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Sample records for adjacent cysteine residues

  1. Modification of Keap1 Cysteine Residues by Sulforaphane

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chenqi; Eggler, Aimee L.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) through modification of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) cysteines, leading to up-regulation of the antioxidant response element (ARE), is an important mechanism of cellular defense against reactive oxygen species and xenobiotic electrophiles. Sulforaphane, occurring in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, is a potent natural ARE activator that functions by modifying Keap1 cysteine residues, but there are conflicting in vitro and in vivo data regarding which of these cysteine residues react. Although most biological data indicate that modification of C151 is essential for sulforaphane action, some recent studies using mass spectrometry have failed to identify C151 as a site of Keap1 sulforaphane reaction. We have reconciled these conflicting data using mass spectrometry with a revised sample preparation protocol and confirmed that C151 is indeed among the most readily modified cysteines of Keap1 by sulforaphane. Previous mass spectrometry-based studies used iodoacetamide during sample preparation to derivatize free cysteine sulfhydryl groups causing loss of sulforaphane from highly reactive and reversible cysteine residues on Keap1 including C151. By omitting iodoacetamide from the protocol and reducing sample preparation time, our mass spectrometry-based studies now confirm previous cell-based studies which showed that sulforaphane reacts with at least four cysteine residues of Keap1 including C151. PMID:21391649

  2. The amino acid sequence around the active-site cysteine and histidine residues, and the buried cysteine residues in ficin

    PubMed Central

    Husain, S. S.; Lowe, G.

    1970-01-01

    Ficin that had been prepared from the latex of Ficus glabrata by salt fractionation and chromatography on carboxymethylcellulose was completely and irreversibly inhibited with 1,3-dibromo[2-14C]acetone and then treated with N-(4-dimethylamino-3,5-dinitrophenyl)maleimide in 6m-guanidinium chloride. After reduction and carboxymethylation of the labelled protein, it was digested with trypsin and α-chymotrypsin. Two radioactive peptides and two coloured peptides were isolated chromatographically and their sequences determined. The radioactive peptides revealed the amino acid sequences around the active-site cysteine and histidine residues and showed a high degree of homology with the omino acid sequence around the active-site cysteine and histidine residues in papain. The coloured peptides allowed the amino acid sequence around the buried cysteine residue in ficin to be determined. PMID:5420043

  3. The amino acid sequence around the active-site cysteine and histidine residues, and the buried cysteine residue in ficin.

    PubMed

    Husain, S S; Lowe, G

    1970-04-01

    Ficin that had been prepared from the latex of Ficus glabrata by salt fractionation and chromatography on carboxymethylcellulose was completely and irreversibly inhibited with 1,3-dibromo[2-(14)C]acetone and then treated with N-(4-dimethylamino-3,5-dinitrophenyl)maleimide in 6m-guanidinium chloride. After reduction and carboxymethylation of the labelled protein, it was digested with trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin. Two radioactive peptides and two coloured peptides were isolated chromatographically and their sequences determined. The radioactive peptides revealed the amino acid sequences around the active-site cysteine and histidine residues and showed a high degree of homology with the omino acid sequence around the active-site cysteine and histidine residues in papain. The coloured peptides allowed the amino acid sequence around the buried cysteine residue in ficin to be determined.

  4. IDENTIFYING CRITICAL CYSTEINE RESIDUES IN ARSENIC (+3 OXIDATION STATE) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) catalyzes methylation of inorganic arsenic to mono, di, and trimethylated arsenicals. Orthologous AS3MT genes in genomes ranging from simple echinoderm to human predict a protein with five conserved cysteine (C) residues. In ...

  5. IDENTIFYING CRITICAL CYSTEINE RESIDUES IN ARSENIC (+3 OXIDATION STATE) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) catalyzes methylation of inorganic arsenic to mono, di, and trimethylated arsenicals. Orthologous AS3MT genes in genomes ranging from simple echinoderm to human predict a protein with five conserved cysteine (C) residues. In ...

  6. Human Lamin B Contains a Farnesylated Cysteine Residue*

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Christopher C.; Wolda, Sharon L.; Gelb, Michael H.; Glomset, John A.

    2012-01-01

    We recently showed that HeLa cell lamin B is modified by a mevalonic acid derivative. Here we identified the modified amino acid, determined its mode of link-age to the mevalonic acid derivative, and established the derivative’s structure. A cysteine residue is modified because experiments with lamin B that had been biosynthetically labeled with [3H] mevalonic acid or [35S] cysteine and then extensively digested with proteases yielded 3H- or 35S-labeled products that co-chromatographed in five successive systems. A thioether linkage rather than a thioester linkage is involved because the mevalonic acid derivative could be released from the 3H-labeled products in a pentane-extractable form by treatment with Raney nickel but not with methanolic KOH. The derivative is a farnesyl moiety because the Raney nickel-released material was identified as 2,6,10-trimethyl-2,6,10-dodecatriene by a combination of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The thioether-modified cysteine residue appears to be located near the carboxyl end of lamin B because treatment of 3H-labeled lamin B with cyanogen bromide yielded a single labeled polypeptide that mapped toward this end of the cDNA-inferred sequence of human lamin B. PMID:2684976

  7. Functional interaction of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase with sperm mitochondrion-associated cysteine-rich protein discloses the adjacent cysteine motif as a new substrate of the selenoperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Maiorino, Matilde; Roveri, Antonella; Benazzi, Louise; Bosello, Valentina; Mauri, Pierluigi; Toppo, Stefano; Tosatto, Silvio C E; Ursini, Fulvio

    2005-11-18

    The mitochondrial capsule is a selenium- and disulfide-rich structure enchasing the outer mitochondrial membrane of mammalian spermatozoa. Among the proteins solubilized from the sperm mitochondrial capsule, we confirmed, by using a proteomic approach, the presence of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) as a major component, and we also identified the sperm mitochondrion-associated cysteine-rich protein (SMCP) and fragments/aggregates of specific keratins that previously escaped detection (Ursini, F., Heim, S., Kiess, M., Maiorino, M., Roveri, A., Wissing, J., and Flohé, L. (1999) Science 285, 1393-1396). The evidence for a functional association between PHGPx, SMCP, and keratins is further supported by the identification of a sequence motif of regularly spaced Cys-Cys doublets common to SMCP and high sulfur keratin-associated proteins, involved in bundling hair shaft keratin by disulfide cross-linking. Following the oxidative polymerization of mitochondrial capsule proteins, catalyzed by PHGPx, two-dimensional redox electrophoresis analysis showed homo- and heteropolymers of SMCP and PHGPx, together with other minor components. Adjacent cysteine residues in SMCP peptides are oxidized to cystine by PHGPx. This unusual disulfide is known to drive, by reshuffling oxidative protein folding. On this basis we propose that oxidative polymerization of the mitochondrial capsule is primed by the formation of cystine on SMCP, followed by reshuffling. Occurrence of reshuffling is further supported by the calculated thermodynamic gain of the process. This study suggests a new mechanism where selenium catalysis drives the cross-linking of structural elements of the cytoskeleton via the oxidation of a keratin-associated protein.

  8. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Menger, Katja E; James, Andrew M; Cochemé, Helena M; Harbour, Michael E; Chouchani, Edward T; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Partridge, Linda; Murphy, Michael P

    2015-06-30

    Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT), to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox state of several hundred cysteine residues in vivo. Cysteine residues within young flies had a bimodal distribution with peaks at ∼10% and ∼85% reversibly oxidized. Surprisingly, these cysteine residues did not become more oxidized with age. In contrast, 24 hr of fasting dramatically oxidized cysteine residues that were reduced under fed conditions while also reducing cysteine residues that were initially oxidized. We conclude that fasting, but not aging, dramatically alters cysteine-residue redox status in D. melanogaster.

  9. Electrostatics of cysteine residues in proteins: Parameterization and validation of a simple model

    PubMed Central

    Salsbury, Freddie R.; Poole, Leslie B.; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most popular and simple models for the calculation of pKas from a protein structure is the semi-macroscopic electrostatic model MEAD. This model requires empirical parameters for each residue to calculate pKas. Analysis of current, widely used empirical parameters for cysteine residues showed that they did not reproduce expected cysteine pKas; thus, we set out to identify parameters consistent with the CHARMM27 force field that capture both the behavior of typical cysteines in proteins and the behavior of cysteines which have perturbed pKas. The new parameters were validated in three ways: (1) calculation across a large set of typical cysteines in proteins (where the calculations are expected to reproduce expected ensemble behavior); (2) calculation across a set of perturbed cysteines in proteins (where the calculations are expected to reproduce the shifted ensemble behavior); and (3) comparison to experimentally determined pKa values (where the calculation should reproduce the pKa within experimental error). Both the general behavior of cysteines in proteins and the perturbed pKa in some proteins can be predicted reasonably well using the newly determined empirical parameters within the MEAD model for protein electrostatics. This study provides the first general analysis of the electrostatics of cysteines in proteins, with specific attention paid to capturing both the behavior of typical cysteines in a protein and the behavior of cysteines whose pKa should be shifted, and validation of force field parameters for cysteine residues. PMID:22777874

  10. Targeting Non-Catalytic Cysteine Residues Through Structure-Guided Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Hallenbeck, Kenneth K.; Turner, David M.; Renslo, Adam R.; Arkin, Michelle R.

    2017-01-01

    The targeting of non-catalytic cysteine residues with small molecules is drawing increased attention from drug discovery scientists and chemical biologists. From a biological perspective, genomic and proteomic studies have revealed the presence of cysteine mutations in several oncogenic proteins, suggesting both a functional role for these residues and also a strategy for targeting them in an ‘allele specific’ manner. For the medicinal chemist, the structure-guided design of cysteine-reactive molecules is an appealing strategy to realize improved selectivity and pharmacodynamic properties in drug leads. Finally, for chemical biologists, the modification of cysteine residues provides a unique means to probe protein structure and allosteric regulation. Here, we review three applications of cysteine-modifying small molecules: 1) the optimization of existing drug leads, 2) the discovery of new lead compounds, and 3) the use of cysteine-reactive molecules as probes of protein dynamics. In each case, structure-guided design plays a key role in determining which cysteine residue(s) to target and in designing compounds with the proper geometry to enable both covalent interaction with the targeted cysteine and productive non-covalent interactions with nearby protein residues. PMID:27449257

  11. Targeting Non-Catalytic Cysteine Residues Through Structure-Guided Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Hallenbeck, Kenneth K; Turner, David M; Renslo, Adam R; Arkin, Michelle R

    2017-01-01

    The targeting of non-catalytic cysteine residues with small molecules is drawing increased attention from drug discovery scientists and chemical biologists. From a biological perspective, genomic and proteomic studies have revealed the presence of cysteine mutations in several oncogenic proteins, suggesting both a functional role for these residues and also a strategy for targeting them in an 'allele specific' manner. For the medicinal chemist, the structure-guided design of cysteine- reactive molecules is an appealing strategy to realize improved selectivity and pharmacodynamic properties in drug leads. Finally, for chemical biologists, the modification of cysteine residues provides a unique means to probe protein structure and allosteric regulation. Here, we review three applications of cysteinemodifying small molecules: 1) the optimization of existing drug leads, 2) the discovery of new lead compounds, and 3) the use of cysteine-reactive molecules as probes of protein dynamics. In each case, structure-guided design plays a key role in determining which cysteine residue(s) to target and in designing compounds with the proper geometry to enable both covalent interaction with the targeted cysteine and productive non-covalent interactions with nearby protein residues.

  12. Identification of an active site cysteine residue in Escherichia coli pyruvate oxidase.

    PubMed

    Koland, J G; Gennis, R B

    1982-06-10

    The cysteine-directed reagent N-ethylmaleimide rapidly and completely inactivates pyruvate oxidase. This inactivation is correlated with the reaction of one cysteine residue per enzyme monomer. In the presence of the cofactor, thiamin pyrophosphate, the enzyme is not inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide. Furthermore, the N-ethylmaleimide-inactivated enzyme exhibits a very low affinity for the cofactor as determined by a fluorescence quenching technique. The presence of a reactive cysteine residue at the thiamin pyrophosphate binding site is therefore indicated. Although N-ethylmaleimide completely inactivates the enzyme, a second sulfhydryl reagent methylmethanethiosulfonate is only partially inhibitory. It is shown that methylmethanethiosulfonate and N-ethylmaleimide react with the same cysteine residue. Thus, the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive residue is probably not directly involved in catalysis.

  13. The amino acid sequence around the active-site cysteine and histidine residues of stem bromelain

    PubMed Central

    Husain, S. S.; Lowe, G.

    1970-01-01

    Stem bromelain that had been irreversibly inhibited with 1,3-dibromo[2-14C]-acetone was reduced with sodium borohydride and carboxymethylated with iodoacetic acid. After digestion with trypsin and α-chymotrypsin three radioactive peptides were isolated chromatographically. The amino acid sequences around the cross-linked cysteine and histidine residues were determined and showed a high degree of homology with those around the active-site cysteine and histidine residues of papain and ficin. PMID:5420046

  14. Electrostatics of cysteine residues in proteins: parameterization and validation of a simple model.

    PubMed

    Salsbury, Freddie R; Poole, Leslie B; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S

    2012-11-01

    One of the most popular and simple models for the calculation of pK(a) s from a protein structure is the semi-macroscopic electrostatic model MEAD. This model requires empirical parameters for each residue to calculate pK(a) s. Analysis of current, widely used empirical parameters for cysteine residues showed that they did not reproduce expected cysteine pK(a) s; thus, we set out to identify parameters consistent with the CHARMM27 force field that capture both the behavior of typical cysteines in proteins and the behavior of cysteines which have perturbed pK(a) s. The new parameters were validated in three ways: (1) calculation across a large set of typical cysteines in proteins (where the calculations are expected to reproduce expected ensemble behavior); (2) calculation across a set of perturbed cysteines in proteins (where the calculations are expected to reproduce the shifted ensemble behavior); and (3) comparison to experimentally determined pK(a) values (where the calculation should reproduce the pK(a) within experimental error). Both the general behavior of cysteines in proteins and the perturbed pK(a) in some proteins can be predicted reasonably well using the newly determined empirical parameters within the MEAD model for protein electrostatics. This study provides the first general analysis of the electrostatics of cysteines in proteins, with specific attention paid to capturing both the behavior of typical cysteines in a protein and the behavior of cysteines whose pK(a) should be shifted, and validation of force field parameters for cysteine residues. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Conservation of cysteine residues in fungal histidine acid phytases.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, Edward J; Ullah, Abul H J

    2005-03-11

    Amino acid sequence analysis of fungal histidine acid phosphatases displaying phytase activity has revealed a conserved eight-cysteine motif. These conserved amino acids are not directly associated with catalytic function; rather they appear to be essential in the formation of disulfide bridges. Their role is seen as being similar to another eight-cysteine motif recently reported in the amino acid sequence of nearly 500 plant polypeptides. An additional disulfide bridge formed by two cysteines at the N-terminus of all the filamentous ascomycete phytases was also observed. Disulfide bridges are known to increase both stability and heat tolerance in proteins. It is therefore plausible that this extra disulfide bridge contributes to the higher stability found in phytase from some Aspergillus species. To engineer an enhanced phytase for the feed industry, it is imperative that the role of disulfide bridges be taken into cognizance and possibly be increased in number to further elevate stability in this enzyme.

  16. Selective Loss of Cysteine Residues and Disulphide Bonds in a Potato Proteinase Inhibitor II Family

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Qing; Zhang, Tieling; Donnelly, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Disulphide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins play a key role in protein folding, stability, and function. Loss of a disulphide bond is often associated with functional differentiation of the protein. The evolution of disulphide bonds is still actively debated; analysis of naturally occurring variants can promote understanding of the protein evolutionary process. One of the disulphide bond-containing protein families is the potato proteinase inhibitor II (PI-II, or Pin2, for short) superfamily, which is found in most solanaceous plants and participates in plant development, stress response, and defence. Each PI-II domain contains eight cysteine residues (8C), and two similar PI-II domains form a functional protein that has eight disulphide bonds and two non-identical reaction centres. It is still unclear which patterns and processes affect cysteine residue loss in PI-II. Through cDNA sequencing and data mining, we found six natural variants missing cysteine residues involved in one or two disulphide bonds at the first reaction centre. We named these variants Pi7C and Pi6C for the proteins missing one or two pairs of cysteine residues, respectively. This PI-II-7C/6C family was found exclusively in potato. The missing cysteine residues were in bonding pairs but distant from one another at the nucleotide/protein sequence level. The non-synonymous/synonymous substitution (Ka/Ks) ratio analysis suggested a positive evolutionary gene selection for Pi6C and various Pi7C. The selective deletion of the first reaction centre cysteine residues that are structure-level-paired but sequence-level-distant in PI-II illustrates the flexibility of PI-II domains and suggests the functionality of their transient gene versions during evolution. PMID:21494600

  17. Role of Conserved Cysteine Residues in Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein E2 Folding and Function

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Kathleen; Boo, Irene; Tewierek, Kevin; Edmunds, Mark L.; Poumbourios, Pantelis

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2 contains 18 conserved cysteines predicted to form nine disulfide pairs. In this study, a comprehensive cysteine-alanine mutagenesis scan of all 18 cysteine residues was performed in E1E2-pseudotyped retroviruses (HCVpp) and recombinant E2 receptor-binding domain (E2 residues 384 to 661 [E2661]). All 18 cysteine residues were absolutely required for HCVpp entry competence. The phenotypes of individual cysteines and pairwise mutation of disulfides were largely the same for retrovirion-incorporated E2 and E2661, suggesting their disulfide arrangements are similar. However, the contributions of each cysteine residue and the nine disulfides to E2 structure and function varied. Individual Cys-to-Ala mutations revealed discordant effects, where removal of one Cys within a pair had minimal effect on H53 recognition and CD81 binding (C486 and C569) while mutation of its partner abolished these functions (C494 and C564). Removal of disulfides at C581-C585 and C452-C459 significantly reduced the amount of E1 coprecipitated with E2, while all other disulfides were absolutely required for E1E2 heterodimerization. Remarkably, E2661 tolerates the presence of four free cysteines, as simultaneous mutation of C452A, C486A, C569A, C581A, C585A, C597A, and C652A (M+C597A) retained wild-type CD81 binding. Thus, only one disulfide from each of the three predicted domains, C429-C552 (DI), C503-C508 (DII), and C607-C644 (DIII), is essential for the assembly of the E2661 CD81-binding site. Furthermore, the yield of total monomeric E2 increased to 70% in M+C597A. These studies reveal the contribution of each cysteine residue and the nine disulfide pairs to E2 structure and function. PMID:22278231

  18. Cysteine Modification of a Putative Pore Residue in Clc-0

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Chen, Tsung-Yu

    2000-01-01

    The ClC channel family consists of chloride channels important for various physiological functions. Two members in this family, ClC-0 and ClC-1, share ∼50–60% amino acid identity and show similar gating behaviors. Although they both contain two subunits, the number of pores present in the homodimeric channel is controversial. The double-barrel model proposed for ClC-0 was recently challenged by a one-pore model partly based on experiments with ClC-1 exploiting cysteine mutagenesis followed by modification with methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents. To investigate the pore stoichiometry of ClC-0 more rigorously, we applied a similar strategy of MTS modification in an inactivation-suppressed mutant (C212S) of ClC-0. Mutation of lysine 165 to cysteine (K165C) rendered the channel nonfunctional, but modification of the introduced cysteine by 2-aminoethyl MTS (MTSEA) recovered functional channels with altered properties of gating-permeation coupling. The fast gate of the MTSEA-modified K165C homodimer responded to external Cl− less effectively, so the Po-V curve was shifted to a more depolarized potential by ∼45 mV. The K165C-K165 heterodimer showed double-barrel–like channel activity after MTSEA modification, with the fast-gating behaviors mimicking a combination of those of the mutant and the wild-type pore, as expected for the two-pore model. Without MTSEA modification, the heterodimer showed only one pore, and was easier to inactivate than the two-pore channel. These results showed that K165 is important for both the fast and slow gating of ClC-0. Therefore, the effects of MTS reagents on channel gating need to be carefully considered when interpreting the apparent modification rate. PMID:11004203

  19. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Menger, Katja E.; James, Andrew M.; Cochemé, Helena M.; Harbour, Michael E.; Chouchani, Edward T.; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Partridge, Linda; Murphy, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT), to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox state of several hundred cysteine residues in vivo. Cysteine residues within young flies had a bimodal distribution with peaks at ∼10% and ∼85% reversibly oxidized. Surprisingly, these cysteine residues did not become more oxidized with age. In contrast, 24 hr of fasting dramatically oxidized cysteine residues that were reduced under fed conditions while also reducing cysteine residues that were initially oxidized. We conclude that fasting, but not aging, dramatically alters cysteine-residue redox status in D. melanogaster. PMID:26095360

  20. The role of cysteine residues in glucose-transporter-GLUT1-mediated transport and transport inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Wellner, M; Monden, I; Keller, K

    1994-01-01

    The role of cysteine residues in transport function of the glucose transporter GLUT1 was investigated by a mutagenesis-expression strategy. Each of the six cysteine residues was individually replaced by site-directed mutagenesis. Expression of the heterologous wild-type or mutant glucose transporters and transport measurements at two hexose concentrations (50 microM and 5 mM) were undertaken in Xenopus oocytes. The catalytic activity of GLUT1 was retained, despite substitution of each single cysteine residue, which indicated that no individual residue is essential for hexose transport. This finding questions the involvement of oligomerization or intramolecular stabilization by a single disulphide bond as a prerequisite for transporter activation under basal conditions. Application of the impermeant mercurial thiol-group-reactive reagent p-chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (pCMBS) to the external or internal surface of plasma membrane demonstrated that cysteine-429, within the sixth external loop, and cysteine-207, at the beginning of the large intracellular loop which connects transmembrane segments 6 and 7, are the residues which are involved in transport inhibition by impermeant thiol-group-reactive reagents from either side of the cell. These data support the predicted membrane topology of the transport protein by transport measurements. If residues other than the cysteines at positions 429 or 207 are exposed to either side of the plasma membrane by conformational changes, they do not contribute to the transport inhibition by pCMBS. Application of pCMBS to one side of the plasma membrane also inhibited transport from the opposite direction, most likely due to the hindrance of sugar-induced interconversion of transporter conformation. PMID:8192671

  1. Do cysteine residues regulate transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channel protein expression?

    PubMed

    Thilo, Florian; Liu, Ying; Krueger, Katharina; Förste, Nora; Wittstock, Antje; Scholze, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin

    2012-03-01

    The regulation of calcium influx through transient receptor potential canonical type 6 (TRPC6) channel is mandatory for the activity of human monocytes. We submit the first evidence that cysteine residues of homocysteine (HC) or acetylcysteine (ACC) affect TRPC6 expression in human monocytes. We observed that patients with chronic renal failure had significantly elevated HC levels and TRPC6 mRNA expression levels in monocytes compared with control subjects. We further observed that administration of HC or ACC significantly increased TRPC6 channel protein expression compared with control conditions. We, therefore, hypothesize that cysteine residues increase TRPC6 channel protein expression in humans.

  2. Two Japanese CADASIL families exhibiting Notch3 mutation R75P not involving cysteine residue.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Toshiki; Muranishi, Manabu; Torugun, Torusunjian; Tango, Hiromi; Nagakane, Yoshinari; Kudeken, Tukasa; Kawase, Yuji; Kawabe, Kiyokazu; Oshima, Fumiko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Itoh, Kyoko; Fushiki, Shinji; Nakagawa, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    Most previously reported mutations in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) result in an odd number of cysteine residues within the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats in Notch3. We report here R75P mutation in two Japanese CADASIL families not directly involving cysteine residues located within the first EGF-like repeats. Probands in both families had repeated episodes of stroke, depression, dementia as well as T2 high-intensity lesions in the basal ganglia and periventricular white matter, but fewer white matter lesions in the temporal pole on MRI. These families provide new insights into the diagnosis and pathomechanisms of CADASIL.

  3. Metacaspase activity of Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by S-nitrosylation of a critical cysteine residue.

    PubMed

    Belenghi, Beatrice; Romero-Puertas, Maria C; Vercammen, Dominique; Brackenier, Anouk; Inzé, Dirk; Delledonne, Massimo; Van Breusegem, Frank

    2007-01-12

    Nitric oxide (NO) regulates a number of signaling functions in both animals and plants under several physiological and pathophysiological conditions. S-Nitrosylation linking a nitrosothiol on cysteine residues mediates NO signaling functions of a broad spectrum of mammalian proteins, including caspases, the main effectors of apoptosis. Metacaspases are suggested to be the ancestors of metazoan caspases, and plant metacaspases have previously been shown to be genuine cysteine proteases that autoprocess in a manner similar to that of caspases. We show that S-nitrosylation plays a central role in the regulation of the proteolytic activity of Arabidopsis thaliana metacaspase 9 (AtMC9) and hypothesize that this S-nitrosylation affects the cellular processes in which metacaspases are involved. We found that AtMC9 zymogens are S-nitrosylated at their active site cysteines in vivo and that this posttranslational modification suppresses both AtMC9 autoprocessing and proteolytic activity. However, the mature processed form is not prone to NO inhibition due to the presence of a second S-nitrosylation-insensitive cysteine that can replace the S-nitrosylated cysteine residue within the catalytic center of the processed AtMC9. This cysteine is absent in caspases and paracaspases but is conserved in all reported metacaspases.

  4. The identification of free cysteine residues within antibodies and a potential role for free cysteine residues in covalent aggregation because of agitation stress.

    PubMed

    Huh, Joon H; White, April J; Brych, Stephen R; Franey, Heather; Matsumura, Masazumi

    2013-06-01

    Human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) antibodies contain multiple disulfide bonds, which are an integral part of the structure and stability of the protein. Open disulfide bonds have been detected in a number of therapeutic and serum derived antibodies. This report details a method that fluorescently labels free cysteine residues, quantifies, and identifies the proteolytic fragments by liquid chromatography coupled to online mass spectrometry. The majority of the open disulfide bonds in recombinant and serum derived IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies were in the constant domains. This method was applied to the identification of cysteines in an IgG2 antibody that are involved in the formation of covalent intermolecular bonds because of the application of a severe agitation stress. The free cysteine in the CH 1 domain of the IgG2 decreased upon application of the stress and implicates open disulfide bonds in this domain as the likely source of free cysteines involved in the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds. The presence of comparable levels of open disulfide bonds in recombinant and endogenous antibodies suggests that open disulfide bonds are an inherent feature of antibodies and that the susceptibility of intermolecular disulfide bond formation is similar for recombinant and serum-derived IgG antibodies.

  5. Four free cysteine residues found in human IgG1 of healthy donors.

    PubMed

    Gevondyan, N M; Volynskaia, A M; Gevondyan, V S

    2006-03-01

    Modifications with different thiol reagents demonstrated that 28 of 32 cysteine residues of human IgG1 are involved in the formation of disulfide bonds, and four cysteines remain free. So IgG1 is a protein possessing both free SH-groups and disulfide bonds. Only one of the four SH-groups is accessible for silver or mercury ions and hydrophobic reagents, whereas the remaining three SH-groups are masked and can be revealed only after deep denaturation of the protein. Detection of the masked cysteine residues was shown to depend on the kinetics of intramolecular changes occurring during denaturation of the protein and on the method of the assay of the SH-groups.

  6. Oxidation and inactivation of SERCA by selective reaction of cysteine residues with amino acid peroxides.

    PubMed

    Dremina, Elena S; Sharov, Victor S; Davies, Michael J; Schöneich, Christian

    2007-10-01

    The oxidative modification of proteins plays an important role in a wide range of pathological processes and aging. Proteins are modified by numerous biologic oxidants including hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, and oxygen- and nitrogen-centered radicals. More recently, an additional class of physiologically important oxidants has been identified, peptide and protein peroxides. The latter react quite rapidly and selectively with protein cysteine residues. The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA) is reversibly regulated through NO-dependent S-glutathiolation of specific cysteine residues. The irreversible oxidation of these cysteine residues could, therefore, impair NO-dependent muscle relaxation. Here, we show that specific protein-derived (amino acid) peroxides react selectively with a subset of the 22 reduced cysteine residues of SERCA1, including a peptide-containing Cys674 and Cys675, where Cys674 (in SERCA2) represents one of the targets for NO-dependent S-glutathiolation. Out of 11 tested amino acid, peptide, and protein peroxides, those derived from free tryptophan and free tyrosine showed the highest reactivity towards SERCA, while no oxidation under similar experimental conditions was detected through hydrogen peroxide. Among the peroxides from tryptophan, those of free tryptophan showed a significantly higher reactivity as compared to those from N- and C-terminally blocked tryptophan. Quantitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated that the highest reactivity of the tryptophan-derived peroxides was observed for Cys774 and Cys938, cysteine residues, which are embedded within the transmembrane domains of SERCA1. This unusual reactivity of transmembrane domains cannot be solely rationalized by the hydrophobicity of the oxidant, as the peroxide from dl-tryptophan shows considerable higher reactivity as compared to the one derived from N-acetyl-tryptophan methyl ester. Our data demonstrate a potential role of peptide- and protein

  7. HIGH-THROUGHPUT IDENTIFICATION OF CATALYTIC REDOX-ACTIVE CYSTEINE RESIDUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cysteine (Cys) residues often play critical roles in proteins; however, identification of their specific functions has been limited to case-by-case experimental approaches. We developed a procedure for high-throughput identification of catalytic redox-active Cys in proteins by se...

  8. HIGH-THROUGHPUT IDENTIFICATION OF CATALYTIC REDOX-ACTIVE CYSTEINE RESIDUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cysteine (Cys) residues often play critical roles in proteins; however, identification of their specific functions has been limited to case-by-case experimental approaches. We developed a procedure for high-throughput identification of catalytic redox-active Cys in proteins by se...

  9. Configuration and racemization determination of cysteine residues in peptides by chiral derivatization and HPLC: application to oxytocin peptides.

    PubMed

    Szabó, S; Szókán, G; Khlafulla, A M; Almás, M; Kiss, C; Rill, A; Schön, I

    2001-06-01

    An improved RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of the configuration and stereochemical purity of cysteine residues in peptides. The method consists of oxidation of cysteine and cystine residues to cysteic acid, followed by hydrolysis and pre-column chiral derivatization with Val-Marfey's reagent.

  10. Novel residues lining the CFTR chloride channel pore identified by functional modification of introduced cysteines.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Mohammad; Linsdell, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Substituted cysteine accessibility mutagenesis (SCAM) has been used widely to identify pore-lining amino acid side chains in ion channel proteins. However, functional effects on permeation and gating can be difficult to separate, leading to uncertainty concerning the location of reactive cysteine side chains. We have combined SCAM with investigation of the charge-dependent effects of methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents on the functional permeation properties of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels. We find that cysteines substituted for seven out of 21 continuous amino acids in the eleventh and twelfth transmembrane (TM) regions can be modified by external application of positively charged [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] MTS bromide (MTSET) and negatively charged sodium [2-sulfonatoethyl] MTS (MTSES). Modification of these cysteines leads to changes in the open channel current-voltage relationship at both the macroscopic and single-channel current levels that reflect specific, charge-dependent effects on the rate of Cl(-) permeation through the channel from the external solution. This approach therefore identifies amino acid side chains that lie within the permeation pathway. Cysteine mutagenesis of pore-lining residues also affects intrapore anion binding and anion selectivity, giving more information regarding the roles of these residues. Our results demonstrate a straightforward method of screening for pore-lining amino acids in ion channels. We suggest that TM11 contributes to the CFTR pore and that the extracellular loop between TMs 11 and 12 lies close to the outer mouth of the pore.

  11. Conformational preferences and pKa value of cysteine residue.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Yun; Byun, Byung Jin; Kang, Young Kee

    2008-09-11

    The conformational preferences of the Cys dipeptides with thiol and thiolate groups (Ac-Cys-NHMe and Ac-Cys (-)-NHMe, respectively) and the apparent (i.e., macroscopic) p K a value of the Cys dipeptide have been studied at the hybrid density functional B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level with the conductor-like polarizable continuum model in the gas phase and in water. The hydrogen bonds and/or favorable interactions between the backbone and the thiol group of the side chain resulted in the different conformational preferences of the Cys and Cys (-) dipeptides from those of the Ala dipeptide in the gas phase and in water, although the preferred conformations of the Cys dipeptide are in part similar to those of the Ala dipeptide. In particular, the interactions between the thiolate group and the backbone amide groups appear to play a role in stabilizing the alpha- or 3 10-helical conformations for the Cys (-) dipeptide in the gas phase and in water. The p K a value of the Cys residue is estimated to be 8.58 at 25 degrees C using the statistically weighted free energies of all feasible conformations for the Cys and Cys (-) dipeptides in the gas phase and solvation free energies, which is consistent with the observed values of 8.3 and 8.22 +/- 0.16.

  12. Toxic tau oligomer formation blocked by capping of cysteine residues with 1,2-dihydroxybenzene groups.

    PubMed

    Soeda, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Misato; Almeida, Osborne F X; Sumioka, Akio; Maeda, Sumihiro; Osada, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Saito, Akiko; Miyasaka, Tomohiro; Kimura, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Masaaki; Koyama, Hiroko; Yoshiike, Yuji; Sugimoto, Hachiro; Ihara, Yasuo; Takashima, Akihiko

    2015-12-16

    Neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated tau fibrils, are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease; the neurofibrillary tangle load correlates strongly with clinical progression of the disease. A growing body of evidence indicates that tau oligomer formation precedes the appearance of neurofibrillary tangles and contributes to neuronal loss. Here we show that tau oligomer formation can be inhibited by compounds whose chemical backbone includes 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. Specifically, we demonstrate that 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-containing compounds bind to and cap cysteine residues of tau and prevent its aggregation by hindering interactions between tau molecules. Further, we show that orally administered DL-isoproterenol, an adrenergic receptor agonist whose skeleton includes 1,2-dihydroxybenzene and which penetrates the brain, reduces the levels of detergent-insoluble tau, neuronal loss and reverses neurofibrillary tangle-associated brain dysfunction. Thus, compounds that target the cysteine residues of tau may prove useful in halting the progression of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies.

  13. Comprehensive cysteine-scanning mutagenesis reveals Claudin-2 pore-lining residues with different intrapore locations.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiahua; Zhuo, Min; Pei, Lei; Rajagopal, Madhumitha; Yu, Alan S L

    2014-03-07

    The first extracellular loop (ECL1) of claudins forms paracellular pores in the tight junction that determine ion permselectivity. We aimed to map the pore-lining residues of claudin-2 by comprehensive cysteine-scanning mutagenesis of ECL1. We screened 45 cysteine mutations within the ECL1 by expression in polyclonal Madin-Darby canine kidney II Tet-Off cells and found nine mutants that displayed a significant decrease of conductance after treatment with the thiol-reactive reagent 2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl methanethiosulfonate, indicating the location of candidate pore-lining residues. Next, we stably expressed these candidates in monoclonal Madin-Darby canine kidney I Tet-Off cells and exposed them to thiol-reactive reagents. The maximum degree of inhibition of conductance, size selectivity of degree of inhibition, and size dependence of the kinetics of reaction were used to deduce the location of residues within the pore. Our data support the following sequence of pore-lining residues located from the narrowest to the widest part of the pore: Ser(68), Ser(47), Thr(62)/Ile(66), Thr(56), Thr(32)/Gly(45), and Met(52). The paracellular pore appears to primarily be lined by polar side chains, as expected for a predominantly aqueous environment. Furthermore, our results strongly suggest the existence of a continuous sequence of residues in the ECL1 centered around Asp(65)-Ser(68) that form a major part of the lining of the pore.

  14. Comprehensive Cysteine-scanning Mutagenesis Reveals Claudin-2 Pore-lining Residues with Different Intrapore Locations*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiahua; Zhuo, Min; Pei, Lei; Rajagopal, Madhumitha; Yu, Alan S. L.

    2014-01-01

    The first extracellular loop (ECL1) of claudins forms paracellular pores in the tight junction that determine ion permselectivity. We aimed to map the pore-lining residues of claudin-2 by comprehensive cysteine-scanning mutagenesis of ECL1. We screened 45 cysteine mutations within the ECL1 by expression in polyclonal Madin-Darby canine kidney II Tet-Off cells and found nine mutants that displayed a significant decrease of conductance after treatment with the thiol-reactive reagent 2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl methanethiosulfonate, indicating the location of candidate pore-lining residues. Next, we stably expressed these candidates in monoclonal Madin-Darby canine kidney I Tet-Off cells and exposed them to thiol-reactive reagents. The maximum degree of inhibition of conductance, size selectivity of degree of inhibition, and size dependence of the kinetics of reaction were used to deduce the location of residues within the pore. Our data support the following sequence of pore-lining residues located from the narrowest to the widest part of the pore: Ser68, Ser47, Thr62/Ile66, Thr56, Thr32/Gly45, and Met52. The paracellular pore appears to primarily be lined by polar side chains, as expected for a predominantly aqueous environment. Furthermore, our results strongly suggest the existence of a continuous sequence of residues in the ECL1 centered around Asp65–Ser68 that form a major part of the lining of the pore. PMID:24436330

  15. Conserved Cysteine Residues Provide a Protein-Protein Interaction Surface in Dual Oxidase (DUOX) Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Meitzler, Jennifer L.; Hinde, Sara; Bánfi, Botond; Nauseef, William M.; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Intramolecular disulfide bond formation is promoted in oxidizing extracellular and endoplasmic reticulum compartments and often contributes to protein stability and function. DUOX1 and DUOX2 are distinguished from other members of the NOX protein family by the presence of a unique extracellular N-terminal region. These peroxidase-like domains lack the conserved cysteines that confer structural stability to mammalian peroxidases. Sequence-based structure predictions suggest that the thiol groups present are solvent-exposed on a single protein surface and are too distant to support intramolecular disulfide bond formation. To investigate the role of these thiol residues, we introduced four individual cysteine to glycine mutations in the peroxidase-like domains of both human DUOXs and purified the recombinant proteins. The mutations caused little change in the stabilities of the monomeric proteins, supporting the hypothesis that the thiol residues are solvent-exposed and not involved in disulfide bonds that are critical for structural integrity. However, the ability of the isolated hDUOX1 peroxidase-like domain to dimerize was altered, suggesting a role for these cysteines in protein-protein interactions that could facilitate homodimerization of the peroxidase-like domain or, in the full-length protein, heterodimeric interactions with a maturation protein. When full-length hDUOX1 was expressed in HEK293 cells, the mutations resulted in decreased H2O2 production that correlated with a decreased amount of the enzyme localized to the membrane surface rather than with a loss of activity or with a failure to synthesize the mutant proteins. These results support a role for the cysteine residues in intermolecular disulfide bond formation with the DUOX maturation factor DUOXA1. PMID:23362256

  16. Solution oxygen-17 NMR application for observing a peroxidized cysteine residue in oxidized human SOD1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Noriko; Yoshihara, Daisaku; Sakiyama, Haruhiko; Eguchi, Hironobu; Suzuki, Keiichiro

    2016-12-01

    NMR active nuclei, 1H, 13C and 15N, are usually used for determination of protein structure. However, solution 17O-NMR application to proteins is extremely limited although oxygen is an essential element in biomolecules. Proteins are oxidized through cysteine residues by two types of oxidation. One is reversible oxidation such as disulphide bonding (Cys-S-S-Cys) and the other is irreversible oxidation to cysteine sulfinic acid (Cys-SO 2H) and cysteine sulfonic acid (Cys-SO 3H). Copper,Zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a key enzyme in the protection of cells from the superoxide anion radical. The SH group at Cys 111 residue in human SOD1 is selectively oxidized to -SO 2H and -SO 3H with atmospheric oxygen, and this oxidized human SOD1 is also suggested to play an important role in the pathophysiology of various neurodegenerative diseases, probably mainly via protein aggregation. Therefore, information on the structural and the dynamics of the oxidized cysteine residue would be crucial for the understanding of protein aggregation mechanism. Although the -SO 3H group on proteins cannot be directly detected by conventional NMR techniques, we successfully performed the site-specific 17O-labeling of Cys 111 in SOD1 using ^{17}it {O}2 gas and the 17O-NMR analysis for the first time. We observed clear 17O signal derived from a protein molecule and show that 17O-NMR is a sensitive probe for studying the structure and dynamics of the 17O-labeled protein molecule. This novel and unique strategy can have great impact on many research fields in biology and chemistry.

  17. Human xylosyltransferase I: functional and biochemical characterization of cysteine residues required for enzymic activity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sandra; Schöttler, Manuela; Schön, Sylvia; Prante, Christian; Brinkmann, Thomas; Kuhn, Joachim; Götting, Christian; Kleesiek, Knut

    2005-03-01

    XT-I (xylosyltransferase I) is the initial enzyme in the post-translational biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycan chains in proteoglycans. To gain insight into the structure-function relationship of the enzyme, a soluble active form of human XT-I was expressed in High Five insect cells with an apparent molecular mass of 90 kDa. Analysis of the electrophoretic mobility of the protein under non-reducing and reducing conditions indicated that soluble XT-I does not form homodimers through disulphide bridges. In addition, the role of the cysteine residues was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis combined with chemical modifications of XT-I by N-phenylmaleimide. Replacement of Cys471 or Cys574 with alanine led to a complete loss of catalytic activity, indicating the necessity of these residues for maintaining an active conformation of soluble recombinant XT-I by forming disulphide bonds. On the other hand, N-phenylmaleimide treatment showed no effect on wild-type XT-I but strongly inactivated the cysteine mutants in a dose-dependant manner, indicating that seven intramolecular disulphide bridges are formed in wild-type XT-I. The inhibitory effect of UDP on the XT-I activity of C561A (Cys561-->Ala) mutant enzyme was significantly reduced compared with all other tested cysteine mutants. In addition, we tested for binding to UDP-agarose beads. The inactive mutants revealed no significantly different nucleotide-binding properties. Our study demonstrates that recombinant XT-I is organized as a monomer with no free thiol groups and strongly suggests that the catalytic activity does not depend on the presence of free thiol groups, furthermore, we identified five cysteine residues which are critical for enzyme activity.

  18. Expression and mutational analysis of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus HCF-1: functional requirements for cysteine residues.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joyce A; Forney, Scott D; Ricci, Alessondra M; Allen, Emily G; Hefferon, Kathleen L; Miller, Lois K

    2005-11-01

    The host cell-specific factor 1 gene (hcf-1) of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus is required for efficient virus growth in TN368 cells but is dispensable for virus replication in SF21 cells. However, the mechanism of action of hcf-1 is unknown. To begin to understand its function in virus replication we have investigated the expression and localization pattern of HCF-1 in infected cells. Analysis of virus-infected TN368 cells showed that hcf-1 is expressed at an early time in the virus life cycle, between 2 and 12 h postinfection, and localized the protein to punctate nuclear foci. Through coprecipitation experiments we have confirmed that HCF-1 self-associates into dimers or higher-order structures. We also found that overexpression of HCF-1 repressed expression from the hcf-1 promoter in transient reporter assays. Mutagenesis of cysteine residues within a putative RING finger domain in the amino acid sequence of HCF-1 abolished self-association activity and suggests that the RING domain may be involved in this protein-protein interaction. A different but overlapping set of cysteine residues were required for efficient gene repression activity. Functional analysis of HCF-1 mutants showed that the cysteine amino acids required for both self-association and gene repression activities of HCF-1 were also required for efficient late-gene expression and occlusion body formation in TN368 cells. Mutational analysis also identified essential charged and hydrophobic amino acids located between two of the essential cysteine residues. We propose that HCF-1 is a RING finger-containing protein whose activity requires HCF-1 self-association and gene repression activity.

  19. Signal transduction in light–oxygen–voltage receptors lacking the adduct-forming cysteine residue

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Estella F.; Diensthuber, Ralph P.; Vaidya, Anand T.; Borbat, Peter P.; Engelhard, Christopher; Freed, Jack H.; Bittl, Robert; Möglich, Andreas; Crane, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Light–oxygen–voltage (LOV) receptors sense blue light through the photochemical generation of a covalent adduct between a flavin-nucleotide chromophore and a strictly conserved cysteine residue. Here we show that, after cysteine removal, the circadian-clock LOV-protein Vivid still undergoes light-induced dimerization and signalling because of flavin photoreduction to the neutral semiquinone (NSQ). Similarly, photoreduction of the engineered LOV histidine kinase YF1 to the NSQ modulates activity and downstream effects on gene expression. Signal transduction in both proteins hence hinges on flavin protonation, which is common to both the cysteinyl adduct and the NSQ. This general mechanism is also conserved by natural cysteine-less, LOV-like regulators that respond to chemical or photoreduction of their flavin cofactors. As LOV proteins can react to light even when devoid of the adduct-forming cysteine, modern LOV photoreceptors may have arisen from ancestral redox-active flavoproteins. The ability to tune LOV reactivity through photoreduction may have important implications for LOV mechanism and optogenetic applications. PMID:26648256

  20. Signal transduction in light-oxygen-voltage receptors lacking the adduct-forming cysteine residue.

    PubMed

    Yee, Estella F; Diensthuber, Ralph P; Vaidya, Anand T; Borbat, Peter P; Engelhard, Christopher; Freed, Jack H; Bittl, Robert; Möglich, Andreas; Crane, Brian R

    2015-12-09

    Light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) receptors sense blue light through the photochemical generation of a covalent adduct between a flavin-nucleotide chromophore and a strictly conserved cysteine residue. Here we show that, after cysteine removal, the circadian-clock LOV-protein Vivid still undergoes light-induced dimerization and signalling because of flavin photoreduction to the neutral semiquinone (NSQ). Similarly, photoreduction of the engineered LOV histidine kinase YF1 to the NSQ modulates activity and downstream effects on gene expression. Signal transduction in both proteins hence hinges on flavin protonation, which is common to both the cysteinyl adduct and the NSQ. This general mechanism is also conserved by natural cysteine-less, LOV-like regulators that respond to chemical or photoreduction of their flavin cofactors. As LOV proteins can react to light even when devoid of the adduct-forming cysteine, modern LOV photoreceptors may have arisen from ancestral redox-active flavoproteins. The ability to tune LOV reactivity through photoreduction may have important implications for LOV mechanism and optogenetic applications.

  1. Ganglioside glycosyltransferases are S-acylated at conserved cysteine residues involved in homodimerisation.

    PubMed

    Chumpen Ramirez, Sabrina; Ruggiero, Fernando M; Daniotti, Jose Luis; Valdez Taubas, Javier

    2017-08-07

    Ganglioside glycosyltransferases (GGTs) are type II membrane proteins bearing a short N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, a transmembrane domain (TMD), and a lumenal catalytic domain. The expression and activity of these enzymes largely determine the quality of the glycolipids that decorate mammalian cell membranes. Many glycosyltransferases (GTs) are themselves glycosylated, and this is important for their proper localisation, but few if any other post-translational modifications of these proteins have been reported. Here, we show that the GGTs, ST3Gal-V, ST8Sia-I, and β4GalNAcT-I are S-acylated at conserved cysteine residues located close to the cytoplasmic border of their TMDs. ST3Gal-II, a GT that sialylates glycolipids and glycoproteins, is also S-acylated at a conserved cysteine located in the N-terminal cytoplasmic tail. Many other GTs also possess cysteine residues in their cytoplasmic regions, suggesting that this modification occurs also on these GTs. S-acylation, commonly known as palmitoylation, is catalysed by a family of palmitoyltransferases (PATs) that are mostly localised at the Golgi complex but also at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane. Using GT ER retention mutants, we found that S-acylation of β4GalNAcT-I and ST3Gal-II takes place at different compartments, suggesting that these enzymes are not substrates of the same PAT. Finally, we found that cysteines that are the target of S-acylation on β4GalNAcT-I and ST3Gal-II are involved in the formation of homodimers through disulphide bonds. We observed an increase in ST3Gal-II dimers in the presence of the PAT inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate, suggesting that GT homodimerisation may be regulating S-acylation. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. Redox Biology: Computational Approaches to the Investigation of Functional Cysteine Residues

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Stefano M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cysteine (Cys) residues serve many functions, such as catalysis, stabilization of protein structure through disulfides, metal binding, and regulation of protein function. Cys residues are also subject to numerous post-translational modifications. In recent years, various computational tools aiming at classifying and predicting different functional categories of Cys have been developed, particularly for structural and catalytic Cys. On the other hand, given complexity of the subject, bioinformatics approaches have been less successful for the investigation of regulatory Cys sites. In this review, we introduce different functional categories of Cys residues. For each category, an overview of state-of-the-art bioinformatics methods and tools is provided, along with examples of successful applications and potential limitations associated with each approach. Finally, we discuss Cys-based redox switches, which modify the view of distinct functional categories of Cys in proteins. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 135–146. PMID:20812876

  3. A critical cysteine residue in monoacylglycerol lipase is targeted by a new class of isothiazolinone-based enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    King, A R; Lodola, A; Carmi, C; Fu, J; Mor, M; Piomelli, D

    2009-07-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) is a presynaptic serine hydrolase that inactivates the endocannabinoid neurotransmitter, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol. Recent studies suggest that cysteine residues proximal to the enzyme active site are important for MGL function. In the present study, we characterize the role of cysteines in MGL function and identify a series of cysteine-reactive agents that inhibit MGL activity with nanomolar potencies by interacting with cysteine residue 208. A series of cysteine traps were screened for the ability to inhibit MGL in vitro. Rapid dilution assays were performed to determine reversibility of inhibition. Molecular modelling and site-directed mutagenesis were utilized to identify cysteine residues targeted by the inhibitors. The screening revealed that 2-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (octhilinone) inhibited purified rat recombinant MGL (IC(50)= 88 +/- 12 nM) through a partially reversible mechanism. Initial structure-activity relationship studies showed that substitution of the n-octyl group of octhilinone with a more lipophilic oleoyl group increased inhibitor potency (IC(50)= 43 +/- 8 nM), while substitution with a methyl group produced the opposite effect (IC(50)= 239 +/- 68 nM). The inhibitory potency of octhilinone was selectively decreased by mutating cysteine 208 in MGL to glycine (IC(50); wild-type, 151 +/- 17 nM; C208G, 722 +/- 74 nM), but not by mutation of other cysteine residues (C32, C55, C201, C208 and C242). The results indicated that cysteine 208 plays an important role in MGL function and identified a novel class of isothiazolinone-based MGL inhibitors with nanomolar potency in vitro.

  4. A critical cysteine residue in monoacylglycerol lipase is targeted by a new class of isothiazolinone-based enzyme inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    King, AR; Lodola, A; Carmi, C; Fu, J; Mor, M; Piomelli, D

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) is a presynaptic serine hydrolase that inactivates the endocannabinoid neurotransmitter, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol. Recent studies suggest that cysteine residues proximal to the enzyme active site are important for MGL function. In the present study, we characterize the role of cysteines in MGL function and identify a series of cysteine-reactive agents that inhibit MGL activity with nanomolar potencies by interacting with cysteine residue 208. Experimental approach: A series of cysteine traps were screened for the ability to inhibit MGL in vitro. Rapid dilution assays were performed to determine reversibility of inhibition. Molecular modelling and site-directed mutagenesis were utilized to identify cysteine residues targeted by the inhibitors. Key results: The screening revealed that 2-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (octhilinone) inhibited purified rat recombinant MGL (IC50= 88 ± 12 nM) through a partially reversible mechanism. Initial structure–activity relationship studies showed that substitution of the n-octyl group of octhilinone with a more lipophilic oleoyl group increased inhibitor potency (IC50= 43 ± 8 nM), while substitution with a methyl group produced the opposite effect (IC50= 239 ± 68 nM). The inhibitory potency of octhilinone was selectively decreased by mutating cysteine 208 in MGL to glycine (IC50; wild-type, 151 ± 17 nM; C208G, 722 ± 74 nM), but not by mutation of other cysteine residues (C32, C55, C201, C208 and C242). Conclusions and implications: The results indicated that cysteine 208 plays an important role in MGL function and identified a novel class of isothiazolinone-based MGL inhibitors with nanomolar potency in vitro. PMID:19486005

  5. Vitamin B12 Inhibits Tau Fibrillization via Binding to Cysteine Residues of Tau.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Saharnaz; Asadollahi, Kazem; Riazi, Gholamhossein; Ahmadian, Shahin; Saboury, Ali Akbar

    2017-09-06

    Two mechanisms underlie the inhibitory/acceleratory action of chemical compounds on tau aggregation including the regulation of cellular kinases and phosphatases activity and direct binding to tau protein. Vitamin B12 is one of the tau polymerization inhibitors, and its deficiency is linked to inactivation of protein phosphatase 2A and subsequently hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein. Regarding the structure and function of vitamin B12 and tau protein, we assumed that vitamin B12 is also able to directly bind to tau protein. Hence, we investigated the interaction of vitamin B12 with tau protein in vitro using fluorometry and circular dichrosim. Interaction studies was followed by investigation into the effect of vitamin B12 on tau aggregation using ThT fluorescence, circular dichroism, transmission electron microscopy, and SDS-PAGE. The results indicated that vitamin B12 interacts with tau protein and prevents fibrillization of tau protein. Blocking the cysteine residues of tau confirmed the cysteine-mediated binding of vitamin B12 to tau and showed that binding to cysteine is essential for inhibitory effect of vitamin B12 on tau aggregation. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that vitamin B12 inhibits tau aggregation and that tau oligomers formed in the presence of vitamin B12 are mostly SDS-soluble. We propose that direct binding of vitamin B12 is another mechanism underlying the inhibitory role of vitamin B12 on tau aggregation and neurodegeneration.

  6. Role of cysteine residues and disulfide bonds in the activity of a legume root nodule-specific, cysteine-rich peptide.

    PubMed

    Haag, Andreas F; Kerscher, Bernhard; Dall'Angelo, Sergio; Sani, Monica; Longhi, Renato; Baloban, Mikhail; Wilson, Heather M; Mergaert, Peter; Zanda, Matteo; Ferguson, Gail P

    2012-03-30

    The root nodules of certain legumes including Medicago truncatula produce >300 different nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides. Medicago NCR antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) mediate the differentiation of the bacterium, Sinorhizobium meliloti into a nitrogen-fixing bacteroid within the legume root nodules. In vitro, NCR AMPs such as NCR247 induced bacteroid features and exhibited antimicrobial activity against S. meliloti. The bacterial BacA protein is critical to prevent S. meliloti from being hypersensitive toward NCR AMPs. NCR AMPs are cationic and have conserved cysteine residues, which form disulfide (S-S) bridges. However, the natural configuration of NCR AMP S-S bridges and the role of these in the activity of the peptide are unknown. In this study, we found that either cysteine replacements or S-S bond modifications influenced the activity of NCR247 against S. meliloti. Specifically, either substitution of cysteines for serines, changing the S-S bridges from cysteines 1-2, 3-4 to 1-3, 2-4 or oxidation of NCR247 lowered its activity against S. meliloti. We also determined that BacA specifically protected S. meliloti against oxidized NCR247. Due to the large number of different NCRs synthesized by legume root nodules and the importance of bacterial BacA proteins for prolonged host infections, these findings have important implications for analyzing the function of these novel peptides and the protective role of BacA in the bacterial response toward these peptides.

  7. Cysteine residues of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5a protein are not essential for virus viability.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lichang; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Runxia; Li, Yanhua; Gao, Fei; Wang, Xiaomin; Fan, Hongjie; Yuan, Shishan; Wei, Zuzhang; Tong, Guangzhi

    2015-02-02

    ORF5a protein was recently identified as a novel structural protein in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The ORF5a protein possesses two cysteines at positions 29 and 30 that are highly conserved among type 2 PRRSV. In this study, the significance of the ORF5a protein cysteine residues on virus replication was determined based on a type 2 PRRSV cDNA clone (pAJXM). Each cysteine was substituted by serine or glycine and the mutations were introduced into pAJXM. We found that the replacement of cysteine to glycine at position 30 was lethal for virus viability, but all serine mutant clones produced infectious progeny viruses. This data indicated that cysteine residues in the ORF5a protein were not essential for replication of type 2 PRRSV. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay were used to study ORF5a protein interacted with other enveloped proteins. These results showed that ORF5a protein interacted non-covalently with itself and interacted with GP4 and 2b protein. The replacement of cysteine to glycine at position 30 affected the ORF5a protein interacted non-covalently with itself, which may account for the lethal phenotype of mutants carrying substitution of cysteine to glycine at position 30.

  8. Evidence for the presence of essential histidine and cysteine residues in platelet cGMP-inhibited phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed Central

    Ghazaleh, F A; Omburo, G A; Colman, R W

    1996-01-01

    Camp is a major regulator of platelet function. cGMP-inhibited phosphodiesterase (cGI-PDE) is the predominant platelet enzyme hydrolysing cAMP. The pH-rate profile plot for this enzyme yields pKa values of 6.5 and 9.0, consistent with histidine and cysteine residues respectively. Diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEP) inactivates cGI-PDE in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and this effect was rapidly reversed by hydroxylamine. It was estimated that 2 mol of histidine residues per mol of enzyme were responsible for the loss of catalytic activity, as deduced from the correlation of the difference spectrum at 240 nm of the DEP-modified cGI-PDE with the enzyme activity. N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM) and 5.5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) inactivate cGI-PDE in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, suggesting the selective modification of a cysteine residue. AMP protects the enzyme against DEP, NEM and DTNB, suggesting the presence of histidine and cysteine residues at the active site of cGI-PDE. [14C]DEP incorporation in the presence of AMP or cGMP indicates the protection of two histidine residues by each nucleotide. These residues are different for each agent, since the combination of AMP and cGMP protects four histidine residues. [3H]NEM incorporation showed that 1 mol of cysteine per mol of cGI-PDE was protected by AMP, but not only by cGMP. We conclude that cGI-PDE possesses two essential histidine residues for activity, two additional histidines for cGMP inhibition, and one cysteine residue at the active site. PMID:8713077

  9. Importance of cysteine residues in the thyroid hormone transporter MCT8.

    PubMed

    Lima de Souza, Elaine C; Groeneweg, Stefan; Visser, W Edward; Peeters, Robin P; Visser, Theo J

    2013-05-01

    The thyroid hormone (TH) transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is crucial for brain development as demonstrated by the severe psychomotor retardation in patients with MCT8 mutations. MCT8 contains 10 residues of the reactive amino acid cysteine (Cys) whose functional roles were studied using the Cys-specific reagent p-chloromercurybenzenesulfonate (pCMBS) and by site-directed mutagenesis. Pretreatment of JEG3 cells with pCMBS resulted in a dose- and time-dependent decrease of subsequent T3 uptake. Pretreatment with dithiothreitol did not affect TH transport or its inhibition by pCMBS. However, pCMBS inhibition of MCT8 was reversed by dithiothreitol. Inhibition of MCT8 by pCMBS was prevented in the presence of T3. The single and double mutation of C481A and C497A did not affect T3 transport, but the single mutants were less sensitive and the double mutant was completely insensitive to pCMBS. Similar effects on MCT8 were obtained using HgCl2 instead of pCMBS. In conclusion, we have identified Cys481 and Cys497 in MCT8 as the residues modified by pCMBS or HgCl2. These residues are probably located at or near the substrate-recognition site in MCT8. It remains to be investigated whether MCT8 function is regulated by modification of these Cys residues under pathophysiological conditions.

  10. Modification of cysteine residues by cyclopentenone prostaglandins: interplay with redox regulation of protein function.

    PubMed

    Oeste, Clara L; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (cyPG) are endogenous lipid mediators involved in the resolution of inflammation and the regulation of cell proliferation and cellular redox status. Upon exogenous administration they have shown beneficial effects in models of inflammation and tissue injury, as well as potential antitumoral actions, which have raised a considerable interest in their study for the development of therapeutic tools. Due to their electrophilic nature, the best-known mechanism of action of these mediators is the covalent modification of proteins at cysteine residues through Michael addition. Identification of cyPG targets through proteomic approaches, including MS/MS analysis to pinpoint the modified residues, is proving critical to characterize their mechanisms of action. Among the targets of cyPG are proinflammatory transcription factors, proteins involved in cell defense, such as the regulator of the antioxidant response Keap1 and detoxifying enzymes like GST, and key signaling proteins like Ras proteins. Moreover, cyPG may interact with redox-active small molecules, such as glutathione and hydrogen sulfide. Much has been learned about cyPG in the past few years and this knowledge has also contributed to clarify both pharmacological actions and signaling mechanisms of these and other electrophilic lipids. Given the fact that many cyPG targets are involved in or are targets for redox regulation, there is a complex interplay with redox-induced modifications. Here we address the modification of protein cysteine residues by cyPG elucidated by proteomic studies, paying special attention to the interplay with redox signaling.

  11. Site-Specifically Labeled Immunoconjugates for Molecular Imaging--Part 1: Cysteine Residues and Glycans.

    PubMed

    Adumeau, Pierre; Sharma, Sai Kiran; Brent, Colleen; Zeglis, Brian M

    2016-02-01

    Due to their remarkable selectivity and specificity for cancer biomarkers, immunoconjugates have emerged as extremely promising vectors for the delivery of diagnostic radioisotopes and fluorophores to malignant tissues. Paradoxically, however, these tools for precision medicine are synthesized in a remarkably imprecise way. Indeed, the vast majority of immunoconjugates are created via the random conjugation of bifunctional probes (e.g., DOTA-NCS) to amino acids within the antibody (e.g., lysines). Yet antibodies have multiple copies of these residues throughout their macromolecular structure, making control over the location of the conjugation reaction impossible. This lack of site specificity can lead to the formation of poorly defined, heterogeneous immunoconjugates with suboptimal in vivo behavior. Over the past decade, interest in the synthesis and development of site-specifically labeled immunoconjugates--both antibody-drug conjugates as well as constructs for in vivo imaging--has increased dramatically, and a number of reports have suggested that these better defined, more homogeneous constructs exhibit improved performance in vivo compared to their randomly modified cousins. In this two-part review, we seek to provide an overview of the various methods that have been developed to create site-specifically modified immunoconjugates for positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, and fluorescence imaging. We will begin with an introduction to the structure of antibodies and antibody fragments. This is followed by the core of the work: sections detailing the four different approaches to site-specific modification strategies based on cysteine residues, glycans, peptide tags, and unnatural amino acids. These discussions will be divided into two installments: cysteine residues and glycans will be detailed in Part 1 of the review, while peptide tags and unnatural amino acids will be addressed in Part 2. Ultimately, we sincerely hope

  12. Detection of protein adduction derived from styrene oxide to cysteine residues by alkaline permethylation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jieyu; Zhang, Fan; Zheng, Jiang

    2010-10-01

    Styrene oxide-cysteine adduction is predominantly involved in protein covalent modification after exposure in vivo to styrene or styrene oxide. In the present study, we developed an alkaline permethylation- and GC/MS-based approach to detect styrene oxide-derived protein adduction. Permethylation of the protein adducts produced two methylthiophenylethanols, namely 2-methylthio-2-phenyl-1-ethanol and 2-methylthio-1-phenyl-1-ethanol. To improve the permethylation efficiency, reaction conditions, including temperature, time, NaOH strength, and molar ratio of CH(3)I/NaOH, were explored. Under optimized conditions, the yields of the analyte formation resulting from permethylation of authentic standard alpha- and beta-mercapturic acids, representing alpha and beta isomers of cysteine adducts, were 35% and 28%, respectively. Permethylation of styrene oxide-modified bovine serum albumin released the two methylthiophenylethanols with an alpha-/beta-adduction ratio of 1.5. A concentration-dependent increase in both alpha- and beta-adduction was observed in mouse liver microsomes incubated with styrene at various concentrations. CD-1 mice were administered intraperitoneally with styrene at doses of 0, 50, and 400mg/kg daily for 5 days. The formation of protein adducts derived from styrene oxide in whole blood in 400mg/kg group was observed with an alpha/beta ratio of 4.8, suggesting that the reaction of styrene oxide with cysteine residues took place more likely at the alpha-carbon than the beta-carbon of styrene oxide. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Role of Cysteine Residues in Catalysis of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Machová, Iva; Hubálek, Martin; Lepšík, Martin; Bednárová, Lucie; Pazderková, Markéta; Kopecký, Vladimír; Snášel, Jan; Dostál, Jiří; Pichová, Iva

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, can persist in macrophages for decades, maintaining its basic metabolic activities. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck; EC 4.1.1.32) is a key player in central carbon metabolism regulation. In replicating MTb, Pck is associated with gluconeogenesis, but in non-replicating MTb, it also catalyzes the reverse anaplerotic reaction. Here, we explored the role of selected cysteine residues in function of MTb Pck under different redox conditions. Using mass spectrometry analysis we confirmed formation of S–S bridge between cysteines C391 and C397 localized in the C-terminal subdomain. Molecular dynamics simulations of C391-C397 bridged model indicated local conformation changes needed for formation of the disulfide. Further, we used circular dichroism and Raman spectroscopy to analyze the influence of C391 and C397 mutations on Pck secondary and tertiary structures, and on enzyme activity and specificity. We demonstrate the regulatory role of C391 and C397 that form the S–S bridge and in the reduced form stabilize Pck tertiary structure and conformation for gluconeogenic and anaplerotic reactions. PMID:28135343

  14. Improved identification of wheat gluten proteins through alkylation of cysteine residues and peptide-based mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rombouts, Ine; Lagrain, Bert; Brunnbauer, Markus; Delcour, Jan A.; Koehler, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The concentration and composition of wheat gluten proteins and the presence, concentration and location of cysteine residues therein are important for wheat flour quality. However, it is difficult to identify gluten proteins, as they are an extremely polymorphic mixture of prolamins. We here present methods for cysteine labeling of wheat prolamins with 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and iodoacetamide (IDAM) which, as compared to label-free analysis, substantially improve identification of cysteine-containing peptides in enzymic prolamin digests by electrospray ionization - tandem mass spectrometry. Both chymotrypsin and thermolysin yielded cysteine-containing peptides from different gluten proteins, but more proteins could be identified after chymotryptic digestion. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, we were the first to label prolamins with isotope coded affinity tags (ICAT), which are commonly used for quantitative proteomics. However, more peptides were detected after labeling gluten proteins with 4-VP and IDAM than with ICAT. PMID:23880742

  15. Two Conserved Cysteine Residues Are Required for the Masculinizing Activity of the Silkworm Masc Protein.

    PubMed

    Katsuma, Susumu; Sugano, Yudai; Kiuchi, Takashi; Shimada, Toru

    2015-10-23

    We have recently discovered that the Masculinizer (Masc) gene encodes a CCCH tandem zinc finger protein, which controls both masculinization and dosage compensation in the silkworm Bombyx mori. In this study, we attempted to identify functional regions or residues that are required for the masculinizing activity of the Masc protein. We constructed a series of plasmids that expressed the Masc derivatives and transfected them into a B. mori ovary-derived cell line, BmN-4. To assess the masculinizing activity of the Masc derivatives, we investigated the splicing patterns of B. mori doublesex (Bmdsx) and the expression levels of B. mori IGF-II mRNA-binding protein, a splicing regulator of Bmdsx, in Masc cDNA-transfected BmN-4 cells. We found that two zinc finger domains are not required for the masculinizing activity. We also identified that the C-terminal 288 amino acid residues are sufficient for the masculinizing activity of the Masc protein. Further detailed analyses revealed that two cysteine residues, Cys-301 and Cys-304, in the highly conserved region among lepidopteran Masc proteins are essential for the masculinizing activity in BmN-4 cells. Finally, we showed that Masc is a nuclear protein, but its nuclear localization is not tightly associated with the masculinizing activity.

  16. Alanine substitutions of noncysteine residues in the cysteine-stabilized αβ motif

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying-Fang; Cheng, Kuo-Chang; Tsai, Ping-Hsing; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Lee, Tian-Ren; Ping-Chiang Lyu

    2009-01-01

    The protein scaffold is a peptide framework with a high tolerance of residue modifications. The cysteine-stabilized αβ motif (CSαβ) consists of an α-helix and an antiparallel triple-stranded β-sheet connected by two disulfide bridges. Proteins containing this motif share low sequence identity but high structural similarity and has been suggested as a good scaffold for protein engineering. The Vigna radiate defensin 1 (VrD1), a plant defensin, serves here as a model protein to probe the amino acid tolerance of CSαβ motif. A systematic alanine substitution is performed on the VrD1. The key residues governing the inhibitory function and structure stability are monitored. Thirty-two of 46 residue positions of VrD1 are altered by site-directed mutagenesis techniques. The circular dichroism spectrum, intrinsic fluorescence spectrum, and chemical denaturation are used to analyze the conformation and structural stability of proteins. The secondary structures were highly tolerant to the amino acid substitutions; however, the protein stabilities were varied for each mutant. Many mutants, although they maintained their conformations, altered their inhibitory function significantly. In this study, we reported the first alanine scan on the plant defensin containing the CSαβ motif. The information is valuable to the scaffold with the CSαβ motif and protein engineering. PMID:19533758

  17. Mutational analysis of extracellular cysteine residues of rat secretin receptor shows that disulfide bridges are essential for receptor function.

    PubMed

    Vilardaga, J P; Di Paolo, E; Bialek, C; De Neef, P; Waelbroeck, M; Bollen, A; Robberecht, P

    1997-05-15

    We attempted to express point-mutant secretin receptors where each of the 10 extracellular Cys residues was replaced by a Ser residue, in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Six of the point-mutant receptors (C24-->S, C44-->S, C53-->S, C67-->S, C85-->S and C101-->S) could not be detected by binding or functional studies: the mutations resulted in functional inactivation of the receptor. In contrast, the four other point-mutant receptors (C11-->S, C186-->S, C193-->S and C263-->S) were able to bind poorly 125I-secretin, and to activate adenylate cyclase with high secretin EC50 values. These results suggest that cysteine residues 24, 44, 53, 67, 85 and 101 are necessary for receptor function, and that the two putative disulfide bridges formed by cysteine residues 11, 186, 193 and 263 are functionally relevant, but not essential for receptor expression. Secretin activated the adenylate cyclase through the quadruple mutant (C11,186,193,263-->S), the four triple mutants, and through double mutants C186,193-->S and C186,263-->S with a very high (microM) EC50 value, suggesting that, in the wild-type receptor, disulfide bridges are formed between C11-C186, and between C193-C263. Prior treatment with dithiothreitol resulted in a marked EC50 increase of the wild-type receptor and of those receptors with at least the two cysteine residues in positions 11 and 186, suggesting that the C11-C186 (but not the C193-C263) disulfide bridge was accessible to this reducing agent. Several results nevertheless indicated that, in mutant receptors, alternative disulfide bridges can be formed between cysteine 186 and cysteine 193 or 263, suggesting that these three residues are in close spatial proximity in the wild-type receptor.

  18. Role of a cysteine residue in the active site of ERK and the MAPKK family

    SciTech Connect

    Ohori, Makoto; Kinoshita, Takayoshi; Yoshimura, Seiji; Warizaya, Masaichi; Nakajima, Hidenori . E-mail: hidenori.nakajima@jp.astellas.com; Miyake, Hiroshi

    2007-02-16

    Kinases of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), represent likely targets for pharmacological intervention in proliferative diseases. Here, we report that FR148083 inhibits ERK2 enzyme activity and TGF{beta}-induced AP-1-dependent luciferase expression with respective IC{sub 50} values of 0.08 and 0.05 {mu}M. FR265083 (1'-2' dihydro form) and FR263574 (1'-2' and 7'-8' tetrahydro form) exhibited 5.5-fold less and no activity, respectively, indicating that both the {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated ketone and the conformation of the lactone ring contribute to this inhibitory activity. The X-ray crystal structure of the ERK2/FR148083 complex revealed that the compound binds to the ATP binding site of ERK2, involving a covalent bond to S{gamma} of ERK2 Cys166, hydrogen bonds with the backbone NH of Met108, N{zeta} of Lys114, backbone C=O of Ser153, N{delta}2 of Asn154, and hydrophobic interactions with the side chains of Ile31, Val39, Ala52, and Leu156. The covalent bond motif in the ERK2/FR148083 complex assures that the inhibitor has high activity for ERK2 and no activity for other MAPKs such as JNK1 and p38MAPK{alpha}/{beta}/{gamma}/{delta} which have leucine residues at the site corresponding to Cys166 in ERK2. On the other hand, MEK1 and MKK7, kinases of the MAPKK family which also can be inhibited by FR148083, contain a cysteine residue corresponding to Cys166 of ERK2. The covalent binding to the common cysteine residue in the ATP-binding site is therefore likely to play a crucial role in the inhibitory activity for these MAP kinases. These findings on the molecular recognition mechanisms of FR148083 for kinases with Cys166 should provide a novel strategy for the pharmacological intervention of MAPK cascades.

