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Sample records for adjacent exposed electrical

  1. Proteome analysis of proliferative response of bystander cells adjacent to cells exposed to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Gerashchenko, Bogdan I.; Yamagata, Akira; Oofusa, Ken; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; de Toledo, Sonia M.; Howell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Recently (Cytometry 2003, 56A, 71–80), we reported that direct cell-to-cell contact is required for stimulating proliferation of bystander rat liver cells (WB-F344) cocultured with irradiated cells, and neither functional gap junction intercellular communication nor long-range extracellular factors appear to be involved in this proliferative bystander response (PBR). The molecular basis for this response is unknown. Confluent monolayers of WB-F344 cells were exposed to 5-Gray (Gy) of γ-rays. Irradiated cells were mixed with unirradiated cells and co-cultured for 24 h. Cells were harvested and protein expression was examined using 2-DE. Protein expression was also determined in cultures of unirradiated and 5-Gy irradiated cells. Proteins were identified by MS. Nucleophosmin (NPM)-1, a multifunctional nucleolar protein, was more highly expressed in bystander cells than in either unirradiated or 5-Gy irradiated cells. Enolase-α, a glycolytic enzyme, was present in acidic and basic variants in unirradiated cells. In bystander and 5-Gy irradiated cells, the basic variant was weakly expressed, whereas the acidic variant was overwhelmingly present. These data indicate that the presence of irradiated cells can affect NPM-1 and enolase-α in adjacent bystander cells. These proteins appear to participate in molecular events related to the PBR and suggest that this response may involve cellular defense, proliferation, and metabolism. PMID:17514680

  2. Proteome analysis of proliferative response of bystander cells adjacent to cells exposed to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Gerashchenko, Bogdan I; Yamagata, Akira; Oofusa, Ken; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; de Toledo, Sonia M; Howell, Roger W

    2007-06-01

    Recently (Cytometry 2003, 56A, 71-80), we reported that direct cell-to-cell contact is required for stimulating proliferation of bystander rat liver cells (WB-F344) cocultured with irradiated cells, and neither functional gap junction intercellular communication nor long-range extracellular factors appear to be involved in this proliferative bystander response (PBR). The molecular basis for this response is unknown. Confluent monolayers of WB-F344 cells were exposed to 5-Gray (Gy) of gamma-rays. Irradiated cells were mixed with unirradiated cells and co-cultured for 24 h. Cells were harvested and protein expression was examined using 2-DE. Protein expression was also determined in cultures of unirradiated and 5-Gy irradiated cells. Proteins were identified by MS. Nucleophosmin (NPM)-1, a multifunctional nucleolar protein, was more highly expressed in bystander cells than in either unirradiated or 5-Gy irradiated cells. Enolase-alpha, a glycolytic enzyme, was present in acidic and basic variants in unirradiated cells. In bystander and 5-Gy irradiated cells, the basic variant was weakly expressed, whereas the acidic variant was overwhelmingly present. These data indicate that the presence of irradiated cells can affect NPM-1 and enolase-alpha in adjacent bystander cells. These proteins appear to participate in molecular events related to the PBR and suggest that this response may involve cellular defense, proliferation, and metabolism.

  3. Health of workers exposed to electric fields.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, D E; Broadbent, M H; Male, J C; Jones, M R

    1985-02-01

    The results of health questionnaire interviews with 390 electrical power transmission and distribution workers, together with long term estimates of their exposure to 50 Hz electric fields, and short term measurements of the actual exposure for 287 of them are reported. Twenty eight workers received measurable exposures, averaging about 30 kVm-1h over the two week measurement period. Estimated exposure rates were considerably greater, but showed fair correlation with the measurements. Although the general level of health was higher than we have found in manual workers in other industries, there were significant differences in the health measures between different categories of job, different parts of the country, and in association with factors such as overtime, working alone, or frequently changing shift. After allowing for the effects of job and location, however, we found no significant correlations of health with either measured or estimated exposure to electric fields. PMID:3970875

  4. Cardiovascular response of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, it has been reported that exposure to high-strength electric fields can influence electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns, heart rates, and blood pressures in various species of animals. Our studies were designed to evaluate these reported effects and to help clarify some of the disagreement present in the literature. Various cardiovascular variables were measured in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed or sham-exposed to 60-Hz electric fields at 80 to 100 kV/m for periods up to four months. No significant differences in heart rates, ECG patterns, blood pressures, or vascular reactivity were observed between exposed and sham-exposed rats after 8 hours, 40 hours, 1 month, or 4 months of exposure. Our studies cannot be directly compared to the work of other investigators because of differences in animal species and electric-field characteristics. However, our failure to detect any cardiovascular changes may have been the result of (1) eliminating secondary field effects such as shocks, audible noise, corona, and ozone; (2) minimizing steady-state microcurrents between the mouth of the animal and watering devices; and (3) minimizing electric-field-induced vibration of the electrodes and animal cages.

  5. Assessment of errors in static electrical impedance tomography with adjacent and trigonometric current patterns.

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, V; Vauhkonen, M; Karjalainen, P A; Kaipio, J P

    1997-11-01

    In electrical impedance tomography (EIT), difference imaging is often preferred over static imaging. This is because of the many unknowns in the forward modelling which make it difficult to obtain reliable absolute resistivity estimates. However, static imaging and absolute resistivity values are needed in some potential applications of EIT. In this paper we demonstrate by simulation the effects of different error components that are included in the reconstruction of static EIT images. All simulations are carried out in two dimensions with the so-called complete electrode model. Errors that are considered are the modelling error in the boundary shape of an object, errors in the electrode sizes and localizations and errors in the contact impedances under the electrodes. Results using both adjacent and trigonometric current patterns are given.

  6. Modeling of Nanoparticle-Mediated Electric Field Enhancement Inside Biological Cells Exposed to AC Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Pawan K.; Kang, Sung Kil; Kim, Gon Jun; Choi, Jun; Mohamed, A.-A. H.; Lee, Jae Koo

    2009-08-01

    We present in this article the effect of alternating electric field at kilohertz (kHz) and megahertz (MHz) frequencies on the biological cells in presence and absence of nanoparticles. The induced electric field strength distribution in the region around cell membrane and nucleus envelope display different behavior at kHz and MHz frequencies. The attachment of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), especially gold nanowires around the surface of nucleus induce enhanced electric field strengths. The induced field strengths are dependent on the length of nanowire and create varying field regions when the length of nanowire is increased from 2 to 4 µm. The varying nanowire length increased the induced field strengths inside nucleoplasm and region adjacent to the nucleus in the cytoplasm. We investigated a process of electrostatic disruption of nucleus membrane when the induced electric field strength across the nucleus exceeds its tensile strength.

