively teleconnected with ENSO occurrences in the equatorial Pacific. This can be verified in Porto Alegre's rainfall as well as in the Jacuí River discharge time series and in the lagoon's water level variability; a distinctly negative Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) usually results in excess precipitation, high riverine discharge and, accordingly, above normal lagoon water level. The use of a method for harmonic analysis (Continuous Wavelet Transform or CWT) allows detecting decadal and inter-annual periodicities in the rainfall and discharge frequencies and in the lagoon's water level time series. Also, a change in the frequency pattern appears to have occurred in the late 1990s (i.e., simultaneous with the 1997 ENSO event?) and suggests that it may be connected with the trend change which resulted in the current negative slope observed in deseasonalized hydrological data and a fainter ENSO signal for the region.

  11. In situ spectroradiometric calibration of EREP imagery and estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island sound and adjacent New York coastal waters. [Willcox, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The first part of the study resulted in photographic procedures for making multispectral positive images which greatly enhance the color differences in land detail using an additive color viewer. An additive color analysis of the geologic features near Willcox, Arizona using enhanced black and white multispectral positives allowed compilation of a significant number of unmapped geologic units which do not appear on geologic maps of the area. The second part demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing Skylab remote sensor data to monitor and manage the coastal environment by relating physical, chemical, and biological ship sampled data to S190A, S190B, and S192 image characteristics. Photographic reprocessing techniques were developed which greatly enhanced subtle low brightness water detail. Using these photographic contrast-stretch techniques, two water masses having an extinction coefficient difference of only 0.07 measured simultaneously with the acquisition of S190A data were readily differentiated.

  12. Seasonal variations in 228Ra/226Ra ratio within coastal waters of the Sea of Japan: implications for water circulation patterns in coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Tanaka, K; Watanabe, S; Kofuji, H; Yamamoto, M; Komura, K

    2006-01-01

    In this study, low-background gamma-spectrometry was used to determine the (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio of 131 coastal water samples from various environments around Honshu Island, Japan (mainly around Noto Peninsula) at 1-3 month intervals from April 2003 until September 2005. Spatial variation in (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios was also assessed by analyzing 34 coastal water samples from five areas within the Sea of Japan during May and June 2004. The (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio of coastal water from all sites around Noto Peninsula shows seasonal variation, with minimum values during summer ((228)Ra/(226)Ra=0.7) and maximum values during autumn-winter ((228)Ra/(226)Ra=1.7-2). This seasonal variation is similar to that recorded for coastal water between Tsushima Strait and Noto Peninsula. The measured lateral variation in (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios within coastal water between Tsushima Strait and Noto Peninsula is only minor (0.5-0.7; May-June 2004). Coastal waters from two other sites (Pacific shore and Tsugaru Strait, north Honshu) show no clear seasonal variation in (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio. These measured variations in (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio, especially the temporal variations, have important implications for seasonal changes in patterns of coastal water circulation within the Sea of Japan.

  13. Vulnerability assessment of the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary, China to sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Lifang; Ge, Zhenming; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Liquan

    2015-04-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) caused by global climate change will have significant impacts on the low-lying coastal zone. The coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary, with their low elevation, are particularly sensitive to SLR. In this study, the potential impacts of SLR on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary were analyzed by adopting the SPRC (Source-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence) model. Based on the SPRC model and IPCC vulnerability definition, an indicator system for vulnerability assessment on the coastal wetlands to SLR was developed, in which the rate of SLR, subsidence rate, habitat elevation, mean daily inundation duration of habitat and sedimentation rate were selected as the key indicators. A spatial assessment method based on a GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability. Vulnerability assessment, based on the projection of SLR rates from the present trend (0.26 cm/yr) and IPCC's A1F1 scenario (0.59 cm/yr), were performed for three time periods: short-term (2030s), medium-term (2050s) and long-term (2100s). The results indicated that in the 2030s, 6.6% and 9.0% of the coastal wetlands were within the grade of low vulnerability under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. In the 2050s, the percentage of coastal wetlands within the grades of low and moderate vulnerability increases to 9.8% and 0.2%, 9.5% and 1.0% under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. In the 2100s, 8.1% and 3.0% of the coastal wetlands were within the grade of low vulnerability, 0.8% and 2.8% were within the grade of moderate vulnerability under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. The percentage of coastal wetlands within the grade of high vulnerability increases significantly, amounting to 2.3% and 6.9% under the scenarios of present trend and A1F1, respectively. The application of the SPRC model, the methodology developed and the results could assist

  14. On the evaluation of global sea-salt aerosol models at coastal/orographic sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, M.; Jorba, O.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Janjic, Z.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Sea-salt aerosol global models are typically evaluated against concentration observations at coastal stations that are unaffected by local surf conditions and thus considered representative of open ocean conditions. Despite recent improvements in sea-salt source functions, studies still show significant model errors in specific regions. Using a multiscale model, we investigated the effect of high model resolution (0.1° × 0.1° vs. 1° × 1.4°) upon sea-salt patterns in four stations from the University of Miami Network: Baring Head, Chatam Island, and Invercargill in New Zealand, and Marion Island in the sub-antarctic Indian Ocean. Normalized biases improved from +63.7% to +3.3% and correlation increased from 0.52 to 0.84. The representation of sea/land interfaces, mesoscale circulations, and precipitation with the higher resolution model played a major role in the simulation of annual concentration trends. Our results recommend caution when comparing or constraining global models using surface concentration observations from coastal stations.

  15. Surging Seas Risk Finder: A Tool for Local-Scale Flood Risk Assessments in Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, S. A.; Strauss, B.

    2015-12-01

    Local decision makers in coastal cities require accurate, accessible, and thorough assessments of flood exposure risk within their individual municipality, in their efforts to mitigate against damage due to future sea level rise. To fill this need, we have developed Climate Central's Surging Seas Risk Finder, an interactive data toolkit which presents our sea level rise and storm surge analysis for every coastal town, city, county, and state within the USA. Using this tool, policy makers can easily zoom in on their local place of interest to receive a detailed flood risk assessment, which synthesizes a wide range of features including total population, socially vulnerable population, housing, property value, road miles, power plants, schools, hospitals, and many other critical facilities. Risk Finder can also be used to identify specific points of interest in danger of exposure at different flood levels. Additionally, this tool provides localized storm surge probabilities and sea level rise projections at tidal gauges along the coast, so that users can quickly understand the risk of flooding in their area over the coming decades.

  16. Implementation of remote sensing data in research of coastal dynamics at the Baydaratskaya Bay, Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, D. E.; Belova, N.; Noskov, A.; Ogorodov, S.

    2011-12-01

    The development of Arctic coastal regions is now in progress due to significant amount of hydrocarbon deposits discovered. In high latitudes, natural hazards such as coastal erosion and thermoerosion, deflation, linear erosion and thermal denudation, ice gouging can make petroleum production and transport unprofitable. A prominent feature of Kara Sea, as well as other Arctic seas, is the development of coast in permafrost conditions. Despite the long ice period (up to 9 months), during the ice free period coastal dynamics are very intensive. If pipeline landfall site occurs at a shore section with high retreat rate (1 - 3m/year and higher), danger of pipeline damage due to exposure, line sagging and mechanical deformations becomes high. Protective measures may appear inefficient, since shore sections with active coastal erosion are subject not only to bluff retreat, but also to nearshore zone and coastal slope erosion. Exposed pipeline sections also get in danger of sea ice effect. For correct definition of coastal dynamics setting we use dual approach. The first part is perennial instrumental monitoring of shore morphology, relying on system of benchmarks used for repeated measures, together with in-field geomorphologic expertise. Measures include direct observations and geodetic leveling onshore and echosounding offshore. Being the most precise method, direct measurements are expensive. The other drawback is that they can't give an overview of long-span tendencies of coastal evolution for prolonged shore sections, which is essential for shore deformation forecast complying with lifetime of structures (usually 30 to 50 years). This is where the importance of the 2nd part, analysis of the different time remote sensing data, becomes decisive. Most important sources of remote sensing data include Corona imagery from 1960s - 70s, aerial photos of different times (but most of them are inaccessible for Russian Arctic coast), Landsat imagery (covering a long time span

  17. Global coastal wetland change under sea-level rise and related stresses: The DIVA Wetland Change Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Schuerch, Mark; Nicholls, Robert J.; Hinkel, Jochen; Lincke, Daniel; Vafeidis, A. T.; Reef, Ruth; McFadden, Loraine; Brown, Sally

    2016-04-01

    The Dynamic Interactive Vulnerability Assessment Wetland Change Model (DIVA_WCM) comprises a dataset of contemporary global coastal wetland stocks (estimated at 756 × 103 km2 (in 2011)), mapped to a one-dimensional global database, and a model of the macro-scale controls on wetland response to sea-level rise. Three key drivers of wetland response to sea-level rise are considered: 1) rate of sea-level rise relative to tidal range; 2) lateral accommodation space; and 3) sediment supply. The model is tuned by expert knowledge, parameterised with quantitative data where possible, and validated against mapping associated with two large-scale mangrove and saltmarsh vulnerability studies. It is applied across 12,148 coastal segments (mean length 85 km) to the year 2100. The model provides better-informed macro-scale projections of likely patterns of future coastal wetland losses across a range of sea-level rise scenarios and varying assumptions about the construction of coastal dikes to prevent sea flooding (as dikes limit lateral accommodation space and cause coastal squeeze). With 50 cm of sea-level rise by 2100, the model predicts a loss of 46-59% of global coastal wetland stocks. A global coastal wetland loss of 78% is estimated under high sea-level rise (110 cm by 2100) accompanied by maximum dike construction. The primary driver for high vulnerability of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise is coastal squeeze, a consequence of long-term coastal protection strategies. Under low sea-level rise (29 cm by 2100) losses do not exceed ca. 50% of the total stock, even for the same adverse dike construction assumptions. The model results confirm that the widespread paradigm that wetlands subject to a micro-tidal regime are likely to be more vulnerable to loss than macro-tidal environments. Countering these potential losses will require both climate mitigation (a global response) to minimise sea-level rise and maximisation of accommodation space and sediment supply (a regional

  18. Coastal sea level variability in the eastern English Channel: Potentialities for future SWOT applicability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Imen; Laignel, Benoit; Chevalier, Laetitia; Costa, Stephane

    2014-05-01

    Scientists and engineers need to understand the sea level variability in order to provide better estimates of the sea level rise for coastal defense using tide gauges and radar altimetry missions. The natural limitation of the tide gauge records is their geographical sparsity and confinement to coastlines. The future Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission will be launched in 2015 over a period of 5 years and will be designated to address this issue. This research was carried out in the framework of the program Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) which is a partnership between NASA and CNES. Using a series of statistical analyses, we point to characterize the sea level variability in the eastern English Channel (western France) from four tide gauges in Dunkirk, Dieppe, Le Havre and Cherbourg for the period 1964-2012. To assess the extent to which tide gauge point observations represent tide gauge data, we compare tide gauge records to SWOT measurements in their vicinity. Results have shown that the bimodality of the sea level, provided by the distribution analysis, can be reproduced by SWOT measurements with an overestimation of both modes and also the extreme values. The rate of the linear regression was also overestimated from 1.7-4 mm/yr to 2.6-5.4 mm/yr. The continuous wavelet transform of sea level records has shown the large-scale variability of annual (1-year band) and interannual cycles (2-6- and 6-12-year bands) in sea level, which can be explained by oceanographic and hydrological factors. High frequency dynamics of the sea level variability at short time-scales were extracted from SWOT measurements. They provide a good survey of the surge events (band of 3-4 months) and the spring-neap tidal cycle (band of 28 days). Then, tide gauges should be used in conjunction with satellite data to infer the full time-scale variability. Further studies are needed to refine the SWOT applicability in coastal areas. Key words: coastal zone, sea level

  19. Speciation, bioavailability and preservation of phosphorus in surface sediments of the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent East China Sea inner shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jia; Yao, Peng; Yu, Zhigang; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Zhao, Bin; Pan, Huihui; Li, Dong

    2014-05-01

    The speciation, potential bioavailability and preservation of phosphorus (P) in surface sediments of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary and adjacent East China Sea (ECS) inner shelf were investigated through the analyses of P fractions and sediment bulk properties. A sequential extraction method (SEDEX) was used to separate and quantify the following six sedimentary P reservoirs: exchangeable P (Ex-P), authigenic P (Au-P), detrital P (De-P), organic P (Or-P), refractory P (Re-P) and Fe-bound P (Fe-P). Total P (TP) in surface sediments ranged from 15.0 to 21.4 μmol g-1 and was highest near the Changjiang river mouth. The average contribution of each form of P to TP was 55.6% (De-P), 17.8% (Re-P), 16.1% (Or-P), 5.5% (Au-P), 2.5% (Ex-P) and 2.5% (Fe-P), respectively. De-P showed relatively higher concentrations in the river mouth and the ECS shelf region, off the Changjiang Estuary. High concentrations of Or-P were found mainly in mud areas showing a similar distribution pattern with silt, sediment surface area (SSA), and total organic carbon (TOC). Re-P was mainly distributed near the estuarine area and the Zhe-Min coast. Bioavailable P (BAP), accounted for 9.5-32.0% of TP (with a mean of 21.2%) and showed a similar distribution pattern to that of Or-P. De-P/SSA and TOC/SSA loadings both decreased with increasing of SSA, while Or-P/SSA loadings varied little with SSA, indicating that Or-P may have reached an adsorption-desorption equilibrium on mineral surfaces. TOC to total organic P (TOP; sum of Re-P and Or-P) ratios less than the Redfield ratio (84 in average) may have indicated efficient remineralization of organic matter in mobile muds of the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent ECS inner shelf. Furthermore, the relatively high TOC/Or-P ratios (72-422 with a mean of 188) likely suggest a higher degree of preferential regeneration of labile Or-P over TOC in sediments.

  20. Freak waves observations in the coastal zone of Okhotsk Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Konstantin; Zaytsev, Andrey; Kostenko, Irina; Pelinovsky, Efim; Kurkin, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    Instrumental data of the long-term observation of abnormally large waves (freak waves) on the shelf of Sakhalin Island near the village Vsmorie, cape Ostriy, orifice of the Izmenchivae Lake, cape Svobodniy and cape Aniva since 2007 are adduced. These measurements were made with using bottom stations, measuring variations in bottom pressure, induced by surface waves. These sensors do not interfere with navigation and do not affect the ecology of the area. The important problem of the translation variations of bottom pressure in the vertical oscillations of the sea surface is discussed. The linear theory of water waves used here as a first approximation. About 1,400 waves that are abnormal, and their height twice the height of the background waves (amplitude criterion killer waves) are allocated from the total number of individual waves (several million). About 20 waves have a height greater than the height of the background by 2.7 times. The wave group, which was fixed for the term «three sisters» is typical form of abnormal waves. On average, two or three abnormal waves are recorded per day.

  1. Enrichment of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from coastal Baltic Sea waters.

    PubMed

    Piwosz, Kasia; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Free-living nano-sized flagellates are important bacterivores in aquatic habitats. However, some slightly larger forms can also be omnivorous, i.e., forage upon both bacterial and eukaryotic resources. This hitherto largely ignored feeding mode may have pronounced implications for the interpretation of experiments about protistan bacterivory. We followed the response of an uncultured group of omnivorous cercozoan nanoflagellates from the Novel Clade 2 (Cerc_BAL02) to experimental food web manipulation in samples from the Gulf of Gdańsk (Southern Baltic Sea). Seawater was either prefiltered through 5 µm filters to exclude larger predators of nanoflagellates (F-treatment), or prefiltered and subsequently 1∶10 diluted with sterile seawater (F+D-treatment) to stimulate the growth of both, flagellates and bacteria. Initially, Cerc_BAL02 were rapidly enriched under both conditions. They foraged on both, eukaryotic prey and bacteria, and were highly competitive at low concentrations of food. However, these omnivores were later only successful in the F+D treatment, where they eventually represented almost one fifth of all aplastidic nanoflagellates. By contrast, their numbers stagnated in the F-treatment, possibly due to top-down control by a concomitant bloom of other, unidentified flagellates. In analogy with observations about the enrichment of opportunistically growing bacteria in comparable experimental setups we suggest that the low numbers of omnivorous Cerc_Bal02 flagellates in waters of the Gulf of Gdańsk might also be related to their vulnerability to grazing pressure.

  2. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ

  3. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of coastal wetlands to sea level rise in Liaohe Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guo-dong; Wang, Ming; Lu, Xian-guo; Jiang, Ming

    2016-10-01

    The Liaohe Delta in China is an ecologically and commercially important wetland system under threat from sea level rise and marsh subsidence. Sediments deposited in coastal marshes could offer wetlands a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level, yet coastal wetland stability in Liaohe Delta is not well understood due to limited data from long-term experiments. In this study, wetland surface elevation and vertical accretion were measured from 2011 to 2015 using a surface elevation table (SET) and feldspar marker horizons in two Phragmites and two Suaeda marshes receiving Liaohe River water. The analysis shows that the Phragmites marshes exhibited higher rates of marsh accretion and elevation change than the Suaeda marshes. The two Phragmites marsh sites had average surface elevation change rates at 8.8 and 9.3 mm yr-1, vertical accretion at 17.4 and 17.6 mm yr-1, and shallow subsidence at 8.6 and 8.3 mm yr-1. The average rates of elevation change, vertical accretion, and shallow subsidence at two Suaeda marsh sites were 5.8 and 6.3 mm yr-1, 13.6 and 14.8 mm yr-1, and 7.8 and 8.5 mm yr-1, respectively. The trends suggest that coastal marshes in Liaohe Delta are experiencing changes in average soil elevation that range from a net increase of 0.3 mm y-1 to 6.9 mm y-1 relative to averaged sea level rise in Bohai Sea reported by the 2016 State Oceanic Administration People's Republic of China projection (2.4-5.5 mm y-1), which indicated that the four wetland sites would adjust to the sea level rise and even continue to gain elevation, especially for the Phragmites sites. Nevertheless, the vulnerability of coastal wetlands in Liaohe Delta need further assessment considering the accelerated sea level rise, the high rate of subsidence, and the declining sediment delivery owing to anthropogenic activities such as dam constructions in the river basin.

  4. Comment [on “Sea level rise shown to drive coastal erosion”

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H., Jr.; Morton, Robert; Fletcher, Charles; Thieler, E. Robert; Howd, Peter

    2000-01-01

    In a recent article (Eos, Trans., AGU, February 8, 2000, p.55), Leatherman et al. [2000] state that they have confirmed an association between sea-level rise and coastal erosion. Applying their results to the New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland coasts and using a projected sea-level rise, the authors predict that by 2050 the shoreline will recede 60 m, about two times the average beach width. However, Leatherman et al. [2000] have not convincingly quantified a relationship between sea-level rise and shoreline erosion.We do not agree with their rationale for subsetting their data, and they have not considered other explanations for a background erosion along the U.S. east coast. Furthermore, their future projections are not supported by their analyses.

  5. A long-term monitoring study of chlorophyll, microbial contaminants, and pesticides in a coastal residential stormwater pond and its adjacent tidal creek.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, Marie E; Thompson, Brian; Cooper, Emily; Moore, Janet; Fulton, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    Stormwater ponds are commonly used in residential and commercial areas to control flooding. The accumulation of urban contaminants in stormwater ponds can lead to water-quality problems including nutrient enrichment, chemical contamination, and bacterial contamination. This study presents 5 years of monitoring data assessing water quality of a residential subdivision pond and adjacent tidal creek in coastal South Carolina, USA. The stormwater pond is eutrophic, as described by elevated concentrations of chlorophyll and phosphorus, and experiences periodic cyanobacterial blooms. A maximum monthly average chlorophyll concentration of 318.75 μg/L was measured in the stormwater pond and 227.63 μg/L in the tidal creek. Fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) levels were measured in both the pond and the tidal creek that exceeded health and safety standards for safe recreational use. A maximum monthly average FCB level of 1,247 CFU/100 mL was measured in the stormwater pond and 12,850 CFU/100 mL in the tidal creek. In addition, the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogenic bacteria were detected. Low concentrations of herbicides (atrazine and 2,4-D: ), a fungicide (chlorothalonil), and insecticides (pyrethroids and imidacloprid) were measured. Seasonal trends were identified, with the winter months having the lowest concentrations of chlorophyll and FCB. Statistical differences between the stormwater pond and the tidal creek were also noted within seasons. The tidal creek had higher FCB levels than the stormwater pond in the spring and summer, whereas the stormwater pond had higher chlorophyll levels than the tidal creek in the summer and fall seasons. Chlorophyll and FCB levels in the stormwater pond were significantly correlated with monthly average temperature and total rainfall. Pesticide concentrations were also significantly correlated with temperature and rainfall. Pesticide concentrations in the stormwater pond were significantly correlated with

  6. Species characteristics of lead in sea foods collected from coastal water of Fujian, Southeastern of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ye; Chen, Zhiqiang; Mo, Fan; Huang, Limei; Xu, Liangjun; Wu, Yongning; Xue, Zhimin; Fu, Fengfu

    2016-09-01

    Various sea foods including fish, shellfish and shrimp were collected from different coastal areas of Fujian in China, and their Pb species characteristics were investigated in detail. The results indicated that there are two different species characteristics of Pb existing in sea food samples. About half of samples were detected to have only Pb2+, and another half of samples were detected to have both Pb2+ and trimethyl lead (TML). The results also revealed that Pb species characteristics in the sea foods rather depend on the species of sea food than the sampling area. In comparison with shellfish/shrimp samples, fish samples have higher concentrations of TML and Pb2+. Especially, the average concentration of TML in the TML-detected fish samples is about 3 times of that in the TML-detected shellfish/shrimp samples, indicating that fish has stronger ability to uptake and accumulate TML. The concentrations of total lead in all samples are lower than the maximum allowable limit of national standard, suggesting that the sea foods collected from Fujian are safe for consumption. By considering that TAL has more toxicity than Pb2+, the effect of TML in sea foods on the human health should be paid more attention in the future.