  19. Screening of the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G H; Wang, S T; Yao, M Z; Cai, J H; Chen, C Y; Yang, Z X; Hong, L; Yang, S Y

    2014-04-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and methods of screening the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR3) were subcutaneously implanted for a tumor source and ovarian orthotopic transplantation. The cancer tissue, proximal paraneoplastic tissue, middle paraneoplastic tissue, remote paraneoplastic tissue, and normal ovarian tissue were removed. CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We obtained 35 paraneoplastic residual ovarian tissues with normal biopsies from 40 cases of an orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinoma model (87.5%). CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was lower in proximal paraneoplastic tissue than in cancer tissue (P < 0.05) and higher than in middle and remote paraneoplastic tissue (P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the expression of these genes in middle and proximal paraneoplastic tissue as well as among residual normal ovarian tissues with different severity (P > 0.05). In ovarian tissues of 20 normal nude mice, the expression of CK- 7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was negative. Overall, the expression levels of CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, TIMP-2, and other molecular markers showed a decreasing trend in the non-cancer tissue direction. The expression levels can be used as standards to screen residual normal ovarian tissue. We can obtain relatively safe normal ovarian tissues adjacent to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  20. Identification of highly reactive cysteine residues at less exposed positions in the Fab constant region for site-specific conjugation.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Yasuhisa; Muramoto, Takashige; Nagatomo, Kazutaka; Shinmi, Daisuke; Honma, Emiko; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Motoo

    2015-06-17

    Engineered cysteine residues are currently used for the site-specific conjugation of antibody-drug conjugates (ADC). In general, positions on the protein surface have been selected for substituting a cysteine as a conjugation site; however, less exposed positions (with less than 20% of accessible surface area [ASA]) have not yet been evaluated. In this study, we engineered original cysteine positional variants of a Fab fragment, with less than 20% of ASA, and evaluated their thiol reactivities through conjugation with various kinds of payloads. As a result, we have identified three original cysteine positional variants (heavy chain: Hc-A140C, light chain: Lc-Q124C and Lc-L201C), which exhibited similar monomer content, thermal stability, and antigen binding affinity in comparison to the wild-type Fab. In addition, the presence of cysteine in these positions made it possible for the Fab variants to react with variable-sized molecules with high efficiency. The favorable physical properties of the cysteine positional variants selected in our study suggest that less exposed positions, with less than 20% of ASA, provide an alternative for creating conjugation sites.

  1. Mitochondrial thiol oxidase Erv1: both shuttle cysteine residues are required for its function with distinct roles.

    PubMed

    Ang, Swee Kim; Zhang, Mengqi; Lodi, Tiziana; Lu, Hui

    2014-06-01

    Erv1 (essential for respiration and viability 1), is an essential component of the MIA (mitochondrial import and assembly) pathway, playing an important role in the oxidative folding of mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins. In the MIA pathway, Mia40, a thiol oxidoreductase with a CPC motif at its active site, oxidizes newly imported substrate proteins. Erv1 a FAD-dependent thiol oxidase, in turn reoxidizes Mia40 via its N-terminal Cys30-Cys33 shuttle disulfide. However, it is unclear how the two shuttle cysteine residues of Erv1 relay electrons from the Mia40 CPC motif to the Erv1 active-site Cys130-Cys133 disulfide. In the present study, using yeast genetic approaches we showed that both shuttle cysteine residues of Erv1 are required for cell growth. In organelle and in vitro studies confirmed that both shuttle cysteine residues were indeed required for import of MIA pathway substrates and Erv1 enzyme function to oxidize Mia40. Furthermore, our results revealed that the two shuttle cysteine residues of Erv1 are functionally distinct. Although Cys33 is essential for forming the intermediate disulfide Cys33-Cys130' and transferring electrons to the redox active-site directly, Cys30 plays two important roles: (i) dominantly interacts and receives electrons from the Mia40 CPC motif; and (ii) resolves the Erv1 Cys33-Cys130 intermediate disulfide. Taken together, we conclude that both shuttle cysteine residues are required for Erv1 function, and play complementary, but distinct, roles to ensure rapid turnover of active Erv1.

  2. Mitochondrial thiol oxidase Erv1: both shuttle cysteine residues are required for its function with distinct roles

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Swee Kim; Zhang, Mengqi; Lodi, Tiziana; Lu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Erv1 (essential for respiration and viability 1), is an essential component of the MIA (mitochondrial import and assembly) pathway, playing an important role in the oxidative folding of mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins. In the MIA pathway, Mia40, a thiol oxidoreductase with a CPC motif at its active site, oxidizes newly imported substrate proteins. Erv1 a FAD-dependent thiol oxidase, in turn reoxidizes Mia40 via its N-terminal Cys30–Cys33 shuttle disulfide. However, it is unclear how the two shuttle cysteine residues of Erv1 relay electrons from the Mia40 CPC motif to the Erv1 active-site Cys130–Cys133 disulfide. In the present study, using yeast genetic approaches we showed that both shuttle cysteine residues of Erv1 are required for cell growth. In organelle and in vitro studies confirmed that both shuttle cysteine residues were indeed required for import of MIA pathway substrates and Erv1 enzyme function to oxidize Mia40. Furthermore, our results revealed that the two shuttle cysteine residues of Erv1 are functionally distinct. Although Cys33 is essential for forming the intermediate disulfide Cys33–Cys130′ and transferring electrons to the redox active-site directly, Cys30 plays two important roles: (i) dominantly interacts and receives electrons from the Mia40 CPC motif; and (ii) resolves the Erv1 Cys33–Cys130 intermediate disulfide. Taken together, we conclude that both shuttle cysteine residues are required for Erv1 function, and play complementary, but distinct, roles to ensure rapid turnover of active Erv1. PMID:24625320

  3. Characterization of a novel y-type HMW-GS with eight cysteine residues from Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum.

    PubMed

    Li, Zenglin; Li, Hongyu; Chen, Gang; Kou, Chunlan; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Jiang, Qi; Zheng, Youliang; Liu, Dengcai; Zhang, Lianquan

    2015-11-15

    The composition and number of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) play important roles in determining the grain-processing quality of common wheat. The Glu-1Ay allele is silent in common wheat. In this study, an active y-type HMW-GS allele termed 1Ay8.2 (GenBank No. KP137569) was identified from Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum (AmAm, 2n=2x=14), a species with a genome related to the A-genome of common wheat. Compared with previously reported active 1Ay subunits, this novel subunit contained an extra cysteine residue at position 103 of the amino acid sequence in the N-terminal region, in addition to the six cysteines in the N- and C-terminal regions found in most active 1Ay subunits and the one in the repetitive region that appears in only a few 1Ay alleles. This subunit was expressed in an amphiploid (AAAmAmBB, 2n=6x=42) between Triticum turgidum L. ssp. dicoccon and T. monococcum ssp. monococcum. This amphiploid could be used as a bridge to transfer 1Ay8.2 into common wheat cultivars. Replacing the silenced 1Ay in common wheat with the active 1Ay8.2 allele harboring an extra cysteine residue is expected to improve the quality by increasing the number of HMW-GSs and promoting the formation of covalent interactions through disulfide bonds with the extra cysteine residue.

  4. Cyst(e)ine residues of bovine white-matter proteolipid proteins. Role of disulphides in proteolipid conformation.

    PubMed Central

    Oteiza, P I; Adamo, A M; Aloise, P A; Paladini, A C; Paladini, A A; Soto, E F

    1987-01-01

    Cyst(e)ine residues of bovine white-matter proteolipid proteins were characterized in a highly purified preparation. From a total of 10.6 cyst(e)ine residues/molecule of protein, as determined by performic acid oxidation, 2.5-3 thiol groups were freely accessible to iodoacetamide, iodoacetic acid and 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), when the proteins were solubilized in chloroform/methanol (C/M) (2:1, v/v). The presence of lipids had no effect on thiol-group exposure. One thiol group available to DTNB in C/M could not be detected when proteolipids were solubilized in the more polar solvent n-butanol. In a C/M solution of purified proteolipid proteins, SDS did not increase the number of reactive thiol groups, but the cleavage of one disulphide bridge made it possible to alkylate six more groups. C.d. and fluorescence studies showed that rupture of this disulphide bond changed the protein conformation, which was reflected in partial loss of helical structure and in a greater exposure to the solvent of at least one tryptophan residue. Cyst(e)ine residues were also characterized in the different components [PLP (principal proteolipid protein), DM20 and LMW (low-Mr proteins)] of the proteolipid preparation. Although the numbers of cyst(e)ine residues in PLP and DM20 were similar, in LMW fewer residues were alkylated under four different experimental conditions. The differences, however, are not simply related to differences in Mr. PMID:3663175

  5. Chemical modification of cysteine and tyrosine residues in formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase from Clostridium thermoaceticum

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.I.; Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1982-04-01

    The chemical modification of cysteine and tyrosine residues in formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase from Clostridium thermoaceticum has been examined relative to enzymatic activity and reactivity of these groups in the native protein. 4,4'-Dipyridyl disulfide, dansylaziridine, and fluorescein mercuric acetate all reacted with just one of six sulfhydryls per enzyme subunit, resulting in activities of 100, 95 and 70%, respectively. The K/sub m/ values for MgATP, formate, and tetrahydrofolate were unaltered in the modified enzymes. ATP did produce a 2.5-fold reduction in the rate of reaction between the enzyme and 4,4'-dipyridyl disulfide. Tetranitromethane reacted most rapidly with a single sulfhydryl group per subunit to produce a 20 to 30% loss in activity. Subsequent additions of tetranitromethane modified 2.2 tyrosines per subunit which was proportional to the loss of the remaining enzymatic activity. Folic acid, a competitive inhibitor, protected against modification of the tyrosines and the associated activity losses; however, the oxidation of the single sulfhydryl group and the initial 20 to 30% activity loss were unaffected. In the presence of folic acid, higher concentrations of tetranitromethane produced a loss of the remaining activity proportional to the modification of 1.2 tyrosines per subunit. It is proposed that at least 1 tyrosine critical for enzymatic activity is located at or near the folic acid/tetrahydrofolate binding site.

  6. Direct determination of the redox status of cysteine residues in proteins in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Satoshi; Tatenaka, Yuki; Ohuchi, Yuya; Hisabori, Toru

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • A new DNA-maleimide which is cleaved by UV irradiation, DNA-PCMal, was developed. • DNA-PCMal can be used like DNA-Mal to analyze the redox state of cysteine residues. • It is useful for detecting the thiol redox status of a protein in vivo by Western blotting method. • Thus, DNA-PCMal can be a powerful tool for redox proteomics analysis. - Abstract: The redox states of proteins in cells are key factors in many cellular processes. To determine the redox status of cysteinyl thiol groups in proteins in vivo, we developed a new maleimide reagent, a photocleavable maleimide-conjugated single stranded DNA (DNA-PCMal). The DNA moiety of DNA-PCMal is easily removed by UV-irradiation, allowing DNA-PCMal to be used in Western blotting applications. Thereby the state of thiol groups in intracellular proteins can be directly evaluated. This new maleimide compound can provide information concerning redox proteins in vivo, which is important for our understanding of redox networks in the cell.

  7. Chemical modification of cysteine and tyrosine residues in formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase from Clostridium thermoaceticum

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.I.; Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1982-04-01

    The chemical modification of cysteine and tyrosine residues in formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase from Clostridium thermoaceticum has been examined relative to enzymatic activity and reactivity of these groups in the native protein. 4,4'-Dipyridyl disulfide, dansylaziridine, and fluorescein mercuric acetate all reacted with just one of six sulfhydryls per enzyme subunit, resulting in activities of 100, 95 and 70%, respectively. The K/sub m/ values for MgATP, formate, and tetrahydrofolate were unaltered in the modified enzymes. ATP did produce a 2.5-fold reduction in the rate of reaction between the enzyme and 4,4'-dipyridyl disulfide. Tetranitromethane reacted most rapidly with a single sulfhydryl group per subunit to produce a 20 to 30% loss in activity. Subsequent additions of tetranitromethane modified 2.2 tyrosines per subunit which was proportional to the loss of the remaining enzymatic activity. Folic acid, a competitive inhibitor, protected against modification of the tyrosines and the associated activity losses; however, the oxidation of the single sulfhydryl group and the initial 20 to 30% activity loss were unaffected. In the presence of folic acid, higher concentrations of tetranitromethane produced a loss of the remaining activity proportional to the modification of 1.2 tyrosines per subunit. It is proposed that at least 1 tyrosine critical for enzymatic activity is located at or near the folic acid/tetrahydrofolate binding site.

  8. Native cysteine residues are dispensable for the structure and function of all five yeast mitotic septins.

    PubMed

    de Val, Natalia; McMurray, Michael A; Lam, Lisa H; Hsiung, Chris C-S; Bertin, Aurélie; Nogales, Eva; Thorner, Jeremy

    2013-11-01

    Budding yeast septins assemble into hetero-octamers and filaments required for cytokinesis. Solvent-exposed cysteine (Cys) residues provide sites for attaching substituents useful in assessing assembly kinetics and protein interactions. To introduce Cys at defined locations, site-directed mutagenesis was used, first, to replace the native Cys residues in Cdc3 (C124 C253 C279), Cdc10 (C266), Cdc11 (C43 C137 C138), Cdc12 (C40 C278), and Shs1 (C29 C148) with Ala, Ser, Val, or Phe. When plasmid-expressed, each Cys-less septin mutant rescued the cytokinesis defects caused by absence of the corresponding chromosomal gene. When integrated and expressed from its endogenous promoter, the same mutants were fully functional, except Cys-less Cdc12 mutants (which were viable, but exhibited slow growth and aberrant morphology) and Cdc3(C124V C253V C279V) (which was inviable). No adverse phenotypes were observed when certain pairs of Cys-less septins were co-expressed as the sole source of these proteins. Cells grew less well when three Cys-less septins were co-expressed, suggesting some reduction in fitness. Nonetheless, cells chromosomally expressing Cys-less Cdc10, Cdc11, and Cdc12, and expressing Cys-less Cdc3 from a plasmid, grew well at 30°C. Moreover, recombinant Cys-less septins--or where one of the Cys-less septins contained a single Cys introduced at a new site--displayed assembly properties in vitro indistinguishable from wild-type. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Proximity of reactive cysteine residue and flavin in Escherichia coli pyruvate oxidase as estimated by fluorescence energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Koland, J G; Gennis, R B

    1982-08-31

    Pyruvate oxidase of Escherichia coli possesses a reactive cysteine residue believed to be associated with the thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) binding site. This residue is not reactive in the presence of TPP. Exposure of the enzyme to cysteine-directed fluorescent reagents results in the formation of fluorescent protein conjugates. Although these reagents do not react solely with the TPP-protectable cysteine residue, the fluorescence emission spectrum of a probe attached to this residue can be obtained by a difference technique. It was determined that the fluorescence emission of probes at the TPP-protectable site is very low due to energy transfer to the FAD coenzyme and that this fluorescence is greatly enhanced upon reduction or extraction of the flavin. Application of fluorescence energy transfer theory enabled the determination of an upper limit for the distance between the probes at the TPP-protectable site and the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) (roughly 20 A). Thus, the TPP binding site and the FAD coenzyme are likely in close proximity.

  10. Predicting the redox state and secondary structure of cysteine residues using multi-dimensional classification analysis of NMR chemical shifts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Cheng; Lai, Wen-Chung; Chuang, Woei-Jer

    2016-09-01

    A tool for predicting the redox state and secondary structure of cysteine residues using multi-dimensional analyses of different combinations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts has been developed. A data set of cysteine [Formula: see text], (13)C(α), (13)C(β), (1)H(α), (1)H(N), and (15)N(H) chemical shifts was created, classified according to redox state and secondary structure, using a library of 540 re-referenced BioMagResBank (BMRB) entries. Multi-dimensional analyses of three, four, five, and six chemical shifts were used to derive rules for predicting the structural states of cysteine residues. The results from 60 BMRB entries containing 122 cysteines showed that four-dimensional analysis of the C(α), C(β), H(α), and N(H) chemical shifts had the highest prediction accuracy of 100 and 95.9 % for the redox state and secondary structure, respectively. The prediction of secondary structure using 3D, 5D, and 6D analyses had the accuracy of ~90 %, suggesting that H(N) and [Formula: see text] chemical shifts may be noisy and made the discrimination worse. A web server (6DCSi) was established to enable users to submit NMR chemical shifts, either in BMRB or key-in formats, for prediction. 6DCSi displays predictions using sets of 3, 4, 5, and 6 chemical shifts, which shows their consistency and allows users to draw their own conclusions. This web-based tool can be used to rapidly obtain structural information regarding cysteine residues directly from experimental NMR data.

  11. Ion Mobility Separation of Isomeric Phosphopeptides from a Protein with Variant Modification of Adjacent Residues

    PubMed Central

    Singer, David; Smith, Richard D.; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), and particularly differential or field asymmetric waveform IMS (FAIMS), was recently shown capable of separating post-translationally modified peptides with variant PTM localization. However, that work was limited to a model peptide with Ser phosphorylation on fairly distant alternative sites. Here, we demonstrate that FAIMS (coupled to ESI/MS) can broadly baseline-resolve variant phosphopeptides from a biologically modified human protein, including those involving phosphorylation of different residues and adjacent sites that challenge existing MS/MS methods most. Singly and doubly phosphorylated variants can be resolved equally well and identified without dissociation, based on accurate separation properties. The spectra change little over a range of infusion solvent pH, hence the present approach should be viable in conjunction with chromatographic separations using mobile phase gradients. PMID:21667994

  12. Cysteine residues in the Vif protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are essential for viral infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, X Y; Sova, P; Chao, W; Volsky, D J

    1994-01-01

    The infectivity factor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), Vif, contains two cysteine residues which are highly conserved among animal lentiviruses. We introduced substitutions of leucine for cysteine residues in the vif gene of a full-length HIV-1 clone to analyze their roles in viral infection. Mutant viruses containing substitutions in either Cys-114, Cys-133, or both displayed a vif-negative infection phenotype similar to that of an isogeneic vif deletion mutant, namely, a cell-dependent complete to partial loss of infectivity. The vif defect could be complemented by cotransfection of mutant viral DNA with a Vif expression vector, and there was no evidence that recombination contributed to the repair of the vif deficiency. The viral protein profile, as determined by immunoblotting, in cells infected with cysteine substitution mutants and that in wild-type virus were similar, including the presence of the 23-kDa Vif polypeptide. In addition, immunoblotting with an antiserum directed against the carboxyl terminus of gp41 revealed that gp41 was intact in cells infected with either wild-type or vif mutant HIV-1, excluding that Vif cleaves the C terminus of gp41. Our results indicate that the cysteines in HIV-1 Vif are critical for Vif function in viral infectivity. Images PMID:8107232

  13. Trypanosoma evansi: identification and characterization of a variant surface glycoprotein lacking cysteine residues in its C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yonggen; Zhao, Xinxin; Zou, Jingru; Suo, Xun

    2011-01-01

    African trypanosomes are flagellated unicellular parasites which proliferate extracellularly in the mammalian host blood-stream and tissue spaces. They evade the hosts' antibody-mediated lyses by sequentially changing their variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). VSG tightly coats the entire parasite body, serving as a physical barrier. In Trypanosoma brucei and the closely related species Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma equiperdum, each VSG polypeptide can be divided into N- and C-terminal domains, based on cysteine distribution and sequence homology. N-terminal domain, the basis of antigenic variation, is hypervariable and contains all the exposed epitopes; C-terminal domain is relatively conserved and a full set of four or eight cysteines were generally observed. We cloned two genes from two distinct variants of T. evansi, utilizing RT-PCR with VSG-specific primers. One contained a VSG type A N-terminal domain followed a C-terminal domain lacking cysteine residues. To confirm that this gene is expressed as a functional VSG, the expression and localization of the corresponding gene product were characterized using Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining of living trypanosomes. Expression analysis showed that this protein was highly expressed, variant-specific, and had a ubiquitous cellular surface localization. All these results indicated that it was expressed as a functional VSG. Our finding showed that cysteine residues in VSG C-terminal domain were not essential; the conserved C-terminal domain generally in T. brucei like VSGs would possibly evolve for regulating the VSG expression.

  14. Redox Modification of Cysteine Residues Regulates the Cytokine Activity of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huan; Lundbäck, Peter; Ottosson, Lars; Erlandsson-Harris, Helena; Venereau, Emilie; Bianchi, Marco E; Al-Abed, Yousef; Andersson, Ulf; Tracey, Kevin J; Antoine, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein with extracellular inflammatory cytokine activity. It is released passively during cell injury and necrosis, and secreted actively by immune cells. HMGB1 contains three conserved redox-sensitive cysteine residues: C23 and C45 can form an intramolecular disulfide bond, whereas C106 is unpaired and is essential for the interaction with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 4. However, a comprehensive characterization of the dynamic redox states of each cysteine residue and of their impacts on innate immune responses is lacking. Using tandem mass spectrometric analysis, we now have established that the C106 thiol and the C23–C45 disulfide bond are required for HMGB1 to induce nuclear NF-κB translocation and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production in macrophages. Both irreversible oxidation to sulphonates and complete reduction to thiols of these cysteines inhibited TNF production markedly. In a proof of concept murine model of hepatic necrosis induced by acetaminophen, during inflammation, the predominant form of serum HMGB1 is the active one, containing a C106 thiol group and a disulfide bond between C23 and C45, whereas the inactive form of HMGB1, containing terminally oxidized cysteines, accumulates during inflammation resolution and hepatic regeneration. These results reveal critical posttranslational redox mechanisms that control the proinflammatory activity of HMGB1 and its inactivation during pathogenesis. PMID:22105604

  15. Antioxidant activity of cysteine, tryptophan, and methionine residues in continuous phase beta-lactoglobulin in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Elias, Ryan J; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2005-12-28

    Proteins dispersed in the continuous phase of oil-in-water emulsions are capable of inhibiting lipid oxidation reactions. The antioxidant activity of these proteins is thought to encompass both free radical scavenging by amino acid residues and chelation of prooxidative transition metals; however, the precise mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear. In this study, the oxidative stability of cysteine, tryptophan, and methionine residues in continuous phase beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) in a Brij-stabilized menhaden oil-in-water emulsion was determined. The presence of low concentrations of continuous phase beta-Lg (250 and 750 microg/mL) significantly inhibited lipid oxidation as determined by lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances analysis. It was observed that cysteine oxidized before tryptophan in beta-Lg, and both residues oxidized before lipid oxidation could be detected. No oxidation of the methionine residues of beta-Lg was observed despite its reported high oxidative susceptibility. It is conceivable that surface exposure of amino acid residues greatly affects their oxidation kinetics, which may explain why some residues are preferentially oxidized relative to others. Further elucidation of the mechanisms governing free radical scavenging of amino acids could lead to more effective applications of proteins as antioxidants within oil-in-water food emulsions.

  16. Identification of Two Reactive Cysteine Residues in the Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 Using Top-Down FTICR Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotcher, Jenna; Clarke, David J.; Weidt, Stefan K.; Mackay, C. Logan; Hupp, Ted R.; Sadler, Peter J.; Langridge-Smith, Pat R. R.

    2011-05-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is a redox-regulated transcription factor involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and senescence in response to multiple forms of stress, as well as many other cellular processes such as DNA repair, glycolysis, autophagy, oxidative stress and differentiation. The discovery of cysteine-targeting compounds that cause re-activation of mutant p53 and the death of tumor cells in vivo has emphasized the functional importance of p53 thiols. Using a combination of top-down and middle-down FTICR mass spectrometry, we show that of the 10 Cys residues in the core domain of wild-type p53, Cys182 and Cys277 exhibit a remarkable preference for modification by the alkylating reagent N-ethylmaleimide. The assignment of Cys182 and Cys277 as the two reactive Cys residues was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Further alkylation of p53 beyond Cys182 and Cys277 was found to trigger co-operative modification of the remaining seven Cys residues and protein unfolding. This study highlights the power of top-down FTICR mass spectrometry for analysis of the cysteine reactivity and redox chemistry in multiple cysteine-containing proteins.

  17. Positioning of Cysteine Residues within the N-terminal Portion of the BST-2/Tetherin Ectodomain Is Important for Functional Dimerization of BST-2*

    PubMed Central

    Welbourn, Sarah; Kao, Sandra; Du Pont, Kelly E.; Andrew, Amy J.; Berndsen, Christopher E.; Strebel, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    BST-2/tetherin is a cellular host factor capable of restricting the release of a variety of enveloped viruses, including HIV-1. Structurally, BST-2 consists of an N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain, an ectodomain, and a C-terminal membrane anchor. The BST-2 ectodomain encodes three cysteine residues in its N-terminal half, each of which can contribute to the formation of cysteine-linked dimers. We previously reported that any one of the three cysteine residues is sufficient to produce functional BST-2 dimers. Here we investigated the importance of cysteine positioning on the ectodomain for functional dimerization of BST-2. Starting with a cysteine-free monomeric form of BST-2, individual cysteine residues were reintroduced at various locations throughout the ectodomain. The resulting BST-2 variants were tested for expression, dimerization, surface presentation, and inhibition of HIV-1 virus release. We found significant flexibility in the positioning of cysteine residues, although the propensity to form cysteine-linked dimers generally decreased with increasing distance from the N terminus. Interestingly, all BST-2 variants, including the one lacking all three ectodomain cysteines, retained the ability to form non-covalent dimers, and all of the BST-2 variants were efficiently expressed at the cell surface. Importantly, not all BST-2 variants capable of forming cysteine-linked dimers were functional, suggesting that cysteine-linked dimerization of BST-2 is necessary but not sufficient for inhibiting virus release. Our results expose new structural constraints governing the functional dimerization of BST-2, a property essential to its role as a restriction factor tethering viruses to the host cell. PMID:25525265

  18. Positioning of cysteine residues within the N-terminal portion of the BST-2/tetherin ectodomain is important for functional dimerization of BST-2.

    PubMed

    Welbourn, Sarah; Kao, Sandra; Du Pont, Kelly E; Andrew, Amy J; Berndsen, Christopher E; Strebel, Klaus

    2015-02-06

    BST-2/tetherin is a cellular host factor capable of restricting the release of a variety of enveloped viruses, including HIV-1. Structurally, BST-2 consists of an N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain, an ectodomain, and a C-terminal membrane anchor. The BST-2 ectodomain encodes three cysteine residues in its N-terminal half, each of which can contribute to the formation of cysteine-linked dimers. We previously reported that any one of the three cysteine residues is sufficient to produce functional BST-2 dimers. Here we investigated the importance of cysteine positioning on the ectodomain for functional dimerization of BST-2. Starting with a cysteine-free monomeric form of BST-2, individual cysteine residues were reintroduced at various locations throughout the ectodomain. The resulting BST-2 variants were tested for expression, dimerization, surface presentation, and inhibition of HIV-1 virus release. We found significant flexibility in the positioning of cysteine residues, although the propensity to form cysteine-linked dimers generally decreased with increasing distance from the N terminus. Interestingly, all BST-2 variants, including the one lacking all three ectodomain cysteines, retained the ability to form non-covalent dimers, and all of the BST-2 variants were efficiently expressed at the cell surface. Importantly, not all BST-2 variants capable of forming cysteine-linked dimers were functional, suggesting that cysteine-linked dimerization of BST-2 is necessary but not sufficient for inhibiting virus release. Our results expose new structural constraints governing the functional dimerization of BST-2, a property essential to its role as a restriction factor tethering viruses to the host cell.

  19. Identification of persulfide-binding and disulfide-forming cysteine residues in the NifS-like domain of the molybdenum cofactor sulfurase ABA3 by cysteine-scanning mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Lehrke, Markus; Rump, Steffen; Heidenreich, Torsten; Wissing, Josef; Mendel, Ralf R; Bittner, Florian

    2012-02-01

    The Moco (molybdenum cofactor) sulfurase ABA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana catalyses the sulfuration of the Moco of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, which represents the final activation step of these enzymes. ABA3 consists of an N-terminal NifS-like domain that exhibits L-cysteine desulfurase activity and a C-terminal domain that binds sulfurated Moco. The strictly conserved Cys430 in the NifS-like domain binds a persulfide intermediate, which is abstracted from the substrate L-cysteine and finally needs to be transferred to the Moco of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase. In addition to Cys⁴³⁰, another eight cysteine residues are located in the NifS-like domain, with two of them being highly conserved among Moco sulfurase proteins and, at the same time, being in close proximity to Cys⁴³⁰. By determination of the number of surface-exposed cysteine residues and the number of persulfide-binding cysteine residues in combination with the sequential substitution of each of the nine cysteine residues, a second persulfide-binding cysteine residue, Cys²⁰⁶, was identified. Furthermore, the active-site Cys⁴³⁰ was found to be located on top of a loop structure, formed by the two flanking residues Cys⁴²⁸ and Cys⁴³⁵, which are likely to form an intramolecular disulfide bridge. These findings are confirmed by a structural model of the NifS-like domain, which indicates that Cys⁴²⁸ and Cys⁴³⁵ are within disulfide bond distance and that a persulfide transfer from Cys⁴³⁰ to Cys²⁰⁶ is indeed possible.

  20. The hydrophobicity in a chemically modified side-chain of cysteine residues of thanatin is related to antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus.

    PubMed

    Orikasa, Yoshitake; Ichinohe, Kenta; Saito, Junki; Hashimoto, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Ooi, Toshihiko; Taguchi, Seiichi

    2009-07-01

    The chemically modified thanatins with the methyl group (CH(3)), ethyl group (C(2)H(5)), and normal-octyl group (C(8)H(17)) at the side-chain of cysteine residues were synthesized. The octyl group modified form exhibited 8-fold higher antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus than wild type thanatin. It was found that there was an equilateral correlation between antimicrobial activity and side-chain hydrophobicity at the cysteine residues in thanatin.

  1. Sulphoxythiocarbamates modify cysteine residues in HSP90 causing degradation of client proteins and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Dayalan Naidu, S; Samarasinghe, K; Van Hecke, G C; Pheely, A; Boronina, T N; Cole, R N; Benjamin, I J; Cole, P A; Ahn, Y-H; Dinkova-Kostova, A T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) has a key role in the maintenance of the cellular proteostasis. However, HSP90 is also involved in stabilisation of oncogenic client proteins and facilitates oncogene addiction and cancer cell survival. The development of HSP90 inhibitors for cancer treatment is an area of growing interest as such agents can affect multiple pathways that are linked to all hallmarks of cancer. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that targeting cysteine residues of HSP90 will lead to degradation of client proteins and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Methods: Combining chemical synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure–activity relationship analysis, we identified a new class of HSP90 inhibitors. Click chemistry and protease-mass spectrometry established the sites of modification of the chaperone. Results: The mildly electrophilic sulphoxythiocarbamate alkyne (STCA) selectively targets cysteine residues of HSP90, forming stable thiocarbamate adducts. Without interfering with the ATP-binding ability of the chaperone, STCA destabilises the client proteins RAF1, HER2, CDK1, CHK1, and mutant p53, and decreases proliferation of breast cancer cells. Addition of a phenyl or a tert-butyl group in tandem with the benzyl substituent at nitrogen increased the potency. A new compound, S-4, was identified as the most robust HSP90 inhibitor within a series of 19 derivatives. Conclusion: By virtue of their cysteine reactivity, sulphoxythiocarbamates target HSP90, causing destabilisation of its client oncoproteins and inhibiting cell proliferation. PMID:24322890

  2. The metalloid arsenite induces nuclear export of Id3 possibly via binding to the N-terminal cysteine residues

    SciTech Connect

    Kurooka, Hisanori; Sugai, Manabu; Mori, Kentaro; Yokota, Yoshifumi

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Sodium arsenite induces cytoplasmic accumulation of Id3. •Arsenite binds to closely spaced N-terminal cysteine residues of Id3. •N-terminal cysteines are essential for arsenite-induced nuclear export of Id3. •Nuclear export of Id3 counteracts its transcriptional repression activity. -- Abstract: Ids are versatile transcriptional repressors that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation, and appropriate subcellular localization of the Id proteins is important for their functions. We previously identified distinct functional nuclear export signals (NESs) in Id1 and Id2, but no active NES has been reported in Id3. In this study, we found that treatment with the stress-inducing metalloid arsenite led to the accumulation of GFP-tagged Id3 in the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic accumulation was impaired by a mutation in the Id3 NES-like sequence resembling the Id1 NES, located at the end of the HLH domain. It was also blocked by co-treatment with the CRM1-specific nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB), but not with the inhibitors for mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Importantly, we showed that the closely spaced N-terminal cysteine residues of Id3 interacted with the arsenic derivative phenylarsine oxide (PAO) and were essential for the arsenite-induced cytoplasmic accumulation, suggesting that arsenite induces the CRM1-dependent nuclear export of Id3 via binding to the N-terminal cysteines. Finally, we demonstrated that Id3 significantly repressed arsenite-stimulated transcription of the immediate-early gene Egr-1 and that this repression activity was inversely correlated with the arsenite-induced nuclear export. Our results imply that Id3 may be involved in the biological action of arsenite.

  3. Analysis of 13Cα and 13Cβ chemical shifts of cysteine and cystine residues in proteins: a quantum chemical approach

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Osvaldo A.; Villegas, Myriam E.; Vila, Jorge A.

    2010-01-01

    Cysteines possess a unique property among the 20 naturally occurring amino acids: it can be present in proteins in either the reduced or oxidized form, and can regulate the activity of some proteins. Consequently, to augment our previous treatment of the other types of residues, the 13Cα and 13Cβ chemical shifts of 837 cysteines in disulfide-bonded cystine from a set of seven non-redundant proteins, determined by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy, were computed at the DFT level of theory. Our results indicate that the errors between observed and computed 13Cα chemical shifts of such oxidized cysteines can be attributed to several effects such as: (a) the quality of the NMR-determined models, as evaluated by the conformational-average (ca) rmsd value; (b) the existence of high B-factor or crystal-packing effects for the X-ray-determined structures; (c) the dynamics of the disulfide bonds in solution; and (d) the differences in the experimental conditions under which the observed 13Cα chemical shifts and the protein models were determined by either X-ray crystallography or NMR-spectroscopy. These quantum-chemical-based calculations indicate the existence of two, almost non-overlapped, basins for the oxidized and reduced –SH 13Cβ, but not for the 13Cα, chemical shifts, in good agreement with the observation of 375 13Cα and 337 13Cβ resonances from 132 proteins by Sharma and Rajarathnam (2000). Overall, our results indicate that explicit consideration of the disulfide bonds is a necessary condition for an accurate prediction of 13Cα and 13Cβ chemical shifts of cysteines in cystines. PMID:20091207

  4. A Cysteine-Rich Protein Kinase Associates with a Membrane Immune Complex and the Cysteine Residues Are Required for Cell Death1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, James M.; Creer, Athena Y.; Feng, Baomin; Franco, Jessica Y.; He, Ping; Phinney, Brett

    2017-01-01

    Membrane-localized proteins perceive and respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. We performed quantitative proteomics on plasma membrane-enriched samples from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) treated with bacterial flagellin. We identified multiple receptor-like protein kinases changing in abundance, including cysteine (Cys)-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs) that are up-regulated upon the perception of flagellin. CRKs possess extracellular Cys-rich domains and constitute a gene family consisting of 46 members in Arabidopsis. The single transfer DNA insertion lines CRK28 and CRK29, two CRKs induced in response to flagellin perception, did not exhibit robust alterations in immune responses. In contrast, silencing of multiple bacterial flagellin-induced CRKs resulted in enhanced susceptibility to pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae, indicating functional redundancy in this large gene family. Enhanced expression of CRK28 in Arabidopsis increased disease resistance to P. syringae. Expression of CRK28 in Nicotiana benthamiana induced cell death, which required intact extracellular Cys residues and a conserved kinase active site. CRK28-mediated cell death required the common receptor-like protein kinase coreceptor BAK1. CRK28 associated with BAK1 as well as the activated FLAGELLIN-SENSING2 (FLS2) immune receptor complex. CRK28 self-associated as well as associated with the closely related CRK29. These data support a model where Arabidopsis CRKs are synthesized upon pathogen perception, associate with the FLS2 complex, and coordinately act to enhance plant immune responses. PMID:27852951

  5. The Role of Cysteine Residues in Redox Regulation and Protein Stability of Arabidopsis thaliana Starch Synthase 1

    PubMed Central

    Skryhan, Katsiaryna; Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Marri, Lucia; Mellor, Silas B.; Glaring, Mikkel A.; Jensen, Poul E.; Palcic, Monica M.; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Starch biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana is strictly regulated. In leaf extracts, starch synthase 1 (AtSS1) responds to the redox potential within a physiologically relevant range. This study presents data testing two main hypotheses: 1) that specific thiol-disulfide exchange in AtSS1 influences its catalytic function 2) that each conserved Cys residue has an impact on AtSS1 catalysis. Recombinant AtSS1 versions carrying combinations of cysteine-to-serine substitutions were generated and characterized in vitro. The results demonstrate that AtSS1 is activated and deactivated by the physiological redox transmitters thioredoxin f1 (Trxf1), thioredoxin m4 (Trxm4) and the bifunctional NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC). AtSS1 displayed an activity change within the physiologically relevant redox range, with a midpoint potential equal to -306 mV, suggesting that AtSS1 is in the reduced and active form during the day with active photosynthesis. Cys164 and Cys545 were the key cysteine residues involved in regulatory disulfide formation upon oxidation. A C164S_C545S double mutant had considerably decreased redox sensitivity as compared to wild type AtSS1 (30% vs 77%). Michaelis-Menten kinetics and molecular modeling suggest that both cysteines play important roles in enzyme catalysis, namely, Cys545 is involved in ADP-glucose binding and Cys164 is involved in acceptor binding. All the other single mutants had essentially complete redox sensitivity (98–99%). In addition of being part of a redox directed activity “light switch”, reactivation tests and low heterologous expression levels indicate that specific cysteine residues might play additional roles. Specifically, Cys265 in combination with Cys164 can be involved in proper protein folding or/and stabilization of translated protein prior to its transport into the plastid. Cys442 can play an important role in enzyme stability upon oxidation. The physiological and phylogenetic relevance of these findings

  6. Contribution of cysteine residues to the structure and function of herpes simplex virus gH/gL

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, Tina M. . E-mail: tmcairns@biochem.dental.upenn.edu; Landsburg, Daniel J. . E-mail: dlandsbu@temple.edu; Charles Whitbeck, J. . E-mail: whitbeck@biochem.dental.upenn.edu; Eisenberg, Roselyn J. . E-mail: roselyn@biochem.dental.upenn.edu; Cohen, Gary H. . E-mail: cohen@biochem.dental.upenn.edu

    2005-02-20

    In HSV types 1 and 2, gH forms a noncovalent heterodimer with gL. Previous studies demonstrated that the first 323 amino acids of gH1 and the first 161 amino acids of gL1 are sufficient for gH/gL binding. For gL1, substitution of any of its four cysteine (C) residues (all located within the gH/gL binding region) destroyed gH binding and function. Although gH1 contains 8 cysteines in its ectodomain, gH 2 contains 7 (C3 of gH1 is replaced by arginine in gH2). We found that mutation of any of the four C-terminal cysteines led to a reduction or loss of gH/gL function. Mutation of C5 or C6 in gH1 or gH2 rendered the proteins non-functional. However, substitution of C7 and/or C8 in gH1 has a definite negative impact on cell-cell fusion, although these mutations had less effect on complementation. Remarkably, all four gH1 N-terminal cysteines could be mutated simultaneously with little effect on fusion or complementation. As gH2 already lacks C3, we constructed a triple mutant (gH2-C1/2/4) which exhibited a similar phenotype. Since gH1 is known to bind gL2 and vice versa, we wondered whether binding of gH2 to the heterologous gL1 would enhance the fusion defect seen with the gH2-C2 mutant. The combination of mutant gH2-C2 with wild-type gL1 was nonfunctional in a cell-cell fusion assay. Interestingly, the reciprocal was not true, as gH1-C2 could utilize both gL1 and gL2. These findings suggest that there is a structural difference in the gH2 N-terminus as compared to gH1. We also present genetic evidence for at least one disulfide bond within gH2, between cysteines 2 and 4.

  7. Kinetic and site-directed mutagenesis studies of the cysteine residues of bovine low molecular weight phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Davis, J P; Zhou, M M; Van Etten, R L

    1994-03-25

    The roles of the 8 conserved cysteines and 1 arginine in the low molecular weight phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatases were investigated using site-directed mutagenesis of the recombinant bovine heart enzyme. Single mutants of cysteine to serine were studied for each cysteine; alanine replacements were also made for Cys-12, Cys-17, and Arg-18. The CD spectra of the purified proteins were effectively superimposable, consistent with the conclusion that no major structural alterations had occurred, but 1H NMR spectroscopy did reveal some spectral shifts in the aromatic region. Kinetic analysis of the mutant proteins demonstrated that only Cys-12, Cys-17, and Arg-18 had significantly altered catalytic activity toward the substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate at pH 5. The Cys-12 and Arg-18 mutants were effectively inactive. Thus, it is concluded that Cys-12 is the catalytic nucleophile, and Arg-18 presumably serves an essential function in substrate binding. The C17S mutant had 6% residual activity compared with wild type protein, whereas the C17A mutant had 37% activity. Consistent with the observed activity of the Cys-17 mutant, a covalent phosphocysteine intermediate was trapped and identified by 31P NMR. Further kinetic analysis of C17A using several aryl phosphate monoester substrates with different leaving group pK alpha values indicated that no change in the rate-determining step of the catalytic mechanism had occurred, that is, dephosphorylation of the covalent phosphoenzyme intermediate remains rate-limiting. The C17A mutant had a 4-fold higher phosphate Ki and slightly higher Km values for p-nitrophenyl phosphate suggesting that Cys-17 may be important for optimal positioning of the substrate phosphate moiety.

  8. The role of individual cysteine residues in the processing, structure, and function of human macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Deng, P; Wang, Y L; Pattengale, P K; Rettenmier, C W

    1996-11-12

    The shortest form of human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF alpha, CSF-1(256) is expressed on the cell surface as a homodimeric type I transmembrane glycoprotein. The seven cysteine residues in CSF-1(256) form three intrachain disulfide bonds (Cys7-Cys90, Cys48-Cys139, and Cys 102-Cys146), and one interchain disulfide bond (Cys31-Cys31). To examine the role of the seven cysteine residues in CSF-1(256), we replaced each half-cystine by a serine using site-directed mutagenesis, and stably expressed the mutated genes in mouse NIH 3T3 cells. We showed that each of the seven cysteines of CSF-1(256) is essential for its biological activity. Our data further show that substitution of Cys48 or Cys139 totally blocked dimer formation and cell surface expression of CSF-1(256), and that substitution of Cys102 and Cys146 severely impaired CSF-1 dimer formation and cell surface expression. In contrast, substitution of Cys7 or Cys90 affected CSF-1 dimer formation to a lesser degree but did not significantly affect cell surface expression of CSF-1. Furthermore, disruption of the interchain disulfide bond led to efficient cell surface expression of monomeric CSF-1. All of the cell surface expressed mutant CSF-1 proteins, either dimeric or monomeric, still underwent efficient ectodomain cleavage. The electrophoretic mobilities of the cleaved dimeric ectodomains of these mutant CSF-1 proteins on SDS-PAGE exhibited distinctly different patterns as compared with the wild type. Substitution of either Cys7 or Cys90 produced the same shift, while substitution of either Cys102 or Cys146 resulted in a shift distinct from that caused by substitution of Cys7 or Cys90. These data suggest that replacement of either of a pair of intrachain half-cystine residues results in similar conformational changes, and may provide a novel method for mapping intrachain disulfide bonds in dimeric proteins.

  9. Removal of the free cysteine residue reduces irreversible thermal inactivation of feruloyl esterase: evidence from circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Shuaibing; Yi, Zhuolin; Pei, Xiaoqiong; Wu, Zhongliu

    2015-08-01

    Feruloyl esterase A from Aspergillus niger (AnFaeA) contains three intramolecular disulfide bonds and one free cysteine at position 235. Saturated mutagenesis at Cys235 was carried out to produce five active mutants, all of which displayed unusual thermal inactivation patterns with the most residual activity achieved at 75°C, much higher than the parental AnFaeA. But their optimal reaction temperatures were lower than the parental AnFaeA. Extensive investigation into their free thiol and disulfide bond, circular dichroism spectra and fluorescence spectra revealed that the unfolding of the parental enzyme was irreversible on all the tested conditions, while that of the Cys235 mutants was reversible, and their ability to refold was highly dependent on the denaturing temperature. Mutants denatured at 75°C were able to efficiently reverse the unfolding to regain native structure during the cooling process. This study provided valid evidence that free cysteine substitutions can reduce irreversible thermal inactivation of proteins. © The Author 2015. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Identification of functionally important cysteine residues of the human renin-binding protein as the enzyme N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, S; Takahashi, K; Kaneko, T; Ogasawara, H; Shindo, S; Saito, K; Kawamura, Y

    2001-04-01

    Renin-binding protein (RnBP) is an endogenous renin inhibitor originally isolated from porcine kidney. It was recently identified as the enzyme N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) 2-epimerase [Takahashi, S. et al. (1999) J. Biochem. 125, 348-353] and its active site residue was determined to be cysteine 380 by site-directed mutagenesis [Takahashi, S. et al. (1999) J. Biochem. 126, 639-642]. To further investigate the relationship between structure and function of recombinant human (rh) RnBP as a GlcNAc 2-epimerase, we have constructed several C-terminal deletion and multi-cysteine/serine mutants of rhGlcNAc 2-epimerase and expressed them in Escherichia coli cells. The expression was detected by Western blotting using anti-rhRnBP antiserum. The C-terminal deletion mutant, Delta400-417, had approximately 50% activity relative to the wild-type enzyme, but other C-terminal deletion mutants, Delta380-417, Delta386-417, and Delta390-417, had no enzymatic activity. Mutational analysis of multi-cysteine/serine mutants revealed that cysteines 41 and 390 were critical for the activity or stabilization of the enzyme, while cysteine residues in the middle of the enzyme, cysteines 125, 210, 239, and 302, had no essential function in relation to the activity.

  11. Triethyltin binding to cat haemoglobin. Evidence for two chemically distinct sites and a role for both histidine and cysteine residues.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, B M; Aldridge, W N; Bridges, J W

    1979-01-01

    Triethyltin binding to cat haemoglobin was measured after pretreatment of the protein with diethyl pyrocarbonate at pH 6.0,iodoacetamide or phenylmercuric acetate or by photo-oxidation in the presence of Methylene Blue. The pentaco-ordinate nature of the binding of triethyltin to cat haemoglobin is confirmed by the inability of intramolecularly pentaco-ordinate tin compounds to compete. Consideration of the symmetry of the haemoglobin molecule in the light of the above results suggests that a unique arrangement of histidine and cysteine residues is required for the binding of triethyltin. The effects of treatment with diethyl pyrocarbonate of other preparations which bind triethyltin (rat liver supernatant, a fraction from rat liver mitochondria and rat brain myelin) were determined and shown to be complex. PMID:435245

  12. 2-Cyanobenzothiazole (CBT) condensation for site-specific labeling of proteins at the terminal cysteine residues.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lina; Rao, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    Site specificity is pivotal in obtaining homogeneously labeled proteins without batch-to-batch variations. More importantly, precisely controlled modification at specific sites avoids potential pitfalls that could otherwise interfere with protein folding, structure, and function. Inspired by the chemical synthesis of D-luciferin, we have developed an efficient strategy (second-order rate constant k 2 = 9.2 M(-1) s(-1)) for labeling of proteins containing 1,2-aminothiol via reaction with 2-cyanobenzothiazole (CBT). In addition, the CBT condensation enjoys the convenience of protein engineering, as production of N-terminal cysteine-containing proteins has been well developed for native chemical ligation. This protocol describes the preparation of Renilla luciferase (rLuc) with 1,2-aminothiol at either its N- or C-terminus, and site-specific labeling of rLuc with fluorescein or (18)F via CBT condensation.

  13. Role of the reactive cysteine residue in restriction endonuclease Cfr9I.

    PubMed

    Siksnys, V; Pleckaityte, M

    1992-11-20

    Chemical modification studies were performed to elucidate the role of Cys-residues in the catalysis/binding of restriction endonuclease Cfr9I. Incubation of restriction endonuclease Cfr9I with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), iodoacetate, 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) at pH 7.5 led to a complete loss of the catalytic activity. However, no enzyme inactivation was detectable after modification of the enzyme with iodoacetamide and methyl methanethiosulfonate. Complete protection of the enzyme against inactivation by NEM was observed in the presence of substrate implying that Cys-residues may be located at or in the vicinity of the active site of enzyme. Direct substrate-binding studies of native and modified restriction endonuclease Cfr9I using a gel-mobility shift assay indicated that the modification of the enzyme by NEM was hindered by substrate binding. A single Cys-residue was modified during the titration of the enzyme with DTNB with concomitant loss of the catalytic activity. The pH-dependence of inactivation of Cfr9I by NEM revealed the modification of the residue with the pKa value of 8.9 +/- 0.2. The dependence of the reaction rate of substrate hydrolysis by Cfr9I versus pH revealed two essential residues with pKa values of 6.3 +/- 0.15 and 8.7 +/- 0.15, respectively. The evidence presented suggests that the restriction endonuclease Cfr9I contains a reactive sulfhydryl residue which is non-essential for catalysis, but is located at or near the substrate binding site.

  14. The Functions of Crucial Cysteine Residues in the Arsenite Methylation Catalyzed by Recombinant Human Arsenic (III) Methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuping; Geng, Zhirong; Shi, Nan; Li, Xiangli; Wang, Zhilin

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (III) methyltransferase (AS3MT) is a cysteine (Cys)-rich enzyme that catalyzes the biomethylation of arsenic. To investigate how these crucial Cys residues promote catalysis, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to analyze Cys residues in recombinant human arsenic (III) methyltransferase (hAS3MT). We detected two disulfide bonds, Cys250-Cys32 and Cys368-Cys369, in hAS3MT. The Cys250-Cys32 disulfide bond was reduced by glutathione (GSH) or other disulfide bond reductants before the enzymatic methylation of arsenite (iAs3+). In addition to exposing residues around the active sites, cleavage of the Cys250-Cys32 pair modulated the conformation of hAS3MT. This adjustment may stabilize the binding of S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) and favor iAs3+ binding to hAS3MT. Additionally, we observed the intermediate of Cys250-S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), suggesting that Cys250 is involved in the transmethylation. In recovery experiments, we confirmed that trivalent arsenicals were substrates for hAS3MT, methylation of arsenic occurred on the enzyme, and an intramolecular disulfide bond might be formed after iAs3+ was methylated to dimethylarsinous acid (DMA3+). In this work, we clarified both the functional roles of GSH and the crucial Cys residues in iAs3+ methylation catalyzed by hAS3MT. PMID:25349987

  15. Human melanoma patients recognize an HLA-A1-restricted CTL epitope from tyrosinase containing two cysteine residues: implications for tumor vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Kittlesen, D J; Thompson, L W; Gulden, P H; Skipper, J C; Colella, T A; Shabanowitz, J; Hunt, D F; Engelhard, V H; Slingluff, C L; Shabanowitz, J A

    1998-03-01

    To identify shared epitopes for melanoma-reactive CTL restricted by MHC molecules other than HLA-A*0201, six human melanoma patient CTL lines expressing HLA-A1 were screened for reactivity against the melanocyte differentiation proteins Pmel-17/gp100, MART-1/Melan-A, and tyrosinase, expressed via recombinant vaccinia virus vectors. CTL from five of the six patients recognized epitopes from tyrosinase, and recognition of HLA-A1+ target cells was strongly correlated with tyrosinase expression. Restriction by HLA-A1 was further demonstrated for two of those tyrosinase-reactive CTL lines. Screening of 119 synthetic tyrosinase peptides with the HLA-A1 binding motif demonstrated that nonamer, decamer, and dodecamer peptides containing the sequence KCDICTDEY (residues 243-251) all reconstituted the CTL epitope in vitro. Epitope reconstitution in vitro required high concentrations of these peptides, which was hypothesized to be a result of spontaneous modification of cysteine residues, interfering with MHC binding. Substitution of serine or alanine for the more N-terminal cysteine prevented modification at that residue and permitted target cell sensitization at peptide concentrations 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than that required for the wild-type peptide. Because spontaneous modification of sulfhydryl groups may also occur in vivo, tumor vaccines using this or other cysteine-containing peptides may be improved by amino acid substitutions at cysteine residues.

  16. Substitution of conserved cysteine residues in Wheat streak mosaic virus HC-Pro abolishes virus transmission by the wheat curl mite

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Substitutions in the amino-terminal region of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) HC-Pro were evaluated for effects on transmission by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). Alanine substitution at cysteine residues 16, 46 and 49 abolished vector transmission. Although alanine substitution a...

  17. Covalent targeting of remote cysteine residues to develop CDK12 and 13 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tinghu; Kwiatkowski, Nicholas; Olson, Calla M; Dixon-Clarke, Sarah E; Abraham, Brian J; Greifenberg, Ann K; Ficarro, Scott B; Elkins, Jonathan M; Liang, Yanke; Hannett, Nancy M; Manz, Theresa; Hao, Mingfeng; Bartkowiak, Bartlomiej; Greenleaf, Arno L; Marto, Jarrod A; Geyer, Matthias; Bullock, Alex N; Young, Richard A; Gray, Nathanael S

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases 12 and 13 (CDK12 and 13) play critical roles in the regulation of gene transcription. However, the absence of CDK12 and 13 inhibitors has hindered the ability to investigate the consequences of their inhibition in healthy cells and cancer cells. Here we describe the rational design of a first-in-class CDK12 and 13 covalent inhibitor, THZ531. Co-crystallization with CDK12-cyclin K indicates that THZ531 irreversibly targets a cysteine located outside the kinase domain. THZ531 causes a loss of gene expression with concurrent loss of elongating and hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II. In particular, THZ531 substantially decreases the expression of DNA damage response genes and key super–enhancer–associated transcription factor genes. Coincident with transcriptional perturbation, THZ531 dramatically induced apoptotic cell death. Small molecules capable of specifically targeting CDK12 and 13 may thus help identify cancer subtypes that are particularly dependent on their kinase activities. PMID:27571479

  18. ANTIOXIDANT FUNCTIONS FOR THE HEMOGLOBIN β93 CYSTEINE RESIDUE IN ERYTHROCYTES AND IN THE VASCULAR COMPARTMENT IN VIVO

    PubMed Central

    Vitturi, Dario A.; Sun, Chiao-Wang; Harper, Victoria M; Thrash-Williams, Bessy; Cantu-Medellin, Nadiezhda; Chacko, Balu K.; Peng, Ning; Dai, Yanying; Michael Wyss, J.; Townes, Tim; Patel, Rakesh P.

    2013-01-01

    The β93 Cysteine (β93Cys) residue of hemoglobin is conserved in vertebrates but its function in the red blood cell (RBC) remains unclear. Since this residue is present at concentrations more than two orders of magnitude higher than enzymatic components of the RBC antioxidant network, a role in the scavenging of reactive species was hypothesized. Initial studies utilizing mice that express human hemoglobin with either Cys (B93C) or Ala (B93A) at the β93 positions, demonstrated that loss of the β93Cys did not affect activities nor expression of established components of the RBC antioxidant network (catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin-2, glutathione peroxidase, GSH:GSSG ratios). Interestingly, exogenous addition to RBC of reactive species that are involved in vascular inflammation demonstrated a role for the β93Cys in hydrogen peroxide and chloramine consumption. To simulate oxidative stress and inflammation in vivo, mice were challenged with LPS. Notably, LPS induced a greater degree of hypotension and lung injury in B93A versus B93C mice, which was associated with greater formation of RBC reactive species and accumulation of DMPO-reactive epitopes in the lung. These data suggest that the β93Cys is an important effector within the RBC antioxidant network contributing to the modulation of tissue injury during vascular inflammation. PMID:23159546

  19. Phosphoribulokinase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a Benson-Calvin cycle enzyme enslaved to its cysteine residues.

    PubMed

    Thieulin-Pardo, Gabriel; Remy, Thérèse; Lignon, Sabrina; Lebrun, Régine; Gontero, Brigitte

    2015-04-01

    Phosphoribulokinase (PRK) in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a finely regulated and well-studied enzyme of the Benson-Calvin cycle. PRK can form a complex with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and the small chloroplast protein CP12. This study aimed to determine the molecular determinants on PRK involved in the complex and the mechanism of action of a recently described novel regulation of PRK that involves glutathionylation. A combination of mass spectrometry, mutagenesis and activity analyses showed that Cys16, besides its role as the binding site of ATP, was also the site for S-glutathionylation. Previous kinetic analysis of the C55S mutant showed that in the oxidized inactive form of PRK, this residue formed a disulfide bridge with the Cys16 residue. This is the only bridge reported for PRK in the literature. Our data show for the first time that a disulfide bridge between Cys243 and Cys249 on PRK is required to form the PRK-GAPDH-CP12 complex. These results uncover a new mechanism for the PRK-GAPDH-CP12 formation involving a thiol disulfide exchange reaction with CP12 and identify Cys16 of PRK as a target of glutathionylation acting against oxidative stress. Although Cys16 is the key residue involved in binding ATP and acting as a defense against oxidative damage, the formation of the algal ternary complex requires the formation of another disulfide bridge on PRK involving Cys243 and Cys249.

  20. Characterization of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from Eremopyrum bonaepartis and identification of a novel variant with unusual high molecular weight and altered cysteine residues.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Ma, Jian; Wei, Long; Zhao, Shan; Zhao, Quan-Zhi; Qi, Peng-Fei; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yu-Ming

    2014-04-01

    We characterized two high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) variants from Eremopyrum bonaepartis, determined their complete open reading frames, and further expressed them in a bacterial system. The variants have many novel structural features compared with typical subunits encoded by Glu-1 loci: 1Fx3.7 and 1Fy1.5 exhibit hybrid properties of x- and y-type subunits. In addition, unusual molecular mass and altered number and distribution of cysteine residues were unique features of HMW-GSs encoded by Glu-F1 from E. bonaepartis. The mature 1Fx3.7 subunit has a full length of 1,223 amino acid residues, making it the largest subunit found thus far, while 1Fy1.5 is just 496 residues. In addition, the mutated PGQQ repeat motif was found in the repetitive region of 1Fx3.7. Although it has a similar molecular mass to that previously reported for 1Dx2.2, 1Dx2.2* and 1S(sh)x2.9 subunits, 1Fx3.7 appears to have had a different evolutionary history. The N-terminal and repetitive regions have a total of four additional cysteine residues, giving 1Fx3.7 a total of eight cysteines, while 1Fy1.5 has only six cysteines because the GHCPTSPQQ nonapeptide at the end of the repetitive region is deleted. With its extra cysteine residues and the longest repetitive region, features that are relevant to good wheat quality, the 1Fx3.7 subunit gene could be an excellent candidate for applications in wheat quality improvement.

  1. Amino-terminal cysteine residues differentially influence RGS4 protein plasma membrane targeting, intracellular trafficking, and function.

    PubMed

    Bastin, Guillaume; Singh, Kevin; Dissanayake, Kaveesh; Mighiu, Alexandra S; Nurmohamed, Aliya; Heximer, Scott P

    2012-08-17

    Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins are potent inhibitors of heterotrimeric G-protein signaling. RGS4 attenuates G-protein activity in several tissues. Previous work demonstrated that cysteine palmitoylation on residues in the amino-terminal (Cys-2 and Cys-12) and core domains (Cys-95) of RGS4 is important for protein stability, plasma membrane targeting, and GTPase activating function. To date Cys-2 has been the priority target for RGS4 regulation by palmitoylation based on its putative role in stabilizing the RGS4 protein. Here, we investigate differences in the contribution of Cys-2 and Cys-12 to the intracellular localization and function of RGS4. Inhibition of RGS4 palmitoylation with 2-bromopalmitate dramatically reduced its localization to the plasma membrane. Similarly, mutation of the RGS4 amphipathic helix (L23D) prevented membrane localization and its G(q) inhibitory function. Together, these data suggest that both RGS4 palmitoylation and the amphipathic helix domain are required for optimal plasma membrane targeting and function of RGS4. Mutation of Cys-12 decreased RGS4 membrane targeting to a similar extent as 2-bromopalmitate, resulting in complete loss of its G(q) inhibitory function. Mutation of Cys-2 did not impair plasma membrane targeting but did partially impair its function as a G(q) inhibitor. Comparison of the endosomal distribution pattern of wild type and mutant RGS4 proteins with TGN38 indicated that palmitoylation of these two cysteines contributes differentially to the intracellular trafficking of RGS4. These data show for the first time that Cys-2 and Cys-12 play markedly different roles in the regulation of RGS4 membrane localization, intracellular trafficking, and G(q) inhibitory function via mechanisms that are unrelated to RGS4 protein stabilization.

  2. Site-directed mutagenesis of rat liver S-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Identification of a cysteine residue critical for the oligomeric state.

    PubMed Central

    Mingorance, J; Alvarez, L; Sánchez-Góngora, E; Mato, J M; Pajares, M A

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the functional importance of the cysteine residues of rat liver S-adenosylmethionine synthetase. For this purpose the ten cysteine residues of the molecule were changed to serines by site-directed mutagenesis. Ten recombinant enzyme mutants were obtained by using a bacterial expression system. The same level of expression was obtained for the wild type and mutants, but the ratio of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase between soluble and insoluble fractions differed for some of the mutant forms. The immunoreactivity against an anti-(rat liver S-adenosylmethionine synthetase) antibody was equivalent in all the cases. Effects on S-adenosylmethionine synthetase activities were also measured. Mutants C57S, C69S, C105S and C121S showed decreased relative specific activity of 68, 85, 63 and 29%, respectively, compared with wild-type, whereas C312S resulted in an increase of 1.6-fold. Separation of tetramer and dimer forms for wild type and mutants was carried out by using phenyl-Sepharose columns. The dimer/tetramer ratio was calculated based on the activity and on the protein level estimated by immunoblotting. No monomeric forms of the enzyme were detected in any case. Comparison of dimer/tetramer ratios indicates the importance of cysteine-69 (dimer/tetramer protein ratio of 88 versus 10.2 in the wild type) in maintaining the oligomeric state of rat liver S-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Moreover, all the mutations carried out of cysteine residues between cysteine-35 and cysteine-105 altered the ratio between oligomeric forms. PMID:8645155

  3. Identification of Cysteine Residues in Human Cationic Amino Acid Transporter hCAT-2A That Are Targets for Inhibition by N-Ethylmaleimide

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Sarah R.; Mallmann, Robert T.; Jaenecke, Isabel; Habermeier, Alice; Boissel, Jean-Paul; Closs, Ellen I.

    2013-01-01

    In most cells, cationic amino acids such as l-arginine, l-lysine, and l-ornithine are transported by cationic (CAT) and y+L (y+LAT) amino acid transporters. In human erythrocytes, the cysteine-modifying agent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) has been shown to inhibit system y+ (most likely CAT-1), but not system y+L (Devés, R., Angelo, S., and Chávez, P. (1993) J. Physiol. 468, 753–766). We thus wondered if sensitivity to NEM distinguishes generally all CAT and y+LAT isoforms. Transport assays in Xenopus laevis oocytes established that indeed all human CATs (including the low affinity hCAT-2A), but neither y+LAT isoform, are inhibited by NEM. hCAT-2A inhibition was not due to reduced transporter expression in the plasma membrane, indicating that NEM reduces the intrinsic transporter activity. Individual mutation of each of the seven cysteine residues conserved in all CAT isoforms did not lead to NEM insensitivity of hCAT-2A. However, a cysteine-less mutant was no longer inhibited by NEM, suggesting that inhibition occurs through modification of more than one cysteine in hCAT-2A. Indeed, also the double mutant C33A/C273A was insensitive to NEM inhibition, whereas reintroduction of a cysteine at either position 33 or 273 in the cysteine-less mutant led to NEM sensitivity. We thus identified Cys-33 and Cys-273 in hCAT-2A as the targets of NEM inhibition. In addition, all proteins with Cys-33 mutations showed a pronounced reduction in transport activity, suggesting that, surprisingly, this residue, located in the cytoplasmic N terminus, is important for transporter function. PMID:24019517

  4. An exposed cysteine residue of human angiostatic mini tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, Keisuke

    2010-04-13

    Human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) catalyzes the aminoacylation of tRNA(Trp). Human TrpRS exists in two forms: a major form that is the full-length protein and a truncated form (mini TrpRS) in which most of the N-terminal extension is absent. Human mini, but not full-length, TrpRS has angiostatic activity. Because the full-length protein, which lacks angiostatic activity, has all of the amino acid determinants of the mini form, which has activity, I searched for conformational differences between the two proteins. Using a disulfide cross-linking assay, I showed that the molecular environment around Cys62 is significantly different between the two proteins. This difference can be explained by inspection of the three-dimensional structure of the full-length protein. These results give a clear demonstration of a significant difference, around a specific residue (Cys62), between a potent angiostatic and nonangiostatic version of human TrpRS.

  5. Crystal structure of a papain-fold protein without the catalytic residue: a novel member in the cysteine proteinase family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Wei, Zhiyi; Chang, Shaojie; Teng, Maikun; Gong, Weimin

    2006-04-21

    A 31kDa cysteine protease, SPE31, was isolated from the seeds of a legume plant, Pachyrizhus erosus. The protein was purified, crystallized and the 3D structure solved using molecular replacement. The cDNA was obtained by RT PCR followed by amplification using mRNA isolated from the seeds of the legume plant as a template. Analysis of the cDNA sequence and the 3D structure indicated the protein to belong to the papain family. Detailed analysis of the structure revealed an unusual replacement of the conserved catalytic Cys with Gly. Replacement of another conserved residue Ala/Gly by a Phe sterically blocks the access of the substrate to the active site. A polyethyleneglycol molecule and a natural peptide fragment were bound to the surface of the active site. Asn159 was found to be glycosylated. The SPE31 cDNA sequence shares several features with P34, a protein found in soybeans, that is implicated in plant defense mechanisms as an elicitor receptor binding to syringolide. P34 has also been shown to interact with vegetative storage proteins and NADH-dependent hydroxypyruvate reductase. These roles suggest that SPE31 and P34 form a unique subfamily within the papain family. The crystal structure of SPE31 complexed with a natural peptide ligand reveals a unique active site architecture. In addition, the clear evidence of glycosylated Asn159 provides useful information towards understanding the functional mechanism of SPE31/P34.

  6. Chemical modification of chalcone isomerase by mercurials and tetrathionate. Evidence for a single cysteine residue in the active site

    SciTech Connect

    Bednar, R.A.; Fried, W.B.; Lock, Y.W.; Pramanik, B. )

    1989-08-25

    Chalcone isomerase from soybean is inactivated by stoichiometric amounts of p-mercuribenzoate or HgCl{sub 2}. Spectral titration of the enzyme with p-mercuribenzoate indicates that a single thiol group is modified. Treatment of modified enzyme with KCN or thiols results in a complete restoration of enzyme activity demonstrating that the inactivation is not due to irreversible protein denaturation. A product of the enzymatic reaction, naringenin, provides complete kinetic protection against inactivation by both mercurials. The binding constant (33 microM) for naringenin determined from the concentration dependence of the protection agrees with the inhibition constant (34 microM) for naringenin as a competitive inhibitor of the catalytic reaction. This agreement demonstrates that the observed kinetic protection results from the specific binding of naringenin to the active site. Incubation of native chalcone isomerase with sodium tetrathionate (0.1 M) results in a slow time-dependent loss of enzymatic activity. The inactivation of chalcone isomerase by tetrathionate and N-ethylmaleimide becomes very rapid in the presence of 6 M urea, indicating that the native tertiary structure is responsible for the low reactivity of the enzymatic thiol. The stoichiometric modification of reduced and denatured chalcone isomerase by ({sup 3}H) N-ethylmaleimide indicates that the enzyme contains only a single cysteine residue and does not contain any disulfides. The evidence presented suggests that the only half-cystine residue in chalcone isomerase is located in the active site and thereby provides the first clue to the location of the active site in chalcone isomerase.

  7. Influences of proline and cysteine residues on fragment yield in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization in-source decay mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Daiki; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Quinton, Loïc; De Pauw, Edwin

    2014-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization in-source decay produces highly informative fragments for the sequencing of peptides/proteins. Among amino acids, cysteine and proline residues were found to specifically influence the fragment yield. As they are both frequently found in small peptide structures for which de novo sequencing is mandatory, the understanding of their specific behaviors would allow useful fragmentation rules to be established. In the case of cysteine, a c•/w fragment pair originating from Xxx-Cys is formed by side-chain loss from the cysteine residue. The presence of a proline residue contributes to an increased yield of ISD fragments originating from N-Cα bond cleavage at Xxx1-Xxx2Pro, which is attributable to the cyclic structure of the proline residue. Our results suggest that the aminoketyl radical formed by MALDI-ISD generally induces the homolytic N-Cα bond cleavage located on the C-terminal side of the radical site. In contrast, N-Cα bond cleavage at Xxx-Pro produces no fragments and the N-Cα bond at the Xxx1-Xxx2Pro bond is alternatively cleaved via a heterolytic cleavage pathway.

  8. Influences of Proline and Cysteine Residues on Fragment Yield in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization In-Source Decay Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Daiki; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Quinton, Loïc; De Pauw, Edwin

    2014-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization in-source decay produces highly informative fragments for the sequencing of peptides/proteins. Among amino acids, cysteine and proline residues were found to specifically influence the fragment yield. As they are both frequently found in small peptide structures for which de novo sequencing is mandatory, the understanding of their specific behaviors would allow useful fragmentation rules to be established. In the case of cysteine, a c•/ w fragment pair originating from Xxx-Cys is formed by side-chain loss from the cysteine residue. The presence of a proline residue contributes to an increased yield of ISD fragments originating from N-Cα bond cleavage at Xxx1-Xxx2Pro, which is attributable to the cyclic structure of the proline residue. Our results suggest that the aminoketyl radical formed by MALDI-ISD generally induces the homolytic N-Cα bond cleavage located on the C-terminal side of the radical site. In contrast, N-Cα bond cleavage at Xxx-Pro produces no fragments and the N-Cα bond at the Xxx1-Xxx2Pro bond is alternatively cleaved via a heterolytic cleavage pathway.

  9. Copper(II) and nickel(II) binding sites of peptide containing adjacent histidyl residues.

    PubMed

    Grenács, Ágnes; Sanna, Daniele; Sóvágó, Imre

    2015-10-01

    Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of the terminally protected nonapeptide Ac-SGAEGHHQK-NH2 modeling the metal binding sites of the (8-16) domain of amyloid-β have been studied by potentiometric, UV-vis, CD and ESR spectroscopic methods. The studies on the mutants containing only one of the histidyl residues (Ac-SGAEGAHQK-NH2, Ac-SGAEGHAQK-NH2) have also been performed. The formation of imidazole and amide coordinated mononuclear complexes is characteristic of all systems with a preference of nickel(II) binding to the His14 site, while the involvement of both histidines in metal binding is suggested in the corresponding copper(II) complexes. The formation of bis(ligand) and dinuclear complexes has also been observed in the copper(II)-Ac-SGAEGHHQK-NH2 system. The results provide further support for the copper(II) binding ability of the (8-16) domain of amyloid-β and support the previous assumptions that via the bis(ligand) complex formation copper(II) ions may promote the formation of the oligomers of amyloid-β.

  10. The number of cysteine residues per mole in apolipoprotein E affects systematically synchronous neural interactions in women's healthy brains.