  7. Cancer mortality among electric utility workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, D; Browning, S R; Schenck, A P; Gregory, E; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether excess mortality from cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin, and cancers of the brain and liver in particular, is associated with long term occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). METHODS: An epidemiological study of mortality was conducted among 138,905 men employed for at least six months between 1950 and 1986 at five electrical power companies in the United States. Exposures were assessed by panels composed of workers, hygienists, and managers at each company, who considered tasks performed by workers in 28 job categories and estimated weekly exposures in hours for each job. Poisson regression was used to examine mortality in relation to exposure to electrical insulating fluids containing PCBs, controlling for demographic and occupational factors. RESULTS: Neither all cause nor total cancer mortality was related to cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids. Mortality from malignant melanoma increased with exposure; rate ratios (RRs) relative to unexposed men for melanoma were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.56 to 2.52), 1.71 (0.68 to 4.28) and 1.93 (0.52 to 7.14) for men with < 2000, > 2000-10,000, and > 10,000 hours of cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids, respectively, without consideration of latency. Lagging exposure by 20 years yielded RRs of 1.29 (0.76 to 2.18), 2.56 (1.09 to 5.97), and 4.81 (1.49 to 15.50) for the same exposure levels. Mortality from brain cancer was modestly increased among men with < 2000 hours (RR 1.61, 95% CI 0.86 to 3.01) and > 2000-10,000 hours exposure (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.95), but there were no deaths from brain cancer among the most highly exposed men. A lag of five years yielded slightly increased RRs. Mortality from liver cancer was not associated with exposure to PCB insulating fluids. CONCLUSIONS: This study was larger and provided more detailed information on exposure than past investigations of workers exposed to PCBs. The results suggest that PCBs

  8. Heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity and Darcian flux in the submerged streambed and adjacent exposed stream bank of the Beiluo River, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jinxi; Jiang, Weiwei; Xu, Shaofeng; Zhang, Guotao; Wang, Liping; Wen, Min; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yuanyuan; Long, Yongqing

    2016-08-01

    Recognizing the heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity and hyporheic flow is critical for understanding contaminant transfer and biogeochemical and hydrological processes involving streams and aquifers. In this study, the heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity and Darcian flux in a submerged streambed and its adjacent exposed stream banks were investigated in the Beiluo River, northwest China. In the submerged streambed, Darcian flux was estimated by measurement of vertical hydraulic conductivity (K v) and vertical head gradient (VHG) using in-situ permeameter tests. On exposed stream banks, both horizontal hydraulic conductivity (K h) and K v were measured by on-site permeameter tests. In the submerged streambed, K v values gradually decreased with depth and the higher values were concentrated in the center and close to the erosional bank. Compared to the exposed stream banks, the K v values were higher in the streambed. From stream stage to the topmost layer of tested sediment, through increasing elevation, the K h values increased on the erosional bank, while they decreased on the depositional bank. The values of VHG along the thalweg illustrate that downwelling flux occurred in the deepest area while upwelling flux appeared in the other areas, which might result from the change of streambed elevation. The higher value of the Darcian flux in the submerged streambed existed near the erosional bank.

  9. Correlation between dielectric property by dielectrophoretic levitation and growth activity of cells exposed to electric field.

    PubMed

    Hakoda, Masaru; Hirota, Yusuke

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a system analyzing cell activity by the dielectrophoresis method. Our previous studies revealed a correlation between the growth activity and dielectric property (Re[K(ω)]) of mouse hybridoma 3-2H3 cells using dielectrophoretic levitation. Furthermore, it was clarified that the differentiation activity of many stem cells could be evaluated by the Re[K(ω)] without differentiation induction. In this paper, 3-2H3 cells exposed to an alternating current (AC) electric field or a direct current (DC) electric field were cultivated, and the influence of damage by the electric field on the growth activity of the cells was examined. To evaluate the activity of the cells by measuring the Re[K(ω)], the correlation between the growth activity and the Re[K(ω)] of the cells exposed to the electric field was examined. The relations between the cell viability, growth activity, and Re[K(ω)] in the cells exposed to the AC electric field were obtained. The growth activity of the cells exposed to the AC electric field could be evaluated by the Re[K(ω)]. Furthermore, it was found that the adverse effects of the electric field on the cell viability and the growth activity were smaller in the AC electric field than the DC electric field.

  10. Electrical control of Co/Ni magnetism adjacent to gate oxides with low oxygen ion mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y. N.; Zhou, X. J.; Li, F.; Cui, B.; Wang, Y. Y.; Wang, G. Y.; Pan, F.; Song, C.

    2015-09-21

    We investigate the electrical manipulation of Co/Ni magnetization through a combination of ionic liquid and oxide gating, where HfO{sub 2} with a low O{sup 2−} ion mobility is employed. A limited oxidation-reduction process at the metal/HfO{sub 2} interface can be induced by large electric field, which can greatly affect the saturated magnetization and Curie temperature of Co/Ni bilayer. Besides the oxidation/reduction process, first-principles calculations show that the variation of d electrons is also responsible for the magnetization variation. Our work discloses the role of gate oxides with a relatively low O{sup 2−} ion mobility in electrical control of magnetism, and might pave the way for the magneto-ionic memory with low power consumption and high endurance performance.

  11. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 7. Neurology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    Neurophysiological responses in three generations of miniature swine chronically exposed to a 30-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field have been assessed in a series of screening experiments. Results are presented from experiments on peripheral nerve function in parental (F/sub 0/) female swine at 100 days of gestation, and from experiments on synaptic transmission in first- and second-generation (F/sub 1/ and F/sub 2/) progeny at 6 weeks of age, all following chronic exposure to a 60-Hz electric field. In the several measures of peripheral nerve function examined, only two showed consistent differences between exposed and sham-exposed animals: C-fiber (but not B-fiber) conduction velocity was decreased in nerve preparations from exposed swine, and recovery, as measured by the increase in amplitude of the compound action potential, was consistently, although not statistically, less in B- and C-fibers from exposed animals when compared to values for the sham-exposed controls. Although changes (increases or decreases) in various parameters of synaptic transmission were observed between exposed and sham-exposed groups, the differences were not consistent across experiments or generations. Only one measure of synaptic function showed a consistent difference throughout the studies: the conduction velocities of B and C components of the postsynaptic compound action potential were increased following electric-field exposure (statistically significant only in B-fibers of the F/sub 2/ generations). 7 refs., 60 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Black sky: Exposing electricity as the Achilles' heel of resilience.

    PubMed

    Monken, Jonathon

    2015-01-01

    The national power grid is the most critical and the most vulnerable life-support infrastructure in modern society. Electricity serves as the essential element in sustaining every other sector of critical infrastructure including water, fuel and communications. Collective experience with responding to and recovering from widespread, long-duration power outages - known as black sky events - is nearly non-existent. Understanding these risks and weaknesses requires a collaborative planning effort with the public and private sectors to identify and protect critical nodes within the interdependent infrastructure to ensure that recovery from a catastrophic event is possible. This also requires a 'whole community' approach to planning and execution to facilitate a response on an unprecedented level.

  13. Multi-parameter Hopf-bifurcation in HHM Model Exposed to ELF Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wang; Yanqiu, Che; Xiangyang, Fei; Feng, Dong

    2005-01-01

    The variation of cell trans-membrane voltage exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field is analyzed; a modified Hodgkin-Huxley model of muscle (HHM) is established by introducing a new parameter denoting the effect of external electric field, and the bifurcation caused by the new parameter as well as leakage conductance and sodium ions anti-electromotive force is studied. The algebra criterion in high dimension equations is employed to perform the analysis of multi-parameter dynamical bifurcation. The results are of biological significance and suggest that the aberration of dynamics in bio-systems may be accounted for diseases caused by electric exposure.