  7. Extreme sea level events in the coastal waters of western Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suursaar, Ülo; Kullas, Tiit; Otsmann, Mikk; Kõuts, Tarmo

    2003-06-01

    Extraordinarily low and high sea level events are analysed on the basis of historical data and their mechanisms of occurrence are studied with the 1 km grid size 2D hydrodynamic model in the two almost tideless semi-enclosed sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Riga and the Väinameri. The sea level is modelled with realistic meteorological forcing and comparison data from 1999 and 2001. Resonance properties of the sub-basins are studied and their possible role in the formation of extraordinary sea level events is discussed. While the extremely low levels (-1.23 m below the mean sea level) in the Estonian coastal waters do not generally originate locally, the high levels (up to 2.53 m above the mean as measured in the Pärnu Bay) are short-term and local. They occur in combination with several forcing and morphometrical factors and are localised in the shallow and narrow bays exposed to the direction of the strongest possible storm winds, SW and W. Model simulations show that extremely high and low sea levels in some small bays of western Estonia can exceed the corresponding values in the Pärnu Bay.

  8. Species characteristics of lead in sea foods collected from coastal water of Fujian, Southeastern of China.

    PubMed

    He, Ye; Chen, Zhiqiang; Mo, Fan; Huang, Limei; Xu, LiangJun; Wu, Yongning; Xue, Zhimin; Fu, FengFu

    2016-01-01

    Various sea foods including fish, shellfish and shrimp were collected from different coastal areas of Fujian in China, and their Pb species characteristics were investigated in detail. The results indicated that there are two different species characteristics of Pb existing in sea food samples. About half of samples were detected to have only Pb(2+), and another half of samples were detected to have both Pb(2+) and trimethyl lead (TML). The results also revealed that Pb species characteristics in the sea foods rather depend on the species of sea food than the sampling area. In comparison with shellfish/shrimp samples, fish samples have higher concentrations of TML and Pb(2+). Especially, the average concentration of TML in the TML-detected fish samples is about 3 times of that in the TML-detected shellfish/shrimp samples, indicating that fish has stronger ability to uptake and accumulate TML. The concentrations of total lead in all samples are lower than the maximum allowable limit of national standard, suggesting that the sea foods collected from Fujian are safe for consumption. By considering that TAL has more toxicity than Pb(2+), the effect of TML in sea foods on the human health should be paid more attention in the future. PMID:27624560

  9. Processes contributing to resilience of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stagg, Camille L.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cormier, Nicole; Conner, William H.; Swarzenski, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify processes that contribute to resilience of coastal wetlands subject to rising sea levels and to determine whether the relative contribution of these processes varies across different wetland community types. We assessed the resilience of wetlands to sea-level rise along a transitional gradient from tidal freshwater forested wetland (TFFW) to marsh by measuring processes controlling wetland elevation. We found that, over 5 years of measurement, TFFWs were resilient, although some marginally, and oligohaline marshes exhibited robust resilience to sea-level rise. We identified fundamental differences in how resilience is maintained across wetland community types, which have important implications for management activities that aim to restore or conserve resilient systems. We showed that the relative importance of surface and subsurface processes in controlling wetland surface elevation change differed between TFFWs and oligohaline marshes. The marshes had significantly higher rates of surface accretion than the TFFWs, and in the marshes, surface accretion was the primary contributor to elevation change. In contrast, elevation change in TFFWs was more heavily influenced by subsurface processes, such as root zone expansion or compaction, which played an important role in determining resilience of TFFWs to rising sea level. When root zone contributions were removed statistically from comparisons between relative sea-level rise and surface elevation change, sites that previously had elevation rate deficits showed a surplus. Therefore, assessments of wetland resilience that do not include subsurface processes will likely misjudge vulnerability to sea-level rise.

  10. Deposit-Feeding Sea Cucumbers Enhance Mineralization and Nutrient Cycling in Organically-Enriched Coastal Sediments

    PubMed Central

    MacTavish, Thomas; Stenton-Dozey, Jeanie; Vopel, Kay; Savage, Candida

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioturbators affect multiple biogeochemical interactions and have been suggested as suitable candidates to mitigate organic matter loading in marine sediments. However, predicting the effects of bioturbators at an ecosystem level can be difficult due to their complex positive and negative interactions with the microbial community. Methodology/Principal Findings We quantified the effects of deposit-feeding sea cucumbers on benthic algal biomass (microphytobenthos, MPB), bacterial abundance, and the sediment–seawater exchange of dissolved oxygen and nutrients. The sea cucumbers increased the efflux of inorganic nitrogen (ammonium, NH4+) from organically enriched sediments, which stimulated algal productivity. Grazing by the sea cucumbers on MPB (evidenced by pheopigments), however, caused a net negative effect on primary producer biomass and total oxygen production. Further, there was an increased abundance of bacteria in sediment with sea cucumbers, suggesting facilitation. The sea cucumbers increased the ratio of oxygen consumption to production in surface sediment by shifting the microbial balance from producers to decomposers. This shift explains the increased efflux of inorganic nitrogen and concordant reduction in organic matter content in sediment with bioturbators. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrates the functional role and potential of sea cucumbers to ameliorate some of the adverse effects of organic matter enrichment in coastal ecosystems. PMID:23209636

  11. Species characteristics of lead in sea foods collected from coastal water of Fujian, Southeastern of China

    PubMed Central

    He, Ye; Chen, Zhiqiang; Mo, Fan; Huang, Limei; Xu, LiangJun; Wu, Yongning; Xue, Zhimin; Fu, FengFu

    2016-01-01

    Various sea foods including fish, shellfish and shrimp were collected from different coastal areas of Fujian in China, and their Pb species characteristics were investigated in detail. The results indicated that there are two different species characteristics of Pb existing in sea food samples. About half of samples were detected to have only Pb2+, and another half of samples were detected to have both Pb2+ and trimethyl lead (TML). The results also revealed that Pb species characteristics in the sea foods rather depend on the species of sea food than the sampling area. In comparison with shellfish/shrimp samples, fish samples have higher concentrations of TML and Pb2+. Especially, the average concentration of TML in the TML-detected fish samples is about 3 times of that in the TML-detected shellfish/shrimp samples, indicating that fish has stronger ability to uptake and accumulate TML. The concentrations of total lead in all samples are lower than the maximum allowable limit of national standard, suggesting that the sea foods collected from Fujian are safe for consumption. By considering that TAL has more toxicity than Pb2+, the effect of TML in sea foods on the human health should be paid more attention in the future. PMID:27624560

  12. Holocene coastal morphologies and shoreline reconstruction for the southwestern coast of the Bohai Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanxia; Huang, Haijun; Qi, Yali; Liu, Xiao; Yang, Xiguang

    2016-09-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection profiles were interpreted and combined with sedimentological data to highlight the morpho-evolutionary history of the southwestern sector of the Bohai Sea. The internal structures in GPR images obtained near the Holocene maximum transgression boundary revealed concave-upward and onlap types of transgressive paleo-topography. The relationship between historical courses of the Yellow River and the distribution of shell ridges at three periods (6 ka, 2 ka, and recent times) showed that the concave-upward types derived from the marine sediments overlap the fluvial sediments, and the onlap types from the marine sediments cover the coastal lagoon sediments. Based on the above paleo-geographical setting, previous sea-level markers were corrected, taking into account uncertainties of their relationship to former water levels. The rates of vertical tectonic displacement, evaluated through comparison of the relative sea level (RSL) data from the GPR images and the Holocene predicted sea-level elevation, markedly affected RSL changes. The fitted RSL curves from the corrected sea-level indicators showed that the accuracy of former sea-level determinations can be improved by comparing with the maximum transgressive position of GPR detection. A topographic digital elevation model (DEM) for 6 ka is reconstructed based on the corrected data.

  13. Oceanic transports through the Solomon Sea: The bend of the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparin, Florent; Ganachaud, Alexandre; Maes, Christophe; Marin, Frédéric; Eldin, Gérard

    2012-08-01

    Thermocline waters of the tropical southwest Pacific can be traced back to the center of the South Pacific basin and have a potential influence on equatorial surface conditions and on the characteristics of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on decadal timescales. The Solomon Sea is traversed by this influential flow, and therefore is an optimal place for exploring this oceanic connection to the equator. From a high-resolution hydrographic survey at which we applied an inverse box model, we describe the main pathways at the entrance of the Solomon Sea, and more particularly the extremely sharp bend of the western boundary current around the south-east tip of Papua New Guinea. Of the 30 Sv subtropical waters transported into the Coral Sea from the east, above 1300 m, 29 ± 5 Sv makes its way through the Solomon Sea with a large part transported in a boundary current, at the entrance of the Solomon Sea. Around the south-east tip of Papua New Guinea, the Gulf of Papua Current turns abruptly to the north, in a very sharp bend as it merges into the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, on its way, toward the equator. The warm currents transport large amounts of internal energy, with a total of 1.0 ± 0.3 1015W entering the Solomon Sea from the south.

  14. Extreme coastal flood risk with sea level rise: New definitions and analysis for the contiguous US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, B.; Tebaldi, C.

    2013-12-01

    The '100-year flood' - formally defined as a flood with 0.01 annual probability - is a standard policy and regulatory benchmark for risk in the United States. However, there is increasing recognition that the traditional concept does not apply in a warming world. This is particularly the case with respect to coastal flooding, because at most locations, sea level rise is increasing the risk of flooding to any given height with each passing decade. Here we propose a flexible approach to defining extreme coastal flood height that employs different periods of interest and takes changing risks into account, while maintaining some consistency with the legacy definition. We note that in a stationary world, a 0.01 annual chance flood is equivalent to a flood with cumulative probability P(N) = 1 - 0.99^N over a period of N years. We compute P(N) for N=1 to 100 years, and then estimate the corresponding extreme coastal flood height H(N) for each period length, taking into account projected local sea level rise at each of 55 water level stations distributed throughout the contiguous US, and employing various sea level rise scenarios. In one result, employing a 50-yr interval and the high-intermediate global sea level scenario developed for the National Climate Assessment, we find that the height of extreme floods increases by an average of roughly 0.4 m or 40%, as compared to the traditional definition that assumes unchanging risk. Such discrepancies are compounded when we estimate extreme flood risk under the new approach as it would be calculated for periods beginning in future years, leading to rapid expansion of 100-year flood risk zones.

  15. Phytoplankton and nutrient distributions in a front-eddy area adjacent to the coastal upwelling zone off Concepcion (Chile): implications for ecosystem productivity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Carmen; Anabalón, Valeria; Hormazábal, Samuel; Cornejo, Marcela; Bento, Joaquim; Silva, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    The impact that sub-mesoscale (1-10 km) to mesocale (50-100 km) oceanographic variability has on plankton and nutrient distributions (horizontal and vertical) in the coastal upwelling and transition zones off Concepcion was the focus of this study. Satellite time-series data (wind, sea-surface temperature (SST), and altimetry) were used to understand the dynamic context of in situ data derived from a short-term front survey (3 d) during the upwelling period (3-6 February, 2014). The survey included two transects perpendicular to the coast, covering the shelf and shelf-break areas just north of Punta Lavapie, a main upwelling center (˜37° S). Wind and SST time-series data indicated that the survey was undertaken just after a moderate upwelling event (end of January) which lead to a relaxation phase during early February. A submesoscale thermal front was detected previous to and during the survey and results from an eddy tracking algorithm based on altimetry data indicated that this front (F1) was flanked on its oceanic side by an anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy (M1), which was ˜25 d old at the sampling time. M1 strengthened the thermal gradient of F1 by bringing warmer oceanic water nearer to the colder coastal upwelling zone. The distributions of hydrographic variables and nutrients in the water column (<300 m depth) also denoted these two features. Phytoplankton biomass (Chl-a) and diatom abundance were highest in the surface layer (<20 m depth) between the coast and F1, with primary maxima in the latter, whereas they were highest at the subsurface (20-40 m depth) towards M1 and associated with secondary maxima. The distribution of dominant diatoms in the top layer (<100 m depth) indicated that both coastal and oceanic species were aggregated at F1 and in M1. These results suggest that the front-eddy interaction creates a complex field of submesoscale processes in the top layer, including vertical nutrient injections and lateral stirring, which contributes to the

  16. Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise: Advancing coastal management through integrated research and engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Rising sea level represents a significant threat to coastal communities and ecosystems through land loss, altered habitats, and increased vulnerability to coastal storms and inundation. This threat is exemplified in the northern Gulf of Mexico where low topography, expansive marshes, and a prevalence of tropical storms have already resulted in extensive coastal impacts. The development of robust predictive capabilities that incorporate complex biological processes with physical dynamics are critical for informed planning and restoration efforts for coastal ecosystems. Looking to build upon existing predictive modeling capabilities and allow for use of multiple model (i.e., ensemble) approaches, NOAA initiated the Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise program in 2010 to advance physical/biological integrative modeling capabilities in the region with a goal to provide user friendly predictive tools for coastal ecosystem management. Focused on the northern Gulf of Mexico, this multi-disciplinary project led by the University of Central Florida will use in situ field studies to parameterize physical and biological models. These field studies will also result in a predictive capability for overland sediment delivery and transport that will further enhance marsh, oyster, and submerged aquatic vegetation models. Results from this integrated modeling effort are envisioned to inform management strategies for reducing risk, restoration and breakwater guidelines, and resource sustainability for project planning, among other uses. In addition to the science components, this project incorporates significant engagement of the management community through a management applications principle investigator and an advisory management committee. Routine engagement between the science team and the management committee, including annual workshops, are focused on ensuring the development of applicable, relevant, and useable products and tools at the conclusion of this project. Particular

  17. Evaluation of the swell effect on the air-sea gas transfer in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Loza, Lucía; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea gas transfer processes are one of the most important factors regarding global climate and long-term global climate changes. Despite its importance, there is still a huge uncertainty on how to better parametrize these processes in order to include them on the global climate models. This uncertainty exposes the need to increase our knowledge on gas transfer controlling mechanisms. In the coastal regions, breaking waves become a key factor to take into account when estimating gas fluxes, however, there is still a lack of information and the influence of the ocean surface waves on the air-sea interaction and gas flux behavior must be validated. In this study, as part of the "Sea Surface Roughness as Air-Sea Interaction Control" project, we evaluate the effect of the ocean surface waves on the gas exchange in the coastal zone. Direct estimates of the flux of CO2 (FCO2) and water vapor (FH2O) through eddy covariance, were carried out from May 2014 to April 2015 in a coastal station located at the Northwest of Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, México. For the same period, ocean surface waves are recorded using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (Workhorse Sentinel, Teledyne RD Instruments) with a sampling rate of 2 Hz and located at 10 m depth about 350 m away from the tower. We found the study area to be a weak sink of CO2 under moderate wind and wave conditions with a mean flux of -1.32 μmol/m2s. The correlation between the wind speed and FCO2 was found to be weak, suggesting that other physical processes besides wind may be important factors for the gas exchange modulation at coastal waters. The results of the quantile regression analysis computed between FCO2 and (1) wind speed, (2) significant wave height, (3) wave steepness and (4) water temperature, show that the significant wave height is the most correlated parameter with FCO2; Nevertheless, the behavior of their relation varies along the probability distribution of FCO2, with the linear regression

  18. Characterizing the role benthos plays in large coastal seas and estuaries: A modular approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenore, K.R.; Zajac, R.N.; Terwin, J.; Andrade, F.; Blanton, J.; Boynton, W.; Carey, D.; Diaz, R.; Holland, Austin F.; Lopez-Jamar, E.; Montagna, P.; Nichols, F.; Rosenberg, R.; Queiroga, H.; Sprung, M.; Whitlatch, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Ecologists studying coastal and estuarine benthic communities have long taken a macroecological view, by relating benthic community patterns to environmental factors across several spatial scales. Although many general ecological patterns have been established, often a significant amount of the spatial and temporal variation in soft-sediment communities within and among systems remains unexplained. Here we propose a framework that may aid in unraveling the complex influence of environmental factors associated with the different components of coastal systems (i.e. the terrestrial and benthic landscapes, and the hydrological seascape) on benthic communities, and use this information to assess the role played by benthos in coastal ecosystems. A primary component of the approach is the recognition of system modules (e.g. marshes, dendritic systems, tidal rivers, enclosed basins, open bays, lagoons). The modules may differentially interact with key forcing functions (e.g. temperature, salinity, currents) that influence system processes and in turn benthic responses and functions. Modules may also constrain benthic characteristics and related processes within certain ecological boundaries and help explain their overall spatio-temporal variation. We present an example of how benthic community characteristics are related to the modular structure of 14 coastal seas and estuaries, and show that benthic functional group composition is significantly related to the modular structure of these systems. We also propose a framework for exploring the role of benthic communities in coastal systems using this modular approach and offer predictions of how benthic communities may vary depending on the modular composition and characteristics of a coastal system. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Trace element accumulation in fishes collected from coastal waters of the Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Anan, Yasumi; Kunito, Takashi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Mitrofanov, Igor; Aubrey, David G

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of 13 trace elements (V, Mn, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Hg, Tl and Pb) were determined in muscle of bony fishes collected from coastal areas of the Caspian Sea (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Iran). In all the fishes, Zn concentration was highest, followed by Cu, Se, Mn and Co, while levels of toxic elements (Ag, Cd, Cd, Tl and Pb) were relatively low. Concentrations of several elements were significantly varied between the species in each sampling area. For most of the trace elements examined, the concentrations decreased significantly with body weight of fishes. In contrast, a positive correlation with body weight was found for Co, Se and Pb concentrations in one fish species, and Hg in 2 fish species. Geographical difference in the concentrations of trace elements was examined using the Caspian roach collected from five stations of Iranian coastal waters. The concentrations of Co, Mo, Ag, Cd and Tl were higher in fishes from western stations than those from eastern stations, whereas the opposite trend was observed for Hg, indicating that local sources of trace metal pollution may be present in the Iranian coastal areas of the Caspian Sea. Levels of trace elements in Caspian fishes were relatively low in comparison to those of other regions, but Zn and Hg levels in some specimens exceeded the guideline values for food. PMID:16051278

  20. A Numerical Study of Sea Breeze and Spatiotemporal Variation in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qian-Qian; Cai, Xu-Hui; Song, Yu; Kang, Ling

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations of sea breezes and the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at Hainan Island, China during summer and winter are discussed. The different behaviour of sea breezes and the ABL on the leeward and windward sides of the island are examined, and it is found that offshore flows are more likely to create a strong sea-breeze signature, whereas the process of sea-breeze development under onshore flows is difficult to capture. At the location where the sea-breeze signal is remarkable, the height of the coastal ABL displays an abnormal decrease, corresponding to a transitional point from a continental ABL to a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formed under sea-breeze conditions. This is corroborated by the sudden increase in the water vapour mixing ratio and/or wind speed, indicating the arrival of the sea breeze. Regarding the spatial distribution, the TIBL height decreases abruptly just ahead of the sea-breeze front, and above the cold air mass. When the sea-breeze front occurs with a raised head, a cold air mass is separated from the sea-breeze flow and penetrates inland. This separation is attributed to the interaction between the sea breeze and valley breeze, while the dry airflow entraining to the sea-breeze flow may also partially contribute to this air mass separation.

  1. Holocene development of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastal zone (Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchuk, Daria; Sergeev, Alexander; Gusentsova, Tatiana; Gerasimov, Dmitry; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Amantov, Aleksey; Kulkova, Marianna; Sorokin, Peter

    2014-05-01

    In 2011-2013 geoarcheological and marine geological research of the eastern Gulf of Finland coasts and near-shore bottom were undertaken. Researches were concentrated within several key-areas (Sestroretskaya Lowland, Narva-Luga Klint Bay and southern coastal zone of the Gulf (near Bolshaya Izhora village). Study areas can provide important information about Gulf of Finland Holocene coastal development as since Ancylus time (about 10000 cal.BP). Development of numerous sand accretion forms (spits, bars, dunes) of different shape, age and genesis caused formation of lagoon systems, situated now on-land due to land uplift. Coasts of lagoons in Sestroretskaya Lowland and Narva-Luga Klint Bay were inhabited by Neolithic and Early Metal people. Analysis of coastal morphology and results of geological research (GIS relief analyses, ground penetrating radar, drilling, grain-size analyses, radiocarbon dating) and geoarcheological studies allowed to reconstruct the mechanism of large accretion bodies (bars and spits) and lagoon systems formation during last 8000 years. Geoarcheological studies carried out within eastern Gulf of Finland coasts permitted to find some features of the Neolithic - Early Metal settlements distribution. Another important features of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastal zone relief are the series of submarine terraces found in the Gulf bottom (sea water depths 10 to 2 m). Analyses of the submarine terraces morphology and geology (e.g. grain-size distribution, pollen analyses and organic matter dating) allow to suppose that several times during Holocene (including preAncylus (11000 cal.BP) and preLittorina (8500 cal.BP) regressions) the sea-water level was lower than nowadays. During the maximal stage of the Littorina transgression (7600-7200 cal. BP) several open bays connected with the Littorina Sea appeared in this area. The lagoon systems and sand accretion bodies (spits and bars) were formed during the following decreasing of the sea level. Late

  2. Implications of multi-scale sea level and climate variability for coastal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karamperidou, Christina; Engel, Victor; Lall, Upmanu; Stabenau, Erik; Smith, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    While secular changes in regional sea levels and their implications for coastal zone management have been studied extensively, less attention is being paid to natural fluctuations in sea levels, whose interaction with a higher mean level could have significant impacts on low-lying areas, such as wetlands. Here, the long record of sea level at Key West, FL is studied in terms of both the secular trend and the multi-scale sea level variations. This analysis is then used to explore implications for the Everglades National Park (ENP), which is recognized internationally for its ecological significance, and is the site of the largest wetland restoration project in the world. Very shallow topographic gradients (3–6 cm per km) make the region susceptible to small changes in sea level. Observations of surface water levels from a monitoring network within ENP exhibit both the long-term trends and the interannual-to-(multi)decadal variability that are observed in the Key West record. Water levels recorded at four long-term monitoring stations within ENP exhibit increasing trends approximately equal to or larger than the long-term trend at Key West. Time- and frequency-domain analyses highlight the potential influence of climate mechanisms, such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), on Key West sea levels and marsh water levels, and the potential modulation of their influence by the background state of the North Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures. In particular, the Key West sea levels are found to be positively correlated with the NAO index, while the two series exhibit high spectral power during the transition to a cold Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The correlation between the Key West sea levels and the NINO3 Index reverses its sign in coincidence with a reversal of the AMO phase. Water levels in ENP are also influenced by precipitation and freshwater releases from the northern boundary of the Park. The analysis of both

  3. Evaluation of Dynamic Coastal Response to Sea-level Rise Modifies Inundation Likelihood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lentz, Erika E.; Thieler, E. Robert; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stippa, Sawyer R.; Horton, Radley M.; Gesch, Dean B.