    PubMed

    Leuthold, Arthur C; Mahan, Margaret Y; Stanwyck, John J; Georgopoulos, Angeliki; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2013-05-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is involved in lipid metabolism in the brain, but its effects on brain function are not understood. Three apoE isoforms (E4, E3, and E2) are the result of cysteine-arginine interchanges at two sites: there are zero interchanges in E4, one interchange in E3, and two interchanges in E2. The resulting six apoE genotypes (E4/4, E4/3, E4/2, E3/3, E3/2, E2/2) yield five groups with respect to the number of cysteine residues per mole (CysR/mole), as follows. ApoE4/4 has zero cysteine residues per mole (0-CysR/mole), E4/3 has one (1-CysR/mole), E4/2 and E3/3 each has two (2-CysR/mole), E3/2 has three (3-CysR/mole), and E2/2 has four (4-CysR/mole). The use of the number of CysR/mole to characterize the apoE molecule converts the categorical apoE genotype scale, consisting of 6 distinct genotypes above, to a 5-point continuous scale (0-4 CysR/mole). This allows the use of statistical analyses suitable for continuous variables (e.g. regression) to quantify the relations between various variables and apoE. Using such analyses, here, we show for the first time that apoE affects in a graded and orderly manner neural communication, as assessed by analyzing the relation between the number of CysR/mole and synchronous neural interactions (SNI) measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 130 cognitively healthy women. At the one end of the CysR/mole range, the 4-CysR/mole (E2/2) SNI distribution had the highest mean, lowest variance, lowest range, and lowest coefficient of variation, whereas at the other end, 0-CysR/mole (E4/4) SNI distribution had the lowest mean, highest variance, highest range, and highest coefficient of variation. The special status of the 4-CysR/mole distribution was reinforced by the results of a hierarchical tree analysis where the 4-CysR/mole (E2/2) SNI distribution occupied a separate branch by itself and the remaining CysR/mole SNI distributions were placed at increasing distances from the 4-CysR/mole distribution, according to

  11. Redox-sensitive DNA binding by homodimeric Methanosarcina acetivorans MsvR is modulated by cysteine residues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Methanoarchaea are among the strictest known anaerobes, yet they can survive exposure to oxygen. The mechanisms by which they sense and respond to oxidizing conditions are unknown. MsvR is a transcription regulatory protein unique to the methanoarchaea. Initially identified and characterized in the methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (Mth), MthMsvR displays differential DNA binding under either oxidizing or reducing conditions. Since MthMsvR regulates a potential oxidative stress operon in M. thermautotrophicus, it was hypothesized that the MsvR family of proteins were redox-sensitive transcription regulators. Results An MsvR homologue from the methanogen Methanosarcina acetivorans, MaMsvR, was overexpressed and purified. The two MsvR proteins bound the same DNA sequence motif found upstream of all known MsvR encoding genes, but unlike MthMsvR, MaMsvR did not bind the promoters of select genes involved in the oxidative stress response. Unlike MthMsvR that bound DNA under both non-reducing and reducing conditions, MaMsvR bound DNA only under reducing conditions. MaMsvR appeared as a dimer in gel filtration chromatography analysis and site-directed mutagenesis suggested that conserved cysteine residues within the V4R domain were involved in conformational rearrangements that impact DNA binding. Conclusions Results presented herein suggest that homodimeric MaMsvR acts as a transcriptional repressor by binding Ma PmsvR under non-reducing conditions. Changing redox conditions promote conformational changes that abrogate binding to Ma PmsvR which likely leads to de-repression. PMID:23865844

  12. Palmitoylation of the Cysteine Residue in the DHHC Motif of a Palmitoyl Transferase Mediates Ca2+ Homeostasis in Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanwei; Zheng, Qingqing; Sun, Congcong; Song, Jinxing; Gao, Lina; Zhang, Shizhu; Muñoz, Alberto; Read, Nick D.; Lu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Finely tuned changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]c) mediate numerous intracellular functions resulting in the activation or inactivation of a series of target proteins. Palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification involved in membrane protein trafficking between membranes and in their functional modulation. However, studies on the relationship between palmitoylation and calcium signaling have been limited. Here, we demonstrate that the yeast palmitoyl transferase ScAkr1p homolog, AkrA in Aspergillus nidulans, regulates [Ca2+]c homeostasis. Deletion of akrA showed marked defects in hyphal growth and conidiation under low calcium conditions which were similar to the effects of deleting components of the high-affinity calcium uptake system (HACS). The [Ca2+]c dynamics in living cells expressing the calcium reporter aequorin in different akrA mutant backgrounds were defective in their [Ca2+]c responses to high extracellular Ca2+ stress or drugs that cause ER or plasma membrane stress. All of these effects on the [Ca2+]c responses mediated by AkrA were closely associated with the cysteine residue of the AkrA DHHC motif, which is required for palmitoylation by AkrA. Using the acyl-biotin exchange chemistry assay combined with proteomic mass spectrometry, we identified protein substrates palmitoylated by AkrA including two new putative P-type ATPases (Pmc1 and Spf1 homologs), a putative proton V-type proton ATPase (Vma5 homolog) and three putative proteins in A. nidulans, the transcripts of which have previously been shown to be induced by extracellular calcium stress in a CrzA-dependent manner. Thus, our findings provide strong evidence that the AkrA protein regulates [Ca2+]c homeostasis by palmitoylating these protein candidates and give new insights the role of palmitoylation in the regulation of calcium-mediated responses to extracellular, ER or plasma membrane stress. PMID:27058039

  13. Cysteine residue 911 in C-terminal tail of human BK(Ca)α channel subunit is crucial for its activation by carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Telezhkin, Vsevolod; Brazier, Stephen P; Mears, Ruth; Müller, Carsten T; Riccardi, Daniela; Kemp, Paul J

    2011-06-01

    The large conductance, voltage- and calcium-activated potassium channel, BK(Ca), is a known target for the gasotransmitter, carbon monoxide (CO). Activation of BK(Ca) by CO modulates cellular excitability and contributes to the physiology of a diverse array of processes, including vascular tone and oxygen-sensing. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the molecular mechanisms underpinning reception of CO by the BK(Ca). Here, employing voltage-clamped, inside-out patches from HEK293 cells expressing single, double and triple cysteine mutations in the BK(Ca) α-subunit, we test the hypothesis that CO regulation is conferred upon the channel by interactions with cysteine residues within the RCK2 domain. In physiological [Ca(2+)](i), all mutants carrying a cysteine substitution at position 911 (C911G) demonstrated significantly reduced CO sensitivity; the C911G mutant did not express altered Ca(2+)-sensitivity. In contrast, histidine residues in RCK1 domain, previously shown to ablate CO activation in low [Ca(2+)](i), actually increased CO sensitivity when [Ca(2+)](i) was in the physiological range. Importantly, cyanide, employed here as a substituent for CO at potential metal centres, occluded activation by CO; this effect was freely reversible. Taken together, these data suggest that a specific cysteine residue in the C-terminal domain, which is close to the Ca(2+) bowl but which is not involved in Ca(2+) activation, confers significant CO sensitivity to BK(Ca) channels. The rapid reversibility of CO and cyanide binding, coupled to information garnered from other CO-binding proteins, suggests that C911 may be involved in formation of a transition metal cluster which can bind and, thereafter, activate BK(Ca).

  14. Conserved Cysteine Residue in the DNA-Binding Domain of the Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E2 Protein Confers Redox Regulation of the DNA- Binding Activity in Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Alison A.; Klausner, Richard D.; Howley, Peter M.

    1992-08-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 open reading frame encodes three proteins involved in viral DNA replication and transcriptional regulation. These polypeptides share a carboxyl-terminal domain with a specific DNA-binding activity; through this domain the E2 polypeptides form dimers. In this study, we demonstrate the inhibition of E2 DNA binding in vitro by reagents that oxidize or otherwise chemically modify the free sulfydryl groups of reactive cysteine residues. However, these reagents had no effect on DNA-binding activity when the E2 polypeptide was first bound to DNA, suggesting that the free sulfydryl group(s) may be protected by DNA binding. Sensitivity to sulfydryl modification was mapped to a cysteine residue at position 340 in the E2 DNA-binding domain, an amino acid that is highly conserved among the E2 proteins of different papillomaviruses. Replacement of this residue with other amino acids abrogated the sensitivity to oxidation-reduction changes but did not affect the DNA-binding property of the E2 protein. These results suggest that papillomavirus DNA replication and transcriptional regulation could be modulated through the E2 proteins by changes in the intracellular redox environment. Furthermore, a motif consisting of a reactive cysteine residue carboxyl-terminal to a lysine residue in a basic region of the DNA-binding domain is a feature common to a number of transcriptional regulatory proteins that, like E2, are subject to redox regulation. Thus, posttranslational regulation of the activity of these proteins by the intracellular redox environment may be a general phenomenon.

  15. P-wave and S-wave traveltime residuals in Caledonian and adjacent units of Northern Europe and Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejrani, Babak; Balling, Niels; Holm Jacobsen, Bo; Kind, Rainer; Tilmann, Frederik; England, Richard; Bom Nielsen, Søren

    2014-05-01

    This work combines P-wave and S-wave travel time residuals from in total 477 temporary and 56 permanent stations deployed across Caledonian and adjacent units in Northern Europe and Greenland (Tor, Gregersen et al. 2002; SVEKALAPKO, Sandoval et al., 2003; CALAS, Medhus et al, 2012a; MAGNUS, Weidle et al. 2010; SCANLIPS south, England & Ebbing 2012; SCANLIPS north, Hejrani et al. 2012; JULS Hejrani et al. 2013; plus permanent stations in the region). We picked data from 2002 to 2012 (1221 events) using a cross correlation technique on all waveforms recorded for each event. In this way we achieve maximum consistency of relative residuals over the whole region (Medhus et al. 2012b). On the European side 18362 P-wave travel time residuals was delivered. In East Greenland 1735 P-wave residuals were recovered at the Central Fjord array (13 stations) and 2294 residuals from the sparse GLISN-array (23 stations). Likewise, we picked a total of 6034 residuals of the SV phase (For the Tor and SVEKALAPKO projects we used data from Amaru et al. 2008). Relative residuals within the region are mainly due to sub-crustal uppermost mantle velocity anomalies. A dominant subvertical boundary was detected by Medhus et al. (2012), running along the Tornquist zone, east of the Oslo Graben and crossing under high topography of the southern Scandes. We delineated this boundary in more detail, tracking it towards the Atlantic margin north of Trondheim. Further north (Scanlips north), a similar subvertical upper mantle boundary seems to be present close to the coast, coinciding with the edge of the stretched crust. The North German Caledonides were probed by the new JULS (JUtland Lower Saxony) profile which closes the gap between Tor and CALAS arrays. Mantle structure found by the Tor project was confirmed, and modelling was extended to the eastern edge of the North Sea. References: Amaru, M. L., Spakman, W., Villaseñor, A., Sandoval, S., Kissling, E., 2008, A new absolute arrival time data

  16. Substitution of cysteine for glycine at residue 415 of one allele of the alpha 1(I) chain of type I procollagen in type III/IV osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, A C; Oliver, J; Renouf, D V; Keston, M; Pope, F M

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the type I collagen in a patient with type III/IV osteogenesis imperfecta. Two forms of alpha 1(I) chain were produced, one normal and the other containing a cysteine residue within the triple helical domain of the molecule. Cysteine is not normally present in this domain of type I collagen. Peptide mapping experiments localised the mutation to peptide alpha 1(I)CB3 which spans residues 403 to 551 of the triple helix. Subsequent PCR amplification of cDNA covering this region followed by sequencing showed a G to T single base change in the GGC codon for glycine 415 generating TGC, the codon for cysteine. The effect of the mutation on the protein is to delay secretion from the cell, reduce the thermal stability of the molecule by 2 degrees C, and cause excessive post-translational modification of all chains in molecules containing one or more mutant alpha 1(I) chains. The clinical phenotype observed in this patient and the position of the mutation conform to the recent prediction of Starman et al that Gly----Cys mutations in the alpha 1(I) chain have a gradient of severity decreasing from the C-terminus to the N-terminus. Images PMID:1770532

  17. Subtype-selective regulation of IP(3) receptors by thimerosal via cysteine residues within the IP(3)-binding core and suppressor domain.

    PubMed

    Khan, Samir A; Rossi, Ana M; Riley, Andrew M; Potter, Barry V L; Taylor, Colin W

    2013-04-15

    IP(3)R (IP(3) [inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate] receptors) and ryanodine receptors are the most widely expressed intracellular Ca(2+) channels and both are regulated by thiol reagents. In DT40 cells stably expressing single subtypes of mammalian IP(3)R, low concentrations of thimerosal (also known as thiomersal), which oxidizes thiols to form a thiomercurylethyl complex, increased the sensitivity of IP(3)-evoked Ca(2+) release via IP(3)R1 and IP(3)R2, but inhibited IP(3)R3. Activation of IP(3)R is initiated by IP(3) binding to the IBC (IP(3)-binding core; residues 224-604) and proceeds via re-arrangement of an interface between the IBC and SD (suppressor domain; residues 1-223). Thimerosal (100 μM) stimulated IP(3) binding to the isolated NT (N-terminal; residues 1-604) of IP(3)R1 and IP(3)R2, but not to that of IP(3)R3. Binding of a competitive antagonist (heparin) or partial agonist (dimeric-IP(3)) to NT1 was unaffected by thiomersal, suggesting that the effect of thimerosal is specifically related to IP(3)R activation. IP(3) binding to NT1 in which all cysteine residues were replaced by alanine was insensitive to thimerosal, so too were NT1 in which cysteine residues were replaced in either the SD or IBC. This demonstrates that thimerosal interacts directly with cysteine in both the SD and IBC. Chimaeric proteins in which the SD of the IP(3)R was replaced by the structurally related A domain of a ryanodine receptor were functional, but thimerosal inhibited both IP(3) binding to the chimaeric NT and IP(3)-evoked Ca(2+) release from the chimaeric IP(3)R. This is the first systematic analysis of the effects of a thiol reagent on each IP(3)R subtype. We conclude that thimerosal selectively sensitizes IP(3)R1 and IP(3)R2 to IP(3) by modifying cysteine residues within both the SD and IBC and thereby stabilizing an active conformation of the receptor.

  18. Inorganic mercury interacts with cysteine residues (C451 and C474) of hOCT2 to reduce its transport activity.

    PubMed

    Pelis, Ryan M; Dangprapai, Yodying; Wunz, Theresa M; Wright, Stephen H

    2007-05-01

    Human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2) is essential for the renal tubular secretion of many toxic organic cations. Previously, of the cysteines (C437, C451, C470, and C474) that occur within transmembrane helices that comprise the hydrophilic cleft (proposed site of substrate binding), only C474 was accessible to maleimide-PEO(2)-biotin (hydrophilic thiol-reactive reagent), and covalent modification of this residue caused lower transport rates (Pelis RM, Zhang X, Dangprapai Y, Wright SH, J Biol Chem 281: 35272-35280, 2006). Thus it was hypothesized that the environmental contaminant Hg(2+) (as HgCl(2)) would interact with C474 to reduce hOCT2-mediated transport. Uptake of [(3)H]tetraethylammonium (TEA) into Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing hOCT2 was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by HgCl(2), with an IC(50) of 3.9 +/- 0.11 microM. Treatment with 10 microM HgCl(2) caused a sixfold reduction in the maximal rate of TEA transport but did not alter the affinity of hOCT2 for TEA. To determine which cysteines interact with Hg(2+), a mutant with all four cleft cysteines converted to alanines (quadruple mutant), and four variants of this mutant, each with an individual cysteine restored, were created. The quadruple mutant was less sensitive to HgCl(2) than wild-type, whereas the C451- and C474-containing mutants were more sensitive than the quadruple mutant. Consistent with the HgCl(2) effect on transport, MTSEA-biotin only interacted with C451 and C474. These data indicate that C451 and C474 of hOCT2 reside in the aqueous milieu of the cleft and that interaction of Hg(2+) with these residues causes reduced TEA transport activity.

  19. SARS-coronavirus spike S2 domain flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833 is important for activation of membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Madu, Ikenna G.; Belouzard, Sandrine; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2009-10-25

    The S2 domain of the coronavirus spike (S) protein is known to be responsible for mediating membrane fusion. In addition to a well-recognized cleavage site at the S1-S2 boundary, a second proteolytic cleavage site has been identified in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S2 domain (R797). C-terminal to this S2 cleavage site is a conserved region flanked by cysteine residues C822 and C833. Here, we investigated the importance of this well conserved region for SARS-CoV S-mediated fusion activation. We show that the residues between C822-C833 are well conserved across all coronaviruses. Mutagenic analysis of SARS-CoV S, combined with cell-cell fusion and pseudotyped virion infectivity assays, showed a critical role for the core-conserved residues C822, D830, L831, and C833. Based on available predictive models, we propose that the conserved domain flanked by cysteines 822 and 833 forms a loop structure that interacts with components of the SARS-CoV S trimer to control the activation of membrane fusion.

  20. Role of Cysteine Residues in the Carboxyl-Terminus of the Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor in Intracellular Traffic and Postendocytic Processing

    PubMed Central

    Melo-Nava, Brenda; Casas-González, Patricia; Pérez-Solís, Marco A.; Castillo-Badillo, Jean; Maravillas-Montero, José L.; Jardón-Valadez, Eduardo; Zariñán, Teresa; Aguilar-Rojas, Arturo; Gallay, Nathalie; Reiter, Eric; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications occurring during the biosynthesis of G protein-coupled receptors include glycosylation and palmitoylation at conserved cysteine residues located in the carboxyl-terminus of the receptor. In a number of these receptors, these modifications play an important role in receptor function and particularly, in intracellular trafficking. In the present study, the three cysteine residues present in the carboxyl-terminus of the human FSHR were replaced with glycine by site-directed mutagenesis. Wild-type and mutant (Cys627/629/655Gly) FSHRs were then transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells and analyzed for cell-surface plasma membrane expression, agonist-stimulated signaling and internalization, and postendocytic processing in the absence and presence of lysosome and/or proteasome inhibitors. Compared with the wild-type FSHR, the triple mutant FSHR exhibited ~70% reduction in plasma membrane expression as well as a profound attenuation in agonist-stimulated cAMP production and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Incubation of HEK-293 cells expressing the wild-type FSHR with 2-bromopalmitate (palmitoylation inhibitor) for 6 h, decreased plasma membrane expression of the receptor by ~30%. The internalization kinetics and β-arrestin 1 and 2 recruitment were similar between the wild-type and triple mutant FSHR as disclosed by assays performed in non-equilibrium binding conditions and by confocal microscopy. Cells expressing the mutant FSHR recycled the internalized FSHR back to the plasma membrane less efficiently than those expressing the wild-type FSHR, an effect that was counteracted by proteasome but not by lysosome inhibition. These results indicate that replacement of the cysteine residues present in the carboxyl-terminus of the FSHR, impairs receptor trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane and its recycling from endosomes back to the cell surface following agonist-induced internalization. Since in the FSHR these

  1. Role of Cysteine Residues in the Carboxyl-Terminus of the Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor in Intracellular Traffic and Postendocytic Processing.

    PubMed

    Melo-Nava, Brenda; Casas-González, Patricia; Pérez-Solís, Marco A; Castillo-Badillo, Jean; Maravillas-Montero, José L; Jardón-Valadez, Eduardo; Zariñán, Teresa; Aguilar-Rojas, Arturo; Gallay, Nathalie; Reiter, Eric; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications occurring during the biosynthesis of G protein-coupled receptors include glycosylation and palmitoylation at conserved cysteine residues located in the carboxyl-terminus of the receptor. In a number of these receptors, these modifications play an important role in receptor function and particularly, in intracellular trafficking. In the present study, the three cysteine residues present in the carboxyl-terminus of the human FSHR were replaced with glycine by site-directed mutagenesis. Wild-type and mutant (Cys627/629/655Gly) FSHRs were then transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells and analyzed for cell-surface plasma membrane expression, agonist-stimulated signaling and internalization, and postendocytic processing in the absence and presence of lysosome and/or proteasome inhibitors. Compared with the wild-type FSHR, the triple mutant FSHR exhibited ~70% reduction in plasma membrane expression as well as a profound attenuation in agonist-stimulated cAMP production and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Incubation of HEK-293 cells expressing the wild-type FSHR with 2-bromopalmitate (palmitoylation inhibitor) for 6 h, decreased plasma membrane expression of the receptor by ~30%. The internalization kinetics and β-arrestin 1 and 2 recruitment were similar between the wild-type and triple mutant FSHR as disclosed by assays performed in non-equilibrium binding conditions and by confocal microscopy. Cells expressing the mutant FSHR recycled the internalized FSHR back to the plasma membrane less efficiently than those expressing the wild-type FSHR, an effect that was counteracted by proteasome but not by lysosome inhibition. These results indicate that replacement of the cysteine residues present in the carboxyl-terminus of the FSHR, impairs receptor trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane and its recycling from endosomes back to the cell surface following agonist-induced internalization. Since in the FSHR these

  2. Cysteine residues 244 and 458-459 within the catalytic subunit of Na,K-ATPase control the enzyme's hydrolytic and signaling function under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Petrushanko, Irina Yu; Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Lakunina, Valentina A; Anashkina, Anastasia A; Spirin, Pavel V; Rubtsov, Peter M; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Bogdanov, Nikolay B; Hänggi, Pascal; Fuller, William; Makarov, Alexander A; Bogdanova, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Our previous findings suggested that reversible thiol modifications of cysteine residues within the actuator (AD) and nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of the Na,K-ATPase may represent a powerful regulatory mechanism conveying redox- and oxygen-sensitivity of this multifunctional enzyme. S-glutathionylation of Cys244 in the AD and Cys 454-458-459 in the NBD inhibited the enzyme and protected cysteines' thiol groups from irreversible oxidation under hypoxic conditions. In this study mutagenesis approach was used to assess the role these cysteines play in regulation of the Na,K-ATPase hydrolytic and signaling functions. Several constructs of mouse α1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase were produced in which Cys244, Cys 454-458-459 or Cys 244-454-458-459 were replaced by alanine. These constructs were expressed in human HEK293 cells. Non-transfected cells and those expressing murine α1 subunit were exposed to hypoxia or treated with oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Both conditions induced inhibition of the wild type Na,K-ATPase. Enzymes containing mutated mouse α1 lacking Cys244 or all four cysteines (Cys 244-454-458-459) were insensitive to hypoxia. Inhibitory effect of GSSG was observed for wild type murine Na,K-ATPase, but was less pronounced in Cys454-458-459Ala mutant and completely absent in the Cys244Ala and Cys 244-454-458-459Ala mutants. In cells, expressing wild type enzyme, ouabain induced activation of Src and Erk kinases under normoxic conditions, whereas under hypoxic conditions this effect was inversed. Cys454-458-459Ala substitution abolished Src kinase activation in response to ouabain treatment, uncoupled Src from Erk signaling, and interfered with O2-sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase signaling function. Moreover, modeling predicted that S-glutathionylation of Cys 458 and 459 should prevent inhibitory binding of Src to NBD. Our data indicate for the first time that cysteine residues within the AD and NBD influence hydrolytic as well as receptor function of the Na

  3. TRPA1 is activated by direct addition of cysteine residues to the N-hydroxysuccinyl esters of acrylic and cinnamic acids.

    PubMed

    Sadofsky, Laura R; Boa, Andrew N; Maher, Sarah A; Birrell, Mark A; Belvisi, Maria G; Morice, Alyn H

    2011-01-01

    The nociceptor TRPA1 is thought to be activated through covalent modification of specific cysteine residues on the N terminal of the channel. The precise mechanism of covalent modification with unsaturated carbonyl-containing compounds is unclear, therefore by examining a range of compounds which can undergo both conjugate and/or direct addition reactions we sought to further elucidate the mechanism(s) whereby TRPA1 can be activated by covalent modification. Calcium signalling was used to determine the mechanism of activation of TRPA1 expressed in HEK293 cells with a series of related compounds which were capable of either direct and/or conjugate addition processes. These results were confirmed using physiological recordings with isolated vagus nerve preparations. We found negligible channel activation with chemicals which could only react with cysteine residues via conjugate addition such as acrylamide, acrylic acid, and cinnamic acid. Compounds able to react via either conjugate or direct addition, such as acrolein, methyl vinyl ketone, mesityl oxide, acrylic acid NHS ester, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid NHS ester, activated TRPA1 in a concentration dependent manner as did compounds only capable of direct addition, namely propionic acid NHS ester and hydrocinnamic acid NHS ester. These compounds failed to activate TRPV1 expressed in HEK293 cells or mock transfected HEK293 cells. For molecules capable of direct or conjugate additions, the results suggest for the first time that TRPA1 may be activated preferentially by direct addition of the thiol group of TRPA1 cysteines to the agonist carbonyl carbon of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl-containing compounds.

  4. Modification by covalent reaction or oxidation of cysteine residues in the Tandem-SH2 Domains of ZAP-70 and Syk Can Block Phosphopeptide Binding

    PubMed Central

    Visperas, Patrick R.; Winger, Jonathan A.; Horton, Timothy M.; Shah, Neel H.; Aum, Diane J.; Tao, Alyssa; Barros, Tiago; Yan, Qingrong; Wilson, Christopher G.; Arkin, Michelle R.; Weiss, Arthur; Kuriyan, John

    2015-01-01

    Zeta-chain Associated Protein of 70kDa (ZAP-70) and Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) are non-receptor tyrosine kinases that are essential for T-cell and B-cell antigen receptor signaling, respectively. They are recruited, via their tandem-SH2 domains, to doubly-phosphorylated Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motifs (ITAMs) on invariant chains of immune antigen receptors. Because of their critical roles in immune signaling, ZAP-70 and Syk are targets for the development of drugs for autoimmune diseases. We show that three thiol-reactive small molecules can prevent the tandem-SH2 domains of ZAP-70 and Syk from binding to phosphorylated ITAMs. We identify a specific cysteine residue in the phosphotyrosine-binding pocket of each protein (Cys 39 in ZAP-70, Cys 206 in Syk) that is necessary for inhibition by two of these compounds. We also find that ITAM binding to ZAP-70 and Syk is sensitive to the presence of hydrogen peroxide, and these two cysteine residues are also necessary for inhibition by hydrogen peroxide. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which the generation of reactive oxygen species generated during responses to antigen could attenuate signaling through these kinases, and may also inform the development of ZAP-70 and Syk inhibitors that bind covalently to their SH2 domains. PMID:25287889

  5. Peptide backbone fragmentation initiated by side-chain loss at cysteine residue in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization in-source decay mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Daiki; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Quinton, Loïc; De Pauw, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization in-source decay (MALDI-ISD) is initiated by hydrogen transfer from matrix molecules to the carbonyl oxygen of peptide backbone with subsequent radical-induced cleavage leading to c'/z• fragments pair. MALDI-ISD is a very powerful method to obtain long sequence tags from proteins or to do de novo sequencing of peptides. Besides classical fragmentation, MALDI-ISD also shows specific fragments for which the mechanism of formation enlightened the MALDI-ISD process. In this study, the MALDI-ISD mechanism is reviewed, and a specific mechanism is studied in details: the N-terminal side of Cys residue (Xxx-Cys) is described to promote the generation of c' and w fragments in MALDI-ISD. Our data suggest that for sequences containing Xxx-Cys motifs, the N-Cα bond cleavage occurs following the hydrogen attachment to the thiol group of Cys side-chain. The c•/w fragments pair is formed by side-chain loss of the Cys residue with subsequent radical-induced cleavage at the N-Cα bond located at the left side (N-terminal direction) of the Cys residue. This fragmentation pathway preferentially occurs at free Cys residue and is suppressed when the cysteines are involved in disulfide bonds. Hydrogen attachment to alkylated Cys residues using iodoacetamide gives free Cys residue by the loss of •CH2CONH2 radical. The presence of alkylated Cys residue also suppress the formation of c•/w fragments pair via the (Cβ)-centered radical, whereas w fragment is still observed as intense signal. In this case, the z• fragment formed by hydrogen attachment of carbonyl oxygen followed side-chain loss at alkylated Cys leads to a w fragment. Hydrogen attachment on peptide backbone and side-chain of Cys residue occurs therefore competitively during MALDI-ISD process. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Cysteine Residues in the Major Capsid Protein, Vp1, of the JC Virus Are Important for Protein Stability and Oligomer Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shintaro; Suzuki, Tadaki; Igarashi, Manabu; Orba, Yasuko; Ohtake, Noriko; Nagakawa, Keita; Niikura, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kasamatsu, Harumi; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    The capsid of the human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) consists of 72 pentameric capsomeres of a major structural protein, Vp1. The cysteine residues of the related Vp1 of SV40 are known to contribute to Vp1 folding, pentamer formation, pentamer-pentamer contacts, and capsid stabilization. In light of the presence of a slight structural difference between JCV Vp1 and SV40 counterpart, the way the former folds could be either different from or similar to the latter. We found a difference: an important contribution of Vp1 cysteines to the formation of infectious virions, unique in JCV and absent in SV40. Having introduced amino acid substitution at each of six cysteines (C42, C80, C97, C200, C247, and C260) in JCV Vp1, we found that, when expressed in HeLa cells, the Vp1 level was decreased in C80A and C247A mutants, and remained normal in the other mutants. Additionally, the C80A and C247A Vp1-expressing cell extracts did not show the hemagglutination activity characteristic of JCV particles. The C80A and C247A mutant Vp1s were found to be less stable than the wild-type Vp1 in HeLa cells. When produced in a reconstituted in vitro protein translation system, these two mutant proteins were stable, suggesting that some cellular factors were responsible for their degradation. As determined by their sucrose gradient sedimentation profiles, in vitro translated C247A Vp1 formed pentamers, but in vitro translated C80A Vp1 was entirely monomeric. When individually incorporated into the JCV genome, the C80A and C247A mutants, but not the other Vp1 cysteine residues mutants, interfered with JCV infectivity. Furthermore, the C80A, but not the C247A, mutation prevented the nuclear localization of Vp1 in JCV genome transfected cells. These findings suggest that C80 of JCV Vp1 is required for Vp1 stability and pentamer formation, and C247 is involved in capsid assembly in the nucleus. PMID:24130786

  7. Cysteine residues in the major capsid protein, Vp1, of the JC virus are important for protein stability and oligomer formation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shintaro; Suzuki, Tadaki; Igarashi, Manabu; Orba, Yasuko; Ohtake, Noriko; Nagakawa, Keita; Niikura, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kasamatsu, Harumi; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    The capsid of the human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) consists of 72 pentameric capsomeres of a major structural protein, Vp1. The cysteine residues of the related Vp1 of SV40 are known to contribute to Vp1 folding, pentamer formation, pentamer-pentamer contacts, and capsid stabilization. In light of the presence of a slight structural difference between JCV Vp1 and SV40 counterpart, the way the former folds could be either different from or similar to the latter. We found a difference: an important contribution of Vp1 cysteines to the formation of infectious virions, unique in JCV and absent in SV40. Having introduced amino acid substitution at each of six cysteines (C42, C80, C97, C200, C247, and C260) in JCV Vp1, we found that, when expressed in HeLa cells, the Vp1 level was decreased in C80A and C247A mutants, and remained normal in the other mutants. Additionally, the C80A and C247A Vp1-expressing cell extracts did not show the hemagglutination activity characteristic of JCV particles. The C80A and C247A mutant Vp1s were found to be less stable than the wild-type Vp1 in HeLa cells. When produced in a reconstituted in vitro protein translation system, these two mutant proteins were stable, suggesting that some cellular factors were responsible for their degradation. As determined by their sucrose gradient sedimentation profiles, in vitro translated C247A Vp1 formed pentamers, but in vitro translated C80A Vp1 was entirely monomeric. When individually incorporated into the JCV genome, the C80A and C247A mutants, but not the other Vp1 cysteine residues mutants, interfered with JCV infectivity. Furthermore, the C80A, but not the C247A, mutation prevented the nuclear localization of Vp1 in JCV genome transfected cells. These findings suggest that C80 of JCV Vp1 is required for Vp1 stability and pentamer formation, and C247 is involved in capsid assembly in the nucleus.

  8. Relevance of glycine and cysteine residues as well as N- and C-terminals for the activity of protein histidine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, Susanne; Ma, Nien Tze; Bäumer, Nicole; Bechmann, Gunther; Krieglstein, Josef

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that reversible phosphorylation of histidine residues regulates numerous important cellular processes. The first protein histidine phosphatase (PHP) from vertebrates was discovered just recently. Here, we report on amino acids and domains essential for activity of PHP. Point mutations of conserved residues and deletions of the N- and C-termini of PHP were analyzed using [(32)P-his]ATP-citrate lyase as a substrate. Individual or joint replacement of all cysteine residues by alanine did not affect PHP activity. Deletion of 9 N-terminal amino acids resulted in inactive PHP. Furthermore, only 4 C-terminal residues could be deleted without losing PHP activity. Single or multiple mutations of the glycine-rich domain (Gly(75), Gly(77)) of a putative nucleotide binding site of PHP (GxGxxG/S) caused inactivation of PHP. Wildtype PHP could be labeled with [alpha-(32)P]ATP. Such radiolabeling was not detectable for catalytically inactive PHP-G75A and PHP-G77A. These data suggest further studies on the interaction between PHP and ATP.

  9. Morphology and stability changes of recombinant TMV particles caused by a cysteine residue in the foreign peptide fused to the coat protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiaoli; Jiang, Lubin; Li, Mangmang; Li, Ping; Zhang, Qingqi; Song, Rentao; Xu, Zhengkai

    2007-03-01

    In the studies of expressing various foreign peptides using a TMV-based vector, a portion of morphologically altered progeny viral particles from some recombinant TMV constructs were detected by transmission electron microscopy in the first systematically infected upper leaves, but not in the fully expanded inoculated leaves, from infected tobacco plants. Furthermore, in vitro stability of such recombinant TMV constructs were lower than those of the wild type and other recombinant TMV constructs able to form regular rod-shape virions, hence causing the lower yields of recombinant viral particles purified from the infected tobacco plants. Our studies revealed that the presence of a cysteine residue in the foreign peptides, regardless of its position and the peptide sequence, was directly related to changes in the morphology and stability of these TMV recombinants.

  10. Five amino acid residues in cysteine-rich domain of human T1R3 were involved in the response for sweet-tasting protein, thaumatin.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Taguchi, Wakana; Sano, Ayane; Ohta, Keisuke; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2013-07-01

    Thaumatin, a sweet-tasting plant protein, elicits a sweet taste sensation at 50 nM in humans but not rodents. Although it was shown that the cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of human T1R3 (hT1R3) is important for the response to thaumatin, the amino acid residues within CRD critical for response are still unknown. A comparison of the amino acid sequence (69 amino acid residues) of CRD between hT1R3 and mouse T1R3 (mT1R3) revealed sixteen amino acids that differ. In the present study, we converted each of these sixteen amino acids in hT1R3 to their mouse counterpart and examined the response to thaumatin and sucralose using a cell-based assay. No significant decrease in the response to sucralose was seen among any of the sixteen mutants. However, five mutants (Q504K, A537T, R556P, S559P, and R560K) exhibited a significantly diminished response to thaumatin. The five critical residues involved in the response to thaumatin were dispersed in the CRD of hT1R3 and widely distributed when compared to brazzein. The unique intense sweet-taste of thaumatin might be attributed to the different receptor activation mechanism compared to the small molecule sweetener sucralose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The specificities of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligases are determined by the positions of lysine or cysteine residues within the intracytoplasmic domains of their targets.

    PubMed

    Cadwell, Ken; Coscoy, Laurent

    2008-04-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes two homologous E3 ligases, MIR1 and MIR2, that mediate the ubiquitination and subsequent downregulation of several cell surface proteins, and in particular major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules. We have previously shown that, in addition to lysine ubiquitination, MIR1 has the unique ability of transferring ubiquitin onto MHC-I molecules lacking available lysine residues, in a cysteine-dependent manner. Here we report that MIR1 activity is maximal when either a lysine or cysteine residue is placed approximately 15 amino acids away from the transmembrane domain, whereas MIR2 preferentially targets residues, including cysteines, that are closer to the transmembrane domain. Thus MIR1 and -2 can distinguish their substrates based on the position of the lysine or cysteine residues, suggesting that these proteins have evolved to target different sets of surface molecules. These results indicate that the position of target residues within a substrate is an essential determinant of E3 ubiquitin ligase specificity.

  12. Influence of Protein – Micelle Ratios and Cysteine Residues on the Kinetic Stability and Unfolding Rates of Human Mitochondrial VDAC-2

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Svetlana Rajkumar; Mahalakshmi, Radhakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Delineating the kinetic and thermodynamic factors which contribute to the stability of transmembrane β-barrels is critical to gain an in-depth understanding of membrane protein behavior. Human mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel isoform 2 (hVDAC-2), one of the key anti-apoptotic eukaryotic β-barrel proteins, is of paramount importance, owing to its indispensable role in cell survival. We demonstrate here that the stability of hVDAC-2 bears a strong kinetic contribution that is dependent on the absolute micellar concentration used for barrel folding. The refolding efficiency and ensuing stability is sensitive to the lipid-to-protein (LPR) ratio, and displays a non-linear relationship, with both low and high micellar amounts being detrimental to hVDAC-2 structure. Unfolding and aggregation process are sequential events and show strong temperature dependence. We demonstrate that an optimal lipid-to-protein ratio of 2600∶1 – 13000∶1 offers the highest protection against thermal denaturation. Activation energies derived only for lower LPRs are ∼17 kcal mol−1 for full-length hVDAC-2 and ∼23 kcal mol−1 for the Cys-less mutant, suggesting that the nine cysteine residues of hVDAC-2 impart additional malleability to the barrel scaffold. Our studies reveal that cysteine residues play a key role in the kinetic stability of the protein, determine barrel rigidity and thereby give rise to strong micellar association of hVDAC-2. Non-linearity of the Arrhenius plot at high LPRs coupled with observation of protein aggregation upon thermal denaturation indicates that contributions from both kinetic and thermodynamic components stabilize the 19-stranded β-barrel. Lipid-protein interaction and the linked kinetic contribution to free energy of the folded protein are together expected to play a key role in hVDAC-2 recycling and the functional switch at the onset of apoptosis. PMID:24494036

  13. Oxidation of structural cysteine residues in thioredoxin 1 by aromatic arsenicals enhances cancer cell cytotoxicity caused by the inhibition of thioredoxin reductase 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Lu, Jun; Ren, Xiaoyuan; Du, Yatao; Zheng, Yujuan; Ioannou, Panayiotis V; Holmgren, Arne

    2015-12-01

    Thioredoxin systems, composed of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), thioredoxin (Trx) and NADPH, play important roles in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and redox signaling. Recently the cytosolic Trx1 system has been shown to be a cellular target of arsenic containing compounds. To elucidate the relationship of the structure of arsenic compounds with their ability of inhibiting TrxR1 and Trx1, and cytotoxicity, we have investigated the reaction of Trx1 system with seven arsenic trithiolates: As(Cys)3, As(GS)3, As(Penicillamine)3, As(Mercaptoethanesulfonate)3, As(Mercaptopurine)3, As(2-mercaptopyridine)3 and As(2-mercaptopyridine N-oxide)3. The cytotoxicity of these arsenicals was consistent with their ability to inhibit TrxR1 in vitro and in cells. Unlike other arsenicals, As(Mercaptopurine)3 which did not show inhibitory effects on TrxR1 had very weak cytotoxicity, indicating that TrxR1 is a reliable drug target for arsenicals. Moreover, the two aromatic compounds As(2-mercaptopyridine)3 and As(2-mercaptopyridine N-oxide)3 showed stronger cytotoxicity than the others. As(2-mercaptopyridine)3 which selectively oxidized two structural cysteines (Cys62 and Cys69) in Trx1 showed mild improvement in cytotoxicity. As(2-mercaptopyridine N-oxide)3 oxidized all the Cys residues in Trx1, exhibiting the strongest cytotoxicity. Oxidation of Trx1 by As(2-mercaptopyridine)3 and As(2-mercaptopyridine N-oxide)3 affected electron transfer from NADPH and TrxR1 to peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1), which could result in the reactive oxygen species elevation and trigger cell death process. These results suggest that oxidation of structural cysteine residues in Trx1 by aromatic group in TrxR1-targeting drugs may sensitize tumor cells to cell death, providing a novel approach to regulate cellular redox signaling and also a basis for rational design of new anticancer agents.

  14. Oxidation of a Cysteine Residue in Elongation Factor EF-Tu Reversibly Inhibits Translation in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Yutthanasirikul, Rayakorn; Nagano, Takanori; Jimbo, Haruhiko; Hihara, Yukako; Kanamori, Takashi; Ueda, Takuya; Haruyama, Takamitsu; Konno, Hiroki; Yoshida, Keisuke; Hisabori, Toru; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka

    2016-03-11

    Translational elongation is susceptible to inactivation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and elongation factor G has been identified as a target of oxidation by ROS. In the present study we examined the sensitivity to oxidation by ROS of another elongation factor, EF-Tu. The structure of EF-Tu changes dramatically depending on the bound nucleotide. Therefore, we investigated the sensitivity to oxidation in vitro of GTP- and GDP-bound EF-Tu as well as that of nucleotide-free EF-Tu. Assays of translational activity with a reconstituted translation system from Escherichia coli revealed that GTP-bound and nucleotide-free EF-Tu were sensitive to oxidation by H2O2, whereas GDP-bound EF-Tu was resistant to H2O2. The inactivation of EF-Tu was the result of oxidation of Cys-82, a single cysteine residue, and subsequent formation of both an intermolecular disulfide bond and sulfenic acid. Replacement of Cys-82 with serine rendered EF-Tu resistant to inactivation by H2O2, confirming that Cys-82 was a target of oxidation. Furthermore, oxidized EF-Tu was reduced and reactivated by thioredoxin. Gel-filtration chromatography revealed that some of the oxidized nucleotide-free EF-Tu formed large complexes of >30 molecules. Atomic force microscopy revealed that such large complexes dissociated into several smaller aggregates upon the addition of dithiothreitol. Immunological analysis of the redox state of EF-Tu in vivo showed that levels of oxidized EF-Tu increased under strong light. Thus, resembling elongation factor G, EF-Tu appears to be sensitive to ROS via oxidation of a cysteine residue, and its inactivation might be reversed in a redox-dependent manner.

  15. Analysis of the solvent accessibility of cysteine residues on maize rayado fino virus virus-like particles produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and cross-linking of peptides to VLPs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A method to analyze the solvent accessibility of the thiol group of cysteine residues of Maize rayado fino virus-virus-like particles (VLPs) followed by a peptide cross-linking reaction is described. The method takes advantage of the availability of several chemical groups on the surface of the VLPs...

  16. Thiol-beta-lactamase: replacement of the active-site serine of RTEM beta-lactamase by a cysteine residue.

    PubMed

    Sigal, I S; Harwood, B G; Arentzen, R

    1982-12-01

    We describe a procedure by which the codon (AGC) for the active-site serine-70 of pBR322 beta-lactamase (penicillinase, penicillin amido-beta-lactamhydrolase, EC 3.5.2.6) is altered to that for cysteine (TGC). The pertinent nucleotide bases, A-G-C-A, positions 410-413, of pBR322 are excised by treating a limited HgiAI digest of pBR322 with the 3' leads to 5' exonuclease of T4 DNA polymerase. The new sequence, T-G-C-A, is inserted in two steps. First, the Kpn I molecular linker d(T-G-G-T-A-C-C-A) is ligated into the gap described above. The internal sequence G-T-A-C is then excised enzymatically with Kpn I and T4 DNA polymerase and the molecule is recircularized. This mutant gene, which codes for a thiol-beta-lactamase, confers on Escherichia coli K-12 hosts an ampicillin resistance that is reduced compared with that given by pBR322 yet is greater than that of E. coli lacking any intact beta-lactamase gene. Cell-free extracts of E. coli strains hosting the thiol-beta-lactamase gene possess a p-chloromercuribenzoate-sensitive beta-lactamase activity.

  17. Chikungunya virus infectivity, RNA replication and non-structural polyprotein processing depend on the nsP2 protease's active site cysteine residue.

    PubMed

    Rausalu, Kai; Utt, Age; Quirin, Tania; Varghese, Finny S; Žusinaite, Eva; Das, Pratyush Kumar; Ahola, Tero; Merits, Andres

    2016-11-15

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae, has a positive-stand RNA genome approximately 12 kb in length. In infected cells, the genome is translated into non-structural polyprotein P1234, an inactive precursor of the viral replicase, which is activated by cleavages carried out by the non-structural protease, nsP2. We have characterized CHIKV nsP2 using both cell-free and cell-based assays. First, we show that Cys478 residue in the active site of CHIKV nsP2 is indispensable for P1234 processing. Second, the substrate requirements of CHIKV nsP2 are quite similar to those of nsP2 of related Semliki Forest virus (SFV). Third, substitution of Ser482 residue, recently reported to contribute to the protease activity of nsP2, with Ala has almost no negative effect on the protease activity of CHIKV nsP2. Fourth, Cys478 to Ala as well as Trp479 to Ala mutations in nsP2 completely abolished RNA replication in CHIKV and SFV trans-replication systems. In contrast, trans-replicases with Ser482 to Ala mutation were similar to wild type counterparts. Fifth, Cys478 to Ala as well as Trp479 to Ala mutations in nsP2 abolished the rescue of infectious virus from CHIKV RNA transcripts while Ser482 to Ala mutation had no effect. Thus, CHIKV nsP2 is a cysteine protease.

  18. Determination of ceftiofur metabolite desfuroylceftiofur cysteine disulfide in bovine tissues using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as a surrogate marker residue for ceftiofur.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shixia; Chiesa, Oscar A; Kijak, Philip; Chattopadhaya, Chaitali; Lancaster, Vicki; Smith, Elizabeth A; Girard, Lauren; Sklenka, Sara; Li, Hui

    2014-06-04

    Ceftiofur is a widely used cephalosporin β-lactam antibiotic with frequently reported residue violations. This paper reports a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determining a ceftiofur metabolite, desfuroylceftiofur cysteine disulfide (DCCD), in bovine kidney, liver, and muscle tissues. Incurred tissue samples were obtained from dosed animals and analyzed to evaluate the utility of the method. For kidney, the target tissue, the method utilized a simple extraction with phosphate buffer followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup. For liver and muscle, acetonitrile and hexane were used to remove most proteins and fat from the initial buffer extract before the SPE cleanup. Method accuracy was between 97 and 107%, and the coefficient of variation was between 3.4 and 11.0% for all three types of tissues. The relationship between the new and regulatory methods for bovine kidney was established. It was concluded that DCCD is a suitable surrogate marker residue for ceftiofur in bovine kidney.

  19. Evidence for a Proton Transfer Network and a Required Persulfide-Bond-Forming Cysteine Residue in Ni-Containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Eun Jin Kim; Jian Feng; Matthew R. Bramlett; Paul A. Lindahl

    2004-05-18

    OAK-B135 Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Moorella thermoacetica catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2 at a nickel-iron-sulfur active-site called the C-cluster. Mutants of a proposed proton transfer pathway and of a cysteine residue recently found to form a persulfide bond with the C-cluster were characterized. Four semi-conserved histidine residues were individually mutated to alanine. His116 and His122 were essential to catalysis, while His113 and His119 attenuated catalysis but were not essential. Significant activity was ''rescued'' by a double mutant where His116 was replaced by Ala and His was also introduced at position 115. Activity was also rescued in double mutants where His122 was replaced by Ala and His was simultaneously introduced at either position 121 or 123. Activity was also ''rescued'' by replacing His with Cys at position 116. Mutation of conserved Lys587 near the C-cluster attenuated activity but did not eliminate it. Activity was virtually abolished in a double mutant where Lys587 and His113 were both changed to Ala. Mutations of conserved Asn284 also attenuated activity. These effects suggest the presence of a network of amino acid residues responsible for proton transfer rather than a single linear pathway. The Ser mutant of the persulfide-forming Cys316 was essentially inactive and displayed no EPR signals originating from the C-cluster. Electronic absorption and metal analysis suggests that the C-cluster is absent in this mutant. The persulfide bond appears to be essential for either the assembly or stability of the C-cluster, and/or for eliciting the redox chemistry of the C-cluster required for catalytic activity.

  20. Tryptophan and cystein residues of the acetylcholine receptors of Torpedo species. Relationship to binding of cholinergic ligands.

    PubMed

    Eldefrawi, M E; Eldefrawi, A T; Wilson, D B

    1975-09-23

    Several methods were used to analyze for tryptophan in the acetylcholine (ACh) receptors purified from the electric organs of the electric rays, Torpedo californica and Torpedo marmorata. The best value of tryptophan was 2.4 mol %. When excited at 290 nm, both receptors fluoresced with a maximum at 336, but there was no change in the fluorescence emission spectra upon binding of carbamylcholine, d-tubocurarine, ACh, or decamethonium. The free SH content of the Torpedo receptors varied in different preparations, and was highest in that purified from fresh T. californica using deaerated solutions and dialysis under nitrogen, and lowest in that prepared from the aged lyophilized membranes of T. marmorata. The maximum free SH content was 20 nmol/mg of protein or 0.22 mol %, equal to at most 18% of the total cysteic acid residues. Reaction of either 33% or of all the SH residues with p-chloromercuribenzoate reduced maximum ACh binding to the pure receptor prepared from fresh T. californica by only 23%.

  1. Role of Cysteine Residues in the Structure, Stability, and Alkane Producing Activity of Cyanobacterial Aldehyde Deformylating Oxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yuuki; Yasugi, Fumitaka; Arai, Munehito

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (AD) is a key enzyme for alkane biosynthesis in cyanobacteria, and it can be used as a catalyst for alkane production in vitro and in vivo. However, three free Cys residues in AD may impair its catalytic activity by undesired disulfide bond formation and oxidation. To develop Cys-deficient mutants of AD, we examined the roles of the Cys residues in the structure, stability, and alkane producing activity of AD from Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 by systematic Cys-to-Ala/Ser mutagenesis. The C71A/S mutations reduced the hydrocarbon producing activity of AD and facilitated the formation of a dimer, indicating that the conserved Cys71, which is located in close proximity to the substrate-binding site, plays crucial roles in maintaining the activity, structure, and stability of AD. On the other hand, mutations at Cys107 and Cys117 did not affect the hydrocarbon producing activity of AD. Therefore, we propose that the C107A/C117A double mutant is preferable to wild type AD for alkane production and that the double mutant may be used as a pseudo-wild type protein for further improvement of the alkane producing activity of AD. PMID:25837679

  2. Effects of Ca/sup 2 +/ and subunit interactions on surface accessibility of cysteine residues in cardiac troponin

    SciTech Connect

    Ingraham, R.H.; Hodges, R.S.

    1988-08-09

    Rabbit and bovine cardiac troponin (Tn) subunits and complexes were labeled with iodo(/sup 14/C)acetamide in the presence and absence of Ca/sup 2 +/ to determine the effects of tertiary and quaternary structure on exposure of Cys SH groups. This procedure serves both to map region of subunit interaction and the effects of Ca/sup 2 +/-induced conformational change and to indicate which Cys residues should be useful attachment sites for spectroscopic or cross-linking probes. After being labeled, Tn subunits were purified by using reversed-phase HPLC and subjected to tryptic cleavage with or without prior citraconylation. Cys-containing fragments were isolated by RP-HPLC, and the percent labeling was determined. Cys-75 and -92 of TnI were completely accessible to iodoacetamide both when TnI was labeled alone or when in the TnC-TnI complex. Both residues were largely inaccessible when Tn or the TnI-TnT complex was labeled, suggesting burial in the TnI-TnT interface. In contrast, the Cys from the N-terminal region of bovine TnT was stoichiometrically labeled when TnT was labeled alone, in native Tn or in a troponin-tropomyosin complex. Cys-35 and -84 of TnC are located in the nonfunctional Ca/sup 2 +/ binding loop I of cardiac TnC and helix D, respectively. For TnC alone, the percent labelings of Cys-35 and -84 were 11% and 26%, respectively (minus Ca/sup 2 +/), and 16% and 63%, respectively (plus Ca/sup 2 +/). For TnC labeled within Tn, the percent labelings of Cys-35 and -84 were 20% and 52%, respectively (minus Ca/sup 2 +/), and 20% and 78%, respectively (plus Ca/sup 2 +/). The Ca/sup 2 +/-induced exposure of these residues, especially Cys-84, supports the Ca/sup 2 +/-activated model of turkey skeletal TnC derived from crystallographic data.

  3. Rate of Asparagine Deamidation in a Monoclonal Antibody Correlating with Hydrogen Exchange Rate at Adjacent Downstream Residues.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jonathan J; Buchanan, Andrew; Andrews, John; Chodorge, Matthieu; Sridharan, Sudharsan; Mitchell, Laura; Burmeister, Nicole; Kippen, Alistair D; Vaughan, Tristan J; Higazi, Daniel R; Lowe, David

    2017-02-21

    Antibodies are an important class of drugs, comprising more than half of all new FDA approvals. Therapeutic antibodies must be chemically stable both in storage and in vivo, following administration to patients. Deamidation is a major degradation pathway for all natural and therapeutic proteins circulating in blood. Here, the linkage between deamidation propensity and structural dynamics is investigated by examining two antibodies with differing specificities. While both antibodies share a canonical asparagine-glycine (NG) motif in a structural loop, this is prone to deamidation in one of the antibodies but not the other. We found that the hydrogen-exchange rate at the adjacent two amides, often the autocatalytic nucleophiles in deamidation, correlated with the rate of degradation. This previously unreported observation was confirmed upon mutation to stabilize the deamidation lability via a generally applicable orthogonal engineering strategy presented here. We anticipate that the structural insight into chemical degradation in full-length monoclonal antibodies and the high-resolution hydrogen-exchange methodology used will have broad application across biochemical study and drug discovery and development.

  4. Configurational statistics of the DNA duplex: extended generator matrices to treat the rotations and translations of adjacent residues.

    PubMed

    Marky, N L; Olson, W K

    1994-01-01

    The base-to-base virtual bond treatment of nucleic acids used in statistical mechanical calculations of polynucleotide chain properties has been refined by incorporating the six parameters that relate the positions and orientations of sequential rigid bodies. The scheme allows for the sequence-dependent bending, twisting, and displacement of base pairs as well as for asymmetry in the angular and translational fluctuations of individual residues. Expressions are developed for the generator matrices required for the computation, as a function of chain length, of various parameters measuring the overall mean extension and shape of the DNA. Quantities of interest include the end-to-end vector r, the square of the end-to-end distance r2, the square radius of gyration s2, the center-of-gravity vector g, the second moments of inertia Sx2, and the higher moments of r and g. The matrix expressions introduced in the 1960s by Flory and co-workers for the determination of configuration-dependent polymer chain averages are decomposed into their translational and orientational contributions so that the methods can be extended to the rigid body analysis of chemical moieties. The new expressions permit, for the first time, examination of the effects of sequence-dependent translations, such as the lateral sliding of residues in A- and B-helices and the vertical opening of base pairs in drug-DNA complexes, on the average extension and shape of the long flexible double helix. The approach is in the following paper using conformational energy estimates of the base sequence-dependent flexibility of successive B-DNA base pairs.

  5. Improving the Stability of the EC1 Domain of E-cadherin by Thiol Alkylation of the Cysteine Residue

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Maulik; Laurence, Jennifer S.; Williams, Todd D.; Middaugh, C. Russell; Siahaan, Teruna J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to improve chemical and physical stability of the EC1 protein derived from the extracellular domain of E-cadherin. In solution, the EC1 protein has been shown to form a covalent dimer via a disulfide bond formation followed by physical aggregation and precipitation. To improve solution stability of the EC1 protein, the thiol group of the Cys13 residue in EC1 was alkylated with iodoacetate, iodoacetamide, and maleimide-PEG-5000 to produce thioether derivatives called EC1-IA, EC1-IN, and EC1-PEG. The physical and chemical stabilities of the EC1 derivatives and the parent EC1 were evaluated at various pHs (3.0, 7.0, and 9.0) and temperatures (0, 3, 70 °C). The structural characteristics of each molecule were analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy and the derivatives have similar secondary structure as the parent EC1 protein at pH 7.0. Both EC1-IN and EC1-PEG derivatives showed better chemical and physical stability profiles than did the parent EC1 at pH 7.0. EC1-PEG had the best stability profile compared to EC1-IN and EC1 in solution under various conditions. PMID:22531851

  6. Intra-membrane Signaling Between the Voltage-Gated Ca2+-Channel and Cysteine Residues of Syntaxin 1A Coordinates Synchronous Release

    PubMed Central

    Bachnoff, Niv; Cohen-Kutner, Moshe; Trus, Michael; Atlas, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of syntaxin 1A (Sx1A) with voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) is required for depolarization-evoked release. However, it is unclear how the signal is transferred from the channel to the exocytotic machinery and whether assembly of Sx1A and the calcium channel is conformationally linked to triggering synchronous release. Here we demonstrate that depolarization-evoked catecholamine release was decreased in chromaffin cells infected with semliki forest viral vectors encoding Sx1A mutants, Sx1AC271V, or Sx1AC272V, or by direct oxidation of these Sx1A transmembrane (TM) cysteine residues. Mutating or oxidizing these highly conserved Sx1A Cys271 and Cys272 equally disrupted the Sx1A interaction with the channel. The results highlight the functional link between the VGCC and the exocytotic machinery, and attribute the redox sensitivity of the release process to the Sx1A TM C271 and C272. This unique intra-membrane signal-transduction pathway enables fast signaling, and triggers synchronous release by conformational-coupling of the channel with Sx1A. PMID:23567899

  7. Reactive sulfur species inactivate Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV via S-polysulfidation of its active-site cysteine residue.

    PubMed

    Takata, Tsuyoshi; Ihara, Hideshi; Hatano, Naoya; Tsuchiya, Yukihiro; Akaike, Takaaki; Watanabe, Yasuo

    2017-07-17

    Reactive sulfur species (RSS) modulate protein functions via S-polysulfidation of reactive Cys residues. Here, we report that Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) was reversibly inactivated by RSS via polysulfidation of the active-site Cys residue. CaMKIV is phosphorylated at Thr(196) by its upstream CaMK kinase (CaMKK), resulting in the induction of its full activity. In vitro incubation of CaMKIV with the exogenous RSS donors Na2S n (n = 2-4) resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of the CaMKK-induced phospho-Thr(196) and consequent inactivation of the enzyme activity. Conversely, mutated CaMKIV (C198V) was refractory to the Na2S n -induced enzyme inhibition. A biotin-polyethylene glycol-conjugated maleimide capture assay revealed that Cys(198) in CaMKIV represents a target for S-polysulfidation. Furthermore, phosho-Thr(196) and CaMKIV activity were inhibited by incubation with cysteine hydropersulfide, a newly identified RSS that is generated from cystine by cystathionine-γ-lyase. In transfected cells expressing CaMKIV, ionomycin-induced CaMKIV phosphorylation at Thr(196) was decreased upon treatment with either Na2S4 or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer thapsigargin, whereas cells expressing mutant CaMKIV (C198V) were resistant to this treatment. In addition, the ionomycin-induced phospho-Thr(196) of endogenous CaMKIV was also inhibited by treatment either with Na2S4 or thapsigargin in Jurkat T lymphocytes. Taken together, these data define a novel signaling function for intracellular RSS in inhibiting CaMKIV activity via S-polysulfidation of its Cys(198) during the response to ER stress. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Roles of Copper and a Conserved Aspartic Acid in the Autocatalytic Hydroxylation of a Specific Tryptophan Residue during Cysteine Tryptophylquinone Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Heather R; Sehanobish, Esha; Shiller, Alan M; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Davidson, Victor L

    2017-02-21

    The first posttranslational modification step in the biosynthesis of the tryptophan-derived quinone cofactors is the autocatalytic hydroxylation of a specific Trp residue at position C-7 on the indole side chain. Subsequent modifications are catalyzed by modifying enzymes, but the mechanism by which this first step occurs is unknown. LodA possesses a cysteine tryptophylquinone (CTQ) cofactor. Metal analysis as well as spectroscopic and kinetic studies of the mature and precursor forms of a D512A LodA variant provides evidence that copper is required for the initial hydroxylation of the precursor protein and that if alternative metals are bound, the modification does not occur and the precursor is unstable. It is shown that the mature native LodA also contains loosely bound copper, which affects the visible absorbance spectrum and quenches the fluorescence spectrum that is attributed to the mature CTQ cofactor. When copper is removed, the fluorescence appears, and when it is added back to the protein, the fluorescence is quenched, indicating that copper reversibly binds in the proximity of CTQ. Removal of copper does not diminish the enzymatic activity of LodA. This distinguishes LodA from enzymes with protein-derived tyrosylquinone cofactors in which copper is present near the cofactor and is absolutely required for activity. Mechanisms are proposed for the role of copper in the hydroxylation of the unactivated Trp side chain. These results demonstrate that the reason that the highly conserved Asp512 is critical for LodA, and possibly all tryptophylquinone enzymes, is not because it is required for catalysis but because it is necessary for CTQ biosynthesis, more specifically to facilitate the initial copper-dependent hydroxylation of a specific Trp residue.

  9. Chikungunya virus infectivity, RNA replication and non-structural polyprotein processing depend on the nsP2 protease’s active site cysteine residue

    PubMed Central

    Rausalu, Kai; Utt, Age; Quirin, Tania; Varghese, Finny S.; Žusinaite, Eva; Das, Pratyush Kumar; Ahola, Tero; Merits, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae, has a positive-stand RNA genome approximately 12 kb in length. In infected cells, the genome is translated into non-structural polyprotein P1234, an inactive precursor of the viral replicase, which is activated by cleavages carried out by the non-structural protease, nsP2. We have characterized CHIKV nsP2 using both cell-free and cell-based assays. First, we show that Cys478 residue in the active site of CHIKV nsP2 is indispensable for P1234 processing. Second, the substrate requirements of CHIKV nsP2 are quite similar to those of nsP2 of related Semliki Forest virus (SFV). Third, substitution of Ser482 residue, recently reported to contribute to the protease activity of nsP2, with Ala has almost no negative effect on the protease activity of CHIKV nsP2. Fourth, Cys478 to Ala as well as Trp479 to Ala mutations in nsP2 completely abolished RNA replication in CHIKV and SFV trans-replication systems. In contrast, trans-replicases with Ser482 to Ala mutation were similar to wild type counterparts. Fifth, Cys478 to Ala as well as Trp479 to Ala mutations in nsP2 abolished the rescue of infectious virus from CHIKV RNA transcripts while Ser482 to Ala mutation had no effect. Thus, CHIKV nsP2 is a cysteine protease. PMID:27845418

  10. Amino acid residues adjacent to the catalytic cavity of tetramer L-asparaginase II contribute significantly to its catalytic efficiency and thermostability.

    PubMed

    Long, Shuiqing; Zhang, Xian; Rao, Zhiming; Chen, Kaiyue; Xu, Meijuan; Yang, Taowei; Yang, Shangtian

    2016-01-01

    L-Asparaginase (L-asparagine amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.1.1) catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia. It can be used to reduce the formation of acrylamide, which is carcinogenic to humans in foods, via removal of the precursor, asparagine, from the primary ingredients. However, low activity and poor thermostability of L-asparaginase restrict its application in food industry. In this study, we successfully improved thermostability and catalytic efficiency of L-asparaginase II (BsAII) from Bacillus subtilis B11-06 by site-directed mutagenesis. According to sequences alignment and homologous modeling, residues G107, T109 and S166 which were adjacent to the catalytic cavity were selected and substituted by Asp, Gln/Ser and Ala, respectively, to construct mutants G107D, T109Q, T109S and S166A. The BsAII mutant of G107D (G107Dansz) displayed superior performance in thermal tolerance and higher activity than the wild-type enzyme (towards L-asparagine). Comparative analysis of hydrogen bond interactions, surface electrostatic potential and structure of substrate binding pocket between G107Danszand BsAII indicated that the substitution of G107, which was adjacent to catalytic cavity with Asp, resulted in small conformational changes and surface electrostatic potential redistribution and contributed to the improved protein stability and catalytic efficiency.

  11. L-delta-(alpha-Aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteine-D-valine synthetase: production of dipeptides containing valine residue at its C-terminus.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Chia-Yang; Liu, Yu-Tien

    2002-04-12

    L-delta-(alpha-Aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteine-D-valine synthetase (ACVS) has been recently studied as a model enzyme for peptide synthetases. It was found that in the absence of alpha-aminoadipic acid but in the presence of several cysteine analogues it was incorporated into several analogue dipeptides upon incubation of the potential cysteine analogues with ACVS. [(14)C]Cysteine was incorporated into the[(14)C]cysteinyl-valine analogue dipeptides. Notably, [(14)C]valine incorporation in the presence of N-acylated cysteine analogues was observed. The alpha-aminoadipic acid activation site is influential, inhibitory or promotive, on the production of these putative dipeptide products. The production of dipeptide analogues, containing valine or analogues at the C-terminus, leads to the speculation that the biosynthetic direction of ACV could be from the C-terminus to the N-terminus.

  12. Identification of the amino acid residues and domains in the cysteine-rich protein of Chinese wheat mosaic virus that are important for RNA silencing suppression and subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liying; Andika, Ida Bagus; Kondo, Hideki; Chen, Jianping

    2013-04-01

    Cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) encoded by some plant viruses in diverse genera function as RNA silencing suppressors. Within the N-terminal portion of CRPs encoded by furoviruses, there are six conserved cysteine residues and a Cys-Gly-X-X-His motif (Cys, cysteine; Gly, glycine; His, histidine; X, any amino acid residue) with unknown function. The central domains contain coiled-coil heptad amino acid repeats that usually mediate protein dimerization. Here, we present evidence that the conserved cysteine residues and Cys-Gly-X-X-His motif in the CRP of Chinese wheat mosaic virus (CWMV) are critical for protein stability and silencing suppression activity. Mutation of a leucine residue in the third coiled-coil heptad impaired CWMV CRP activity for suppression of local silencing, but not for the promotion of cell-to-cell movement of Potato virus X (PVX). In planta and in vitro analysis of wild-type and mutant proteins indicated that the ability of the CRP to self-interact was correlated with its suppression activity. Deletion of up to 40 amino acids at the C-terminus did not abolish suppression activity, but disrupted the association of CRP with endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and reduced its activity in the enhancement of PVX symptom severity. Interestingly, a short region in the C-terminal domain, predicted to form an amphipathic α-helical structure, was responsible for the association of CWMV CRP with ER. Overall, our results demonstrate that the N-terminal and central regions are the functional domains for suppression activity, whereas the C-terminal region primarily functions to target CWMV CRP to the ER. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  13. Three cysteine residues of SLC52A1, a receptor for the porcine endogenous retrovirus-A (PERV-A), play a critical role in cell surface expression and infectivity.

    PubMed

    Colon-Moran, Winston; Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A

    2017-07-01

    Porcine endogenous retrovirus-A (PERV-A), a gammaretrovirus, infects human cells in vitro, thus raising the potential risk of cross-species transmission in xenotransplantation. Two members of the solute carrier family 52 (SLC52A1 and SLC52A2) are PERV-A receptors. Site-directed mutagenesis of the cDNA encoding SLC52A1 identified that only one of two putative glycosylation signals is occupied by glycans. In addition, we showed that glycosylation of SLC52A1 is not necessary for PERV-A receptor function. We also identified that at a minimum, three cysteine residues are sufficient for SLC52A1 cell surface expression. Mutation of cysteine at position 365 and either of the two cysteine residues in the C-terminal tail at positions 442 or 446 reduced SLC52A1 surface expression and PERV-A infection suggesting that these residues may contribute to overall structural stability and receptor function. Understanding interactions between PERV-A and its cellular receptor may provide novel strategies to prevent zoonotic infection in the setting of xenotransplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Self-subunit swapping chaperone needed for the maturation of multimeric metalloenzyme nitrile hydratase by a subunit exchange mechanism also carries out the oxidation of the metal ligand cysteine residues and insertion of cobalt.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhemin; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2009-05-29

    The incorporation of cobalt into low molecular mass nitrile hydratase (L-NHase) of Rhodococcus rhodochrous J1 has been found to depend on the alpha-subunit exchange between cobalt-free L-NHase (apo-L-NHase lacking oxidized cysteine residues) and its cobalt-containing mediator (holo-NhlAE containing Cys-SO(2)(-) and Cys-SO(-) metal ligands), this novel mode of post-translational maturation having been named self-subunit swapping, and NhlE having been recognized as a self-subunit swapping chaperone (Zhou, Z., Hashimoto, Y., Shiraki, K., and Kobayashi, M. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 14849-14854). We discovered here that cobalt was inserted into both the cobalt-free NhlAE (apo-NhlAE) and the cobalt-free alpha-subunit (apo-alpha-subunit) in an NhlE-dependent manner in the presence of cobalt and dithiothreitol in vitro. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy analysis revealed that the non-oxidized cysteine residues in apo-NhlAE were post-translationally oxidized after cobalt insertion. These findings suggested that NhlE has two activities, i.e. cobalt insertion and cysteine oxidation. NhlE not only functions as a self-subunit swapping chaperone but also a metallochaperone that includes a redox function. Cobalt insertion and cysteine oxidation occurred under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions when Co(3+) was used as a cobalt donor, suggesting that the oxygen atoms in the oxidized cysteines were derived from water molecules but not from dissolved oxygen. Additionally, we isolated apo-NhlAE after the self-subunit swapping event and found that it was recycled for cobalt transfer into L-NHase.

  15. The secondary structure of apolipoproteins in human HDL3 particles after chemical modification of their tyrosine, lysine, cysteine or arginine residues. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Herzyk, E; Owen, J S; Chapman, D

    1988-09-02

    Fourier transform infrared spectra of apolipoprotein E-depleted human HDL3 have been obtained in H2O and 2H2O buffers. The absorption bands in the protein amide I and amide II regions (1700-1500 cm-1) were assigned to alpha-helical, disordered and beta-strand/beta-turn structures of apolipoproteins A-I and A-II (apoA-I and apoA-II), the apolipoprotein constituents of HDL3. Modification of HDL3 by tetranitromethane (TNM) treatment, acetylation, reduction plus alkylation and 1,2-cyclohexanedione treatment derivatised tyrosine, lysine, cysteine and arginine residues, respectively, and caused alteration of the secondary structure of the HDL3 apolipoproteins to different extents. Each of the chemical modifications caused changes in the frequency of bands associated with beta-strands/beta-turns, but only TNM treatment of HDL3, as judged by the second- and fourth-derivative spectra, resulted in a shift of the band assigned to the alpha-helical structure of the proteins. In agreement with other workers, only TNM treatment of HDL3 particles was found to inhibit their binding by high-affinity cell membrane receptors. It is proposed, therefore, that receptor recognition of HDL3 particles is dependent on conservation of the alpha-helix structures within apoA-I and apoA-II, and that beta-strand/beta-turn structures are not involved. This conclusion is consistent with the predominance of amphipathic alpha-helical structures in both apolipoproteins and with the relaxed specificity of the receptors which are thought to recognise both apoA-I and apoA-II.

  16. Optimal expression of a Fab-effector fusion protein in Escherichia coli by removing the cysteine residues responsible for an interchain disulfide bond of a Fab molecule.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Jung, Mun-Sik; Han, Jae-Kyu; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2017-04-01

    Development of novel bi-functional or even tri-functional Fab-effector fusion proteins would have a great potential in the biomedical sciences. However, the expression of Fab-effector fusion proteins in Escherichia coli is problematic especially when a eukaryotic effector moiety is genetically linked to a Fab due to the lack of proper chaperone proteins and an inappropriate physicochemical environment intrinsic to the microbial hosts. We previously reported that a human Fab molecule, referred to as SL335, reactive to human serum albumin has a prolonged in vivo serum half-life in rats. We, herein, tested six discrete SL335-human growth hormone (hGH) fusion constructs as a model system to define an optimal Fab-effector fusion format for E. coli expression. We found that one variant, referred to as HserG/Lser, outperformed the others in terms of a soluble expression yield and functionality in that HserG/Lser has a functional hGH bioactivity and possesses an serum albumin-binding affinity comparable to SL335. Our results clearly demonstrated that the genetic linkage of an effector domain to the C-terminus of Fd (VH+CH1) and the removal of cysteine (Cys) residues responsible for an interchain disulfide bond (IDB) ina Fab molecule optimize the periplasmic expression of a Fab-effector fusion protein in E. coli. We believe that our approach can contribute the development of diverse bi-functional Fab-effector fusion proteins by providing a simple strategy that enables the reliable expression of a functional fusion proteins in E. coli.

  17. Functional consequences of sulfhydryl modification of the γ-aminobutyric acid transporter 1 at a single solvent-exposed cysteine residue.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Jaison J; Maestas, Matthew J; Rahnama-Vaghef, Ali; Choi, Ye E; Salto, Gerardo; Sanchez, Rachel V; Anderson, Cynthia M; Eskandari, Sepehr

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to optimize the experimental conditions for labeling extracellularly oriented, solvent-exposed cysteine residues of γ-aminobutyric acid transporter 1 (GAT1) with the membrane-impermeant sulfhydryl reagent [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl]methanethiosulfonate (MTSET) and to characterize the functional and pharmacological consequences of labeling on transporter steady-state and presteady-state kinetic properties. We expressed human GAT1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes and used radiotracer and electrophysiological methods to assay transporter function before and after sulfhydryl modification with MTSET. In the presence of NaCl, transporter exposure to MTSET (1-2.5 mM for 5-20 min) led to partial inhibition of GAT1-mediated transport, and this loss of function was completely reversed by the reducing reagent dithiothreitol. MTSET treatment had no functional effect on the mutant GAT1 C74A, whereas the membrane-permeant reagents N-ethylmaleimide and tetramethylrhodamine-6-maleimide inhibited GABA transport mediated by GAT1 C74A. Ion replacement experiments indicated that MTSET labeling of GAT1 could be driven to completion when valproate replaced chloride in the labeling buffer, suggesting that valproate induces a GAT1 conformation that significantly increases C74 accessibility to the extracellular fluid. Following partial inhibition by MTSET, there was a proportional reduction in both the presteady-state and steady-state macroscopic signals, and the functional and pharmacological properties of the remaining signals were indistinguishable from those of unlabeled GAT1. Therefore, covalent modification of GAT1 at C74 results in completely nonfunctional as well as electrically silent transporters.