  14. Site-specific impacts on gene expression and behavior in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed in situ to streams adjacent to sewage treatment plants

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Environmental monitoring for pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in the aquatic environment traditionally employs a variety of methods including analytical chemistry, as well as a variety of histological and biochemical endpoints that correlate with the fish fitness. It is now clear that analytical chemistry alone is insufficient to identify aquatic environments that are compromised because these measurements do not identify the biologically available dose. The biological endpoints that are measured are important because they relate to known impairments; however, they are not specific to the contaminants and often focus on only a few known endpoints. These studies can be enhanced by looking more broadly at changes in gene expression, especially if the analysis focuses on biochemical pathways. The present study was designed to obtain additional information for well-characterized sites adjacent to sewage treatment plants in MN that are thought to be impacted by endocrine disruptors. Results Here we examine five sites that have been previously characterized and examine changes in gene expression in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) that have been caged for 48 h in each of the aquatic environments. We find that the gene expression changes are characteristic and unique at each of the five sites. Also, fish exposed to two of the sites, 7 and 12, present a more aggressive behavior compared to control fish. Conclusion Our results show that a short-term exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents was able to induce a site-specific gene expression pattern in the fathead minnow gonad and liver. The short-term exposure was also enough to affect fish sexual behavior. Our results also show that microarray analysis can be very useful at determining potential exposure to chemicals, and could be used routinely as a tool for environmental monitoring. PMID:19811676

  15. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on living plants exposed for extended periods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The effects of intense 60-Hz electric fields were studied by exposing plants of five kinds (crops) for extended periods in a special greenhouse where cultural and environmental factors could be controlled. Plant populations and densities simulated field conditions. While exposed, plants of all crops germinated satisfactorily, and plants of sweet corn and wheat completed their life cycles and produced viable seed. Plants of alfalfa and tall fescue were at the early bloom stage when harvested. Exposure of plants of five kinds to electric fields had no statistically significant effects on seed germination, seedling growth, plant growth, phenology, flowering, seed set, biomass production, plant height, leaf area, plant survival, and nodulation. Exposure to 60-Hz electric fields resulted in very limited damage to terminal leaf tips, awns, and corn tassels, particularly at fields of 30 kV/m or greater. 47 refs., 36 figs., 44 tabs.

  16. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 2: Behavior. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    The behavioral responses in three generations of miniature swine chronically exposed to a 30-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field have been assessed in a series of screening experiments. Tests were conducted on mature swine as well as on very young swine and weanlings and included measures of: (1) preference for exposure to or shielding from the electric field; (2) early neuromuscular development; (3) exploratory behavior; (4) simple learning and memory function; and (5) short-term memory. Repeated evaluations of behavioral parameters show few statistically significant effects. In the parental (F/sub 0/) generation, exposed sows showed a preference to remain out of the field, particularly during the dark period. Adult first-generation (F/sub 1/) sows, however, failed to demonstrate such a preference to stay out of the field. In other behavioral assessments, the singular significant effect in F/sub 1/ swine was the increased number of vocalizations in both male and female swine during the exploratory behavior test. This result, also inconsistent across generations, was not repeated in the second-generation (F/sub 2/) exploratory tests, where exposed female swine made significantly fewer vocalizations than their sham-exposed counterparts. The study provides no other evidence of an overall behavioral effect in swine of prenatal exposure to electric fields. 13 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Relationship between field strength and arousal response in mice exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, R.S.; Duffy, P.H.; Sacher, G.A.; Ehret, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    White-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, were exposed to 60-Hz electric fields to study the relationship between field strength and three measures of the transient arousal response previously reported to occur with exposures at 100 kV/m. Five groups of 12 mice each were given a series of four 1-h exposures, separated by an hour, with each group exposed at one of the following field strengths: 75, 50, 35, 25, and 10 kV/m; 8 additional mice were sham-exposed with no voltage applied to the field generator. All mice were experimentally naive before the start of the experiment, and all exposures occurred during the inactive (lights-on) phase of the circadian cycle. The first exposure produced immediate increases in arousal measures, but subsequent exposures had no significant effect on any measure. These arousal responses were defined by significant increases of gross motor activity, carbon dioxide production, and oxygen consumption, and were frequently recorded with field strengths of 50 kV/m or higher. Significant arousal responses rarely occurred with exposures at lower field strengths. Responses of mice exposed at 75 and 50 kV/m were similar to previously described transient arousal responses in mice exposed to 100-kV/m electric fields. Less than half of the mice in each of the field strength groups below 50 kV/m showed arousal response based on Z (standard) scores, but the arousals of the mice that did respond were similar to those of mice exposed at higher field strengths. Polynomial regression was used to calculate the field strength producing the greatest increases for each of the arousal measures. The results show that the amplitude of the transient arousal response is related to the strength of the electric field, but different measures of arousal may have different relationships to field strength.

  18. Attempts to produce taste-aversion learning in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Creim, J.A.; Lovely, R.H.; Kaune, W.T.; Phillips, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    A measure of taste-aversion (TA) learning was used in three experiments to 1) determine whether exposure to intense 60-Hz electric fields can produce TA learning in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and (2) establish a dose-response function for the behavior in question. In Experiment 1, four groups of eight rats each were distributed into one of two exposures (69 +/- 5 kV/m or 133 +/- 10 kV/m) or into one of two sham-exposure groups. Conditioning trials paired 0.1% sodium saccharin in water with 3 h of exposure to a 60-Hz electric field. Following five conditioning trials, a 20-min, two-bottle preference test between water and saccharin-flavored water failed to reveal TA conditioning in exposed groups. In Experiment 2, four groups of eight rats each (34 +/- 2 kV/m or 133 +/- 10 kV/m and two sham-exposed groups) were treated as before. Electric-field exposure had no effect on TA learning. Experiment 3 tested for a possible synergy between a minimal dose (for TA learning) of cyclophosphamide (6 mg/kg) and 5 h of exposure to 133 +/- 10 kV/m electric fields in a dark environment under conditions otherwise similar to those of Experiments 1 and 2. The results indicated no TA learning as reflected in the relative consumption of saccharin. 16 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  19. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 6. Immunology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    Immunological response in three generations of miniature swine chronically exposed to a 30-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field have been assessed in a series of screening experiments. The study was designed to investigate functional aspects of the humoral and cellular components of the mammalian immune system. Circulating levels of immunoglobulins were measured in parental-generation (F/sub 0/) sows (0 to 22 months of exposure), first-generation fetuses (F/sub 1/) at 100 days of gestation, F/sub 1/ females (0 to 32 months of exposure) and second-generation (F/sub 2/) weanlings at 1.5 and 6 months of age. No consistent, statistically significant changes in the levels of serum immunoglobins were observed when exposed groups were compared with sham-exposed controls, either within or across generations. An examination of cellular immunity included measurements of the mitogen response of peripheral-blood lymphocytes (PBL), spleen cells and lymph-node cells of F/sub 0/ sows sacrificed after 100 days of pregnancy, and PBL, spleen cells and thymocytes of F/sub 1/ fetuses at 100 days of gestation. Mitogen response studies of PBL, spleen cells, thymocytes and lymph-node cells of 42-day-old F/sub 1/ male weanlings and F/sub 2/ male and female swine were also conducted. In the statistical comparisons of mitogen-response data obtained for F/sub 0/, F/sub 1/, and F/sub 2/ swine, no consistent differences were observed between exposed and matched sham-exposed control groups. These observations indicate that the distribution of cells in the various tissues studied and the responses observed were not altered as a result of exposure to the fields. 22 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Reconstruction of high voltage electric burn wound with exposed shoulder joint by thoracoacromial artery perforator propeller flap.