    2016-01-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) poses a range of threats to natural and built environments, making assessments of SLR-induced hazards essential for informed decision making. We develop a probabilistic model that evaluates the likelihood that an area will inundate (flood) or dynamically respond (adapt) to SLR. The broad-area applicability of the approach is demonstrated by producing 30x30m resolution predictions for more than 38,000 sq km of diverse coastal landscape in the northeastern United States. Probabilistic SLR projections, coastal elevation and vertical land movement are used to estimate likely future inundation levels. Then, conditioned on future inundation levels and the current land-cover type, we evaluate the likelihood of dynamic response versus inundation. We find that nearly 70% of this coastal landscape has some capacity to respond dynamically to SLR, and we show that inundation models over-predict land likely to submerge. This approach is well suited to guiding coastal resource management decisions that weigh future SLR impacts and uncertainty against ecological targets and economic constraints.

  4. Evaluation of dynamic coastal response to sea-level rise modifies inundation likelihood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lentz, Erika E.; Thieler, E. Robert; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stippa, Sawyer R.; Horton, Radley M.; Gesch, Dean B.

    2016-01-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) poses a range of threats to natural and built environments1, 2, making assessments of SLR-induced hazards essential for informed decision making3. We develop a probabilistic model that evaluates the likelihood that an area will inundate (flood) or dynamically respond (adapt) to SLR. The broad-area applicability of the approach is demonstrated by producing 30 × 30 m resolution predictions for more than 38,000 km2 of diverse coastal landscape in the northeastern United States. Probabilistic SLR projections, coastal elevation and vertical land movement are used to estimate likely future inundation levels. Then, conditioned on future inundation levels and the current land-cover type, we evaluate the likelihood of dynamic response versus inundation. We find that nearly 70% of this coastal landscape has some capacity to respond dynamically to SLR, and we show that inundation models over-predict land likely to submerge. This approach is well suited to guiding coastal resource management decisions that weigh future SLR impacts and uncertainty against ecological targets and economic constraints.

  5. Surface circulation in Block Island Sound and adjacent coastal and shelf regions: A FVCOM-CODAR comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yunfang; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Ullman, Dave; Butman, Bradford; Lin, Huichan

    2016-04-01

    CODAR-derived surface currents in Block Island Sound over the period of June 2000 through September 2008 were compared to currents computed using the Northeast Coastal Ocean Forecast System (NECOFS). The measurement uncertainty of CODAR-derived currents, estimated using statistics of a screened nine-year time series of hourly-averaged flow field, ranged from 3 to 7 cm/s in speed and 4° to 14° in direction. The CODAR-derived and model-computed kinetic energy spectrum densities were in good agreement at subtidal frequencies, but the NECOFS-derived currents were larger by about 28% at semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal frequencies. The short-term (hourly to daily) current variability was dominated by the semidiurnal tides (predominantly the M2 tide), which on average accounted for ∼87% of the total kinetic energy. The diurnal tidal and subtidal variability accounted for ∼4% and ∼9% of the total kinetic energy, respectively. The monthly-averaged difference between the CODAR-derived and model-computed velocities over the study area was 6 cm/s or less in speed and 28° or less in direction over the study period. An EOF analysis for the low-frequency vertically-averaged model current field showed that the water transport in the Block Island Sound region was dominated by modes 1 and 2, which accounted for 89% and 7% of the total variance, respectively. Mode 1 represented a relatively stationary spatial and temporal flow pattern with a magnitude that varied with season. Mode 2 was characterized mainly by a secondary cross-shelf flow and a relatively strong along-shelf flow. Process-oriented model experiments indicated that the relatively stationary flow pattern found in mode 1 was a result of tidal rectification and its magnitude changed with seasonal stratification. Correlation analysis between the flow and wind stress suggested that the cross-shelf water transport and its temporal variability in mode 2 were highly correlated to the surface wind forcing. The mode 2

  6. Coastal environment of the Beaufort Sea from field data and ERTS-1 imagery, summer 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimnitz, E. (Principal Investigator); Barnes, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An extensive field program during the spring and summer in the coastal Beaufort Sea test site has been completed using a wide variety of sensing techniques. Reduction of field data and ERTS-1 image analysis have shown the coastal environment to be complexly influenced by unique processes, most of which involve or are related to sea ice. Active sedimentologic processes along the Arctic coast are set in motion by the melting, flooding, and eventual overflow of rivers onto the sea ice. It is now apparent that only minor amounts of sediment are transported offshore at this stage; however, scouring of the bottom is significant beneath the strudels (drain holes) which develop in the fast ice canopy in the region of overflow. Areal salinity and turbidity patterns together with ERTS-1 imagery confirm a consistent influx of colder, clearer, saltier water towards the coast just east of the Colville River. Strong (up to 3 knots) bidirectional but intermittent currents often manifest themselves in imagery and aerial photographs as wakes behind grounded ice. Ice movement vectors generated from repetitive images indicate that ice drift is closely associated with wind direction, especially in shallow bays, and displacements of 4-22 kilometers were noted in 24 hours.

  7. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Remke, Eva; Brouwer, Emiel; Kooijman, Annemieke; Blindow, Irmgard; Esselink, Hans; Roelofs, Jan G M

    2009-03-01

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8kg Nha(-1)yr(-1). The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a suitable biomonitor of these low to medium deposition levels. Comparison with EMEP-deposition data showed that Cladonia reflects the deposition history of the last 3-6 years. With increasing nitrogen load, we observed a shift from lichen-rich short grass vegetation towards species-poor vegetation dominated by the tall graminoid Carex arenaria. Plant species richness per field site, however, does not decrease directly with these low to medium N deposition loads, but with change in vegetation composition. Critical loads for acidic, dry coastal dunes might be lower than previously thought, in the range of 4-6kg Nha(-1)yr(-1) wet deposition.

  8. Cloud masking of SeaWiFS images over coastal waters using spectral variability.

    PubMed

    Nordkvist, Karin; Loisel, Hubert; Gaurier, Lucile D

    2009-07-20

    Cloud masks developed in the frame of ocean color missions are usually based on the assumption that the marine reflectance is close to zero in the near-infrared (NIR). This is valid over the open ocean, but coastal (Case-2) waters may have a higher NIR reflectance due to suspended matter and non-maritime aerosols. Cloud-free pixels are sometimes classed as clouds, leading to a loss of data. We present an algorithm, based on standard ocean color wavelengths, that makes use of the lower spectral variability of clouds compared to water. Images from different coastal areas have been used to develop and test the algorithm and a radiative transfer model has been used for a numerical sensitivity analysis. The algorithm shows a good performance in many of the tested scenes, and using this algorithm instead of the standard SeaWiFS NIR threshold will increase the amount of data over Case-2 waters.

  9. Bathing water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Lolita; Murmura, Federica; Scarano, Antonio

    2015-06-15

    The quality of bathing water is fundamental, not only from an environmental point of view but also due to the economic importance of tourism. This paper examines the water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea) with reference to the microbiological parameters Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci required by Directive 2006/07 of European Commission. The water quality of 15 coastal beaches was surveyed; data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Abruzzo Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARTA) and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2010-2013). Statistical analysis was used to confirm the aspects deduced from mean values of monitoring and control data for each stretch. The data highlight critical situations in various parts of the coast; these problems can be attributed to river pollution, mainly due to the malfunctioning of the treatment plants for urban wastewater.

  10. Assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediments, seawaters and bivalves of the Mediterranean Sea coast, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S; Attiah, Abdullah

    2015-12-30

    In order to assess metal contamination on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, 45 sediment samples, seawaters and bivalve specimens were collected from Rosetta coastal area for Mg, Al, K, Fe, Sr, Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Ce, Ni, Cr and Zr analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that the coastal sediments of Rosetta area were severely enriched, strongly polluted with As, Pb and very highly contaminated with As, Pb, Ni, Ce, mostly as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with other samples from the Arabian Gulf, Red Sea and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of Fe, Pb, As, Zn and Ni. The natural sources of heavy metals in the study area are attributed to weathering and decomposition of mountain ranges of the Sudan and Ethiopia, while the anthropogenic ones are the metals produced from industrial, sewage, irrigation and urban runoff.

  11. Assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediments, seawaters and bivalves of the Mediterranean Sea coast, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S; Attiah, Abdullah

    2015-12-30

    In order to assess metal contamination on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, 45 sediment samples, seawaters and bivalve specimens were collected from Rosetta coastal area for Mg, Al, K, Fe, Sr, Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Ce, Ni, Cr and Zr analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that the coastal sediments of Rosetta area were severely enriched, strongly polluted with As, Pb and very highly contaminated with As, Pb, Ni, Ce, mostly as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with other samples from the Arabian Gulf, Red Sea and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of Fe, Pb, As, Zn and Ni. The natural sources of heavy metals in the study area are attributed to weathering and decomposition of mountain ranges of the Sudan and Ethiopia, while the anthropogenic ones are the metals produced from industrial, sewage, irrigation and urban runoff. PMID:26563548

  12. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Frouin, R.; Cassanet, G.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. HCMM data analysis shows some mesoscale features which were previously expected to occur: summer coastal upwellings in the Gulf of Lions, tidal fronts bordering the English Channel, and cooler surface waters at the continental shelf break. The analysis of the spectral variance density spectra show that the interpretation of the data usually is limited by the HCMM radiometric performance (noise levels) at wavenumbers below 5 km in the oceanic areas; from this analysis it may also be concluded that a decrease of the radiometric noise level down to 0.1 k against an increase of the ground resolution up to 2 km would give a better optimum of the radiometric performances in the oceanic areas. HCMM data appear to be useful for analysis of the sea surface temperature field, particularly in the very coastal area by profiting from the ground resolution of 500 m.

  13. Bathing water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Lolita; Murmura, Federica; Scarano, Antonio

    2015-06-15

    The quality of bathing water is fundamental, not only from an environmental point of view but also due to the economic importance of tourism. This paper examines the water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea) with reference to the microbiological parameters Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci required by Directive 2006/07 of European Commission. The water quality of 15 coastal beaches was surveyed; data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Abruzzo Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARTA) and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2010-2013). Statistical analysis was used to confirm the aspects deduced from mean values of monitoring and control data for each stretch. The data highlight critical situations in various parts of the coast; these problems can be attributed to river pollution, mainly due to the malfunctioning of the treatment plants for urban wastewater. PMID:25934432

  14. Video system for monitoring sea-surface characteristics in coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinov, Oleg G.; Pavlov, Andrey N.

    2012-11-01

    A method of investigation sea surface roughness by analysis polarization images is suggested. Equipment and software were developed and tested at the Pacific Oceanological Institute (POI) It is shown a possibility to study surface manifestations of hydrodynamic processes in coastal zone, such as the dynamics of vortex structures, internal waves, spatio-temporal properties of surface waves by using the panoramic video system for a sea surface control and by the imaging polarimeter. Analysis of a time sequence of transformed to the plane panoramic images obtained using the system allows to estimate a velocity field of vortex structure, phase velocity of surface manifestations of internal waves, intensity and dynamics of surface films of oil pollution. It is shown an ability of sea surface reconstruction by analyzing time sequence of the imaging polarimeter pictures. The results are compared with the height difference of the floats located on the vertical guides that are in the imaging polarimeter field of view. The float heights obtained from its image coordinates. Field experiments were conducted at the POI marine station in the Japan Sea. Moreover, the developed methods and equipment may be used as a source of unique in situ information on the sea surface roughness during satellite optical and radar sensing.

  15. Global DEM Errors Underpredict Coastal Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise and Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, Scott; Strauss, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Elevation data based on NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) have been widely used to evaluate threats from global sea level rise, storm surge, and coastal floods. However, SRTM data are known to include large vertical errors in densely urban or densely vegetated areas. The errors may propagate to derived land and population exposure assessments. We compare assessments based on SRTM data against references employing high-accuracy bare-earth elevation data generated from lidar data available for coastal areas of the United States. We find that both 1-arcsecond and 3-arcsecond horizontal resolution SRTM data systemically underestimate exposure across all assessed spatial scales and up to at least 10m above the high tide line. At 3m, 1-arcsecond SRTM underestimates U.S. population exposure by more than 60%, and under-predicts population exposure in 90% of coastal states, 87% of counties, and 83% of municipalities. These fractions increase with elevation, but error medians and variability fall to lower levels, with national exposure underestimated by just 24% at 10m. Results using 3-arcsecond SRTM are extremely similar. Coastal analyses based on SRTM data thus appear to greatly underestimate sea level and flood threats, especially at lower elevations. However, SRTM-based estimates may usefully be regarded as providing lower bounds to actual threats. We additionally assess the performance of NOAA's Global Land One-km Base Elevation Project (GLOBE), another publicly-available global DEM, but do not reach any definitive conclusion because of the spatial heterogeneity in its quality.

  16. Are Coastal Protected Areas Always Effective in Achieving Population Recovery for Nesting Sea Turtles?

    PubMed Central

    Nel, Ronel; Punt, André E.; Hughes, George R.

    2013-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly migratory and usually dispersed, but aggregate off beaches during the nesting season, rendering them vulnerable to coastal threats. Consequently, coastal Marine Protection Areas (MPAs) have been used to facilitate the recovery of turtle populations, but the effectiveness of these programs is uncertain as most have been operating for less than a single turtle generation (or<20 yr). South Africa, however, hosts one of the longest running conservation programs, protecting nesting loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) turtles since 1963 in a series of coastal MPAs. This provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the long-term effect of spatial protection on the abundance of two highly migratory turtle species with different life history characteristics. Population responses were assessed by modeling the number of nests over time in an index area (13 km) and an expanded monitoring area (53 km) with varying survey effort. Loggerhead abundance increased dramatically from∼250 to>1700 nests pa (index area) especially over the last decade, while leatherback abundance increased initially∼10 to 70 nests pa (index area), but then stabilized. Although leatherbacks have higher reproductive output per female and comparable remigration periods and hatching success to loggerheads, the leatherback population failed to expand. Our results suggest that coastal MPAs can work but do not guarantee the recovery of sea turtle populations as pressures change over time. Causes considered for the lack of population growth include factors in the MPA (expansion into unmonitored areas or incubation environment) of outside of the MPA (including carrying capacity and fishing mortality). Conservation areas for migratory species thus require careful design to account for species-specific needs, and need to be monitored to keep track of changing pressures. PMID:23671683

  17. Are coastal protected areas always effective in achieving population recovery for nesting sea turtles?

    PubMed

    Nel, Ronel; Punt, André E; Hughes, George R

    2013-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly migratory and usually dispersed, but aggregate off beaches during the nesting season, rendering them vulnerable to coastal threats. Consequently, coastal Marine Protection Areas (MPAs) have been used to facilitate the recovery of turtle populations, but the effectiveness of these programs is uncertain as most have been operating for less than a single turtle generation (or<20 yr). South Africa, however, hosts one of the longest running conservation programs, protecting nesting loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) turtles since 1963 in a series of coastal MPAs. This provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the long-term effect of spatial protection on the abundance of two highly migratory turtle species with different life history characteristics. Population responses were assessed by modeling the number of nests over time in an index area (13 km) and an expanded monitoring area (53 km) with varying survey effort. Loggerhead abundance increased dramatically from∼250 to>1700 nests pa (index area) especially over the last decade, while leatherback abundance increased initially∼10 to 70 nests pa (index area), but then stabilized. Although leatherbacks have higher reproductive output per female and comparable remigration periods and hatching success to loggerheads, the leatherback population failed to expand. Our results suggest that coastal MPAs can work but do not guarantee the recovery of sea turtle populations as pressures change over time. Causes considered for the lack of population growth include factors in the MPA (expansion into unmonitored areas or incubation environment) of outside of the MPA (including carrying capacity and fishing mortality). Conservation areas for migratory species thus require careful design to account for species-specific needs, and need to be monitored to keep track of changing pressures.

  18. Are coastal protected areas always effective in achieving population recovery for nesting sea turtles?

    PubMed

    Nel, Ronel; Punt, André E; Hughes, George R

    2013-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly migratory and usually dispersed, but aggregate off beaches during the nesting season, rendering them vulnerable to coastal threats. Consequently, coastal Marine Protection Areas (MPAs) have been used to facilitate the recovery of turtle populations, but the effectiveness of these programs is uncertain as most have been operating for less than a single turtle generation (or<20 yr). South Africa, however, hosts one of the longest running conservation programs, protecting nesting loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) turtles since 1963 in a series of coastal MPAs. This provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the long-term effect of spatial protection on the abundance of two highly migratory turtle species with different life history characteristics. Population responses were assessed by modeling the number of nests over time in an index area (13 km) and an expanded monitoring area (53 km) with varying survey effort. Loggerhead abundance increased dramatically from∼250 to>1700 nests pa (index area) especially over the last decade, while leatherback abundance increased initially∼10 to 70 nests pa (index area), but then stabilized. Although leatherbacks have higher reproductive output per female and comparable remigration periods and hatching success to loggerheads, the leatherback population failed to expand. Our results suggest that coastal MPAs can work but do not guarantee the recovery of sea turtle populations as pressures change over time. Causes considered for the lack of population growth include factors in the MPA (expansion into unmonitored areas or incubation environment) of outside of the MPA (including carrying capacity and fishing mortality). Conservation areas for migratory species thus require careful design to account for species-specific needs, and need to be monitored to keep track of changing pressures. PMID:23671683

  19. How to preserve coastal wetlands, threatened by climate change-driven rises in sea level.

    PubMed

    Ivajnšič, Danijel; Kaligarič, Mitja

    2014-10-01

    A habitat transition model, based on the correlation between individual habitats and micro-elevation intervals, showed substantial changes in the future spatial distributions of coastal habitats. The research was performed within two protected areas in Slovenia: Sečovlje Salina Nature Park and Škocjan Inlet Nature Reserve. Shifts between habitats will occur, but a general decline of 42 % for all Natura 2000 habitats is projected by 2060, according to local or global (IPCC AR4) sea level rise predictions. Three different countermeasures for the long-term conservation of targeted habitat types were proposed. The most "natural" is displacement of coastal habitats using buffer zones (1) were available. Another solution is construction of artificial islets, made of locally dredged material (2); a feasible solution in both protected areas. Twenty-two islets and a dried salt pan zone at the desired elevations suitable for those habitats that have been projected to decease in area would offer an additional 10 ha in the Sečovlje Salina. Twenty-one islets and two peninsulas at two different micro-altitudes would ensure the survival of 13 ha of three different habitats. In the area of Sečovlje Salina, abandoned salt pans could be terrestrialized by using permanent, artificial sea barriers, in a manner close to poldering (3). By using this countermeasure, another 32 ha of targeted habitat could be preserved. It can be concluded that, for each coastal area, where wetland habitats will shrink, strategic plans involving any of the three solutions should be prepared well in advance. The specific examples provided might facilitate adaptive management of coastal wetlands in general.

  20. Hydrodynamic modelling of coastal seas: the role of tidal dynamics in the Messina Strait, Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucco, Andrea; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Olita, Antonio; Fazioli, Leopoldo; Ribotti, Alberto; Sinerchia, Matteo; Tedesco, Costanza; Sorgente, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    This work explores the importance of considering tidal dynamics when modelling the general circulation in the Messina Strait, a narrow passage connecting the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian subbasins in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The tides and the induced water circulation in this Strait are among the most intense oceanographic processes in the Mediterranean Sea. The quantification of these effects can be particularly relevant for operational oceanographic systems aimed to provide short-term predictions of the main hydrodynamics in the Western Mediterranean subbasins. A numerical approach based on the use of a high-resolution hydrodynamic model was followed to reproduce the tides propagation and the wind-induced and thermohaline water circulation within the Strait and in surrounding areas. A set of numerical simulations was carried out to quantify the role of the Strait dynamics on the larger-scale water circulation. The obtained results confirmed the importance of a correct representation of the hydrodynamics in the Messina Strait even when focusing on predicting the water circulation in the external sea traits. In fact, model results show that tidal dynamics deeply impact the reproduction of the instantaneous and residual circulation pattern, waters thermohaline properties and transport dynamics both inside the Messina Strait and in the surrounding coastal and open waters.

  1. Contribution of the upper river, the estuarine region, and the adjacent sea to the heavy metal pollution in the Yangtze Estuary.