  18. Mutant INS-Gene Induced Diabetes of Youth: Proinsulin Cysteine Residues Impose Dominant-Negative Inhibition on Wild-Type Proinsulin Transport

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; Haataja, Leena; Wright, Jordan; Wickramasinghe, Nalinda P.; Hua, Qing-Xin; Phillips, Nelson F.; Barbetti, Fabrizio; Weiss, Michael A.; Arvan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a syndrome of Mutant INS-gene-induced Diabetes of Youth (MIDY, derived from one of 26 distinct mutations) has been identified as a cause of insulin-deficient diabetes, resulting from expression of a misfolded mutant proinsulin protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Genetic deletion of one, two, or even three alleles encoding insulin in mice does not necessarily lead to diabetes. Yet MIDY patients are INS-gene heterozygotes; inheritance of even one MIDY allele, causes diabetes. Although a favored explanation for the onset of diabetes is that insurmountable ER stress and ER stress response from the mutant proinsulin causes a net loss of beta cells, in this report we present three surprising and interlinked discoveries. First, in the presence of MIDY mutants, an increased fraction of wild-type proinsulin becomes recruited into nonnative disulfide-linked protein complexes. Second, regardless of whether MIDY mutations result in the loss, or creation, of an extra unpaired cysteine within proinsulin, Cys residues in the mutant protein are nevertheless essential in causing intracellular entrapment of co-expressed wild-type proinsulin, blocking insulin production. Third, while each of the MIDY mutants induces ER stress and ER stress response; ER stress and ER stress response alone appear insufficient to account for blockade of wild-type proinsulin. While there is general agreement that ultimately, as diabetes progresses, a significant loss of beta cell mass occurs, the early events described herein precede cell death and loss of beta cell mass. We conclude that the molecular pathogenesis of MIDY is initiated by perturbation of the disulfide-coupled folding pathway of wild-type proinsulin. PMID:20948967

  19. Self-subunit Swapping Chaperone Needed for the Maturation of Multimeric Metalloenzyme Nitrile Hydratase by a Subunit Exchange Mechanism Also Carries Out the Oxidation of the Metal Ligand Cysteine Residues and Insertion of Cobalt*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhemin; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2009-01-01

    The incorporation of cobalt into low molecular mass nitrile hydratase (L-NHase) of Rhodococcus rhodochrous J1 has been found to depend on the α-subunit exchange between cobalt-free L-NHase (apo-L-NHase lacking oxidized cysteine residues) and its cobalt-containing mediator (holo-NhlAE containing \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{Cys-SO}}_{2}^{-}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} and Cys-SO- metal ligands), this novel mode of post-translational maturation having been named self-subunit swapping, and NhlE having been recognized as a self-subunit swapping chaperone (Zhou, Z., Hashimoto, Y., Shiraki, K., and Kobayashi, M. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 14849–14854). We discovered here that cobalt was inserted into both the cobalt-free NhlAE (apo-NhlAE) and the cobalt-free α-subunit (apo-α-subunit) in an NhlE-dependent manner in the presence of cobalt and dithiothreitol in vitro. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy analysis revealed that the non-oxidized cysteine residues in apo-NhlAE were post-translationally oxidized after cobalt insertion. These findings suggested that NhlE has two activities, i.e. cobalt insertion and cysteine oxidation. NhlE not only functions as a self-subunit swapping chaperone but also a metallochaperone that includes a redox function. Cobalt insertion and cysteine oxidation occurred under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions when Co3+ was used as a cobalt donor, suggesting that the oxygen atoms in the oxidized cysteines were derived from water molecules but not from dissolved oxygen. Additionally, we isolated apo-NhlAE after the self-subunit swapping event and found that it was recycled for cobalt transfer into L-NHase. PMID

  20. Structural Basis of Conserved Cysteine in the Fibroblast Growth Factor Family: Evidence for a Vestigial Half-Cystine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jihun; Blaber, Michael

    2010-11-09

    The 22 members of the mouse/human fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of proteins contain a conserved cysteine residue at position 83 (numbering scheme of the 140-residue form of FGF-1). Sequence and structure information suggests that this position is a free cysteine in 16 members and participates as a half-cystine in at least 3 (and perhaps as many as 6) other members. While a structural role as a half-cystine provides a stability basis for possible selective pressure, it is less clear why this residue is conserved as a free cysteine (although free buried thiols can limit protein functional half-life). To probe the structural role of the free cysteine at position 83 in FGF-1, we constructed Ala, Ser, Thr, Val, and Ile mutations and determined their effects on structure and stability. These results show that position 83 in FGF-1 is thermodynamically optimized to accept a free cysteine. A second cysteine mutation was introduced into wild-type FGF-1 at adjacent position Ala66, which is known to participate as a half-cystine with position 83 in FGF-8, FGF-19, and FGF-23. Results show that, unlike position 83, a free cysteine at position 66 destabilizes FGF-1; however, upon oxidation, a near-optimal disulfide bond is formed between Cys66 and Cys83, resulting in {approx} 14 kJ/mol of increased thermostability. Thus, while the conserved free cysteine at position 83 in the majority of the FGF proteins may have a principal role in limiting functional half-life, evidence suggests that it is a vestigial half-cystine.

  1. Structural basis of conserved cysteine in the fibroblast growth factor family: evidence for a vestigial half-cystine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihun; Blaber, Michael

    2009-10-16

    The 22 members of the mouse/human fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of proteins contain a conserved cysteine residue at position 83 (numbering scheme of the 140-residue form of FGF-1). Sequence and structure information suggests that this position is a free cysteine in 16 members and participates as a half-cystine in at least 3 (and perhaps as many as 6) other members. While a structural role as a half-cystine provides a stability basis for possible selective pressure, it is less clear why this residue is conserved as a free cysteine (although free buried thiols can limit protein functional half-life). To probe the structural role of the free cysteine at position 83 in FGF-1, we constructed Ala, Ser, Thr, Val, and Ile mutations and determined their effects on structure and stability. These results show that position 83 in FGF-1 is thermodynamically optimized to accept a free cysteine. A second cysteine mutation was introduced into wild-type FGF-1 at adjacent position Ala66, which is known to participate as a half-cystine with position 83 in FGF-8, FGF-19, and FGF-23. Results show that, unlike position 83, a free cysteine at position 66 destabilizes FGF-1; however, upon oxidation, a near-optimal disulfide bond is formed between Cys66 and Cys83, resulting in approximately 14 kJ/mol of increased thermostability. Thus, while the conserved free cysteine at position 83 in the majority of the FGF proteins may have a principal role in limiting functional half-life, evidence suggests that it is a vestigial half-cystine.

  2. A Quantitative Mass-Spectrometry Platform to Monitor Changes in Cysteine Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yu; Weerapana, Eranthie

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cysteine residues on proteins serve diverse functional roles in catalysis and regulation and are susceptible to numerous posttranslational modifications. Methods to monitor the reactivity of cysteines within the context of a complex proteome have facilitated the identification and functional characterization of cysteine residues on disparate proteins. Here, we describe the use of a cysteine-reactive iodoacetamide probe coupled to isotopically labeled, cleavable linkers to identify and quantify cysteine-reactivity changes from two biological samples. PMID:27778278

  3. Woodward's reagent K inactivation of Escherichia coli L-threonine dehydrogenase: increased absorbance at 340-350 nm is due to modification of cysteine and histidine residues, not aspartate or glutamate carboxyl groups.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. R.; Dekker, E. E.

    1996-01-01

    L-Threonine dehydrogenase (TDH) from Escherichia coli is rapidly inactivated and develops a new absorbance peak at 347 nm when incubated with N-ethyl-5-phenylisoxazolium-3'-sulfonate (Woodward's reagent K, WRK). The cofactors, NAD+ or NADH (1.5 mM), provide complete protection against inactivation; L-threonine (60 mM) is approximately 50% as effective. Tryptic digestion of WRK-modified TDH followed by HPLC fractionation (pH 6.2) yields four 340-nm-absorbing peptides, two of which are absent from enzyme incubated with WRK and NAD+. Peptide I has the sequence TAICGTDVH (TDH residues 35-43), whereas peptide II is TAICGTDVHIY (residues 35-45). Peptides not protected are TMLDTMNHGGR (III, residues 248-258) and NCRGGRTHLCR (IV, residues 98-108). Absorbance spectra of these WRK-peptides were compared with WRK adducts of imidazole, 2-hydroxyethanethiolate, and acetate. Peptides III and IV have pH-dependent lambda max values (340-350 nm), consistent with histidine modification. Peptide I has pH-independent lambda max (350 nm) indicating that a thiol is modified. WRK, therefore, does not react specifically with carboxyl groups in this enzyme, but rather modifies Cys-38 in the active site of TDH; modification of His-105 and His-255 does not affect enzyme activity. These results are the first definitive proof of WRK modifying cysteine and histidine residues of a protein and show that enzyme inactivation by WRK associated with the appearance of new absorptivity at 340-350 nm does not establish modification of aspartate or glutamate residues, as has been assumed in numerous earlier reports. PMID:8745417

  4. Reaction of Cysteine(s) with Phenyldichloroarsine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    acetyl -L- cysteine reacted like the two Cys-l 3 residucs are spatially not In close L-Cys teine- a nd Iformed a 1:1 adduct when the ratio proximity...were obtained when L- cysteine methyl ester and N- acetyl -L- cysteine 0.0 were used in our studies. For the N- acetyl -L- cysteine , the sample decomposed...the N- acetyl derivatives of L- cysteine .... ... .. , also formed 1:1 adducts, Another possibility is that solvent plays a role in the adducts fornmd

  5. Cysteines in the Stalk of the Nipah Virus G Glycoprotein Are Located in a Distinct Subdomain Critical for Fusion Activation

    PubMed Central

    Maar, Dianna; Harmon, Brooke; Chu, David; Schulz, Belinda; Aguilar, Hector C.; Lee, Benhur

    2012-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses initiate entry through the concerted action of the tetrameric attachment glycoprotein (HN, H, or G) and the trimeric fusion glycoprotein (F). The ectodomains of HN/H/G contain a stalk region important for oligomeric stability and for the F triggering resulting in membrane fusion. Paramyxovirus HN, H, and G form a dimer-of-dimers consisting of disulfide-linked dimers through their stalk domain cysteines. The G attachment protein stalk domain of the highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV) contains a distinct but uncharacterized cluster of three cysteine residues (C146, C158, C162). On the basis of a panoply of assays, we report that C158 and C162 of NiV-G likely mediate covalent subunit dimerization, while C146 mediates the stability of higher-order oligomers. For HN or H, mutation of stalk cysteines attenuates but does not abrogate the ability to trigger fusion. In contrast, the NiV-G stalk cysteine mutants were completely deficient in triggering fusion, even though they could still bind the ephrinB2 receptor and associate with F. Interestingly, all cysteine stalk mutants exhibited constitutive exposure of the Mab45 receptor binding-enhanced epitope, previously implicated in F triggering. The enhanced binding of Mab45 to the cysteine mutants relative to wild-type NiV-G, without the addition of the receptor, implicates the stalk cysteines in the stabilization of a pre-receptor-bound conformation and the regulation of F triggering. Sequence alignments revealed that the stalk cysteines were adjacent to a proline-rich microdomain unique to the Henipavirus genus. Our data propose that the cysteine cluster in the NiV-G stalk functions to maintain oligomeric stability but is more importantly involved in stabilizing a unique microdomain critical for triggering fusion. PMID:22496210

  6. Cysteines in the stalk of the nipah virus G glycoprotein are located in a distinct subdomain critical for fusion activation.

    PubMed

    Maar, Dianna; Harmon, Brooke; Chu, David; Schulz, Belinda; Aguilar, Hector C; Lee, Benhur; Negrete, Oscar A

    2012-06-01

    Paramyxoviruses initiate entry through the concerted action of the tetrameric attachment glycoprotein (HN, H, or G) and the trimeric fusion glycoprotein (F). The ectodomains of HN/H/G contain a stalk region important for oligomeric stability and for the F triggering resulting in membrane fusion. Paramyxovirus HN, H, and G form a dimer-of-dimers consisting of disulfide-linked dimers through their stalk domain cysteines. The G attachment protein stalk domain of the highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV) contains a distinct but uncharacterized cluster of three cysteine residues (C146, C158, C162). On the basis of a panoply of assays, we report that C158 and C162 of NiV-G likely mediate covalent subunit dimerization, while C146 mediates the stability of higher-order oligomers. For HN or H, mutation of stalk cysteines attenuates but does not abrogate the ability to trigger fusion. In contrast, the NiV-G stalk cysteine mutants were completely deficient in triggering fusion, even though they could still bind the ephrinB2 receptor and associate with F. Interestingly, all cysteine stalk mutants exhibited constitutive exposure of the Mab45 receptor binding-enhanced epitope, previously implicated in F triggering. The enhanced binding of Mab45 to the cysteine mutants relative to wild-type NiV-G, without the addition of the receptor, implicates the stalk cysteines in the stabilization of a pre-receptor-bound conformation and the regulation of F triggering. Sequence alignments revealed that the stalk cysteines were adjacent to a proline-rich microdomain unique to the Henipavirus genus. Our data propose that the cysteine cluster in the NiV-G stalk functions to maintain oligomeric stability but is more importantly involved in stabilizing a unique microdomain critical for triggering fusion.

  7. Chemical Protein Modification through Cysteine.

    PubMed

    Gunnoo, Smita B; Madder, Annemieke

    2016-04-01

    The modification of proteins with non-protein entities is important for a wealth of applications, and methods for chemically modifying proteins attract considerable attention. Generally, modification is desired at a single site to maintain homogeneity and to minimise loss of function. Though protein modification can be achieved by targeting some natural amino acid side chains, this often leads to ill-defined and randomly modified proteins. Amongst the natural amino acids, cysteine combines advantageous properties contributing to its suitability for site-selective modification, including a unique nucleophilicity, and a low natural abundance--both allowing chemo- and regioselectivity. Native cysteine residues can be targeted, or Cys can be introduced at a desired site in a protein by means of reliable genetic engineering techniques. This review on chemical protein modification through cysteine should appeal to those interested in modifying proteins for a range of applications.

  8. Peptide-formation on cysteine-containing peptide scaffolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, B. C.; Orgel, L. E.

    1999-01-01

    Monomeric cysteine residues attached to cysteine-containing peptides by disulfide bonds can be activated by carbonyldiimidazole. If two monomeric cysteine residues, attached to a 'scaffold' peptide Gly-Cys-Glyn-Cys-Glu10, (n = 0, 1, 2, 3) are activated, they react to form the dipeptide Cys-Cys. in 25-65% yield. Similarly, the activation of a cysteine residue attached to the 'scaffold' peptide Gly-Cys-Gly-Glu10 in the presence of Arg5 leads to the formation of Cys-Arg5 in 50% yield. The significance of these results for prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  9. On the Importance of Oxidative Folding in the Evolution of Conotoxins: Cysteine Codon Preservation through Gene Duplication and Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Andrew M.; Bulaj, Grzegorz; Puillandre, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Conotoxin genes are among the most rapidly evolving genes currently known; however, despite the well-established hypervariability of the intercysteine loops, the cysteines demonstrate significant conservation, with a site-specific codon bias for each cysteine in a family of conotoxins. Herein we present a novel rationale behind the codon-level conservation of the cysteines that comprise the disulfide scaffold. We analyze cysteine codon conservation using an internal reference and phylogenetic tools; our results suggest that the established codon conservation can be explained as the result of selective pressures linked to the production efficiency and folding of conotoxins, driving the conservation of cysteine at the amino-acid level. The preservation of cysteine has resulted in maintenance of the ancestral codon in most of the daughter lineages, despite the hypervariability of adjacent residues. We propose that the selective pressures acting on the venom components of cone snails involve an interplay of biosynthetic efficiency, activity at the target receptor and the importance of that activity to effective prey immobilization. Functional redundancy in the venom can thus serve as a buffer for the energy expenditure of venom production. PMID:24244311

  10. Parkinsonism-associated Protein DJ-1/Park7 Is a Major Protein Deglycase That Repairs Methylglyoxal- and Glyoxal-glycated Cysteine, Arginine, and Lysine Residues

    PubMed Central

    Richarme, Gilbert; Mihoub, Mouadh; Dairou, Julien; Bui, Linh Chi; Leger, Thibaut; Lamouri, Aazdine

    2015-01-01

    Glycation is an inevitable nonenzymatic covalent reaction between proteins and endogenous reducing sugars or dicarbonyls (methylglyoxal, glyoxal) that results in protein inactivation. DJ-1 was reported to be a multifunctional oxidative stress response protein with poorly defined function. Here, we show that human DJ-1 is a protein deglycase that repairs methylglyoxal- and glyoxal-glycated amino acids and proteins by acting on early glycation intermediates and releases repaired proteins and lactate or glycolate, respectively. DJ-1 deglycates cysteines, arginines, and lysines (the three major glycated amino acids) of serum albumin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, and aspartate aminotransferase and thus reactivates these proteins. DJ-1 prevented protein glycation in an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in the DJ-1 homolog YajL and restored cell viability in glucose-containing media. These results suggest that DJ-1-associated Parkinsonism results from excessive protein glycation and establishes DJ-1 as a major anti-glycation and anti-aging protein. PMID:25416785

  11. Mutagenesis of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein I (gI) identifies a cysteine residue critical for gE/gI heterodimer formation, gI structure, and virulence in skin cells.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stefan L; Sommer, Marvin H; Reichelt, Mike; Rajamani, Jaya; Vlaycheva-Beisheim, Leonssia; Stamatis, Shaye; Cheng, Jason; Jones, Carol; Zehnder, James; Arvin, Ann M

    2011-05-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the alphaherpesvirus that causes chicken pox (varicella) and shingles (zoster). The two VZV glycoproteins gE and gI form a heterodimer that mediates efficient cell-to-cell spread. Deletion of gI yields a small-plaque-phenotype virus, ΔgI virus, which is avirulent in human skin using the xenograft model of VZV pathogenesis. In the present study, 10 mutant viruses were generated to determine which residues were required for the typical function of gI. Three phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic domain of gI were not required for VZV virulence in vivo. Two deletion mutants mapped a gE binding region in gI to residues 105 to 125. A glycosylation site, N116, in this region did not affect virulence. Substitution of four cysteine residues highly conserved in the Alphaherpesvirinae established that C95 is required for gE/gI heterodimer formation. The C95A and Δ105-125 (with residues 105 to 125 deleted) viruses had small-plaque phenotypes with reduced replication kinetics in vitro similar to those of the ΔgI virus. The Δ105-125 virus was avirulent for human skin in vivo. In contrast, the C95A mutant replicated in vivo but with significantly reduced kinetics compared to those of the wild-type virus. In addition to abolished gE/gI heterodimer formation, gI from the C95A or the Δ105-125 mutant was not recognized by monoclonal antibodies that detect the canonical conformation of gI, demonstrating structural disruption of gI in these viruses. This alteration prevented gI incorporation into virus particles. Thus, residues C95 and 105 to 125 are critical for gI structure required for gE/gI heterodimer formation, virion incorporation, and ultimately, effective viral spread in human skin.

  12. Chasing Cysteine Oxidative Modifications: Proteomic Tools for Characterizing Cysteine Redox-Status

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Christopher I.; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    Redox-proteomics involves the large scale analysis of oxidative protein post-translational modifications. In particular, cysteine residues have become the subject of intensifying research interest because of their redox-reactive thiol side chain. Certain reactive cysteine residues can function as redox-switches, which sense changes in the local redox-environment by flipping between the reduced and oxidized state. Depending on the reactive oxygen or nitrogen species, cysteine residues can receive one of several oxidative modifications, each with the potential to confer a functional effect. Modification of these redox-switches has been found to play an important role in oxidative-signaling in the cardiovascular system and elsewhere. Due to the labile and dynamic nature of these modifications, several targeted approaches have been developed to enrich, identify and characterize the status of these critical residues. Here, we review the various proteomic strategies and limitations for the large scale analysis of the different oxidative cysteine modifications. PMID:23074338

  13. The Crystal Structure of the Fifth Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich Domain of Porcine CD163 Reveals an Important Residue Involved in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongfang; Jiang, Longguang; Qiao, Songlin; Zhi, Yubao; Chen, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yanyan; Huang, Xiaojing; Huang, Mingdong; Li, Rui; Zhang, Gai-Ping

    2017-02-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has become an economically critical factor in swine industry since its worldwide spread in the 1990s. Infection by its causative agent, PRRS virus (PRRSV), was proven to be mediated by an indispensable receptor, porcine CD163 (pCD163), and the fifth scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain (SRCR5) is essential for virus infection. However, the structural details and specific residues of pCD163 SRCR5 involved in infection have not been defined yet. In this study, we prepared recombinant pCD163 SRCR5 in Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) cells and determined its crystal structure at a high resolution of 2.0 Å. This structure includes a markedly long loop region and shows a special electrostatic potential, and these are significantly different from those of other members of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily (SRCR-SF). Subsequently, we carried out structure-based mutational studies to identify that the arginine residue at position 561 (Arg561) in the long loop region is important for PRRSV infection. Further, we showed Arg561 probably takes effect on the binding of pCD163 to PRRSV during virus invasion. Altogether the current work provides the first view of the CD163 SRCR domain, expands our knowledge of the invasion mechanism of PRRSV, and supports a molecular basis for prevention and control of the virus. PRRS has caused huge economic losses to pig farming. The syndrome is caused by PRRSV, and PRRSV infection has been shown to be mediated by host cell surface receptors. One of them, pCD163, is especially indispensable, and its SRCR5 domain has been further demonstrated to play a significant role in virus infection. However, its structural details and the residues involved in infection are unknown. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of pCD163 SRCR5 and then carried out site-directed mutational studies based on the crystal structure to elucidate which residue is important. Our

  14. Functional site profiling and electrostatic analysis of cysteines modifiable to cysteine sulfenic acid.

    PubMed

    Salsbury, Freddie R; Knutson, Stacy T; Poole, Leslie B; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S

    2008-02-01

    Cysteine sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH), a reversible modification, is a catalytic intermediate at enzyme active sites, a sensor for oxidative stress, a regulator of some transcription factors, and a redox-signaling intermediate. This post-translational modification is not random: specific features near the cysteine control its reactivity. To identify features responsible for the propensity of cysteines to be modified to sulfenic acid, a list of 47 proteins (containing 49 known Cys-SOH sites) was compiled. Modifiable cysteines are found in proteins from most structural classes and many functional classes, but have no propensity for any one type of protein secondary structure. To identify features affecting cysteine reactivity, these sites were analyzed using both functional site profiling and electrostatic analysis. Overall, the solvent exposure of modifiable cysteines is not different from the average cysteine. The combined sequence, structure, and electrostatic approaches reveal mechanistic determinants not obvious from overall sequence comparison, including: (1) pKaS of some modifiable cysteines are affected by backbone features only; (2) charged residues are underrepresented in the structure near modifiable sites; (3) threonine and other polar residues can exert a large influence on the cysteine pKa; and (4) hydrogen bonding patterns are suggested to be important. This compilation of Cys-SOH modification sites and their features provides a quantitative assessment of previous observations and a basis for further analysis and prediction of these sites. Agreement with known experimental data indicates the utility of this combined approach for identifying mechanistic determinants at protein functional sites.

  15. Quantitative reactivity profiling predicts functional cysteines in proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Weerapana, Eranthie; Wang, Chu; Simon, Gabriel M.; Richter, Florian; Khare, Sagar; Dillon, Myles B.D.; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Mowen, Kerri; Baker, David; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Cysteine is the most intrinsically nucleophilic amino acid in proteins, where its reactivity is tuned to perform diverse biochemical functions. The absence of a consensus sequence that defines functional cysteines in proteins has hindered their discovery and characterization. Here, we describe a proteomics method to quantitatively profile the intrinsic reactivity of cysteine residues en masse directly in native biological systems. Hyperreactivity was a rare feature among cysteines and found to specify a wide range of activities, including nucleophilic and reductive catalysis and sites of oxidative modification. Hyperreactive cysteines were identified in several proteins of uncharacterized function, including a residue conserved across eukaryotic phylogeny that we show is required for yeast viability and involved in iron-sulfur protein biogenesis. Finally, we demonstrate that quantitative reactivity profiling can also form the basis for screening and functional assignment of cysteines in computationally designed proteins, where it discriminated catalytically active from inactive cysteine hydrolase designs. PMID:21085121

  16. Replacement of the catalytic nucleophile cysteine-296 by serine in class II polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa-mediated synthesis of a new polyester: identification of catalytic residues.

    PubMed Central

    Amara, Amro A; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2003-01-01

    The class II PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoate) synthases [PHA(MCL) synthases (medium-chain-length PHA synthases)] are mainly found in pseudomonads and catalyse synthesis of PHA(MCL)s using CoA thioesters of medium-chain-length 3-hydroxy fatty acids (C6-C14) as a substrate. Only recently PHA(MCL) synthases from Pseudomonas oleovorans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were purified and in vitro activity was achieved. A threading model of the P. aeruginosa PHA(MCL) synthase PhaC1 was developed based on the homology to the epoxide hydrolase (1ek1) from mouse which belongs to the alpha/beta-hydrolase superfamily. The putative catalytic residues Cys-296, Asp-452, His-453 and His-480 were replaced by site-specific mutagenesis. In contrast to class I and III PHA synthases, the replacement of His-480, which aligns with the conserved base catalyst of the alpha/beta-hydrolases, with Gln did not affect in vivo enzyme activity and only slightly in vitro enzyme activity. The second conserved histidine His-453 was then replaced by Gln, and the modified enzyme showed only 24% of wild-type in vivo activity, which indicated that His-453 might functionally replace His-480 in class II PHA synthases. Replacement of the postulated catalytic nucleophile Cys-296 by Ser only reduced in vivo enzyme activity to 30% of wild-type enzyme activity and drastically changed substrate specificity. Moreover, the C296S mutation turned the enzyme sensitive towards PMSF inhibition. The replacement of Asp-452 by Asn, which is supposed to be required as general base catalyst for elongation reaction, did abolish enzyme activity as was found for the respective amino acid residue of class I and III enzymes. In the threading model residues Cys-296, Asp-452, His-453 and His-480 reside in the core structure with the putative catalytic nucleophile Cys-296 localized at the highly conserved gamma-turns of the alpha/beta-hydrolases. Inhibitor studies indicated that catalytic histidines reside in the active site. The conserved

  17. Complete amino acid sequence of ananain and a comparison with stem bromelain and other plant cysteine proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K L; Albee, K L; Bernasconi, R J; Edmunds, T

    1997-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of ananain (EC3.4.22.31) and stem bromelain (3.4.22.32), two cysteine proteases from pineapple stem, are similar yet ananain and stem bromelain possess distinct specificities towards synthetic peptide substrates and different reactivities towards the cysteine protease inhibitors E-64 and chicken egg white cystatin. We present here the complete amino acid sequence of ananain and compare it with the reported sequences of pineapple stem bromelain, papain and chymopapain from papaya and actinidin from kiwifruit. Ananain is comprised of 216 residues with a theoretical mass of 23464 Da. This primary structure includes a sequence insert between residues 170 and 174 not present in stem bromelain or papain and a hydrophobic series of amino acids adjacent to His-157. It is possible that these sequence differences contribute to the different substrate and inhibitor specificities exhibited by ananain and stem bromelain. PMID:9355753

  18. Dynamic evolution of selenocysteine utilization in bacteria: a balance between selenoprotein loss and evolution of selenocysteine from redox active cysteine residues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Romero, Hector; Salinas, Gustavo; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2006-01-01

    Background Selenocysteine (Sec) is co-translationally inserted into protein in response to UGA codons. It occurs in oxidoreductase active sites and often is catalytically superior to cysteine (Cys). However, Sec is used very selectively in proteins and organisms. The wide distribution of Sec and its restricted use have not been explained. Results We conducted comparative genomics and phylogenetic analyses to examine dynamics of Sec decoding in bacteria at both selenium utilization trait and selenoproteome levels. These searches revealed that 21.5% of sequenced bacteria utilize Sec, their selenoproteomes have 1 to 31 selenoproteins, and selenoprotein-rich organisms are mostly Deltaproteobacteria or Firmicutes/Clostridia. Evolutionary histories of selenoproteins suggest that Cys-to-Sec replacement is a general trend for most selenoproteins. In contrast, only a small number of Sec-to-Cys replacements were detected, and these were mostly restricted to formate dehydrogenase and selenophosphate synthetase families. In addition, specific selenoprotein gene losses were observed in many sister genomes. Thus, the Sec/Cys replacements were mostly unidirectional, and increased utilization of Sec by existing protein families was counterbalanced by loss of selenoprotein genes or entire selenoproteomes. Lateral transfers of the Sec trait were an additional factor, and we describe the first example of selenoprotein gene transfer between archaea and bacteria. Finally, oxygen requirement and optimal growth temperature were identified as environmental factors that correlate with changes in Sec utilization. Conclusion Our data reveal a dynamic balance between selenoprotein origin and loss, and may account for the discrepancy between catalytic advantages provided by Sec and the observed low number of selenoprotein families and Sec-utilizing organisms. PMID:17054778

  19. Production of Human Cu,Zn SOD with Higher Activity and Lower Toxicity in E. coli via Mutation of Free Cysteine Residues

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Although, as an antioxidant enzyme, human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) can mitigate damage to cell components caused by free radicals generated by aerobic metabolism, large-scale manufacturing and clinical use of hSOD1 are still limited by the challenge of rapid and inexpensive production of high-quality eukaryotic hSOD1 in recombinant forms. We have demonstrated previously that it is a promising strategy to increase the expression levels of soluble hSOD1 so as to increase hSOD1 yields in E. coli. In this study, a wild-type hSOD1 (wtSOD1) and three mutant SOD1s (mhSOD1s), in which free cysteines were substituted with serine, were constructed and their expression in soluble form was measured. Results show that the substitution of Cys111 (mhSOD1/C111S) increased the expression of soluble hSOD1 in E. coli whereas substitution of the internal Cys6 (mhSOD1/C6S) decreased it. Besides, raised levels of soluble expression led to an increase in hSOD1 yields. In addition, mhSOD1/C111S expressed at a higher soluble level showed lower toxicity and stronger whitening and antiradiation activities than those of wtSOD1. Taken together, our data demonstrate that C111S mutation in hSOD1 is an effective strategy to develop new SOD1-associated reagents and that mhSOD1/C111S is a satisfactory candidate for large-scale production. PMID:28299326

  20. Crucial role of conserved cysteine residues in the assembly of two iron-sulfur clusters on the CIA protein Nar1.

    PubMed

    Urzica, Eugen; Pierik, Antonio J; Mühlenhoff, Ulrich; Lill, Roland

    2009-06-09

    Iron-sulfur (Fe/S) protein maturation in the eukaryotic cytosol and nucleus requires conserved components of the essential CIA machinery. The CIA protein Nar1 performs a specific function in transferring an Fe/S cluster that is assembled de novo on the Cfd1-Nbp35 scaffold to apoproteins. Here, we used systematic site-directed mutagenesis and a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies to show that Nar1 holds two Fe/S clusters at conserved N- and C-terminal cysteine motifs. A wealth of biochemical studies suggests that the assembly of these Fe/S clusters on Nar1 cannot be studied in Escherichia coli, as the recombinant protein does not contain the native Fe/S clusters. We therefore followed Fe/S cluster incorporation directly in yeast by a (55)Fe radiolabeling method in vivo, and we measured the functional consequences of Nar1 mutations in the assembly of cytosolic Fe/S proteins. We find that both Fe/S clusters are essential for Nar1 function and cell viability. Molecular modeling using a structurally but not functionally related bacterial iron-only hydrogenase as a template provided compelling structural explanations for our mutational data. The C-terminal Fe/S cluster is stably buried within Nar1, whereas the N-terminal one is exposed at the protein surface and hence may be more easily lost. Insertion of an Fe/S cluster into the C-terminal location depends on the N-terminal motif, suggesting the participation of the latter motif in the assembly process of the C-terminal cluster. The vicinity of the two Fe/S centers suggests a close functional cooperation during cytosolic Fe/S protein maturation.

  1. Interaction of 5'-P-sulfonylbenzoyl adenosine with cysteine residues of rat liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    El-Maghrabi, M.R.; Lively, M.O.; Pilkis, S.J.

    1987-05-01

    The kinase and bisphosphatase reactions of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase appear to be catalyzed at separate active sites. The kinase site contains 3 cysteinyl residues that are important for sugar phosphate binding but not for ATP binding. These groups are readily alkylated with iodoacetamide which decreases by 15-fold the affinity for Fru 6-P but also increases the maximal velocity of the reaction by the same extent. Incubation of the enzyme with 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyl adenosine (FSBA), an ATP analog, has no effect on the bisphosphatase activity but inactivates the kinase. The addition of dithiothreitol completely reactivates the kinase, suggesting that the reagent affected sulfhydryl groups critical for sugar phosphate binding and not the ATP site of the enzyme. Similarly, 8-Azido-ATP/UV-photoinactivated enzyme is also reactivated by dithiothreitol and involves the same sulfhydryl groups, since alkylation of the latter with iodoacetamide protects the enzyme from inactivation by FSBA and from 8-azido ATP. Cyanogen bromide cleavage of enzyme that had been alkylated with iodo(I-/sup 14/C)acetamide yielded a 20,000 dalton peptide which contained the three cysteinyl residues. It is concluded that the site of action of ATP analogs to inactivate the kinase are these cysteinyl residues rather than the ATP binding site per se.

  2. Novel aggregate formation of a frame-shift mutant protein of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase is ascribed to three cysteine residues in the C-terminal extension. Retarded secretion and proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Komaru, Keiichi; Ishida, Yoko; Amaya, Yoshihiro; Goseki-Sone, Masae; Orimo, Hideo; Oda, Kimimitsu

    2005-04-01

    In the majority of hypophosphatasia patients, reductions in the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase activity are caused by various missense mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene. A unique frame-shift mutation due to a deletion of T at cDNA number 1559 [TNSALP (1559delT)] has been reported only in Japanese patients with high allele frequency. In this study, we examined the molecular phenotype of TNSALP (1559delT) using in vitro translation/translocation system and COS-1 cells transiently expressing this mutant protein. We showed that the mutant protein not only has a larger molecular size than the wild type enzyme by approximately 12 kDa, reflecting an 80 amino acid-long extension at its C-terminus, but that it also lacks a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. In support of this, alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells expressing TNSALP (1559delT) was localized at the juxtanucleus position, but not on the cell surface. However, only a limited amount of the newly synthesized protein was released into the medium and the rest was polyubiquitinated, followed by degradation in the proteasome. SDS/PAGE and analysis by sucrose-density-gradient analysis indicated that TNSALP (1559delT) forms a disulfide-bonded high-molecular-mass aggregate. Interestingly, the aggregate form of TNSALP (1559delT) exhibited a significant enzyme activity. When all three cysteines at positions of 506, 521 and 577 of TNSALP (1559delT) were replaced with serines, the aggregation disappeared and instead this modified mutant protein formed a noncovalently associated dimer, strongly indicating that these cysteine residues in the C-terminal region are solely responsible for aggregate formation by cross-linking the catalytically active dimers. Thus, complete absence of TNSALP on cell surfaces provides a plausible explanation for a severe lethal phenotype of a homozygote hypophosphatasia patient carrying TNSALP (1559delT).

  3. Trimeric gp120-specific bovine monoclonal antibodies require cysteine and aromatic residues in CDRH3 for high affinity binding to HIV Env.

    PubMed

    Heydarchi, Behnaz; Center, Rob J; Bebbington, Jonathan; Cuthbertson, Jack; Gonelli, Christopher; Khoury, Georges; Mackenzie, Charlene; Lichtfuss, Marit; Rawlin, Grant; Muller, Brian; Purcell, Damian

    2017-04-01

    We isolated HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific memory B cells from a cow that had developed high titer polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) with broad neutralizing activity after a long duration vaccination with HIV-1AD8 Env gp140 trimers. We cloned the bovine IgG matched heavy (H) and light (L) chain variable (V) genes from these memory B cells and constructed IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with either a human constant (C)-region/bovine V-region chimeric or fully bovine C and V regions. Among 42 selected Ig+ memory B cells, two mAbs (6A and 8C) showed high affinity binding to gp140 Env. Characterization of both the fully bovine and human chimeric isoforms of these two mAbs revealed them as highly type-specific and capable of binding only to soluble AD8 uncleaved gp140 trimers and covalently stabilized AD8 SOSIP gp140 cleaved trimers, but not monomeric gp120. Genomic sequence analysis of the V genes showed the third heavy complementarity-determining region (CDRH3) of 6A mAb was 21 amino acids in length while 8C CDRH3 was 14 amino acids long. The entire V heavy (VH) region was 27% and 25% diverged for 6A and 8C, respectively, from the best matched germline V genes available, and the CDRH3 regions of 6A and 8C were 47.62% and 78.57% somatically mutated, respectively, suggesting a high level of somatic hypermutation compared with CDRH3 of other species. Alanine mutagenesis of the VH genes of 6A and 8C, showed that CDRH3 cysteine and tryptophan amino acids were crucial for antigen binding. Therefore, these bovine vaccine-induced anti-HIV antibodies shared some of the notable structural features of elite human broadly neutralizing antibodies, such as CDRH3 size and somatic mutation during affinity-maturation. However, while the 6A and 8C mAbs inhibited soluble CD4 binding to gp140 Env, they did not recapitulate the neutralizing activity of the polyclonal antibodies against HIV infection.

  4. Trimeric gp120-specific bovine monoclonal antibodies require cysteine and aromatic residues in CDRH3 for high affinity binding to HIV Env

    PubMed Central

    Center, Rob J.; Bebbington, Jonathan; Cuthbertson, Jack; Khoury, Georges; Lichtfuss, Marit; Rawlin, Grant; Purcell, Damian

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We isolated HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific memory B cells from a cow that had developed high titer polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) with broad neutralizing activity after a long duration vaccination with HIV-1AD8 Env gp140 trimers. We cloned the bovine IgG matched heavy (H) and light (L) chain variable (V) genes from these memory B cells and constructed IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with either a human constant (C)-region/bovine V-region chimeric or fully bovine C and V regions. Among 42 selected Ig+ memory B cells, two mAbs (6A and 8C) showed high affinity binding to gp140 Env. Characterization of both the fully bovine and human chimeric isoforms of these two mAbs revealed them as highly type-specific and capable of binding only to soluble AD8 uncleaved gp140 trimers and covalently stabilized AD8 SOSIP gp140 cleaved trimers, but not monomeric gp120. Genomic sequence analysis of the V genes showed the third heavy complementarity-determining region (CDRH3) of 6A mAb was 21 amino acids in length while 8C CDRH3 was 14 amino acids long. The entire V heavy (VH) region was 27% and 25% diverged for 6A and 8C, respectively, from the best matched germline V genes available, and the CDRH3 regions of 6A and 8C were 47.62% and 78.57% somatically mutated, respectively, suggesting a high level of somatic hypermutation compared with CDRH3 of other species. Alanine mutagenesis of the VH genes of 6A and 8C, showed that CDRH3 cysteine and tryptophan amino acids were crucial for antigen binding. Therefore, these bovine vaccine-induced anti-HIV antibodies shared some of the notable structural features of elite human broadly neutralizing antibodies, such as CDRH3 size and somatic mutation during affinity-maturation. However, while the 6A and 8C mAbs inhibited soluble CD4 binding to gp140 Env, they did not recapitulate the neutralizing activity of the polyclonal antibodies against HIV infection. PMID:27996375

  5. New iodo-acetamido cyanines for labeling cysteine thiol residues. A strategy for evaluating plasma proteins and their oxido-redox status.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Maurizio; Grilli, Stefano; Candiano, Giovanni; Fabbroni, Serena; Della Ciana, Leopoldo; Petretto, Andrea; Santucci, Laura; Urbani, Andrea; Gusmano, Rosanna; Scolari, Francesco; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2009-01-01

    Two new iodoacetamide-substituted cyanines, C3NIASO3 and C5NIASO3, were synthesized starting from hemicyanine and were utilized for labeling plasma proteins. Specificity, sensitivity and feasibility for SH residues was tested utilizing an equimolar mixture of standard proteins and with normal plasma. Oxidized plasma proteins following H(2)O(2 )exposure and plasma from patients with focal glomerulosclerosis were analyzed as models of altered protein oxido-redox status. Following optimization of the assay (dye/protein ratio, pH), C3NIASO3 and C5NIASO3 gave a sensitivity slightly better than N-hydroxysuccinimidyl dyes for plasma proteins and were successfully employed for differential display electrophoresis (DIGE). Twenty-nine proteins were detected in normal plasma after 2-DE while less proteins were detected in plasma of patients with glomerulosclerosis. Following massive 'in vitro' oxidation with H(2)O(2), C3NIASO3 and C5NIASO3 failed to detect any residual SH, implicating massive oxidation. In conclusion, this study describes the synthesis of two new iodoacetamide cyanines that can be utilized for the analysis of plasma proteins with 2-DE and DIGE. They are also indicated for the definition of the oxido-redox status of proteins and were successfully utilized to extend the analysis of oxidation damage in patients with glomerulosclerosis.

  6. Mutagenesis of Varicella-Zoster Virus Glycoprotein I (gI) Identifies a Cysteine Residue Critical for gE/gI Heterodimer Formation, gI Structure, and Virulence in Skin Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Stefan L.; Sommer, Marvin H.; Reichelt, Mike; Rajamani, Jaya; Vlaycheva-Beisheim, Leonssia; Stamatis, Shaye; Cheng, Jason; Jones, Carol; Zehnder, James; Arvin, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the alphaherpesvirus that causes chicken pox (varicella) and shingles (zoster). The two VZV glycoproteins gE and gI form a heterodimer that mediates efficient cell-to-cell spread. Deletion of gI yields a small-plaque-phenotype virus, ΔgI virus, which is avirulent in human skin using the xenograft model of VZV pathogenesis. In the present study, 10 mutant viruses were generated to determine which residues were required for the typical function of gI. Three phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic domain of gI were not required for VZV virulence in vivo. Two deletion mutants mapped a gE binding region in gI to residues 105 to 125. A glycosylation site, N116, in this region did not affect virulence. Substitution of four cysteine residues highly conserved in the Alphaherpesvirinae established that C95 is required for gE/gI heterodimer formation. The C95A and Δ105–125 (with residues 105 to 125 deleted) viruses had small-plaque phenotypes with reduced replication kinetics in vitro similar to those of the ΔgI virus. The Δ105–125 virus was avirulent for human skin in vivo. In contrast, the C95A mutant replicated in vivo but with significantly reduced kinetics compared to those of the wild-type virus. In addition to abolished gE/gI heterodimer formation, gI from the C95A or the Δ105–125 mutant was not recognized by monoclonal antibodies that detect the canonical conformation of gI, demonstrating structural disruption of gI in these viruses. This alteration prevented gI incorporation into virus particles. Thus, residues C95 and 105 to 125 are critical for gI structure required for gE/gI heterodimer formation, virion incorporation, and ultimately, effective viral spread in human skin. PMID:21345964

  7. Vertical distribution, composition profiles, sources and toxicity assessment of PAH residues in the reclaimed mudflat sediments from the adjacent Thane Creek of Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Basavaiah, N; Mohite, R D; Singare, P U; Reddy, A V R; Singhal, R K; Blaha, U

    2017-02-23

    A study on vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility, carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting PAHs was performed in the reclaimed mudflat sediments adjacent to the Thane Creek of Mumbai. The 5-rings PAHs and ΣC-PAHs were more dominant at 120cm depth contributing 52.23% and 60.19% respectively to ∑PAHs. The average ratio values of LMW/HMW PAHs (0.58); Fla/(Fla+Pyr) (0.50); Ant/(Ant+Phe) (0.50); BaA/(Chry+BaA) (0.48); BaP/BghiP (2.06), Phe/Ant (1.03) and BaA/Chr (0.93) indicate that the PAH contamination might have raised due to inefficient combustion and pyrogenic emissions during the open burning of solid waste in the vicinity. This was further supported by the anthropogenic ferri(o)magnetic loading over the last 100years influencing the Creek sediments. The PAHs toxicity estimation was performed by calculating the toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) value of 8.62ng TEQ/g which was below the safe level (600ng TEQ/g) suggested by the Canadian risk-based soil criterion for protection of human health.

  8. Protein modification by acrolein: Formation and stability of cysteine adducts

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jian; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Pierce, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity of the ubiquitous pollutant and endogenous metabolite, acrolein, is due in part to covalent protein modifications. Acrolein reacts readily with protein nucleophiles via Michael addition and Schiff base formation. Potential acrolein targets in protein include the nucleophilic side chains of cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues as well as the free amino terminus of proteins. Although cysteine is the most acrolein-reactive residue, cysteine-acrolein adducts are difficult to identify in vitro and in vivo. In this study, model peptides with cysteine, lysine, and histidine residues were used to examine the reactivity of acrolein. Results from these experiments show that acrolein reacts rapidly with cysteine residues through Michael addition to form M+56 Da adducts. These M+56 adducts are, however, not stable, even though spontaneous dissociation of the adduct is slow. Further studies demonstrated that when acrolein and model peptides are incubated at physiological pH and temperature, the M+56 adducts decreased gradually accompanied by the increase of M+38 adducts, which are formed from intra-molecular Schiff base formation. Adduct formation with the side chains of other amino acid residues (lysine and histidine) was much slower than cysteine and required higher acrolein concentration. When cysteine residues were blocked by reaction with iodoacetamide and higher concentrations of acrolein were used, adducts of the N-terminal amino group or histidyl residues were formed but lysine adducts were not detected. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein reacts avidly with protein cysteine residues and that the apparent loss of protein-acrolein Michael adducts over time may be related to the appearance of a novel (M+38) adduct. These findings may be important in identification of in vivo adducts of acrolein with protein cysteine residues. PMID:19231900

  9. Mutations to Cysteine Residues in the Trypanosoma cruzi B-Cell Superantigen Tc24 Diminish Susceptibility to IgM-Mediated Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Sarah; Jones, Kathryn M; Seid, Christopher; Essigmann, Heather T; Zhan, Bin; Strych, Ulrich; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Brown, Eric Luis

    2017-06-05

    B-cell superantigens (BC-SAgs) are immunoevasins that have evolved in response to innate catalytic IgM antibodies; germ-line encoded immunoglobulins present in the preimmune repertoire independent of prior antigen exposure. Catalysis is the result of a 2-step process that involves the formation of a non-covalent bond between the BC-SAg and the immunoglobulin first followed by covalent bond formation at the catalytic site resulting in target hydrolysis. Tc24 is a recently described Trypanosoma cruzi BC-SAg hypothesized to play a role in evading the humoral response early in the infection period. We previously demonstrated that exposure to Tc24 following immunization or infection resulted in the depletion of the catalytic IgM response leaving a gap in the catalytic IgM repertoire. The present report compares the BC-SAg properties of wild-type Tc24 (Tc24-WT) to that of 2 recombinant Tc24 isoforms: Tc24-C2 (Cys to Ser mutations in the 2-most proximal Cys residues) and Tc24-C4 (Cys to Ser mutations in all 4 Cys residues present). BC-SAg activity was assessed by immunizing mice with the respective isoforms and examining the ability of IgM purified from the respective groups to hydrolyze the 3 Tc24 isoforms. In addition, the ability of IgM purified from naive mice to hydrolyze the Tc24 isoforms was also assessed. Immunization with Tc24-WT, Tc24-C2, or Tc24-C4 resulted in loss of IgM mediated hydrolysis of Tc24-WT. However, the ability of IgM purified from naive mice (previously shown to hydrolyze Tc24-WT) was less effective in hydrolyzing the 2 Tc24 isoforms. These data demonstrate that although the BC-SAg site in the mutants remained intact, their reduced susceptibility to IgM-mediated hydrolysis suggested that structural changes resulting from the Cys to Ser mutations altered accessibility to the catalytic site in the 2 isoforms.

  10. The intrinsic cysteine and histidine residues of the anti-Salmonella antibody Se155-4: a model for the introduction of new functions into antibody-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Young, N Martin; Watson, David C; Cunningham, Anna M; MacKenzie, C Roger

    2014-10-01

    New functions can be incorporated into anti-hapten or anti-protein antibodies by mutating selected residues in the binding-site region either to Cys, to allow alkylation with reagents bearing the desired functional groups, or to His, to create metal-binding sites or to make antigen binding pH-sensitive. However, choosing suitable sites for these mutations has been hampered by the lack of antibodies with these features, to serve as models. Remarkably, the anti-carbohydrate antibody Se155-4, specific for the Salmonella group B lipopolysaccharide, already has a Cys and two pairs of His residues close to the antigen-binding pocket in its structure, and shows pH-dependent antigen binding. We therefore investigated modification of its Cys94L in an scFv version of the antibody with the aims of creating a 'reagentless' fluorescent sensor and attaching a metal-binding group that might confer lyase activity. These groups were successfully introduced, as judged by mass spectrometry, and had only slightly reduced antigen binding in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The fluorescent product was sensitive to addition of antigen in a solution format, unlike a modification of a more distant Cys introduced into the VH CDR4 loop. Two other routes to modulate antigen binding were also explored, metal binding by the His pair alongside the antigen-binding pocket and insertions into CDR4 to extend the antigen-contact area. His residues adjacent to the antigen-binding pocket bound copper, causing a 5-fold decrease in antigen binding. In CDR4 of the VH domain, the preferred insert length was four residues, which gave stable antigen-binding products but did not improve overall antigen affinity.

  11. Two Cytoplasmic Acylation Sites and an Adjacent Hydrophobic Residue, but No Other Conserved Amino Acids in the Cytoplasmic Tail of HA from Influenza A Virus Are Crucial for Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Siche, Stefanie; Brett, Katharina; Möller, Lars; Kordyukova, Larisa V.; Mintaev, Ramil R.; Alexeevski, Andrei V.; Veit, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Recruitment of the matrix protein M1 to the assembly site of the influenza virus is thought to be mediated by interactions with the cytoplasmic tail of hemagglutinin (HA). Based on a comprehensive sequence comparison of all sequences present in the database, we analyzed the effect of mutating conserved residues in the cytosol-facing part of the transmembrane region and cytoplasmic tail of HA (A/WSN/33 (H1N1) strain) on virus replication and morphology of virions. Removal of the two cytoplasmic acylation sites and substitution of a neighboring isoleucine by glutamine prevented rescue of infectious virions. In contrast, a conservative exchange of the same isoleucine, non-conservative exchanges of glycine and glutamine, deletion of the acylation site at the end of the transmembrane region and shifting it into the tail did not affect virus morphology and had only subtle effects on virus growth and on the incorporation of M1 and Ribo-Nucleoprotein Particles (RNPs). Thus, assuming that essential amino acids are conserved between HA subtypes we suggest that, besides the two cytoplasmic acylation sites (including adjacent hydrophobic residues), no other amino acids in the cytoplasmic tail of HA are indispensable for virus assembly and budding. PMID:26670246

  12. Low energy photoelectron resonance capture ionization aerosol mass spectrometry of small peptides with cysteine residues: Cys-Gly, [gamma]-Glu-Cys, and glutathione ([gamma]-Glu-Cys-Gly)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, Scott; Zahardis, James; Eisenhauer, Jessica; Petrucci, Giuseppe A.

    2009-04-01

    The photoelectron resonance capture ionization (PERCI) of cysteine (Cys) and small gas-phase neutral peptides that contain the Cys residue (Cys-Gly, [gamma]-Glu-Cys, and glutathione ([gamma]-Glu-Cys-Gly)) is reported. At an ionization energy less than 1 eV two types of dissociative electron attachment ionization were observed for Cys: hydrogen atom loss, resulting in formation of the ion [Cys-H]-, and dissociation of the CH2-SH bond, resulting in formation of the ion [SH]-. The presence of these ions suggests that both the [pi]*(-CO2H) and [sigma]*(C-S) orbitals can act as low energy electrophores on Cys. This ionization trend was observed for the dipeptides Cys-Gly and [gamma]-Glu-Cys as well as glutathione, with evidence that dissociation of the CH2-SH bond in these peptides can also result in ions of the form [M-SH]-. Also measured were ions resulting from bond dissociation of the amide linkage as well as for the amide N-C[alpha] bond. In both of these cases the charge is retained on the fragment containing the nitrogen of the amide bond, indicating that ion formation by the PERCI process is directed by the electron affinity (EA) of the fragments. The backbone fragmentation of the PERCI process appears distinct from other low energy processes, including electron detachment dissociation and electron capture dissociation, as evidenced by the lack of amide C[alpha]-C cleavage; the dependence of ion formation on the EA of the fragments, not their H affinity; and the observation that PERCI is not a directionally restricted mechanism.

  13. Analysis of the solvent accessibility of cysteine residues on Maize rayado fino virus virus-like particles produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and cross-linking of peptides to VLPs.

    PubMed

    Natilla, Angela; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2013-02-14

    Mimicking and exploiting virus properties and physicochemical and physical characteristics holds promise to provide solutions to some of the world's most pressing challenges. The sheer range and types of viruses coupled with their intriguing properties potentially give endless opportunities for applications in virus-based technologies. Viruses have the ability to self- assemble into particles with discrete shape and size, specificity of symmetry, polyvalence, and stable properties under a wide range of temperature and pH conditions. Not surprisingly, with such a remarkable range of properties, viruses are proposed for use in biomaterials, vaccines, electronic materials, chemical tools, and molecular electronic containers. In order to utilize viruses in nanotechnology, they must be modified from their natural forms to impart new functions. This challenging process can be performed through several mechanisms including genetic modification of the viral genome and chemically attaching foreign or desired molecules to the virus particle reactive groups. The ability to modify a virus primarily depends upon the physiochemical and physical properties of the virus. In addition, the genetic or physiochemical modifications need to be performed without adversely affecting the virus native structure and virus function. Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) coat proteins self-assemble in Escherichia coli producing stable and empty VLPs that are stabilized by protein-protein interactions and that can be used in virus-based technologies applications. VLPs produced in tobacco plants were examined as a scaffold on which a variety of peptides can be covalently displayed. Here, we describe the steps to 1) determine which of the solvent-accessible cysteines in a virus capsid are available for modification, and 2) bioconjugate peptides to the modified capsids. By using native or mutationally-inserted amino acid residues and standard coupling technologies, a wide variety of materials have been

  14. Cysteine 904 Is Required for Maximal Insulin Degrading Enzyme Activity and Polyanion Activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Eun Suk; Melikishvili, Manana; Fried, Michael G.; Juliano, Maria A.; Juliano, Luiz; Rodgers, David W.; Hersh, Louis B.

    2012-01-01

    Cysteine residues in insulin degrading enzyme have been reported as non-critical for its activity. We found that converting the twelve cysteine residues in rat insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) to serines resulted in a cysteine-free form of the enzyme with reduced activity and decreased activation by polyanions. Mutation of each cysteine residue individually revealed cysteine 904 as the key residue required for maximal activity and polyanion activation, although other cysteines affect polyanion binding to a lesser extent. Based on the structure of IDE, Asn 575 was identified as a potential hydrogen bond partner for Cys904 and mutation of this residue also reduced activity and decreased polyanion activation. The oligomerization state of IDE did not correlate with its activity, with the dimer being the predominant form in all the samples examined. These data suggest that there are several conformational states of the dimer that affect activity and polyanion activation. PMID:23077523

  15. Characterization of the Cysteine Content in Proteins Utilizing Cysteine Selenylation with 266 nm Ultraviolet Photodissociation (UVPD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, W. Ryan; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2016-08-01

    Characterization of the cysteine content of proteins is a key aspect of proteomics. By defining both the total number of cysteines and their bound/unbound state, the number of candidate proteins considered in database searches is significantly constrained. Herein we present a methodology that utilizes 266 nm UVPD to count the number of free and bound cysteines in intact proteins. In order to attain this goal, proteins were derivatized with N-(phenylseleno)phthalimide (NPSP) to install a selectively cleavable Se-S bond upon 266 UVPD. The number of Se-S bonds cleaved upon UVPD, a process that releases SePh moieties, corresponds to the number of cysteine residues per protein.

  16. Review stapling peptides using cysteine crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Fairlie, David P; Dantas de Araujo, Aline

    2016-11-01

    Stapled peptides are an emerging class of cyclic peptide molecules with enhanced biophysical properties such as conformational and proteolytic stability, cellular uptake and elevated binding affinity and specificity for their biological targets. Among the limited number of chemistries available for their synthesis, the cysteine-based stapling strategy has received considerable development in the last few years driven by facile access from cysteine-functionalized peptide precursors. Here we present some recent advances in peptide and protein stapling where the side-chains of cysteine residues are covalently connected with a range of different crosslinkers affording bisthioether macrocyclic peptides of varying topology and biophysical properties. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 843-852, 2016.

  17. π-Clamp-mediated cysteine conjugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Welborn, Matthew; Zhu, Tianyu; Yang, Nicole J.; Santos, Michael S.; van Voorhis, Troy; Pentelute, Bradley L.

    2016-02-01

    Site-selective functionalization of complex molecules is one of the most significant challenges in chemistry. Typically, protecting groups or catalysts must be used to enable the selective modification of one site among many that are similarly reactive, and general strategies that selectively tune the local chemical environment around a target site are rare. Here, we show a four-amino-acid sequence (Phe-Cys-Pro-Phe), which we call the ‘π-clamp’, that tunes the reactivity of its cysteine thiol for site-selective conjugation with perfluoroaromatic reagents. We use the π-clamp to selectively modify one cysteine site in proteins containing multiple endogenous cysteine residues. These examples include antibodies and cysteine-based enzymes that would be difficult to modify selectively using standard cysteine-based methods. Antibodies modified using the π-clamp retained binding affinity to their targets, enabling the synthesis of site-specific antibody-drug conjugates for selective killing of HER2-positive breast cancer cells. The π-clamp is an unexpected approach to mediate site-selective chemistry and provides new avenues to modify biomolecules for research and therapeutics.

  18. Π-Clamp-mediated cysteine conjugation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Welborn, Matthew; Zhu, Tianyu; Yang, Nicole J; Santos, Michael S; Van Voorhis, Troy; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2016-02-01

    Site-selective functionalization of complex molecules is one of the most significant challenges in chemistry. Typically, protecting groups or catalysts must be used to enable the selective modification of one site among many that are similarly reactive, and general strategies that selectively tune the local chemical environment around a target site are rare. Here, we show a four-amino-acid sequence (Phe-Cys-Pro-Phe), which we call the 'π-clamp', that tunes the reactivity of its cysteine thiol for site-selective conjugation with perfluoroaromatic reagents. We use the π-clamp to selectively modify one cysteine site in proteins containing multiple endogenous cysteine residues. These examples include antibodies and cysteine-based enzymes that would be difficult to modify selectively using standard cysteine-based methods. Antibodies modified using the π-clamp retained binding affinity to their targets, enabling the synthesis of site-specific antibody-drug conjugates for selective killing of HER2-positive breast cancer cells. The π-clamp is an unexpected approach to mediate site-selective chemistry and provides new avenues to modify biomolecules for research and therapeutics.

  19. π-Clamp Mediated Cysteine Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Welborn, Matthew; Zhu, Tianyu; Yang, Nicole J.; Santos, Michael S.; Van Voorhis, Troy; Pentelute, Bradley L.

    2016-01-01

    Site-selective functionalization of complex molecules is a grand challenge in chemistry. Protecting groups or catalysts must be used to selectively modify one site among many that are similarly reactive. General strategies are rare such the local chemical environment around the target site is tuned for selective transformation. Here we show a four amino acid sequence (Phe-Cys-Pro-Phe), which we call the “π-clamp”, tunes the reactivity of its cysteine thiol for the site-selective conjugation with perfluoroaromatic reagents. We used the π-clamp to selectively modify one cysteine site in proteins containing multiple endogenous cysteine residues (e.g. antibodies and cysteine-based enzymes), which was impossible with prior cysteine modification methods. The modified π-clamp antibodies retained binding affinity to their targets, enabling the synthesis of site-specific antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) for selective killing of HER2-positive breast cancer cells. The π-clamp is an unexpected approach for site-selective chemistry and provides opportunities to modify biomolecules for research and therapeutics. PMID:26791894

  20. Cysteine Modifications in the Pathogenesis of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Cristiana; Carrì, Maria Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Several proteins are found misfolded and aggregated in sporadic and genetic forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These include superoxide dismutase (SOD1), transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma protein (FUS/TLS), p62, vasolin-containing protein (VCP), Ubiquilin-2 and dipeptide repeats produced by unconventional RAN-translation of the GGGGCC expansion in C9ORF72. Up to date, functional studies have not yet revealed a common mechanism for the formation of such diverse protein inclusions. Consolidated studies have demonstrated a fundamental role of cysteine residues in the aggregation process of SOD1 and TDP43, but disturbance of protein thiols homeostatic factors such as protein disulfide isomerases (PDI), glutathione, cysteine oxidation or palmitoylation might contribute to a general aberration of cysteine residues proteostasis in ALS. In this article we review the evidence that cysteine modifications may have a central role in many, if not all, forms of this disease. PMID:28167899

  1. Chicken scFvs with an Artificial Cysteine for Site-Directed Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soohyun; Kim, Hyori; Chung, Junho

    2016-01-01

    For the site-directed conjugation of chemicals and radioisotopes to the chicken-derived single-chain variable fragment (scFv), we investigated amino acid residues replaceable with cysteine. By replacing each amino acid of the 157 chicken variable region framework residues (FR, 82 residues on VH and 75 on VL) with cysteine, 157 artificial cysteine mutants were generated and characterized. At least 27 residues on VL and 37 on VH could be replaced with cysteine while retaining the binding activity of the original scFv. We prepared three VL (L5, L6 and L7) and two VH (H13 and H16) mutants as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and showed that PEG-conjugation to the sulfhydryl group of the artificial cysteine was achievable in all five mutants. Because the charge around the cysteine residue affects the in vivo stability of thiol-maleimide conjugation, we prepared 16 charge-variant artificial cysteine mutants by replacing the flanking residues of H13 with charged amino acids and determined that the binding activity was not affected in any of the mutants except one. We prepared four charge-variant H13 artificial cysteine mutants (RCK, DCE, ECD and ECE) as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and confirmed that the reactivity of the sulfhydryl group on cysteine is active and their binding activity is retained after the conjugation process. PMID:26764487

  2. Chicken scFvs with an Artificial Cysteine for Site-Directed Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Aerin; Shin, Jung Won; Kim, Soohyun; Kim, Hyori; Chung, Junho

    2016-01-01

    For the site-directed conjugation of chemicals and radioisotopes to the chicken-derived single-chain variable fragment (scFv), we investigated amino acid residues replaceable with cysteine. By replacing each amino acid of the 157 chicken variable region framework residues (FR, 82 residues on VH and 75 on VL) with cysteine, 157 artificial cysteine mutants were generated and characterized. At least 27 residues on VL and 37 on VH could be replaced with cysteine while retaining the binding activity of the original scFv. We prepared three VL (L5, L6 and L7) and two VH (H13 and H16) mutants as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and showed that PEG-conjugation to the sulfhydryl group of the artificial cysteine was achievable in all five mutants. Because the charge around the cysteine residue affects the in vivo stability of thiol-maleimide conjugation, we prepared 16 charge-variant artificial cysteine mutants by replacing the flanking residues of H13 with charged amino acids and determined that the binding activity was not affected in any of the mutants except one. We prepared four charge-variant H13 artificial cysteine mutants (RCK, DCE, ECD and ECE) as scFv-Ckappa fusion proteins and confirmed that the reactivity of the sulfhydryl group on cysteine is active and their binding activity is retained after the conjugation process.

  3. The Crystal Structure of Thermotoga maritima Class III Ribonucleotide Reductase Lacks a Radical Cysteine Pre-Positioned in the Active Site

    PubMed Central

    Aurelius, Oskar; Johansson, Renzo; Bågenholm, Viktoria; Lundin, Daniel; Tholander, Fredrik; Balhuizen, Alexander; Beck, Tobias; Sahlin, Margareta; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie; Mulliez, Etienne; Logan, Derek T.

    2015-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks for DNA synthesis, and are found in all but a few organisms. RNRs use radical chemistry to catalyze the reduction reaction. Despite RNR having evolved several mechanisms for generation of different kinds of essential radicals across a large evolutionary time frame, this initial radical is normally always channelled to a strictly conserved cysteine residue directly adjacent to the substrate for initiation of substrate reduction, and this cysteine has been found in the structures of all RNRs solved to date. We present the crystal structure of an anaerobic RNR from the extreme thermophile Thermotoga maritima (tmNrdD), alone and in several complexes, including with the allosteric effector dATP and its cognate substrate CTP. In the crystal structure of the enzyme as purified, tmNrdD lacks a cysteine for radical transfer to the substrate pre-positioned in the active site. Nevertheless activity assays using anaerobic cell extracts from T. maritima demonstrate that the class III RNR is enzymatically active. Other genetic and microbiological evidence is summarized indicating that the enzyme is important for T. maritima. Mutation of either of two cysteine residues in a disordered loop far from the active site results in inactive enzyme. We discuss the possible mechanisms for radical initiation of substrate reduction given the collected evidence from the crystal structure, our activity assays and other published work. Taken together, the results suggest either that initiation of substrate reduction may involve unprecedented conformational changes in the enzyme to bring one of these cysteine residues to the expected position, or that alternative routes for initiation of the RNR reduction reaction may exist. Finally, we present a phylogenetic analysis showing that the structure of tmNrdD is representative of a new RNR subclass IIIh, present in all Thermotoga

  4. A novel cysteine desulfurase influencing organosulfur compounds in Lentinula edodes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Lei, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Lian-Fu; Bian, Yin-Bing; Yang, Hong; Ibrahim, Salam A.; Huang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Organosulfur compounds are the basis for the unique aroma of Lentinula edodes, and cysteine sulfoxide lyase (C-S lyase) is the key enzyme in this trait. The enzyme from Alliium sativum has been crystallized and well-characterized; however, there have been no reports of the characterization of fungi C-S lyase at the molecular level. We identified a L. edodes C-S lyase (Lecsl), cloned a gene of Csl encoded Lecsl and then combined modeling, simulations, and experiments to understand the molecular basis of the function of Lecsl. Our analysis revealed Lecsl to be a novel cysteine desulfurase and not a type of cysteine sulfoxide lyase. The pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) molecule bonded tightly to Lecsl to form a Lecsl-PLP complex. Moreover, the Lecsl had one active center that served to bind two kinds of substrates, S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and L-cysteine, and had both cysteine sulfoxide lyase and cysteine desulfurase activity. We found that the amino acid residue Asn393 was essential for the catalytic activity of Lecsl and that the gene Csl encoded a novel cysteine desulfurase to influence organosulfur compounds in L. edodes. Our results provide a new insight into understanding the formation of the unique aroma of L. edodes. PMID:26054293

  5. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of cysteine-free coprisin nonapeptides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeho; Lee, Daeun; Choi, Hyemin; Kim, Ha Hyung; Kim, Ho; Hwang, Jae Sam; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Jae Il

    2014-01-10

    Coprisin is a 43-mer defensin-like peptide from the dung beetle, Copris tripartitus. CopA3 (LLCIALRKK-NH₂), a 9-mer peptide containing a single free cysteine residue at position 3 of its sequence, was derived from the α-helical region of coprisin and exhibits potent antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. The single cysteine implies a tendency for dimerization; however, it remains unknown whether this cysteine residue is indispensible for CopA3's antimicrobial activity. To address this issue, in the present study we synthesized eight cysteine-substituted monomeric CopA3 analogs and two dimeric analogs, CopA3 (Dimer) and CopIK (Dimer), and evaluated their antimicrobial effects against bacteria and fungi, as well as their hemolytic activity toward human erythrocytes. Under physiological conditions, CopA3 (Mono) exhibits a 6/4 (monomer/dimer) molar ratio in HPLC area percent, indicating that its effects on bacterial strains likely reflect a CopA3 (Mono)/CopA3 (Dimer) mixture. We also report the identification of CopW, a new cysteine-free nonapeptide derived from CopA3 that has potent antimicrobial activity with virtually no hemolytic activity. Apparently, the cysteine residue in CopA3 is not essential for its antimicrobial function. Notably, CopW also exhibited significant synergistic activity with ampicillin and showed more potent antifungal activity than either wild-type coprisin or melittin.

  6. The cardiac L-type calcium channel alpha subunit is a target for direct redox modification during oxidative stress - the role of cysteine residues in the alpha interacting domain.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Padmapriya; Cserne Szappanos, Henrietta; Ingley, Evan; Hool, Livia C

    2017-03-17

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the Western world. The incidence of cardiovascular disease is predicted to further rise with the increase in obesity and diabetes and with the ageing population. Even though the survival rate from ischemic heart disease has improved over the past 30 years, many patients progress to a chronic pathological condition, known as cardiac hypertrophy that is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium play an essential role in mediating cardiac hypertrophy. The L-type calcium channel is the main route for calcium influx into cardiac myocytes. There is now good evidence for a direct role for the L-type calcium channel in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Cysteines on the channel are targets for redox modification and glutathionylation of the channel can modulate the function of the channel protein leading to the onset of pathology. The cysteine responsible for modification of L-type calcium channel function has now been identified. Detailed understanding of the role of cysteines as possible targets during oxidative stress may assist in designing therapy to prevent the development of hypertrophy and heart failure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Determining cysteine oxidation status using differential alkylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Birgit; Yoo, Chris B.; Collins, Christopher J.; Gibson, Bradford W.

    2004-08-01

    Oxidative damage to proteins plays a major role in aging and in the pathology of many degenerative diseases. Under conditions of oxidative stress, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can modify key redox sensitive amino acid side chains leading to altered biological activities or structures of the targeted proteins. This in turn can affect signaling or regulatory control pathways as well as protein turnover and degradation efficiency in the proteasome. Cysteine residues are particularly susceptible to oxidation, primarily through reversible modifications (e.g., thiolation and nitrosylation), although irreversible oxidation can lead to products that cannot be repaired in vivo such as sulfonic acid. This report describes a strategy to determine the overall level of reversible cysteine oxidation using a stable isotope differential alkylation approach in combination with mass spectrometric analysis. This method employs 13C-labeled alkylating reagents, such as N-ethyl-[1,4-13C2]-maleimide, bromo-[1,2-13C2]-acetic acid and their non-labeled counterparts to quantitatively assess the level of cysteine oxidation at specific sites in oxidized proteins. The differential alkylation protocol was evaluated using standard peptides and proteins, and then applied to monitor and determine the level of oxidative damage induced by diamide, a mild oxidant. The formation and mass spectrometric analysis of irreversible cysteine acid modification will also be discussed as several such modifications have been identified in subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. This strategy will hopefully contribute to our understanding of the role that cysteine oxidation plays in such chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease, where studies in animal and cell models have shown oxidative damage to mitochondrial Complex I to be a specific and early target.

  8. Reversible targeting of noncatalytic cysteines with chemically tuned electrophiles

    PubMed Central

    Serafimova, Iana M.; Pufall, Miles A.; Krishnan, Shyam; Duda, Katarzyna; Cohen, Michael S.; Maglathlin, Rebecca L.; McFarland, Jesse M.; Miller, Rand M.; Frödin, Morten; Taunton, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Targeting noncatalytic cysteine residues with irreversible acrylamide-based inhibitors is a powerful approach for enhancing pharmacological potency and selectivity. Nevertheless, concerns about off-target modification motivate the development of reversible cysteine-targeting strategies. Here we show that electron-deficient olefins, including acrylamides, can be tuned to react with cysteine thiols in a rapidly reversible manner. Installation of a nitrile group increased the olefins’ intrinsic reactivity, yet paradoxically eliminated the formation of irreversible adducts. Incorporation of these electrophiles into a noncovalent kinase recognition scaffold produced slowly dissociating, covalent inhibitors of the p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, RSK. A cocrystal structure revealed specific noncovalent interactions that stabilize the complex by positioning the electrophilic carbon near the targeted cysteine. Disruption of these interactions by protein unfolding or proteolysis promoted instantaneous cleavage of the covalent bond. Our results establish a chemistry-based framework for engineering sustained covalent inhibition without accumulating permanently modified proteins and peptides. PMID:22466421

  9. Cysteine-functional polymers via thiol-ene conjugation.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Matthias; Reimann, Oliver; Hackenberger, Christian P R; Groll, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    A thiofunctional thiazolidine is introduced as a new low-molar-mass building block for the introduction of cysteine residues via a thiol-ene reaction. Allyl-functional polyglycidol (PG) is used as a model polymer to demonstrate polymer-analogue functionalization through reaction with the unsaturated side-chains. A modified trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBSA) assay is used for the redox-insensitive quantification and a precise final cysteine content can be predetermined at the polymerization stage. Native chemical ligation at cysteine-functional PG is performed as a model reaction for a chemoselective peptide modification of this polymer. The three-step synthesis of the thiofunctional thiazolidine reactant, together with the standard thiol-ene coupling and the robust quantification assay, broadens the toolbox for thiol-ene chemistry and offers a generic and straightforward approach to cysteine-functional materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Replication of murine coronavirus requires multiple cysteines in the endodomain of spike protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jinhua; Lv, Jun; Wang, Yuyan; Gao, Shuang; Yao, Qianqian; Qu, Di; Ye, Rong

    2012-06-05

    A conserved cysteine-rich motif located between the transmembrane domain and the endodomain is essential for membrane fusion and assembly of coronavirus spike (S) protein. Here, we proved that three cysteines within the motif, but not dependent on position, are minimally required for the survival of the recombinant mouse hepatitis virus. When the carboxy termini with these mutated motifs of S proteins were respectively introduced into a heterogeneous protein, both incorporation into lipid rafts and S-palmitoylation of these recombinant proteins showed a similar quantity requirement to cysteine residues. Meanwhile, the redistribution of these proteins on cellular surface indicated that the absence of the positively charged rather than cysteine residues in the motif might lead the dramatic reduction in syncytial formation of some mutants with the deleted motifs. These results suggest that multiple cysteine as well as charged residues concurrently improves the membrane-associated functions of S protein in viral replication and cytopathogenesis.