    PubMed

    Rout, Debesh Kumar; Nayak, Bibhuti Bhusan; Choudhury, Arun Kumar; Pati, Ajit Kumar

    2014-05-01

    We describe the reconstruction of high voltage electric burn injury with exposed shoulder joint by thoracoacromial artery perforator propeller flap based on the delto-pectoral perforators of thoracoacromial artery. The successful use of this propeller flap to cover the exposed shoulder joint in a case with limited local flap options demonstrates its use as an alternative technique.

  1. Diurnal patterns in brain biogenic amines of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, B.J.; Anderson, L.E.; Lowery, C.I.; Adey, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Levels of brain neurotransmitters and their metabolites, as well as concentrations of enzymes associated with their synthesis and metabolism, fluctuate during the day in patterns defined as circadian. The present study examined these rhythms in albino rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Thirty-six animals were exposed to a 39 kV/m field for 4 weeks, 20 h/day, in a parallel-plate electrode system. A group of 36 sham animals was similarly handled and housed in a nonenergized exposure system. On the sampling day, animals were sacrificed at 4-h intervals throughout the 24-h day. Brains were removed, dissected, and kept frozen until chemically analyzed. The levels of biogenic amines and their acidic metabolites in the striatum, hypothalamus, and hippocampus were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) methods. Repeated exposure to 60-Hz electric fields produced significant alterations in the diurnal rhythms of several biogenic amines: dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, the primary metabolite of dopamine in the rat) in the striatum, and norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA; serotonin metabolite) in the hypothalamus. Levels of serotonin in the striatum and hypothalamus showed clear circadian patterns that was not affected by the field. No diurnal or field-related changes were observed in the hippocampal amines.

  2. Near-Surface Geologic Units Exposed Along Ares Vallis and in Adjacent Areas: A Potential Source of Sediment at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1997-01-01

    A sequence of layers, bright and dark, is exposed on the walls of canyons, impact craters and mesas throughout the Ares Vallis region, Chryse Planitia, and Xanthe Terra, Mars. Four layers can be seen: two pairs of alternating dark and bright albedo. The upper dark layer forms the top surface of many walls and mesas. The upper dark-bright pair was stripped as a unit from many streamlined mesas and from the walls of Ares Valles, leaving a bench at the top of the lower dark layer, approximately 250 m below the highland surface on streamlined islands and on the walls of Ares Vallis itself. Along Ares Vallis, the scarp between the highlands surface and this bench is commonly angular in plan view (not smoothly curving), suggesting that erosion of the upper dark-bright pair of layers controlled by planes of weakness, like fractures or joints. These near-surface layers in the Ares Vallis area have similar thicknesses, colors, and resistances to erosion to layers exposed near the tops of walls in Valles Marineris (Treiman et al.) and may represent the same pedogenic hardpan units. From this correlation, and from analogies with hardpans on Earth, the light-color layers may be cemented by calcite or gypsum. The dark layers are likely cemented by an iron-bearing mineral. Mars Pathfinder instruments should permit recognition and useful analyses of hardpan fragments, provided that clean uncoated surfaces are accessible. Even in hardpan-cemented materials, it should be possible to determine the broad types of lithologies in the Martian highlands. However, detailed geochemical modeling of highland rocks and soils may be compromised by the presence of hardpan cement minerals.

  3. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 4: growth, reproduction, and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    Swine were exposed to uniform, vertical, 60-Hz, 30-kV/m electric fields for 20 hours/day, 7 days/week. The parental generation (F/sub 0/ gilts) was bred after 4 months on study; some were killed for teratologic study at 100 days of gestation (dg), and the others produced a first-generation (F/sub 1/) of offspring. The pooled incidence of terata in these litters was similar in the exposed and sham-exposed groups. The F/sub 0/ females, which produced the F/sub 1/ generation, were rebred after 18 months of exposure and were killed at 100 dg: malformation incidence in exposed litters (75%) was significantly greater than in sham-exposed litters (29%). Types of malformations were not dissimilar between the two groups. The F/sub 1/ gilts were bred at 18 months of age; there were indications of impaired copulatory behavior and decreased fertility in the exposed animals. Defective offspring were found in significantly more of the exposed litters (71%) than in sham-exposed litters (33%). The F/sub 1/ sows were bred again 10 months later, and teratologic evaluations were performed on their second litters at 100 dg. The percentage of litters with malformed fetuses was essentially identical in the exposed and sham-exposed groups (70 and 73%, respectively). The change in malformation incidences between generations and between the first and second breedings makes it difficult to unequivocally conclude that chronic exposure to a strong electric field caused developmental effects in swine, although it appears there may be an association. It is also possible that other factors, such as housing, inbreeding, disease or its treatment may have contributed to the results. 22 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 1. Overview and summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    Over a three-year period, three generations of female miniature swine and their offspring were exposed to a 30-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field. Such a field approximates the 12-kV/m field that a human would experience under a 765-kV line. After swine exposures varying from 6 to 36 months, project personnel analyzed a wide range of biological parameters including growth, blood cell and serum biochemistry, blood immunoglobulin levels, behavior, peripheral nerve function, cell-mediated immunity, cytogenetics, and reproduction and development. There were no significant differences in health effects between the exposed and sham-exposed swine, except in the area of fetal development. The first breeding produced no significant difference between exposed and control offspring. When those offspring were bred after 18 months of exposure, the fetuses of exposed sows had an increased incidence of morphological malformations and lower body weight than fetuses from control sows. The live-born had lower body weights and increased birth defects. Several factors suggest that electric fields per se may not have caused these reproductive changes. For example, similar types of malformations occurred in control pigs. Also, in second-generation sows, the incidence of fetal malformations was similar for both exposed and control groups. It is possible that other factors such as housing, inbreeding, disease, or treatment of disease may have produced the observed effects. 64 refs., 13 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. Histologic study of the internal organs of rats chronically exposed to a high-intensity electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, Y.J.; Majeau-Chargois, D.; Lymangrover, J.R.; Dunlap, W.P.; Hsieh, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of 120-day exposure to a high-intensity (80 kV/m), 60-Hz electric field on histology of selected internal organs of Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. The organs examined were the pituitary, thymus, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, right and left adrenals, right and left kidneys, and right and left testes. Histological examination of 10-micron tissue sections from randomly selected animals revealed no specific evidence of histopathologic differences between field-exposed and sham-exposed animals at the light microscopic level.

  6. Processes in suspensions of nanocomposite microcapsules exposed to external electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, A. V.; Lomova, M. V.; Kim, V. P.; Chumakov, A. S.; Gorbachev, I. A.; Gorin, D. A.; Glukhovskoy, E. G.

    2016-04-01

    Microcapsules with and without magnetite nanoparticles incorporated in the polyelectrolyte shell were prepared. The effect of external electric field on the nanocomposite polyelectrolyte microcapsules containing magnetite nanoparticles in the shell was studied in this work as a function of the electric field strength. Effect of electric fields on polyelectrolyte microcapsules and the control over integrity of polyelectrolyte microcapsules with and without inorganic nanoparticles by constant electric field has been investigated. Beads effect, aggregation and deformations of nanocomposite microcapsule shell in response to electric field were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Thus, a new approach for effect on the nanocomposite microcapsule, including opening microcapsule shell by an electric field, was demonstrated. These results can be used for creation of new systems for drug delivery systems with controllable release by external electric field.