    PubMed

    Yin, Su; Wu, Yuehan; Xu, Wei; Li, Yangyang; Shen, Zhenyao; Feng, Chenghong

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether the discharge control of heavy metals in the Yangtze River basin can significantly change the pollution level in the estuary, this study analyzed the sources (upper river, the estuarine region, and the adjacent sea) of ten heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) in dissolved and particulate phases in the surface water of the estuary during wet, normal, and dry seasons. Metal sources inferred from section fluxes agree with those in statistical analysis methods. Heavy metal pollution in the surface water of Yangtze Estuary primarily depends on the sediment suspension and the wastewater discharge from estuary cities. Upper river only constitutes the main source of dissolved heavy metals during the wet season, while the estuarine region and the adjacent sea (especially the former) dominate the dissolved metal pollution in the normal and dry seasons. Particulate metals are mainly derived from sediment suspension in the estuary and the adjacent sea, and the contribution of the upper river can be neglected. Compared with the hydrologic seasons, flood-ebb tides exert a more obvious effect on the water flow directions in the estuary. Sediment suspension, not the upper river, significantly affects the suspended particulate matter concentration in the estuary. PMID:27155472

  2. How Shall We Tell Our People? The Art and Science of Communicating Sea-Level Rise to Coastal Audiences (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Improved sea-level rise projections and translation into decision-relevant information (e.g., changed flood frequencies and elevations, increased rates in coastal erosion, salinity changes in coastal aquifers) are critical for coastal managers, planners, and local elected officials to feel more confident in bringing climate change and its related coastal impacts to the attention of their communities. Those who have done so or are considering doing so, however, are not just concerned with “getting the science right” or getting the most credible and relevant information. They immediately, and sometimes primarily, are concerned with the reactions of coastal residents, developers, and business interests to the prospects of potentially difficult and substantial changes in coastal land use, their property rights, and the potential loss of their homes and establishments. How to engage the public constructively in developing adaptation strategies is a largely unmet challenge for most coastal managers. Similarly, they have not been trained in how to effectively communicate an issue that is ripe with the potential for loss, danger, and social and legal conflict - more so than they already face. Better physical science on sea-level rise alone will not meet these needs. Meanwhile, the social sciences have only begun to study public attitudes toward local impacts and adaptation responses. This paper will summarize key insights available at this time and point to important research and education/training needs to better assist practitioners faced with developing and implementing coastal adaptation strategies.

  3. Spatial and temporal variability of sea-surface temperature fronts in the coastal Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, Sélima Ben; Larouche, Pierre; Dubois, Jean-Marie

    2016-08-01

    An analysis of 11 years of sea surface temperatures images allowed the determination of the frontal occurrence probability in the southeastern Beaufort Sea using the single-image edge detection method. Results showed that, as the season progresses, fronts become more detectable due to solar heating of the surface layer. Some recurrent features can be identified in the summer time frontal climatology such as the Mackenzie River plume front, the Cape Bathurst front, the Mackenzie Trough front and the Amundsen Gulf front. These areas may be playing an important role in the biological processes acting as drivers to local enhanced biological productivity.

  4. Modelling the coastal processes at the mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Eugen; Zanopol, Andrei

    2014-05-01

    The mouths of the Danube River in the Black Sea represent the main southern entrance in the seventh Pan European transportation corridor that links the Black and the Northern seas and is the most important inland navigable waterway in Europe. For this reason the coastal area close to the Danube Delta is subjected to high navigation traffic, which is crucially affected by the strong processes mainly induced by the interactions between the waves and the currents generated by the Danube River outflow. From this perspective, the objective of the present work is to develop a computational framework based on numerical models able to evaluate properly the effects of these interactions and to provide reliable predictions concerning the wave and current conditions corresponding to various environmental patterns. Following this target, a wave modelling system, SWAN based, was implemented in the entire basin of the Black Sea and focused on the coastal sector at the entrance of the Danube Delta. As a next step of the modelling process, SWAN simulations were performed at two different computational levels, considering in parallel the situations without and with the current fields for the main environmental conditions characteristic to the target area. The first level covers the entire coastal area at the mouths of the Danube River and has a resolution in the geographical space of 500m. The second is a computational domain with the resolution of 50m that is focused on the Sulina channel, which is the main navigation gate at the mouths of the Danube River. The results show that the presence of the currents induces relevant enhancements in terms of significant wave heights. Additionally, the Benjamin Feir index (BFI) was also evaluated. This is a spectral shape parameter that is related to the kurtosis of the distribution and indicates the risk of the freak wave occurrence. The enhanced values for BFI in the case when the current fields are considered in the modelling process

  5. Regional patterns in prevalence of principal external diseases of dab Limanda limanda in the North Sea and adjacent areas 1992-1997.

    PubMed

    Dethlefsen, V; Lang, T; Köves, P

    2000-08-31

    The prevalence and spatial distribution of major diseases of dab Limanda limanda in the North Sea and adjacent areas were studied in the summers 1992 to 1997. Areas covered were the North Sea, Irish Sea, northern and northeastern British Waters and the English Channel. The diseases studied were lymphocystis, epidermal hyperplasia/papilloma and skin ulceration. To standardise data, results were analysed for females >15 cm (>3 yr old). Data were subjected to median polish, and additive, extended and additive plus multiplicative models were applied to best account for effects of region and year. Annual differences in disease prevalence were low whilst differences between areas were pronounced. For lymphocystis higher prevalence was observed in the northwestern sector of the North Sea, at the northern tip of Scotland and in an area south of Iceland. Prevalence was low in the Irish Sea, the English Channel and the southern North Sea, and intermediate in the German Bight. For epidermal hyperplasia/papilloma, levels were low at Icelandic stations, in the northern Irish Sea, in the southern North Sea and the English Channel, whilst levels were high in the northwestern part of the North Sea and the German Bight. Elevated levels of skin ulceration were found on the Dogger, at 1 station in the Irish Sea (off Sellafield) and at 1 station to the south of Iceland. Lower levels were detected west of Iceland. Prevalence in all other areas was intermediate. It is concluded that a detailed analysis of available data on disease prevalence and putative causative factors is desirable and, given the good availability of data, would be a promising step forward toward elucidating possible cause and effect relationships between diseases and anthropogenic factors. PMID:11023251

  6. Effects of hydrogeological properties on sea-derived benzene transport in unconfined coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ci; Ni, Chuen-Fa; Tsai, Chia-Hsing; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents numerical investigations on quantifying the hydrodynamic effects of coastal environment factors, including tidal fluctuations, beach slopes, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic gradients on sea-derived benzene transport in unconfined coastal aquifers. A hydrologic transport and mixed geochemical kinetic/equilibrium reactions in saturated-unsaturated media model was used to simulate the spatial and temporal behaviors of the density flow and benzene transport for various hydrogeological conditions. Simulation results indicated that the tidal fluctuations lead to upper saline plumes (USPs) near the groundwater and seawater interfaces. Such local circulation zones trapped the seaward benzene plumes and carried them down in aquifers to the depth depending on the tide amplitudes and beach slopes across the coastal lines. Comparisons based on different tidal fluctuations, beach slopes, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic gradient were systematically conducted and quantified. The results indicated that areas with USPs increased with the tidal amplitude and decreased with the increasing beach slope. However, the variation of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradient has relatively small influence on the patterns of flow fields in the study. The increase of the USP depths was linearly correlated with the increase of the tidal amplitudes. The benzene reactive transport simulations revealed that the plume migrations are mainly controlled by the local flow dynamics and constrained in the USP circulation zones. The self-cleaning process of a coastal aquifer is time-consuming, typically requiring double the time of the contamination process that the benzene plume reach the bottom of a USP circulation zone. The presented systematic analysis can provide useful information for rapidly evaluating seaward contaminants along a coastal line with available hydrogeological properties. PMID:27106208

  7. Effects of hydrogeological properties on sea-derived benzene transport in unconfined coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ci; Ni, Chuen-Fa; Tsai, Chia-Hsing; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents numerical investigations on quantifying the hydrodynamic effects of coastal environment factors, including tidal fluctuations, beach slopes, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic gradients on sea-derived benzene transport in unconfined coastal aquifers. A hydrologic transport and mixed geochemical kinetic/equilibrium reactions in saturated-unsaturated media model was used to simulate the spatial and temporal behaviors of the density flow and benzene transport for various hydrogeological conditions. Simulation results indicated that the tidal fluctuations lead to upper saline plumes (USPs) near the groundwater and seawater interfaces. Such local circulation zones trapped the seaward benzene plumes and carried them down in aquifers to the depth depending on the tide amplitudes and beach slopes across the coastal lines. Comparisons based on different tidal fluctuations, beach slopes, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic gradient were systematically conducted and quantified. The results indicated that areas with USPs increased with the tidal amplitude and decreased with the increasing beach slope. However, the variation of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradient has relatively small influence on the patterns of flow fields in the study. The increase of the USP depths was linearly correlated with the increase of the tidal amplitudes. The benzene reactive transport simulations revealed that the plume migrations are mainly controlled by the local flow dynamics and constrained in the USP circulation zones. The self-cleaning process of a coastal aquifer is time-consuming, typically requiring double the time of the contamination process that the benzene plume reach the bottom of a USP circulation zone. The presented systematic analysis can provide useful information for rapidly evaluating seaward contaminants along a coastal line with available hydrogeological properties.

  8. Uncertainties in measuring populations potentially impacted by sea level rise and coastal flooding.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Pinki; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the impact of global climate change requires information on the locations and characteristics of populations affected. For instance, with global sea level predicted to rise and coastal flooding set to become more frequent and intense, high-resolution spatial population datasets are increasingly being used to estimate the size of vulnerable coastal populations. Many previous studies have undertaken this by quantifying the size of populations residing in low elevation coastal zones using one of two global spatial population datasets available - LandScan and the Global Rural Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP). This has been undertaken without consideration of the effects of this choice, which are a function of the quality of input datasets and differences in methods used to construct each spatial population dataset. Here we calculate estimated low elevation coastal zone resident population sizes from LandScan and GRUMP using previously adopted approaches, and quantify the absolute and relative differences achieved through switching datasets. Our findings suggest that the choice of one particular dataset over another can translate to a difference of more than 7.5 million vulnerable people for countries with extensive coastal populations, such as Indonesia and Japan. Our findings also show variations in estimates of proportions of national populations at risk range from <0.1% to 45% differences when switching between datasets, with large differences predominantly for countries where coarse and outdated input data were used in the construction of the spatial population datasets. The results highlight the need for the construction of spatial population datasets built on accurate, contemporary and detailed census data for use in climate change impact studies and the importance of acknowledging uncertainties inherent in existing spatial population datasets when estimating the demographic impacts of climate change. PMID:23110208

  9. Uncertainties in measuring populations potentially impacted by sea level rise and coastal flooding.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Pinki; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the impact of global climate change requires information on the locations and characteristics of populations affected. For instance, with global sea level predicted to rise and coastal flooding set to become more frequent and intense, high-resolution spatial population datasets are increasingly being used to estimate the size of vulnerable coastal populations. Many previous studies have undertaken this by quantifying the size of populations residing in low elevation coastal zones using one of two global spatial population datasets available - LandScan and the Global Rural Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP). This has been undertaken without consideration of the effects of this choice, which are a function of the quality of input datasets and differences in methods used to construct each spatial population dataset. Here we calculate estimated low elevation coastal zone resident population sizes from LandScan and GRUMP using previously adopted approaches, and quantify the absolute and relative differences achieved through switching datasets. Our findings suggest that the choice of one particular dataset over another can translate to a difference of more than 7.5 million vulnerable people for countries with extensive coastal populations, such as Indonesia and Japan. Our findings also show variations in estimates of proportions of national populations at risk range from <0.1% to 45% differences when switching between datasets, with large differences predominantly for countries where coarse and outdated input data were used in the construction of the spatial population datasets. The results highlight the need for the construction of spatial population datasets built on accurate, contemporary and detailed census data for use in climate change impact studies and the importance of acknowledging uncertainties inherent in existing spatial population datasets when estimating the demographic impacts of climate change.

  10. Relative Coastal Vulnerability Assessment of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO) to Sea-Level Rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2006-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park in Hawaii. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each input variable were combined, and an index value calculated for 500-meter grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park consists of carbonate sand beaches, coral rubble, rocky shoreline, and mangrove wetland areas. The areas within Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise based on this analysis are areas of unconsolidated sediment and highest wave energy.

  11. The biogeochemistry of inorganic carbon and nutrients in the Pearl River estuary and the adjacent Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wei-Jun; Dai, Minhan; Wang, Yongchen; Zhai, Weidong; Huang, Tao; Chen, Shuitu; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Zhaozhang; Wang, Zhaohui

    2004-08-01

    The Zhu-jiang (Pearl River) estuary and its adjacent continental shelf in the Northern South China Sea (SCS) is unique in that its drainage basin is located entirely in a subtropical zone with heavy population development, and therefore represents an important regime for biogeochemical studies on how large rivers influence continental shelves. The near-zero salinity end member has high nutrient concentrations (silicate 130-140 μM, nitrate 75-100 μM and phosphate 0.2-1.2 μM) and relatively high total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (1500 μM) and alkalinity (˜1650 μM) values. Water column DIC, alkalinity, and nutrient in the estuary are largely controlled by mixing of waters from different tributaries with different drainage basin chemistry, anthropogenic influence, and degree of estuarine recycling. Biological uptake of nutrients and inorganic carbon occur in the outer estuary and inner shelf areas supported by riverine nutrients. The N/P and Si/P ratios are generally very high within the estuary. The summertime area-integrated biological production rate of 0.8 gC m -2 d -1 is estimated based on the depletion of DIC and alkalinity relative to the conservative mixing line and a plume travel time. This estimate agrees reasonably well with 14C based primary production rates (PP) and with that from effective river phosphate flux. Biological production decreases about 10-fold in the open continental shelf and slope and is largely supported by mixing with subsurface water. A comparison of DIC, phosphate, and nitrate concentrations in the surface mixing layer and at the bottom of the euphotic zone with the 14C-based PP (0.13 gC m -2 d -1) suggests that the surface water residence time in the Northern SCS is ˜1.3 years. The N/P, Si/P, and Si/C ratios are 15, 25, and 0.15, respectively. The subtropical Pearl River study is also compared to other large rivers with regard to differences in both natural processes (i.e., weathering rates) and anthropogenic influences (i

  12. Impact of outflow from the Guadiana River on the distribution of suspended particulate matter and nutrients in the adjacent coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravo, Alexandra; Madureira, Miguel; Felícia, Helena; Rita, F.; Bebianno, Maria J.

    2006-10-01

    In this study we collected surface water samples from the coastal area adjacent to the Guadiana estuary during winter for 3 consecutive years to assess the impact of the Guadiana outflow upon the concentration and spatial distribution of suspended particulate matter and nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, and silicate). Deeper water samples were also collected near the river mouth in water greater than 10 m in depth. Our results indicate that the maximal surface influence of the Guadiana outflow is close to the mouth of the Guadiana River, at the 10-m isobath, where the highest concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and nutrients were recorded, as well as the lowest salinity. SPM and nutrient concentrations decrease with increased water depth, while salinity increased. Beyond the 10-m isobath, toward the ocean, nutrient concentrations decreased gradually with increasing salinity. Nutrient concentrations showed a conservative behaviour only during the last of the three sampling periods. The impact of Guadiana outflow was especially low when river discharge was low, however, after periods of peak rainfall the river outflow increased enormously and the impact of SPM and nutrients (more than an order of magnitude higher than normal) was observed, particularly around the mouth of the estuary. This impact involved the development of a fingerprint plume that represents a net export of SPM and nutrients to the coastal area. This plume had a width of about 10-15 km, and despite being centred slightly east of the mouth of the Guadiana River, tended to migrate westward. The increase in N compounds was more significant than increases in P and Si, is reflected in high N:P and N:Si nutrient ratios. In water depths in excess of 10 m, the effect of the Guadiana outflow was most evident until 5 m depth. It is expected that with the completion of the biggest dam in Europe along the Guadiana River, the outflow of the river will be markedly reduced, especially during summer

  13. Occurence of Extreme Sea Level Events In The Coastal Waters of West Estonia, The Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suursaar, Ü.; Kullas, T.; Otsmann, M.; Kõuts, T.

    Extreme low and high sea level events are analysed on the basis of available historical data and mechanisms of surges studied appplying the 1 km grid step 2D hydrodynamic model in the two nearly tideless semienclosed sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Riga and the Väinameri. Based on the input and verification data from 1999, the water level is modelled with realistic and idealistic forcing schemes. The low level events are associated with the local wind pattern of easterly winds, determined by the corresponding regional air pressure fields above the Central Baltic. The high levels (up to 253 cm above the long-term average as measured in Pärnu) are associated with SW and W storms. They first appear due to the water volume change in the Baltic Sea, then due to an additional volume increase in the Gulf of Riga, and finally due to the local level slope in the narrow and shallow bays. An amplification due to resonance with seiche or Helmholtz oscillation periods is also possible. Simulations showed that the extreme high and low sea levels in some small bays of West Estonia without tide- gauges could exceed the corresponding values in the Pärnu Bay.

  14. Type X Toxoplasma gondii in a wild mussel and terrestrial carnivores from coastal California: new linkages between terrestrial mammals, runoff and toxoplasmosis of sea otters.

    PubMed

    Miller, M A; Miller, W A; Conrad, P A; James, E R; Melli, A C; Leutenegger, C M; Dabritz, H A; Packham, A E; Paradies, D; Harris, M; Ames, J; Jessup, D A; Worcester, K; Grigg, M E

    2008-09-01

    Sea otters in California are commonly infected with Toxoplasma gondii. A unique Type X strain is responsible for 72% of otter infections, but its prevalence in terrestrial animals and marine invertebrates inhabiting the same area was unknown. Between 2000 and 2005, 45 terrestrial carnivores (lions, bobcats, domestic cats and foxes) and 1396 invertebrates (mussels, clams and worms) were screened for T. gondii using PCR and DNA sequencing to determine the phylogeographic distribution of T. gondii archetypal I, II, III and Type X genotypes. Marine bivalves have been shown to concentrate T. gondii oocysts in the laboratory, but a comprehensive survey of wild invertebrates has not been reported. A California mussel from an estuary draining into Monterey Bay was confirmed positive for Type X T. gondii by multilocus PCR and DNA sequencing at the B1 and SAG1 loci. This mussel was collected from nearshore marine waters just after the first significant rainfall event in the fall of 2002. Of 45 carnivores tested at the B1, SAG1, and GRA6 typing loci, 15 had PCR-confirmed T. gondii infection; 11 possessed alleles consistent with infection by archetypal Type I, II or III strains and 4 possessed alleles consistent with Type X T. gondii infection. No non-canonical alleles were identified. The four T. gondii strains with Type X alleles were identified from two mountain lions, a bobcat and a fox residing in coastal watersheds adjacent to sea otter habitat near Monterey Bay and Estero Bay. Confirmation of Type X T. gondii in coastal-dwelling felids, canids, a marine bivalve and nearshore-dwelling sea otters supports the hypotheses that feline faecal contamination is flowing from land to sea through surface runoff, and that otters can be infected with T. gondii via consumption of filter-feeding marine invertebrates. PMID:18452923

  15. Chemical characterization of dissolved organic compounds from coastal sea surface microlayers (Baltic Sea, Germany).

    PubMed

    van Pinxteren, Manuela; Müller, Conny; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Stolle, Christian; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2012-10-01

    The physicochemical properties of the sea surface microlayer (SML), i.e. the boundary layer between the air and the sea, and its impact on air-sea exchange processes have been investigated for decades. However, a detailed description about these processes remains incomplete. In order to obtain a better chemical characterization of the SML, in a case study three pairs of SML and corresponding bulk water samples were taken in the southern Baltic Sea. The samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon and dissolved total nitrogen, as well as for several organic nitrogen containing compounds and carbohydrates, namely aliphatic amines, dissolved free amino acids, dissolved free monosaccharides, sugar alcohols, and monosaccharide anhydrates. Therefore, reasonable analytical procedures with respect to desalting and enrichment were established. All aliphatic amines and the majority of the investigated amino acids (11 out of 18) were found in the samples with average concentrations between 53 ng L(-1) and 1574 ng L(-1). The concentrations of carbohydrates were slightly higher, averaging 2900 ng L(-1). Calculation of the enrichment factor (EF) between the sea surface microlayer and the bulk water showed that dissolved total nitrogen was more enriched (EF: 1.1 and 1.2) in the SML than dissolved organic carbon (EF: 1.0 and 1.1). The nitrogen containing organic compounds were generally found to be enriched in the SML (EF: 1.9-9.2), whereas dissolved carbohydrates were not enriched or even depleted (EF: 0.7-1.2). Although the investigated compounds contributed on average only 0.3% to the dissolved organic carbon and 0.4% to the total dissolved nitrogen fraction, these results underline the importance of single compound analysis to determine SML structure, function, and its potential for a transfer of compounds into the atmosphere. PMID:22475414

  16. Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Hinkel, Jochen; Lincke, Daniel; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Perrette, Mahé; Nicholls, Robert James; Tol, Richard S. J.; Marzeion, Ben; Fettweis, Xavier; Ionescu, Cezar; Levermann, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data, protection strategies, socioeconomic development and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four different climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, each combined with three land-ice scenarios based on the published range of contributions from ice sheets and glaciers. Without adaptation, 0.2–4.6% of global population is expected to be flooded annually in 2100 under 25–123 cm of global mean sea-level rise, with expected annual losses of 0.3–9.3% of global gross domestic product. Damages of this magnitude are very unlikely to be tolerated by society and adaptation will be widespread. The global costs of protecting the coast with dikes are significant with annual investment and maintenance costs of US$ 12–71 billion in 2100, but much smaller than the global cost of avoided damages even without accounting for indirect costs of damage to regional production supply. Flood damages by the end of this century are much more sensitive to the applied protection strategy than to variations in climate and socioeconomic scenarios as well as in physical data sources (topography and climate model). Our results emphasize the central role of long-term coastal adaptation strategies. These should also take into account that protecting large parts of the developed coast increases the risk of catastrophic consequences in the case of defense failure. PMID:24596428

  17. Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Hinkel, Jochen; Lincke, Daniel; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Perrette, Mahé; Nicholls, Robert James; Tol, Richard S J; Marzeion, Ben; Fettweis, Xavier; Ionescu, Cezar; Levermann, Anders

    2014-03-01

    Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data, protection strategies, socioeconomic development and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four different climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, each combined with three land-ice scenarios based on the published range of contributions from ice sheets and glaciers. Without adaptation, 0.2-4.6% of global population is expected to be flooded annually in 2100 under 25-123 cm of global mean sea-level rise, with expected annual losses of 0.3-9.3% of global gross domestic product. Damages of this magnitude are very unlikely to be tolerated by society and adaptation will be widespread. The global costs of protecting the coast with dikes are significant with annual investment and maintenance costs of US$ 12-71 billion in 2100, but much smaller than the global cost of avoided damages even without accounting for indirect costs of damage to regional production supply. Flood damages by the end of this century are much more sensitive to the applied protection strategy than to variations in climate and socioeconomic scenarios as well as in physical data sources (topography and climate model). Our results emphasize the central role of long-term coastal adaptation strategies. These should also take into account that protecting large parts of the developed coast increases the risk of catastrophic consequences in the case of defense failure.