  11. Cysteines under ROS attack in plants: a proteomics view.

    PubMed

    Akter, Salma; Huang, Jingjing; Waszczak, Cezary; Jacques, Silke; Gevaert, Kris; Van Breusegem, Frank; Messens, Joris

    2015-05-01

    Plants generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as part of their metabolism and in response to various external stress factors, potentially causing significant damage to biomolecules and cell structures. During the course of evolution, plants have adapted to ROS toxicity, and use ROS as signalling messengers that activate defence responses. Cysteine (Cys) residues in proteins are one of the most sensitive targets for ROS-mediated post-translational modifications, and they have become key residues for ROS signalling studies. The reactivity of Cys residues towards ROS, and their ability to react to different oxidation states, allow them to appear at the crossroads of highly dynamic oxidative events. As such, a redox-active cysteine can be present as S-glutathionylated (-SSG), disulfide bonded (S-S), sulfenylated (-SOH), sulfinylated (-SO2H), and sulfonylated (-SO3H). The sulfenic acid (-SOH) form has been considered as part of ROS-sensing pathways, as it leads to further modifications which affect protein structure and function. Redox proteomic studies are required to understand how and why cysteines undergo oxidative post-translational modifications and to identify the ROS-sensor proteins. Here, we update current knowledge of cysteine reactivity with ROS. Further, we give an overview of proteomic techniques that have been applied to identify different redox-modified cysteines in plants. There is a particular focus on the identification of sulfenylated proteins, which have the potential to be involved in plant signal transduction.

  12. Mobile protons versus mobile radicals: gas-phase unimolecular chemistry of radical cations of cysteine-containing peptides.

    PubMed

    Lam, Adrian K Y; Ryzhov, Victor; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2010-08-01

    A combination of electrospray ionization (ESI), multistage, and high-resolution mass spectrometry experiments are used to examine the gas-phase fragmentation reactions of radical cations of cysteine containing di- and tripeptides. Two different chemical methods were used to form initial populations of radical cations in which the radical sites were located at different positions: (1) sulfur-centered cysteinyl radicals via bond homolysis of protonated S-nitrosocysteine containing peptides; and (2) alpha-carbon backbone-centered radicals via Siu's sequence of reactions (J. Am. Chem. Soc.2008, 130, 7862). Comparison of the fragmentation reactions of these regiospecifically generated radicals suggests that hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) between the alpha C-H of adjacent residues and the cysteinyl radical can occur. In addition, using accurate mass measurements, deuterium labeling, and comparison with an authentic sample, a novel loss of part of the N-terminal cysteine residue was shown to give rise to the protonated, truncated N-formyl peptide (an even-electron x(n) ion). DFT calculations were performed on the radical cation [GCG]*(+) to examine: the relative stabilities of isomers with different radical and protonation sites; the barriers associated with radical migration between four possible radical sites, [G*CG](+), [GC*G](+), [GCG*](+), and [GC(S*)G](+); and for dissociation from these sites to yield b(2)-type ions. Copyright 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A simple isotopic labeling method to study cysteine oxidation in Alzheimer's disease: oxidized cysteine-selective dimethylation (OxcysDML).

    PubMed

    Gu, Liqing; Robinson, Renã A S

    2016-04-01

    Cysteine is widely involved in redox signaling pathways through a number of reversible and irreversible modifications. Reversible modifications (e.g., S-glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation, disulfide bonds, and sulfenic acid) are used to protect proteins from oxidative attack and maintain cellular homeostasis, while irreversible oxidations (e.g., sulfinic acid and sulfonic acid) serve as hallmarks of oxidative stress. Proteomic analysis of cysteine-enriched peptides coupled with reduction of oxidized thiols can be used to measure the oxidation states of cysteine, which is helpful for elucidating the role that oxidative stress plays in biology and disease. As an extension of our previously reported cysDML method, we have developed oxidized cysteine-selective dimethylation (OxcysDML), to investigate the site-specific total oxidation of cysteine residues in biologically relevant samples. OxcysDML employs (1) blocking of free thiols by a cysteine-reactive reagent, (2) enrichment of peptides containing reversibly oxidized cysteine by a solid phase resin, and (3) isotopic labeling of peptide amino groups to quantify cysteine modifications arising from different biological conditions. On-resin enrichment and labeling minimizes sample handing time and improves efficiency in comparison with other redox proteomic methods. OxcysDML is also inexpensive and flexible, as it can accommodate the exploration of various cysteine modifications. Here, we applied the method to liver tissues from a late-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model and wild-type (WT) controls. Because we have previously characterized this proteome using the cysDML approach, we are able here to probe deeper into the redox status of cysteine in AD. OxcysDML identified 1129 cysteine sites (from 527 proteins), among which 828 cysteine sites underwent oxidative modifications. Nineteen oxidized cysteine sites had significant alteration levels in AD and represent proteins involved in metabolic processes. Overall

  14. Post-translational modification in the gas phase: mechanism of cysteine S-nitrosylation via ion-molecule reactions

    PubMed Central

    Osburn, Sandra; O'Hair, Richard A.J.; Black, Stephen M.; Ryzhov, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The gas-phase mechanism of S-nitrosylation of thiols was studied in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. This was done via ion-molecule reactions of protonated cysteine and many of its derivatives and other thiol ions with neutral tert-butyl nitrite or nitrous acid. Our results showed that the presence of the carboxylic acid functional group, –COOH, in the vicinity of the thiol group is essential for the gas-phase nitrosylation of thiols. When the carboxyl proton is replaced by a methyl group (cysteine methyl ester) no nitrosylation was observed. Other thiols lacking a carboxylic acid functional group displayed no S-nitrosylation, strongly suggesting that the carboxyl hydrogen plays a key role in the nitrosylation process. These results are in excellent agreement with a solution-phase mechanism proposed by Stamler et al. (J. S. Stamler, E. J. Toone, S. A. Lipton, N. J. Sucher. Neuron 1997, 18, 691–696) who suggested a catalytic role for the carboxylic acid group adjacent to cysteine residues and with later additions by Ascenzi et al. (P. Ascenzi, M. Colasanti, T. Persichini, M. Muolo, F. Polticelli, G. Venturini, D. Bordo, M. Bolognesi. Biol. Chem. 2000, 381, 623–627) who postulated that the presence of the carboxyl in the cysteine microenvironment in proteins is crucial for S-nitrosylation. A concerted mechanism for the gas-phase S-nitrosylation was proposed based on our results and was further studied using theoretical calculations. Our calculations showed that this proposed pathway is exothermic by 44.0 kJ mol−1. This is one of the few recent examples when a gas-phase mechanism matches one in solution. PMID:22006383

  15. Chikungunya nsP2 protease is not a papain-like cysteine protease and the catalytic dyad cysteine is interchangeable with a proximal serine.

    PubMed

    Saisawang, Chonticha; Saitornuang, Sawanan; Sillapee, Pornpan; Ubol, Sukathida; Smith, Duncan R; Ketterman, Albert J

    2015-11-24

    Chikungunya virus is the pathogenic alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever in humans. In the last decade millions of cases have been reported around the world from Africa to Asia to the Americas. The alphavirus nsP2 protein is multifunctional and is considered to be pivotal to viral replication, as the nsP2 protease activity is critical for proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein during replication. Classically the alphavirus nsP2 protease is thought to be papain-like with the enzyme reaction proceeding through a cysteine/histidine catalytic dyad. We performed structure-function studies on the chikungunya nsP2 protease and show that the enzyme is not papain-like. Characterization of the catalytic dyad cysteine residue enabled us to identify a nearby serine that is catalytically interchangeable with the dyad cysteine residue. The enzyme retains activity upon alanine replacement of either residue but a replacement of both cysteine and serine residues results in no detectable activity. Protein dynamics appears to allow the use of either the cysteine or the serine residue in catalysis. This switchable dyad residue has not been previously reported for alphavirus nsP2 proteases and would have a major impact on the nsP2 protease as an anti-viral target.

  16. Chikungunya nsP2 protease is not a papain-like cysteine protease and the catalytic dyad cysteine is interchangeable with a proximal serine

    PubMed Central

    Saisawang, Chonticha; Saitornuang, Sawanan; Sillapee, Pornpan; Ubol, Sukathida; Smith, Duncan R.; Ketterman, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is the pathogenic alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever in humans. In the last decade millions of cases have been reported around the world from Africa to Asia to the Americas. The alphavirus nsP2 protein is multifunctional and is considered to be pivotal to viral replication, as the nsP2 protease activity is critical for proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein during replication. Classically the alphavirus nsP2 protease is thought to be papain-like with the enzyme reaction proceeding through a cysteine/histidine catalytic dyad. We performed structure-function studies on the chikungunya nsP2 protease and show that the enzyme is not papain-like. Characterization of the catalytic dyad cysteine residue enabled us to identify a nearby serine that is catalytically interchangeable with the dyad cysteine residue. The enzyme retains activity upon alanine replacement of either residue but a replacement of both cysteine and serine residues results in no detectable activity. Protein dynamics appears to allow the use of either the cysteine or the serine residue in catalysis. This switchable dyad residue has not been previously reported for alphavirus nsP2 proteases and would have a major impact on the nsP2 protease as an anti-viral target. PMID:26597768

  17. The cysteine-cluster motif of c-Yes, Lyn and FAK as a suppressive module for the kinases.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Senga, Takeshi; Oo, Myat Lin; Hasegawa, Hitoki; Biswas, Md Helal Uddin; Mon, Naing Naing; Huang, Pengyu; Ito, Satoko; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Hamaguchi, Michinari

    2008-04-01

    The Src family of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases plays a critical role in the progression of human cancers so that the development of its specific inhibitors is important as a therapeutic tool. We previously reported that cysteine residues in the cysteine-cluster (CC) motif of v-Src were critical for the kinase inactivation by the SH-alkylating agents such as N-(9-acridinyl) maleimide (NAM), whereas other cysteine residues were dispensable. We found similar CC-motifs in other Src-family kinases and a non-Src-family kinase, FAK. In this study, we explored the function of the CC-motif in Yes, Lyn and FAK. While Src has four cysteines in the CC-motif, c-Yes and Lyn have three and two of the four cysteines, respectively. Two conserved cysteines of the Src family kinases, corresponding to Cys487 and Cys498 of Src, were essential for the resistance to the inactivation of the kinase activity by NAM, whereas the first cysteine of c-Yes, which is absent in Lyn, was less important. FAK has similar CC-motifs with two cysteines and both cysteines were again essential for the resistance to the inactivation of the kinase activity by NAM. Taken together, modification of cysteine residues of the CC-motif causes a repressor effect on the catalytic activity of the Src family kinases and FAK.

  18. Cysteine-mediated reductive dissolution of poorly crystalline iron(III) oxides by Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Doong, Ruey-An; Schink, Bernhard

    2002-07-01

    The reductive dissolution of poorly crystalline ferric oxides in the presence of cysteine was investigated to evaluate the potential of cysteine as a possible electron carrier to stimulate the reduction of iron(III) oxides by Geobacter sulfurreducens. The extent and rate of biotic and abiotic reduction of iron(III) oxides in the presence of cysteine at various concentrations were compared. Iron(III) oxides were reduced abiotically by cysteine. The initial rate and extent of iron(III) oxide reduction were correlated linearly with the cysteine concentration ranging from 0 to 6 mM. Also, addition of 0.5-2 mM cysteine significantly stimulated the rate and the extent of iron(III) oxide reduction in cultures of G. sulfurreducens. The cysteine concentration decreased in accordance with the increase of Fe(II) concentration and reached a nearly constant residual concentration. Cysteine depletion followed first-order kinetics and increased linearly with the cysteine concentration. An 8- to 11-fold increase in the extent of iron(III) oxide reduction relative to the abiotic system was observed. Comparison of sorbed and dissolved Fe(II) concentrations between cultures amended with cysteine and with other organic chelators showed that solubilization is not the main factor in cysteine-stimulated Fe(III) reduction. Addition of cystine could enhanced the extent of iron(III) oxide reduction, concomitant with the increase of the regenerated cysteine concentration and support the hypothesis that cysteine could serve as an electron carrier to transfer electrons from G. sulfurreducens to poorly crystalline iron(III) oxides.

  19. The Cysteine Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Go, Young-Mi; Chandler, Joshua D.; Jones, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    The cysteine (Cys) proteome is a major component of the adaptive interface between the genome and the exposome. The thiol moiety of Cys undergoes a range of biologic modifications enabling biological switching of structure and reactivity. These biological modifications include sulfenylation and disulfide formation, formation of higher oxidation states, S-nitrosylation, persulfidation, metallation, and other modifications. Extensive knowledge about these systems and their compartmentalization now provides a foundation to develop advanced integrative models of Cys proteome regulation. In particular, detailed understanding of redox signaling pathways and sensing networks is becoming available to discriminate network structures. This research focuses attention on the need for atlases of Cys modifications to develop systems biology models. Such atlases will be especially useful for integrative studies linking the Cys proteome to imaging and other omics platforms, providing a basis for improved redox-based therapeutics. Thus, a framework is emerging to place the Cys proteome as a complement to the quantitative proteome in the omics continuum connecting the genome to the exposome. PMID:25843657

  20. Characterizations of Three Major Cysteine Sensors of Keap1 in Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Saito, Ryota; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hiramoto, Keiichiro; Asami, Soichiro; Naganuma, Eriko; Suda, Hiromi; Iso, Tatsuro; Yamamoto, Hirotaka; Morita, Masanobu; Baird, Liam; Furusawa, Yuki; Negishi, Takaaki; Ichinose, Masakazu; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2015-11-02

    The Keap1-Nrf2 system plays a central role in cytoprotection against electrophilic/oxidative stresses. Although Cys151, Cys273, and Cys288 of Keap1 are major sensor cysteine residues for detecting these stresses, it has not been technically feasible to evaluate the functionality of Cys273 or Cys288, since Keap1 mutants that harbor substitutions in these residues and maintain the ability to repress Nrf2 accumulation do not exist. To overcome this problem, we systematically introduced amino acid substitutions into Cys273/Cys288 and finally identified Cys273Trp and Cys288Glu mutations that do not affect Keap1's ability to repress Nrf2 accumulation. Utilizing these Keap1 mutants, we generated stable murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell lines and knock-in mouse lines. Our analyses with the MEFs and peritoneal macrophages from the knock-in mice revealed that three major cysteine residues, Cys151, Cys273, and Cys288, individually and/or redundantly act as sensors. Based on the functional necessity of these three cysteine residues, we categorized chemical inducers of Nrf2 into four classes. Class I and II utilizes Cys151 and Cys288, respectively, while class III requires all three residues (Cys151/Cys273/Cys288), while class IV inducers function independently of all three of these cysteine residues. This study thus demonstrates that Keap1 utilizes multiple cysteine residues specifically and/or collaboratively as sensors for the detection of a wide range of environmental stresses.

  1. The spectrum character of photoreaction of Hypocrellin A and cysteine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jucheng; Liu, Wei; Li, Ying; Zhang, Pei; Yi, Zhongzhou; Min, Yong; Huang, Zhaolong; Yao, Lihua; Lu, Haiju

    2008-12-01

    In the current work, Hypocrellin A (HA) is one of the nature photosensitizer was recognized by researchers, and it used as a probe to research the molecular recognition and interaction with protein, the work suggested the HA can as the medicine to treat some disease. This paper study the spectrum character of photoreaction of Hypocrellin A and cysteine in different pH value, the spectrum show an isosbestic point at 495nm, and the absorption peak at 478nm was red-shifted to about 500nm. The result suggested the HA can react with cysteine in this condition, and farther illuminated the cysteine residue may is one of the target of the interaction of HA or HB with protein.

  2. Assay of cysteine dioxygenase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, P.J.; Stipanuk, M.H. )

    1990-02-26

    It has been proposed that rat liver contains two cysteine dioxygenase enzymes which convert cysteine to cysteinesulfinic acid, one which is stimulated by NAD{sup +} and has a pH optimum of 6.8 and one which is not stimulated by NAD{sup +} and has a pH optimum of 9.0. This led the authors to reinvestigate assay conditions for measuring cysteine dioxygenase activity in rat liver homogenate. An HPLC method, using an anion exchange column (Dionex Amino-Pac{trademark} PA1 (4x250 mm)) was used to separate the ({sup 35}S)cysteinesulfinic acid produced from ({sup 35}S)cysteine in the incubation mixture. They demonstrated that inclusion of hydroxylamine prevented further metabolism of cysteinesulfinic acid. which occurred rapidly in the absence of hydroxylamine.

  3. Artemisolide is a typical inhibitor of I{kappa}B kinase {beta} targeting cysteine-179 residue and down-regulates NF-{kappa}B-dependent TNF-{alpha} expression in LPS-activated macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Byung Hak; Lee, Jun-Young; Seo, Jee Hee; Lee, Hwa Young; Ryu, Shi Yong; Ahn, Byung Woo; Lee, Chong-Kil; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2007-09-28

    Nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B regulates a central common signaling for immunity and cell survival. Artemisolide (ATM) was previously isolated as a NF-{kappa}B inhibitor from a plant of Artemisia asiatica. However, molecular basis of ATM on NF-{kappa}B activation remains to be defined. Here, we demonstrate that ATM is a typical inhibitor of I{kappa}B kinase {beta} (IKK{beta}), resulting in inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-{kappa}B activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. ATM inhibited the kinase activity of highly purified IKK{beta} and also LPS-induced IKK activity in the cells. Moreover, the effect of ATM on IKK{beta} activity was completely abolished by substitution of Cys-179 residue of IKK{beta} to Ala residue, indicating direct targeting site of ATM. ATM could inhibit I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells and subsequently prevent NF-{kappa}B activation. Further, we demonstrate that ATM down-regulates NF-{kappa}B-dependent TNF-{alpha} expression. Taken together, this study provides a pharmacological potential of ATM in NF-{kappa}B-dependent inflammatory disorders.

  4. Rat glutathione S-transferase M4-4: an isoenzyme with unique structural features including a redox-reactive cysteine-115 residue that forms mixed disulphides with glutathione.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, H; Tchaikovskaya, T; Tu, Y S; Chapman, J; Qian, B; Ching, W M; Tien, M; Rowe, J D; Patskovsky, Y V; Listowsky, I; Tu, C P

    2001-01-01

    Although the existence of the rat glutathione S-transferase (GST) M4 (rGSTM4) gene has been known for some time, the corresponding protein has not as yet been purified from tissue. A recombinant rGSTM4-4 was thus expressed in Escherichia coli from a chemically synthesized rGSTM4 gene. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of rGSTM4-4 for the 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) conjugation reaction was 50-180-fold less than that of the well-characterized homologous rGSTM1-1, and the pH optimum for the same reaction was 8.5 for rGSTM4-4 as opposed to 6.5 for rGSTM1-1. Molecular-modelling studies predict that key substitutions in the helix alpha4 region of rGSTM4-4 account for this pK(a) difference. A notable structural feature of rGSTM4-4 is the Cys-115 residue in place of the Tyr-115 of other Mu-class GSTs. The thiol group of Cys-115 is redox-reactive and readily forms a mixed disulphide even with GSH; the S-glutathiolated form of the enzyme is catalytically active. A mutated rGSTM4-4 (C115Y) had 6-10-fold greater catalytic efficiency than the wild-type rGSTM4-4. Trp-45, a conserved residue among Mu-class GSTs, is essential in rGSTM4-4 for both enzyme activity and binding to glutathione affinity matrices. Antibodies directed against either the unique C-terminal undecapeptide or tridecapeptide of rGSTM4 reacted with rat and mouse liver GSTs to reveal an orthologous mouse GSTM4-4 present at low basal levels but which is inducible in mouse liver. This subclass of rodent Mu GSTs with redox-active Cys-115 residues could have specialized physiological functions in response to oxidative stress. PMID:11368767

  5. Biotin Switch Assays for Quantitation of Reversible Cysteine Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Kast, J

    2017-01-01

    Thiol groups in protein cysteine residues can be subjected to different oxidative modifications by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. Reversible cysteine oxidation, including S-nitrosylation, S-sulfenylation, S-glutathionylation, and disulfide formation, modulate multiple biological functions, such as enzyme catalysis, antioxidant, and other signaling pathways. However, the biological relevance of reversible cysteine oxidation is typically underestimated, in part due to the low abundance and high reactivity of some of these modifications, and the lack of methods to enrich and quantify them. To facilitate future research efforts, this chapter describes detailed procedures to target the different modifications using mass spectrometry-based biotin switch assays. By switching the modification of interest to a biotin moiety, these assays leverage the high affinity between biotin and avidin to enrich the modification. The use of stable isotope labeling and a range of selective reducing agents facilitate the quantitation of individual as well as total reversible cysteine oxidation. The biotin switch assay has been widely applied to the quantitative analysis of S-nitrosylation in different disease models and is now also emerging as a valuable research tool for other oxidative cysteine modifications, highlighting its relevance as a versatile, robust strategy for carrying out in-depth studies in redox proteomics. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Backbone 1H, 13C and 15N assignments of YibK and avariant containing a unique cysteine residue at C-terminus in 8 M urea-denatured states [corrected].

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Ju Micky; Mallam, Anna L; Jackson, Sophie E; Hsu, Shang-Te Danny

    2014-10-01

    YibK is a tRNA methyltransferase from Haemophilus influenzae, which forms a stable homodimer in solution and contains a deep trefoil 31 knot encompassing the C-terminal helix that threads through a long loop. It has been a model system for investigating knotted protein folding pathways. Recent data have shown that the polypeptide chain of YibK remains loosely knotted under highly denaturing conditions. Here, we report (1)H, (13)C and (15)N chemical shift assignments for YibK and its variant in the presence of 8 M urea. This work forms the basis for further analysis using NMR techniques such as paramagnetic relaxation enhancement, residual dipolar couplings and spin-relaxation dynamics analysis.

  7. Exploring synonymous codon usage preferences of disulfide-bonded and non-disulfide bonded cysteines in the E. coli genome.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiangning; Wang, Minglei; Burrage, Kevin

    2006-07-21

    High-quality data about protein structures and their gene sequences are essential to the understanding of the relationship between protein folding and protein coding sequences. Firstly we constructed the EcoPDB database, which is a high-quality database of Escherichia coli genes and their corresponding PDB structures. Based on EcoPDB, we presented a novel approach based on information theory to investigate the correlation between cysteine synonymous codon usages and local amino acids flanking cysteines, the correlation between cysteine synonymous codon usages and synonymous codon usages of local amino acids flanking cysteines, as well as the correlation between cysteine synonymous codon usages and the disulfide bonding states of cysteines in the E. coli genome. The results indicate that the nearest neighboring residues and their synonymous codons of the C-terminus have the greatest influence on the usages of the synonymous codons of cysteines and the usage of the synonymous codons has a specific correlation with the disulfide bond formation of cysteines in proteins. The correlations may result from the regulation mechanism of protein structures at gene sequence level and reflect the biological function restriction that cysteines pair to form disulfide bonds. The results may also be helpful in identifying residues that are important for synonymous codon selection of cysteines to introduce disulfide bridges in protein engineering and molecular biology. The approach presented in this paper can also be utilized as a complementary computational method and be applicable to analyse the synonymous codon usages in other model organisms.

  8. Efficient Preparation of Site-Specific Antibody-Drug Conjugates Using Cysteine Insertion.

    PubMed

    Dimasi, Nazzareno; Fleming, Ryan; Zhong, Haihong; Bezabeh, Binyam; Kinneer, Krista; Christie, Ronald J; Fazenbaker, Christine; Wu, Herren; Gao, Changshou

    2017-05-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are a class of biopharmaceuticals that combine the specificity of antibodies with the high-potency of cytotoxic drugs. Engineering cysteine residues in the antibodies using mutagenesis is a common method to prepare site-specific ADCs. With this approach, solvent accessible amino acids in the antibody have been selected for substitution with cysteine for conjugating maleimide-bearing cytotoxic drugs, resulting in homogeneous and stable site-specific ADCs. Here we describe a cysteine engineering approach based on the insertion of cysteines before and after selected sites in the antibody, which can be used for site-specific preparation of ADCs. Cysteine-inserted antibodies have expression level and monomeric content similar to the native antibodies. Conjugation to a pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer (SG3249) resulted in comparable efficiency of site-specific conjugation between cysteine-inserted and cysteine-substituted antibodies. Cysteine-inserted ADCs were shown to have biophysical properties, FcRn, and antigen binding affinity similar to the cysteine-substituted ADCs. These ADCs were comparable for serum stability to the ADCs prepared using cysteine-mutagenesis and had selective and potent cytotoxicity against human prostate cancer cells. Two of the cysteine-inserted variants abolish binding of the resulting ADCs to FcγRs in vitro, thereby potentially preventing non-target mediated uptake of the ADCs by cells of the innate immune system that express FcγRs, which may result in mitigating off-target toxicities. A selected cysteine-inserted ADC demonstrated potent dose-dependent anti-tumor activity in a xenograph tumor mouse model of human breast adenocarcinoma expressing the oncofetal antigen 5T4.

  9. Fermentative Production of Cysteine by Pantoea ananatis

    PubMed Central

    Takumi, Kazuhiro; Ziyatdinov, Mikhail Kharisovich; Samsonov, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cysteine is a commercially important amino acid; however, it lacks an efficient fermentative production method. Due to its cytotoxicity, intracellular cysteine levels are stringently controlled via several regulatory modes. Managing its toxic effects as well as understanding and deregulating the complexities of regulation are crucial for establishing the fermentative production of cysteine. The regulatory modes include feedback inhibition of key metabolic enzymes, degradation, efflux pumps, and the transcriptional regulation of biosynthetic genes by a master cysteine regulator, CysB. These processes have been extensively studied using Escherichia coli for overproducing cysteine by fermentation. In this study, we genetically engineered Pantoea ananatis, an emerging host for the fermentative production of bio-based materials, to identify key factors required for cysteine production. According to this and our previous studies, we identified a major cysteine desulfhydrase gene, ccdA (formerly PAJ_0331), involved in cysteine degradation, and the cysteine efflux pump genes cefA and cefB (formerly PAJ_3026 and PAJ_p0018, respectively), which may be responsible for downregulating the intracellular cysteine level. Our findings revealed that ccdA deletion and cefA and cefB overexpression are crucial factors for establishing fermentative cysteine production in P. ananatis and for obtaining a higher cysteine yield when combined with genes in the cysteine biosynthetic pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of cysteine production in P. ananatis, which has fundamental implications for establishing overproduction in this microbe. IMPORTANCE The efficient production of cysteine is a major challenge in the amino acid fermentation industry. In this study, we identified cysteine efflux pumps and degradation pathways as essential elements and genetically engineered Pantoea ananatis, an emerging host for the fermentative production of bio-based materials, to

  10. Prediction of the disulfide-bonding state of cysteines in proteins at 88% accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Pier Luigi; Fariselli, Piero; Malaguti, Luca; Casadio, Rita

    2002-01-01

    The task of predicting the cysteine-bonding state in proteins starting from the residue chain is addressed by implementing a new hybrid system that combines a neural network and a hidden Markov model (hidden neural network). Training is performed using 4136 cysteine-containing segments extracted from 969 nonhomologous proteins of well-resolved three-dimensional structure. After a 20-fold cross-validation procedure, the efficiency of the prediction scores as high as 88% and 84%, when measured on cysteine and protein basis, respectively. These results outperform previously described methods for the same task. PMID:12381855

  11. Cysteine sulfinate desulfinase, a NIFS-like protein of Escherichia coli with selenocysteine lyase and cysteine desulfurase activities. Gene cloning, purification, and characterization of a novel pyridoxal enzyme.

    PubMed

    Mihara, H; Kurihara, T; Yoshimura, T; Soda, K; Esaki, N

    1997-09-05

    Selenocysteine lyase (EC 4.4.1.16) exclusively decomposes selenocysteine to alanine and elemental selenium, whereas cysteine desulfurase (NIFS protein) of Azotobacter vinelandii acts indiscriminately on both cysteine and selenocysteine to produce elemental sulfur and selenium respectively, and alanine. These proteins exhibit some sequence homology. The Escherichia coli genome contains three genes with sequence homology to nifS. We have cloned the gene mapped at 63.4 min in the chromosome and have expressed, purified to homogeneity, and characterized the gene product. The enzyme comprises two identical subunits with 401 amino acid residues (Mr 43,238) and contains pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a coenzyme. The enzyme catalyzes the removal of elemental sulfur and selenium atoms from L-cysteine, L-cystine, L-selenocysteine, and L-selenocystine to produce L-alanine. Because L-cysteine sulfinic acid was desulfinated to form L-alanine as the preferred substrate, we have named this new enzyme cysteine sulfinate desulfinase. Mutant enzymes having alanine substituted for each of the four cysteinyl residues (Cys-100, Cys-176, Cys-323, and Cys-358) were all active. Cys-358 corresponds to Cys-325 of A. vinelandii NIFS, which is conserved among all NIFS-like proteins and catalytically essential (Zheng, L., White, R. H., Cash, V. L., and Dean, D. R. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 4714-4720), is not required for cysteine sulfinate desulfinase. Thus, the enzyme is distinct from A. vinelandii NIFS in this respect.

  12. Mechanisms of mitochondrial holocytochrome c synthase and the key roles played by cysteines and histidine of the heme attachment site, Cys-XX-Cys-His.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, Shalon E; San Francisco, Brian; Mendez, Deanna L; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S; Rodgers, Kenton R; Bretsnyder, Eric C; Kranz, Robert G

    2014-10-17

    Mitochondrial cytochrome c assembly requires the covalent attachment of heme by thioether bonds between heme vinyl groups and a conserved CXXCH motif of cytochrome c/c1. The enzyme holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS) binds heme and apocytochrome c substrate to catalyze this attachment, subsequently releasing holocytochrome c for proper folding to its native structure. We address mechanisms of assembly using a functional Escherichia coli recombinant system expressing human HCCS. Human cytochrome c variants with individual cysteine, histidine, double cysteine, and triple cysteine/histidine substitutions (of CXXCH) were co-purified with HCCS. Single and double mutants form a complex with HCCS but not the triple mutant. Resonance Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy support the proposal that heme puckering induced by both thioether bonds facilitate release of holocytochrome c from the complex. His-19 (of CXXCH) supplies the second axial ligand to heme in the complex, the first axial ligand was previously shown to be from HCCS residue His-154. Substitutions of His-19 in cytochrome c to seven other residues (Gly, Ala, Met, Arg, Lys, Cys, and Tyr) were used with various approaches to establish other roles played by His-19. Three roles for His-19 in HCCS-mediated assembly are suggested: (i) to provide the second axial ligand to the heme iron in preparation for covalent attachment; (ii) to spatially position the two cysteinyl sulfurs adjacent to the two heme vinyl groups for thioether formation; and (iii) to aid in release of the holocytochrome c from the HCCS active site. Only H19M is able to carry out these three roles, albeit at lower efficiencies than the natural His-19.

  13. Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Holocytochrome c Synthase and the Key Roles Played by Cysteines and Histidine of the Heme Attachment Site, Cys-XX-Cys-His*

    PubMed Central

    Babbitt, Shalon E.; San Francisco, Brian; Mendez, Deanna L.; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S.; Rodgers, Kenton R.; Bretsnyder, Eric C.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome c assembly requires the covalent attachment of heme by thioether bonds between heme vinyl groups and a conserved CXXCH motif of cytochrome c/c1. The enzyme holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS) binds heme and apocytochrome c substrate to catalyze this attachment, subsequently releasing holocytochrome c for proper folding to its native structure. We address mechanisms of assembly using a functional Escherichia coli recombinant system expressing human HCCS. Human cytochrome c variants with individual cysteine, histidine, double cysteine, and triple cysteine/histidine substitutions (of CXXCH) were co-purified with HCCS. Single and double mutants form a complex with HCCS but not the triple mutant. Resonance Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy support the proposal that heme puckering induced by both thioether bonds facilitate release of holocytochrome c from the complex. His-19 (of CXXCH) supplies the second axial ligand to heme in the complex, the first axial ligand was previously shown to be from HCCS residue His-154. Substitutions of His-19 in cytochrome c to seven other residues (Gly, Ala, Met, Arg, Lys, Cys, and Tyr) were used with various approaches to establish other roles played by His-19. Three roles for His-19 in HCCS-mediated assembly are suggested: (i) to provide the second axial ligand to the heme iron in preparation for covalent attachment; (ii) to spatially position the two cysteinyl sulfurs adjacent to the two heme vinyl groups for thioether formation; and (iii) to aid in release of the holocytochrome c from the HCCS active site. Only H19M is able to carry out these three roles, albeit at lower efficiencies than the natural His-19. PMID:25170082

  14. Charged Residues between the Selectivity Filter and S6 Segments Contribute to the Permeation Phenotype of the Sodium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ronald A.; Vélez, Patricio; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Marbán, Eduardo

    2000-01-01

    The deep regions of the Na+ channel pore around the selectivity filter have been studied extensively; however, little is known about the adjacent linkers between the P loops and S6. The presence of conserved charged residues, including five in a row in domain III (D-III), hints that these linkers may play a role in permeation. To characterize the structural topology and function of these linkers, we neutralized the charged residues (from position 411 in D-I and its homologues in D-II, -III, and -IV to the putative start sites of S6) individually by cysteine substitution. Several cysteine mutants displayed enhanced sensitivities to Cd2+ block relative to wild-type and/or were modifiable by external sulfhydryl-specific methanethiosulfonate reagents when expressed in TSA-201 cells, indicating that these amino acids reside in the permeation pathway. While neutralization of positive charges did not alter single-channel conductance, negative charge neutralizations generally reduced conductance, suggesting that such charges facilitate ion permeation. The electrical distances for Cd2+ binding to these residues reveal a secondary “dip” into the membrane field of the linkers in domains II and IV. Our findings demonstrate significant functional roles and surprising structural features of these previously unexplored external charged residues. PMID:10613920

  15. Methylene Blue Inhibits Caspases by Oxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Sharma, Gyanesh; Kaushal, Vikas; Foveau, Bénédicte; LeBlanc, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Methylene blue, currently in phase 3 clinical trials against Alzheimer Disease, disaggregates the Tau protein of neurofibrillary tangles by oxidizing specific cysteine residues. Here, we investigated if methylene blue can inhibit caspases via the oxidation of their active site cysteine. Methylene blue, and derivatives, azure A and azure B competitively inhibited recombinant Caspase-6 (Casp6), and inhibited Casp6 activity in transfected human colon carcinoma cells and in serum-deprived primary human neuron cultures. Methylene blue also inhibited recombinant Casp1 and Casp3. Furthermore, methylene blue inhibited Casp3 activity in an acute mouse model of liver toxicity. Mass spectrometry confirmed methylene blue and azure B oxidation of the catalytic Cys163 cysteine of Casp6. Together, these results show a novel inhibitory mechanism of caspases via sulfenation of the active site cysteine. These results indicate that methylene blue or its derivatives could (1) have an additional effect against Alzheimer Disease by inhibiting brain caspase activity, (2) be used as a drug to prevent caspase activation in other conditions, and (3) predispose chronically treated individuals to cancer via the inhibition of caspases. PMID:26400108

  16. Methylene Blue Inhibits Caspases by Oxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine.

    PubMed

    Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Sharma, Gyanesh; Kaushal, Vikas; Foveau, Bénédicte; LeBlanc, Andrea C

    2015-09-24

    Methylene blue, currently in phase 3 clinical trials against Alzheimer Disease, disaggregates the Tau protein of neurofibrillary tangles by oxidizing specific cysteine residues. Here, we investigated if methylene blue can inhibit caspases via the oxidation of their active site cysteine. Methylene blue, and derivatives, azure A and azure B competitively inhibited recombinant Caspase-6 (Casp6), and inhibited Casp6 activity in transfected human colon carcinoma cells and in serum-deprived primary human neuron cultures. Methylene blue also inhibited recombinant Casp1 and Casp3. Furthermore, methylene blue inhibited Casp3 activity in an acute mouse model of liver toxicity. Mass spectrometry confirmed methylene blue and azure B oxidation of the catalytic Cys163 cysteine of Casp6. Together, these results show a novel inhibitory mechanism of caspases via sulfenation of the active site cysteine. These results indicate that methylene blue or its derivatives could (1) have an additional effect against Alzheimer Disease by inhibiting brain caspase activity, (2) be used as a drug to prevent caspase activation in other conditions, and (3) predispose chronically treated individuals to cancer via the inhibition of caspases.

  17. Regulation of Protein Function and Signaling by Reversible Cysteine S-Nitrosylation*

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Neal; Doulias, Paschalis-Thomas; Tenopoulou, Margarita; Raju, Karthik; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2013-01-01

    NO is a versatile free radical that mediates numerous biological functions within every major organ system. A molecular pathway by which NO accomplishes functional diversity is the selective modification of protein cysteine residues to form S-nitrosocysteine. This post-translational modification, S-nitrosylation, impacts protein function, stability, and location. Despite considerable advances with individual proteins, the in vivo biological chemistry, the structural elements that govern the selective S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues, and the potential overlap with other redox modifications are unknown. In this minireview, we explore the functional features of S-nitrosylation at the proteome level and the structural diversity of endogenously modified residues, and we discuss the potential overlap and complementation that may exist with other cysteine modifications. PMID:23861393

  18. Protein Topology Determines Cysteine Oxidation Fate: The Case of Sulfenyl Amide Formation among Protein Families

    PubMed Central

    Defelipe, Lucas A.; Lanzarotti, Esteban; Gauto, Diego; Marti, Marcelo A.; Turjanski, Adrián G.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine residues have a rich chemistry and play a critical role in the catalytic activity of a plethora of enzymes. However, cysteines are susceptible to oxidation by Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species, leading to a loss of their catalytic function. Therefore, cysteine oxidation is emerging as a relevant physiological regulatory mechanism. Formation of a cyclic sulfenyl amide residue at the active site of redox-regulated proteins has been proposed as a protection mechanism against irreversible oxidation as the sulfenyl amide intermediate has been identified in several proteins. However, how and why only some specific cysteine residues in particular proteins react to form this intermediate is still unknown. In the present work using in-silico based tools, we have identified a constrained conformation that accelerates sulfenyl amide formation. By means of combined MD and QM/MM calculation we show that this conformation positions the NH backbone towards the sulfenic acid and promotes the reaction to yield the sulfenyl amide intermediate, in one step with the concomitant release of a water molecule. Moreover, in a large subset of the proteins we found a conserved beta sheet-loop-helix motif, which is present across different protein folds, that is key for sulfenyl amide production as it promotes the previous formation of sulfenic acid. For catalytic activity, in several cases, proteins need the Cysteine to be in the cysteinate form, i.e. a low pKa Cys. We found that the conserved motif stabilizes the cysteinate by hydrogen bonding to several NH backbone moieties. As cysteinate is also more reactive toward ROS we propose that the sheet-loop-helix motif and the constraint conformation have been selected by evolution for proteins that need a reactive Cys protected from irreversible oxidation. Our results also highlight how fold conservation can be correlated to redox chemistry regulation of protein function. PMID:25741692

  19. Protein topology determines cysteine oxidation fate: the case of sulfenyl amide formation among protein families.

    PubMed

    Defelipe, Lucas A; Lanzarotti, Esteban; Gauto, Diego; Marti, Marcelo A; Turjanski, Adrián G

    2015-03-01

    Cysteine residues have a rich chemistry and play a critical role in the catalytic activity of a plethora of enzymes. However, cysteines are susceptible to oxidation by Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species, leading to a loss of their catalytic function. Therefore, cysteine oxidation is emerging as a relevant physiological regulatory mechanism. Formation of a cyclic sulfenyl amide residue at the active site of redox-regulated proteins has been proposed as a protection mechanism against irreversible oxidation as the sulfenyl amide intermediate has been identified in several proteins. However, how and why only some specific cysteine residues in particular proteins react to form this intermediate is still unknown. In the present work using in-silico based tools, we have identified a constrained conformation that accelerates sulfenyl amide formation. By means of combined MD and QM/MM calculation we show that this conformation positions the NH backbone towards the sulfenic acid and promotes the reaction to yield the sulfenyl amide intermediate, in one step with the concomitant release of a water molecule. Moreover, in a large subset of the proteins we found a conserved beta sheet-loop-helix motif, which is present across different protein folds, that is key for sulfenyl amide production as it promotes the previous formation of sulfenic acid. For catalytic activity, in several cases, proteins need the Cysteine to be in the cysteinate form, i.e. a low pKa Cys. We found that the conserved motif stabilizes the cysteinate by hydrogen bonding to several NH backbone moieties. As cysteinate is also more reactive toward ROS we propose that the sheet-loop-helix motif and the constraint conformation have been selected by evolution for proteins that need a reactive Cys protected from irreversible oxidation. Our results also highlight how fold conservation can be correlated to redox chemistry regulation of protein function.

  20. Isotope-coded, iodoacetamide-based reagent to determine individual cysteine pKa values by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Kimberly J.; Day, Amanda E.; Zeng, Bubing B.; King, S. Bruce; Poole, Leslie B.

    2008-01-01

    Cysteine reactivity in enzymes is imparted to a large extent by the stabilization of the deprotonated form of the reduced cysteine (i.e. the thiolate) within the active site. While this is likely to be an important chemical attribute of many thiol-based enzymes including cysteine-dependent peroxidases (peroxiredoxins) and proteases, only relatively few pKa values have been determined experimentally. Presented here is a new technique for determining the pKa value of cysteine residues through quantitative mass spectrometry following chemical modification with an iodoacetamide-based reagent over a range of pH buffers. This isotope-coded reagent, N-phenyl iodoacetamide (iodoacetanilide), is readily prepared in deuterated (d5) and protiated (d0) versions and is more reactive toward free cysteine than is iodoacetamide. Using this approach, the pKa values for the two cysteine residues in Escherichia coli thioredoxin were determined to be 6.5 and > 10, in good agreement with previous reports using chemical modification approaches. This technique allows the pKa of specific cysteine residues to be determined in a clear, fast, and simple manner and, because cysteine residues on separate tryptic peptides are measured separately, is not complicated by the presence of multiple cysteines within the protein of interest. PMID:18162165

  1. Activation of human acid sphingomyelinase through modification or deletion of C-terminal cysteine.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huawei; Edmunds, Tim; Baker-Malcolm, Jennifer; Karey, Kenneth P; Estes, Scott; Schwarz, Cordula; Hughes, Heather; Van Patten, Scott M

    2003-08-29

    One form of Niemann-Pick disease is caused by a deficiency in the enzymatic activity of acid sphingomyelinase. During efforts to develop an enzyme replacement therapy based on a recombinant form of human acid sphingomyelinase (rhASM), purified preparations of the recombinant enzyme were found to have substantially increased specific activity if cell harvest media were stored for several weeks at -20 degrees C prior to purification. This increase in activity was found to correlate with the loss of the single free thiol on rhASM, suggesting the involvement of a cysteine residue. It was demonstrated that a variety of chemical modifications of the free cysteine on rhASM all result in substantial activation of the enzyme, and the modified cysteine responsible for this activation was shown to be the C-terminal residue (Cys629). Activation was also achieved by copper-promoted dimerization of rhASM (via cysteine) and by C-terminal truncation using carboxypeptidase Y. The role of the C-terminal cysteine in activation was confirmed by creating mutant forms of rhASM in which this residue was either deleted or replaced by a serine, with both forms having substantially higher specific activity than wild-type rhASM. These results indicate that purified rhASM can be activated in vitro by loss of the free thiol on the C-terminal cysteine via chemical modification, dimerization, or deletion of this amino acid residue. This method of activation is similar to the cysteine switch mechanism described previously for matrix metalloproteinases and could represent a means of posttranslational regulation of ASM activity in vivo.

  2. In silico designing of a new cysteine analogue of hirudin variant 3 for site specific PEGylation

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Seyed Mehdi; Rahimi, Hamzeh; Mohammadi, Saeed; Faranoush, Mohammad; Mirzahoseini, Hasan; Toogeh, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    Hirudin is an anticoagulant agent of the salivary glands of the medicinal leech. Recombinant hirudin (r-Hir) displays certain drawbacks including bleeding and immunogenicity. To solve these problems, cysteine-specific PEGylation has been proposed as a successful technique. However, proper selection of the appropriate cysteine residue for substitution is a critical step. This study has, for the first time, used a computational approach aimed at identifying a single potential PEGylation site for replacement by cysteine residue in the hirudin variant 3 (HV3). Homology modeling (HM) was performed using MODELLER. All non-cysteine residues of the HV3 were replaced with the cysteine. The best model was selected based on the results of discrete optimized protein energy score, PROCHECK software, and Verify3D. The receptor binding was investigated using protein-protein docking by ClusPro web tool which was then visualized using LigPlot+ software and PyMOL. Finally, multiple sequence alignment (MSA) using ClustalW software and disulfide bond prediction were performed. According to the results of HM and docking, Q33C, which was located on the surface of the protein, was the best site for PEGylation. Furthermore, MSA showed that Q33 was not a conserved residue and LigPlot+ software showed that it is not involved in the hirudin-thrombin binding pocket. Moreover, prediction softwares established that it is not involved in disulfide bond formation. In this study, for the first time, the utility of the in silico approach for creating a cysteine analogue of HV3 was introduced. Our study demonstrated that the substitution of Q33 by cysteine probably has no effect on the biological activity of the HV3. However, experimental analyses are required to confirm the results. PMID:28255315

  3. The antihypertensive effect of cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Vasdev, Sudesh; Singal, Pawan; Gill, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Individuals with hypertension are at an increased risk for stroke, heart disease and kidney failure. Essential hypertension results from a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. One such lifestyle factor is diet, and its role in the control of blood pressure has come under much scrutiny. Just as increased salt and sugar are known to elevate blood pressure, other dietary factors may have antihypertensive effects. Studies including the Optimal Macronutrient Intake to Prevent Heart Disease (OmniHeart) study, Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT), International Study of Salt and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study have demonstrated an inverse relationship between dietary protein and blood pressure. One component of dietary protein that may partially account for its antihypertensive effect is the nonessential amino acid cysteine. Studies in hypertensive humans and animal models of hypertension have shown that N-acetylcysteine, a stable cysteine analogue, lowers blood pressure, which substantiates this idea. Cysteine may exert its antihypertensive effects directly or through its storage form, glutathione, by decreasing oxidative stress, improving insulin resistance and glucose metabolism, lowering advanced glycation end products, and modulating levels of nitric oxide and other vasoactive molecules. Therefore, adopting a balanced diet containing cysteine-rich proteins may be a beneficial lifestyle choice for individuals with hypertension. An example of such a diet is the DASH diet, which is low in salt and saturated fat; includes whole grains, poultry, fish and nuts; and is rich in vegetables, fruits and low-fat dairy products. PMID:22477470

  4. S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Steve C; Steventon, Glyn B

    2012-05-01

    S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, the side-chain carboxymethyl derivative of the sulfur-containing amino acid, cysteine, has been known and available for almost 80 years. During this time, it has been put to a variety of uses, but it is within the field of respiratory medicine that, presently, it has found a clinical niche. Early studies indicated that this compound underwent a rather simplistic, predictable pattern of metabolism, whereas later investigations alluded to more subtle interactions with the pathways of intermediary metabolism, as may be expected for an amino acid derivative. In addition, suggestions of polymorphic influences and circadian rhythms within metabolic profiles have emerged. These latter factors may underlie the conflicting reports regarding the therapeutic efficacy of this compound: that it appears to work well in some patients, but has no measurable effects in others. The relevant literature pertaining to the fate of this compound within living systems has been reviewed and a comprehensive précis advanced. Hopefully, this article will serve as a vade mecum for those interested in S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and as a catalyst for future research.

  5. Analysis of transmembrane segment 8 of the GLUT1 glucose transporter by cysteine-scanning mutagenesis and substituted cysteine accessibility.

    PubMed

    Mueckler, Mike; Makepeace, Carol

    2004-03-12

    The GLUT1 glucose transporter has been proposed to form an aqueous substrate translocation pathway via the clustering of several amphipathic transmembrane helices (Mueckler, M., Caruso, C., Baldwin, S. A., Panico, M., Blench, I., Morris, H. R., Allard, W. J., Lienhard, G. E., and Lodish, H. F. (1985) Science 229, 941-945). The possible role of transmembrane helix 8 in the formation of this permeation pathway was investigated using cysteine-scanning mutagenesis and the membrane-impermeant sulfhydryl-specific reagent, p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonate (pCMBS). Twenty-one GLUT1 mutants were created from a fully functional cysteine-less parental GLUT1 molecule by successively changing each residue along transmembrane segment 8 to a cysteine. The mutant proteins were then expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and their membrane concentrations, 2-deoxyglucose uptake activities, and sensitivities to pCMBS were determined. Four positions within helix 8, alanine 309, threonine 310, serine 313, and glycine 314, were accessible to pCMBS as judged by the inhibition of transport activity. All four of these residues are clustered along one face of a putative alpha-helix. These results suggest that transmembrane segment 8 of GLUT1 forms part of the sugar permeation pathway. Updated two-dimensional models for the orientation of the 12 transmembrane helices and the conformation of the exofacial glucose binding site of GLUT1 are proposed that are consistent with existing experimental data and homology modeling based on the crystal structures of two bacterial membrane transporters.

  6. Expression and purification of cysteine introduced recombinant saporin.

    PubMed

    Günhan, Emine; Swe, Mimi; Palazoglu, Mine; Voss, John C; Chalupa, Leo M

    2008-04-01

    Saporin, a ribosome inactivating protein is widely used for immunotoxin construction. Here we describe a mutation of saporin (sap)-3 DNA by introducing a cysteine residue, followed by protein expression and purification by ion exchange chromatography. The purified Cys255sap-3, sap-3 isomer and commercially purchased saporin, were tested for toxicity using assays measuring inhibition for protein synthesis. The IC(50) values showed that the toxicity of the Cys255sap-3 is equivalent to the sap-3 isomer and commercial saporin. Reactivity of Cys255sap-3 was confirmed by labeling with a thio-specific fluorescent probe as well as conjugation with a nonspecific mouse IgG. We have found that a single cysteine within saporin provides a method for antibody conjugation that ensures a uniform and reproducible modification of a saporin variant retaining high activity.

  7. Structures of Arg- and Gln-type bacterial cysteine dioxygenase homologs.

    PubMed

    Driggers, Camden M; Hartman, Steven J; Karplus, P Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In some bacteria, cysteine is converted to cysteine sulfinic acid by cysteine dioxygenases (CDO) that are only ∼15-30% identical in sequence to mammalian CDOs. Among bacterial proteins having this range of sequence similarity to mammalian CDO are some that conserve an active site Arg residue ("Arg-type" enzymes) and some having a Gln substituted for this Arg ("Gln-type" enzymes). Here, we describe a structure from each of these enzyme types by analyzing structures originally solved by structural genomics groups but not published: a Bacillus subtilis "Arg-type" enzyme that has cysteine dioxygenase activity (BsCDO), and a Ralstonia eutropha "Gln-type" CDO homolog of uncharacterized activity (ReCDOhom). The BsCDO active site is well conserved with mammalian CDO, and a cysteine complex captured in the active site confirms that the cysteine binding mode is also similar. The ReCDOhom structure reveals a new active site Arg residue that is hydrogen bonding to an iron-bound diatomic molecule we have interpreted as dioxygen. Notably, the Arg position is not compatible with the mode of Cys binding seen in both rat CDO and BsCDO. As sequence alignments show that this newly discovered active site Arg is well conserved among "Gln-type" CDO enzymes, we conclude that the "Gln-type" CDO homologs are not authentic CDOs but will have substrate specificity more similar to 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenases.

  8. Structures of Arg- and Gln-type bacterial cysteine dioxygenase homologs

    PubMed Central

    Driggers, Camden M; Hartman, Steven J; Karplus, P Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In some bacteria, cysteine is converted to cysteine sulfinic acid by cysteine dioxygenases (CDO) that are only ∼15–30% identical in sequence to mammalian CDOs. Among bacterial proteins having this range of sequence similarity to mammalian CDO are some that conserve an active site Arg residue (“Arg-type” enzymes) and some having a Gln substituted for this Arg (“Gln-type” enzymes). Here, we describe a structure from each of these enzyme types by analyzing structures originally solved by structural genomics groups but not published: a Bacillus subtilis “Arg-type” enzyme that has cysteine dioxygenase activity (BsCDO), and a Ralstonia eutropha “Gln-type” CDO homolog of uncharacterized activity (ReCDOhom). The BsCDO active site is well conserved with mammalian CDO, and a cysteine complex captured in the active site confirms that the cysteine binding mode is also similar. The ReCDOhom structure reveals a new active site Arg residue that is hydrogen bonding to an iron-bound diatomic molecule we have interpreted as dioxygen. Notably, the Arg position is not compatible with the mode of Cys binding seen in both rat CDO and BsCDO. As sequence alignments show that this newly discovered active site Arg is well conserved among “Gln-type” CDO enzymes, we conclude that the “Gln-type” CDO homologs are not authentic CDOs but will have substrate specificity more similar to 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenases. PMID:25307852

  9. Accessibility of Myofilament Cysteines and Effects on ATPase Depend on the Activation State during Exposure to Oxidants

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Sean M.; Lehman, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Signaling by reactive oxygen species has emerged as a major physiological process. Due to its high metabolic rate, striated muscle is especially subject to oxidative stress, and there are multiple examples in cardiac and skeletal muscle where oxidative stress modulates contractile function. Here we assessed the potential of cysteine oxidation as a mechanism for modulating contractile function in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Analyzing the cysteine content of the myofilament proteins in striated muscle, we found that cysteine residues are relatively rare, but are very similar between different muscle types and different vertebrate species. To refine this list of cysteines to those that may modulate function, we estimated the accessibility of oxidants to cysteine residues using protein crystal structures, and then sharpened these estimates using fluorescent labeling of cysteines in cardiac and skeletal myofibrils. We demonstrate that cysteine accessibility to oxidants and ATPase rates depend on the contractile state in which preparations are exposed. Oxidant exposure of skeletal and cardiac myofibrils in relaxing solution exposes myosin cysteines not accessible in rigor solution, and these modifications correspond to a decrease in maximum ATPase. Oxidant exposure under rigor conditions produces modifications that increase basal ATPase and calcium sensitivity in ventricular myofibrils, but these effects were muted in fast twitch muscle. These experiments reveal how structural and sequence variations can lead to divergent effects from oxidants in different muscle types. PMID:23894416

  10. Crystal Structures of a Cysteine-modified Mutant in Loop D of Acetylcholine-binding Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Brams, Marijke; Gay, Elaine A.; Sáez, José Colón; Guskov, Albert; van Elk, René; van der Schors, Roel C.; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Strelkov, Sergei V.; Smit, August B.; Yakel, Jerrel L.; Ulens, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Covalent modification of α7 W55C nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) with the cysteine-modifying reagent [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methanethiosulfonate (MTSET+) produces receptors that are unresponsive to acetylcholine, whereas methyl methanethiolsulfonate (MMTS) produces enhanced acetylcholine-gated currents. Here, we investigate structural changes that underlie the opposite effects of MTSET+ and MMTS using acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP), a homolog of the extracellular domain of the nAChR. Crystal structures of Y53C AChBP show that MTSET+-modification stabilizes loop C in an extended conformation that resembles the antagonist-bound state, which parallels our observation that MTSET+ produces unresponsive W55C nAChRs. The MMTS-modified mutant in complex with acetylcholine is characterized by a contracted C-loop, similar to other agonist-bound complexes. Surprisingly, we find two acetylcholine molecules bound in the ligand-binding site, which might explain the potentiating effect of MMTS modification in W55C nAChRs. Unexpectedly, we observed in the MMTS-Y53C structure that ten phosphate ions arranged in two rings at adjacent sites are bound in the vestibule of AChBP. We mutated homologous residues in the vestibule of α1 GlyR and observed a reduction in the single channel conductance, suggesting a role of this site in ion permeation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that targeted modification of a conserved aromatic residue in loop D is sufficient for a conformational switch of AChBP and that a defined region in the vestibule of the extracellular domain contributes to ion conduction in anion-selective Cys-loop receptors. PMID:21115477

  11. Development of Cysteine-Free Fluorescent Proteins for the Oxidative Environment

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takahisa; Arai, Seisuke; Takeuchi, Mayumi; Sakurai, Chiye; Ebana, Hideaki; Higashi, Tsunehito; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Hatsuzawa, Kiyotaka; Wada, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    Molecular imaging employing fluorescent proteins has been widely used to highlight specific reactions or processes in various fields of the life sciences. Despite extensive improvements of the fluorescent tag, this technology is still limited in the study of molecular events in the extracellular milieu. This is partly due to the presence of cysteine in the fluorescent proteins. These proteins almost cotranslationally form disulfide bonded oligomers when expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although single molecule photobleaching analysis showed that these oligomers were not fluorescent, the fluorescent monomer form often showed aberrant behavior in folding and motion, particularly when fused to cysteine-containing cargo. Therefore we investigated whether it was possible to eliminate the cysteine without losing the brightness. By site-saturated mutagenesis, we found that the cysteine residues in fluorescent proteins could be replaced with specific alternatives while still retaining their brightness. cf(cysteine-free)SGFP2 showed significantly reduced restriction of free diffusion in the ER and marked improvement of maturation when fused to the prion protein. We further applied this approach to TagRFP family proteins and found a set of mutations that obtains the same level of brightness as the cysteine-containing proteins. The approach used in this study to generate new cysteine-free fluorescent tags should expand the application of molecular imaging to the extracellular milieu and facilitate its usage in medicine and biotechnology. PMID:22649538

  12. Development of cysteine-free fluorescent proteins for the oxidative environment.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahisa; Arai, Seisuke; Takeuchi, Mayumi; Sakurai, Chiye; Ebana, Hideaki; Higashi, Tsunehito; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Hatsuzawa, Kiyotaka; Wada, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    Molecular imaging employing fluorescent proteins has been widely used to highlight specific reactions or processes in various fields of the life sciences. Despite extensive improvements of the fluorescent tag, this technology is still limited in the study of molecular events in the extracellular milieu. This is partly due to the presence of cysteine in the fluorescent proteins. These proteins almost cotranslationally form disulfide bonded oligomers when expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although single molecule photobleaching analysis showed that these oligomers were not fluorescent, the fluorescent monomer form often showed aberrant behavior in folding and motion, particularly when fused to cysteine-containing cargo. Therefore we investigated whether it was possible to eliminate the cysteine without losing the brightness. By site-saturated mutagenesis, we found that the cysteine residues in fluorescent proteins could be replaced with specific alternatives while still retaining their brightness. cf(cysteine-free)SGFP2 showed significantly reduced restriction of free diffusion in the ER and marked improvement of maturation when fused to the prion protein. We further applied this approach to TagRFP family proteins and found a set of mutations that obtains the same level of brightness as the cysteine-containing proteins. The approach used in this study to generate new cysteine-free fluorescent tags should expand the application of molecular imaging to the extracellular milieu and facilitate its usage in medicine and biotechnology.

  13. Degenerate cysteine patterns mediate two redox sensing mechanisms in the papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Camporeale, Gabriela; Lorenzo, Juan R; Thomas, Maria G; Salvatierra, Edgardo; Borkosky, Silvia S; Risso, Marikena G; Sánchez, Ignacio E; de Prat Gay, Gonzalo; Alonso, Leonardo G

    2017-04-01

    Infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus induces deregulation of cellular redox homeostasis. Virus replication and papillomavirus-induced cell transformation require persistent expression of viral oncoproteins E7 and E6 that must retain their functionality in a persistent oxidative environment. Here, we dissected the molecular mechanisms by which E7 oncoprotein can sense and manage the potentially harmful oxidative environment of the papillomavirus-infected cell. The carboxy terminal domain of E7 protein from most of the 79 papillomavirus viral types of alpha genus, which encloses all the tumorigenic viral types, is a cysteine rich domain that contains two classes of cysteines: strictly conserved low reactive Zn(+2) binding and degenerate reactive cysteine residues that can sense reactive oxygen species (ROS). Based on experimental data obtained from E7 proteins from the prototypical viral types 16, 18 and 11, we identified a couple of low pKa nucleophilic cysteines that can form a disulfide bridge upon the exposure to ROS and regulate the cytoplasm to nucleus transport. From sequence analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction of redox sensing states we propose that reactive cysteine acquisition through evolution leads to three separate E7s protein families that differ in the ROS sensing mechanism: non ROS-sensitive E7s; ROS-sensitive E7s using only a single or multiple reactive cysteine sensing mechanisms and ROS-sensitive E7s using a reactive-resolutive cysteine couple sensing mechanism.

  14. Overcoming the Refractory Expression of Secreted Recombinant Proteins in Mammalian Cells through Modification of the Signal Peptide and Adjacent Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Güler-Gane, Gülin; Kidd, Sara; Sridharan, Sudharsan; Vaughan, Tristan J.; Wilkinson, Trevor C. I.

    2016-01-01

    The expression and subsequent purification of mammalian recombinant proteins is of critical importance to many areas of biological science. To maintain the appropriate tertiary structure and post-translational modifications of such proteins, transient mammalian expression systems are often adopted. The successful utilisation of these systems is, however, not always forthcoming and some recombinant proteins prove refractory to expression in mammalian hosts. In this study we focussed on the role of different N-terminal signal peptides and residues immediately downstream, in influencing the level of secreted recombinant protein obtained from suspension HEK293 cells. Using secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) as a model protein, we identified that the +1/+2 downstream residues flanking a heterologous signal peptide significantly affect secreted levels. By incorporating these findings we conducted a comparison of different signal peptide sequences and identified the most productive as secrecon, a computationally-designed sequence. Importantly, in the context of the secrecon signal peptide and SEAP, we also demonstrated a clear preference for specific amino acid residues at the +1 position (e.g. alanine), and a detrimental effect of others (cysteine, proline, tyrosine and glutamine). When proteins that naturally contain these “undesirable” residues at the +1 position were expressed with their native signal peptide, the heterologous secrecon signal peptide, or secrecon with an additional alanine at the +1 or +1 and +2 position, the level of expression differed significantly and in an unpredictable manner. For each protein, however, at least one of the panel of signal peptide/adjacent amino acid combinations enabled successful recombinant expression. In this study, we highlight the important interplay between a signal peptide and its adjacent amino acids in enabling protein expression, and we describe a strategy that could enable recombinant proteins that have so far

  15. Crystal Structure of the Cysteine Desulfurase DndA from Streptomyces lividans Which Is Involved in DNA Phosphorothioation

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Tianle; Zhang, Yan; You, Delin; He, Xinyi; Wang, Zhijun; Liang, Jingdan; Deng, Zixin; Wu, Geng

    2012-01-01

    DNA phosphorothioation is widespread among prokaryotes, and might function to restrict gene transfer among different kinds of bacteria. There has been little investigation into the structural mechanism of the DNA phosphorothioation process. DndA is a cysteine desulfurase which is involved in the first step of DNA phosphorothioation. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of Streptomyces lividans DndA in complex with its covalently bound cofactor PLP, to a resolution of 2.4 Å. Our structure reveals the molecular mechanism that DndA employs to recognize its cofactor PLP, and suggests the potential binding site for the substrate L-cysteine on DndA. In contrast to previously determined structures of cysteine desulfurases, the catalytic cysteine of DndA was found to reside on a β strand. This catalytic cysteine is very far away from the presumable location of the substrate, suggesting that a conformational change of DndA is required during the catalysis process to bring the catalytic cysteine close to the substrate cysteine. Moreover, our in vitro enzymatic assay results suggested that this conformational change is unlikely to be a simple result of random thermal motion, since moving the catalytic cysteine two residues forward or backward in the primary sequence completely disabled the cysteine desulfurase activity of DndA. PMID:22570733

  16. Paired natural cysteine mutation mapping: aid to constraining models of protein tertiary structure.

    PubMed Central

    Kreisberg, R.; Buchner, V.; Arad, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefit of mapping paired cysteine mutation patterns as a guide to identifying the positions of protein disulfide bonds. This information can facilitate the computer modeling of protein tertiary structure. First, a simple, paired natural-cysteine-mutation map is presented that identifies the positions of putative disulfide bonds in protein families. The method is based on the observation that if, during the process of evolution, a disulfide-bonded cysteine residue is not conserved, then it is likely that its counterpart will also be mutated. For each target protein, protein databases were searched for the primary amino acid sequences of all known members of distinct protein families. Primary sequence alignment was carried out using PileUp algorithms in the GCG package. To search for correlated mutations, we listed only the positions where cysteine residues were highly conserved and emphasized the mutated residues. In proteins of known three-dimensional structure, a striking pattern of paired cysteine mutations correlated with the positions of known disulfide bridges. For proteins of unknown architecture, the mutation maps showed several positions where disulfide bridging might occur. PMID:8563638

  17. Benzoquinone Reveals a Cysteine-Dependent Desensitization Mechanism of TRPA1

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Yessenia

    2013-01-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) nonselective cation channel has a conserved function as a noxious chemical sensor throughout much of Metazoa. Electrophilic chemicals activate both insect and vertebrate TRPA1 via covalent modification of cysteine residues in the amino-terminal region. Although naturally occurring electrophilic plant compounds, such as mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde, are TRPA1 agonists, it is unknown whether arthropod-produced electrophiles activate mammalian TRPA1. We characterized the effects of the electrophilic arthropod defensive compound para-benzoquinone (pBQN) on the human TRPA1 channel. We used whole-cell recordings of human embryonic kidney cells heterologously expressing either wild-type TRPA1 or TRPA1 with three serine-substituted cysteines crucial for electrophile activation (C621S, C641S, C665S). We found that pBQN activates TRPA1 starting at 10 nM and peaking at 300 nM; higher concentrations caused rapid activation followed by a fast decline. Activation by pBQN required reactivity with cysteine residues, but ones that are distinct from those previously reported to be the key targets of electrophiles. The current reduction we found at higher pBQN concentrations was a cysteine-dependent desensitization of TRPA1, and did not require prior activation. The cysteines required for desensitization are not accessible to all electrophiles as iodoacetamide and internally applied 2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl methanesulfonate failed to cause desensitization (despite large activation). Interestingly, following pBQN desensitization, wild-type TRPA1 had dramatically reduced response to the nonelectrophile agonist carvacrol, whereas the triple cysteine mutant TRPA1 retained its full response. Our results suggest that modification of multiple cysteine residues by electrophilic compounds can generate both activation and desensitization of the TRPA1 channel. PMID:23478802

  18. Benzoquinone reveals a cysteine-dependent desensitization mechanism of TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Yessenia; Blair, Nathaniel T

    2013-05-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) nonselective cation channel has a conserved function as a noxious chemical sensor throughout much of Metazoa. Electrophilic chemicals activate both insect and vertebrate TRPA1 via covalent modification of cysteine residues in the amino-terminal region. Although naturally occurring electrophilic plant compounds, such as mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde, are TRPA1 agonists, it is unknown whether arthropod-produced electrophiles activate mammalian TRPA1. We characterized the effects of the electrophilic arthropod defensive compound para-benzoquinone (pBQN) on the human TRPA1 channel. We used whole-cell recordings of human embryonic kidney cells heterologously expressing either wild-type TRPA1 or TRPA1 with three serine-substituted cysteines crucial for electrophile activation (C621S, C641S, C665S). We found that pBQN activates TRPA1 starting at 10 nM and peaking at 300 nM; higher concentrations caused rapid activation followed by a fast decline. Activation by pBQN required reactivity with cysteine residues, but ones that are distinct from those previously reported to be the key targets of electrophiles. The current reduction we found at higher pBQN concentrations was a cysteine-dependent desensitization of TRPA1, and did not require prior activation. The cysteines required for desensitization are not accessible to all electrophiles as iodoacetamide and internally applied 2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl methanesulfonate failed to cause desensitization (despite large activation). Interestingly, following pBQN desensitization, wild-type TRPA1 had dramatically reduced response to the nonelectrophile agonist carvacrol, whereas the triple cysteine mutant TRPA1 retained its full response. Our results suggest that modification of multiple cysteine residues by electrophilic compounds can generate both activation and desensitization of the TRPA1 channel.

  19. Chemical modification of an alpha 3-fucosyltransferase; definition of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Britten, C J; Bird, M I

    1997-02-11

    The biosynthesis of the carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis X (sLe(x)) is dependent on the activity of an alpha 3-fucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.152, GDP-fucose:Gal beta (1-4)GlcNAc-R alpha (1-3)fucosyltransferase). This enzyme catalyses the transfer of fucose from GDP-beta-fucose to the 3-OH of N-acetylglucosamine present in lactosamine acceptors. In this report, we have investigated the amino acids essential for the activity of a recombinant alpha 3-fucosyltransferase (FucT-VI) through chemical modification of the enzyme with group-selective reagents. FucT-VI activity was found to be particularly sensitive to the histidine-selective reagent diethylpyrocarbonate and the cysteine reagent N-ethylmaleimide, with IC50 values of less than 200 microM. Reagents selective for arginine and lysine had no effect on enzyme activity. The inclusion of GDP-beta-fucose during preincubation with NEM reduces the rate of inactivation whereas inclusion of an acceptor saccharide for the enzyme, Gal beta (1-4)GlcNAc, had no effect. No protective effect with either GDP-beta-fucose or Gal beta (1-4)GlcNAc was observed on treatment of the enzyme with diethylpyrocarbonate. These data suggest that in addition to an NEM-reactive cysteine in, or adjacent to, the substrate-binding site of the enzyme, FucT-VI possesses histidine residue(s) that are essential for enzyme activity.

  20. Cysteine Cathepsins in Human Carious Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, F.D.; Minciotti, C.L.; Geraldeli, S.; Carrilho, M.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Tay, F.R.; Nader, H.B.; Salo, T.; Tjäderhane, L.; Tersariol, I.L.S.

    2011-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important in dentinal caries, and analysis of recent data demonstrates the presence of other collagen-degrading enzymes, cysteine cathepsins, in human dentin. This study aimed to examine the presence, source, and activity of cysteine cathepsins in human caries. Cathepsin B was detected with immunostaining. Saliva and dentin cysteine cathepsin and MMP activities on caries lesions were analyzed spectrofluorometrically. Immunostaining demonstrated stronger cathepsins B in carious than in healthy dentin. In carious dentin, cysteine cathepsin activity increased with increasing depth and age in chronic lesions, but decreased with age in active lesions. MMP activity decreased with age in both active and chronic lesions. Salivary MMP activities were higher in patients with active than chronic lesions and with increasing lesion depth, while cysteine cathepsin activities showed no differences. The results indicate that, along with MMPs, cysteine cathepsins are important, especially in active and deep caries. PMID:21248362

  1. The Basics of Thiols and Cysteines in Redox Biology and Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Leslie B.

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine is one of the least abundant amino acids, yet it is frequently found as a highly conserved residue within functional (regulatory, catalytic or binding) sites in proteins. It is the unique chemistry of the thiol or thiolate group of cysteine that imparts functional sites with their specialized properties (e.g., nucleophilicity, high affinity metal binding, and/or ability to form disulfide bonds). Highlighted in this review are some of the basic biophysical and biochemical properties of cysteine groups and the equations that apply to them, particularly with respect to pKa and redox potential. Also summarized are the types of low molecular weight thiols present in high concentrations in most cells, as well as the ways in which modifications of cysteinyl residues can impart or regulate molecular functions important to cellular processes including signal transduction. PMID:25433365

  2. The basics of thiols and cysteines in redox biology and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Poole, Leslie B

    2015-03-01

    Cysteine is one of the least abundant amino acids, yet it is frequently found as a highly conserved residue within functional (regulatory, catalytic, or binding) sites in proteins. It is the unique chemistry of the thiol or thiolate group of cysteine that imparts to functional sites their specialized properties (e.g., nucleophilicity, high-affinity metal binding, and/or ability to form disulfide bonds). Highlighted in this review are some of the basic biophysical and biochemical properties of cysteine groups and the equations that apply to them, particularly with respect to pKa and redox potential. Also summarized are the types of low-molecular-weight thiols present in high concentrations in most cells, as well as the ways in which modifications of cysteinyl residues can impart or regulate molecular functions important to cellular processes, including signal transduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring the mechanism of inhibition of human telomerase by cysteine-reactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Kellermann, Guillaume; Dingli, Florent; Masson, Vanessa; Dauzonne, Daniel; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Loew, Damarys; Bombard, Sophie

    2017-03-01

    Telomerase is an almost universal cancer target that consists minimally of a core protein human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and a RNA component human telomerase RNA (hTR). Some inhibitors of this enzyme are thought to function by the covalent binding to one or several cysteine residues; however, this inhibition mechanism has never been investigated because of the difficulty in producing telomerase. In this study, we use a recent method to produce recombinant hTERT to analyze the effect of cysteine-reactive inhibitors on telomerase. Using mass spectrometry and mutagenesis analysis, we identify several targeted residues in separated domains of the hTERT protein and show that cysteine-reactive reagents abolish the interaction with the CR4/5 region of hTR. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. Synthesis of macrocyclic trypanosomal cysteine protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen Ting; Lira, Ricardo; Hansell, Elizabeth; McKerrow, James H; Roush, William R

    2008-11-15

    The importance of cysteine proteases in parasites, compounded with the lack of redundancy compared to their mammalian hosts makes proteases attractive targets for the development of new therapeutic agents. The binding mode of K11002 to cruzain, the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma cruzi was used in the design of conformationally constrained inhibitors. Vinyl sulfone-containing macrocycles were synthesized via olefin ring-closing metathesis and evaluated against cruzain and the closely related cysteine protease, rhodesain.