  7. The Morphological and Molecular Changes of Brain Cells Exposed to Direct Current Electric Field Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Simon J.; Lagacé, Marie; St-Amour, Isabelle; Arsenault, Dany; Cisbani, Giulia; Chabrat, Audrey; Fecteau, Shirley; Lévesque, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The application of low-intensity direct current electric fields has been experimentally used in the clinic to treat a number of brain disorders, predominantly using transcranial direct current stimulation approaches. However, the cellular and molecular changes induced by such treatment remain largely unknown. Methods: Here, we tested various intensities of direct current electric fields (0, 25, 50, and 100V/m) in a well-controlled in vitro environment in order to investigate the responses of neurons, microglia, and astrocytes to this type of stimulation. This included morphological assessments of the cells, viability, as well as shape and fiber outgrowth relative to the orientation of the direct current electric field. We also undertook enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western immunoblotting to identify which molecular pathways were affected by direct current electric fields. Results: In response to direct current electric field, neurons developed an elongated cell body shape with neurite outgrowth that was associated with a significant increase in growth associated protein-43. Fetal midbrain dopaminergic explants grown in a collagen gel matrix also showed a reorientation of their neurites towards the cathode. BV2 microglial cells adopted distinct morphological changes with an increase in cyclooxygenase-2 expression, but these were dependent on whether they had already been activated with lipopolysaccharide. Finally, astrocytes displayed elongated cell bodies with cellular filopodia that were oriented perpendicularly to the direct current electric field. Conclusion: We show that cells of the central nervous system can respond to direct current electric fields both in terms of their morphological shape and molecular expression of certain proteins, and this in turn can help us to begin understand the mechanisms underlying the clinical benefits of direct current electric field. PMID:25522422

  8. Electrical conductivity response of poly(phenylene-vinylene)/zeolite composites exposed to ammonium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Kamonsawas, Jirarat; Sirivat, Anuvat; Niamlang, Sumonman; Hormnirun, Pimpa; Prissanaroon-Ouajai, Walaiporn

    2010-01-01

    Poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) was chemically synthesized via the polymerization of p-xylene-bis(tetrahydrothiophenium chloride) monomer and doped with H(2)SO(4). To improve the electrical conductivity sensitivity of the conductive polymer, Zeolites Y (Si/Al = 5.1, 30, 60, 80) were added into the conductive polymer matrix. All composite samples show definite positive responses towards NH(4)NO(3). The electrical conductivity sensitivities of the composite sensors increase linearly with increasing Si/Al ratio: with values of 0.201, 1.37, 2.80 and 3.18, respectively. The interactions between NH(4)NO(3) molecules and the PPV/zeolite composites with respect to the electrical conductivity sensitivity were investigated through the infrared spectroscopy. PMID:22219677

  9. Dormitory Residents Reduce Electricity Consumption when Exposed to Real-Time Visual Feedback and Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, John E.; Shunturov, Vladislav; Janda, Kathryn; Platt, Gavin; Weinberger, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In residential buildings, personal choices influence electricity and water consumption. Prior studies indicate that information feedback can stimulate resource conservation. College dormitories provide an excellent venue for controlled study of the effects of feedback. The goal of this study is to assess how different resolutions of…

  10. Investigation of fertility and in utero effects in rats chronically exposed to a high-intensity 60-Hz electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, Y.J.; Majeau-Chargois, D.; Lymangrover, J.R.; Dunlap, W.P.; Walker, C.F.

    1984-11-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate subtle bioeffects in Sprague-Dawley rats chronically exposed to a 60-Hz electric field at 80 kV/m unperturbed intensity. The details of our exposure facility, artifact considerations, environmental conditions, and exposure protocol are reported in this paper. Results of electric field exposure on reproduction and prenatal and postnatal development of rats over four generations are discussed. Statistical analysis of data from 305 females, 213 pregnancies, and 2683 births revealed no effects of electric field exposure on fertility, fecundity, nurturing, survival, or sex ratio of off-spring. In the final generation, 51 pregnant females were euthanized between days 16 and 20 of gestation, and 681 fetuses were carefully examined for gross malformations. Statistical analysis indicated that exposure to the electric field produced no significant increase in gross malformations, nor were any differences noted in resorptions, orientation of fetus in utero, sex ratio, or differential frequencies of uterine horn implantation. A detailed discussion of statistical power and sensitivity is included.

  11. Melatonin secretion and puberty in female lambs exposed to environmental electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.M. Jr.; Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J.M.; Thinesen, P.; Painter, L.J.; Olenchek, E.G.; Hess, D.L.; Forbes, R.; Foster, D.L. )

    1993-10-01

    This study determined whether chronic exposure of female lambs to the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) of a high voltage transmission line can alter pineal secretion of melatonin and the normal occurrence of puberty. Twenty female Suffolk lambs were assigned randomly in equal numbers to a control and a treatment group. Treatment from 2 to 10 mo of age consisted of continuous exposure within the electrical environment of a 500-kV transmission line (mean electric field 6 kV/m, mean magnetic field 40 mG). Treated lambs were penned directly beneath the transmission line; control lambs were maintained in a pen of similar construction 229 m from the line where EMF were at ambient levels (mean electric field < 10 V/m, mean magnetic field < 0.3 mG). Melatonin was analyzed by RIA in serum of blood samples collected at 0.5-3-h intervals over eight 48-h periods. To assess attainment of puberty, serum concentrations of progesterone were determined by RIA from blood samples collected twice weekly beginning at 19 wk of age. Concentrations of circulating melatonin in control and treated lambs were low during daylight hours and increased during nighttime hours. The characteristic pattern of melatonin secretion during nighttime (amplitude, phase, and duration) did not differ between control and treatment groups. Age at puberty and number of subsequent estrous cycles also did not differ between groups. These data suggest that chronic exposure of developing female sheep to 60-Hz environmental EMF does not affect the mechanisms underlying the generation of the circadian pattern of melatonin secretion or the mechanisms involved in the onset of reproductive activity.

  12. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Catrin F.; Geroni, Gilles M.; Pirog, Antoine; Lloyd, David; Lees, Jonathan; Porch, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the "internet of things" is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separated electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave no measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.

  13. Enhanced hexadecane degradation and low biomass production by Aspergillus niger exposed to an electric current in a model system.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Alvarez, Nancy; González, Ignacio; Damian-Matsumura, Pablo; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    The effects of an electric current on growth and hexadecane (HXD) degradation by Aspergillus niger growth were determined. A 450-mL electrochemical cell with titanium ruthenium-oxide coated electrodes and packed with 15 g of perlite (inert biomass support) was inoculated with A. niger (2.0×10(7) spores (g of dry inert support)(-1)) and incubated for 12 days (30 °C; constant ventilation). 4.5 days after starting culture a current of 0.42 mA cm(-2) was applied for 24h. The current reduced (52±11%) growth of the culture as compared to that of a culture not exposed to current. However, HXD degradation was 96±1.4% after 8 days whereas it was 81±1.2% after 12 days in control cultures. Carbon balances of cultures not exposed to current suggested an assimilative metabolism, but a non-assimilative metabolism when the current was applied. This change can be related to an increase in total ATP content. The study contributes to the knowledge on the effects of current on the mycelial growth phase of A. niger, and suggests the possibility of manipulating the metabolism of this organism with electric current.