  18. Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Hinkel, Jochen; Lincke, Daniel; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Perrette, Mahé; Nicholls, Robert James; Tol, Richard S J; Marzeion, Ben; Fettweis, Xavier; Ionescu, Cezar; Levermann, Anders

    2014-03-01

    Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data, protection strategies, socioeconomic development and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four different climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, each combined with three land-ice scenarios based on the published range of contributions from ice sheets and glaciers. Without adaptation, 0.2-4.6% of global population is expected to be flooded annually in 2100 under 25-123 cm of global mean sea-level rise, with expected annual losses of 0.3-9.3% of global gross domestic product. Damages of this magnitude are very unlikely to be tolerated by society and adaptation will be widespread. The global costs of protecting the coast with dikes are significant with annual investment and maintenance costs of US$ 12-71 billion in 2100, but much smaller than the global cost of avoided damages even without accounting for indirect costs of damage to regional production supply. Flood damages by the end of this century are much more sensitive to the applied protection strategy than to variations in climate and socioeconomic scenarios as well as in physical data sources (topography and climate model). Our results emphasize the central role of long-term coastal adaptation strategies. These should also take into account that protecting large parts of the developed coast increases the risk of catastrophic consequences in the case of defense failure. PMID:24596428

  19. Internally mixed sea salt, soot, and sulfates at Macao, a coastal city in South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Weijun; Shao, Longyi; Shen, Rongrong; Yang, Shusheng; Wang, Zhishi; Tang, Uwa

    2011-11-01

    Direct observation of the mixing state of aerosol particles in a coastal urban city is critical to understand atmospheric processing and hygroscopic growth in humid air. Morphology, composition, and mixing state of individual aerosol particles from Macao, located south of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and 100 km west of Hong Kong, were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (TEM/EDX). SEM images show that soot and roughly spherical particles are prevalent in the samples. Based on the compositions of individual aerosol particles, aerosol particles with roughly spherical shape are classified into coarse Na-rich and fine S-rich particles. TEM/EDX indicates that each Na-rich particle consists of a Na-S core and NaNO3 shell. Even in the absence of heavy pollution, the marine sea salt particles were completely depleted in chloride, and Na-related sulfates and nitrates were enriched in Macao air. The reason could be that SO2 from the polluted PRD and ships in the South China Sea and NO2 from vehicles in the city sped up the chlorine depletion in sea salt through heterogeneous reactions. Fresh soot particles from vehicular emissions mainly occur near curbside. However, there are many aged soot particles in the sampling site surrounded by main roads 200 to 400 m away, suggesting that the fresh soot likely underwent a quick aging. Overall, secondary nitrates and sulfates internally mixed with soot and sea salt particles can totally change their surface hygroscopicity in coastal cities.

  20. Sea level and current validation for an early warning coastal system on the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ràfols, Laura; abdelmalik, Sairouni; Bravo, Manel; Espino, Manuel; Grifoll, Manel

    2015-04-01

    An early warning coastal system is being implemented on the Catalan coast (North-western Mediterranean Sea) in order to provide high resolution forecast of sea levels, current velocities and wave conditions. The present investigation is focused on the oceanic model, which provides information about sea level and currents. The aim of this study is to validate the sea level and current forecasts obtained with the help of the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS; Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) in a high resolution domain (350 metres). In an attempt to reduce the high computational cost required for such a small grid, the Catalan coast has been divided into a few separate domains, which are run independently of each other. For the initial and boundary conditions, data from the MyOcean-IBI products have been used and the atmospheric forcing fields have been obtained from the Catalan Meteorological Service (SMC) and the Spanish Meteorological Agency (AEMET). For a validation purpose, different study periods have been taken into account. Then, the validation of the model has been done using the available in-situ tide-gauge and buoy measurements and HF satellite data. During energetic events, the interaction between currents and waves is expected to be relevant in the shallower areas. For this reason, a coupled wave-ocean system has been implemented to investigate the improvements in the forecasts when faced with the results of separated simulations. In this case, the ROMS model and the SWAN model (Simulating WAves Nearshore; Booij et al., 1999) have been run as part of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System (Warner et al., 2010), which uses the Model Coupling Toolkit to exchange data fields between the models.

  1. Implications of sea level rise scenarios on land use /land cover classes of the coastal zones of Cochin, India.

    PubMed

    Mani Murali, R; Dinesh Kumar, P K

    2015-01-15

    Physical responses of the coastal zones in the vicinity of Cochin, India due to sea level rise are investigated based on analysis of inundation scenarios. Quantification of potential habitat loss was made by merging the Land use/Land cover (LU/LC) prepared from the satellite imagery with the digital elevation model. Scenarios were generated for two different rates of sea level rise and responses of changes occurred were made to ascertain the vulnerability and loss in extent. LU/LC classes overlaid on 1 m and 2 m elevation showed that it was mostly covered by vegetation areas followed by water and urban zones. For the sea level rise scenarios of 1 m and 2 m, the total inundation zones were estimated to be 169.11 km(2) and 598.83 km(2) respectively using Geographic Information System (GIS). The losses of urban areas were estimated at 43 km(2) and 187 km(2) for the 1 m and 2 m sea level rise respectively which is alarming information for the most densely populated state of India. Quantitative comparison of other LU/LC classes showed significant changes under each of the inundation scenarios. The results obtained conclusively point that sea level rise scenarios will bring profound effects on the land use and land cover classes as well as on coastal landforms in the study region. Coastal inundation would leave ocean front and inland properties vulnerable. Increase in these water levels would alter the coastal drainage gradients. Reduction in these gradients would increase flooding attributable to rainstorms which could promote salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers and force water tables to rise. Changes in the coastal landforms associated with inundation generate concern in the background that the coastal region may continue to remain vulnerable in the coming decades due to population growth and development pressures.

  2. Implications of sea level rise scenarios on land use /land cover classes of the coastal zones of Cochin, India.

    PubMed

    Mani Murali, R; Dinesh Kumar, P K

    2015-01-15

    Physical responses of the coastal zones in the vicinity of Cochin, India due to sea level rise are investigated based on analysis of inundation scenarios. Quantification of potential habitat loss was made by merging the Land use/Land cover (LU/LC) prepared from the satellite imagery with the digital elevation model. Scenarios were generated for two different rates of sea level rise and responses of changes occurred were made to ascertain the vulnerability and loss in extent. LU/LC classes overlaid on 1 m and 2 m elevation showed that it was mostly covered by vegetation areas followed by water and urban zones. For the sea level rise scenarios of 1 m and 2 m, the total inundation zones were estimated to be 169.11 km(2) and 598.83 km(2) respectively using Geographic Information System (GIS). The losses of urban areas were estimated at 43 km(2) and 187 km(2) for the 1 m and 2 m sea level rise respectively which is alarming information for the most densely populated state of India. Quantitative comparison of other LU/LC classes showed significant changes under each of the inundation scenarios. The results obtained conclusively point that sea level rise scenarios will bring profound effects on the land use and land cover classes as well as on coastal landforms in the study region. Coastal inundation would leave ocean front and inland properties vulnerable. Increase in these water levels would alter the coastal drainage gradients. Reduction in these gradients would increase flooding attributable to rainstorms which could promote salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers and force water tables to rise. Changes in the coastal landforms associated with inundation generate concern in the background that the coastal region may continue to remain vulnerable in the coming decades due to population growth and development pressures. PMID:25043851

  3. Allowances for evolving coastal flood risk under uncertain local sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, M. K.; Kopp, R. E.; Oppenheimer, M.; Tebaldi, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) causes estimates of flood risk made under the assumption of stationary mean sea level to be biased low. However, adjustments to flood return levels made assuming fixed increases of sea level are also inaccurate when applied to sea level that is rising over time at an uncertain rate. To accommodate both the temporal dynamics of SLR and their uncertainty, we develop an Average Annual Design Life Level (AADLL) metric and associated SLR allowances [1,2]. The AADLL is the flood level corresponding to a time-integrated annual expected probability of occurrence (AEP) under uncertainty over the lifetime of an asset; AADLL allowances are the adjustment from 2000 levels that maintain current risk. Given non-stationary and uncertain SLR, AADLL flood levels and allowances provide estimates of flood protection heights and offsets for different planning horizons and different levels of confidence in SLR projections in coastal areas. Allowances are a function primarily of local SLR and are nearly independent of AEP. Here we employ probabilistic SLR projections [3] to illustrate the calculation of AADLL flood levels and allowances with a representative set of long-duration tide gauges along U.S. coastlines. [1] Rootzen et al., 2014, Water Resources Research 49: 5964-5972. [2] Hunter, 2013, Ocean Engineering 71: 17-27. [3] Kopp et al., 2014, Earth's Future 2: 383-406.

  4. The effect of rising sea level on the hydrology of coastal watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuttle, William K.

    1992-06-01

    Rising sea level will increase surface runoff and decrease groundwater discharge from low-lying coastal areas by raising the water table and thus saturating the soil. As a result, there will be increased upland flooding by freshwater and changes in the productive intertidal and near-shore ecosystems that depend on the lowered salinities and nutrients provided by groundwater discharge. This paper compares these effects of future increases in sea level with the present variation in runoff and groundwater discharge caused by interannual variations in precipitation and evaporation. The analysis relies on a water balance model calibrated using data from a small watershed on Cape Cod (USA). Interannual variation of runoff and groundwater discharge is estimated by driving the model with 40 years of historical weather data. The results indicate that a 20 cm rise in sea level will double the mean surface runoff and reduce groundwater discharge by half. These conditions are significantly different than the present mean hydrologic conditions. The variability of surface runoff also increases with rising sea level.

  5. Albedo of coastal landfast sea ice in Prydz Bay, Antarctica: Observations and parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qinghua; Liu, Jiping; Leppäranta, Matti; Sun, Qizhen; Li, Rongbin; Zhang, Lin; Jung, Thomas; Lei, Ruibo; Zhang, Zhanhai; Li, Ming; Zhao, Jiechen; Cheng, Jingjing

    2016-05-01

    The snow/sea-ice albedo was measured over coastal landfast sea ice in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica (off Zhongshan Station) during the austral spring and summer of 2010 and 2011. The variation of the observed albedo was a combination of a gradual seasonal transition from spring to summer and abrupt changes resulting from synoptic events, including snowfall, blowing snow, and overcast skies. The measured albedo ranged from 0.94 over thick fresh snow to 0.36 over melting sea ice. It was found that snow thickness was the most important factor influencing the albedo variation, while synoptic events and overcast skies could increase the albedo by about 0.18 and 0.06, respectively. The in-situ measured albedo and related physical parameters (e.g., snow thickness, ice thickness, surface temperature, and air temperature) were then used to evaluate four different snow/ice albedo parameterizations used in a variety of climate models. The parameterized albedos showed substantial discrepancies compared to the observed albedo, particularly during the summer melt period, even though more complex parameterizations yielded more realistic variations than simple ones. A modified parameterization was developed, which further considered synoptic events, cloud cover, and the local landfast sea-ice surface characteristics. The resulting parameterized albedo showed very good agreement with the observed albedo.

  6. Beyond just sea-level rise: Considering macroclimatic drivers within coastal wetland vulnerability assessments to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Enwright, Nicholas M.; Day, Richard H.; Gabler, Christopher A.; Stagg, Camille L.; Grace, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their position at the land-sea interface, coastal wetlands are vulnerable to many aspects of climate change. However, climate change vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands generally focus solely on sea-level rise without considering the effects of other facets of climate change. Across the globe and in all ecosystems, macroclimatic drivers (e.g., temperature and rainfall regimes) greatly influence ecosystem structure and function. Macroclimatic drivers have been the focus of climate-change related threat evaluations for terrestrial ecosystems, but largely ignored for coastal wetlands. In some coastal wetlands, changing macroclimatic conditions are expected to result in foundation plant species replacement, which would affect the supply of certain ecosystem goods and services and could affect ecosystem resilience. As examples, we highlight several ecological transition zones where small changes in macroclimatic conditions would result in comparatively large changes in coastal wetland ecosystem structure and function. Our intent in this communication is not to minimize the importance of sea-level rise. Rather, our overarching aim is to illustrate the need to also consider macroclimatic drivers within vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands.

  7. Beyond just sea-level rise: considering macroclimatic drivers within coastal wetland vulnerability assessments to climate change.

    PubMed

    Osland, Michael J; Enwright, Nicholas M; Day, Richard H; Gabler, Christopher A; Stagg, Camille L; Grace, James B

    2016-01-01

    Due to their position at the land-sea interface, coastal wetlands are vulnerable to many aspects of climate change. However, climate change vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands generally focus solely on sea-level rise without considering the effects of other facets of climate change. Across the globe and in all ecosystems, macroclimatic drivers (e.g., temperature and rainfall regimes) greatly influence ecosystem structure and function. Macroclimatic drivers have been the focus of climate change-related threat evaluations for terrestrial ecosystems, but largely ignored for coastal wetlands. In some coastal wetlands, changing macroclimatic conditions are expected to result in foundation plant species replacement, which would affect the supply of certain ecosystem goods and services and could affect ecosystem resilience. As examples, we highlight several ecological transition zones where small changes in macroclimatic conditions would result in comparatively large changes in coastal wetland ecosystem structure and function. Our intent in this communication is not to minimize the importance of sea-level rise. Rather, our overarching aim is to illustrate the need to also consider macroclimatic drivers within vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands. PMID:26342186

  8. Beyond just sea-level rise: considering macroclimatic drivers within coastal wetland vulnerability assessments to climate change.

    PubMed

    Osland, Michael J; Enwright, Nicholas M; Day, Richard H; Gabler, Christopher A; Stagg, Camille L; Grace, James B

    2016-01-01

    Due to their position at the land-sea interface, coastal wetlands are vulnerable to many aspects of climate change. However, climate change vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands generally focus solely on sea-level rise without considering the effects of other facets of climate change. Across the globe and in all ecosystems, macroclimatic drivers (e.g., temperature and rainfall regimes) greatly influence ecosystem structure and function. Macroclimatic drivers have been the focus of climate change-related threat evaluations for terrestrial ecosystems, but largely ignored for coastal wetlands. In some coastal wetlands, changing macroclimatic conditions are expected to result in foundation plant species replacement, which would affect the supply of certain ecosystem goods and services and could affect ecosystem resilience. As examples, we highlight several ecological transition zones where small changes in macroclimatic conditions would result in comparatively large changes in coastal wetland ecosystem structure and function. Our intent in this communication is not to minimize the importance of sea-level rise. Rather, our overarching aim is to illustrate the need to also consider macroclimatic drivers within vulnerability assessments for coastal wetlands.

  9. Effects of sea-level rise on ground water flow in a coastal aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterson, J.P.; Garabedian, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of sea-level rise on the depth to the fresh water/salt water interface were simulated by using a density-dependent, three-dimensional numerical ground water flow model for a simplified hypothetical fresh water lens that is similar to shallow, coastal aquifers found along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Simulations of sea-level rise of 2.65 mm/year from 1929 to 2050 resulted in an increase in water levels relative to a fixed datum, yet a net decrease in water levels relative to the increased sea-level position. The net decrease in water levels was much greater near a gaining stream than farther from the stream. The difference in the change in water levels is attributed to the dampening effect of the stream on water level changes in response to sea-level rise. In response to the decreased water level altitudes relative to local sea level, the depth to the fresh water/salt water interface decreased. This reduction in the thickness of the fresh water lens varied throughout the aquifer and was greatly affected by proximity to a ground water fed stream and whether the stream was tidally influenced. Away from the stream, the thickness of the fresh water lens decreased by about 2% from 1929 to 2050, whereas the fresh water lens thickness decreased by about 22% to 31% for the same period near the stream, depending on whether the stream was tidally influenced. The difference in the change in the fresh water/salt water interface position is controlled by the difference in the net decline in water levels relative to local sea level. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  10. Quaternary Sea-Level History from the US Atlantic Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, R. K.; Cronin, T. M.; Katz, M. E.; Browning, J. V.; Miller, K. G.; Willard, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Analyses of emerged Quaternary paleo-shorelines and marine deposits aid in the reconstruction of environmental conditions and variability surrounding recent ice volume and sea-level histories derived from oxygen isotope records. We present preliminary results from a project designed to analyze the age, elevation, and paleoclimate history of Quaternary sediments deposited during sea level highstands along the United States Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) from Maryland to Florida. Prior studies have shown that, depending on the region, ACP sediments correlate with past interglacial periods corresponding to Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5, 7, possibly 9, and 11. Stratigraphy, marine micropaleontology, and palynology indicate at least two major marine transgressive sequences on the Delmarva Peninsula in Virginia corresponding to MIS 5a and 11, the Nassawadox Formation and Accomack beds of the Omar Formation, respectively. These depositional sequences represent sea-level positions of approximately +10m and +15m, relative to today. Despite generally corresponding to glacio-eustatic sea levels of +5-9m for MIS 5a-e (Potter & Lambeck, 2003; Kopp et al., 2009), and of +6-13m for MIS 11 (Raymo & Mitrovica, 2012), the relative sea-level positions during both interglacial periods were likely affected by glacio-isostatic adjustment in the region. Corresponding marine units and paleo-shorelines, identified by pronounced inland scarps separated by intermittent terraces on the western side of the Chesapeake Bay, are likely from MIS 5, 7, and 11. Ostracode and foraminifera assemblages identify significant environmental variability within these transgressive interglacial deposits, likely driven by relatively minor, suborbital climatic and sea-level oscillations.

  11. The effect of sea level rise on coastal plain estuaries, with examples from Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, S.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Estuaries are geologically transitory features whose evolution depends on a delicate balance among relative sea level basin geometry, shoreline erosion, fluvial sediment discharge, littoral drift, and tidal exchange. Models of modern estuarine development require specific sea level scenarios; almost all assume a continuation of the decelerating sea level rise of the last few thousand years. However, under constant external conditions, estuaries are ephemeral because they rapidly fill with fluvial and marine sediment. The rate of filling changes with time, but only a few thousand years are required to fill most estuaries. The persistence of estuaries, therefore, requires that relative sea level rises at a rate sufficient to compensate for the inherent tendency of estuaries to fill with sediment. Coastal plain estuaries, of which Chesapeake Bay is a prime example, are often referred to as drowned river valleys. Although this description is appropriate for the first-order morphology of Chesapeake Bay, the implied passivity can be misleading, especially in the high-tidal-energy area of the bay mouth where dramatic spit progradation and channel migration have occurred in the last few thousand years. Holocene sediment accumulation rates are more irregular along the length of the estuary than most models would predict; but in general, sediment accumulation has been greater at the mouth and at the head of the bay and less along the middle reaches. If relative sea level were to stabilize, the estuary would fill with sediment from both ends within a few thousand years. Evidence for two previous generations of the bay is preserved as the estuarine fill of major fluvial valleys, demonstrating that estuarine episodes have been closely tied to cyclic sea level changes.

  12. A numerical study of the barotropic tides and tidal energy distribution in the Indonesian seas with the assimilated finite volume coastal ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yang; Bao, Xianwen; Yu, Huaming; Kuang, Liang

    2012-04-01

    The tides and tidal energetics in the Indonesian seas are simulated using a three-dimensional finite volume coastal ocean model. The high-resolution coastline-fitted model is configured to better resolve the hydrodynamic processes around the numerous barrier islands. A large model domain is adopted to minimize the uncertainty adjacent to open boundaries. The model results with elevation assimilation based on a simple nudge scheme faithfully reproduced the general features of the barotropic tides in the Indonesian Seas. The mean root-mean-square errors between the observed and simulated tidal constants are 2.3, 1.1, 2.4, and 1.5 cm for M2, S2, K1, and O1, respectively. Analysis of the model solutions indicates that the semidiurnal tides in the Indonesian Seas are primarily dominated by the Indian Ocean, whereas the diurnal tides in this region are mainly influenced by the Pacific Ocean, which is consistent with previous studies. Examinations of tidal energy transport reveal that the tidal energy for both of the simulated tidal constituents are transported from the Indian Ocean into the IS mainly through the Lombok Strait and the Timor Sea, whereas only M2 energy enters the Banda Sea and continues northward. The tidal energy dissipates the most in the passages on both sides of Timor Island, with the maximum M2 and K1 tidal energy transport reaching about 750 and 650 kW m-1, respectively. The total energy losses of the four dominant constituents in the IS are nearly 338 GW, with the M2 constituent dissipating 240.8 GW. It is also shown that the bottom dissipation rate for the M2 tide is about 1-2 order of magnitudes larger than that of the other three tidal components in the Indonesian seas.