  5. Mechanical and chemical properties of cysteine-modified kinesin molecules.

    PubMed

    Iwatani, S; Iwane, A H; Higuchi, H; Ishii, Y; Yanagida, T

    1999-08-10

    To probe the structural changes within kinesin molecules, we made the mutants of motor domains of two-headed kinesin (4-411 aa) in which either all the five cysteines or all except Cys45 were mutated. A residual cysteine (Cys45) of the kinesin mutant was labeled with an environment-sensitive fluorescent probe, acrylodan. ATPase activity, mechanical properties, and fluorescence intensity of the mutants were measured. Upon acrylodan-labeled kinesin binding to microtubules in the presence of 1 mM AMPPNP, the peak intensity was enhanced by 3.4-fold, indicating the structural change of the kinesin head by the binding. Substitution of cysteines decreased both the maximum microtubule-activated ATPase and the sliding velocity to the same extent. However, the maximum force and the step size were not affected; the force produced by a single molecule was 6-6.5 pN, and a step size due to the hydrolysis of one ATP molecule by kinesin molecules was about 10 nm for all kinesins. This step size was close to a unitary step size of 8 nm. Thus, the mechanical events of kinesin are tightly coupled with the chemical events.

  6. Aminothienopyridazines and methylene blue affect Tau fibrillization via cysteine oxidation.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Alex; James, Michael J; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Smith, Amos B; Trojanowski, John Q; Ballatore, Carlo; Brunden, Kurt R

    2013-04-19

    Alzheimer disease and several other neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the accumulation of intraneuronal fibrils comprised of the protein Tau. Tau is normally a soluble protein that stabilizes microtubules, with splice isoforms that contain either three (3-R) or four (4-R) microtubule binding repeats. The formation of Tau fibrils is thought to result in neuronal damage, and inhibitors of Tau fibrillization may hold promise as therapeutic agents. The process of Tau fibrillization can be replicated in vitro, and a number of small molecules have been identified that inhibit Tau fibril formation. However, little is known about how these molecules affect Tau fibrillization. Here, we examined the mechanism by which the previously described aminothieno pyridazine (ATPZ) series of compounds inhibit Tau fibrillization. Active ATPZs were found to promote the oxidation of the two cysteine residues within 4-R Tau by a redox cycling mechanism, resulting in the formation of a disulfide-containing compact monomer that was refractory to fibrillization. Moreover, the ATPZs facilitated intermolecular disulfide formation between 3-R Tau monomers, leading to dimers that were capable of fibrillization. The ATPZs also caused cysteine oxidation in molecules unrelated to Tau. Interestingly, methylene blue, an inhibitor of Tau fibrillization under evaluation in Alzheimer disease clinical trials, caused a similar oxidation of cysteines in Tau and other molecules. These findings reveal that the ATPZs and methylene blue act by a mechanism that may affect their viability as potential therapeutic agents.

  7. Aminothienopyridazines and Methylene Blue Affect Tau Fibrillization via Cysteine Oxidation*

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Alex; James, Michael J.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Smith, Amos B.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Ballatore, Carlo; Brunden, Kurt R.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease and several other neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the accumulation of intraneuronal fibrils comprised of the protein Tau. Tau is normally a soluble protein that stabilizes microtubules, with splice isoforms that contain either three (3-R) or four (4-R) microtubule binding repeats. The formation of Tau fibrils is thought to result in neuronal damage, and inhibitors of Tau fibrillization may hold promise as therapeutic agents. The process of Tau fibrillization can be replicated in vitro, and a number of small molecules have been identified that inhibit Tau fibril formation. However, little is known about how these molecules affect Tau fibrillization. Here, we examined the mechanism by which the previously described aminothieno pyridazine (ATPZ) series of compounds inhibit Tau fibrillization. Active ATPZs were found to promote the oxidation of the two cysteine residues within 4-R Tau by a redox cycling mechanism, resulting in the formation of a disulfide-containing compact monomer that was refractory to fibrillization. Moreover, the ATPZs facilitated intermolecular disulfide formation between 3-R Tau monomers, leading to dimers that were capable of fibrillization. The ATPZs also caused cysteine oxidation in molecules unrelated to Tau. Interestingly, methylene blue, an inhibitor of Tau fibrillization under evaluation in Alzheimer disease clinical trials, caused a similar oxidation of cysteines in Tau and other molecules. These findings reveal that the ATPZs and methylene blue act by a mechanism that may affect their viability as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:23443659

  8. Mapping protein cysteine sulfonic acid modifications with specific enrichment and mass spectrometry: an integrated approach to explore the cysteine oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Chang; Huang, Chien-Ning; Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wu, Chih-Che

    2010-08-01

    Oxidation of thiol proteins, which results in conversion of cysteine residues to cysteine sulfenic, sulfinic or sulfonic acids, is an important posttranslational control of protein function in cells. To facilitate the analysis of this process with MALDI-MS, we have developed a method for selective enrichment and identification of peptides containing cysteine sulfonic acid (sulfopeptides) in tryptic digests of proteins based on ionic affinity capture using polyarginine-coated nanodiamonds as high-affinity probes. The method was applied to selectively concentrate sulfopeptides from either a highly dilute solution or a complex peptide mixture in which the abundance of the sulfonated analyte is as low as 0.02%. The polyarginine-coated probes exhibit a higher affinity for peptides containing multiple sulfonic acids than peptides containing single sulfonic acid. The limit of the detection is in the femtomole range, with the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer operating in the negative ion mode. The results show that the new approach has good specificity even in the presence of phosphopeptides. An application of this method for selective enrichment and structural identification of sulfopeptides is demonstrated with the tryptic digests of performic-acid-oxidized BSA.

  9. Cysteine sensing by plasmons of silver nanocubes

    SciTech Connect

    Elfassy, Eitan Mastai, Yitzhak Salomon, Adi

    2016-09-15

    Noble metal nanoparticles are considered to be valuable nanostructures in the field of sensors due to their spectral response sensitivity to small changes in the surrounding refractive index which enables them to detect a small amount of molecules. In this research, we use silver nanocubes of about 50 nm length to detect low concentrations of cysteine, a semi-essential amino acid. Following cysteine adsorption onto the nanocubes, a redshift in the plasmonic modes was observed, enabling the detection of cysteine down to 10 µM and high sensitivity of about 125 nm/RIU (refractive index units). Furthermore, we found that multilayer adsorption of cysteine leads to the stabilization of the silver nanocubes. The cysteine growth onto the nanocubes was also characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). - Highlights: • Silver nanocubes (50 nm length) are used to detect low concentrations of cysteine. • A redshift in the plasmonic modes was observed following cysteine adsorption onto the nanocubes. • The cysteine growth onto the nanocubes is also characterized by TEM.

  10. Cysteine sensing by plasmons of silver nanocubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfassy, Eitan; Mastai, Yitzhak; Salomon, Adi

    2016-09-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles are considered to be valuable nanostructures in the field of sensors due to their spectral response sensitivity to small changes in the surrounding refractive index which enables them to detect a small amount of molecules. In this research, we use silver nanocubes of about 50 nm length to detect low concentrations of cysteine, a semi-essential amino acid. Following cysteine adsorption onto the nanocubes, a redshift in the plasmonic modes was observed, enabling the detection of cysteine down to 10 μM and high sensitivity of about 125 nm/RIU (refractive index units). Furthermore, we found that multilayer adsorption of cysteine leads to the stabilization of the silver nanocubes. The cysteine growth onto the nanocubes was also characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM).

  11. A novel role for methyl cysteinate, a cysteine derivative, in cesium accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Eri; Miyazaki, Takae; Hayaishi-Satoh, Aya; Han, Minwoo; Kusano, Miyako; Khandelia, Himanshu; Saito, Kazuki; Shin, Ryoung

    2017-02-01

    Phytoaccumulation is a technique to extract metals from soil utilising ability of plants. Cesium is a valuable metal while radioactive isotopes of cesium can be hazardous. In order to establish a more efficient phytoaccumulation system, small molecules which promote plants to accumulate cesium were investigated. Through chemical library screening, 14 chemicals were isolated as ‘cesium accumulators’ in Arabidopsis thaliana. Of those, methyl cysteinate, a derivative of cysteine, was found to function within the plant to accumulate externally supplemented cesium. Moreover, metabolite profiling demonstrated that cesium treatment increased cysteine levels in Arabidopsis. The cesium accumulation effect was not observed for other cysteine derivatives or amino acids on the cysteine metabolic pathway tested. Our results suggest that methyl cysteinate, potentially metabolised from cysteine, binds with cesium on the surface of the roots or inside plant cells and improve phytoaccumulation.

  12. A novel role for methyl cysteinate, a cysteine derivative, in cesium accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Eri; Miyazaki, Takae; Hayaishi-Satoh, Aya; Han, Minwoo; Kusano, Miyako; Khandelia, Himanshu; Saito, Kazuki; Shin, Ryoung

    2017-01-01

    Phytoaccumulation is a technique to extract metals from soil utilising ability of plants. Cesium is a valuable metal while radioactive isotopes of cesium can be hazardous. In order to establish a more efficient phytoaccumulation system, small molecules which promote plants to accumulate cesium were investigated. Through chemical library screening, 14 chemicals were isolated as ‘cesium accumulators’ in Arabidopsis thaliana. Of those, methyl cysteinate, a derivative of cysteine, was found to function within the plant to accumulate externally supplemented cesium. Moreover, metabolite profiling demonstrated that cesium treatment increased cysteine levels in Arabidopsis. The cesium accumulation effect was not observed for other cysteine derivatives or amino acids on the cysteine metabolic pathway tested. Our results suggest that methyl cysteinate, potentially metabolised from cysteine, binds with cesium on the surface of the roots or inside plant cells and improve phytoaccumulation. PMID:28230101

  13. Cysteine degradation gene yhaM, encoding cysteine desulfidase, serves as a genetic engineering target to improve cysteine production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Gen; Takumi, Kazuhiro

    2017-12-01

    Cysteine is an important amino acid for various industries; however, there is no efficient microbial fermentation-based production method available. Owing to its cytotoxicity, bacterial intracellular levels of cysteine are stringently controlled via several modes of regulation, including cysteine degradation by cysteine desulfhydrases and cysteine desulfidases. In Escherichia coli, several metabolic enzymes are known to exhibit cysteine degradative activities, however, their specificity and physiological significance for cysteine detoxification via degradation are unclear. Relaxing the strict regulation of cysteine is crucial for its overproduction; therefore, identifying and modulating the major degradative activity could facilitate the genetic engineering of a cysteine-producing strain. In the present study, we used genetic screening to identify genes that confer cysteine resistance in E. coli and we identified yhaM, which encodes cysteine desulfidase and decomposes cysteine into hydrogen sulfide, pyruvate, and ammonium. Phenotypic characterization of a yhaM mutant via growth under toxic concentrations of cysteine followed by transcriptional analysis of its response to cysteine showed that yhaM is cysteine-inducible, and its physiological role is associated with resisting the deleterious effects of cysteine in E. coli. In addition, we confirmed the effects of this gene on the fermentative production of cysteine using E. coli-based cysteine-producing strains. We propose that yhaM encodes the major cysteine-degrading enzyme and it has the most significant role in cysteine detoxification among the numerous enzymes reported in E. coli, thereby providing a core target for genetic engineering to improve cysteine production in this bacterium.

  14. A Novel cdsAB Operon Is Involved in the Uptake of l-Cysteine and Participates in the Pathogenesis of Yersinia ruckeri▿

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Jessica; Reimundo, Pilar; Pérez-Pascual, David; Navais, Roberto; Gómez, Esther; Guijarro, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Application of in vivo expression technology (IVET) to Yersinia ruckeri, an important fish pathogen, allowed the identification of two adjacent genes that represent a novel bacterial system involved in the uptake and degradation of l-cysteine. Analysis of the translational products of both genes showed permease domains (open reading frame 1 [ORF1]) and amino acid position identities (ORF2) with the l-cysteine desulfidase from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, a new type of enzyme involved in the breakdown of l-cysteine. The operon was named cdsAB (cysteine desulfidase) and is found widely in anaerobic and facultative bacteria. cdsAB promoter analysis using lacZY gene fusion showed highest induction in the presence of l-cysteine. Two cdsA and cdsB mutant strains were generated. The limited toxic effect and the low utilization of l-cysteine observed in the cdsA mutant, together with radiolabeled experiments, strongly suggested that CdsA is an l-cysteine permease. Fifty percent lethal dose (LD50) and competence index experiments showed that both the cdsA and cdsB loci were involved in the pathogenesis of the bacteria. In conclusion, this study has shown for the first time in bacteria the existence of an l-cysteine uptake system that together with an additional l-cysteine desulfidase-encoding gene constitutes a novel operon involved in bacterial virulence. PMID:21169490

  15. Supported oligomethionine sulfoxide and Ellman's reagent for cysteine bridges formation.

    PubMed

    Ronga, Luisa; Verdié, Pascal; Sanchez, Pierre; Enjabal, Christine; Maurras, Amélie; Jullian, Magalie; Puget, Karine; Martinez, Jean; Subra, Gilles

    2013-02-01

    A large number of bioactive peptides are cyclized through a disulfide bridge. This structural feature is very important for both bioactivity and stability. The oxidation of cysteine side chains is challenging not only to avoid intermolecular reaction leading to oligomers and oxidation of other residues but also to remove solvents and oxidant such as dimethyl sulfoxide. Supported reagents advantageously simplify the work-up of such disulfide bond formation, but may lead to a significant decrease in yield of the oxidized product. In this study, two resins working through different mechanisms were evaluated: Clear-Ox, a supported version of Ellman's reagent and Oxyfold, consisting in a series of oxidized methionine residues. The choice of the supported reagent is discussed on the light of reaction speed, side-products formation and yield considerations.

  16. S-sulfhydration: a cysteine posttranslational modification in plant systems.

    PubMed

    Aroca, Ángeles; Serna, Antonio; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a highly reactive molecule that is currently accepted as a signaling compound. This molecule is as important as carbon monoxide in mammals and hydrogen peroxide in plants, as well as nitric oxide in both eukaryotic systems. Although many studies have been conducted on the physiological effects of hydrogen sulfide, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. One of the proposed mechanisms involves the posttranslational modification of protein cysteine residues, a process called S-sulfhydration. In this work, a modified biotin switch method was used for the detection of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) proteins modified by S-sulfhydration under physiological conditions. The presence of an S-sulfhydration-modified cysteine residue on cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase was demonstrated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and a total of 106 S-sulfhydrated proteins were identified. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses of some of these proteins showed that the sulfide added through S-sulfhydration reversibly regulates the functions of plant proteins in a manner similar to that described in mammalian systems.

  17. Salt Effect Accelerates Site-Selective Cysteine Bioconjugation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Highly efficient and selective chemical reactions are desired. For small molecule chemistry, the reaction rate can be varied by changing the concentration, temperature, and solvent used. In contrast for large biomolecules, the reaction rate is difficult to modify by adjusting these variables because stringent biocompatible reaction conditions are required. Here we show that adding salts can change the rate constant over 4 orders of magnitude for an arylation bioconjugation reaction between a cysteine residue within a four-residue sequence (π-clamp) and a perfluoroaryl electrophile. Biocompatible ammonium sulfate significantly enhances the reaction rate without influencing the site-specificity of π-clamp mediated arylation, enabling the fast synthesis of two site-specific antibody–drug conjugates that selectively kill HER2-positive breast cancer cells. Computational and structure–reactivity studies indicate that salts may tune the reaction rate through modulating the interactions between the π-clamp hydrophobic side chains and the electrophile. On the basis of this understanding, the salt effect is extended to other bioconjugation chemistry, and a new regioselective alkylation reaction at π-clamp cysteine is developed. PMID:27725962

  18. Entamoeba invadens: characterization of cysteine proteinases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Hirata, K; Herdman, S; Reed, S

    1996-10-01

    Cysteine proteinases have a number of important functions in the life cycle of protozoan parasites. Based on our previous studies demonstrating the role of cysteine proteinases in invasion by Entamoeba histolytica, we evaluated the cysteine proteinases of E. invadens, a related protozoan which causes invasive disease of reptiles. E. invadens readily encysts in axenic culture and provides a model to investigate the role of cysteine proteinases in encystation. Broad bands of approximately 130-230, 55, and 35 kDa were detected on gelatin substrate gels and were inhibited with specific cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Maximal enzymatic activity was detected with peptide substrates containing arginine in the P2 position. A 567-bp fragment containing the active site of an E. invadens cysteine proteinase gene was amplified by PCR and had 37.7, 79.1, and 67.9% identity to the derived amino acid sequences of the acp 1, 2, and 3 genes, respectively, of E. histolytica. The PCR product hybridized with a single band of 1.1 kb on a Southern blot of EcoRI-restricted E. invadens genomic DNA. Long-term inhibition of cysteine proteinase activity during encystation resulted in significantly fewer cysts (P < 0.02); however, this effect appeared to be secondary to decreased trophozoite cell division. No difference in chitin synthase activity was detected between controls and encysting cells with inhibited cysteine proteinases, suggesting that these proteinases are not critical for activation of a zymogen form of chitin synthase. These studies demonstrate that cysteine proteinases may be critical for the survival of E. invadens, and specific inhibition may ultimately interrupt transmission.

  19. Cysteine Proteases from Bloodfeeding Arthropod Ectoparasites

    PubMed Central

    Sojka, Daniel; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Calvo, Eric; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Cysteine proteases have been discovered in various bloodfeeding ectoparasites. Here, we assemble the available information about the function of these peptidases and reveal their role in hematophagy and parasite development. While most of the data shed light on key proteolytic events that play a role in arthropod physiology, we also report on the association of cysteine proteases with arthropod vectorial capacity. With emphasis on ticks, specifically Ixodes ricinus, we finally propose a model about the contribution of cysteine peptidases to blood digestion, and how their concerted action with other tick midgut proteases leads to the absorbance of nutrients by the midgut epithelial cells. PMID:21660665

  20. Blends of cysteine-containing proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Justin

    2005-03-01

    Many agricultural wastes are made of proteins such as keratin, lactalbumin, gluten, and albumin. These proteins contain the amino acid cysteine. Cysteine allows for the formation of inter-and intra-molecular sulfur-sulfur bonds. Correlations are made between the properties of films made from the proteins and the amino acid sequence. Blends of cysteine-containing proteins show possible synergies in physical properties at intermediate concentrations. FT-IR spectroscopy shows increased hydrogen bonding at intermediate concentrations suggesting that this contributes to increased physical properties. DSC shows limited miscibility and the formation of new crystalline phases in the blends suggesting that this too contributes.

  1. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept pollutants before they reach the stream. High percentages of agriculture along streams increase the likelihood of elevated nutrient, pesticide and sediment levels in the stream. Agricultural land cover along streams (RIPAG) is the percent of total stream length adjacent to agriculture. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  2. An archaeal ADP-dependent serine kinase involved in cysteine biosynthesis and serine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Yuki; Sato, Takaaki; Kawamura, Hiroki; Hachisuka, Shin-ichi; Takeno, Ryo; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2016-01-01

    Routes for cysteine biosynthesis are still unknown in many archaea. Here we find that the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis generates cysteine from serine via O-phosphoserine, in addition to the classical route from 3-phosphoglycerate. The protein responsible for serine phosphorylation is encoded by TK0378, annotated as a chromosome partitioning protein ParB. The TK0378 protein utilizes ADP as the phosphate donor, but in contrast to previously reported ADP-dependent kinases, recognizes a non-sugar substrate. Activity is specific towards free serine, and not observed with threonine, homoserine and serine residues within a peptide. Genetic analyses suggest that TK0378 is involved in serine assimilation and clearly responsible for cysteine biosynthesis from serine. TK0378 homologs, present in Thermococcales and Desulfurococcales, are most likely not ParB proteins and constitute a group of kinases involved in serine utilization. PMID:27857065

  3. Structures of Arg- and Gln-type bacterial cysteine dioxygenase homologs: Arg- and Gln-type Bacterial CDO Homologs

    DOE PAGES

    Driggers, Camden M.; Hartman, Steven J.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In some bacteria, cysteine is converted to cysteine sulfinic acid by cysteine dioxygenases (CDO) that are only ~15–30% identical in sequence to mammalian CDOs. Among bacterial proteins having this range of sequence similarity to mammalian CDO are some that conserve an active site Arg residue (“Arg-type” enzymes) and some having a Gln substituted for this Arg (“Gln-type” enzymes). Here, we describe a structure from each of these enzyme types by analyzing structures originally solved by structural genomics groups but not published: a Bacillus subtilis “Arg-type” enzyme that has cysteine dioxygenase activity (BsCDO), and a Ralstonia eutropha “Gln-type” CDO homolog ofmore » uncharacterized activity (ReCDOhom). The BsCDO active site is well conserved with mammalian CDO, and a cysteine complex captured in the active site confirms that the cysteine binding mode is also similar. The ReCDOhom structure reveals a new active site Arg residue that is hydrogen bonding to an iron-bound diatomic molecule we have interpreted as dioxygen. Notably, the Arg position is not compatible with the mode of Cys binding seen in both rat CDO and BsCDO. As sequence alignments show that this newly discovered active site Arg is well conserved among “Gln-type” CDO enzymes, we conclude that the “Gln-type” CDO homologs are not authentic CDOs but will have substrate specificity more similar to 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenases.« less

  4. Structures of Arg- and Gln-type bacterial cysteine dioxygenase homologs: Arg- and Gln-type Bacterial CDO Homologs

    SciTech Connect

    Driggers, Camden M.; Hartman, Steven J.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In some bacteria, cysteine is converted to cysteine sulfinic acid by cysteine dioxygenases (CDO) that are only ~15–30% identical in sequence to mammalian CDOs. Among bacterial proteins having this range of sequence similarity to mammalian CDO are some that conserve an active site Arg residue (“Arg-type” enzymes) and some having a Gln substituted for this Arg (“Gln-type” enzymes). Here, we describe a structure from each of these enzyme types by analyzing structures originally solved by structural genomics groups but not published: a Bacillus subtilis “Arg-type” enzyme that has cysteine dioxygenase activity (BsCDO), and a Ralstonia eutropha “Gln-type” CDO homolog of uncharacterized activity (ReCDOhom). The BsCDO active site is well conserved with mammalian CDO, and a cysteine complex captured in the active site confirms that the cysteine binding mode is also similar. The ReCDOhom structure reveals a new active site Arg residue that is hydrogen bonding to an iron-bound diatomic molecule we have interpreted as dioxygen. Notably, the Arg position is not compatible with the mode of Cys binding seen in both rat CDO and BsCDO. As sequence alignments show that this newly discovered active site Arg is well conserved among “Gln-type” CDO enzymes, we conclude that the “Gln-type” CDO homologs are not authentic CDOs but will have substrate specificity more similar to 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenases.

  5. A viable synthesis of N-methyl cysteine.

    PubMed

    Ruggles, Erik L; Flemer, Stevenson; Hondal, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    While a number of methods exist for the production of N-methyl amino acid derivatives, the methods for the production of N-methyl cysteine (MeCys) derivatives are suboptimal as they either have low yields or lead to significant sulfhydryl deprotection during the synthetic protocol. This article focuses on the generation of MeCys and its subsequent use in Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis for the generation of N-methyl cystine containing peptides. Various methods for amino methylation of cysteine, in the presence of acid labile or acid stable sulfhydryl protecting groups, are compared and contrasted. Production of MeCys is best attained through formation of an oxazolidinone precursor obtained via cyclization of Fmoc--Cys(StBu)--OH. Following oxazolidinone ring opening, iminium ion reduction generates Fmoc--MeCys(StBu)--OH with an overall yield of 91%. The key to this procedure is using an electronically neutral Cys-derivative, as other polar Cys-derivatives gave poor results using the oxazolidinone procedure. Subsequently, the Fmoc--MeCys(StBu)--OH building block was used to replace a Cys residue with a MeCys residue in two peptide fragments that correspond to the active sites of glutaredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. The examples used here highlight the use of a MeCys(StBu) derivative, which allows for facile on-resin conversion to a MeCys(5-Npys) residue that can be subsequently used for intramolecular disulfide bond formation with concomitant cleavage of the peptide from the solid support. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 90: 61-68, 2008. This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at biopolymers@wiley.com.

  6. Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Arthur J. L.; Krasnikov, Boris F.; Pinto, John T.; Bruschi, Sam A.

    2010-01-01

    Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases are pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-containing enzymes that catalyze the conversion of cysteine S-conjugates [RSCH2CH(NH3+)CO2−] and selenium Se-conjugates [RSeCH2CH(NH3+)CO2−] that contain a leaving group in the β position to pyruvate, ammonium and a sulfur-containing fragment (RSH) or selenium-containing fragment (RSeH), respectively. At least ten PLP enzymes catalyze β-elimination reactions with such cysteine S-conjugates. All are enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism that do not normally catalyze a β-lyase reaction, but catalyze a non-physiological β-lyase side reaction that depends on the electron-withdrawing properties of the –SR or –SeR moiety. In the case of the cysteine S-conjugates, if the eliminated RSH is stable the compound may be S-thiomethylated and excreted (thiomethyl shunt) or S-glucuronidated and harmlessly excreted [the possibility that RSeH compounds may be similarly metabolized has not been extensively studied]. If, however, RSH is chemically reactive the cysteine S-conjugate may be toxic as a result of the β-lyase reaction. The cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase pathway is of particular interest to toxicologists because it is involved in the bioactivation (toxification) of halogenated alkenes and certain drugs. PMID:20949433

  7. The effect of cysteine oxidation on isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Viña, J; Saez, G T; Wiggins, D; Roberts, A F; Hems, R; Krebs, H A

    1983-01-01

    Isolated hepatocytes incubated with 4mM-cysteine lose reduced glutathione, adenine nucleotides and intracellular enzymes, thus showing extensive membrane damage. The toxic effects of cysteine are enhanced by NH4Cl. Lactate, ethanol and unsaturated fatty acids afford significant protection against cysteine-induced cytoxicity. Addition of catalase to the incubation medium also protected against cysteine toxicity, indicating that H2O2 formed during the oxidation of cysteine is involved in the toxic effects observed. Under anaerobic conditions cysteine did not cause leakage of lactate dehydrogenase from cells, confirming that rapid autoxidation is an essential condition for development of the toxic effects of cysteine. PMID:6870855

  8. The disulfide bond pattern of catrocollastatin C, a disintegrin-like/cysteine-rich protein isolated from Crotalus atrox venom.

    PubMed Central

    Calvete, J. J.; Moreno-Murciano, M. P.; Sanz, L.; Jürgens, M.; Schrader, M.; Raida, M.; Benjamin, D. C.; Fox, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    The disulfide bond pattern of catrocollastatin-C was determined by N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. The N-terminal disintegrin-like domain is a compact structure including eight disulfide bonds, seven of them in the same pattern as the disintegrin bitistatin. The protein has two extra cysteine residues (XIII and XVI) that form an additional disulfide bond that is characteristically found in the disintegrin-like domains of cellular metalloproteinases (ADAMs) and PIII snake venom Zn-metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The C-terminal cysteine-rich domain of catrocollastatin-C contains five disulfide bonds between nearest-neighbor cysteines and a long range disulfide bridge between CysV and CysX. These results provide structural evidence for a redefinition of the disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domain boundaries. An evolutionary pathway for ADAMs, PIII, and PII SVMPs based on disulfide bond engineering is also proposed. PMID:10933502

  9. A new autocatalytic activation mechanism for cysteine proteases revealed by Prevotella intermedia interpain A

    PubMed Central

    Mallorquí-Fernández, Noemí; Manandhar, Surya P.; Mallorquí-Fernández, Goretti; Usón, Isabel; Wawrzonek, Katarzyna; Kantyka, Tomasz; Solà, Maria; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Potempa, Jan; Gomis-Rüth, F.Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Prevotella intermedia is a major periodontopathogen contributing to human gingivitis and periodontitis. Such pathogens release proteases as virulence factors that cause deterrence of host defences and tissue destruction. A new cysteine protease from the cysteine-histidine-dyad class, interpain A, was studied in its zymogenic and its self-processed mature form. The latter consists of a bivalved moiety made up by two subdomains. In the structure of a catalytic cysteine-to-alanine zymogen variant, the right subdomain interacts with an unusual prodomain, thus contributing to latency. Unlike the catalytic cysteine residue, already in its competent conformation in the zymogen, the catalytic histidine is swung out from its active conformation and trapped in a cage shaped by a backing helix, a zymogenic hairpin and a latency flap in the zymogen. Dramatic rearrangement of up to 20Å of these elements triggered by a tryptophan switch occurs during activation and accounts for a new activation mechanism for proteolytic enzymes. These findings can be extrapolated to related potentially pathogenic cysteine proteases such as Streprococcus pyogenes SpeB and Porphyromonas gingivalis periodontain. PMID:17993455

  10. Mechanistic study for immobilization of cysteine-labeled oligopeptides on UV-activated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ong, Lian Hao; Ding, Xiaokang; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we report immobilization of cysteine-labeled oligopeptides on UV activated surfaces decorated with N,N-dimethyl-n-octadecyl-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilyl chloride (DMOAP). Our result shows that cysteine group, regardless of its position in the oligopeptide, is essential for successful immobilization of oligopeptide on the UV-activated surface. A possible reaction mechanism is nucleophilic addition of thiolates to surface aldehyde groups generated during UV activation. By using this technique, we are able to incorporate anchoring points into oligopeptides through cysteine residues. Furthermore, immobilized oligopeptides on the UV-activated surface is very stable even under harsh washing conditions. Finally, we show that an HPQ-containing oligopeptide can be immobilized on the UV-activated surface, but the final surface density and its ability to bind streptavidin are affected by the position of cysteine and HPQ. An oligopeptide with a cysteine at the N-terminus and a HPQ motif at the C-terminus gives the highest binding signal in the streptavidin-binding assay. This result is potentially useful for the development of functional oligopeptide microarrays for detecting target protein molecules.

  11. A new autocatalytic activation mechanism for cysteine proteases revealed by Prevotella intermedia interpain A.

    PubMed

    Mallorquí-Fernández, Noemí; Manandhar, Surya P; Mallorquí-Fernández, Goretti; Usón, Isabel; Wawrzonek, Katarzyna; Kantyka, Tomasz; Solà, Maria; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J; Potempa, Jan; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier

    2008-02-01

    Prevotella intermedia is a major periodontopathogen contributing to human gingivitis and periodontitis. Such pathogens release proteases as virulence factors that cause deterrence of host defenses and tissue destruction. A new cysteine protease from the cysteine-histidine-dyad class, interpain A, was studied in its zymogenic and self-processed mature forms. The latter consists of a bivalved moiety made up by two subdomains. In the structure of a catalytic cysteine-to-alanine zymogen variant, the right subdomain interacts with an unusual prodomain, thus contributing to latency. Unlike the catalytic cysteine residue, already in its competent conformation in the zymogen, the catalytic histidine is swung out from its active conformation and trapped in a cage shaped by a backing helix, a zymogenic hairpin, and a latency flap in the zymogen. Dramatic rearrangement of up to 20A of these elements triggered by a tryptophan switch occurs during activation and accounts for a new activation mechanism for proteolytic enzymes. These findings can be extrapolated to related potentially pathogenic cysteine proteases such as Streprococcus pyogenes SpeB and Porphyromonas gingivalis periodontain.

  12. Identification and biochemical characterization of vivapains, cysteine proteases of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed Central

    Na, Byoung-Kuk; Shenai, Bhaskar R; Sijwali, Puran S; Choe, Youngchool; Pandey, Kailash C; Singh, Ajay; Craik, Charles S; Rosenthal, Philip J

    2004-01-01

    Cysteine proteases play important roles in the life cycles of malaria parasites. Cysteine protease inhibitors block haemoglobin hydrolysis and development in Plasmodium falciparum, suggesting that the cysteine proteases of this major human pathogen, termed falcipains, are appropriate therapeutic targets. To expand our understanding of plasmodial proteases to Plasmodium vivax, the other prevalent human malaria parasite, we identified and cloned genes encoding the P. vivax cysteine proteases, vivapain-2 and vivapain-3, and functionally expressed the proteases in Escherichia coli. The vivapain-2 and vivapain-3 genes predicted papain-family cysteine proteases, which shared a number of unusual features with falcipain-2 and falcipain-3, including large prodomains and short N-terminal extensions on the catalytic domain. Recombinant vivapain-2 and vivapain-3 shared properties with the falcipains, including acidic pH optima, requirements for reducing conditions for activity and hydrolysis of substrates with positively charged residues at P1 and Leu at P2. Both enzymes hydrolysed native haemoglobin at acidic pH and the erythrocyte cytoskeletal protein 4.1 at neutral pH, suggesting similar biological roles to the falcipains. Considering inhibitor profiles, the vivapains were inhibited by fluoromethylketone and vinyl sulphone inhibitors that also inhibited falcipains and have demonstrated potent antimalarial activity. PMID:14629194

  13. Ga2O3 photocatalyzed on-line tagging of cysteine to facilitate peptide mass fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Liang; Su, Fangzheng; Bi, Hongyan; Girault, Hubert H; Liu, Baohong

    2011-09-01

    β-Ga(2)O(3) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor having strong oxidation ability under light irradiation. Herein, the steel target plates modified with β-Ga(2)O(3) nanoparticles have been developed to carry out in-source photo-catalytic oxidative reactions for online peptide tagging during laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) analysis. Under UV laser irradiation, β-Ga(2)O(3) can catalyze the photo-oxidation of 2-methoxyhydroquinone added to a sample mixture to 2-methoxy benzoquinone that can further react with the thiol groups of cysteine residues by Michael addition reaction. The tagging process leads to appearance of pairs of peaks with an m/z shift of 138.1Th. This online labelling strategy is demonstrated to be sensitive and efficient with a detection-limit at femtomole level. Using the strategy, the information on cysteine content in peptides can be obtained together with peptide mass, therefore constraining the database searching for an advanced identification of cysteine-containing proteins from protein mixtures. The current peptide online tagging method can be important for specific analysis of cysteine-containing proteins especially the low-abundant ones that cannot be completely isolated from other high-abundant non-cysteine-proteins. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Mechanism of thiosulfate oxidation in the SoxA family of cysteine-ligated cytochromes.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Daniel B; Chappell, Paul E; Eisel, Bianca; Johnson, Steven; Lea, Susan M; Berks, Ben C

    2015-04-03

    Thiosulfate dehydrogenase (TsdA) catalyzes the oxidation of two thiosulfate molecules to form tetrathionate and is predicted to use an unusual cysteine-ligated heme as the catalytic cofactor. We have determined the structure of Allochromatium vinosum TsdA to a resolution of 1.3 Å. This structure confirms the active site heme ligation, identifies a thiosulfate binding site within the active site cavity, and reveals an electron transfer route from the catalytic heme, through a second heme group to the external electron acceptor. We provide multiple lines of evidence that the catalytic reaction proceeds through the intermediate formation of a S-thiosulfonate derivative of the heme cysteine ligand: the cysteine is reactive and is accessible to electrophilic attack; cysteine S-thiosulfonate is formed by the addition of thiosulfate or following the reverse reaction with tetrathionate; the S-thiosulfonate modification is removed through catalysis; and alkylating the cysteine blocks activity. Active site amino acid residues required for catalysis were identified by mutagenesis and are inferred to also play a role in stabilizing the S-thiosulfonate intermediate. The enzyme SoxAX, which catalyzes the first step in the bacterial Sox thiosulfate oxidation pathway, is homologous to TsdA and can be inferred to use a related catalytic mechanism. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. ROSICS: CHEMISTRY AND PROTEOMICS OF CYSTEINE MODIFICATIONS IN REDOX BIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Jung; Ha, Sura; Lee, Hee Yoon; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occurring in proteins determine their functions and regulations. Proteomic tools are available to identify PTMs and have proved invaluable to expanding the inventory of these tools of nature that hold the keys to biological processes. Cysteine (Cys), the least abundant (1–2%) of amino acid residues, are unique in that they play key roles in maintaining stability of protein structure, participating in active sites of enzymes, regulating protein function and binding to metals, among others. Cys residues are major targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are important mediators and modulators of various biological processes. It is therefore necessary to identify the Cys-containing ROS target proteins, as well as the sites and species of their PTMs. Cutting edge proteomic tools which have helped identify the PTMs at reactive Cys residues, have also revealed that Cys residues are modified in numerous ways. These modifications include formation of disulfide, thiosulfinate and thiosulfonate, oxidation to sulfenic, sulfinic, sulfonic acids and thiosulfonic acid, transformation to dehydroalanine (DHA) and serine, palmitoylation and farnesylation, formation of chemical adducts with glutathione, 4-hydroxynonenal and 15-deoxy PGJ2, and various other chemicals. We present here, a review of relevant ROS biology, possible chemical reactions of Cys residues and details of the proteomic strategies employed for rapid, efficient and sensitive identification of diverse and novel PTMs involving reactive Cys residues of redox-sensitive proteins. We propose a new name, “ROSics,” for the science which describes the principles of mode of action of ROS at molecular levels. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec Rev 34:184–208, 2015. PMID:24916017

  16. ROSics: chemistry and proteomics of cysteine modifications in redox biology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Jung; Ha, Sura; Lee, Hee Yoon; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occurring in proteins determine their functions and regulations. Proteomic tools are available to identify PTMs and have proved invaluable to expanding the inventory of these tools of nature that hold the keys to biological processes. Cysteine (Cys), the least abundant (1-2%) of amino acid residues, are unique in that they play key roles in maintaining stability of protein structure, participating in active sites of enzymes, regulating protein function and binding to metals, among others. Cys residues are major targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are important mediators and modulators of various biological processes. It is therefore necessary to identify the Cys-containing ROS target proteins, as well as the sites and species of their PTMs. Cutting edge proteomic tools which have helped identify the PTMs at reactive Cys residues, have also revealed that Cys residues are modified in numerous ways. These modifications include formation of disulfide, thiosulfinate and thiosulfonate, oxidation to sulfenic, sulfinic, sulfonic acids and thiosulfonic acid, transformation to dehydroalanine (DHA) and serine, palmitoylation and farnesylation, formation of chemical adducts with glutathione, 4-hydroxynonenal and 15-deoxy PGJ2, and various other chemicals. We present here, a review of relevant ROS biology, possible chemical reactions of Cys residues and details of the proteomic strategies employed for rapid, efficient and sensitive identification of diverse and novel PTMs involving reactive Cys residues of redox-sensitive proteins. We propose a new name, "ROSics," for the science which describes the principles of mode of action of ROS at molecular levels.

  17. N-acetyl-L-cysteine and cysteine increase intracellular calcium concentration in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Ashraful; Ahn, Won-Gyun; Song, Dong-Keun

    2016-09-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and cysteine have been implicated in a number of human neutrophils' functional responses. However, though Ca(2+) signaling is one of the key signalings contributing to the functional responses of human neutrophils, effects of NAC and cysteine on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in human neutrophils have not been investigated yet. Thus, this study was carried out with an objective to investigate the effects of NAC and cysteine on [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils. We observed that NAC (1 µM ~ 1 mM) and cysteine (10 µM ~ 1 mM) increased [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In NAC pre-supplmented buffer, an additive effect on N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils was observed. In Ca(2+)-free buffer, NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase in human neutrophils completely disappeared, suggesting that NAC- and cysteine-mediated increase in [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils occur through Ca(2+) influx. NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase was effectively inhibited by calcium channel inhibitors SKF96365 (10 µM) and ruthenium red (20 µM). In Na(+)-free HEPES, both NAC and cysteine induced a marked increase in [Ca(2+)]i in human neutrophils, arguing against the possibility that Na(+)-dependent intracellular uptake of NAC and cysteine is necessary for their [Ca(2+)]i increasing activity. Our results show that NAC and cysteine induce [Ca(2+)]i increase through Ca(2+) influx in human neutrophils via SKF96365- and ruthenium red-dependent way.

  18. N-acetyl-L-cysteine and cysteine increase intracellular calcium concentration in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Md. Ashraful; Ahn, Won-Gyun

    2016-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and cysteine have been implicated in a number of human neutrophils' functional responses. However, though Ca2+ signaling is one of the key signalings contributing to the functional responses of human neutrophils, effects of NAC and cysteine on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in human neutrophils have not been investigated yet. Thus, this study was carried out with an objective to investigate the effects of NAC and cysteine on [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils. We observed that NAC (1 µM ~ 1 mM) and cysteine (10 µM ~ 1 mM) increased [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In NAC pre-supplmented buffer, an additive effect on N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP)-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils was observed. In Ca2+-free buffer, NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca2+]i increase in human neutrophils completely disappeared, suggesting that NAC- and cysteine-mediated increase in [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils occur through Ca2+ influx. NAC- and cysteine-induced [Ca2+]i increase was effectively inhibited by calcium channel inhibitors SKF96365 (10 µM) and ruthenium red (20 µM). In Na+-free HEPES, both NAC and cysteine induced a marked increase in [Ca2+]i in human neutrophils, arguing against the possibility that Na+-dependent intracellular uptake of NAC and cysteine is necessary for their [Ca2+]i increasing activity. Our results show that NAC and cysteine induce [Ca2+]i increase through Ca2+ influx in human neutrophils via SKF96365- and ruthenium red-dependent way. PMID:27610031

  19. CFTR: A Cysteine at Position 338 in TM6 Senses a Positive Electrostatic Potential in the Pore

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuehong; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Fuller, Matthew D.; Billingsley, Joshua; McCarty, Nael A.; Dawson, David C.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the accessibility to protons and thiol-directed reagents of a cysteine substituted at position 338 in transmembrane segment 6 (TM6) of CFTR to test the hypothesis that T338 resides in the pore. Xenopus oocytes expressing T338C CFTR exhibited pH-dependent changes in gCl and I-V shape that were specific to the substituted cysteine. The apparent pKa of T338C CFTR was more acidic than that expected for a cysteine or similar simple thiols in aqueous solution. The pKa was shifted toward alkaline values when a nearby positive charge (R334) was substituted with neutral or negatively charged residues, consistent with the predicted influence of the positive charge of R334, and perhaps other residues, on the titration of a cysteine at 338. The relative rates of chemical modification of T338C CFTR by MTSET+ and MTSES− were also altered by the charge at 334. These observations support a model for CFTR that places T338 within the anion conduction path. The apparent pKa of a cysteine substituted at 338 and the relative rates of reaction of charged thiol-directed reagents provide a crude measure of a positive electrostatic potential that may be due to R334 and other residues near this position in the pore. PMID:15361410

  20. Induction of mitochondrial fusion by cysteine-alkylators ethacrynic acid and N-ethylmaleimide.

    PubMed

    Bowes, Timothy J; Gupta, Radhey S

    2005-03-01

    Mitochondrial fusion and fission are important aspects of eukaryotic cell function that permit the adoption of varied mitochondrial morphologies depending upon cellular physiology. We previously observed that ethacrynic acid (EA) induced mitochondrial fusion in cultured BSC-1 and CHO/wt cells. However, the mechanism responsible for it was not clear since EA has a number of known cellular effects including glutathione (GSH) depletion and alkylation of cysteine residues. To gain insight, we have tested the effects of a variety of compounds on EA induced cellular toxicity and mitochondrial fusion. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a GSH precursor, was found to abrogate both the toxic and fusion-inductive effects, whereas diethylmaleate (dEM), a GSH depletor, potentiated both these effects in a dose-dependent manner. However, treatment with dEM alone, which depleted GSH to the same degree as EA, did not induce mitochondrial fusion. These results indicate that although detoxification of EA via formation of GSH conjugates is dependant upon GSH levels, the depletion of GSH by EA is not responsible for its effect on mitochondrial fusion. Dihydro-EA (DH-EA), a saturated EA analogue, lacked EA's toxicity and effect on fusion, indicating that the alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone is central to its observed effects. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), another well-known cysteine-alkylator, also induced mitochondrial fusion at near toxic concentrations. These data suggests that cysteine-alkylation is the causative factor for fusion and toxicity. In live BSC-1 cells, EA induced fusion of mitochondria occurred very rapidly (<20 min), which suggests that it is inducing fusion by modifying certain critical cysteine residue(s) in proteins involved in the process.

  1. Genetic encoding of caged cysteine and caged homocysteine in bacterial and mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Uprety, Rajendra; Luo, Ji; Liu, Jihe; Naro, Yuta; Samanta, Subhas; Deiters, Alexander

    2014-08-18

    We report the genetic incorporation of caged cysteine and caged homocysteine into proteins in bacterial and mammalian cells. The genetic code of these cells was expanded with an engineered pyrrolysine tRNA/tRNA synthetase pair that accepts both light-activatable amino acids as substrates. Incorporation was validated by reporter assays, western blots, and mass spectrometry, and differences in incorporation efficiency were explained by molecular modeling of synthetase-amino acid interactions. As a proof-of-principle application, the genetic replacement of an active-site cysteine residue with a caged cysteine residue in Renilla luciferase led to a complete loss of enzyme activity; however, upon brief exposure to UV light, a >150-fold increase in enzymatic activity was observed, thus showcasing the applicability of the caged cysteine in live human cells. A simultaneously conducted genetic replacement with homocysteine yielded an enzyme with greatly reduced activity, thereby demonstrating the precise probing of a protein active site. These discoveries provide a new tool for the optochemical control of protein function in mammalian cells and expand the set of genetically encoded unnatural amino acids.

  2. Dependence of the structure and mechanics of metaphase chromosomes on oxidized cysteines.

    PubMed

    Eastland, Adrienne; Hornick, Jessica; Kawamura, Ryo; Nanavati, Dhaval; Marko, John F

    2016-09-01

    We have found that reagents that reduce oxidized cysteines lead to destabilization of metaphase chromosome folding, suggesting that chemically linked cysteine residues may play a structural role in mitotic chromosome organization, in accord with classical studies by Dounce et al. (J Theor Biol 42:275-285, 1973) and Sumner (J Cell Sci 70:177-188, 1984a). Human chromosomes isolated into buffer unfold when exposed to dithiothreitol (DTT) or tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP). In micromanipulation experiments which allow us to examine the mechanics of individual metaphase chromosomes, we have found that the gel-like elastic stiffness of native metaphase chromosomes is dramatically suppressed by DTT and TCEP, even before the chromosomes become appreciably unfolded. We also report protein labeling experiments on human metaphase chromosomes which allow us to tag oxidized and reduction-sensitive cysteine residues. PAGE analysis using fluorescent labels shows a small number of labeled bands. Mass spectrometry analysis of similarly labeled proteins provides a list of candidates for proteins with oxidized cysteines involved in chromosome organization, notably including components of condensin I, cohesin, the nucleosome-interacting proteins RCC1 and RCC2, as well as the RNA/DNA-binding protein NONO/p54NRB.

  3. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by natural...

  4. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by natural...

  5. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  6. Cysteine Transport into Cultured Tobacco Cells

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, H. Michael; Smith, Ivan K.

    1977-01-01

    Cysteine transport by tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Xanthi) cultured on liquid B-5 medium was examined. Transport was linear with time or amount of tissue and had a pH optimum of 4.5. Cysteine transport over a wide concentration range was biphasic. The isotherm, for descriptive convenience, was divided into two segments both of which obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Km for high affinity transport was in the range 1.7 × 10−5m(±0.17) while the Km for low affinity transport was in the range 3.5 × 10−4m(±0.13). Maximum velocities were 3 to 6 nmoles/g fresh weight/minute and 13 to 16 nmoles/g fresh weight/minute, respectively. Azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol caused more than 90% inhibition of net transport by either system. N,N′-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide was not inhibitory while the inhibition by carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone was dependent on the cysteine concentration. Only those compounds that were inhibitory to transport caused significant efflux of labeled material from preloaded cells. Tobacco cells that had been preincubated in iodoacetamide or N-ethylmaleimide did not transport cysteine while similar treatments with dithiothreitol were only slightly inhibitory or had no effect on transport. Transport by either system was, to some extent, inhibited by all other tested amino acids and analogs. Alanine, methionine, and S-methyl cysteine were most effective in inhibiting cysteine transport. Both alanine and methionine were competitive inhibitors of cysteine transport by either system with inhibition constants that were similar to the Km for the particular system. PMID:16660190

  7. Crystal Structure of Mammalian Cysteine dioxygenase: A Novel Mononuclear Iron Center for Cysteine Thiol Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons,C.; Liu, Q.; Huang, Q.; Hao, Q.; Begley, T.; Karplus, P.; Stipanuk, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase is a mononuclear iron-dependent enzyme responsible for the oxidation of cysteine with molecular oxygen to form cysteinesulfinate. This reaction commits cysteine to either catabolism to sulfate and pyruvate or to the taurine biosynthetic pathway. Cysteine dioxygenase is a member of the cupin superfamily of proteins. The crystal structure of recombinant rat cysteine dioxygenase has been determined to 1.5 Angstroms resolution, and these results confirm the canonical cupin {beta}-sandwich fold and the rare cysteinyl-tyrosine intramolecular crosslink (between Cys93 and Tyr157) seen in the recently reported murine cysteine dioxygenase structure. In contrast to the catalytically inactive mononuclear Ni(II) metallocenter present in the murine structure, crystallization of a catalytically competent preparation of rat cysteine dioxygenase revealed a novel tetrahedrally coordinated mononuclear iron center involving three histidines (His86, His88, and His140) and a water molecule. Attempts to acquire a structure with bound ligand using either co-crystallization or soaks with cysteine revealed the formation of a mixed disulfide involving Cys164 near the active site, which may explain previously observed substrate inhibition. This work provides a framework for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in thiol dioxygenation and sets the stage for exploring the chemistry of both the novel mononuclear iron center and the catalytic role of the cysteinyl-tyrosine linkage.

  8. Reconstruction of Cysteine Biosynthesis Using Engineered Cysteine-Free and Methionine-Free Enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Kendrick; Fujishima, Kosuke; Abe, Nozomi; Nakahigashi, Kenji; Endy, Drew; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Ten of the proteinogenic amino acids can be generated abiotically while the remaining thirteen require biology for their synthesis. Paradoxically, the biosynthesis pathways observed in nature require enzymes that are made with the amino acids they produce. For example, Escherichia coli produces cysteine from serine via two enzymes that contain cysteine. Here, we substituted alternate amino acids for cysteine and also methionine, which is biosynthesized from cysteine, in serine acetyl transferase (CysE) and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (CysM). CysE function was rescued by cysteine-and-methionine-free enzymes and CysM function was rescued by cysteine-free enzymes. Structural modeling suggests that methionine stabilizes CysM and is present in the active site of CysM. Cysteine is not conserved among CysE and CysM protein orthologs, suggesting that cysteine is not functionally important for its own synthesis. Engineering biosynthetic enzymes that lack the amino acids being synthesized provides insights into the evolution of amino acid biosynthesis and pathways for bioengineering.

  9. [Isolation and properties of cysteine protease from Serratia proteamaculans 94].

    PubMed

    Mozhina, N V; Burmistrova, O A; Pupov, D V; Rudenskaia, G N; Dunaevskiĭ, Ia E; Demidiuk, I V; Kostrov, S V

    2008-01-01

    A new cysteine protease (SpCP) with a molecular mass of about 50 kDa and optimal functioning at pH 8.0 was isolated from the culture medium of a Serratia proteamaculans 94 psychrotolerant strain using affinity and gel permeation chromatography. The enzyme N terminal amino acid sequence (SPVEEAEGDGIVLDV-) exhibits a reliable similarity to N terminal sequences of gingipains R, cysteine proteases from Polphyromonas gingivalis. Unlike gingipains R, SpCP displays a double substrate specificity and cleaves bonds formed by carboxylic groups of Arg, hydrophobic amino acid residues (Val, Leu, Ala, Tyr, and Phe), Pro, and Gly. SpCP can also hydrolyze native collagen. The enzyme catalysis is effective in a wide range of temperatures. Kinetic studies of Z-Ala-Phe-Arg-pNA hydrolysis catalyzed by the protease at 4 and 37 degrees C showed that a decrease in temperature by more than 30 degrees C causes a 1.3-fold increase in the kcat/Km ratio. Thus, SpCP is an enzyme adapted to low positive temperatures. A protease displaying such properties was found in microorganisms of the Serratia genus for the first time and may serve as a virulent factor for these bacteria.

  10. Engineering a Chemical Switch into the Light-driven Proton Pump Proteorhodopsin by Cysteine Mutagenesis and Thiol Modification.

    PubMed

    Harder, Daniel; Hirschi, Stephan; Ucurum, Zöhre; Goers, Roland; Meier, Wolfgang; Müller, Daniel J; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2016-07-25

    For applications in synthetic biology, for example, the bottom-up assembly of biomolecular nanofactories, modules of specific and controllable functionalities are essential. Of fundamental importance in such systems are energizing modules, which are able to establish an electrochemical gradient across a vesicular membrane as an energy source for powering other modules. Light-driven proton pumps like proteorhodopsin (PR) are excellent candidates for efficient energy conversion. We have extended the versatility of PR by implementing an on/off switch based on reversible chemical modification of a site-specifically introduced cysteine residue. The position of this cysteine residue in PR was identified by structure-based cysteine mutagenesis combined with a proton-pumping assay using E. coli cells overexpressing PR and PR proteoliposomes. The identified PR mutant represents the first light-driven proton pump that can be chemically switched on/off depending on the requirements of the molecular system.

  11. Interaction of Adjacent Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Sheh-Yi; Yang, Dah-Yen

    2008-02-01

    Ramachandran plots display the dihedral angles of a single protein residue. We here propose a crossed torsion angle plot called SSY-plot between two neighboring amino acids and demonstrate that a special coherence motion can exist between some very special amino acid pairs leading to spontaneous unusual structures. We also suggest that the existence of two domains corresponds to a bifurcation between two different protein structures and that the special pair is the key to producing these two structures. These are two different structures and are produced spontaneously without an external agent.

  12. Cysteine biosynthesis in Trichomonas vaginalis involves cysteine synthase utilizing O-phosphoserine

    PubMed Central

    Westrop, Gareth D.; Goodall, Gordon; Mottram, Jeremy C.; Coombs, Graham H.

    2009-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is an early divergent eukaryote with many unusual biochemical features. It is an anaerobic protozoan parasite of humans that is thought to rely heavily on cysteine as a major redox buffer, as it lacks glutathione. We report here that for synthesis of cysteine from sulphide, T. vaginalis relies upon cysteine synthase. The enzyme (TvCS1) can use as substrates either O-acetylserine or O-phosphoserine. The Kms of the enzyme for sulphide is very low (0.02 mM), suggesting that the enzyme may be a means of ensuring that sulphide in the parasite is maintained at a low level. T. vaginalis appears to lack serine acetyltransferase, the source of O-acetylserine in many cells, but has a functional 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and an O-phosphoserine aminotransferase that together result in the production of O-phosphoserine, suggesting that this is the physiological substrate. TvCS1 can also use thiosulphate as substrate. Overall, TvCS1 has substrate specificities similar to those reported for cysteine synthases of Aeropyrum pernix and Escherichia coli and this is reflected by sequence similarities around the active site. We suggest that these enzymes are classified together as type B cysteine synthases and we hypothesise that the use of O-phosphoserine is a common characteristic of these cysteine synthases. The level of cysteine synthase in T. vaginalis is regulated according to need, such that parasites growing in an environment rich in cysteine have low activity, whereas exposure to propargylglycine results in elevated cysteine synthase activity. Humans lack cysteine synthase, thus this parasite enzyme could be an exploitable drug target. PMID:16735516

  13. A functional fragment of Tau forms fibers without the need for an intermolecular cysteine bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Huvent, Isabelle; Kamah, Amina; Cantrelle, François-Xavier; Barois, Nicolas; Slomianny, Christian; Smet-Nocca, Caroline; Landrieu, Isabelle; Lippens, Guy

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • A functional fragment of Tau forms bundled ribbon-like fibrils. • Nucleation of its fibril formation is faster than for full-length Tau. • In contrast to full-length Tau, without cysteines, the fragment still forms fibers. - Abstract: We study the aggregation of a fragment of the neuronal protein Tau that contains part of the proline rich domain and of the microtubule binding repeats. When incubated at 37 °C with heparin, the fragment readily forms fibers as witnessed by Thioflavin T fluorescence. Electron microscopy and NMR spectroscopy show bundled ribbon like structures with most residues rigidly incorporated in the fibril. Without its cysteines, this fragment still forms fibers of a similar morphology, but with lesser Thioflavin T binding sites and more mobility for the C-terminal residues.

  14. Inactivation of the RTEM-1 cysteine beta-lactamase by iodoacetate. The nature of active-site functional groups and comparisons with the native enzyme.

    PubMed

    Knap, A K; Pratt, R F

    1991-01-01

    The pH-rate profile for inactivation of the RTEM-1 cysteine beta-lactamase by iodoacetate supports previous evidence [Knap & Pratt (1989) Proteins Struct. Funct. Genet. 6, 316-323] for the activation of the active-site thiol group by adjacent functional groups. The enhanced reactivity of iodoacetate, with respect to that of iodoacetamide, suggests the influence of a positive charge in the active site. The reactivity of iodoacetate is not affected by dissociation of an active-site functional group of pKa 6.7, which increases the reactivity of neutral reagents, probably because of a compensation phenomenon; it is, however, lost on dissociation of an acid of pKa 8.1. It is concluded that the active cysteine beta-lactamase has four functional groups at the active site, one nucleophilic thiolate of Cys-70, one neutral acid (most probably the carboxy group of Glu-166, from the crystal structures) and two cationic residues (most probably Lys-73 and Lys-234). A comparison of these results with the pH-dependence of reactivity of the native RTEM-2 beta-lactamase suggests that the active form of the latter enzyme is also monocationic, although the nucleophile (Ser-70) is likely to be neutral in this case and the carboxylic acid dissociated. A mechanism of class A beta-lactamase catalysis is discussed where the Glu-166 carboxylate acts as a general base/acid catalyst and Lys-73 is principally required for electrostatic stabilization of the anionic tetrahedral intermediate.

  15. Immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis using recombinant procathepsin L cystein proteinase.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, S; Rodríguez, M I; Guarnera, E A; Carmona, C; Tanos, T; Angel, S O

    2001-01-01

    Cathepsin L1, a cysteine protease secreted by the gastrodermis of juvenile and adult Fasciola hepatica, was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein containing the proregion, supplied with six histidyl residues at the N-terminal end (rproCL1). In this study we tested its potential as antigen for the serologic diagnosis of F. hepatica infections by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The analyzed human sera included 16 positive samples, 99 negative controls and 111 from individuals affected by other parasitic and non parasitic diseases. The sensitivity and specificity of the rproCL1-ELISA were 100%. We also assessed the ability to detect antibodies in sera from 10 experimentally infected sheep, obtaining preliminary results that shown a response since the third week post infection in all the studied animals. Therefore, the recombinant rproCL1-based ELISA could be a standardized test for the accurate diagnosis of fasciolosis.

  16. Determining Cysteines Available for Covalent Inhibition Across the Human Kinome.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zheng; Liu, Qingsong; Bliven, Spencer; Xie, Lei; Bourne, Philip E

    2017-04-13

    Covalently bound protein kinase inhibitors have been frequently designed to target noncatalytic cysteines at the ATP binding site. Thus, it is important to know if a given cysteine can form a covalent bond. Here we combine a function-site interaction fingerprint method and DFT calculations to determine the potential of cysteines to form a covalent interaction with an inhibitor. By harnessing the human structural kinome, a comprehensive structure-based binding site cysteine data set was assembled. The orientation of the cysteine thiol group indicates which cysteines can potentially form covalent bonds. These covalent inhibitor easy-available cysteines are located within five regions: P-loop, roof of pocket, front pocket, catalytic-2 of the catalytic loop, and DFG-3 close to the DFG peptide. In an independent test set these cysteines covered 95% of covalent kinase inhibitors. This study provides new insights into cysteine reactivity and preference which is important for the prospective development of covalent kinase inhibitors.

  17. Role of Cysteines in Stabilizing the Randomized Receptor Binding Domains within Feline Leukemia Virus Envelope Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Valdivieso-Torres, Leonardo; Sarangi, Anindita; Whidby, Jillian; Marcotrigiano, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retargeting of gammaretroviral envelope proteins has shown promising results in the isolation of novel isolates with therapeutic potential. However, the optimal conditions required to obtain high-affinity retargeted envelope proteins with narrow tropism are not understood. This study highlights the advantage of constrained peptides within receptor binding domains and validates the random library screening technique of obtaining novel retargeted Env proteins. Using a modified vector backbone to screen the envelope libraries on 143B osteosarcoma cells, three novel and unique retargeted envelopes were isolated. The use of complex disulfide bonds within variable regions required for receptor binding is found within natural gammaretroviral envelope isolates. Interestingly, two of the isolates, named AII and BV2, have a pair of cysteines located within the randomized region of 11 amino acids similar to that identified within the CP Env, an isolate identified in a previous Env library screen on the human renal carcinoma Caki-1 cell line. The amino acids within the randomized region of AII and BV2 envelopes that are essential for viral infection have been identified in this study and include these cysteine residues. Through mutagenesis studies, the putative disulfide bond pairs including and beyond the randomized region were examined. In parallel, the disulfide bonds of CP Env were identified using mass spectrometry. The results indicate that this pair of cysteines creates the structural context to position key hydrophobic (F and W) and basic (K and H) residues critical for viral titer and suggest that AII, BV2, and CP internal cysteines bond together in distinct ways. IMPORTANCE Retargeted gammaretroviral particles have broad applications for therapeutic use. Although great advances have been achieved in identifying new Env-host cell receptor pairs, the rules for designing optimal Env libraries are still unclear. We have found that isolates with an additional

  18. Substrate-assisted cysteine deprotonation in the mechanism of dimethylargininase (DDAH) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Stone, Everett M; Costello, Alison L; Tierney, David L; Fast, Walter

    2006-05-02

    The enzyme dimethylargininase (also known as dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase or DDAH; EC 3.5.3.18) catalyzes the hydrolysis of endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, N(omega)-methyl-l-arginine and N(omega),N(omega)-dimethyl-l-arginine. Understanding the mechanism and regulation of DDAH activity is important for developing ways to control nitric oxide production during angiogenesis and in many cases of vascular endothelial pathobiology. Several possible physiological regulation mechanisms of DDAH depend upon the presence of an active-site cysteine residue, Cys249 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) DDAH, which is proposed to serve as a nucleophile in the catalytic mechanism. Through the use of pH-dependent ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) difference spectroscopy and inactivation kinetics, the pK(a) of the active-site Cys249 in the resting enzyme was found to be unperturbed from pK(a) values of typical noncatalytic cysteine residues. In contrast, the pH dependence of k(cat) values indicates a much lower apparent pK(a) value. UV-vis difference spectroscopy between wild-type and C249S DDAH shows absorbance changes consistent with Cys249 deprotonation to the anionic thiolate upon binding positively charged ligands. The proton from Cys249 is lost either to the solvent or to an unidentified general base. A mutation of the active-site histidine residue, H162G, does not eliminate cysteine nucleophilicity, further arguing against a pre-formed ion pair with Cys249. Finally, UV-vis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that inhibitory metal ions can bind at these two active-site residues, Cys249 and His162, and also stabilize the anionic form of Cys249. These results support a proposed substrate-assisted mechanism for Pa DDAH in which ligand binding modulates the reactivity of the active-site cysteine.

  19. The cysteine proteinases of the pineapple plant.

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, A D; Buttle, D J; Barrett, A J

    1990-01-01

    The pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) was shown to contain at least four distinct cysteine proteinases, which were purified by a procedure involving active-site-directed affinity chromatography. The major proteinase present in extracts of plant stem was stem bromelain, whilst fruit bromelain was the major proteinase in the fruit. Two additional cysteine proteinases were detected only in the stem: these were ananain and a previously undescribed enzyme that we have called comosain. Stem bromelain, fruit bromelain and ananain were shown to be immunologically distinct. Enzymic characterization revealed differences in both substrate-specificities and inhibition profiles. A study of the cysteine proteinase derived from the related bromeliad Bromelia pinguin (pinguinain) indicated that in many respects it was similar to fruit bromelain, although it was found to be immunologically distinct. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2327970

  20. The cysteine proteinases of the pineapple plant.

    PubMed

    Rowan, A D; Buttle, D J; Barrett, A J

    1990-03-15

    The pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) was shown to contain at least four distinct cysteine proteinases, which were purified by a procedure involving active-site-directed affinity chromatography. The major proteinase present in extracts of plant stem was stem bromelain, whilst fruit bromelain was the major proteinase in the fruit. Two additional cysteine proteinases were detected only in the stem: these were ananain and a previously undescribed enzyme that we have called comosain. Stem bromelain, fruit bromelain and ananain were shown to be immunologically distinct. Enzymic characterization revealed differences in both substrate-specificities and inhibition profiles. A study of the cysteine proteinase derived from the related bromeliad Bromelia pinguin (pinguinain) indicated that in many respects it was similar to fruit bromelain, although it was found to be immunologically distinct.

  1. Improved sequencing of oxidized cysteine and methionine containing peptides using electron transfer dissociation.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, R; Wilson, Jonathan; Bridgewater, Juma D; Numbers, Jason R; Lim, Jihyeon; Olbris, Mark R; Kettani, Ali; Vachet, Richard W

    2007-08-01

    Oxidative modifications to the side chains of sulfur-containing amino acids often limit the number of product ions formed during collision-induced dissociation (CID) and thus make it difficult to obtain sequence information for oxidized peptides. In this work, we demonstrate that electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) can be used to improve the sequence information obtained from peptides with oxidized cysteine and methionine residues. In contrast to CID, ETD is found to be much less sensitive to the side-chain chemistry, enabling extensive sequence information to be obtained in cases where CID fails to provide this information. These results indicate that ETD is a valuable technique for studying oxidatively modified peptides and proteins. In addition, we report a unique and very abundant product ion that is formed in the CID spectra of peptides having N-terminal cysteine sulfinic acid residues. The mechanism for this unique dissociation pathway involves a six-membered cyclic intermediate and leads to the facile loss of NH(3) and SO(2), which corresponds to a mass loss of 81 Da. While the facile nature of this dissociation pathway limits the sequence information present in CID spectra of peptides with N-terminal cysteine sulfinic acid residues, extensive sequence information for these peptides can be obtained with ETD.

  2. Structure and function in rhodopsin. Cysteines 65 and 316 are in proximity in a rhodopsin mutant as indicated by disulfide formation and interactions between attached spin labels.

    PubMed

    Yang, K; Farrens, D L; Altenbach, C; Farahbakhsh, Z T; Hubbell, W L; Khorana, H G

    1996-11-12

    To probe proximity relationships between different amino acids in the interhelical loops in the cytoplasmic domain of rhodopsin, we are using a general approach in which two cysteine residues are introduced at different locations. Here we report on the characteristics of one such mutant that contains the naturally occurring cysteine 316 near the cytoplasmic end of helix G and a second cysteine at position 65 (H65C), near the cytoplasmic end of helix A. The mutant protein after expression in COS-1 cells and reconstitution with 11-cis-retinal can be bound to anti-rhodopsin antibody 1D4-Sepharose at pH 6 in a form that contains the two cysteines in the free sulfhydryl form. In this form, the mutant protein reacts as expected with N-ethylmaleimide in the dark at room temperature and can be derivatized with nitroxide spin labels. However, under appropriate conditions, the mutant can be isolated with the cysteines in the disulfide form, which has been characterized by analysis of fragments produced on proteolysis with thermolysin. A study of the interactions between nitroxide spin labels attached to the two cysteine residues in the mutant protein indicates that in the dark state they are within about 10 A of each other. On illumination the distance between the spin labels increases. Collectively, the above results show that, upon folding of the mutant opsin in vivo, cysteines 65 and 316, and by inference, helices A and G, are in proximal locations and move further apart upon photoactivation.

  3. Substitution of cysteine 192 in a highly conserved Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease (interleukin 1beta convertase) alters proteolytic activity and ablates zymogen processing.

    PubMed Central

    Musser, J M; Stockbauer, K; Kapur, V; Rudgers, G W

    1996-01-01

    Virtually all strains of the human pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes express a highly conserved extracellular cysteine protease. The protein is made as an inactive zymogen of 40,000 Da and undergoes autocatalytic truncation to result in a 28,000-Da active protease. Numerous independent lines of investigation suggest that this enzyme participates in one or more phases of host-parasite interaction, such as inflammation and soft tissue invasion. Replacement of the single cysteine residue (C-192) with serine (C192S mutation) resulted in loss of detectable proteolytic activity against bovine casein, human fibronectin, and the low-molecular-weight synthetic substrate 7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin. The C192S mutant molecule does not undergo autocatalytic processing of zymogen to mature form. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that C-192 participates in active-site formation and enzyme catalysis. PMID:8675287

  4. Substitution of cysteine 192 in a highly conserved Streptococcus pyogenes extracellular cysteine protease (interleukin 1beta convertase) alters proteolytic activity and ablates zymogen processing.

    PubMed

    Musser, J M; Stockbauer, K; Kapur, V; Rudgers, G W

    1996-06-01

    Virtually all strains of the human pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes express a highly conserved extracellular cysteine protease. The protein is made as an inactive zymogen of 40,000 Da and undergoes autocatalytic truncation to result in a 28,000-Da active protease. Numerous independent lines of investigation suggest that this enzyme participates in one or more phases of host-parasite interaction, such as inflammation and soft tissue invasion. Replacement of the single cysteine residue (C-192) with serine (C192S mutation) resulted in loss of detectable proteolytic activity against bovine casein, human fibronectin, and the low-molecular-weight synthetic substrate 7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin. The C192S mutant molecule does not undergo autocatalytic processing of zymogen to mature form. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that C-192 participates in active-site formation and enzyme catalysis.

  5. Sample Multiplexing with Cysteine-Selective Approaches: cysDML and cPILOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Liqing; Evans, Adam R.; Robinson, Renã A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Cysteine-selective proteomics approaches simplify complex protein mixtures and improve the chance of detecting low abundant proteins. It is possible that cysteinyl-peptide/protein enrichment methods could be coupled to isotopic labeling and isobaric tagging methods for quantitative proteomics analyses in as few as two or up to 10 samples, respectively. Here we present two novel cysteine-selective proteomics approaches: cysteine-selective dimethyl labeling (cysDML) and cysteine-selective combined precursor isotopic labeling and isobaric tagging (cPILOT). CysDML is a duplex precursor quantification technique that couples cysteinyl-peptide enrichment with on-resin stable-isotope dimethyl labeling. Cysteine-selective cPILOT is a novel 12-plex workflow based on cysteinyl-peptide enrichment, on-resin stable-isotope dimethyl labeling, and iodoTMT tagging on cysteine residues. To demonstrate the broad applicability of the approaches, we applied cysDML and cPILOT methods to liver tissues from an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model and wild-type (WT) controls. From the cysDML experiments, an average of 850 proteins were identified and 594 were quantified, whereas from the cPILOT experiment, 330 and 151 proteins were identified and quantified, respectively. Overall, 2259 unique total proteins were detected from both cysDML and cPILOT experiments. There is tremendous overlap in the proteins identified and quantified between both experiments, and many proteins have AD/WT fold-change values that are within ~20% error. A total of 65 statistically significant proteins are differentially expressed in the liver proteome of AD mice relative to WT. The performance of cysDML and cPILOT are demonstrated and advantages and limitations of using multiple duplex experiments versus a single 12-plex experiment are highlighted.