  14. Measurement of small mechanical vibrations of brain tissue exposed to extremely-low-frequency electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, R.J.; Ali, J.S.; Peoples, J.F.; Joines, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields can interact with biological tissue both electrically and mechanically. This study investigated the mechanical interaction between brain tissue and an extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electric field by measuring the resultant vibrational amplitude. The exposure cell is a section of X-band waveguide that was modified by the addition of a center conductor to form a small TEM cell within the waveguide structure. The ELF signal is applied to the center conductor of the TEM cell. The applied ELF electric field generates an electrostrictive force on the surface of the brain tissue. This force causes the tissue to vibrate at a frequency equal to twice the frequency of the applied sinusoidal signal. An X-band signal is fed through the waveguide, scattered by the vibrating sample, and detected by a phrase-sensitive receiver. Using a time-averaging spectrum analyzer, a vibration sensitivity of approximately 0.2 nmpp can be achieved. The amplitude of the brain tissue vibrational frequencies below 50 Hz; between 50 and 200 Hz resonant phenomena were observed; and above 200 Hz the amplitude fall-off is rapid.

  15. Failure to produce taste-aversion learning in rats exposed to static electric fields and air ions

    SciTech Connect

    Creim, J.A.; Lovely, R.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Forsythe, W.C.; Anderson, L.E.

    1995-12-01

    Taste-aversion (TA) learning was measured to determine whether exposure to high-voltage direct current (HVdc) static electric fields can produce TA learning in male Long Evans rats. Fifty-six rats were randomly distributed into four groups of 14 rats each. All rats were placed on a 20 min/day drinking schedule for 12 consecutive days prior to receiving five conditioning trials. During the conditioning trials, access to 0.1% sodium saccharin-flavored water was given for 20 min, followed 30 min later by one of four treatments. Two groups of 14 rats each were individually exposed to static electric fields and air ions, one group to +75 kV/m (+2 {times} 10{sup 5} air ions/cm{sup 3}) and the other group to {minus}75 kV/m ({minus}2 {times} 10{sup 5} air ions/cm{sup 3}). Two other groups of 14 rats each served as sham-exposed controls, with the following variation in one of the sham-exposed groups: this group was subdivided into two subsets of seven rats each, so that a positive control group could be included to validate the experimental design. The positive control group (n = 7) was injected with cyclophosphamide 25 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min after access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days, whereas the other subset of seven rats was similarly injected with an equivalent volume of saline. Access to saccharin-flavored water on conditioning days was followed by the treatments described above and was alternated daily with water recovery sessions in which the rats received access to water for 20 min in the home cage without further treatment. Following the last water-recovery session, a 20 min, two-bottle preference test (between water and saccharin-flavored water) was administered to each group. The positive control group did show TA learning, thus validating the experimental protocol.

  16. Electrical Characteristics of Mid-wavelength HgCdTe Photovoltaic Detectors Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, H.; Hu, W. D.; Li, T.; Li, X. Y.; Chang, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The study of electrical characteristics of mid-wavelength HgCdTe photodiodes irradiated by steady-state gamma rays has been carried out. The measurement of the current-voltage curves during irradiation revealed an abnormal variation of zero biased resistance R 0, and it didn't tend to change monotonically as observed in the case of post irradiation measurement. The irradiation effect was dominated by bulk effect inferred from the fitting calculations, and the generation-recombination current in the depletion region was drastically affected by gamma irradiation. Another irradiation effect was the linear increase of the series resistance with irradiation dosage which was related with the change of transportation parameters of carriers. The influence of hydrogenation on the gamma irradiation effects was also studied for comparison with the same batch of HgCdTe photodiodes, and it was found that R 0 for the hydrogenated devices showed similar change to those without hydrogenation. The series resistance, however, gave a totally different irradiation effect from the non-hydrogenated detectors and showed little change up to nearly 1 Mrad(Si) of gamma irradiation, which may be explained by the annihilation of hydrogen radicals with the defects caused by gamma irradiation.

  17. Evaluation of Genetic Variations in Maize Seedlings Exposed to Electric Field Based on Protein and DNA Markers.

    PubMed

    Al-Huqail, Asma A; Abdelhaliem, Ekram

    2015-01-01

    The current study analyzed proteins and nuclear DNA of electric fields (ELF) exposed and nonexposed maize seedlings for different exposure periods using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isozymes, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and comet assay, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed total of 46 polypeptides bands with different molecular weights ranging from 186.20 to 36.00 KDa. It generated distinctive polymorphism value of 84.62%. Leucine-aminopeptidase, peroxidase, and catalase isozymes showed the highest values of polymorphism (100%) based on zymograms number, relative front (Rf ), and optical intensity while esterase isozyme generated polymorphism value of 83.33%. Amino acids were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, which revealed the presence of 17 amino acids of variable contents ranging from 22.65% to 28.09%. RAPD revealed that 78 amplified DNA products had highly polymorphism value (95.08%) based on band numbers, with variable sizes ranging from 120 to 992 base pairs and band intensity. Comet assay recorded the highest extent of nuclear DNA damage as percentage of tailed DNA (2.38%) and tail moment unit (5.36) at ELF exposure of maize nuclei for 5 days. The current study concluded that the longer ELF exposing periods had genotoxic stress on macromolecules of maize cells and biomarkers used should be augmented for reliable estimates of genotoxicity after exposure of economic plants to ELF stressors.

  18. Evaluation of Genetic Variations in Maize Seedlings Exposed to Electric Field Based on Protein and DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    AL-Huqail, Asma A.; Abdelhaliem, Ekram

    2015-01-01

    The current study analyzed proteins and nuclear DNA of electric fields (ELF) exposed and nonexposed maize seedlings for different exposure periods using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isozymes, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and comet assay, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed total of 46 polypeptides bands with different molecular weights ranging from 186.20 to 36.00 KDa. It generated distinctive polymorphism value of 84.62%. Leucine-aminopeptidase, peroxidase, and catalase isozymes showed the highest values of polymorphism (100%) based on zymograms number, relative front (Rf), and optical intensity while esterase isozyme generated polymorphism value of 83.33%. Amino acids were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, which revealed the presence of 17 amino acids of variable contents ranging from 22.65% to 28.09%. RAPD revealed that 78 amplified DNA products had highly polymorphism value (95.08%) based on band numbers, with variable sizes ranging from 120 to 992 base pairs and band intensity. Comet assay recorded the highest extent of nuclear DNA damage as percentage of tailed DNA (2.38%) and tail moment unit (5.36) at ELF exposure of maize nuclei for 5 days. The current study concluded that the longer ELF exposing periods had genotoxic stress on macromolecules of maize cells and biomarkers used should be augmented for reliable estimates of genotoxicity after exposure of economic plants to ELF stressors. PMID:26180815

  19. Changes in protein expression of U937 and Jurkat cells exposed to nanosecond pulsed electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moen, Erick K.; Roth, Caleb C.; Cerna, Caesar; Estalck, Larry; Wilmink, Gerald; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2013-02-01