  13. The Possible Physical Barrier and Coastal Dispersal Strategy for Japanese Grenadier Anchovy, Coilia nasus in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea: Evidence from AFLP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Gang; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Gao, Tian-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the Ariake Sea population of Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus, and assess the contemporary possible genetic barrier between the west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to detect the genetic structure of C. nasus, in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. Eighty-one individuals of C. nasus were collected from five locations and 12 individuals of Coilia mystus were sampled from the Yangtze River Estuary. A total of 371 loci were detected by five primer combinations, 310 of which were polymorphic (83.56%). Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) and pairwise fixation index (FST) revealed significant genetic differentiation among five samples, indicating limited gene flow among populations. The dendrogram for populations by neighbor-joining (NJ) cluster analysis provided evidence of a clear relationship between genetic and geographic patterns, supporting significant genetic differentiation between China coastal populations and Ariake Sea populations. Compared to the genetic divergence between C. nasus and C. mystus, the level of genetic differentiation between China and the Ariake Sea populations of C. nasus is obvious below the species level, indicating isolated populations of C. nasus in the Ariake Sea. Isolation by distance analysis revealed that direct ocean distance with deep-water at the continental slope and high salinity between west and east coastal waters of the East China Sea served as major physical barrier to C. nasus, supporting the coastal dispersal pattern in this estuarine species, and rejecting offshore dispersal strategy. PMID:25654225

  14. Diagenesis in coastal carbonates related to Pleistocene sea level, Bermuda Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Vollbrecht, R.; Meischner, D.

    1996-01-01

    Pleistocene glacioeustatic sea-level oscillation on the stable Bermuda Platform is expressed in a succession of shallow-water carbonates interrupted by lowstand unconformities. In Bermuda, the maximum highstands of the last 400,000 yr ranged within 10 m around the present level. Coastal carbonates of various highstands are exposed along the present shoreline. These carbonates were penetrated by meteoric and marine pore waters during lowstands and highstands following on deposition. Two representative Pleistocene shoreline sections were studied to see whether early diagenesis has recorded these pore-water changes. The sediments of both sections show multiple generations of cement. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microprobe studies and stable-isotope analyses were used to determine the diagenetic environments involved. Regardless of the degree of substrate cementation, freshwater alteration was mainly vadose whereas marine cementation was either phreatic or vadose or both. Early diagenetic oscillation is easier recorded in coastal successions than in lagoonal sediments, mainly because marine cementation is more active nearshore.Because the coastal environment is prone to wave destruction, the potential for preserving these diagenetic features is usually low. Data published on tectonically unstable areas suggest that early diagenetic oscillation may characterize stable coastlines.

  15. Variability in the coupling between sea surface temperature and wind stress in the global coastal ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuntao; Castelao, Renato M.

    2016-08-01

    Mesoscale ocean-atmosphere interaction between sea surface temperature (SST) and wind stress throughout the global coastal ocean was investigated using 7 years of satellite observations. Coupling coefficients between crosswind SST gradients and wind stress curl and between downwind SST gradients and wind stress divergence were used to quantify spatial and temporal variability in the strength of the interaction. The use of a consistent data set and standardized methods allow for direct comparisons between coupling coefficients in the different coastal regions. The analysis reveals that strong coupling is observed in many mid-latitude regions throughout the world, especially in regions with strong fronts like Eastern and Western Boundary Currents. Most upwelling regions in Eastern Boundary Currents are characterized by strong seasonal variability in the strength of the coupling, which generally peaks during summer in mid latitudes and during winter at low latitudes. Seasonal variability in coastal regions along Western Boundary Currents is comparatively smaller. Intraseasonal variability is especially important in regions of strong eddy activity (e.g., Western Boundary Currents), being particularly relevant for the coupling between crosswind SST gradients and wind stress curl. Results from the analysis can be used to guide modeling studies, since it allows for the a priori identification of regions in which regional models need to properly represent the ocean-atmosphere interaction to accurately represent local variability.

  16. Neotectonics, sea level change, and Quaternary natural gas occurrence in coastal Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.T.; Belknap, D.F.; Shipp, C.R.

    1985-02-01

    The glaciated, passive continental margin of northern New England is not a likely location for either tectonic activity or hydrocarbon accumulation, but neotectonic action has played a role in creating favorable stratigraphic traps for natural gas in the Quaternary inner-shelf and estuarine deposits of Maine. During late glacial time (13,000 year B.P.), a marine inundation accompanied ice retreat across the isostatically depressed lowlands of coastal Maine and blanketed the area with marine sediment (Presumpscot Formation) up to 50 m thick. Unloading of the ice led to rapid coastal rebound within a few thousand years, and the former sea floor became emergent to present depths of -65 m. A gullied and weathered lag surface on the muddy Presumpscot Formation marks the regression that followed deposition. Since about 8000 years B.P., sea level has risen in Maine, and within historic times it has been accompanied by seismicity and subsidence rates up to 9 mm/yr. Examinations of over 1500 km of seismic reflection profiles and limited coring reveal the presence of abundant natural gas in Holocene sediments filling ravines cut into the Presumpscot Formation during emergence. It appears that the gas is derived from and trapped by mud deposited in estuarine depocenters that migrated landward during the Holocene transgression.

  17. High density of ice krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) in the Amundsen sea coastal polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La, Hyoung Sul; Lee, Hyungbeen; Fielding, Sophie; Kang, Donhyug; Ha, Ho Kyung; Atkinson, Angus; Park, Jisoo; Siegel, Volker; Lee, SangHoon; Shin, Hyoung Chul

    2015-01-01

    High densities of ice krill Euphausia crystallorophias were observed along six acoustic transects within the Amundsen Sea Coastal Polynya, Antarctica. Two-frequency acoustic backscatter data was examined in the austral summers of January 2011 and February 2012. A dB identification window (Sv120-38) identified ice krill dominating the acoustic backscatter. The density of ice krill, calculated with the stochastic distorted-wave born approximation model, ranged between 4.5 and 30 g wet mass m-2 for each transect (a mean of 16 g wet mass m-2 for all transects), these high values are an order of magnitude higher than recorded previously in the Ross Sea Polynya. High densities were detected along the ice shelf and near the boundary between pack ice and coastal polynya, and we postulate that these could be important habitats for ice krill. The high densities observed along the transects make ice krill a potentially important, but poorly known contributor to these high-latitude shelf food webs.

  18. The Temporal Dynamics of Coastal Phytoplankton and Bacterioplankton in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Raveh, Ofrat; David, Niv; Rilov, Gil; Rahav, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    This study considers variability in phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterial abundances and production rates, in one of the most oligotrophic marine regions in the world–the Levantine Basin. The temporal dynamics of these planktonic groups were studied in the coastal waters of the southeastern Mediterranean Sea approximately every two weeks for a total of two years. Heterotrophic bacteria were abundant mostly during late summer and midwinter, and were positively correlated with bacterial production and with N2 fixation. Based on size fractionating, picophytoplankton was abundant during the summer, whereas nano-microphytoplankton predominated during the winter and early spring, which were also evident in the size-fractionated primary production rates. Autotrophic abundance and production correlated negatively with temperature, but did not correlate with inorganic nutrients. Furthermore, a comparison of our results with results from the open Levantine Basin demonstrates that autotrophic and heterotrophic production, as well as N2 fixation rates, are considerably higher in the coastal habitat than in the open sea, while nutrient levels or cell abundance are not different. These findings have important ecological implications for food web dynamics and for biological carbon sequestration in this understudied region. PMID:26474399

  19. Wet scavenging of sea-salts and acid compounds in a rainy, coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skartveit, Arvid

    Sea-derived ions predominate in precipitation in the coastal districts of western Norway. Sea-derived sulphate, chloride, sodium, magnesium and calcium are found in proportions insignificantly different from those in seawater, while potassium appears to be some 20% enriched. The observed pH may be explained by hypothesizing that the net acidity or alkalinity of the precipitation equals the difference between acidity of acidic gas products (H 2SO 4, HNO 3) and alkalinity from basic gas (NH) and from alkaline soil dust (potassium, calcium and magnesium carbonate). The wet deposition of seasalts is more variable than the wet deposition of non-seaspray (excess) compounds, both in space and time. The decline in washout ratio with increasing precipitation amount appears to be more rapid for chloride and nitrate, whose precursors are predominantly captured by existing hydrometeors, than for excess sulphate, which is predominantly scavenged via the cloud condensation nuclei pathway. The ratio [excSO 42-] /[NO 3-] increases with increasing travel time and photochemical activity. Intensified large-scale dispersion, enhanced wet scavenging, and slower chemical transformations combine to outweigh the increased anthropogenic emissions of sulphur and nitrogen compounds in Europe during winter. The production rate of seaspray aerosols doubles with each 2ms -1 increase of surface (10m) wind speed in the coastal surf zone.

  20. Coastal dynamics and submarine permafrost in shallow water of the central Laptev Sea, East Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overduin, Pier Paul; Wetterich, Sebastian; Günther, Frank; Grigoriev, Mikhail N.; Grosse, Guido; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Hubberten, Hans-Wolfgang; Makarov, Aleksandr

    2016-07-01

    Coastal erosion and flooding transform terrestrial landscapes into marine environments. In the Arctic, these processes inundate terrestrial permafrost with seawater and create submarine permafrost. Permafrost begins to warm under marine conditions, which can destabilize the sea floor and may release greenhouse gases. We report on the transition of terrestrial to submarine permafrost at a site where the timing of inundation can be inferred from the rate of coastline retreat. On Muostakh Island in the central Laptev Sea, East Siberia, changes in annual coastline position have been measured for decades and vary highly spatially. We hypothesize that these rates are inversely related to the inclination of the upper surface of submarine ice-bonded permafrost (IBP) based on the consequent duration of inundation with increasing distance from the shoreline. We compared rapidly eroding and stable coastal sections of Muostakh Island and find permafrost-table inclinations, determined using direct current resistivity, of 1 and 5 %, respectively. Determinations of submarine IBP depth from a drilling transect in the early 1980s were compared to resistivity profiles from 2011. Based on borehole observations, the thickness of unfrozen sediment overlying the IBP increased from 0 to 14 m below sea level with increasing distance from the shoreline. The geoelectrical profiles showed thickening of the unfrozen sediment overlying ice-bonded permafrost over the 28 years since drilling took place. We use geoelectrical estimates of IBP depth to estimate permafrost degradation rates since inundation. Degradation rates decreased from over 0.4 m a-1 following inundation to around 0.1 m a-1 at the latest after 60 to 110 years and remained constant at this level as the duration of inundation increased to 250 years. We suggest that long-term rates are lower than these values, as the depth to the IBP increases and thermal and porewater solute concentration gradients over depth decrease. For the

  1. Ecological niche modeling of coastal dune plants and future potential distribution in response to climate change and sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-González, Gabriela; Martínez, M Luisa; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R; Vázquez, Gabriela; Gallego-Fernández, Juan B

    2013-08-01

    Climate change (CC) and sea level rise (SLR) are phenomena that could have severe impacts on the distribution of coastal dune vegetation. To explore this we modeled the climatic niches of six coastal dunes plant species that grow along the shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula, and projected climatic niches to future potential distributions based on two CC scenarios and SLR projections. Our analyses suggest that distribution of coastal plants will be severely limited, and more so in the case of local endemics (Chamaecrista chamaecristoides, Palafoxia lindenii, Cakile edentula). The possibilities of inland migration to the potential 'new shoreline' will be limited by human infrastructure and ecosystem alteration that will lead to a 'coastal squeeze' of the coastal habitats. Finally, we identified areas as future potential refuges for the six species in central Gulf of Mexico, and northern Yucatán Peninsula especially under CC and SLR scenarios. PMID:23625760

  2. Ecological niche modeling of coastal dune plants and future potential distribution in response to climate change and sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-González, Gabriela; Martínez, M Luisa; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R; Vázquez, Gabriela; Gallego-Fernández, Juan B

    2013-08-01

    Climate change (CC) and sea level rise (SLR) are phenomena that could have severe impacts on the distribution of coastal dune vegetation. To explore this we modeled the climatic niches of six coastal dunes plant species that grow along the shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula, and projected climatic niches to future potential distributions based on two CC scenarios and SLR projections. Our analyses suggest that distribution of coastal plants will be severely limited, and more so in the case of local endemics (Chamaecrista chamaecristoides, Palafoxia lindenii, Cakile edentula). The possibilities of inland migration to the potential 'new shoreline' will be limited by human infrastructure and ecosystem alteration that will lead to a 'coastal squeeze' of the coastal habitats. Finally, we identified areas as future potential refuges for the six species in central Gulf of Mexico, and northern Yucatán Peninsula especially under CC and SLR scenarios.

  3. Extreme sea-levels, coastal risks and climate changes: lost in translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, Eduardo; Castro Carneiro, Juliane; Cintra, Márcio; Ribeiro, Andréa; Cardoso, Denis; Stellfeld, Carol

    2014-05-01

    Occurring commonly in Brazilian coastal (and continental) areas, floods are probably the most devastating natural hazards our local society faces nowadays. With the expected sea-level rise and tropical storms becoming stronger and more frequents, the scenarios of local impacts of sea-level rise and storm surges; causing loss of lives, environmental damages and socio-economic stress; need to be addressed and properly communicated. We present results related to the sea-level setups accordingly to IPCC's scenarios and the expected coastal floods in the Paraná State, Southern Brazil. The outcomes are displayed in scientific language accompanied by "translations" with the objective of showing the need of a different language approach to communicate with the players affected by coastal hazards. To create the "translation" of the "scientific" text we used the Up-Goer Five Text Editor, which allows writing texts using only the ten hundred most used English words. We allowed ourselves to use a maximum of five other words per box not present at this dictionary, not considering geographical names or units in the count, provided there were simple. That was necessary because words as sea, beach, sand, storm, etc., are not among the one thousand present at the Up-Goer, and they are simple enough anyhow. On the other hand, the not scientific public we targeted speaks Portuguese, not English, and we do not have an Up-Goer tool for that language. Anyhow, each Box was also produced in Portuguese, as much simple as possible, to disseminate our results to the local community. To illustrate the need of "translation", it is worthy to mention a real case of a troublesome misunderstanding caused by us, scientists, in our coastal society. Some years ago, one of our colleagues at the university, a much-respected scientist, informed through a press release that, on a given day, "we will experience the highest astronomical tide of the century". That statement (scientifically true and

  4. Method of estimation of sea-shelf water exchange using information on differential coastal cooling above underwater slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarenko, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Physics of formation of differential coastal cooling in areas with sloping bottom, as well as the associated water dynamics, is already quite well investigated. This allows for using this knowledge for quantitative estimation of deep sea - coastal area (cross-shore) water-exchange. It is especially effective during periods of seasonal autumnal cooling, when vertical gravitational convection reaches bottom in shallower coastal areas. Then, the water temperature in sloping area (the picture of differential coastal cooling) is formed by combined effect of the heat exchange with the cooler atmosphere and horizontal heat transport due to water-exchange with the warmer sea. If the heat loss to the atmosphere in the open area and in coastal region can be taken approximately the same, then time rate of decrease of water temperature in deep-sea surface layer provides its measure, which can be applied also in sloping area. Thus, the heat transport by horizontal (cross-shore) exchange can be estimated. Theoretical considerations were checked using the results of original laboratory experiments, 3D numerical modeling in basins with sloping bottom, comparison with field measurement and satellite data for the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. Analytical expressions for cross-shore temperature variations during periods of the developed vertical convection were obtained for several flow regimes (e.g., no exchange with the sea, quasi-steady-state exchange due to the cross-shore density gradients). Series of laboratory experiments have demonstrated the particular features of the coast-sea temperature profiles in different flow regimes (see poster EGU2013-502). Three-dimensional non-hydrostatic hydrodynamic model MIKE3-FlowModel (DHI Water & Environment) was applied to reproduce both the laboratory experiments and the results of field measurements in the Gdansk bay of the Baltic Sea (74 cruise of r/v 'Prof. Stockman', October, 2005). Data of spectroradiometers MODIS Aqua for October

  5. Role of Sea Surface Warming in Triggering Amplification of Coastal Rainfall Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Edmund; Semenov, Vladimir; Maraun, Douglas; Park, Wonsun; Chernokulsky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    regional tipping point. The identified physical mechanism suggests that BSM coastal regions (as well as other comparable regions) may face abrupt intensifications of convective precipitation under continued sea surface warming.

  6. Assessment of marine debris in beaches or seawaters around the China Seas and coastal provinces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Zhengwen; Yang, Tiantian; Shi, Linna; Wang, Linlin; You, Suwen; Li, Min; Zhang, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    Compared with United States of America (USA), Brazil, Chile, Australia, limited attention has been paid to marine debris research in China and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this study, firstly the general status and sources of marine debris in China were assessed in the time period between 2007 and 2014, and secondly marine debris situation was evaluated in three China Sea Areas (the North China Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) from 2009 to 2013, and finally marine debris conditions and sources were analyzed in beaches or seawaters around some coastal provinces of China during 2007-2013. Based on above analysis, the primary conclusions were as follows: (1) The mean number and weight densities of beached marine debris (BMD) and submerged marine debris (SMD) were 4.30, 0.13items/100m(2) and 133.80, 22.60g/100m(2) in China from 2007 to 2014, respectively. The average number density of the large size FMD (LOSFMD) was 0.0024items/100m(2) and that of the small and medium size FMD (SMSFMD) was 0.30items/100m(2), and the mean weight density of the SMSFMD was 1.40g/100m(2) from 2008 to 2014. The SMD and FMD densities were at the low level and the BMD density was at the high level in China. (2) The marine debris primarily was comprised of plastic, Styrofoam, wood, glass, rubber, fabric/fiber and metal, which included almost all major categories of marine debris. (3) Sources of BMD and FMD were as follows: the first source was coastal/recreational activities, followed by other disposal sources, navigation/fishing activities and the activities related smoking, and the least source being those associated with medical/sanitary activities, while the source of SMD remained unknown. (4) The mean number and weight densities of BMD were the biggest in the North China Sea, while those of FMD and SMD were the highest in the northern South China Sea. The results of this study were beneficial to the establishment of

  7. Large spatial variations in coastal 14C reservoir age - a case study from the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougheed, B. C.; Filipsson, H. L.; Snowball, I.

    2013-05-01

    Coastal locations are highly influenced by input from freshwater river runoff, including sources of terrestrial carbon, which can be expected to modify the 14C reservoir age, or R (t), associated with marine water. In this Baltic Sea case study, pre-bomb museum collection mollusc shells of known calendar age, from 30 locations across a strategic salinity transect of the Baltic Sea, were analysed for 14C, δ13C and δ18O. R (t) was calculated for all 30 locations. Seven locations, of which six are within close proximity of the coast, were found to have relatively higher R (t) values, indicative of hard-water effects. Whenever possible, the Macoma genus of mollusc was selected from the museum collections, in order to exclude species specific reservoir age effects as much as possible. When the Macoma samples are exclusively considered, and samples from hard-water locations excluded, a statistically significant correlation between Macoma R (t) and average salinity is found, indicating a two end-member linear mixing model between 14Cmarine and 14Crunoff. A map of Baltic Sea Macoma aragonite R (t) for the late 19th and early 20th centuries is produced. Such a map can provide an estimate for contemporary Baltic Sea Macoma R (t), although one must exercise caution when applying such estimates back in time or to 14C dates obtained from different sample material. A statistically significant correlation is found between δ18Oaragonite and Macoma R (t), suggesting that δ18Oaragonite can be used to estimate Macoma palaeo-R (t), due to the δ18Oaragonite signal being dominated by the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. A slightly increased correlation can be expected when δ18Oaragonite is corrected for temperature fractionation effects. The results of this Baltic Sea case study, which show that R (t) is affected by hydrographic conditions and local carbon inputs, have important consequences for other coastal and estuarine locations, where R (t) is also likely to significantly

  8. Assessment of marine debris in beaches or seawaters around the China Seas and coastal provinces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Zhengwen; Yang, Tiantian; Shi, Linna; Wang, Linlin; You, Suwen; Li, Min; Zhang, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    Compared with United States of America (USA), Brazil, Chile, Australia, limited attention has been paid to marine debris research in China and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this study, firstly the general status and sources of marine debris in China were assessed in the time period between 2007 and 2014, and secondly marine debris situation was evaluated in three China Sea Areas (the North China Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) from 2009 to 2013, and finally marine debris conditions and sources were analyzed in beaches or seawaters around some coastal provinces of China during 2007-2013. Based on above analysis, the primary conclusions were as follows: (1) The mean number and weight densities of beached marine debris (BMD) and submerged marine debris (SMD) were 4.30, 0.13items/100m(2) and 133.80, 22.60g/100m(2) in China from 2007 to 2014, respectively. The average number density of the large size FMD (LOSFMD) was 0.0024items/100m(2) and that of the small and medium size FMD (SMSFMD) was 0.30items/100m(2), and the mean weight density of the SMSFMD was 1.40g/100m(2) from 2008 to 2014. The SMD and FMD densities were at the low level and the BMD density was at the high level in China. (2) The marine debris primarily was comprised of plastic, Styrofoam, wood, glass, rubber, fabric/fiber and metal, which included almost all major categories of marine debris. (3) Sources of BMD and FMD were as follows: the first source was coastal/recreational activities, followed by other disposal sources, navigation/fishing activities and the activities related smoking, and the least source being those associated with medical/sanitary activities, while the source of SMD remained unknown. (4) The mean number and weight densities of BMD were the biggest in the North China Sea, while those of FMD and SMD were the highest in the northern South China Sea. The results of this study were beneficial to the establishment of

  9. Understanding salt dynamics for a restored coastal wetland at the Baltic Sea in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selle, Benny; Gräff, Thomas; Salzmann, Thomas; Oswald, Sascha; Walther, Marc; Miegel, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    Coastal fens like the nature reserve „Hütelmoor und Heiligensee"(north-eastern Germany) are important landscape elements along the southern Baltic coast, which exchange fresh water and brackish water with the Baltic Sea. These exchange processes can be understood as experiments with a natural tracer, which may be used to investigate the hydrologic behaviour of these fen systems. With the establishment of coastal protection measures such as dunes and dikes, the installation of surface drainage and, more recently, also nature conservation measures, the hydrologic regime of these coastal wetlands constantly altered over the last centuries. The rehabilitated wetland „Hütelmoor und Heiligensee" is suitable for an analysis of hydrologic change as it was monitored over the time period since nature conservation measures started in the 1990s. Collected data sets include observation of groundwater levels and electrical conductivities, weather data as well as discharge at the outlet of the drainage catchment. In this study, we identifed processes and quantify process magnitudes that govern the salt balance of the study area including its variability in space and time. We found that - over the period of rehabilitation - salt water entered the catchment with episodic storm surges by wave overtopping of dunes. The intruded brackish water was then diluted, which is a slow process occurring over decades. It is governed by local groundwater recharge from precipitation and the inflow of relatively fresh groundwater from the hinterland. It is concluded that salt inputs from the Baltic Sea provide a natural tracer of hydrological processes, which can be readily monitored via electrical conductivity measurements.