  6. Sample multiplexing with cysteine-selective approaches: cysDML and cPILOT.

    PubMed

    Gu, Liqing; Evans, Adam R; Robinson, Renã A S

    2015-04-01

    Cysteine-selective proteomics approaches simplify complex protein mixtures and improve the chance of detecting low abundant proteins. It is possible that cysteinyl-peptide/protein enrichment methods could be coupled to isotopic labeling and isobaric tagging methods for quantitative proteomics analyses in as few as two or up to 10 samples, respectively. Here we present two novel cysteine-selective proteomics approaches: cysteine-selective dimethyl labeling (cysDML) and cysteine-selective combined precursor isotopic labeling and isobaric tagging (cPILOT). CysDML is a duplex precursor quantification technique that couples cysteinyl-peptide enrichment with on-resin stable-isotope dimethyl labeling. Cysteine-selective cPILOT is a novel 12-plex workflow based on cysteinyl-peptide enrichment, on-resin stable-isotope dimethyl labeling, and iodoTMT tagging on cysteine residues. To demonstrate the broad applicability of the approaches, we applied cysDML and cPILOT methods to liver tissues from an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model and wild-type (WT) controls. From the cysDML experiments, an average of 850 proteins were identified and 594 were quantified, whereas from the cPILOT experiment, 330 and 151 proteins were identified and quantified, respectively. Overall, 2259 unique total proteins were detected from both cysDML and cPILOT experiments. There is tremendous overlap in the proteins identified and quantified between both experiments, and many proteins have AD/WT fold-change values that are within ~20% error. A total of 65 statistically significant proteins are differentially expressed in the liver proteome of AD mice relative to WT. The performance of cysDML and cPILOT are demonstrated and advantages and limitations of using multiple duplex experiments versus a single 12-plex experiment are highlighted.

  7. The role of hydrogen bonding in the selectivity of L-cysteine methyl ester (CYSM) and L-cysteine ethyl ester (CYSE) for chloride ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosier-Boss, P. A.; Lieberman, S. H.

    2005-03-01

    The interaction of cysteamine (CY), L-cysteine methyl ester (CYSM), and L-cysteine ethyl ester (CYSE) with nitrate, sulfate, perchlorate, dihydrogen phosphate, and chloride ions was investigated using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). CYSM and CYSE are chemical derivatives of CY. These thiols have a quaternary ammonium group to attract the anions to the SERS surface. Dihydrogen phosphate did not interact with these cationic thiols. The CY interaction with perchlorate, nitrate, and sulfate is stronger than the interaction with chloride. However, replacing a hydrogen on the carbon adjacent to the quaternary ammonium group with either a methyl or ethyl ester group results in stronger complexation with chloride ion than with either sulfate or nitrate ion. In the case of CYSM, the chloride interaction is five times stronger than the interaction with perchlorate. Molecular modeling indicates that the high selectivity of CYSM/CYSE for chloride is due to hydrogen bonding between the chloride ion and the hydrogen of the CH 3 moeities of adjacent ester groups.

  8. The Cysteine-rich Domain of the DHHC3 Palmitoyltransferase Is Palmitoylated and Contains Tightly Bound Zinc*

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Colin D.; Zhang, Sheng; Linder, Maurine E.

    2015-01-01

    DHHC palmitoyltransferases catalyze the addition of the fatty acid palmitate to proteins on the cytoplasmic leaflet of cell membranes. There are 23 members of the highly diverse mammalian DHHC protein family, all of which contain a conserved catalytic domain called the cysteine-rich domain (CRD). DHHC proteins transfer palmitate via a two-step catalytic mechanism in which the enzyme first modifies itself with palmitate in a process termed autoacylation. The enzyme then transfers palmitate from itself onto substrate proteins. The number and location of palmitoylated cysteines in the autoacylated intermediate is unknown. In this study, we present evidence using mass spectrometry that DHHC3 is palmitoylated at the cysteine in the DHHC motif. Mutation of highly conserved CRD cysteines outside the DHHC motif resulted in activity deficits and a structural perturbation revealed by limited proteolysis. Treatment of DHHC3 with chelating agents in vitro replicated both the specific structural perturbations and activity deficits observed in conserved cysteine mutants, suggesting metal ion-binding in the CRD. Using the fluorescent indicator mag-fura-2, the metal released from DHHC3 was identified as zinc. The stoichiometry of zinc binding was measured as 2 mol of zinc/mol of DHHC3 protein. Taken together, our data demonstrate that coordination of zinc ions by cysteine residues within the CRD is required for the structural integrity of DHHC proteins. PMID:26487721

  9. Influence of Peptide Dipoles and Hydrogen Bonds on Reactive Cysteine pKa Values in Fission Yeast DJ-1

    PubMed Central

    Madzelan, Peter; Labunksa, Tetyana; Wilson, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Cysteine residues with depressed pKa values are critical for the functions of many proteins. Several types of interactions can stabilize cysteine thiolate anions, including hydrogen bonds between thiol(ate)s and nearby residues as well as electrostatic interactions involving charged residues or dipoles. Dipolar stabilization of thiolates by peptide groups has been suggested to play a particularly important role near the N-termini of α-helices. Using a combination of X-ray crystallography, site-directed mutagenesis, and spectroscopic methods, we show that the reactive cysteine residue (Cys111) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe DJ-1 experiences a 0.6 unit depression of its thiol pKa as a consequence of a hydrogen bond donated by a threonine sidechain (Thr114) to a nearby peptide carbonyl oxygen at the N-terminus of an α-helix. This extended hydrogen bonded interaction is consistent with a sum of dipoles model whereby the distal hydrogen bond polarizes and strengthens the direct hydrogen bond between the proximal amide hydrogen and the cysteine thiol(ate). Therefore, our results suggest that the local dipolar enhancement of hydrogen bonds can appreciably stabilize cysteine thiolate formation. However, the substitution of a valine residue with a proline at the i+3 position has only a minor effect (0.3 units) on the pKa of Cys111. As proline has a reduced peptide dipole moment, this small effect suggests that a more extended helix macrodipolar effect does not play a major role in this system. PMID:22971103

  10. Tryptophan and Cysteine Mutations in M1 Helices of α1β3γ2L γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors Indicate Distinct Intersubunit Sites for Four Intravenous Anesthetics and One Orphan Site.

    PubMed

    Nourmahnad, Anahita; Stern, Alex T; Hotta, Mayo; Stewart, Deirdre S; Ziemba, Alexis M; Szabo, Andrea; Forman, Stuart A

    2016-12-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors mediate important effects of intravenous general anesthetics. Photolabel derivatives of etomidate, propofol, barbiturates, and a neurosteroid get incorporated in GABAA receptor transmembrane helices M1 and M3 adjacent to intersubunit pockets. However, photolabels have not been consistently targeted at heteromeric αβγ receptors and do not form adducts with all contact residues. Complementary approaches may further define anesthetic sites in typical GABAA receptors. Two mutation-based strategies, substituted tryptophan sensitivity and substituted cysteine modification-protection, combined with voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus oocytes, were used to evaluate interactions between four intravenous anesthetics and six amino acids in M1 helices of α1, β3, and γ2L GABAA receptor subunits: two photolabeled residues, α1M236 and β3M227, and their homologs. Tryptophan substitutions at α1M236 and positional homologs β3L231 and γ2L246 all caused spontaneous channel gating and reduced γ-aminobutyric acid EC50. Substituted cysteine modification experiments indicated etomidate protection at α1L232C and α1M236C, R-5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirinylphenyl) barbituric acid protection at β3M227C and β3L231C, and propofol protection at α1M236C and β3M227C. No alphaxalone protection was evident at the residues the authors explored, and none of the tested anesthetics protected γ2I242C or γ2L246C. All five intersubunit transmembrane pockets of GABAA receptors display similar allosteric linkage to ion channel gating. Substituted cysteine modification and protection results were fully concordant with anesthetic photolabeling at α1M236 and β3M227 and revealed overlapping noncongruent sites for etomidate and propofol in β-α interfaces and R-5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirinylphenyl) barbituric acid and propofol in α-β and γ-β interfaces. The authors' results identify the

  11. Cysteine Prevents Menopausal Syndromes in Ovariectomized Mouse.

    PubMed

    Han, Na-Ra; Kim, Na-Rae; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-05-01

    Cysteine (Cys) is well known to be involved in oxidation-reduction reactions, serving as a source of sulfides in the body. Amino acids are known to improve menopausal symptoms and significantly reduce morbidity. This study aims to find an unrevealed effect of Cys with estrogenic and osteogenic actions. Ovariectomized (OVX) mice were treated with Cys daily for 8 weeks. Estrogen-related and osteoporosis-related factors were analyzed in the vagina, serum, and tibia. Cys was treated in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells and ER-positive human breast cancer Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells. Cysteine administration ameliorated overweightness of the body and vaginal atrophy in the OVX mice. Cysteine increased the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and 17β-estradiol in the serum of the OVX mice and improved the bone mineral density in the OVX mice. In MG-63 cells, Cys increased the proliferation, ERβ messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, and estrogen response element (ERE) activity. Cysteine increased the ALP activity and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. In MCF-7 cells, Cys also increased the proliferation, ERβ mRNA expression, and ERE activity. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Cys has estrogenic and osteogenic activities in OVX mice, MG-63 cells, and MCF-7 cells. The novel insights gained here strongly imply the potential use of Cys as a new agent for postmenopausal women.

  12. 21 CFR 582.5271 - Cysteine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cysteine. 582.5271 Section 582.5271 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5271 - Cysteine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cysteine. 582.5271 Section 582.5271 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5271 - Cysteine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cysteine. 582.5271 Section 582.5271 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5271 - Cysteine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cysteine. 582.5271 Section 582.5271 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5271 - Cysteine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cysteine. 582.5271 Section 582.5271 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  17. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  18. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  19. 2,2′-Dithiobis(5-nitropyridine) (DTNP) as an Effective and Gentle Deprotectant for Common Cysteine Protecting Groups†

    PubMed Central

    Schroll, Alayne L.; Hondal, Robert J.; Flemer, Stevenson

    2011-01-01

    Of all the commercially-available amino acid derivatives for solid phase peptide synthesis, none has a greater abundance of sidechain protection diversity than cysteine. The high reactivity of the cysteine thiol necessitates its attenuation during peptide construction. Moreover, the propensity of cysteine residues within a peptide or protein sequence to form disulfide connectivity allows the opportunity for the peptide chemist to install these disulfides iteratively as a post-synthetic manipulation through the judicious placement of orthogonal pairs of cysteine S-protection within the peptide's architecture. It is important to continuously discover new vectors of deprotection for these different blocking protocol in order to achieve the highest degree of orthogonality between the removal of one species in the presence of another. We report here a complete investigation of the scope and limitations of the deprotective potential of 2,2′-dithiobis(5-nitropyridine) (DTNP) on a selection of commercially-available Cys S-protecting groups. The gentle conditions of DTNP in a TFA solvent system show a remarkable ability to deprotect some cysteine blocking functionality traditionally removable only by more harsh or forcing conditions. Beyond illustrating the deprotective ability of this reagent cocktail within a cysteine-containing peptide sequence, the utility of this method was further demonstrated through iterative disulfide formation in oxytocin and apamin test peptides. It is shown that this methodology has high potential as a stand-alone cysteine deprotection technique or in further manipulation of disulfide architecture within a more complex cysteine-containing peptide template. PMID:22083608

  20. 2,2'-Dithiobis(5-nitropyridine) (DTNP) as an effective and gentle deprotectant for common cysteine protecting groups.

    PubMed

    Schroll, Alayne L; Hondal, Robert J; Flemer, Stevenson

    2012-01-01

    Of all the commercially available amino acid derivatives for solid phase peptide synthesis, none has a greater abundance of side-chain protection diversity than cysteine. The high reactivity of the cysteine thiol necessitates its attenuation during peptide construction. Moreover, the propensity of cysteine residues within a peptide or protein sequence to form disulfide connectivity allows the opportunity for the peptide chemist to install these disulfides iteratively as a post-synthetic manipulation through the judicious placement of orthogonal pairs of cysteine S-protection within the peptide's architecture. It is important to continuously discover new vectors of deprotection for these different blocking protocols in order to achieve the highest degree of orthogonality between the removal of one species in the presence of another. We report here a complete investigation of the scope and limitations of the deprotective potential of 2,2'-dithiobis(5-nitropyridine) (DTNP) on a selection of commercially available Cys S-protecting groups. The gentle conditions of DTNP in a TFA solvent system show a remarkable ability to deprotect some cysteine blocking functionality traditionally removable only by more harsh or forcing conditions. Beyond illustrating the deprotective ability of this reagent cocktail within a cysteine-containing peptide sequence, the utility of this method was further demonstrated through iterative disulfide formation in oxytocin and apamin test peptides. It is shown that this methodology has high potential as a stand-alone cysteine deprotection technique or in further manipulation of disulfide architecture within a more complex cysteine-containing peptide template. Copyright © 2011 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Impact of cysteine variants on the structure, activity, and stability of recombinant human α-galactosidase A.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huawei; Honey, Denise M; Kingsbury, Jonathan S; Park, Anna; Boudanova, Ekaterina; Wei, Ronnie R; Pan, Clark Q; Edmunds, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Recombinant human α-galactosidase A (rhαGal) is a homodimeric glycoprotein deficient in Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder. In this study, each cysteine residue in rhαGal was replaced with serine to understand the role each cysteine plays in the enzyme structure, function, and stability. Conditioned media from transfected HEK293 cells were assayed for rhαGal expression and enzymatic activity. Activity was only detected in the wild type control and in mutants substituting the free cysteine residues (C90S, C174S, and the C90S/C174S). Cysteine-to-serine substitutions at the other sites lead to the loss of expression and/or activity, consistent with their involvement in the disulfide bonds found in the crystal structure. Purification and further characterization confirmed that the C90S, C174S, and the C90S/C174S mutants are enzymatically active, structurally intact and thermodynamically stable as measured by circular dichroism and thermal denaturation. The purified inactive C142S mutant appeared to have lost part of its alpha-helix secondary structure and had a lower apparent melting temperature. Saturation mutagenesis study on Cys90 and Cys174 resulted in partial loss of activity for Cys174 mutants but multiple mutants at Cys90 with up to 87% higher enzymatic activity (C90T) compared to wild type, suggesting that the two free cysteines play differential roles and that the activity of the enzyme can be modulated by side chain interactions of the free Cys residues. These results enhanced our understanding of rhαGal structure and function, particularly the critical roles that cysteines play in structure, stability, and enzymatic activity.

  2. Impact of cysteine variants on the structure, activity, and stability of recombinant human α-galactosidase A

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Huawei; Honey, Denise M; Kingsbury, Jonathan S; Park, Anna; Boudanova, Ekaterina; Wei, Ronnie R; Pan, Clark Q; Edmunds, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant human α-galactosidase A (rhαGal) is a homodimeric glycoprotein deficient in Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder. In this study, each cysteine residue in rhαGal was replaced with serine to understand the role each cysteine plays in the enzyme structure, function, and stability. Conditioned media from transfected HEK293 cells were assayed for rhαGal expression and enzymatic activity. Activity was only detected in the wild type control and in mutants substituting the free cysteine residues (C90S, C174S, and the C90S/C174S). Cysteine-to-serine substitutions at the other sites lead to the loss of expression and/or activity, consistent with their involvement in the disulfide bonds found in the crystal structure. Purification and further characterization confirmed that the C90S, C174S, and the C90S/C174S mutants are enzymatically active, structurally intact and thermodynamically stable as measured by circular dichroism and thermal denaturation. The purified inactive C142S mutant appeared to have lost part of its alpha-helix secondary structure and had a lower apparent melting temperature. Saturation mutagenesis study on Cys90 and Cys174 resulted in partial loss of activity for Cys174 mutants but multiple mutants at Cys90 with up to 87% higher enzymatic activity (C90T) compared to wild type, suggesting that the two free cysteines play differential roles and that the activity of the enzyme can be modulated by side chain interactions of the free Cys residues. These results enhanced our understanding of rhαGal structure and function, particularly the critical roles that cysteines play in structure, stability, and enzymatic activity. PMID:26044846

  3. 21 CFR 184.1271 - L-Cysteine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true L-Cysteine. 184.1271 Section 184.1271 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1271 L-Cysteine. (a) L-Cysteine is the chemical L-2-amino-3... of total L-cysteine per 100 parts of flour in dough as a dough strengthener as defined in §...

  4. Cysteine transport through excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3).

    PubMed

    Watts, Spencer D; Torres-Salazar, Delany; Divito, Christopher B; Amara, Susan G

    2014-01-01

    Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) limit glutamatergic signaling and maintain extracellular glutamate concentrations below neurotoxic levels. Of the five known EAAT isoforms (EAATs 1-5), only the neuronal isoform, EAAT3 (EAAC1), can efficiently transport the uncharged amino acid L-cysteine. EAAT3-mediated cysteine transport has been proposed to be a primary mechanism used by neurons to obtain cysteine for the synthesis of glutathione, a key molecule in preventing oxidative stress and neuronal toxicity. The molecular mechanisms underlying the selective transport of cysteine by EAAT3 have not been elucidated. Here we propose that the transport of cysteine through EAAT3 requires formation of the thiolate form of cysteine in the binding site. Using Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells expressing EAAT2 and EAAT3, we assessed the transport kinetics of different substrates and measured transporter-associated currents electrophysiologically. Our results show that L-selenocysteine, a cysteine analog that forms a negatively-charged selenolate ion at physiological pH, is efficiently transported by EAATs 1-3 and has a much higher apparent affinity for transport when compared to cysteine. Using a membrane tethered GFP variant to monitor intracellular pH changes associated with transport activity, we observed that transport of either L-glutamate or L-selenocysteine by EAAT3 decreased intracellular pH, whereas transport of cysteine resulted in cytoplasmic alkalinization. No change in pH was observed when cysteine was applied to cells expressing EAAT2, which displays negligible transport of cysteine. Under conditions that favor release of intracellular substrates through EAAT3 we observed release of labeled intracellular glutamate but did not detect cysteine release. Our results support a model whereby cysteine transport through EAAT3 is facilitated through cysteine de-protonation and that once inside, the thiolate is rapidly re-protonated. Moreover, these findings suggest

  5. 21 CFR 184.1271 - L-Cysteine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false L-Cysteine. 184.1271 Section 184.1271 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1271 L-Cysteine. (a) L-Cysteine is the chemical L-2-amino-3... of total L-cysteine per 100 parts of flour in dough as a dough strengthener as defined in § 170.3(o...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1271 - L-Cysteine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false L-Cysteine. 184.1271 Section 184.1271 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1271 L-Cysteine. (a) L-Cysteine is the chemical L-2-amino-3... of total L-cysteine per 100 parts of flour in dough as a dough strengthener as defined in § 170.3(o...

  7. Residual stresses in welded plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Edward L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a simple model which could be used to study residual stress. The mechanism that results in residual stresses in the welding process starts with the deposition of molten weld metal which heats the immediately adjacent material. After solidification of weld material, normal thermal shrinkage is resisted by the adjacent, cooler material. When the thermal strain exceeds the elastic strain corresponding to the yield point stress, the stress level is limited by this value, which decreases with increasing temperature. Cooling then causes elastic unloading which is restrained by the adjoining material. Permanent plastic strain occurs, and tension is caused in the region immediately adjacent to the weld material. Compression arises in the metal farther from the weld in order to maintain overall static equilibrium. Subsequent repair welds may add to the level of residual stresses. The level of residual stress is related to the onset of fracture during welding. Thus, it is of great importance to be able to predict the level of residual stresses remaining after a weld procedure, and to determine the factors, such as weld speed, temperature, direction, and number of passes, which may affect the magnitude of remaining residual stress. It was hoped to use traditional analytical modeling techniques so that it would be easier to comprehend the effect of these variables on the resulting stress. This approach was chosen in place of finite element methods so as to facilitate the understanding of the physical processes. The accuracy of the results was checked with some existing experimental studies giving residual stress levels found from x-ray diffraction measurements.

  8. Natural cysteine protease inhibitors in protozoa: Fifteen years of the chagasin family.

    PubMed

    Costa, Tatiana F R; Lima, Ana Paula C A

    2016-03-01

    Chagasin-type inhibitors comprise natural inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteases that are distributed among Protist, Bacteria and Archaea. Chagasin was identified in the pathogenic protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi as an approximately 11 kDa protein that is a tight-binding and highly thermostable inhibitor of papain, cysteine cathepsins and endogenous parasite cysteine proteases. It displays an Imunoglobulin-like fold with three exposed loops to one side of the molecule, where amino acid residues present in conserved motifs at the tips of each loop contact target proteases. Differently from cystatins, the loop 2 of chagasin enters the active-site cleft, making direct contact with the catalytic residues, while loops 4 and 6 embrace the enzyme from the sides. Orthologues of chagasin are named Inhibitors of Cysteine Peptidases (ICP), and share conserved overall tri-dimensional structure and mode of binding to proteases. ICPs are tentatively distributed in three families: in family I42 are grouped chagasin-type inhibitors that share conserved residues at the exposed loops; family I71 contains Plasmodium ICPs, which are large proteins having a chagasin-like domain at the C-terminus, with lower similarity to chagasin in the conserved motif at loop 2; family I81 contains Toxoplasma ICP. Recombinant ICPs tested so far can inactivate protozoa cathepsin-like proteases and their mammalian counterparts. Studies on their biological roles were carried out in a few species, mainly using transgenic protozoa, and the conclusions vary. However, in all cases, alterations in the levels of expression of chagasin/ICPs led to substantial changes in one or more steps of parasite biology, with higher incidence in influencing their interaction with the hosts. We will cover most of the findings on chagasin/ICP structural and functional properties and overview the current knowledge on their roles in protozoa.

  9. Noxious compounds activate TRPA1 ion channels through covalent modification of cysteines.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Lindsey J; Dubin, Adrienne E; Evans, Michael J; Marr, Felix; Schultz, Peter G; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2007-02-01

    The nervous system senses peripheral damage through nociceptive neurons that transmit a pain signal. TRPA1 is a member of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family of ion channels and is expressed in nociceptive neurons. TRPA1 is activated by a variety of noxious stimuli, including cold temperatures, pungent natural compounds, and environmental irritants. How such diverse stimuli activate TRPA1 is not known. We observed that most compounds known to activate TRPA1 are able to covalently bind cysteine residues. Here we use click chemistry to show that derivatives of two such compounds, mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde, covalently bind mouse TRPA1. Structurally unrelated cysteine-modifying agents such as iodoacetamide (IA) and (2-aminoethyl)methanethiosulphonate (MTSEA) also bind and activate TRPA1. We identified by mass spectrometry fourteen cytosolic TRPA1 cysteines labelled by IA, three of which are required for normal channel function. In excised patches, reactive compounds activated TRPA1 currents that were maintained at least 10 min after washout of the compound in calcium-free solutions. Finally, activation of TRPA1 by disulphide-bond-forming MTSEA is blocked by the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT). Collectively, our data indicate that covalent modification of reactive cysteines within TRPA1 can cause channel activation, rapidly signalling potential tissue damage through the pain pathway.

  10. A novel cysteine-sparing NOTCH3 mutation in a Chinese family with CADASIL.

    PubMed

    Ge, Wei; Kuang, Hanzhe; Wei, Bin; Bo, Le; Xu, Zhice; Xu, Xingshun; Geng, Deqin; Sun, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an adult onset cerebral small vessel disorder caused by the mutations of the neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 3 (NOTCH3) gene. The extracellular part of NOTCH3 is composed of 34 epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) repeat domains. Each EGF-like domain is rich of cysteine and glycine to produce three loops that are essential for high-affinity binding to its ligand. Nearly all reported CADASIL-associated mutations result in gain or loss of a cysteine residue within the EGF-like domains. Only a few cysteine-sparing NOTCH3 mutations have been documented in the patients with CADASIL to date. Here, we reported a Chinese CADASIL family with a cysteine-sparing NOTCH3 mutation. In this family, affected patients had dizziness, memory loss, gait instability, or hemiplegia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse leukoencephalopathy with confluent signal abnormalities in the periventricular white matter, basal ganglia, and centrum semiovale bilaterally. By screening the entire coding region of NOTCH3, a novel missense mutation p.G149V (c.446G>T) was found. This mutation was not detected in 400 normal controls. Considering the critical position of glycine within the C-loop of EGF-like domain and its high conservation through evolution, p.G149V mutation could be a potential pathogenic cause for CADASIL.

  11. Proteome-Wide Profiling of Targets of Cysteine reactive Small Molecules by Using Ethynyl Benziodoxolone Reagents.

    PubMed

    Abegg, Daniel; Frei, Reto; Cerato, Luca; Prasad Hari, Durga; Wang, Chao; Waser, Jerome; Adibekian, Alexander

    2015-09-07

    In this study, we present a highly efficient method for proteomic profiling of cysteine residues in complex proteomes and in living cells. Our method is based on alkynylation of cysteines in complex proteomes using a "clickable" alkynyl benziodoxolone bearing an azide group. This reaction proceeds fast, under mild physiological conditions, and with a very high degree of chemoselectivity. The formed azide-capped alkynyl-cysteine adducts are readily detectable by LC-MS/MS, and can be further functionalized with TAMRA or biotin alkyne via CuAAC. We demonstrate the utility of alkynyl benziodoxolones for chemical proteomics applications by identifying the proteomic targets of curcumin, a diarylheptanoid natural product that was and still is part of multiple human clinical trials as anticancer agent. Our results demonstrate that curcumin covalently modifies several key players of cellular signaling and metabolism, most notably the enzyme casein kinase I gamma. We anticipate that this new method for cysteine profiling will find broad application in chemical proteomics and drug discovery.

  12. Structural Role of the Conserved Cysteines in the Dimerization of the Viral Transmembrane Oncoprotein E5

    PubMed Central

    Windisch, Dirk; Hoffmann, Silke; Afonin, Sergii; Vollmer, Stefanie; Benamira, Soraya; Langer, Birgid; Bürck, Jochen; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    The E5 oncoprotein is the major transforming protein of bovine papillomavirus type 1. This 44-residue transmembrane protein can interact with the platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, leading to ligand-independent activation and cell transformation. For productive interaction, E5 needs to dimerize via a C-terminal pair of cysteines, though a recent study suggested that its truncated transmembrane segment can dimerize on its own. To analyze the structure of the full protein in a membrane environment and elucidate the role of the Cys-Ser-Cys motif, we produced recombinantly the wild-type protein and four cysteine mutants. Comparison by circular dichroism in detergent micelles and lipid vesicular dispersion and by NMR in trifluoroethanol demonstrates that the absence of one or both cysteines does not influence the highly α-helical secondary structure, nor does it impair the ability of E5 to dimerize, observations that are further supported by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We also observed assemblies of higher order. Oriented circular dichroism in lipid bilayers shows that E5 is aligned as a transmembrane helix with a slight tilt angle, and that this membrane alignment is also independent of any cysteines. We conclude that the Cys-containing motif represents a disordered region of the protein that serves as an extra covalent connection for stabilization. PMID:20858420

  13. Posttranslational modification of cysteine in redox signaling and oxidative stress: Focus on s-glutathionylation.

    PubMed

    Mieyal, John J; Chock, P Boon

    2012-03-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have become recognized as second messengers for initiating and/or regulating vital cellular signaling pathways, and they are known also as deleterious mediators of cellular stress and cell death. ROS and RNS, and their cross products like peroxynitrite, react primarily with cysteine residues whose oxidative modification leads to functional alterations in the proteins. In this Forum, the collection of six review articles presents a perspective on the broad biological impact of cysteine modifications in health and disease from the molecular to the cellular and organismal levels, focusing in particular on reversible protein-S-glutathionylation and its central role in transducing redox signals as well as protecting proteins from irreversible cysteine oxidation. The Forum review articles consider the role of S-glutationylation in regulation of the peroxiredoxin enzymes, the special redox environment of the mitochondria, redox regulation pertinent to the function of the cardiovascular system, mechanisms of redox-activated apoptosis in the pulmonary system, and the role of glutathionylation in the initiation, propagation, and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Several common themes emerge from these reviews; notably, the probability of crosstalk between signaling/regulation mechanisms involving protein-S-nitrosylation and protein-S-glutathionylation, and the need for quantitative analysis of the relationship between specific cysteine modifications and corresponding functional changes in various cellular contexts.

  14. Sperm nuclei glutathione peroxidases and their occurrence in animal species with cysteine-containing protamines.

    PubMed

    Bertelsmann, Holger; Kuehbacher, Markus; Weseloh, Gundolf; Kyriakopoulos, Antonios; Behne, Dietrich

    2007-10-01

    The selenoenzyme sperm nuclei glutathione peroxidase (snGPx), also called the nuclear form of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (n-PHGPx), was found to be involved in the stabilization of condensed sperm chromatin, most likely by thiol to disulfide oxidation of the cysteine residues of the mammalian protamines, small nuclear basic proteins in the nuclei of sperm cells. By applying Acidic Urea-PAGE in combination with SDS-PAGE, snGPx with an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa and a 24-kDa protein were purified from rat sperm nuclei. The 24-kDa protein was identified by means of mass spectrometry as a truncated form of snGPx produced by cleavage at the N-terminal end. After defined processing of spermatozoa and detergent treatment of the sperm nuclei fraction, snGPx and its truncated form were shown to be the only selenoproteins present in mature mammalian sperm nuclei. Both forms were found in mature rat and horse sperm nuclei but in man only snGPx was detected. In trout and chicken, species with sperm cells which likewise undergo chromatin condensation but do not contain cysteine in their protamines, the snGPx proteins were missing. This can be taken as an indirect proof of the function of snGPx to act as protamine cysteine thiol peroxidase in the mammalian species with cysteine-containing protamines.

  15. Mechanistic Details of Glutathione Biosynthesis Revealed by Crystal Structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glutamate Cysteine Ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Biterova, Ekaterina I.; Barycki, Joseph J.

    2009-12-01

    Glutathione is a thiol-disulfide exchange peptide critical for buffering oxidative or chemical stress, and an essential cofactor in several biosynthesis and detoxification pathways. The rate-limiting step in its de novo biosynthesis is catalyzed by glutamate cysteine ligase, a broadly expressed enzyme for which limited structural information is available in higher eukaryotic species. Structural data are critical to the understanding of clinical glutathione deficiency, as well as rational design of enzyme modulators that could impact human disease progression. Here, we have determined the structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glutamate cysteine ligase (ScGCL) in the presence of glutamate and MgCl{sub 2} (2.1 {angstrom}; R = 18.2%, R{sub free} = 21.9%), and in complex with glutamate, MgCl{sub 2}, and ADP (2.7 {angstrom}; R = 19.0%, R{sub free} = 24.2%). Inspection of these structures reveals an unusual binding pocket for the {alpha}-carboxylate of the glutamate substrate and an ATP-independent Mg{sup 2+} coordination site, clarifying the Mg{sup 2+} dependence of the enzymatic reaction. The ScGCL structures were further used to generate a credible homology model of the catalytic subunit of human glutamate cysteine ligase (hGCLC). Examination of the hGCLC model suggests that post-translational modifications of cysteine residues may be involved in the regulation of enzymatic activity, and elucidates the molecular basis of glutathione deficiency associated with patient hGCLC mutations.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1272 - L-Cysteine monohydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true L-Cysteine monohydrochloride. 184.1272 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1272 L-Cysteine monohydrochloride. (a) L-Cysteine monohydrochloride is the chemical L-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid monohydrochloride monohydrate (C3H7O2NS HCl...

  17. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off...

  18. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off...

  19. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off...

  20. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off...

  1. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off...

  2. Kinetic and mutational studies of three NifS homologs from Escherichia coli: mechanistic difference between L-cysteine desulfurase and L-selenocysteine lyase reactions.

    PubMed

    Mihara, H; Kurihara, T; Yoshimura, T; Esaki, N

    2000-04-01

    We have purified three NifS homologs from Escherichia coli, CSD, CsdB, and IscS, that appear to be involved in iron-sulfur cluster formation and/or the biosynthesis of selenophosphate. All three homologs catalyze the elimination of Se and S from L-selenocysteine and L-cysteine, respectively, to form L-alanine. These pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzymes were inactivated by abortive transamination, yielding pyruvate and a pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate form of the enzyme. The enzymes showed non-Michaelis-Menten behavior for L-selenocysteine and L-cysteine. When pyruvate was added, they showed Michaelis-Menten behavior for L-selenocysteine but not for L-cysteine. Pyruvate significantly enhanced the activity of CSD toward L-selenocysteine. Surprisingly, the enzyme activity toward L-cysteine was not increased as much by pyruvate, suggesting the presence of different rate-limiting steps or reaction mechanisms for L-cysteine desulfurization and the degradation of L-selenocysteine. We substituted Ala for each of Cys358 in CSD, Cys364 in CsdB, and Cys328 in IscS, residues that correspond to the catalytically essential Cys325 of Azotobacter vinelandii NifS. The enzyme activity toward L-cysteine was almost completely abolished by the mutations, whereas the activity toward L-selenocysteine was much less affected. This indicates that the reaction mechanism of L-cysteine desulfurization is different from that of L-selenocysteine decomposition, and that the conserved cysteine residues play a critical role only in L-cysteine desulfurization.

  3. A cysteine in the repetitive domain of a high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit interferes with the mixing properties of wheat dough.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Zhang, Qisen; Newberry, Marcus P; Chalmers, Ken J; Mather, Diane E

    2013-03-01

    The quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for making bread is largely due to the strength and extensibility of wheat dough, which in turn is due to the properties of polymeric glutenin. Polymeric glutenin consists of high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin protein subunits linked by disulphide bonds between cysteine residues. Glutenin subunits differ in their effects on dough mixing properties. The research presented here investigated the effect of a specific, recently discovered, glutenin subunit on dough mixing properties. This subunit, Bx7.1, is unusual in that it has a cysteine in its repetitive domain. With site-directed mutagenesis of the gene encoding Bx7.1, a guanine in the repetitive domain was replaced by an adenine, to provide a mutant gene encoding a subunit (MutBx7.1) in which the repetitive-domain cysteine was replaced by a tyrosine residue. Bx7.1, MutBx7.1 and other Bx-type glutenin subunits were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. This made it possible to incorporate each individual subunit into wheat flour and evaluate the effect of the cysteine residue on dough properties. The Bx7.1 subunit affected dough mixing properties differently from the other subunits. These differences are due to the extra cysteine residue, which may interfere with glutenin polymerisation through cross-linkage within the Bx7.1 subunit, causing this subunit to act as a chain terminator.

  4. Palmitoylation of the cysteine-rich endodomain of the SARS-coronavirus spike glycoprotein is important for spike-mediated cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, Chad M.; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Iyer, Arun; Colgrove, Robin; Farzan, Michael; Knipe, David M.; Kousoulas, K.G. . E-mail: vtgusk@lsu.edu

    2007-04-10

    The SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the etiological agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein mediates membrane fusion events during virus entry and virus-induced cell-to-cell fusion. The cytoplasmic portion of the S glycoprotein contains four cysteine-rich amino acid clusters. Individual cysteine clusters were altered via cysteine-to-alanine amino acid replacement and the modified S glycoproteins were tested for their transport to cell-surfaces and ability to cause cell fusion in transient transfection assays. Mutagenesis of the cysteine cluster I, located immediately proximal to the predicted transmembrane, domain did not appreciably reduce cell-surface expression, although S-mediated cell fusion was reduced by more than 50% in comparison to the wild-type S. Similarly, mutagenesis of the cysteine cluster II located adjacent to cluster I reduced S-mediated cell fusion by more than 60% compared to the wild-type S, while cell-surface expression was reduced by less than 20%. Mutagenesis of cysteine clusters III and IV did not appreciably affect S cell-surface expression or S-mediated cell fusion. The wild-type S was palmitoylated as evidenced by the efficient incorporation of {sup 3}H-palmitic acid in wild-type S molecules. S glycoprotein palmitoylation was significantly reduced for mutant glycoproteins having cluster I and II cysteine changes, but was largely unaffected for cysteine cluster III and IV mutants. These results show that the S cytoplasmic domain is palmitoylated and that palmitoylation of the membrane proximal cysteine clusters I and II may be important for S-mediated cell fusion.

  5. Attachment site cysteine thiol pKa is a key driver for site-dependent stability of THIOMAB(TM) antibody-drug conjugates.

    PubMed

    Vollmar, Breanna S; Wei, Binqing; Ohri, Rachana; Zhou, Jianhui; He, Jintang; Yu, Shang-Fan; Leipold, Douglas; Cosino, Ely; Yee, Sharon; Fourie-O'Donohue, Aimee; Li, Guangmin; Lewis Phillips, Gail D; Kozak, Katherine Ruth; Kamath, Amrita; Xu, Keyang; Lee, Genee; Lazar, Greg A; Erickson, Hans K

    2017-09-08

    Incorporation of cysteines into antibodies by mutagenesis allows for the direct conjugation of small molecules to specific sites on the antibody via disulfide bonds. The stability of the disulfide bond linkage between the small molecule and the antibody is highly dependent on the location of the engineered cysteine in either the heavy chain (HC) or light chain (LC) of the antibody. Here, we explore the basis for this site-dependent stability. We evaluated the in vivo efficacy and pharmacokinetics of five different cysteine mutants of trastuzumab conjugated to a pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) via disulfide bonds. A significant correlation was observed between disulfide stability and efficacy for the conjugates. We hypothesized that the observed site-dependent stability of the disulfide-linked conjugates could be due to differences in the attachment site cysteine thiol pKa. We measured the cysteine thiol pKa using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and found that the variants with the highest thiol pKa (LC K149C and HC A140C) were found to yield the conjugates with the greatest in vivo stability. Guided by homology modeling, we identified several mutations adjacent to LC K149C which reduced the cysteine thiol pKa and thus decreased the in vivo stability of the disulfide-linked PBD conjugated to LC K149C. We also present results suggesting that the high thiol pKa of LC K149C is responsible for the sustained circulation stability of LC K149C TDCs utilizing a maleimide-based linker. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the site-dependent stability of cys-engineered antibody-drug conjugates may be explained by interactions between the engineered cysteine and the local protein environment that serve to modulate the side chain thiol pKa. The influence of cysteine thiol pKa on stability & efficacy offers a new parameter for the optimization of ADCs that utilize cysteine-engineering.

  6. Conserved catalytic residues of the ALDH1L1 aldehyde dehydrogenase domain control binding and discharging of the coenzyme.

    PubMed

    Tsybovsky, Yaroslav; Krupenko, Sergey A

    2011-07-01

    The C-terminal domain (C(t)-FDH) of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (FDH, ALDH1L1) is an NADP(+)-dependent oxidoreductase and a structural and functional homolog of aldehyde dehydrogenases. Here we report the crystal structures of several C(t)-FDH mutants in which two essential catalytic residues adjacent to the nicotinamide ring of bound NADP(+), Cys-707 and Glu-673, were replaced separately or simultaneously. The replacement of the glutamate with an alanine causes irreversible binding of the coenzyme without any noticeable conformational changes in the vicinity of the nicotinamide ring. Additional replacement of cysteine 707 with an alanine (E673A/C707A double mutant) did not affect this irreversible binding indicating that the lack of the glutamate is solely responsible for the enhanced interaction between the enzyme and the coenzyme. The substitution of the cysteine with an alanine did not affect binding of NADP(+) but resulted in the enzyme lacking the ability to differentiate between the oxidized and reduced coenzyme: unlike the wild-type C(t)-FDH/NADPH complex, in the C707A mutant the position of NADPH is identical to the position of NADP(+) with the nicotinamide ring well ordered within the catalytic center. Thus, whereas the glutamate restricts the affinity for the coenzyme, the cysteine is the sensor of the coenzyme redox state. These conclusions were confirmed by coenzyme binding experiments. Our study further suggests that the binding of the coenzyme is additionally controlled by a long-range communication between the catalytic center and the coenzyme-binding domain and points toward an α-helix involved in the adenine moiety binding as a participant of this communication.

  7. Conserved Catalytic Residues of the ALDH1L1 Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Domain Control Binding and Discharging of the Coenzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Tsybovsky, Yaroslav; Krupenko, Sergey A.

    2011-01-01

    The C-terminal domain (Ct-FDH) of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (FDH, ALDH1L1) is an NADP+-dependent oxidoreductase and a structural and functional homolog of aldehyde dehydrogenases. Here we report the crystal structures of several Ct-FDH mutants in which two essential catalytic residues adjacent to the nicotinamide ring of bound NADP+, Cys-707 and Glu-673, were replaced separately or simultaneously. The replacement of the glutamate with an alanine causes irreversible binding of the coenzyme without any noticeable conformational changes in the vicinity of the nicotinamide ring. Additional replacement of cysteine 707 with an alanine (E673A/C707A double mutant) did not affect this irreversible binding indicating that the lack of the glutamate is solely responsible for the enhanced interaction between the enzyme and the coenzyme. The substitution of the cysteine with an alanine did not affect binding of NADP+ but resulted in the enzyme lacking the ability to differentiate between the oxidized and reduced coenzyme: unlike the wild-type Ct-FDH/NADPH complex, in the C707A mutant the position of NADPH is identical to the position of NADP+ with the nicotinamide ring well ordered within the catalytic center. Thus, whereas the glutamate restricts the affinity for the coenzyme, the cysteine is the sensor of the coenzyme redox state. These conclusions were confirmed by coenzyme binding experiments. Our study further suggests that the binding of the coenzyme is additionally controlled by a long-range communication between the catalytic center and the coenzyme-binding domain and points toward an α-helix involved in the adenine moiety binding as a participant of this communication. PMID:21540484

  8. Reactive cysteine in the structural Zn2+ site of the C1B domain from PKCα

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Mikaela D.; Igumenova, Tatyana I.

    2012-01-01

    Structural cysteine-rich Zn2+ sites that stabilize protein folds are considered to be unreactive. In this manuscript, we identified a reactive cysteine residue, Cys151, in a treble-clef zinc finger with a Cys3His coordination sphere. The protein in question is the C1B domain of Protein Kinase Cα (PKCα). Mass-tagging cysteine assays of several C1B variants were employed to ascertain the site specificity of the covalent modification. The reactivity of Cys151 in C1B also manifests itself in the structural dynamics of the Zn2+ coordination sphere where the Sγ of Cys151 alternates between the Zn2+-bound thiolate and free thiol states. We used NMR-detected pH titrations, ZZ-exchange spectroscopy, and residual dipolar coupling (RDC)-driven structure refinement to characterize the two exchanging conformations of C1B that differ in zinc coordination. Our data suggest that Cys151 serves as an entry point for the reactive oxygen species that activate PKCα in a process involving Zn2+ release. PMID:22913772

  9. Orthogonal Cysteine Protection Enables Homogeneous Multi‐Drug Antibody–Drug Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinqun; Hunter, Joshua H.; Emmerton, Kim K.; Miyamoto, Jamie B.; Lewis, Timothy S.; Senter, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A strategy for the preparation of homogeneous antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) containing multiple payloads has been developed. This approach utilizes sequential unmasking of cysteine residues with orthogonal protection to enable site‐specific conjugation of each drug. In addition, because the approach utilizes conjugation to native antibody cysteine residues, it is widely applicable and enables high drug loading for improved ADC potency. To highlight the benefits of ADC dual drug delivery, this strategy was applied to the preparation of ADCs containing two classes of auristatin drug‐linkers that have differing physiochemical properties and exert complementary anti‐cancer activities. Dual‐auristatin ADCs imparted activity in cell line and xenograft models that are refractory to ADCs comprised of the individual auristatin components. This work presents a facile method for construction of potent dual‐drug ADCs and demonstrates how delivery of multiple cytotoxic warheads can lead to improved ADC activities. Lastly, we anticipate that the conditions utilized herein for orthogonal cysteine unmasking are not restricted to ADCs and can be broadly utilized for site‐specific protein modification. PMID:27966822

  10. Procerain, a stable cysteine protease from the latex of Calotropis procera.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Vikash Kumar; Jagannadham, M V

    2003-04-01

    A protease was purified to homogeneity from the latex of medicinal plant Calotropis procera (Family-Asclepiadaceae). The molecular mass and isoelectric point of the enzyme are 28.8 kDa and 9.32, respectively. Hydrolysis of azoalbumin by the enzyme was optimal in the range of pH 7.0-9.0 and temperature 55-60 degree C. The enzyme hydrolyses denatured natural substrates like casein, azoalbumin, and azocasein with high specific activity. Proteolytic and amidolytic activities of the enzyme were activated by thiol protease activators and inhibited by thiol protease inhibitors, indicating the enzyme to be a cysteine protease. The enzyme named as procerain, cleaves N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide but not -Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide, -Ala p-nitroanilide and N-d-Benzoyl--Arg-p-nitroanilide and appears to be peptide length dependent. The extinction coefficient (epsilon 1% 280 nm) of the enzyme was 24.9 and it had no detectable carbohydrate moiety. Procerain contains eight tryptophan, 20 tyrosine and seven cysteine residues forming three disulfide bridges, and the remaining one being free. Procerain retains full activity over a broad range of pH 3.0-12.0 and temperatures up to 70 degree C, besides being stable at very high concentrations of chemical denaturants and organic solvents. Polyclonal antibodies against procerain do not cross-react with other related proteases. Procerain unlike most of the plant cysteine proteases has blocked N-terminal residue.

  11. Miltpain, new cysteine proteinase from the milt of chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, C; Ichishima, E

    1997-07-01

    A new cysteine proteinase, salmon miltpain, was isolated and purified from the milt of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). Native molecular mass was estimated as 67,000 by gel filtration column chromatography (Shodex WS2003) and 22,300 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Isoelectoric point was determined to be 3.9 by isoelectric focusing. The first 15 amino acid residues in the N-terminal region were LPSFLY-AEMVGYNIL. The cysteine proteinase, which had a pH optimum of 6.0 for Z-Arg-Arg-MCA hydrolysis, required a thiol-reducing reagent for activation and was inhibited by E-64, iodacetamide, CA-074 Me, TLCK, TPCK and ZPCK. The cysteine proteinase exhibited unique substrate specificity toward paired basic residues such as Lys-Arg, Arg-Arg at the subsites of P2-P1 and had a K(m) of 16.3 microM and kcat of 20.3 s-1 with Z-Arg-Arg-MCA as substrate and a K(m) of 52.9 microM and kcat of 1.79 s-1 with Z-Phe-Arg-MCA. This proteinase was found to considerably hydrolyze basic proteins such as histone, salmine and clupaine but not milk casein.

  12. L-Cysteine Metabolism and Fermentation in Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Ohtsu, Iwao

    L-Cysteine is an important amino acid both biologically and commercially. Although most amino acids are industrially produced by microbial fermentation, L-cysteine has been mainly produced by protein hydrolysis. Due to environmental and safety problems, synthetic or biotechnological products have been preferred in the market. Here, we reviewed L-cysteine metabolism, including biosynthesis, degradation, and transport, and biotechnological production (including both enzymatic and fermentation processes) of L-cysteine. The metabolic regulation of L-cysteine including novel sulfur metabolic pathways found in microorganisms is also discussed. Recent advancement in biochemical studies, genome sequencing, structural biology, and metabolome analysis has enabled us to use various approaches to achieve direct fermentation of L-cysteine from glucose. For example, worldwide companies began to supply L-cysteine and its derivatives produced by bacterial fermentation. These companies successfully optimized the original metabolism of their private strains. Basically, a combination of three factors should be required for improving L-cysteine fermentation: that is, (1) enhancing biosynthesis: overexpression of the altered cysE gene encoding feedback inhibition-insensitive L-serine O-acetyltransferase (SAT), (2) weakening degradation: knockout of the genes encoding L-cysteine desulfhydrases, and (3) exploiting export system: overexpression of the gene involved in L-cysteine transport. Moreover, we found that "thiosulfate" is much more effective sulfur source than commonly used "sulfate" for L-cysteine production in Escherichia coli, because thiosulfate is advantageous for saving consumption of NADPH and relating energy molecules.

  13. Dual Labeling Biotin Switch Assay to Reduce Bias Derived from Different Cysteine Subpopulations: A Method to Maximize S-Nitrosylation Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Heaseung Sophia; Murray, Christopher I.; Venkatraman, Vidya; Crowgey, Erin L.; Rainer, Peter P.; Cole, Robert N.; Bomgarden, Ryan D.; Rogers, John C.; Balkan, Wayne; Hare, Joshua M.; Kass, David A.; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale S-nitrosylation (SNO), an oxidative post-translational modification of cysteine residues, responds to changes in the cardiac redox-environment. Classic biotin switch assay and its derivatives are the most common methods used for detecting SNO. In this approach, the labile SNO group is selectively replaced with a single stable tag. To date, a variety of thiol-reactive tags have been introduced. However, these methods have not produced a consistent dataset which suggests an incomplete capture by a single tag and potentially the presence of different cysteine subpopulations. Objective To investigate potential labeling bias in the existing methods with a single tag to detect SNO, explore if there are distinct cysteine subpopulations, and then, develop a strategy to maximize the coverage of SNO proteome. Methods and Results We obtained SNO-modified cysteine datasets for wild-type and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) knock-out mouse hearts (GSNOR is a negative regulator of GSNO production) and NO-induced human embryonic kidney cell using two labeling reagents; the cysteine-reactive pyridyldithiol and iodoacetyl based tandem mass tags. Comparison revealed that <30% of the SNO-modified residues were detected by both tags, while the remaining SNO sites were only labeled by one reagent. Characterization of the two distinct subpopulations of SNO residues indicated that pyridyldithiol reagent preferentially labels cysteine residues that are more basic and hydrophobic. Based on this observation, we proposed a parallel dual labeling strategy followed by an optimized proteomics workflow. This enabled the profiling of 493 SNO-sites in GSNOR knock-out hearts. Conclusions Using a protocol comprising two tags for dual labeling maximizes overall detection of SNO by reducing the previously unrecognized labeling bias derived from different cysteine subpopulations. PMID:26338901

  14. Cysteine cathepsin activity regulation by glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Novinec, Marko; Lenarčič, Brigita; Turk, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine cathepsins are a group of enzymes normally found in the endolysosomes where they are primarily involved in intracellular protein turnover but also have a critical role in MHC II-mediated antigen processing and presentation. However, in a number of pathologies cysteine cathepsins were found to be heavily upregulated and secreted into extracellular milieu, where they were found to degrade a number of extracellular proteins. A major role in modulating cathepsin activities play glycosaminoglycans, which were found not only to facilitate their autocatalytic activation including at neutral pH, but also to critically modulate their activities such as in the case of the collagenolytic activity of cathepsin K. The interaction between cathepsins and glycosaminoglycans will be discussed in more detail.

  15. Crystal structure of viral serpin crmA provides insights into its mechanism of cysteine proteinase inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Simonovic, M.; Gettins PGW; Volz, K.

    2000-01-01

    CrmA is an unusual viral serpin that inhibits both cysteine and serine proteinases involved in the regulation of host inflammatory and apoptosis processes. It differs from other members of the serpin superfamily by having a reactive center loop that is one residue shorter, and by its apparent inability to form SDS-stable covalent complexes with cysteine proteinases. To obtain insight into the inhibitory mechanism of crmA, we determined the crystal structure of reactive center loop-cleaved crmA to 2.9 A resolution. The structure, which is the first of a viral serpin, suggests that crmA can inhibit cysteine proteinases by a mechanism analogous to that used by other serpins against serine proteinases. However, one striking difference from other serpins, which may be significant for in vivo function, is an additional highly charged antiparallel strand for b sheet A, whose sequence and length are unique to crmA. PMID:10975564

  16. Mechanism for the desulfurization of L-cysteine catalyzed by the nifS gene product.

    PubMed

    Zheng, L; White, R H; Cash, V L; Dean, D R

    1994-04-19

    The nifS gene product (NIFS) is a pyridoxal phosphate binding enzyme that catalyzes the desulfurization of L-cysteine to yield L-alanine and sulfur. In Azotobacter vinelandii this activity is required for the full activation of the nitrogenase component proteins. Because the nitrogenase component proteins, Fe protein and MoFe protein, both contain metalloclusters which are required for their respective activities, it is suggested that NIFS participates in the biosynthesis of the nitrogenase metalloclusters by providing the inorganic sulfur required for Fe-S core formation [Zheng, L., White, R. H., Cash, V. L. Jack, R. F., & Dean, D. R. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 2754-2758]. In the present study the mechanism for the desulfurization of L-cysteine catalyzed by NIFS was determined in the following ways. First, the substrate analogs, L-allylglycine and vinylglycine, were shown to irreversibly inactivate NIFS by formation of a gamma-methylcystathionyl or cystathionyl residue, respectively, through nucleophilic attack by an active site cysteinyl residue on the corresponding analog-pyridoxal phosphate adduct. Second, this reactive cysteinyl residue, which is required for L-cysteine desulfurization activity, was identified as Cys325 by the specific alkylation of that residue and by site-directed mutagenesis experiments. Third, the formation of an enzyme-bound cysteinyl persulfide was identified as an intermediate in the NIFS-catalyzed reaction. Fourth, evidence was obtained for an enamine intermediate in the formation of L-alanine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Synthetic null-cysteine phospholamban analogue and the corresponding transmembrane domain inhibit the Ca-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Karim, C B; Marquardt, C G; Stamm, J D; Barany, G; Thomas, D D

    2000-09-05

    Chemical synthesis, functional reconstitution, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) have been used to analyze the structure and function of phospholamban (PLB), a 52-residue integral membrane protein that regulates the calcium pump (Ca-ATPase) in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). PLB exists in equilibrium between monomeric and pentameric forms, as observed by SDS-PAGE, EPR, and fluorescence. It has been proposed that inhibition of the pump is due primarily to the monomeric form, with both pentameric stability and inhibition dependent primarily on the transmembrane (TM) domain. To test these hypotheses, we have studied the physical and functional properties of a synthetic null-cysteine PLB analogue that is entirely monomeric on SDS-PAGE, and compared it with the synthetic null-cysteine TM domain (residues 26-52). The TM domain was found to be primarily oligomeric on SDS-PAGE, and boundary lipid spin label analysis in lipid bilayers verified that the isolated TM domain is more oligomeric than the full-length parent molecule. These results indicate that the stability of the PLB pentamer is due primarily to attractive interactions between hydrophobic TM domains, overcoming the repulsive electrostatic interactions between the cationic cytoplasmic domains (residues 1-25). When reconstituted into liposomes containing the Ca-ATPase, the null-cysteine TM domain had the same inhibitory function as that of the full-length parent molecule. We conclude that the TM domain of PLB is sufficient for inhibitory function, the oligomeric stability of PLB does not determine its inhibitory activity, and the three Cys residues in the TM domain are not required for inhibitory function.

  18. A perfluoroaryl-cysteine S(N)Ar chemistry approach to unprotected peptide stapling.

    PubMed

    Spokoyny, Alexander M; Zou, Yekui; Ling, Jingjing J; Yu, Hongtao; Lin, Yu-Shan; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2013-04-24

    We report the discovery of a facile transformation between perfluoroaromatic molecules and a cysteine thiolate, which is arylated at room temperature. This new approach enabled us to selectively modify cysteine residues in unprotected peptides, providing access to variants containing rigid perfluoroaromatic staples. This stapling modification performed on a peptide sequence designed to bind the C-terminal domain of an HIV-1 capsid assembly polyprotein (C-CA) showed enhancement in binding, cell permeability, and proteolytic stability properties, as compared to the unstapled analog. Importantly, chemical stability of the formed staples allowed us to use this motif in the native chemical ligation-mediated synthesis of a small protein affibody that is capable of binding the human epidermal growth factor 2 receptor.

  19. Discovery of novel antimicrobial peptides with unusual cysteine motifs in dandelion Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers.

    PubMed

    Astafieva, A A; Rogozhin, E A; Odintsova, T I; Khadeeva, N V; Grishin, E V; Egorov, Ts A

    2012-08-01

    Three novel antimicrobial peptides designated ToAMP1, ToAMP2 and ToAMP3 were purified from Taraxacum officinale flowers. Their amino acid sequences were determined. The peptides are cationic and cysteine-rich and consist of 38, 44 and 42 amino acid residues for ToAMP1, ToAMP2 and ToAMP3, respectively. Importantly, according to cysteine motifs, the peptides are representatives of two novel previously unknown families of plant antimicrobial peptides. ToAMP1 and ToAMP2 share high sequence identity and belong to 6-Cys-containing antimicrobial peptides, while ToAMP3 is a member of a distinct 8-Cys family. The peptides were shown to display high antimicrobial activity both against fungal and bacterial pathogens, and therefore represent new promising molecules for biotechnological and medicinal applications. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cysteine oxidation and rundown of large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangping; Xu, Rong; Heinemann, Stefan H; Hoshi, Toshinori

    2006-04-21

    Gating of Slo1 calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels involves allosteric interactions among the channel pore, voltage sensors, and Ca(2+)-binding domains. The allosteric activation of the Slo1 channel is in turn modulated by a variety of regulatory processes, including oxidation. Cysteine oxidation alters functional properties of Slo1 channels and has been suggested to contribute to the decrease in the channel activity following patch excision often referred to as rundown. This study examined the biophysical mechanism of rundown and whether oxidation of cysteine residues located in the C-terminus of the human Slo1 channel (C430 and C911) plays a role. Comparison of the changes in activation properties in different concentrations of Ca(2+) among the wild-type, C430A, and C911A channels during rundown and by treatment with the oxidant hydrogen peroxide showed that oxidation of C430 and C911 markedly contributes to the rundown process.

  1. A novel cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide from the mucus of the snail of Achatina fulica.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jian; Wang, Wenhong; Yang, Xiaomei; Yan, Xiuwen; Liu, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the innate immunity. Many antimicrobial peptides have been found from marine mollusks. Little information about AMPs of mollusks living on land is available. A novel cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide (mytimacin-AF) belonging to the peptide family of mytimacins was purified and characterized from the mucus of the snail of Achatina fulica. Its cDNA was also cloned from the cDNA library. Mytimacin-AF is composed of 80 amino acid residues including 10 cysteines. Mytimacin-AF showed potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and the fungus Candida albicans. Among tested microorganisms, it exerted strongest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with a minimal peptide concentration (MIC) of 1.9 μg/ml. Mytimacin-AF had little hemolytic activity against human blood red cells. The current work confirmed the presence of mytimacin-like antimicrobial peptide in land-living mollusks.

  2. Identification of Functionally Critical Residues in the Channel Domain of Inositol Trisphosphate Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Bhanumathy, Cunnigaiper; da Fonseca, Paula C. A.; Morris, Edward P.; Joseph, Suresh K.

    2012-01-01

    We have combined alanine mutagenesis and functional assays to identify amino acid residues in the channel domain that are critical for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channel function. The residues selected were highly conserved in all three IP3R isoforms and were located in the cytosolic end of the S6 pore-lining helix and proximal portion of the C-tail. Two adjacent hydrophobic amino acids (Ile-2588 and Ile-2589) at the putative cytosolic interface of the S6 helix inactivated channel function and could be candidates for the channel gate. Of five negatively charged residues mutated, none completely eliminated channel function. Of five positively charged residues mutated, only one inactivated the channel (Arg-2596). In addition to the previously identified role of a pair of cysteines in the C-tail (Cys-2610 and Cys-2613), a pair of highly conserved histidines (His-2630 and His-2635) were also essential for channel function. Expression of the H2630A and H2635A mutants (but not R2596A) produced receptors with destabilized interactions between the N-terminal fragment and the channel domain. A previously unrecognized association between the cytosolic C-tail and the TM 4,5-loop was demonstrated using GST pulldown assays. However, none of the mutations in the C-tail interfered with this interaction or altered the ability of the C-tail to assemble into dimers. Our present findings and recent information on IP3R structure from electron microscopy and crystallography are incorporated into a revised model of channel gating. PMID:23086950

  3. Residual Cap

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-10

    This MOC image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions

  4. Inactivation of pyruvate formate-lyase by dioxygen: defining the mechanistic interplay of glycine 734 and cysteine 419 by rapid freeze-quench EPR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Wong, K K; Magliozzo, R S; Kozarich, J W

    2001-04-03

    Pyruvate formate-lyase from Escherichia coli (EC 2.3.1.54; PFL) catalyzes the reversible anaerobic conversion of pyruvate and CoA into acetyl-CoA and formate. Active PFL contains a novel alpha-carbon centered glycyl radical at G734 that is required for its catalytic activity. Two adjacent cysteine residues, C418 and C419, are essential for PFL activity according to site-directed mutagenesis studies. Upon exposure to air, active PFL loses its activity with the concomitant loss of the glycyl radical. Previous EPR studies of dioxygen inactivation of PFL revealed protein-based peroxyl and sulfinyl radicals during the manual mixing and quenching process [Reddy et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 558-563]. To probe the mechanism of this process, we carried out experiments using rapid freeze-quench EPR spectroscopy. Upon mixing of active wild type or C418A PFL with oxygenated solution, a short-lived radical intermediate appears at the earliest time point (10 ms), followed by the appearance of a long-lived sulfinyl radical. The axial EPR spectrum of this short-lived radical (g = 2.034, 2.007) is characteristic of a peroxyl radical. When C419A PFL or the double mutant [C418A/C419A] PFL was mixed with oxygenated solution, the peroxyl radical was also observed at 10 ms but in this case persisted over 12 s. These observations provide compelling evidence to support a proposed mechanism in which dioxygen quenches the glycyl radical in the active enzyme and the resulting peroxyl radical may react further with the sulfhydryl group of the C419 residue to form the sulfinyl radical.

  5. Significance of redox-active cysteines in human FAD synthase isoform 2.

    PubMed

    Miccolis, Angelica; Galluccio, Michele; Nitride, Chiara; Giancaspero, Teresa Anna; Ferranti, Pasquale; Iametti, Stefania; Indiveri, Cesare; Bonomi, Francesco; Barile, Maria

    2014-12-01

    FAD synthase (FMN:ATP adenylyl transferase, FMNAT or FADS, EC 2.7.7.2) is the last enzyme in the pathway converting riboflavin into FAD. In humans, FADS is localized in different subcellular compartments and exists in different isoforms. Isoform 2 (490-amino acids) is organized in two domains: the 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase domain, that is the FAD-forming catalytic domain, and one resembling a molybdopterin-binding (MPTb) domain, with a hypothetical regulatory role. hFADS2 contains ten Cys residues, seven of which located in the PAPS reductase domain, with a possible involvement either in FAD synthesis or in FAD delivery to cognate apo-flavoproteins. A homology model of the PAPS reductase domain of hFADS2 revealed a co-ordinated network among the Cys residues in this domain. In this model, C312 and C303 are very close to the flavin substrate, consistent with a significantly lowered FAD synthesis rate in C303A and C312A mutants. FAD synthesis is also inhibited by thiol-blocking reagents, suggesting the involvement of free cysteines in the hFADS2 catalytic cycle. Mass spectrometry measurements and titration with thiol reagents on wt hFADS2 and on several individual cysteine/alanine mutants allowed us to detect two stably reduced cysteines (C139 and C241, one for each protein domain), two stable disulfide bridges (C399-C402, C303-C312, both in the PAPS domain), and two unstable disulfides (C39-C50; C440-C464). Whereas the C39-C50 unstable disulfide is located in the MPTb domain and appears to have no catalytic relevance, a cysteine-based redox switch may involve formation and breakdown of a disulfide between C440 and C464 in the PAPS domain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Involvement of surface cysteines in activity and multimer formation of thimet oligopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Sigman, J A; Sharky, M L; Walsh, S T; Pabon, A; Glucksman, M J; Wolfson, A J

    2003-08-01

    Thimet oligopeptidase is a metalloenzyme involved in regulating neuropeptide processing. Three cysteine residues (246, 248, 253) are known to be involved in thiol activation of the enzyme. In contrast to the wild-type enzyme, the triple mutant (C246S/C248S/C253S) displays increased activity in the absence of dithiothreitol. Dimers, purportedly formed through cysteines 246, 248 and 253, have been thought to be inactive. However, analysis of the triple mutant by native gel electrophoresis reveals the existence of dimers and multimers, implying that oligomer formation is mediated by other cysteines, probably on the surface, and that some of these forms are enzymatically active. Isolation and characterization of iodoacetate-modified monomers and dimers of the triple mutant revealed that, indeed, certain dimeric forms of the enzyme are still fully active, whereas others show reduced activity. Cysteine residues potentially involved in dimerization were identified by modeling of thimet oliogopeptidase to its homolog, neurolysin. Five mutants were constructed; all contained the triple mutation C246S/C248S/C253S and additional substitutions. Substitutions at C46 or C682 and C687 prevented multimer formation and inhibited dimer formation. The C46S mutant had enzymatic activity comparable to the parent triple mutant, whereas that of C682S/C687S was reduced. Thus, the location of intermolecular disulfide bonds, rather than their existence per se, is relevant to activity. Dimerization close to the N-terminus is detrimental to activity, whereas dimerization near the C-terminus has little effect. Altering disulfide bond formation is a potential regulatory factor in the cell owing to the varying oxidation states in subcellular compartments and the different compartmental locations and functions of the enzyme.

  7. Crystal structure of IscS, a cysteine desulfurase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cupp-Vickery, Jill R; Urbina, Hugo; Vickery, Larry E

    2003-07-25

    IscS is a widely distributed cysteine desulfurase that catalyzes the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent desulfuration of L-cysteine and plays a central role in the delivery of sulfur to a variety of metabolic pathways. We report the crystal structure of Escherichia coli IscS to a resolution of 2.1A. The crystals belong to the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) and have unit cell dimensions a=73.70A, b=101.97A, c=108.62A (alpha=beta=gamma=90 degrees ). Molecular replacement with the Thermotoga maritima NifS model was used to determine phasing, and the IscS model was refined to an R=20.6% (R(free)=23.6%) with two molecules per asymmetric unit. The structure of E.coli IscS is similar to that of T.maritima NifS with nearly identical secondary structure and an overall backbone r.m.s. difference of 1.4A. However, in contrast to NifS a peptide segment containing the catalytic cysteine residue (Cys328) is partially ordered in the IscS structure. This segment of IscS (residues 323-335) forms a surface loop directed away from the active site pocket. Cys328 is positioned greater than 17A from the pyridoxal phosphate cofactor, suggesting that a large conformational change must occur during catalysis in order for Cys328 to participate in nucleophilic attack of a pyridoxal phosphate-bound cysteine substrate. Modeling suggests that rotation of this loop may allow movement of Cys328 to within approximately 3A of the pyridoxal phosphate cofactor.

  8. Evidence for inactivation of cysteine proteases by reactive carbonyls via glycation of active site thiols

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jingmin; Dunlop, Rachael A.; Rodgers, Kenneth J.; Davies, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia, triose phosphate decomposition and oxidation reactions generate reactive aldehydes in vivo. These compounds react non-enzymatically with protein side chains and N-terminal amino groups to give adducts and cross-links, and hence modified proteins. Previous studies have shown that free or protein-bound carbonyls inactivate glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase with concomitant loss of thiol groups [Morgan, Dean and Davies (2002) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 403, 259–269]. It was therefore hypothesized that modification of lysosomal cysteine proteases (and the structurally related enzyme papain) by free and protein-bound carbonyls may modulate the activity of these components of the cellular proteolytic machinery responsible for the removal of modified proteins and thereby contribute to a decreased removal of modified proteins from cells. It is shown that MGX (methylglyoxal), GO (glyoxal) and glycolaldehyde, but not hydroxyacetone and glucose, inhibit catB (cathepsin B), catL (cathepsin L) and catS (cathepsin S) activity in macrophage cell lysates, in a concentration-dependent manner. Protein-bound carbonyls produced similar inhibition with both cell lysates and intact macrophage cells. Inhibition was also observed with papain, with this paralleled by loss of the active site cysteine residue and formation of the adduct species S-carboxymethylcysteine, from GO, in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of autolysis of papain by MGX, along with cross-link formation, was detected by SDS/PAGE. Treatment of papain and catS with the dialdehyde o-phthalaldehyde resulted in enzyme inactivation and an intra-molecular active site cysteine–lysine cross-link. These results demonstrate that reactive aldehydes inhibit cysteine proteases by modification of the active site cysteine residue. This process may contribute to the accumulation of modified proteins in tissues of people with diabetes and age-related pathologies, including atherosclerosis, cataract and

  9. Identifying cysteines and histidines in transition-metal-binding sites using support vector machines and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Passerini, Andrea; Punta, Marco; Ceroni, Alessio; Rost, Burkhard; Frasconi, Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Accurate predictions of metal-binding sites in proteins by using sequence as the only source of information can significantly help in the prediction of protein structure and function, genome annotation, and in the experimental determination of protein structure. Here, we introduce a method for identifying histidines and cysteines that participate in binding of several transition metals and iron complexes. The method predicts histidines as being in either of two states (free or metal bound) and cysteines in either of three states (free, metal bound, or in disulfide bridges). The method uses only sequence information by utilizing position-specific evolutionary profiles as well as more global descriptors such as protein length and amino acid composition. Our solution is based on a two-stage machine-learning approach. The first stage consists of a support vector machine trained to locally classify the binding state of single histidines and cysteines. The second stage consists of a bidirectional recurrent neural network trained to refine local predictions by taking into account dependencies among residues within the same protein. A simple finite state automaton is employed as a postprocessing in the second stage in order to enforce an even number of disulfide-bonded cysteines. We predict histidines and cysteines in transition-metal-binding sites at 73% precision and 61% recall. We observe significant differences in performance depending on the ligand (histidine or cysteine) and on the metal bound. We also predict cysteines participating in disulfide bridges at 86% precision and 87% recall. Results are compared to those that would be obtained by using expert information as represented by PROSITE motifs and, for disulfide bonds, to state-of-the-art methods.

  10. Cysteine-286 as the site of acylation of the Lux-specific fatty acyl-CoA reductase.

    PubMed

    Lee, C Y; Meighen, E A

    1997-04-04

    The channelling of fatty acids into the fatty aldehyde substrate for the bacterial bioluminescence reaction is catalyzed by a fatty acid reductase multienzyme complex, which channels fatty acids through the thioesterase (LuxD), synthetase (LuxE) and reductase (LuxC) components. Although all three components can be readily acylated in extracts of different luminescent bacteria, this complex has been successfully purified only from Photobacterium phosphoreum and the sites of acylation identified on LuxD and LuxE. To identify the acylation site on LuxC, the nucleotide sequence of P. phosphoreum luxC has been determined and the gene expressed in a mutant Escherichia coli strain. Even in crude extracts, the acylated reductase intermediate as well as acyl-CoA reductase activity could be readily detected, providing the basis for analysis of mutant reductases. Comparison of the amino-acid sequences of LuxC from P. phosphoreum, P. leiognathi and other luminescent bacteria, showed that only three cysteine residues (C171, C279, and C286) were conserved. As a cysteine residue on LuxC has been implicated in fatty acyl transfer, each of the conserved cysteine residues of the P. phosphoreum and P. leiognathi reductases was converted to a serine residue, and the properties of the mutant proteins examined. Only mutation of C286-blocked reductase activity and prevented formation of the acylated reductase intermediate, showing that C286 is the site of acylation on LuxC.

  11. [The effects of cysteines on the function of human glutathion S-transferase pi(GSTp) under cell oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Sima, Jian; He, Lan; Zhu, Jian; Xue, Bin; Tai, Yi Lin; Zhang, Shuang Quan; Yin, Zhi Min

    2004-06-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate three cysteine mutants of GSTp, C(47/101), C(14/47/101) and C(14/47/101/169). GSTp, C(47/101), C(14/47/101) and C(14/47/101/169) were transfected into 293 cells separately and GST activity was determined by using CDNB as substrate. Data showed that each cysteine mutant inhibited endogenous GST catalyzatic activity and had remarkable dominant negative effect. The expression vectors of wide type GSTp and its cysteine mutants were co-transfected with c-Jun, NF-kappaB, or p21 luciferase reporting vector, into 293 cells separately, luciferase activity showed that C(14/47/101) and C(14/47/101/169) can dramatically activate c-Jun and p21 transcriptional activity. Each cysteine mutant can increase endogenous p21 level, and also increased mortality rate of 293 cells when exposed to H2O2. These results suggest that cysteine residues of GSTp play an important role in protecting cells against oxitative stress.

  12. Affinity of Avr2 for tomato cysteine protease Rcr3 correlates with the Avr2-triggered Cf-2-mediated hypersensitive response.

    PubMed

    Van't Klooster, John W; Van der Kamp, Marc W; Vervoort, Jacques; Beekwilder, Jules; Boeren, Sjef; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Thomma, Bart P H J; De Wit, Pierre J G M

    2011-01-01

    The Cladosporium fulvum Avr2 effector is a novel type of cysteine protease inhibitor with eight cysteine residues that are all involved in disulphide bonds. We have produced wild-type Avr2 protein in Pichia pastoris and determined its disulphide bond pattern. By site-directed mutagenesis of all eight cysteine residues, we show that three of the four disulphide bonds are required for Avr2 stability. The six C-terminal amino acid residues of Avr2 contain one disulphide bond that is not embedded in its overall structure. Avr2 is not processed by the tomato cysteine protease Rcr3 and is an uncompetitive inhibitor of Rcr3. We also produced mutant Avr2 proteins in which selected amino acid residues were individually replaced by alanine, and, in one mutant, all six C-terminal amino acid residues were deleted. We determined the inhibitory constant (K(i) ) of these mutants for Rcr3 and their ability to trigger a Cf-2-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) in tomato. We found that the two C-terminal cysteine residues and the six amino acid C-terminal tail of Avr2 are required for both Rcr3 inhibitory activity and the ability to trigger a Cf-2-mediated HR. Individual replacement of the lysine-17, lysine-20 or tyrosine-21 residue by alanine did not affect significantly the biological activity of Avr2. Overall, our data suggest that the affinity of the Avr2 mutants for Rcr3 correlates with their ability to trigger a Cf-2-mediated HR.