    Application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) to various biological cell lines has been to shown to cause many diverse effects, including poration of the plasma membrane, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, blebbing, apoptosis, and intracellular calcium bursts. The underlying mechanism(s) responsible for these diverse responses are poorly understood. Of specific interest in this paper are the long-term effects of nsPEF on cellular processes, including the regulation of genes and production of proteins. Previous studies have reported transient activation of select signaling pathways involving mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), protein phosphorylation and downstream gene expression following nsPEF application. We hypothesize that nsPEF represents a unique stimulus that could be used to externally modulate cellular processes. To validate our hypothesis, we performed a series of cuvette-based exposures at 10 and 600ns pulse widths using a custom Blumlien line pulser system. We measured acute changes in the plasma membrane structure using flow cytometry by tracking phosphatidylserine externalization via FITC-Annexin V labeling and poration via propidium iodide uptake. We then compared these results to viability of the cells at 24 hours post exposure using MTT assay and changes in the MAPK family of proteins at 8 hours post-exposure using Luminex assay. By comparing exposures at 10 and 600ns duration, we found that most MAPK family-protein expression increased in Jurkat and U937 cell lines following exposure and compared well with drops in viability and changes in plasma membrane asymmetry. What proved interesting is that some MAPK family proteins (e.g. p53, STAT1), were expressed in one cell line, but not the other. This difference may point to an underlying mechanism for observed difference in cellular sensitivity to nsPEFinduced stresses.

  20. Reduction of the nocturnal rise in pineal melatonin levels in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields in utero and for 23 days after birth

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, R.J.; Anderson, L.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Wilson, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    Rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields of either 10, 65, or 130 kV/m from conception to 23 days of age exhibited reduced peak nighttime pineal melatonin contents compared to unexposed controls. As a group, the exposed rats also exhibited a phase delay, estimated at approximately 1.4 hours, in the occurrence of the nocturnal melatonin peak. No clear dose-response relationship was noticed over the range of electric field strengths used as treatments in these experiments. These are the first studies concerned with the effects of electric field exposure on the pineal melatonin rhythm in immature rats. The findings are generally consistent with those obtained using adult rats, where electric field exposure has been shown to abolish the nighttime rhythm in pineal melatonin concentrations.

  1. Reduction of the nocturnal rise in pineal melatonin levels in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields in utero and for 23 days after birth

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, R.J.; Anderson, L.E.; Buschbom, R.I.; Wilson, B.W.

    1988-02-01

    Rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields of either 10, 65, or 130 kV/m from conception to 23 days of age exhibited reduced peak nighttime pineal melatonin contents compared to unexposed controls. As a group, the exposed rats also exhibited a phase delay, estimated at approximately 1.4 hours, in the occurrence of the nocturnal melatonin peak. No clear dose-response relationship was noticed over the range of electric field strengths used as treatments in these experiments. These are the first studies concerned with the effects of electric field exposure on the pineal melatonin rhythm in immature rats and the findings are generally consistent with those obtained using adult rats, where electric field exposure has been shown to abolish the nighttime rhythm in pineal melatonin concentrations. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. The Changes in Electrical and Interfacial Properties of Polyimide Exposed to Dielectric Barrier Discharge in SF6 Medium

    PubMed Central

    Alisoy, Hafiz Z.; Koseoglu, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The formation mechanism of space charges in polyimide (PI) which was exposed to dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in SF6 medium and the effects of the space charges on interfacial and electrical properties of PI were investigated. The variation of normalized surface charge density on PI sample was calculated and illustrated for different DBD exposure times. The surface potential was measured to determine the effect of the space charges on the sample. Then, the contact angle values were measured to obtain the relation between the surface energy and the surface charge density. The expressions for the total charge and the concentration of trapped electrons were derived by using Poisson and continuity equations at stationary state. The space charges were determined experimentally by using thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) method. Also, SEM image and FTIR spectrum of virgin and treated samples were presented to observe the structural variations. It was seen that the approach for the formation mechanism of the space charges agreed with the experimental data. However, it was concluded particularly for the short-time DBD treatments that the space charges accumulated in the sample should be considered besides the effects of surface functionalization in the determination of the surface energy. PMID:23844414

  3. Experimental study of the self-deflection of a light beam in a photorefractive crystal exposed to an external alternating electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselborn, S. A.; Kundikova, N. D.; Novikov, I. V.

    2008-02-01

    We have experimentally studied the propagation of an intensity-modulated light beam in a Ba2NaNb5O15 photorefractive crystal exposed to an external alternating sinusoidal electric field. The dependence of the extent of beam self-focusing on the applied field amplitude is determined. The possibility of soliton formation under such conditions is demonstrated.

  4. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  5. Measurement of a false electric dipole moment signal from 199Hg atoms exposed to an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afach, S.; Baker, C. A.; Ban, G.; Bison, G.; Bodek, K.; Chowdhuri, Z.; Daum, M.; Fertl, M.; Franke, B.; Geltenbort, P.; Green, K.; van der Grinten, M. G. D.; Grujic, Z.; Harris, P. G.; Heil, W.; Hélaine, V.; Henneck, R.; Horras, M.; Iaydjiev, P.; Ivanov, S. N.; Kasprzak, M.; Kermaïdic, Y.; Kirch, K.; Knowles, P.; Koch, H.-C.; Komposch, S.; Kozela, A.; Krempel, J.; Lauss, B.; Lefort, T.; Lemière, Y.; Mtchedlishvili, A.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Pendlebury, J. M.; Piegsa, F. M.; Pignol, G.; Prashant, P. N.; Quéméner, G.; Rebreyend, D.; Ries, D.; Roccia, S.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Severijns, N.; Weis, A.; Wursten, E.; Wyszynski, G.; Zejma, J.; Zenner, J.; Zsigmond, G.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the measurement of a Larmor frequency shift proportional to the electric-field strength for 199Hg atoms contained in a volume permeated with aligned magnetic and electric fields. This shift arises from the interplay between the inevitable magnetic field gradients and the motional magnetic field. The proportionality to electric-field strength makes it apparently similar to an electric dipole moment (EDM) signal, although unlike an EDM this effect is P- and T-conserving. We have used a neutron magnetic resonance EDM spectrometer, featuring a mercury co-magnetometer and an array of external cesium magnetometers, to measure the shift as a function of the applied magnetic field gradient. Our results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations.

  6. Rhodamine B as an optical thermometer in cells focally exposed to infrared laser light or nanosecond pulsed electric fields

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, David; Lefort, Claire; Burke, Ryan; Leveque, Philippe; O’Connor, Rodney P.

    2015-01-01

    The temperature-dependent fluorescence property of Rhodamine B was used to measure changes in temperature at the cellular level induced by either infrared laser light exposure or high intensity, ultrashort pulsed electric fields. The thermal impact of these stimuli were demonstrated at the cellular level in time and contrasted with the change in temperature observed in the extracellular bath. The method takes advantage of the temperature sensitivity of the fluorescent dye Rhodamine B which has a quantum yield linearly dependent on temperature. The thermal effects of different temporal pulse applications of infrared laser light exposure and of nanosecond pulsed electric fields were investigated. The temperature increase due to the application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields was demonstrated at the cellular level. PMID:26504658

  7. Current density in a model of a human body with a conductive implant exposed to ELF electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Valic, Blaz; Gajsek, Peter; Miklavcic, Damijan

    2009-10-01

    A numerical model of a human body with an intramedullary nail in the femur was built to evaluate the effects of the implant on the current density distribution in extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields. The intramedullary nail was chosen because it is one of the longest high conductive implants used in the human body. As such it is expected to alter the electric and magnetic fields significantly. The exposure was a simultaneous combination of inferior to superior electric field and posterior to anterior magnetic field both alternating at 50 Hz with the values corresponding to the ICNIRP reference levels: 5000 V m(-1) for electric field and 100 microT for magnetic flux density. The calculated current density distribution inside the model was compared to the ICNIRP basic restrictions for general public (2 mA m(-2)). The results show that the implant significantly increases the current density up to 9.5 mA m(-2) in the region where it is in contact with soft tissue in the model with the implant in comparison to 0.9 mA m(-2) in the model without the implant. As demonstrated the ICNIRP basic restrictions are exceeded in a limited volume of the tissue in spite of the compliance with the ICNIRP reference levels for general public, meaning that the existing safety limits do not necessarily protect implanted persons to the same extent as they protect people without implants.