  10. The Black Sea coastal zone in the high resolution satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurovskaya, Maria; Dulov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Landsat data with spatial resolution of 30-100 m provide the ability of regular monitoring of ocean phenomena with scale of 100-1000 m. Sentinel-1 is equipped with C-band synthetic aperture radar. The images allow recognizing the features that affect either the sea surface roughness, or its color characteristics. The possibilities of using the high spatial resolution satellite data are considered for observation and monitoring of Crimean coastal zone. The analyzed database includes all Landsat-8 (Level 1) multi-channel images from January 2013 to August 2015 and all Sentinel-1 radar images in May-August 2015. The goal of the study is to characterize the descriptiveness of these data for research and monitoring of the Crimean coastal areas. The observed marine effects are reviewed and the physical mechanisms of their signatures in the satellite images are described. The effects associated with the roughness variability are usually manifested in all bands, while the subsurface phenomena are visible only in optical data. Confidently observed structures include internal wave trains, filamentous natural slicks, which reflect the eddy coastal dynamics, traces of moving ships and the oil films referred to anthropogenic pollution of marine environment. The temperature fronts in calm conditions occur due to surfactant accumulation in convergence zone. The features in roughness field can also be manifested in Sentinel-1 data. Subsurface processes observed in Landsat-8 images primarily include transport and distribution of suspended matter as a result of floods and sandy beach erosion. The surfactant always concentrates on the sea surface in contaminated areas, so that these events are also observed in Sentinel-1 images. A search of wastewater discharge manifestations is performed. The investigation provides the basis for further development of approaches to obtain quantitative characteristics of the phenomena themselves. Funding by Russian Science Foundation under grant 15

  11. Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

    2014-05-01

    The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the 150,000 local residents of the Gio Linh district and the city of Dong Ha. The coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The area has a tropical monsoon climate which is characterized by an average precipitation of 1500 to 2700 mm in nearly 180 days from August to April. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. These geological formations have a highly heterogeneous lithology. A 3D groundwater model is built to study possible seawater intrusion under the changing conditions. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and some data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Geophysical measurements have been carried out recently and in the past and are used to support the model.

  12. Impact of climate change and sea level rise on a coastal aquifer, Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyen, Ine; Batelaan, Okke; Thanh Tam, Vu

    2013-04-01

    The Gio Linh district in the Quang Tri province, Central Vietnam has, like many other coastal areas in the world, to deal with negative impacts of Global Climate Change (GCC) and sea level rise (SLR). This research aims at investigating the impact of GCC/SLR and designing an adaptive water use plan till the year 2030 for the local residents of the Gio Linh district. This coastal plain covers an area of about 450 km2 and is situated between the rivers Ben Hai in the North and Thach Han in the South. The elevation varies from 0.5 m at the seaside in the East to 19.5 m further inland. During the rainy season from August to April the precipitation is on average 2000 to 2700 mm. GCC/SLR scenarios are built and assessed for estimating the changes in hydrometeorological conditions of the study area. Depending on the level of gas emission the sea level is expected to rise 7-9 cm by 2020 and around 11-14 cm by 2030 for low to high gas emission respectively. The salt-freshwater interface is expected to experience an inland shift due to SLR, affecting the amount of exploitable groundwater for drinking and irrigation water production. Drinking water production mainly comes from shallow aquifers in unconsolidated Quarternary coastal formations. A SEAWAT groundwater model will be built to study the effects on the groundwater system. Data from meteorological stations over a period of about 30 years and data from 63 boreholes in and around the Gio Linh district are available. Historical production records of an operational groundwater production well-field are available to be used for validation of the model. Finally, to achieve a sustainable integrated water resources management in the Gio Linh district different adaptive scenarios will be developed.

  13. Stock origins of Dolly Varden collected from Beaufort Sea coastal sites of Arctic Alaska and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krueger, C.C.; Wilmot, R.L.; Everett, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Anadromous northern Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma support a summer subsistence fishery in Beaufort Sea coastal waters. These same waters coincide with areas of oil and gas exploration and development. The purpose of this study was to assess variation in stock origins of Dolly Varden collected from sites along 400 km of Beaufort Sea coast. Mixed-stock analyses (MSA) of allozyme data were used to compare collections from four sites (Endicolt near Prudhoe Bay, Mikkelsen Bay, and Kaktovik in Alaska and Phillips Bay in Canada) and to assess variation in stock contributions among summer months and between 1987 and 1988. The MSA estimates for individual stocks were summed into estimates for three stock groups: western stocks from the area near Sagavarnirktok River and Prudhoe Bay (SAG), Arctic National Wildlife Refuge stocks (Arctic Refuge), and Canadian stocks. The MSA of Endicott samples taken in 1987 and 1988 did not differ among months in terms of contributions from local SAG stocks (range, 71-95%). Contributions from nonlocal (>100 km distant) Canadian and Arctic Refuge stocks were not different from zero in 1987, but contributions from Canadian stocks were so in July (17%) and August (20%) but not in September of 1988. Thus, stock contributions to Endicott collections were different between 1987 and 1988. Samples from the Kaktovik area in 1988 were different between months in terms of contributions from nonlocal SAG stocks (July, 7%; August, 27%). Significant contributions to these samples were made both months by Canadian (25% and 17%) and local Arctic Refuge stocks (68% and 56%). Among the four coastal sites, local stocks typically contributed most to collections; however, every site had collections that contained significant contributions from nonlocal stocks. The MSA estimates clearly revealed the movement of Dolly Varden between U.S. and Canada coastal waters. If local stocks are affected by oil and gas development activities, distant subsistence fisheries

  14. Coastal vulnerability and the implications of sea level rise between the cities of Pescara and Ortona (Adriatic Sea - Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarragoni, C.; Bellotti, P.; Caputo, C.; Davoli, L.; Evangelista, S.; Pugliese, F.; Raffi, R.; Lupia Palmieri, E.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphic processes induce rapid environmental changes especially along the coast that is highly susceptible to them. In addiction, the effects of storm or wave may be amplified by the expected relative sea level rise. In a context, like Italian coast, where the almost part of coast is densely populated and many infrastructures are presents, it is very important to have adequate tools to urban planning like the coastal vulnerability map. In this study the preliminary results of the ongoing SECOA project (Solution for Environmental contrasts in COastal Areas; 7th Framework Program) are presented, with reference to the Adriatic coast between Pescara and Ortona cities, in the Abruzzo region. In this work the same analytical model applied in the Venice Lagoon has been employed (Fontolan, 2001; 2005) involving the evaluation of the effective vulnerability (Ve). Ve is calculated as the difference between the potential vulnerability (Vp) and the defence elements present along the coast (D). (Ve = Vp - D) The data used to measure quantitative features are: high-resolution DEM (LiDAR), satellite images, aero photos, bathymetric profiles and topographic maps. The variables that contribute to the evaluation are: beach amplitude, berm height, seafloor gradient, seafloor evolution, recent and historical shorelines evolution for Vp; height, slope, vegetation cover, presence of passages, incipient dunes and windbreak barriers for the dune and anthropic barriers height. In this context, the potential vulnerability results from the sum of each variable (Vn) per the relative efficacy coefficient (Kn): Vp = V1K1+V2K2+ …VnKn In the same way the defences result from the sum of each kind of defence per the relative efficacy coefficient: D = D1K1+ …. DnKn The coastal area between Pescara and Ortona cities has been segmented in different sectors characterized by homogeneous values of the considered variables and for each of these the Ve values have been calculated and referred to one

  15. Nutrient dynamics in tropical rivers, lagoons, and coastal ecosystems of eastern Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R. H.; Liu, S. M.; Li, Y. W.; Zhang, G. L.; Ren, J. L.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient dynamics based on field observations made along the eastern Hainan Island during the period 2006-2009 were investigated to understand nutrient biogeochemical processes, and to provide an overview of human perturbations of coastal ecosystems in this tropical region. The rivers showed seasonal variations in nutrient concentrations, with enrichment of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and dissolved silicate, and depletion of PO43-. High riverine concentrations of nitrate mainly originated from agricultural fertilizer inputs. The DIN : PO43- ratios ranged from 37 to 1063, suggesting preferential depletion of PO43- relative to nitrogen in rivers. Chemical weathering in the drainage area might explain the high levels of dissolved silicate. Aquaculture ponds contained high concentrations of NH4+ and dissolved organic nitrogen. The particulate phosphorus concentrations in the study area were lower than those reported for estuaries worldwide. The particulate silicate levels in rivers and lagoons were lower than the global average level. Nutrient biogeochemistry in coastal areas was affected by human activities (e.g., aquaculture, agriculture), and by natural phenomena including typhoons. The nutrient concentrations in coastal waters were low because of dispersion of land-derived nutrients in the sea. Nutrient budgets were built based on a steady-state box model, which showed that riverine fluxes are magnified by estuarine processes (e.g., regeneration, desorption) in estuaries and Laoyehai Lagoon, but not in Xiaohai Lagoon. Riverine and groundwater inputs were the major sources of nutrients to Xiaohai and Laoyehai lagoons, respectively, and riverine inputs and aquaculture effluents were the major sources for the eastern coast of Hainan Island. Nutrient inputs to the coastal ecosystem increased with typhoon-induced runoff of rainwater, elucidating the important influence of typhoons on small tropical rivers.

  16. Development 3D model of adaptation of the Azerbaijan coastal zone at the various levels of Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammadov, Ramiz

    2013-04-01

    The most characteristic feature of the Caspian Sea which difference it on relation other seas is its periodical fluctuating in its level. In many coastal regions of the world the problem of influence of change of a sea level on activities of the human is a problem of the long-term future, but in region of Caspian Sea, especially in its Azerbaijan sector, it is already actual. Also experience accumulated here, can be use at the decision of problems of optimization of wildlife management in conditions of significant change of a sea level as model of potential consequences of warming of a climate. Changeableness of the level of the Caspian sea over many years can be observed better on the basis of natural observations, a systematic basis of which has been put by the academician E. Lents in 1830 year in Baku coastal line. According these data in 1882 the average level has reached its level -25.2 m. the highest point over the observations, i.e. by 1.8 m. higher than today's level. The average level over 1830-1930 was about -25.83 m. In 1960 some stabilization in the level, about 28,4 meters, in 1970 was a sharp drop, in 1977 - sharp drop reached -29.00 rn. The drop over the whole period of observations totaled 3.8 m within diapason -25.2 -29.0 m. In 1978 the level of the sea began to increase and in 1995 its average yearly mark reach -26,62 rn. Intensiveness of the rise of the level ever that period totaled in average about 14 cm per year. As a result of this rise of a sea level about 800 km2 of a coastal zone it has been flooded, the ecological situation has worsened, and there were ecological refugees. The damage to a coastal zone of Azerbaijan was 2 billion USA dollars. Caspian sea also has within-year (seasonal) variability equal 32 sm and sleeve and pileup change of level. Its estimate in Azerbaijan coastal zone is 0.8-1.0 m. In the coastal zone also necessary take into height of the wave which in these coasts can be 3.0 m height. All these means that in the

  17. Integrating river basin management and the coastal zone: the (blue) Danube and the (black) sea.

    PubMed

    Maksimović, C; Makropoulos, C K

    2002-01-01

    In order to effectively manage the wide variety of physical, chemical biological and ecological processes in a sensitive coastal environment such as the Black Sea, current environmental management objectives are no longer sufficient: a new management approach has to address the intimate functional linkage between the river basin and the costal environment. Current water quality legislation requires compliance to emission levels based on the chemical analysis of water samples taken at discharge points, such as treatment plants discharging into rivers. While such measures provide a relative indication of the water quality at the point of discharge, they fail to describe accurately and sufficiently the quality of the water received from the watershed or basin. As water flows through the catchment, rainfall run-off from urban and agricultural areas carries sediments, pesticides, and other chemicals into river systems, which lead to coastal waters. The impact of the Kosovo crisis on the Danube ecosystems provides a poignant example of the effects of such diffused pollution mechanisms and reveals a number of interesting pollution mechanisms. This paper discusses both the effects of diffused pollution on the Black Sea, drawing from state-of-the-art reports on the Danube, and proposes a framework for a decision support system based on distributed hydrological and pollution transport simulation models and GIS. The use of ecological health indicators and fuzzy inference supporting decisions on regional planning within this framework is also advocated. It is also argued that even the recently produced GEF document on Black Sea protection scenarios should benefit significantly if the concept of pollution reduction from both urban, industrial and rural areas should undergo a systematic conceptual update in the view of the recent recommendations of the UNEP IETC (2000) document.

  18. Mercury in precipitation over the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea, Poland.

    PubMed

    Siudek, Patrycja; Falkowska, Lucyna; Brodecka, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2015-02-01

    An investigation of atmospheric mercury was conducted in the urban coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea, Poland) in 2008. Rainwater samples were collected in bulk samplers and Hg concentration was determined using AAS method. Total mercury concentration ranged from 1.9 to 14.8 ng l(-1) (the mean was 8.3 ng l(-1) with standard deviation ±3.7), out of which about 34 % were water-soluble Hg(II) forms. Distribution of Hg species in rainwater was related to both the emission source and the atmospheric processes. During the sampling period, two maxima of Hg concentration in precipitation were observed: the first in the cold season and the second one in the warm season. Elevated concentrations of Hg in wintertime precipitation were generally the result of local urban atmospheric emission connected with the following anthropogenic sources: intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces, individual power/heat generating plants, and motor vehicles. During summertime, Hg° re-emitted from contaminated land and sea surfaces was photochemically oxidized by active atmospheric substances (e.g., hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, halogens) and could be an additional source of atmospherically deposited Hg. The results presented in this work indicate that rainwater Hg concentration and deposition values are not much higher in comparison with other urban locations along the Baltic Sea basin and other coastal cities. However, the elevated mercury concentration in rainwater and, consequently, higher deposition ratio could appear occasionally as an effect of intensive anthropogenic emissions (domestic heating) and/or photochemical reactions.

  19. Dinoflagellate bloom in tropical fish ponds of coastal waters of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Shamsudin, L; Awang, A; Ambak, A; Ibrahim, S

    1996-05-01

    Red tide of dinoflagellate was observed in brackish water fish ponds of Terengganu along the coast of the South China Sea during the study period between January 1992 to December 1992. The nearby coastal moat water facing the South China Sea is the source of water for fish pond culture activities of sea bass during the study period. An examination of water quality in fish ponds during the study period indicated that both the organic nutrients were high during the pre-wet monsoon period. The source of the nutrients in coastal water was believed to be derived from the agro-based industrial effluents, fertilizers from paddy fields and untreated animal wastes. This coincided with the peak production of dinoflagellate in the water column in October 1992. The cell count ranges from 8.3 to 60.4×10.4×10(4)/l during the bloom peak period and the bloom species were compared entirely of non-toxic dinoflagellates with Protoperidinium quinquecorne occurring >90% of the total cell count. However, both cultured and indigenous fish species were seen to suffer from oxygen asphyxiation (suffocation due to lack of oxygen). The bloom lasted for a short period (4-5 days) with a massive cell collapse from subsurface to bottom water on the sixth day. The productivity values ranged from 5-25 C g/ l / h with a subsurface maximum value in October 1992. Two species of Ciliophora, Tintinnopsis and Favella, were observed to graze on these dinoflagellates at the end of the bloom period.

  20. Estimating relative sea-level rise and submergence potential at a coastal wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    A tide gauge records a combined signal of the vertical change (positive or negative) in the level of both the sea and the land to which the gauge is affixed; or relative sea-level change, which is typically referred to as relative sea-level rise (RSLR). Complicating this situation, coastal wetlands exhibit dynamic surface elevation change (both positive and negative), as revealed by surface elevation table (SET) measurements, that is not recorded at tide gauges. Because the usefulness of RSLR is in the ability to tie the change in sea level to the local topography, it is important that RSLR be calculated at a wetland that reflects these local dynamic surface elevation changes in order to better estimate wetland submergence potential. A rationale is described for calculating wetland RSLR (RSLRwet) by subtracting the SET wetland elevation change from the tide gauge RSLR. The calculation is possible because the SET and tide gauge independently measure vertical land motion in different portions of the substrate. For 89 wetlands where RSLRwet was evaluated, wetland elevation change differed significantly from zero for 80 % of them, indicating that RSLRwet at these wetlands differed from the local tide gauge RSLR. When compared to tide gauge RSLR, about 39 % of wetlands experienced an elevation rate surplus and 58 % an elevation rate deficit (i.e., sea level becoming lower and higher, respectively, relative to the wetland surface). These proportions were consistent across saltmarsh, mangrove, and freshwater wetland types. Comparison of wetland elevation change and RSLR is confounded by high levels of temporal and spatial variability, and would be improved by co-locating tide gauge and SET stations near each other and obtaining long-term records for both.

  1. Anadromous sea lampreys recolonize a Maine coastal river tributary after dam removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogg, Robert; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River, Maine, historically supported several anadromous fishes, including the Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, AlewifeAlosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. However, two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated with removal of the lowermost dam, thus providing access to an additional 4.6 km of lotic habitat. Because Sea Lampreys utilized accessible habitat prior to dam removal, they were chosen as a focal species with which to quantify recolonization. During spawning runs of 2008–2011 (before and after dam removal), individuals were marked with PIT tags and their activity was tracked with daily recapture surveys. Open-population mark–recapture models indicated a fourfold increase in the annual abundance of spawning-phase Sea Lampreys, with estimates rising from 59±4 () before dam removal (2008) to 223±18 and 242±16 after dam removal (2010 and 2011, respectively). Accompanying the marked increase in annual abundance was a greater than fourfold increase in nesting sites: the number of nests increased from 31 in 2008 to 128 and 131 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. During the initial recolonization event (i.e., in 2010), Sea Lampreys took 6 d to move past the former dam site and 9 d to expand into the furthest upstream reaches. Conversely, during the 2011 spawning run, Sea Lampreys took only 3 d to penetrate into the upstream reaches, thus suggesting a potential positive feedback in which larval recruitment into the system may have attracted adult spawners via conspecific pheromone cues. Although more research is needed to verify the migratory pheromone hypothesis, our study clearly demonstrates that small-stream dam removal in coastal river systems has the potential to enhance recovery of declining anadromous fish populations.

  2. Anticipating Future Sea Level Rise and Coastal Storms in New York City (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, R. M.; Gornitz, V.; Bader, D.; Little, C. M.; Oppenheimer, M.; Patrick, L.; Orton, P. M.; Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W.

    2013-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy caused 43 fatalities in New York City and 19 billion in damages. Mayor Michael Bloomberg responded by convening the second New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC2), to provide up-to-date climate information for the City's Special Initiative for Rebuilding and Resiliency (SIRR). The Mayor's proposed 20 billion plan aims to strengthen the City's resilience to coastal inundation. Accordingly, the NPCC2 scientific and technical support team generated a suite of temperature, precipitation, and sea level rise and extreme event projections through the 2050s. The NPCC2 sea level rise projections include contributions from ocean thermal expansion, dynamic changes in sea surface height, mass changes in glaciers, ice caps, and ice sheets, and land water storage. Local sea level changes induced by changes in ice mass include isostatic, gravitational, and rotational effects. Results are derived from CMIP5 model-based outputs, expert judgment, and literature surveys. Sea level at the Battery, lower Manhattan, is projected to rise by 7-31 in (17.8-78.7cm) by the 2050s relative to 2000-2004 (10 to 90 percentile). As a result, flood heights above NAVD88 for the 100-year storm (stillwater plus waves) would rise from 15.0 ft (0.71 m) in the 2000s to 15.6-17.6 ft (4.8-5.4 m) by the 2050s (10-90 percentile). The annual chance of today's 100-year flood would increase from 1 to 1.4-5.0 percent by the 2050s.

  3. Colonization of over a thousand Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi (foraminifera: Schwager, 1866) on artificial substrates in seep and adjacent off-seep locations in dysoxic, deep-sea environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, Ashley M.; Rathburn, Anthony E.; Elena Pérez, M.; Levin, Lisa A.; Martin, Jonathan B.