  13. Control of Clostridium difficile Physiopathology in Response to Cysteine Availability

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Thomas; Dancer-Thibonnier, Marie; Monot, Marc; Hamiot, Audrey; Bouillaut, Laurent; Soutourina, Olga; Martin-Verstraete, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Clostridium difficile is linked to its ability to produce two toxins: TcdA and TcdB. The level of toxin synthesis is influenced by environmental signals, such as phosphotransferase system (PTS) sugars, biotin, and amino acids, especially cysteine. To understand the molecular mechanisms of cysteine-dependent repression of toxin production, we reconstructed the sulfur metabolism pathways of C. difficile strain 630 in silico and validated some of them by testing C. difficile growth in the presence of various sulfur sources. High levels of sulfide and pyruvate were produced in the presence of 10 mM cysteine, indicating that cysteine is actively catabolized by cysteine desulfhydrases. Using a transcriptomic approach, we analyzed cysteine-dependent control of gene expression and showed that cysteine modulates the expression of genes involved in cysteine metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, fermentation, energy metabolism, iron acquisition, and the stress response. Additionally, a sigma factor (SigL) and global regulators (CcpA, CodY, and Fur) were tested to elucidate their roles in the cysteine-dependent regulation of toxin production. Among these regulators, only sigL inactivation resulted in the derepression of toxin gene expression in the presence of cysteine. Interestingly, the sigL mutant produced less pyruvate and H2S than the wild-type strain. Unlike cysteine, the addition of 10 mM pyruvate to the medium for a short time during the growth of the wild-type and sigL mutant strains reduced expression of the toxin genes, indicating that cysteine-dependent repression of toxin production is mainly due to the accumulation of cysteine by-products during growth. Finally, we showed that the effect of pyruvate on toxin gene expression is mediated at least in part by the two-component system CD2602-CD2601. PMID:27297391

  14. Identification of non-peptidic cysteine reactive fragments as inhibitors of cysteine protease rhodesain.

    PubMed

    McShan, Danielle; Kathman, Stefan; Lowe, Brittiney; Xu, Ziyang; Zhan, Jennifer; Statsyuk, Alexander; Ogungbe, Ifedayo Victor

    2015-10-15

    Rhodesain, the major cathepsin L-like cysteine protease in the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, is a well-validated drug target. In this work, we used a fragment-based approach to identify inhibitors of this cysteine protease, and identified inhibitors of T. brucei. To discover inhibitors active against rhodesain and T. brucei, we screened a library of covalent fragments against rhodesain and conducted preliminary SAR studies. We envision that in vitro enzymatic assays will further expand the use of the covalent tethering method, a simple fragment-based drug discovery technique to discover covalent drug leads.

  15. Formation of a Stabilized Cysteine Sulfinic Acid Is Critical for the Mitochondrial Function of the Parkinsonism Protein DJ-1*

    PubMed Central

    Blackinton, Jeff; Lakshminarasimhan, Mahadevan; Thomas, Kelly J.; Ahmad, Rili; Greggio, Elisa; Raza, Ashraf S.; Cookson, Mark R.; Wilson, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of cysteine-sulfinic acid has recently become appreciated as a modification that links protein function to cellular oxidative status. Human DJ-1, a protein associated with inherited parkinsonism, readily forms cysteine-sulfinic acid at a conserved cysteine residue (Cys106 in human DJ-1). Mutation of Cys106 causes the protein to lose its normal protective function in cell culture and model organisms. However, it is unknown whether the loss of DJ-1 protective function in these mutants is due to the absence of Cys106 oxidation or the absence of the cysteine residue itself. To address this question, we designed a series of substitutions at a proximal glutamic acid residue (Glu18) in human DJ-1 that alter the oxidative propensity of Cys106 through changes in hydrogen bonding. We show that two mutations, E18N and E18Q, allow Cys106 to be oxidized to Cys106-sulfinic acid under mild conditions. In contrast, the E18D mutation stabilizes a cysteine-sulfenic acid that is readily reduced to the thiol in solution and in vivo. We show that E18N and E18Q can both partially substitute for wild-type DJ-1 using mitochondrial fission and cell viability assays. In contrast, the oxidatively impaired E18D mutant behaves as an inactive C106A mutant and fails to protect cells. We therefore conclude that formation of Cys106-sulfinic acid is a key modification that regulates the protective function of DJ-1. PMID:19124468

  16. Identification of reactive cysteines in a protein using arsenic labeling and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meiling; Wang, Hailin; Wang, Zhongwen; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X Chris

    2008-08-01

    Trivalent arsenicals have high affinity for thiols (such as free cysteines) in proteins. We describe here the use of this property to develop a collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) technique for the identification of reactive cysteines in proteins. A trivalent arsenic species, dimethylarsinous acid (DMA (III)), with a residue mass (103.9607) and mass defect distinct from the normal 20 amino acids, was used to selectively label reactive cysteine residues in proteins. The CID fragment ions of the arsenic-labeled sequences shifted away from the more abundant normal fragments that would otherwise overlap with the ions of interest. Along with the internal and immonium ions, the arsenic-labeled fragment ions served as MS/MS signatures for identification of the binding sites and for assessment of the relative reactivity of individual cysteine residues in a protein. Using this method, we have identified two highly reactive binding sites in rat hemoglobin (Hb): Cys-13alpha and Cys-125beta. Cys-13alpha was bound to DMA (III) in the Hb of rats fed with arsenic, and this binding was responsible for arsenic accumulation in rat blood, while Cys-125beta was found to bind to glutathione in rat blood. This study revealed the relative reactivity of the cysteines in rat Hb in the following decreasing order: Cys-13alpha > Cys-111alpha > Cys-104alpha and Cys-13alpha > Cys-125beta > Cys-93beta. Arsenic-labeling is easy and fast for identification of active binding sites without enzymatic digestion and acid hydrolysis, and useful for characterization and identification of metal binding sites in other proteins.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a mammalian cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase from Acanthamoeba healyi

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yeon-Chul; Hwang, Mi-Yul; Yun, Ho-Cheol; Yu, Hak-Sun; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2002-01-01

    We have cloned a cDNA encoding a cysteine proteinase of the Acanthamoeba healyi OC-3A strain isolated from the brain of a granulomatous amoebic encephalitis patient. A DNA probe for an A. healyi cDNA library screening was amplified by PCR using degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed on the basis of conserved amino acids franking the active sites of cysteine and asparagine residues that are conserved in the eukaryotic cysteine proteinases. Cysteine proteinase gene of A. healyi (AhCP1) was composed of 330 amino acids with signal sequence, a proposed pro-domain and a predicted active site made up of the catalytic residues, Cys25, His159, and Asn175. Deduced amino acid sequence analysis indicates that AhCP1 belong to ERFNIN subfamily of C1 peptidases. By Northern blot analysis, no direct correlation was observed between AhCP1 mRNA expression and virulence of Acanthamoeba, but the gene was expressed at higher level in amoebae isolated from soil than amoeba from clinical samples. These findings raise the possibility that Ahcp1 protein may play a role in protein metabolism and digestion of phagocytosed bacteria or host tissue debris rather than in invasion of amoebae into host tissue. PMID:11949209

  18. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.

    2009-10-13

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  19. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.

    2008-10-21

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  20. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  1. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming.

    PubMed

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise.

  2. Characterization of Two Cysteine Transfer RNA Genes from Xenopus Laevis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-12

    author hereby certifies that the use of any copyrighted material in the dissertation manuscript entitled: "Characterization of two cysteine tRNA genes...Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences 11 ABSTRACT Title of Thesis: Characterization of Two Cysteine Transfer RNA Genes from Xenopus...method after constructing a set of deletions and reclonlng into the plasmid pUC 8. The DNA fragment is 1737 bp long and contains two cysteine tRNA genes

  3. Factors Supporting Cysteine Tolerance and Sulfite Production in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Hennicke, Florian; Grumbt, Maria; Lermann, Ulrich; Ueberschaar, Nico; Palige, Katja; Böttcher, Bettina; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Staib, Claudia; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Monod, Michel; Hube, Bernhard; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The amino acid cysteine has long been known to be toxic at elevated levels for bacteria, fungi, and humans. However, mechanisms of cysteine tolerance in microbes remain largely obscure. Here we show that the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans excretes sulfite when confronted with increasing cysteine concentrations. Mutant construction and phenotypic analysis revealed that sulfite formation from cysteine in C. albicans relies on cysteine dioxygenase Cdg1, an enzyme with similar functions in humans. Environmental cysteine induced not only the expression of the CDG1 gene in C. albicans, but also the expression of SSU1, encoding a putative sulfite efflux pump. Accordingly, the deletion of SSU1 resulted in enhanced sensitivity of the fungal cells to both cysteine and sulfite. To study the regulation of sulfite/cysteine tolerance in more detail, we screened a C. albicans library of transcription factor mutants in the presence of sulfite. This approach and subsequent independent mutant analysis identified the zinc cluster transcription factor Zcf2 to govern sulfite/cysteine tolerance, as well as cysteine-inducible SSU1 and CDG1 gene expression. cdg1Δ and ssu1Δ mutants displayed reduced hypha formation in the presence of cysteine, indicating a possible role of the newly proposed mechanisms of cysteine tolerance and sulfite secretion in the pathogenicity of C. albicans. Moreover, cdg1Δ mutants induced delayed mortality in a mouse model of disseminated infection. Since sulfite is toxic and a potent reducing agent, its production by C. albicans suggests diverse roles during host adaptation and pathogenicity. PMID:23417561

  4. 21 CFR 184.1272 - L-Cysteine monohydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false L-Cysteine monohydrochloride. 184.1272 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1272 L-Cysteine monohydrochloride. (a) L-Cysteine monohydrochloride is the chemical L-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid monohydrochloride monohydrate (C3H7O2NS HCl H2O...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1272 - L-Cysteine monohydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false L-Cysteine monohydrochloride. 184.1272 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1272 L-Cysteine monohydrochloride. (a) L-Cysteine monohydrochloride is the chemical L-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid monohydrochloride monohydrate (C3H7O2NS HCl H2O...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1272 - L-Cysteine monohydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false L-Cysteine monohydrochloride. 184.1272 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1272 L-Cysteine monohydrochloride. (a) L-Cysteine monohydrochloride is the chemical L-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid monohydrochloride monohydrate (C3H7O2NS HCl H2O...

  7. Structure of the Autocatalytic Cysteine Protease Domain of Potyvirus Helper-component Proteinase*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bihong; Lin, Jinzhong; Ye, Keqiong

    2011-01-01

    The helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of potyvirus is involved in polyprotein processing, aphid transmission, and suppression of antiviral RNA silencing. There is no high resolution structure reported for any part of HC-Pro, hindering mechanistic understanding of its multiple functions. We have determined the crystal structure of the cysteine protease domain of HC-Pro from turnip mosaic virus at 2.0 Å resolution. As a protease, HC-Pro only cleaves a Gly-Gly dipeptide at its own C terminus. The structure represents a postcleavage state in which the cleaved C terminus remains tightly bound at the active site cleft to prevent trans activity. The structure adopts a compact α/β-fold, which differs from papain-like cysteine proteases and shows weak similarity to nsP2 protease from Venezuelan equine encephalitis alphavirus. Nevertheless, the catalytic cysteine and histidine residues constitute an active site that is highly similar to these in papain-like and nsP2 proteases. HC-Pro recognizes a consensus sequence YXVGG around the cleavage site between the two glycine residues. The structure delineates the sequence specificity at sites P1–P4. Structural modeling and covariation analysis across the Potyviridae family suggest a tryptophan residue accounting for the glycine specificity at site P1′. Moreover, a surface of the protease domain is conserved in potyvirus but not in other genera of the Potyviridae family, likely due to extra functional constrain. The structure provides insight into the catalysis mechanism, cis-acting mode, cleavage site specificity, and other functions of the HC-Pro protease domain. PMID:21543324

  8. Direct targeting of Arabidopsis cysteine synthase complexes with synthetic polypeptides to selectively deregulate cysteine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, Anna; Kurzyk, Agata; Mierzwińska, Monika; Płochocka, Danuta; Wieczorek, Grzegorz; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2013-06-01

    Biosynthesis of cysteine is one of the fundamental processes in plants providing the reduced sulfur for cell metabolism. It is accomplished by the sequential action of two enzymes, serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL). Together they constitute the hetero-oligomeric cysteine synthase (CS) complex through specific protein-protein interactions influencing the rate of cysteine production. The aim of our studies was to deregulate the CS complex formation in order to investigate its function in the control of sulfur homeostasis and optimize cysteine synthesis. Computational modeling was used to build a model of the Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial CS complex. Several polypeptides based on OAS-TL C amino-acid sequence found at SAT-OASTL interaction sites were designed as probable competitors for SAT3 binding. After verification of the binding in a yeast two-hybrid assay, the most strongly interacting polypeptide was introduced to different cellular compartments of Arabidopsis cell via genetic transformation. Moderate increase in total SAT and OAS-TL activities, but not thiols content, was observed dependent on the transgenic line and sulfur availability in the hydroponic medium. Though our studies demonstrate the proof of principle, they also suggest more complex interaction of both enzymes underlying the mechanism of their reciprocal regulation.

  9. Kinetic and structural characterization of Slr0077/SufS, the essential cysteine desulfurase from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Tirupati, Bhramara; Vey, Jessica Lynn; Drennan, Catherine L; Bollinger, J Martin

    2004-09-28

    Cysteine desulfurases, designated NifS, IscS, and SufS, cleave L-cysteine to form alanine and an enzyme cysteinyl persulfide intermediate. Genetic studies on the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 have shown that of the three Nif/Isc/SufS-like proteins encoded in its genome only the sequence group II protein, Slr0077/SufS, is essential. This protein has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, shown to bind pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) and to catalyze cysteine desulfuration, and characterized in terms of its structure and kinetics. The results suggest that catalysis in the absence of accessory factors has two constituent pathways, one involving nucleophilic attack by C372 to form the Slr0077/SufS-bound cysteinyl persulfide intermediate and the second involving intermolecular attack by the sulfur of a second molecule of the substrate on the initial l-cysteine-PLP complex to form free l-cysteine persulfide. The second pathway is operant in the C372A variant protein, explaining why it retains significant activity, which is proportional to the concentration of l-cysteine (i.e., does not saturate). C-S bond cleavage by the first (normal) pathway is considerably less efficient than the equivalent step in a group I desulfurase (Slr0387) from the same organism (characterized in the accompanying paper). The 1.8 A crystal structure of the protein, which is very similar to that previously reported for E. coli SufS, shows that the loop on which C372 resides is well-ordered and shorter by 11 residues than the corresponding disordered loop of the group I NifS-like protein from Thermotoga maritima. Sequence comparisons establish that the T. maritima and Slr0387 proteins have loops of similar length. The combined structural and kinetic data imply that the modest activity of Slr0077/SufS and other SufS proteins in comparison to their sequence group I (NifS/IscS-like) paralogues results from inefficiency in the nucleophilic attack step

  10. Cysteine Transport through Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3 (EAAT3)

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Spencer D.; Torres-Salazar, Delany; Divito, Christopher B.; Amara, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) limit glutamatergic signaling and maintain extracellular glutamate concentrations below neurotoxic levels. Of the five known EAAT isoforms (EAATs 1–5), only the neuronal isoform, EAAT3 (EAAC1), can efficiently transport the uncharged amino acid L-cysteine. EAAT3-mediated cysteine transport has been proposed to be a primary mechanism used by neurons to obtain cysteine for the synthesis of glutathione, a key molecule in preventing oxidative stress and neuronal toxicity. The molecular mechanisms underlying the selective transport of cysteine by EAAT3 have not been elucidated. Here we propose that the transport of cysteine through EAAT3 requires formation of the thiolate form of cysteine in the binding site. Using Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells expressing EAAT2 and EAAT3, we assessed the transport kinetics of different substrates and measured transporter-associated currents electrophysiologically. Our results show that L-selenocysteine, a cysteine analog that forms a negatively-charged selenolate ion at physiological pH, is efficiently transported by EAATs 1–3 and has a much higher apparent affinity for transport when compared to cysteine. Using a membrane tethered GFP variant to monitor intracellular pH changes associated with transport activity, we observed that transport of either L-glutamate or L-selenocysteine by EAAT3 decreased intracellular pH, whereas transport of cysteine resulted in cytoplasmic alkalinization. No change in pH was observed when cysteine was applied to cells expressing EAAT2, which displays negligible transport of cysteine. Under conditions that favor release of intracellular substrates through EAAT3 we observed release of labeled intracellular glutamate but did not detect cysteine release. Our results support a model whereby cysteine transport through EAAT3 is facilitated through cysteine de-protonation and that once inside, the thiolate is rapidly re-protonated. Moreover, these findings suggest

  11. Structure of Leishmania major cysteine synthase

    PubMed Central

    Fyfe, Paul K.; Westrop, Gareth D.; Ramos, Tania; Müller, Sylke; Coombs, Graham H.; Hunter, William N.

    2012-01-01

    Cysteine biosynthesis is a potential target for drug development against parasitic Leishmania species; these protozoa are responsible for a range of serious diseases. To improve understanding of this aspect of Leishmania biology, a crystallographic and biochemical study of L. major cysteine synthase has been undertaken, seeking to understand its structure, enzyme activity and modes of inhibition. Active enzyme was purified, assayed and crystallized in an orthorhombic form with a dimer in the asymmetric unit. Diffraction data extending to 1.8 Å resolution were measured and the structure was solved by molecular replacement. A fragment of γ-poly-d-glutamic acid, a constituent of the crystallization mixture, was bound in the enzyme active site. Although a d-­glutamate tetrapeptide had insignificant inhibitory activity, the enzyme was competitively inhibited (K i = 4 µM) by DYVI, a peptide based on the C-­terminus of the partner serine acetyltransferase with which the enzyme forms a complex. The structure surprisingly revealed that the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate had been lost during crystallization. PMID:22750854

  12. Amino-acid sequence and glycan structures of cysteine proteases with proline specificity from ginger rhizome Zingiber officinale.

    PubMed

    Choi, K H; Laursen, R A

    2000-03-01

    The ginger proteases (GP-I and GP-II), isolated from the ginger rhizome Zingiber officinale, have an unusual substrate specificity preference for cleaving peptides with a proline residue at the P2 position. The complete amino-acid sequence of GP-II, a glycoprotein containing 221 amino acids, and about 98% that of GP-I have been determined. Both proteases, which are 82% similar, have cysteine residues at positions 27 and histidines at position 161, corresponding to the essential cysteine-histidine diads found in the papain family of cysteine proteases, and six corresponding cysteine residues that form the three invariant disulfide linkages seen in this family of proteins. The sequence homology with other members (papain, bromelain, actinidin, protease omega, etc.) of this family is approximately 50%. GP-II has two predicted glycosylation sites at Asn99 and Asn156. Analyisis by electrospray and collision-induced dissociation MS showed that both sites were occupied by the glycans (Man)3(Xyl)1(Fuc)1(GlcNAc)2 and (Man)3(Xyl)1(Fuc)1(GlcNAc)3, in a ratio of approximately 7 : 1. Both glycans are xylose containing biantennary complex types that share the common core structural unit, Man1-->6(Man1-->3) (Xyl1-->2)Man1-->4GlcNAc1-->4(Fuc1-->3)GlcNAc for the major form, with an additional N-acetylglucosamine residue being linked, in the minor form, to one of the terminal mannose units of the core structure.

  13. DBU-catalyzed transprotection of N-Fmoc-cysteine di- and tripeptides into S-Fm-cysteine di- and tripeptides.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, Alan R; Abo-Dya, Nader E; Abdelmajeid, Abdelmotaal; Tala, Srinivasa R; Amine, M S; El-Feky, Said A

    2011-01-21

    The transprotection of N-Fmoc-cysteine containing di- and tripeptides possessing a free SH group to produce the corresponding S-Fm-cysteine di- and tripeptides bearing a free amino group is accomplished efficiently with DBU in dry THF. The N-Fmoc to S-Fm transformation mechanism is discussed. S-Fm-Cysteine di- and tripeptides readily form amide bonds on coupling with N-(Pg-α-aminoacyl)benzotriazoles and N-(Pg-α-dipeptidoyl)benzotriazoles to give larger peptides.

  14. Soft Cysteine Signaling Network: The Functional Significance of Cysteine in Protein Function and the Soft Acids/Bases Thiol Chemistry That Facilitates Cysteine Modification.

    PubMed

    Wible, Ryan S; Sutter, Thomas R

    2017-03-20

    The unique biophysical and electronic properties of cysteine make this molecule one of the most biologically critical amino acids in the proteome. The defining sulfur atom in cysteine is much larger than the oxygen and nitrogen atoms more commonly found in the other amino acids. As a result of its size, the valence electrons of sulfur are highly polarizable. Unique protein microenvironments favor the polarization of sulfur, thus increasing the overt reactivity of cysteine. Here, we provide a brief overview of the endogenous generation of reactive oxygen and electrophilic species and specific examples of enzymes and transcription factors in which the oxidation or covalent modification of cysteine in those proteins modulates their function. The perspective concludes with a discussion of cysteine chemistry and biophysics, the hard and soft acids and bases model, and the proposal of the Soft Cysteine Signaling Network: a hypothesis proposing the existence of a complex signaling network governed by layered chemical reactivity and cross-talk in which the chemical modification of reactive cysteine in biological networks triggers the reorganization of intracellular biochemistry to mitigate spikes in endogenous or exogenous oxidative or electrophilic stress.

  15. Chemical proteomic map of dimethyl fumarate–sensitive cysteines in primary human T cells

    PubMed Central

    Blewett, Megan M.; Xie, Jiji; Zaro, Balyn W.; Backus, Keriann M.; Altman, Amnon; Teijaro, John R.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an electrophilic drug that is used to treat autoimmune conditions, including multiple sclerosis and psoriasis. The mechanism of action of DMF is unclear, but may involve the covalent modification of proteins or DMF serving as a pro-drug that is converted to monomethyl fumarate (MMF). Here, we found that DMF, but not MMF, blocked the activation of primary human and mouse T cells. Using a quantitative, site-specific chemical proteomic platform, we determined the DMF-sensitivity of > 2400 cysteine residues in human T cells. Cysteines sensitive to DMF, but not MMF, were identified in several proteins with established biochemical or genetic links to T cell function, including protein kinase C θ (PKCθ). Furthermore, DMF blocked the association of PKCθ with the costimulatory receptor CD28 by perturbing a CXXC motif in the C2 domain of this kinase. Mutation of these DMF-sensitive cysteines also impaired PKCθ-CD28 interactions and T cell activation, designating the C2 domain of PKCθ as a key functional, electrophile-sensing module important for T cell biology. PMID:27625306

  16. Mia40 targets cysteines in a hydrophobic environment to direct oxidative protein folding in the mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Koch, Johanna R; Schmid, Franz X

    2014-01-01

    Mia40 catalyses the oxidative folding of disulphide-containing proteins in the mitochondria. The folding pathway is directed by the formation of the first mixed disulphide between Mia40 and its substrate. Here, we employ Cox17 to elucidate the molecular determinants of this reaction. Mia40 engages initially in a dynamic non-covalent enzyme-substrate complex that forms and dissociates within milliseconds. Cys36 of Cox17 forms the mixed disulphide in an extremely rapid reaction that is limited by the preceding complex formation with Mia40. Cys36 reacts much faster than the three other cysteines of Cox17, because it neighbours three hydrophobic residues. Mia40 binds preferentially to hydrophobic regions and the dynamic nature of the non-covalent complex allows rapid reorientation for an optimal positioning of the reactive cysteine. Mia40 thus uses the unique proximity between its substrate-binding site and the catalytic disulphide to select a particular cysteine for forming the critical initial mixed disulphide.

  17. Transsulfuration is an active pathway for cysteine biosynthesis in Trypanosoma rangeli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions such as protein biosynthesis, methylation, and polyamine and glutathione syntheses. In trypanosomatids, glutathione is conjugated with spermidine to form the specific antioxidant thiol trypanothione (T[SH]2) that plays a central role in maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis and providing defence against oxidative stress. Methods We cloned and characterised genes coding for a cystathionine β-synthase (CβS) and cysteine synthase (CS), key enzymes of the transsulfuration and assimilatory pathways, respectively, from the hemoflagellate protozoan parasite Trypanosoma rangeli. Results Our results show that T. rangeli CβS (TrCβS), similar to its homologs in T. cruzi, contains the catalytic domain essential for enzymatic activity. Unlike the enzymes in bacteria, plants, and other parasites, T. rangeli CS lacks two of the four lysine residues (Lys26 and Lys184) required for activity. Enzymatic studies using T. rangeli extracts confirmed the absence of CS activity but confirmed the expression of an active CβS. Moreover, CβS biochemical assays revealed that the T. rangeli CβS enzyme also has serine sulfhydrylase activity. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the RTS pathway is active in T. rangeli, suggesting that this may be the only pathway for cysteine biosynthesis in this parasite. In this sense, the RTS pathway appears to have an important functional role during the insect stage of the life cycle of this protozoan parasite. PMID:24761813

  18. Techniques for the Analysis of Cysteine Sulfhydryls and Oxidative Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Sherma, Nisha D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Modification of cysteine thiols dramatically affects protein function and stability. Hence, the abilities to quantify specific protein sulfhydryl groups within complex biological samples and map disulfide bond structures are crucial to gaining greater insights into how proteins operate in human health and disease. Recent Advances: Many different molecular probes are now commercially available to label and track cysteine residues at great sensitivity. Coupled with mass spectrometry, stable isotope-labeled sulfhydryl-specific reagents can provide previously unprecedented molecular insights into the dynamics of cysteine modification. Likewise, the combined application of modern mass spectrometers with improved sample preparation techniques and novel data mining algorithms is beginning to routinize the analysis of complex protein disulfide structures. Critical Issues: Proper application of these modern tools and techniques, however, still requires fundamental understanding of sulfhydryl chemistry as well as the assumptions that accompany sample preparation and underlie effective data interpretation. Future Directions: The continued development of tools, technical approaches, and corresponding data processing algorithms will, undoubtedly, facilitate site-specific protein sulfhydryl quantification and disulfide structure analysis from within complex biological mixtures with ever-improving accuracy and sensitivity. Fully routinizing disulfide structure analysis will require an equal but balanced focus on sample preparation and corresponding mass spectral dataset reproducibility. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 511–531. PMID:24383618

  19. Evidence for a cysteine-mediated mechanism of excitation energy regulation in a photosynthetic antenna complex.

    PubMed

    Orf, Gregory S; Saer, Rafael G; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Zhang, Hao; McIntosh, Chelsea L; Schultz, Jason W; Mirica, Liviu M; Blankenship, Robert E

    2016-08-02

    Light-harvesting antenna complexes not only aid in the capture of solar energy for photosynthesis, but regulate the quantity of transferred energy as well. Light-harvesting regulation is important for protecting reaction center complexes from overexcitation, generation of reactive oxygen species, and metabolic overload. Usually, this regulation is controlled by the association of light-harvesting antennas with accessory quenchers such as carotenoids. One antenna complex, the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) antenna protein from green sulfur bacteria, completely lacks carotenoids and other known accessory quenchers. Nonetheless, the FMO protein is able to quench energy transfer in aerobic conditions effectively, indicating a previously unidentified type of regulatory mechanism. Through de novo sequencing MS, chemical modification, and mutagenesis, we have pinpointed the source of the quenching action to cysteine residues (Cys49 and Cys353) situated near two low-energy bacteriochlorophylls in the FMO protein from Chlorobaculum tepidum Removal of these cysteines (particularly removal of the completely conserved Cys353) through N-ethylmaleimide modification or mutagenesis to alanine abolishes the aerobic quenching effect. Electrochemical analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra suggest that in aerobic conditions the cysteine thiols are converted to thiyl radicals which then are capable of quenching bacteriochlorophyll excited states through electron transfer photochemistry. This simple mechanism has implications for the design of bio-inspired light-harvesting antennas and the redesign of natural photosynthetic systems.

  20. Miltpain, a cysteine proteinase, from milt of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus): purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, C; Doi, Y; Ichishima, E

    2000-04-01

    Miltpain (EC.3.4.22.-) is a cysteine proteinase that preferentially hydrolyzes basic proteins, previously found in the milt of chum salmon. Here we report a similar cysteine proteinase in the milt of the marine Pacific cod. The enzyme was isolated and purified 6900-fold and with an estimated mass of 63 kDa by gel filtration chromatography and 72 kDa by SDS/PAGE. Cod miltpain has an optimum pH of 6.0 for Z-Arg-Arg-MCA hydrolysis, and Km of 11.5 microM and kcat of 19.0 s-1 with Z-Arg-Arg-MCA. It requires a thiol-inducing reagent for activation and is inhibited by E-64, iodoacetamide, CA-074, PCMB, NEM, TLCK, TPCK, ZPCK and o-phenanthroline. This proteinase strongly hydrolyzes basic proteins such as salmine, clupeine and histone, and exhibits unique substrate specificity toward paired basic residues such as Lys-Arg, Arg-Arg on the substrates of P2-P1. The isoelectric point is 5.2 by isoelectric focusing. N-Terminal sequencing gave a sequence of < EVPVEVVRXYVTSAPEK. The cysteine proteinase from Pacific cod very closely matches the previously reported miltpain from chum salmon.

  1. Transsulfuration is an active pathway for cysteine biosynthesis in Trypanosoma rangeli.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ibeth; Téllez, Jair; Yamanaka, Lais Eiko; Steindel, Mario; Romanha, Alvaro José; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos

    2014-04-24

    Cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions such as protein biosynthesis, methylation, and polyamine and glutathione syntheses. In trypanosomatids, glutathione is conjugated with spermidine to form the specific antioxidant thiol trypanothione (T[SH]2) that plays a central role in maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis and providing defence against oxidative stress. We cloned and characterised genes coding for a cystathionine β-synthase (CβS) and cysteine synthase (CS), key enzymes of the transsulfuration and assimilatory pathways, respectively, from the hemoflagellate protozoan parasite Trypanosoma rangeli. Our results show that T. rangeli CβS (TrCβS), similar to its homologs in T. cruzi, contains the catalytic domain essential for enzymatic activity. Unlike the enzymes in bacteria, plants, and other parasites, T. rangeli CS lacks two of the four lysine residues (Lys26 and Lys184) required for activity. Enzymatic studies using T. rangeli extracts confirmed the absence of CS activity but confirmed the expression of an active CβS. Moreover, CβS biochemical assays revealed that the T. rangeli CβS enzyme also has serine sulfhydrylase activity. These findings demonstrate that the RTS pathway is active in T. rangeli, suggesting that this may be the only pathway for cysteine biosynthesis in this parasite. In this sense, the RTS pathway appears to have an important functional role during the insect stage of the life cycle of this protozoan parasite.

  2. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport.

    PubMed Central

    Hempe, J M; Cousins, R J

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of zinc absorption has not been delineated, but kinetic studies show that both passive and carrier-mediated processes are involved. We have identified a low molecular mass zinc-binding protein in the soluble fraction of rat intestinal mucosa that could function as an intracellular zinc carrier. The protein was not detected in liver or pancreas, suggesting a role specific to the intestine. The protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport and shows signs of saturation at higher luminal zinc concentrations, characteristics consistent with a role in carrier-mediated zinc absorption. Microsequence analysis of the protein purified by gel-filtration HPLC and SDS/PAGE showed complete identity within the first 41 N-terminal amino acids with the deduced protein sequence of cysteine-rich intestinal protein [Birkenmeier, E. H. & Gordon, J. I. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 2516-2520]. These investigators showed that the gene for this protein is developmentally regulated in neonates during the suckling period, conserved in many vertebrate species, and predominantly expressed in the small intestine. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein contains a recently identified conserved sequence of histidine and cysteine residues, the LIM motif, which our results suggest confers metal-binding properties that are important for zinc transport and/or functions of this micronutrient. Images PMID:1946385

  3. Evidence for a cysteine-mediated mechanism of excitation energy regulation in a photosynthetic antenna complex

    PubMed Central

    Orf, Gregory S.; Saer, Rafael G.; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Zhang, Hao; McIntosh, Chelsea L.; Schultz, Jason W.; Mirica, Liviu M.; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Light-harvesting antenna complexes not only aid in the capture of solar energy for photosynthesis, but regulate the quantity of transferred energy as well. Light-harvesting regulation is important for protecting reaction center complexes from overexcitation, generation of reactive oxygen species, and metabolic overload. Usually, this regulation is controlled by the association of light-harvesting antennas with accessory quenchers such as carotenoids. One antenna complex, the Fenna–Matthews–Olson (FMO) antenna protein from green sulfur bacteria, completely lacks carotenoids and other known accessory quenchers. Nonetheless, the FMO protein is able to quench energy transfer in aerobic conditions effectively, indicating a previously unidentified type of regulatory mechanism. Through de novo sequencing MS, chemical modification, and mutagenesis, we have pinpointed the source of the quenching action to cysteine residues (Cys49 and Cys353) situated near two low-energy bacteriochlorophylls in the FMO protein from Chlorobaculum tepidum. Removal of these cysteines (particularly removal of the completely conserved Cys353) through N-ethylmaleimide modification or mutagenesis to alanine abolishes the aerobic quenching effect. Electrochemical analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra suggest that in aerobic conditions the cysteine thiols are converted to thiyl radicals which then are capable of quenching bacteriochlorophyll excited states through electron transfer photochemistry. This simple mechanism has implications for the design of bio-inspired light-harvesting antennas and the redesign of natural photosynthetic systems. PMID:27335466

  4. The role of the ADAMTS13 cysteine-rich domain in VWF binding and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Rens; Lane, David A; Crawley, James T B

    2015-03-19

    ADAMTS13 proteolytically regulates the platelet-tethering function of von Willebrand factor (VWF). ADAMTS13 function is dependent upon multiple exosites that specifically bind the unraveled VWF A2 domain and enable proteolysis. We carried out a comprehensive functional analysis of the ADAMTS13 cysteine-rich (Cys-rich) domain using engineered glycans, sequence swaps, and single point mutations in this domain. Mutagenesis of Cys-rich domain-charged residues had no major effect on ADAMTS13 function, and 5 out of 6 engineered glycans on the Cys-rich domain also had no effect on ADAMTS13 function. However, a glycan attached at position 476 appreciably reduced both VWF binding and proteolysis. Substitution of Cys-rich sequences for the corresponding regions in ADAMTS1 identified a hydrophobic pocket involving residues Gly471-Val474 as being of critical importance for both VWF binding and proteolysis. Substitution of hydrophobic VWF A2 domain residues to serine in a region (residues 1642-1659) previously postulated to interact with the Cys-rich domain revealed the functional importance of VWF residues Ile1642, Trp1644, Ile1649, Leu1650, and Ile1651. Furthermore, the functional deficit of the ADAMTS13 Cys-rich Gly471-Val474 variant was dependent on these same hydrophobic VWF residues, suggesting that these regions form complementary binding sites that directly interact to enhance the efficiency of the proteolytic reaction.

  5. The role of the ADAMTS13 cysteine-rich domain in VWF binding and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Lane, David A.; Crawley, James T. B.

    2015-01-01

    ADAMTS13 proteolytically regulates the platelet-tethering function of von Willebrand factor (VWF). ADAMTS13 function is dependent upon multiple exosites that specifically bind the unraveled VWF A2 domain and enable proteolysis. We carried out a comprehensive functional analysis of the ADAMTS13 cysteine-rich (Cys-rich) domain using engineered glycans, sequence swaps, and single point mutations in this domain. Mutagenesis of Cys-rich domain–charged residues had no major effect on ADAMTS13 function, and 5 out of 6 engineered glycans on the Cys-rich domain also had no effect on ADAMTS13 function. However, a glycan attached at position 476 appreciably reduced both VWF binding and proteolysis. Substitution of Cys-rich sequences for the corresponding regions in ADAMTS1 identified a hydrophobic pocket involving residues Gly471-Val474 as being of critical importance for both VWF binding and proteolysis. Substitution of hydrophobic VWF A2 domain residues to serine in a region (residues 1642-1659) previously postulated to interact with the Cys-rich domain revealed the functional importance of VWF residues Ile1642, Trp1644, Ile1649, Leu1650, and Ile1651. Furthermore, the functional deficit of the ADAMTS13 Cys-rich Gly471-Val474 variant was dependent on these same hydrophobic VWF residues, suggesting that these regions form complementary binding sites that directly interact to enhance the efficiency of the proteolytic reaction. PMID:25564400

  6. L-alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase II of rat kidney and liver mitochondria possesses cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase activity: a contributing factor to the nephrotoxicity/hepatotoxicity of halogenated alkenes?

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Arthur J L; Krasnikov, Boris F; Okuno, Etsuo; Jeitner, Thomas M

    2003-01-01

    Several halogenated alkenes are metabolized in part to cysteine S-conjugates, which are mitochondrial toxicants of kidney and, to a lesser extent, other organs. Toxicity is due to cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyases, which convert the cysteine S-conjugate into pyruvate, ammonia and a reactive sulphur-containing fragment. A section of the human population is exposed to halogenated alkenes. To understand the health effects of such exposure, it is important to identify cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyases that contribute to mitochondrial damage. Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase [Cooper, Bruschi, Iriarte and Martinez-Carrion (2002) Biochem. J. 368, 253-261] and mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase [Cooper, Bruschi, Conway and Hutson (2003) Biochem. Pharmacol. 65, 181-192] exhibit beta-lyase activity toward S -(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (the cysteine S-conjugate of trichloroethylene) and S -(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine (the cysteine S-conjugate of tetrafluoroethylene). Turnover leads to eventual inactivation of these enzymes. Here we report that mitochondrial L-alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase II, which, in the rat, is most active in kidney, catalyses cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase reactions with S -(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine, S -(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S -(benzothiazolyl-L-cysteine); turnover leads to inactivation. Previous workers showed that the reactive-sulphur-containing fragment released from S -(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine and S -(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine is toxic by acting as a thioacylating agent - particularly of lysine residues in nearby proteins. Toxicity, however, may also involve 'self-inactivation' of key enzymes. The present findings suggest that alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase II may be an important factor in the well-established targeting of rat kidney mitochondria by toxic halogenated cysteine S-conjugates. Previous reports suggest that alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase II is absent

  7. Therapeutic NOTCH3 cysteine correction in CADASIL using exon skipping: in vitro proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Julie W; Dauwerse, Hans G; Peters, Dorien J M; Goldfarb, Andrew; Venselaar, Hanka; Haffner, Christof; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke M; Lesnik Oberstein, Saskia A J

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, or CADASIL, is a hereditary cerebral small vessel disease caused by characteristic cysteine altering missense mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. NOTCH3 mutations in CADASIL result in an uneven number of cysteine residues in one of the 34 epidermal growth factor like-repeat (EGFr) domains of the NOTCH3 protein. The consequence of an unpaired cysteine residue in an EGFr domain is an increased multimerization tendency of mutant NOTCH3, leading to toxic accumulation of the protein in the (cerebro)vasculature, and ultimately reduced cerebral blood flow, recurrent stroke and vascular dementia. There is no therapy to delay or alleviate symptoms in CADASIL. We hypothesized that exclusion of the mutant EGFr domain from NOTCH3 would abolish the detrimental effect of the unpaired cysteine and thus prevent toxic NOTCH3 accumulation and the negative cascade of events leading to CADASIL. To accomplish this NOTCH3 cysteine correction by EGFr domain exclusion, we used pre-mRNA antisense-mediated skipping of specific NOTCH3 exons. Selection of these exons was achieved using in silico studies and based on the criterion that skipping of a particular exon or exon pair would modulate the protein in such a way that the mutant EGFr domain is eliminated, without otherwise corrupting NOTCH3 structure and function. Remarkably, we found that this strategy closely mimics evolutionary events, where the elimination and fusion of NOTCH EGFr domains led to the generation of four functional NOTCH homologues. We modelled a selection of exon skip strategies using cDNA constructs and show that the skip proteins retain normal protein processing, can bind ligand and be activated by ligand. We then determined the technical feasibility of targeted NOTCH3 exon skipping, by designing antisense oligonucleotides targeting exons 2-3, 4-5 and 6, which together harbour the majority of distinct CADASIL-causing mutations

  8. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ventilation or by ventilation equipment safe for use in an explosive gas atmosphere. (b) Each space adjacent... gas atmosphere must be de-energized at a location outside of that space. This location must be labeled to prohibit reenergizing until the atmosphere in the space is tested and found to be less than 30...

  9. Identification of the unpaired cysteine status and complete mapping of the 17 disulfides of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator using LC-MS with electron transfer dissociation/collision induced dissociation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shiaw-Lin; Jiang, Haitao; Hancock, William S; Karger, Barry L

    2010-06-15

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen (rt-PA) with 35 cysteine residues has been completely assigned by mapping the 17 disulfide linkages and the unpaired cysteine. The result is consistent with the prediction from homology except for the unassigned cysteine, which was identified at Cys83. This cysteine was found to be blocked and paired with either a glutathione or cysteine residue in an approximately 60:40 ratio, respectively. The analysis was conducted using a multifragmentation approach consisting of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision induced dissociation (CID), in combination with a multienzyme digestion strategy (Lys-C, trypsin, and Glu-C). The disulfide-linked peptides, even those containing N- or O-linked glycosylation, could be assigned since the disulfide bonds were still preferably cleaved over the glycosidic cleavages under ETD fragmentation. The use of a multiple and sequential enzymatic digestion strategy was important in producing fragment sizes suitable for analysis. For the analysis of complex intertwined disulfides, the use of CID-MS(3) to target partially disulfide-dissociated peptides from the ETD fragmentation was necessary for linkage assignment. The ability to identify the exact location and status of the unpaired cysteine (free or blocked with a glutathione or cysteine) could shed light on the activation of rt-PA, upon stimulation by either oxidative or ischemic stress.

  10. Hypoallergenic Variant of the Major Egg White Allergen Gal d 1 Produced by Disruption of Cysteine Bridges.

    PubMed

    Dhanapala, Pathum; Withanage-Dona, Dulashi; Tang, Mimi L K; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2017-02-21

    Gal d 1 (ovomucoid) is the dominant allergen in the chicken egg white. Hypoallergenic variants of this allergen can be used in immunotherapy as an egg allergy treatment approach. We hypothesised that disruption of two of the nine cysteine-cysteine bridges by site-directed mutagenesis will allow the production of a hypoallergenic variant of the protein; Methods: Two cysteine residues at C192 and C210 in domain III of the protein were mutated to alanine using site-directed mutagenesis, to disrupt two separate cysteine-cysteine bridges. The mutated and non-mutated proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) by induction with isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The expressed proteins were analysed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting to confirm expression. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity of the two proteins was analysed, by immunoblotting, against a pool of egg-allergic patients' sera. A pool of non-allergic patients' sera was also used in a separate blot as a negative control; Results: Mutant Gal d 1 showed diminished IgE reactivity in the immunoblot by showing lighter bands when compared to the non-mutated version, although there was more of the mutant protein immobilised on the membrane when compared to the wild-type protein. The non-allergic negative control showed no bands, indicating an absence of non-specific binding of secondary antibody to the proteins; Conclusion: Disruption of two cysteine bridges in domain III of Gal d 1 reduces IgE reactivity. Following downstream laboratory and clinical testing, this mutant protein can be used in immunotherapy to induce tolerance to Gal d 1 and in egg allergy diagnosis.

  11. Hypoallergenic Variant of the Major Egg White Allergen Gal d 1 Produced by Disruption of Cysteine Bridges

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapala, Pathum; Withanage-Dona, Dulashi; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gal d 1 (ovomucoid) is the dominant allergen in the chicken egg white. Hypoallergenic variants of this allergen can be used in immunotherapy as an egg allergy treatment approach. We hypothesised that disruption of two of the nine cysteine-cysteine bridges by site-directed mutagenesis will allow the production of a hypoallergenic variant of the protein; Methods: Two cysteine residues at C192 and C210 in domain III of the protein were mutated to alanine using site-directed mutagenesis, to disrupt two separate cysteine-cysteine bridges. The mutated and non-mutated proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) by induction with isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The expressed proteins were analysed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting to confirm expression. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity of the two proteins was analysed, by immunoblotting, against a pool of egg-allergic patients’ sera. A pool of non-allergic patients’ sera was also used in a separate blot as a negative control; Results: Mutant Gal d 1 showed diminished IgE reactivity in the immunoblot by showing lighter bands when compared to the non-mutated version, although there was more of the mutant protein immobilised on the membrane when compared to the wild-type protein. The non-allergic negative control showed no bands, indicating an absence of non-specific binding of secondary antibody to the proteins; Conclusion: Disruption of two cysteine bridges in domain III of Gal d 1 reduces IgE reactivity. Following downstream laboratory and clinical testing, this mutant protein can be used in immunotherapy to induce tolerance to Gal d 1 and in egg allergy diagnosis. PMID:28230769

  12. Optimized deep-targeted proteotranscriptomic profiling reveals unexplored Conus toxin diversity and novel cysteine frameworks.

    PubMed

    Lavergne, Vincent; Harliwong, Ivon; Jones, Alun; Miller, David; Taft, Ryan J; Alewood, Paul F

    2015-07-21

    Cone snails are predatory marine gastropods characterized by a sophisticated venom apparatus responsible for the biosynthesis and delivery of complex mixtures of cysteine-rich toxin peptides. These conotoxins fold into small highly structured frameworks, allowing them to potently and selectively interact with heterologous ion channels and receptors. Approximately 2,000 toxins from an estimated number of >70,000 bioactive peptides have been identified in the genus Conus to date. Here, we describe a high-resolution interrogation of the transcriptomes (available at www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp) and proteomes of the diverse compartments of the Conus episcopatus venom apparatus. Using biochemical and bioinformatic tools, we found the highest number of conopeptides yet discovered in a single Conus specimen, with 3,305 novel precursor toxin sequences classified into 9 known superfamilies (A, I1, I2, M, O1, O2, S, T, Z), and identified 16 new superfamilies showing unique signal peptide signatures. We were also able to depict the largest population of venom peptides containing the pharmacologically active C-C-CC-C-C inhibitor cystine knot and CC-C-C motifs (168 and 44 toxins, respectively), as well as 208 new conotoxins displaying odd numbers of cysteine residues derived from known conotoxin motifs. Importantly, six novel cysteine-rich frameworks were revealed which may have novel pharmacology. Finally, analyses of codon usage bias and RNA-editing processes of the conotoxin transcripts demonstrate a specific conservation of the cysteine skeleton at the nucleic acid level and provide new insights about the origin of sequence hypervariablity in mature toxin regions.

  13. Effect of Cysteamine on Mutant ASL Proteins with Cysteine for Arginine Substitutions.

    PubMed

    Inauen, Corinne; Rüfenacht, Véronique; Pandey, Amit V; Hu, Liyan; Blom, Henk; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc; Häberle, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Cysteamine is used to treat cystinosis via the modification of cysteine residues substituting arginine in mutant proteins. We investigated the effect of cysteamine on mutant argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), the second most common defect in the urea cycle. In an established mammalian expression system, 293T cell lysates were produced after transfection with all known cysteine for arginine mutations in the ASL gene (p.Arg94Cys, p.Arg95Cys, p.Arg168Cys, p.Arg379Cys, and p.Arg385Cys), allowing testing of the effect of cysteamine over 48 h in the culture medium as well as for 1 h immediately prior to the enzyme assay. Cysteamine at low concentrations showed no effect on 293T cell viability, ASL protein expression, or ASL activity when applied during cell culture. However, incubation of transfected cells with 0.05 mM cysteamine immediately before the enzyme assay resulted in increased ASL activity of p.Arg94Cys, p.Arg379Cys, and p.Arg385Cys by 64, 20, and 197 %, respectively, and this result was significant (p < 0.01). Cell lysates carrying p.Arg385Cys and treated with cysteamine recover enzyme activity that is similar to the untreated designed mutation p.Arg385Lys, providing circumstantial evidence for the assumed cysteamine-induced change of a cysteine to a lysine analogue. Since 12 % of all known genotypes in ASL deficiency are affected by a cysteine for arginine mutation, we conclude that the potential of cysteamine or of related substances as remedy for this disease should be investigated further.

  14. Optimized deep-targeted proteotranscriptomic profiling reveals unexplored Conus toxin diversity and novel cysteine frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Lavergne, Vincent; Harliwong, Ivon; Jones, Alun; Miller, David; Taft, Ryan J.; Alewood, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    Cone snails are predatory marine gastropods characterized by a sophisticated venom apparatus responsible for the biosynthesis and delivery of complex mixtures of cysteine-rich toxin peptides. These conotoxins fold into small highly structured frameworks, allowing them to potently and selectively interact with heterologous ion channels and receptors. Approximately 2,000 toxins from an estimated number of >70,000 bioactive peptides have been identified in the genus Conus to date. Here, we describe a high-resolution interrogation of the transcriptomes (available at www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp) and proteomes of the diverse compartments of the Conus episcopatus venom apparatus. Using biochemical and bioinformatic tools, we found the highest number of conopeptides yet discovered in a single Conus specimen, with 3,305 novel precursor toxin sequences classified into 9 known superfamilies (A, I1, I2, M, O1, O2, S, T, Z), and identified 16 new superfamilies showing unique signal peptide signatures. We were also able to depict the largest population of venom peptides containing the pharmacologically active C-C-CC-C-C inhibitor cystine knot and CC-C-C motifs (168 and 44 toxins, respectively), as well as 208 new conotoxins displaying odd numbers of cysteine residues derived from known conotoxin motifs. Importantly, six novel cysteine-rich frameworks were revealed which may have novel pharmacology. Finally, analyses of codon usage bias and RNA-editing processes of the conotoxin transcripts demonstrate a specific conservation of the cysteine skeleton at the nucleic acid level and provide new insights about the origin of sequence hypervariablity in mature toxin regions. PMID:26150494

  15. Cystein-specific ubiquitination protects the peroxisomal import receptor Pex5p against proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Schwartzkopff, Benjamin; Platta, Harald W; Girzalsky, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf

    2015-05-14

    Peroxisomal matrix protein import is mediated by dynamic import receptors, which cycle between the peroxisomal membrane and the cytosol. Proteins with a type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1) are bound by the import receptor Pex5p in the cytosol and guided to the peroxisomal membrane. After cargo translocation into the peroxisomal matrix, the receptor is released from the membrane back to the cytosol in an ATP-dependent manner by the AAA-type ATPases Pex1p and Pex6p. These mechanoenzymes recognize ubiquitinated Pex5p-species as substrates for membrane extraction. The PTS1-receptor is either polyubiquitinated via peptide-bonds at two certain lysines and results in proteasomal degradation, or monoubiquitinated via a thioester-bond at a conserved cysteine, which enables the recycling of Pex5p and further rounds of matrix protein import. To investigate the physiological relevance of the conserved N-terminal cysteine of Pex5p, the known target amino acids for ubiquitination were substituted by site-directed mutagenesis. In contrast to Pex5pC6A, Pex5pC6K turned out to be functional in PTS1 import and utilization of oleic acid, independent of the lysines at position 18 and 24. In contrast to wild-type Pex5p, Pex5pC6K displays an ubiquitination pattern, similar to the polyubiquitination pattern of Pex4p or Pex22p mutant strains. Moreover, Pex5pC6K displays a significantly reduced steady-state level when the deubiquitination enzyme Ubp15p is missing. Thus, our results indicate that not the cysteine residue but the position of ubiquitination is important for Pex5p function. The presence of the cysteine prevents polyubiquitination and rapid degradation of Pex5p.

  16. Cysteine-specific ubiquitination protects the peroxisomal import receptor Pex5p against proteasomal degradation

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzkopff, Benjamin; Platta, Harald W.; Hasan, Sohel; Girzalsky, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisomal matrix protein import is mediated by dynamic import receptors, which cycle between the peroxisomal membrane and the cytosol. Proteins with a type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1) are bound by the import receptor Pex5p in the cytosol and guided to the peroxisomal membrane. After cargo translocation into the peroxisomal matrix, the receptor is released from the membrane back to the cytosol in an ATP-dependent manner by the AAA-type ATPases Pex1p and Pex6p. These mechanoenzymes recognize ubiquitinated Pex5p-species as substrates for membrane extraction. The PTS1-receptor is either polyubiquitinated via peptide bonds at two certain lysines and results in proteasomal degradation or monoubiquitinated via a thioester-bond at a conserved cysteine, which enables the recycling of Pex5p and further rounds of matrix protein import. To investigate the physiological relevance of the conserved N-terminal cysteine of Pex5p, the known target amino acids for ubiquitination were substituted by site-directed mutagenesis. In contrast with Pex5pC6A, Pex5pC6K turned out to be functional in PTS1 import and utilization of oleic acid, independent of the lysines at position 18 and 24. In contrast with wild-type Pex5p, Pex5pC6K displays an ubiquitination pattern, similar to the polyubiquitination pattern of Pex4p or Pex22p mutant strains. Moreover, Pex5pC6K displays a significantly reduced steady-state level when the deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp15p is missing. Thus, our results indicate that not the cysteine residue but the position of ubiquitination is important for Pex5p function. The presence of the cysteine prevents polyubiquitination and rapid degradation of Pex5p. PMID:26182377

  17. The cold and menthol receptor TRPM8 contains a functionally important double cysteine motif.

    PubMed

    Dragoni, Ilaria; Guida, Elizabeth; McIntyre, Peter

    2006-12-08

    We have investigated the glycosylation, disulfide bonding, and subunit structure of mouse TRPM8. To do this, amino-terminal c-myc or hemagglutinin epitope-tagged proteins were incorporated and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. These modifications had no obvious effects on channel function in intracellular calcium imaging assays upon application of agonists, icilin or menthol, and cold temperatures. Unmodified TRPM8 migrates with an apparent mass of 129 kDa and can be glycosylated in Chinese hamster ovary cells to give glycoproteins with apparent masses of 136 and 147 kDa. We identified two potential N-linked glycosylation sites in TRPM8 (Asn-821 and Asn-934) and mutated them to show that only the site in the putative pore region at position 934 is modified and that glycosylation of this site is not absolutely necessary for cell surface expression or responsiveness to icilin, menthol, and cool temperatures. Enzymatic cleavage of the carbohydrate chains indicated that they are complex carbohydrate. The glycosylation site is flanked in the pore by two cysteine residues that we mutated, to prove that they are involved in a conserved double cysteine motif, which is essential for channel function. Mutation of either of these cysteines abolishes function and forces the formation of a non-functional complex of the size of a homodimer. The double cysteine mutant is also non-functional. Finally, we showed in Perfluoro-octanoic acid-polyacrylamide gels that TRPM8 can form a tetramer (in addition to dimer and trimer forms), consistent with current thinking that functional TRP ion channels are tetrameric.

  18. Identification of cysteines involved in the effects of methanethiosulfonate reagents on human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Park, Jamie S; Hughes, Scott J; Cunningham, Frances K M; Hammond, James R

    2011-10-01

    Inhibitor and substrate interactions with equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1; SLC29A1) are known to be affected by cysteine-modifying reagents. Given that selective ENT1 inhibitors, such as nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR), bind to the N-terminal half of the ENT1 protein, we hypothesized that one or more of the four cysteine residues in this region were contributing to the effects of the sulfhydryl modifiers. Recombinant human ENT1 (hENT1), and the four cysteine-serine ENT1 mutants, were expressed in nucleoside transport-deficient PK15 cells and probed with a series of methanethiosulfonate (MTS) sulfhydryl-modifying reagents. Transporter function was assessed by the binding of [(3)H]NBMPR and the cellular uptake of [(3)H]2-chloroadenosine. The membrane-permeable reagent methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) enhanced [(3)H]NBMPR binding in a pH-dependent manner, but decreased [(3)H]2-chloroadenosine uptake. [2-(Trimethylammonium)ethyl] methane-thiosulfonate (MTSET) (positively charged, membrane-impermeable), but not sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl)-methanethiosulfonate (MTSES) (negatively charged), inhibited [(3)H]NBMPR binding and enhanced [(3)H]2-chloroadenosine uptake. Mutation of Cys222 in transmembrane (TM) 6 eliminated the effect of MMTS on NBMPR binding. Mutation of Cys193 in TM5 enhanced the ability of MMTS to increase [(3)H]NBMPR binding and attenuated the effects of MMTS and MTSET on [(3)H]2-chloroadenosine uptake. Taken together, these data suggest that Cys222 contributes to the effects of MTS reagents on [(3)H]NBMPR binding, and Cys193 is involved in the effects of these reagents on [(3)H]2-chloroadenosine transport. The results of this study also indicate that the hENT1-C193S mutant may be useful as a MTSET/MTSES-insensitive transporter for future cysteine substitution studies to define the extracellular domains contributing to the binding of substrates and inhibitors to this critical membrane transporter.

  19. Preliminary functional characterization, cloning and primary sequence of Fastuosain, a cysteine peptidase isolated from fruits of Bromelia fastuosa.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Hamilton; Leopoldino, Andréia M; Tajara, Eloiza H; Greene, Lewis J; Faça, Vitor M; Mateus, Rogério P; Ceron, Carlos R; de Souza Judice, Wagner A; Julianod, Luiz; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo O

    2006-01-01

    The present work reports the characterization of Fastuosain, a novel cysteine protease of 25kDa, purified from the unripe fruits of Bromelia fastuosa, a wild South American Bromeliaceae. Proteolytic activity, measured using casein and synthetic substrates, was dependent on the presence of thiol reagents, having maximum activity at pH 7.0. The present work reports cDNA cloning of Fastuosain; cDNA was amplified by PCR using specific primers. The product was 1096pb long. Mature fastuosain has 217 residues, and with the proregion has a total length of 324 residues. Its primary sequence showed high homology with ananain(74%), stem bromelain (66%) and papain (44%).

  20. Electrons initiate efficient formation of hydroperoxides from cysteine.

    PubMed

    Gebicki, Janusz M

    2016-09-01

    Amino acid and protein hydroperoxides can constitute a significant hazard if formed in vivo. It has been suggested that cysteine can form hydroperoxides after intramolecular hydrogen transfer to the commonly produced cysteine sulfur-centered radical. The resultant cysteine-derived carbon-centered radicals can react with oxygen at almost diffusion-controlled rate, forming peroxyl radicals which can oxidize other molecules and be reduced to hydroperoxides in the process. No cysteine hydroperoxides have been found so far. In this study, dilute air-saturated cysteine solutions were exposed to radicals generated by ionizing radiation and the hydroperoxides measured by an iodide assay. Of the three primary radicals present, the hydroxyl, hydrogen atoms and hydrated electrons, the first two were ineffective. However, electrons did initiate the generation of hydroperoxides by removing the -SH group and forming cysteine-derived carbon radicals. Under optimal conditions, 100% of the electrons reacting with cysteine produced the hydroperoxides with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Maximum hydroperoxide yields were at pH 5.5, with fairly rapid decline under more acid or alkaline conditions. The hydroperoxides were stable between pH 3 and 7.5, and decomposed in alkaline solutions. The results suggest that formation of cysteine hydroperoxides initiated by electrons is an unlikely event under physiological conditions.

  1. Fluorescent nitrile-based inhibitors of cysteine cathepsins.

    PubMed

    Frizler, Maxim; Mertens, Matthias D; Gütschow, Michael

    2012-12-15

    Cysteine cathepsins play an important role in many (patho)physiological conditions. Among them, cathepsins L, S, K and B are subjects of several drug discovery programs. Besides their role as drug targets, cysteine cathepsins are additionally considered to be possible biomarkers for inflammation and cancer. Herein, we describe the design, synthesis, biological evaluation and spectral properties of fluorescently labeled dipeptide- and azadipeptide nitriles.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1271 - L-Cysteine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1271 L-Cysteine. (a) L-Cysteine is the chemical L-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid (C3H7O2NS). (b) The ingredient meets the appropriate part of the specification set forth in...

  3. Role of cysteines in mammalian VDAC isoforms' function.

    PubMed

    De Pinto, Vito; Reina, Simona; Gupta, Ankit; Messina, Angela; Mahalakshmi, Radhakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    In this mini-review, we analyze the influence of cysteines in the structure and activity of mitochondrial outer membrane mammalian VDAC isoforms. The three VDAC isoforms show conserved sequences, similar structures and the same gene organization. The meaning of three proteins encoded in different chromosomes must thus be searched for subtle differences at the amino acid level. Among others, cysteine content is noticeable. In humans, VDAC1 has 2, VDAC2 has 9 and VDAC3 has 6 cysteines. Recent works have shown that, at variance from VDAC1, VDAC2 and VDAC3 exhibit cysteines predicted to protrude towards the intermembrane space, making them a preferred target for oxidation by ROS. Mass spectrometry in VDAC3 revealed that a disulfide bridge can be formed and other cysteine oxidations are also detectable. Both VDAC2 and VDAC3 cysteines were mutagenized to highlight their role in vitro and in complementation assays in Δporin1 yeast. Chemico-physical techniques revealed an important function of cysteines in the structural stabilization of the pore. In conclusion, the works available on VDAC cysteines support the notion that the three proteins are paralogs with a similar pore-function and slightly different, but important, ancillary biological functions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi.

  4. Homology modeling, molecular docking and MD simulation studies to investigate role of cysteine protease from Xanthomonas campestris in degradation of Aβ peptide.

    PubMed

    Dhanavade, Maruti J; Jalkute, Chidambar B; Barage, Sagar H; Sonawane, Kailas D

    2013-12-01

    Cysteine protease is known to degrade amyloid beta peptide which is a causative agent of Alzheimer's disease. This cleavage mechanism has not been studied in detail at the atomic level. Hence, a three-dimensional structure of cysteine protease from Xanthomonas campestris was constructed by homology modeling using Geno3D, SWISS-MODEL, and MODELLER 9v7. All the predicted models were analyzed by PROCHECK and PROSA. Three-dimensional model of cysteine protease built by MODELLER 9v7 shows similarity with human cathepsin B crystal structure. This model was then used further for docking and simulation studies. The molecular docking study revealed that Cys17, His87, and Gln88 residues of cysteine protease form an active site pocket similar to human cathepsin B. Then the docked complex was refined by molecular dynamic simulation to confirm its stable behavior over the entire simulation period. The molecular docking and MD simulation studies showed that the sulfhydryl hydrogen atom of Cys17 of cysteine protease interacts with carboxylic oxygen of Lys16 of Aβ peptide indicating the cleavage site. Thus, the cysteine protease model from X. campestris having similarity with human cathepsin B crystal structure may be used as an alternate approach to cleave Aβ peptide a causative agent of Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Modulation of an active-site cysteine pKa allows PDI to act as a catalyst of both disulfide bond formation and isomerization.

    PubMed

    Karala, Anna-Riikka; Lappi, Anna-Kaisa; Ruddock, Lloyd W

    2010-03-05

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) plays a central role in disulfide bond formation in the endoplasmic reticulum. It is implicated both in disulfide bond formation and in disulfide bond reduction and isomerization. To be an efficient catalyst of all three reactions requires complex mechanisms. These include mechanisms to modulate the pK(a) values of the active-site cysteines of PDI. Here, we examined the role of arginine 120 in modulating the pK(a) values of these cysteines. We find that arginine 120 plays a significant role in modulating the pK(a) of the C-terminal active-site cysteine in the a domain of PDI and plays a role in determining the reactivity of the N-terminal active-site cysteine but not via direct modulation of its pK(a). Mutation of arginine 120 and the corresponding residue, arginine 461, in the a' domain severely reduces the ability of PDI to catalyze disulfide bond formation and reduction but enhances the ability to catalyze disulfide bond isomerization due to the formation of more stable PDI-substrate mixed disulfides. These results suggest that the modulation of pK(a) of the C-terminal active cysteine by the movement of the side chain of these arginine residues into the active-site locales has evolved to allow PDI to efficiently catalyze both oxidation and isomerization reactions. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A cysteine protease of Dieffenbachia maculata.

    PubMed

    Chitre, A; Padmanabhan, S; Shastri, N V

    1998-12-01

    Plants of the genus Dieffenbachia, very popular as indoor ornamental plants, are known for their toxic as well as therapeutic properties. Their toxic manifestations have been partly attributed to their proteolytic activity. The work described in the present paper shows that stem leaves and petiole of Dieffenbachia maculata Schott, a commonly grown species, contain significant proteolytic activity, different parts showing different types of protease activities. Stem showed the highest enzyme activity and this protease was purified about 55 fold by solvent precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The enzyme has a relative molecular mass of 61 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and has an optimum pH of 8.0 and optimum temperature of 50 degrees C. Effects of various substrates, inhibitors and activators indicate that the enzyme is a cysteine protease with leucylpeptidase activity.

  7. Cysteine sulfoxide derivatives in Petiveria alliacea.

    PubMed

    Kubec, R; Musah, R A

    2001-11-01

    Two diastereomers of S-benzyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide have been isolated from fresh roots of Petiveria alliacea. Their structures and absolute configurations have been determined by NMR, MALDI-HRMS, IR and CD spectroscopy and confirmed by comparison with authentic compounds. Both the R(S) and S(S) diastereomers of the sulfoxide are present in all parts of the plant (root, stem, and leaves) with the latter diastereomer being predominant. Their total content greatly varied in different parts of the plant between 0.07 and 2.97 mg g(-1) fr. wt, being by far the highest in the root. S-Benzylcysteine has also been detected in trace amounts (<10 microg g(-1) fr. wt) in all parts of the plant. This represents the first report of the presence of S-benzylcysteine derivatives in nature.

  8. Bharangin, a Diterpenoid Quinonemethide, Abolishes Constitutive and Inducible Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) Activation by Modifying p65 on Cysteine 38 Residue and Reducing Inhibitor of Nuclear Factor-κB α Kinase Activation, Leading to Suppression of NF-κB-Regulated Gene Expression and Sensitization of Tumor Cells to Chemotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Subash C.; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Kim, Jihye; Rahman, Ghazi M.; Francis, Sajin K.; Raveendran, Reshma; Nair, Mangalam S.; Das, Joydip

    2011-01-01

    Although inflammatory pathways have been linked with various chronic diseases including cancer, identification of an agent that can suppress these pathways has therapeutic potential. Herein we describe the identification of a novel compound bharangin, a diterpenoid quinonemethide that can suppress pro-inflammatory pathways specifically. We found that bharangin suppresses nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation induced by pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor promoter, cigarette smoke, and endotoxin. Inhibition of NF-κB activation was mediated through the suppression of phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (IκBα); inhibition of IκBα kinase activation; and suppression of p65 nuclear translocation, and phosphorylation. The diterpenoid inhibited binding of p65 to DNA. A reducing agent reversed the inhibitory effect, and mutation of the Cys38 of p65 to serine abrogated the effect of bharangin on p65-DNA binding. Molecular docking revealed strong interaction of the ligand with the p65 via two hydrogen bonds one with Lys37 (2.204 Å) and another with Cys38 (2.023 Å). The inhibitory effect of bharangin on NF-κB activation was specific, inasmuch as binding of activator protein-1 and octameric transcription factor 1 to DNA was not affected. Suppression of NF-κB activation by this diterpenoid caused the down-regulation of the expression of proteins involved in tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis, leading to potentiation of apoptosis, suppression of proliferation, and invasion of tumor cells. Furthermore, the genetic deletion of p65 and mutation of p65Cys38 residue to Ser abolished the affect of bharangin. Overall, our results demonstrate that bharangin specifically inhibits the NF-κB activation pathway by modifying p65 and inhibiting IκBα kinase activation and potentiates apoptosis in tumor cells. PMID:21795584

  9. Snake acetylcholine receptor: cloning of the domain containing the four extracellular cysteines of the alpha subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Horowitz, M; Kochva, E; Fuchs, S

    1989-01-01

    The acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) at the neuromuscular junction of elapid snakes binds cholinergic ligands but unlike other muscle AcChoRs does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. Numerous studies indicate that the ligand-binding site of the AcChoR includes cysteine residues at positions 192 and 193 of the alpha subunit. We have previously shown that a synthetic dodecapeptide corresponding to residues 185-196 of the Torpedo AcChoR alpha subunit contains the essential elements of the ligand-binding site. In an attempt to elucidate the structural basis for the precise binding properties of snake AcChoR, we sequenced a portion of the snake AcChoR alpha subunit. First, a mouse AcChoR alpha-subunit cDNA probe was used to screen a size-selected snake (Natrix tessellata) genomic library. A genomic clone was isolated and was found to contain sequences homologous to the exon including the first two cysteines (Cys-128 and -142) of AcChoR alpha subunit. The domain of the alpha subunit from Natrix and cobra AcChoR (amino acid residues 119-222), which contains the four extracellular cysteines (128, 142, 192, and 193), was amplified by reverse transcription of mRNA and the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that the snake alpha subunit contains the two tandem cysteines at positions 192 and 193, resembling all other AcChoR alpha subunits. Sequence comparison revealed that the cloned region of the snake alpha subunit is highly homologous (75-80%) to other muscle AcChoRs and not to neuronal AcChoR, which also does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. In the presumed ligand-binding site, in the vicinity of Cys-192 and Cys-193, four major substitutions occur in the snake sequence--at positions 184 (Trp----Phe), 185 (Lys----Trp), 187 (Trp----Ser), and 194 (Pro----Leu). In addition, Asn-189 is a putative N-glycosylation site, present only in the snake. These changes, or part of them, may explain the lack of alpha-bungarotoxin-binding to snake Ac

  10. Snake acetylcholine receptor: cloning of the domain containing the four extracellular cysteines of the alpha subunit.

    PubMed

    Neumann, D; Barchan, D; Horowitz, M; Kochva, E; Fuchs, S

    1989-09-01

    The acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) at the neuromuscular junction of elapid snakes binds cholinergic ligands but unlike other muscle AcChoRs does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. Numerous studies indicate that the ligand-binding site of the AcChoR includes cysteine residues at positions 192 and 193 of the alpha subunit. We have previously shown that a synthetic dodecapeptide corresponding to residues 185-196 of the Torpedo AcChoR alpha subunit contains the essential elements of the ligand-binding site. In an attempt to elucidate the structural basis for the precise binding properties of snake AcChoR, we sequenced a portion of the snake AcChoR alpha subunit. First, a mouse AcChoR alpha-subunit cDNA probe was used to screen a size-selected snake (Natrix tessellata) genomic library. A genomic clone was isolated and was found to contain sequences homologous to the exon including the first two cysteines (Cys-128 and -142) of AcChoR alpha subunit. The domain of the alpha subunit from Natrix and cobra AcChoR (amino acid residues 119-222), which contains the four extracellular cysteines (128, 142, 192, and 193), was amplified by reverse transcription of mRNA and the polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that the snake alpha subunit contains the two tandem cysteines at positions 192 and 193, resembling all other AcChoR alpha subunits. Sequence comparison revealed that the cloned region of the snake alpha subunit is highly homologous (75-80%) to other muscle AcChoRs and not to neuronal AcChoR, which also does not bind alpha-bungarotoxin. In the presumed ligand-binding site, in the vicinity of Cys-192 and Cys-193, four major substitutions occur in the snake sequence--at positions 184 (Trp----Phe), 185 (Lys----Trp), 187 (Trp----Ser), and 194 (Pro----Leu). In addition, Asn-189 is a putative N-glycosylation site, present only in the snake. These changes, or part of them, may explain the lack of alpha-bungarotoxin-binding to snake AcChoR.

  11. Cysteine analogues potentiate glucose-induced insulin release in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon, H.P.; Hehl, K.H.; Enz, G.; Setiadi-Ranti, A.; Verspohl, E.J.

    1986-12-01

    In rat pancreatic islets, cysteine analogues, including glutathione, acetylcysteine, cysteamine, D-penicillamine, L-cysteine ethyl ester, and cysteine-potentiated glucose (11.1 mM) induced insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Their maximal effects were similar and occurred at approximately 0.05, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.0 mM, respectively. At substimulatory glucose levels (2.8 mM), insulin release was not affected by these compounds. In contrast, thiol compounds, structurally different from cysteine and its analogues, such as mesna, tiopronin, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), dimercaprol (BAL), beta-thio-D-glucose, as well as those cysteine analogues that lack a free-thiol group, including L-cystine, cystamine, D-penicillamine disulfide, S-carbocysteine, and S-carbamoyl-L-cysteine, did not enhance insulin release at stimulatory glucose levels (11.1 mM); cystine (5 mM) was inhibitory. These in vitro data indicate that among the thiols tested here, only cysteine and its analogues potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion, whereas thiols that are structurally not related to cysteine do not. This suggests that a cysteine moiety in the molecule is necessary for the insulinotropic effect. For their synergistic action to glucose, the availability of a sulfhydryl group is also a prerequisite. The maximal synergistic action is similar for all cysteine analogues tested