    2016-11-01

    After ~1 yr on the seafloor at water depths of ~700 m on Hydrate Ridge in the Pacific, eight colonization experiments composed primarily of a plastic mesh cube (from here on refered to as SEA3, for Seafloor Epibenthic Attachment Cubes) were colonized by 1076 Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi on ~1841 cm2 of experimental substrate. This species is typically considered an indicator of well-oxygenated conditions, and recruitment of such large numbers in bottom waters with low dissolved oxygen availability (0.24-0.37 mL/L) indicate that this taxon may not be as limited by oxygen as previously thought. Clues about substrate preferences were evident from the distribution, or lack thereof, of individuals among plastic mesh, coated steel frame, wooden dowels and reflective tape. Abundance, individual size distributions within cage populations and isotopic biogeochemistry of living foraminifera colonizing experimental substrates were compared between active seep and adjacent off-seep experiment locations, revealing potential differences between these environments. Few studies have examined foraminiferal colonization of hard substrates in the deep-sea and to our knowledge no previous study has compared foraminiferal colonization of active seep and off-seep substrates from the same region. This study provides initial results of recruitment, colonization, geochemical and morphological aspects of the paleoceanographically significant species, C. wuellerstorfi, from dynamic deep-sea environments. Further experimental deployments of SEA3s will provide a means to assess relatively unknown ecologic dynamics of important foraminiferal deep-sea species.

  4. The effects of sea-level rise on water quality in coastal floodplain sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Vanessa; Johnston, Scott; Burton, Edward; Bush, Richard; Sullivan, Leigh; Slavich, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Sea level has risen approximately 1.2 mm/year over the last 100 years (Hennessy et al. 2004) and is predicted to rise up to 80 cm by 2100 relative to 1990 sea levels (IPCC 2007). The number of extreme events related to sea level such as higher sea levels and increased inter-annual variability have also increased in frequency in the same time period (Hennessy et al. 2004). Globally, large areas of coastal and estuarine floodplains are underlain by sulfidic sediments and acid sulfate soils (ASS). These sediments frequently contain high concentrations of acidity and trace metals. A significant portion of the stored acidity occurs in the form of exchangeable and hydrolysable acidic metal cations such as Al and Fe. Watertables in these environments are often close to the surface and intercepted by relatively shallow drains. Due to their low elevation and locations, these floodplains are highly susceptible to pulses of saline water caused by saltwater intrusion, storm surge and rising sea levels. Construction of extensive drainage systems has further increased the susceptibility of the floodplain to seawater inundation by increasing connectivity to the estuarine channel. This risk is likely to increase in the future with predicted increases in sea level and extreme events due to climate change. This study uses both batch experiments to determine the effects of increasing ionic strength on exchange processes and trace metal desorption in oxidised floodplain sediments and sulfidic drain sediments, and intact soil cores to determine the surface water-porewater interactions over the short term following seawater inundation in coastal floodplain sediments. We found that that saline inundation of oxidised ASS floodplain sediments, even by relatively brackish water may cause rapid, shorter-term water quality changes and a pulse release of acidity due to desorption of acidic metal cations (Wong et al. 2010). We also found that trace metals can be mobilised from sulfidic

  5. A modeling study of coastal circulation and landfast ice in the nearshore Beaufort and Chukchi seas using CIOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Mizobata, Kohei; Bai, Xuezhi; Hu, Haoguo; Jin, Meibing; Yu, Yanling; Ikeda, Moto; Johnson, Walter; Perie, William; Fujisaki, Ayumi

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates sea ice and ocean circulation using a 3-D, 3.8 km CIOM (Coupled Ice-Ocean Model) under daily atmospheric forcing for the period 1990-2008. The CIOM was validated using both in situ observations and satellite measurements. The CIOM successfully reproduces some observed dynamical processes in the region, including the Bering-inflow-originated coastal current that splits into three branches: Alaska Coastal Water (ACW), Central Channel branch, and Herald Valley branch. In addition, the Beaufort Slope Current (BSC), the Beaufort Gyre, the East Siberian Current (ESC), mesoscale eddies, and seasonal landfast ice are well simulated. The CIOM also reproduces reasonable interannual variability in sea ice, such as landfast ice, and anomalous open water (less sea ice) during the positive Dipole Anomaly (DA) years, vice versa during the negative DA years. Sensitivity experiments were conducted with regard to the impacts of the Bering Strait inflow (heat transport), onshore wind stress, and sea ice advection on sea ice change, in particular on the landfast ice. It is found that coastal landfast ice is controlled by the following processes: wind forcing, Bering Strait inflow, and sea ice dynamics.

  6. Large spatial variations in coastal 14C reservoir age - a case study from the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougheed, B. C.; Filipsson, H. L.; Snowball, I.

    2013-02-01

    Coastal locations are highly influenced by input from freshwater river runoff, including sources of terrestrial carbon, which can be expected to modify the 14C reservoir age, or R(t), associated with marine water. In this Baltic Sea case study, pre-bomb museum collection mollusc shells of known calendar age, from 30 locations across a strategic salinity transect of the Baltic Sea, were analysed for 14C, δ13C and δ18O. R(t) was calculated for all 30 locations. Seven locations, of which six are within close proximity of the coast, were found to have relatively higher R(t) values, indicative of hard-water effects. δ13Caragonite values were found to be indicative of hard-water influence only for certain locations, suggesting the possibility of different sources of old carbon in different locations. Whenever possible, the Macoma genus of mollusc was selected from the museum collections, in order to exclude species specific reservoir age effects as much as possible. When the Macoma samples are exclusively considered, and samples from hard-water locations excluded, a statistically significant correlation between Macoma R(t) and average salinity is found, indicating a two end-member linear mixing model between 14Cmarine and 14Crunoff. A map of Baltic Sea Macoma aragonite R(t) for the late 19th and early 20th centuries is produced. Such a map can provide an estimate for contemporary Baltic Sea Macoma R(t), although one must exercise caution when applying such estimates back in time or to 14C dates obtained from different sample material. A statistically significant correlation is also found between δ18Oaragonite and Macoma R(t), suggesting that δ18Oaragonite can be used to estimate Macoma palaeo-R(t). The results of this Baltic Sea case study, which show that R(t) is affected by hydrographic conditions and local carbon inputs, have important consequences for other coastal and estuarine locations, where R(t) is also likely to significantly vary on spatial and temporal

  7. How sea level rise and storm climate impact the looming morpho-economic bubble in coastal property value.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D.; Keeler, A.; Smith, M.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Murray, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the United States, the coastal region is now the most densely populated zone in the country and as a result has become a significant source of tax revenue and has some of the highest property values in the country. The loss of land at the coastline from erosion and damage to property from storms has always been a source of vulnerability to coastal economies. To manage this vulnerability, humans have long engaged in the act of nourishing the coastline - placing sand, typically from offshore sources, onto the beach to widen the beach and increase the height of dunes. As humans alter natural coastal dynamics by nourishing, the altered natural dynamics then influence future beach management decisions. In this way human-occupied coastlines are a strongly coupled dynamical system and because of this coupling, the act of nourishment has become an intrinsic part of the economic value of a coastline. Predictions of increased rates of sea level rise and changing storminess suggest that coastal vulnerability is likely to increase. The evolving vulnerability of the coast has already caused changes to occur in the way humans manage the coastline. For example, the federal government has recently reduced subsidies to help coastal communities nourish their beaches. With a future of changing environmental forcing from sea level and storms, the prospect of changes in nourishment cost could have profound consequences on coastal value and sustainability. We utilize two modeling approaches to investigate how disappearing nourishment subsidies reduce coastal property value and to explore the potential for a bubble and subsequent crash in coastal property value as subsidies dwindle and vulnerability rises. The first model is an optimal control model that couples a cost benefit analysis to coastline dynamics. In the second model, we couple a numerical coastline model with an agent-based model for real estate markets. Results from both models suggest the total present value of coastal

  8. Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment. Part 1: Two-dimensional simulations of sea-breeze and mountain effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the southern California coastal region, observations of the vertical distributions of pollutants show that maximum concentrations can occur within temperature inversion layers well above the surface. A mesoscale model is used to study the dynamical phenomena that cause such layers, including sea breezes and mountain flows, and to study the characteristics of air pollutant transport in a coastal environment capped by a temperature inversion. The mathematical and physical structure of the model is described. Two-dimensional simulations corresponding to four configurations of coastal plains and mountains are discussed. The simulations reveal that pollutant transport over a coastal plain is strongly influenced by the topographic configuration, including the height of coastal mountains and their distance from the coastline. Sea breezes induced by land-sea thermal contrasts, as well as upslope winds induced along mountain flanks, both create vertical transport that can lead to the formation of elevated pollution layers. The sea-breeze circulation generates pollution layers by undercutting the mixed layer and lofting pollutants into the stable layer. Heating of mountain slopes acts to vent pollutants above the mountain ridge during the day; during the evening, pollutants can be injected directly into the inversion layer from the decaying upslope flows. In a land-sea configuration with mountains close to the coastline, the sea breeze and heated-mountain flow are strongly coupled. In the afternoon, this interaction can produce upslope flow from which polluted air is detrained into the inversion layer as a return circulation. When the mountains lie farther inland, however, pollutants may be trapped aloft when the mixed layer stabilizes in the late afternoon. As the nocturnal boundary layer forms over the coast in the evening, polluted mixed-layer air is effectively left behind in the inversion layer. In the Los Angeles Basin, the formation mechanism for elevated

  9. Supporting Coastal Management Decisions in the Face of Sea-Level Rise: Case Study for the Chesapeake Bay Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, A. C.; Glick, P.; Clough, J. S.; Nunley, B.

    2008-12-01

    Sea-level rise needs to be a major consideration in regional coastal management and ecological restoration plans. The National Wildlife Federation has initiated a multi-pronged strategy for assisting decision makers at government agencies that manage near-shore ecosystems in several vulnerable coastal regions. Results from our work in the Chesapeake Bay region will be presented. This strategy involves: (1) Detailed modeling of how coastal habitats will migrate in response to a range of sea-level rise scenarios. For this work, we used the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM), which simulates the dominant processes involved in wetland conversions and shoreline modifications during long-term sea-level rise and takes into consideration localized changes in land elevation due to geological and ecological factors. These model results provide specific information about the locations that are likely to experience shifts in coastal marshes, swamps, beaches, and other habitats due to sea-level rise at a scale that is relevant to regional decision making. (2) Extensive literature review and analysis of habitat, fish, and wildlife impacts potentially resulting from expected sea-level rise and other local climate changes. Synthesizing the available research is an important service for natural resource agencies that are only beginning to consider climate impacts on ecosystems and natural resources. (3) Analysis of government programs and policies relevant to coastal management and identification of opportunities to revise these policies in light of projected climate changes. An important aspect of this analysis is meeting with key decision makers at relevant state fish and wildlife agencies to better understand the factors that affect their abilities to effect policy changes. (4) Proactive campaign to share our results with diverse audiences. We have developed different research products, ranging from a technical report of the modeling results to short report briefs, to

  10. Coastal retreat and shoreface profile variations in the Canadian Beaufort Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hequette, A.; Barnes, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    The coastline of the southern Canadian Beaufort Sea consists primarily of unconsolidated bluffs. Although the sea is ice-free for 3 months of the year and wave energy is restricted by pack ice, the coast is undergoing regional retreat with erosion rates as high as 10 m a-1 in some locations. Simple and multiple regression analyses were carried out to determine the degree of correlation between the mean retreat rate measured at various locations and the different parameters that may control shoreline recession. Sediment texture, ground-ice content, cliff height, wave energy and shoreface gradient revealed medium to poor correlation with erosion rates, showing that the recessive evolution of the coastline can not be explained solely by wave-induced and subaerial processes. The comparison of nearshore echo-sounding records from 1987 with bathymetry from 1971 showed substantial erosion (up to 1 m) of the submarine profile between 12 and 15 m of water. There is strong evidence that this erosion has been caused by sea ice gouging on the seafloor. From depths of 5 to 9 m, accretion has taken place, possibly induced by ice-push processes, and inshore of the 5 m isobath wave and current erosion of the shoreface has occurred. These results suggest that the erosion of the inner shelf by ice gouging drives the erosion observed inshore on the coastal bluffs and nearshore zone as the shoreface profile strives for a state of dynamic equilibrium. ?? 1990.

  11. Field observations of the relation between satellite and sea radiances in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aas, Eyvind; Sørensen, Kai

    1995-08-01

    Estimates of the different contributions to the satellite radiance above the outer Oslofjord are presented. The contribution from the sea is of the order of 10% of the total signal, and the part due to reflection from the sea surface constitutes 10-20%. The presence of land may increase the satellite radiance up to 4-9%, but such effects, which are probably reduced to 1/e at a distance of 1 km from the coast, cannot be detected in the present measurements. In situ observations of the marine radiance are corrected for shadings by ship and instrument and for varying solar altitude. The average correction for the self-shading effect of the marine instrument becomes 30-50% in these waters. The linear relations between satellite and sea radiances are determined with correlation coefficients of better than 0.95. The observed minimum value of the satellite radiance (or darkest pixel) is not a satisfactory approximation for the atmospheric correction. It is concluded that, in coastal waters and at the present stage, satellite observations have to be combined with field measurements to obtain reliable results.

  12. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global sea level rise and the need to incorporate projections of rise into management plans for coastal adaptation. It also discusses the performance of a shoreline revetment; M. Ali Seawall, placed to protect the land against flooding and overtopping at coastal site, within Abu Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt along the Nile Delta coast. The assessment is conducted to examine the adequacy of the seawall under the current and progressive effects of climate change demonstrated by the anticipated sea level rise during this century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) predicts that the Mediterranean will rise 30 cm to 1 meter this century. Coastal zone management of the bay coastline is of utmost significance to the protection of the low agricultural land and the industrial complex located in the rear side of the seawall. Moreover this joint research work highlights the similarity of the nature of current and anticipated coastal zone problems, at several locations around the world, and required adaptation and protection measures. For example many barrier islands in the world such as that in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the U.S., lowland and deltas such as in Italy and the Nile Delta, and many islands are also experiencing significant levels of erosion and flooding that are exacerbated by sea level rise. Global Climatic Changes: At a global scale, an example of the effects of accelerated climate changes was demonstrated. In recent years, the impacts of natural disasters are more and more severe on coastal lowland areas. With the threats of climate change, sea level rise storm surge, progressive storm and hurricane activities and potential subsidence, the reduction of natural disasters in coastal lowland areas receives increased attention. Yet many of their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding, and conversions of land to open ocean. These global changes were recently

  13. Temporal and spatial variations of abundance of phycocyanin- and phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus in Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Chai, Chao; Wang, Jifang; Zhang, Ling; Cen, Jingyi; Lu, Songhui

    2016-10-01

    Three surveys were carried out in Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal area in May, August, and November, 2013, to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of abundance of phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus (PE-rich SYN) and phycocyanin-rich Synechococcus (PC-rich SYN). The effects of environmental factors on the alternation of the different Synechococcus groups were also elucidated. PE-rich SYN was detected in three surveys, whereas PC-rich SYN was detected in May and August, but not in November. The highest abundances of PE-rich SYN and PC-rich SYN were recorded in August and May, with mean values of 74.17×103 and 189.92×103 cells mL-1, respectively. From May to November, the relative abundance of PE-rich SYN increased, whereas that of PC-rich SYN declined. PE-rich and PC-rich SYN presented similar horizontal distributions with high abundance in the southern estuary in May, and in the western estuary in August. The abundances of PE-rich and PC-rich SYN were high at 27-32°C and salinity of 10-20. PC-rich SYN was not detected at < 24°C, and PC:PE-rich SYN decreased in abundance with salinity increase. When less than 20 mg L-1, suspended particulate matter (SPM) was helpful for Synechococcus growth. PE-rich SYN decreased in abundance when the concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen increased in May and November, and the concentration of phosphate increased in November. However, PC-rich SYN abundance and nutrients showed no correlation. Principal component analysis and regression analysis indicated that PE-rich SYN significantly correlated with the principal components that were affected by environmental factors.

  14. Nitrification and growth of autotrophic nitrifying bacteria and Thaumarchaeota in the coastal North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veuger, Bart; Pitcher, Angela; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2013-04-01

    A dual stable isotope (15N and 13C) tracer approach in combination with compound-specific stable isotope analysis of bacterial and Thaumarchaeotal lipid biomarkers was used to investigate nitrification and the associated growth of autotrophic nitrifiers in the Dutch coastal North Sea. This study focusses on the stoichiometry between nitrification and DIC fixation by autotrophic nitrifiers as well as on the contributions of bacteria versus Thaumarchaeota to total autotrophic DIC-fixation by nitrifiers. Water from the dutch coastal North Sea was collected at weekly to biweekly intervals during the winter of 2007-2008. Watersamples were incubated with 15N-labeled ammonium and 15N was traced into nitrate and suspended material to quantify rates of nitrification and ammonium assimilation respectively. Growth of autotrophic nitrifiers was measured by incubating water samples with 13C-DIC in the presence and absence of nitrification inhibitors (nitrapyrin and chlorate) and subsequent analysis of 13C in bacterial phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) and the Thaumarchaeotal biomarker crenarchaeol. Results revealed high nitrification rates with nitrification being the primary sink for ammonium. 13C-DIC fixation into bacterial and Thaumarchaeotal lipids was strongly reduced by the nitrification inhibitors (27-95%). The ratio between rates of nitrification versus DIC fixation by nitrifiers was higher or even much higher than typical values for autotrophic nitrifiers, indicating that little DIC was fixed relative to the amount of energy that was generated by nitrification, and hence that other other processes for C acquisition may have been relevant as well. The inhibitor-sensitive 13C-PLFA pool was dominated by the common PLFAs 16:0, 16:1ω7c and 18:1ω7c throughout the whole sampling period and occasionally also included the polyunsaturated fatty acids 18:2ω6c and 18:3ω3. Cell-specific 13C-DIC fixation activity of the nitrifying bacteria was much higher than that of the

  15. Microbial processes and organic priority substances in marine coastal sediments (Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Dellisanti, Walter; Lungarini, Silvia; Miserocchi, Stefano; Patrolecco, Luisa; Langone, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    PERSEUS EU FP7 Project aims to identify the interacting patterns of natural and human-derived pressures to assess their impact on marine ecosystems and, using the objectives and principles of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) as a vehicle, to design an effective and innovative research governance framework based on sound scientific knowledge. In the frame of this Project (subtask 1.3.3 ADREX: Adriatic and Ionian Seas Experiment), monitoring surveys were conducted in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) in order to study the variation of structural and functional characteristics of native bacterial communities and the occurrence of selected classes of organic priority substances in sediments. The study area represents a good natural laboratory sensitive to climate variability and human pressure, owing to the semi-enclosed nature of the Adriatic Sea and to the increasing trend of human activities in the coastal regions. During the cruise ADRI-13 (November 2013) and ADRI-14 (October 2014) we sampled several coastal sites from the mouth of the Po River to the Otranto strait. Surface sediments were collected in all areas, while sediment cores were sampled in selected sites. Microbes associated with marine sediments play an important role in the C-flux being responsible for the transformation of organic detritus (autochthonous and allochthonous) into biomass. The sediment bacterial abundance was determined by epifluorescence microscopy and the rate of bacterial carbon production by measuring the 3H-leucine uptake rates. The community respiration rate was estimated by the measurement of the electron transport system (ETS) activity. The sediment contamination level was determined by measuring the concentration of contaminants included in the list of organic priority substances: PAHs, bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols (APs). The extraction/clean-up of PAHs, BPA and APs was performed by ultrasonic bath with the appropriate solvents, followed by analytical determination with

  16. The Impacts of Back-Beach Barriers on Sandy Beach Morphology Along the California Coast and Implications for Coastal Change with Future Sea-Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    significant difference in foreshore characteristics such as seasonal berm height and foreshore slope between the two types of beaches, beaches without back-beach barriers have more developed back dune systems and are significantly wider than adjacent restricted beaches, given that no extensive artificial beach nourishment has occurred. In regions such as Ventura and Imperial Beach, unrestricted beaches are 50-100% wider than adjacent beaches with back-beach barriers even with no significant differences in historical rates of shoreline change. Taking into account the nature of the back beach is just as crucial in predicting impacts of sea-level rise on beaches in California as considering inundation and retreat in the foreshore, and will be an important consideration for coastal managers in designing sea-level rise adaptation plans.

  17. Revised hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system in the northern coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Lester J.; Gill, Harold E.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework for the Floridan aquifer system has been revised for eight northern coastal counties in Georgia and five coastal counties in South Carolina by incorporating new borehole geophysical and flowmeter log data collected during previous investigations. Selected well logs were compiled and analyzed to determine the vertical and horizontal continuity of permeable zones that make up the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers and to define more precisely the thickness of confining beds that separate these aquifers. The updated framework generally conforms to the original framework established by the U.S. Geological Survey in the 1980s except for adjustments made to the internal boundaries of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers and the individual permeable zones that compose these aquifers. The revised boundaries of the Floridan aquifer system were mapped by taking into account results from local studies and regional correlations of geologic and hydrogeologic units. Because the revised framework does not match the previous regional framework along all edges, additional work will be needed to expand the framework into adjacent areas. The Floridan aquifer system in the northern coastal region of Georgia and parts of South Carolina can be divided into the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers, which are separated by a middle confining unit of relatively lower permeability. The Upper Floridan aquifer includes permeable and hydraulically connected carbonate rocks of Oligocene and upper Eocene age that represent the most transmissive part of the aquifer system. The middle confining unit consists of low permeability carbonate rocks that lie within the lower part of the upper Eocene in Beaufort and Jasper Counties, South Carolina, and within the upper to middle parts of the middle Eocene elsewhere. Locally, the middle confining unit contains thin zones that have moderate to high permeability and can produce water to wells that tap them. The Lower Floridan aquifer

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Lewinella sp. Strain 4G2 Isolated from the Coastal Sea Surface Microlayer.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shu-Kuan; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Nakajima, Yu; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Hamasaki, Koji

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome of Lewinella sp. strain 4G2, isolated from the sea surface microlayer (SML) of a