  8. Structural, electrical and magnetic measurements on oxide layers grown on 316L exposed to liquid lead-bismuth eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosemann, Peter; Hofer, Christian; Hlawacek, Gregor; Li, Ning; Maloy, Stuart A.; Teichert, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Fast reactors and spallation neutron sources may use lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) as a coolant. Its physical, chemical, and irradiation properties make it a safe coolant compared to Na cooled designs. However, LBE is a corrosive medium for most steels and container materials. The present study was performed to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the austenitic steel 316L (in two different delivery states). Detailed atomic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy analyses have been performed on the oxide layers to get a better understanding of the corrosion and oxidation mechanisms of austenitic and ferritic/martensitic stainless steel exposed to LBE. The oxide scale formed on the annealed 316L material consisted of multiple layers with different compositions, structures, and properties. The innermost oxide layer maintained the grain structure of what used to be the bulk steel material and shows two phases, while the outermost oxide layer possessed a columnar grain structure.

  9. Investigating membrane breakdown of neuronal cells exposed to nonuniform electric fields by finite-element modeling and experiments.

    PubMed

    Heida, Tjitske; Wagenaar, Joost B M; Rutten, Wim L C; Marani, Enrico

    2002-10-01

    High electric field strengths may induce high cell membrane potentials. At a certain breakdown level the membrane potential becomes constant due to the transition from an insulating state into a high conductivity and high permeability state. Pores are thought to be created through which molecules may be transported into and out of the cell interior. Membrane rupture may follow due to the expansion of pores or the creation of many small pores across a certain part of the membrane surface. In nonuniform electric fields, it is difficult to predict the electroporated membrane area. Therefore, in this study the induced membrane potential and the membrane area where this potential exceeds the breakdown level is investigated by finite-element modeling. Results from experiments in which the collapse of neuronal cells was detected were combined with the computed field strengths in order to investigate membrane breakdown and membrane rupture. It was found that in nonuniform fields membrane rupture is position dependent, especially at higher breakdown levels. This indicates that the size of the membrane site that is affected by electroporation determines rupture.

  10. Dose dependent translocations of fluorescent probes of PIP2 hydrolysis in cells exposed to nanosecond pulsed electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstykh, Gleb P.; Tarango, Melissa; Roth, Caleb C.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2014-03-01

    Previously, it was demonstrated that small nanometer-sized pores (nanopores) are preferentially formed after exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF). We have reported that nanoporation of the plasma membrane directly affects the phospholipids of the cell membrane, ultimately culminating in phosphatidylinositol4,5- bisphosphate (PIP2) intracellular signaling. PIP2, located within the internal layer of the plasma membrane, plays a critical role as a regulator of ion transport proteins, a source of second messenger compounds, and an anchor for cytoskeletal elements. In this proceeding, we present data that demonstrates that nsPEFs initiate electric field dose-dependent PIP2 hydrolysis and/or depletion from the plasma membrane through the observation of the accumulation of inositol1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in the cytoplasm and the increase of diacylglycerol (DAG) on the inner surface of the plasma membrane. The phosphoinositide signaling cascade presented here involves activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC), which are responsible for a multitude of biological effects after nsPEF exposure. These results expand our current knowledge of nsPEF induced physiological effects, and serve as a basis for development of novel tools for drug independent stimulation or modulation of different cellular functions.

  11. Children and adults exposed to low-frequency magnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Chen, X. L.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

    2012-04-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined reference levels for time varying magnetic fields. Restrictions on the electric fields induced in the human body are provided based on biological response data for peripheral nerve stimulation and the induction of phosphenes. Numerical modeling is commonly used to assess the induced electric fields for various exposure configurations. The objective of this study was to assess the variations of the electric fields induced in children and adults and to compare the exposure at reference levels with the basic restrictions as function of anatomy. We used the scalar potential finite element method to calculate the induced electric fields in six children and two adults when exposed to uniform magnetic fields polarized in three orthogonal directions. We found that the induced electric fields are within the ICNIRP basic restrictions in nearly all cases. In PNS tissues, we found electric fields up to 95% (upper uncertainty limit due to discretization errors, k = 2) of the ICNIRP basic restrictions for exposures at the general public reference levels. For occupational reference levels, we found an over-exposure of maximum 79% (k = 2) in PNS tissues. We further found that the ICNIRP recommendations on spatial averaging in 2 × 2 × 2 mm3 contiguous tissue volumes and removal of peak values by the 99th percentile cause the results to depend strongly on the grid discretization step (i.e. an uncertainty of more than 50% at 2 mm) and the number of distinguished tissues in the anatomical models. The computational results obtained by various research institutes should be robust for different discretization settings and various anatomical models. Therefore, we recommend considering alternative routines for small anatomical structures such as non-contiguous averaging without taking the 99th percentile in future guidelines leading to consistent

  12. Children and adults exposed to low-frequency magnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced electric fields.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Chen, X L; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

    2012-04-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined reference levels for time varying magnetic fields. Restrictions on the electric fields induced in the human body are provided based on biological response data for peripheral nerve stimulation and the induction of phosphenes. Numerical modeling is commonly used to assess the induced electric fields for various exposure configurations. The objective of this study was to assess the variations of the electric fields induced in children and adults and to compare the exposure at reference levels with the basic restrictions as function of anatomy. We used the scalar potential finite element method to calculate the induced electric fields in six children and two adults when exposed to uniform magnetic fields polarized in three orthogonal directions. We found that the induced electric fields are within the ICNIRP basic restrictions in nearly all cases. In PNS tissues, we found electric fields up to 95% (upper uncertainty limit due to discretization errors, k = 2) of the ICNIRP basic restrictions for exposures at the general public reference levels. For occupational reference levels, we found an over-exposure of maximum 79% (k = 2) in PNS tissues. We further found that the ICNIRP recommendations on spatial averaging in 2 × 2 × 2 mm³ contiguous tissue volumes and removal of peak values by the 99th percentile cause the results to depend strongly on the grid discretization step (i.e. an uncertainty of more than 50% at 2 mm) and the number of distinguished tissues in the anatomical models. The computational results obtained by various research institutes should be robust for different discretization settings and various anatomical models. Therefore, we recommend considering alternative routines for small anatomical structures such as non-contiguous averaging without taking the 99th percentile in future guidelines leading to consistent

  13. Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwib, Lawrence L.; Zapata, Maria C.

    2007-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has a currently unknown probability associated with it. Due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In this experiment, we study the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From this data we can estimate the probability of an electrical short, as a function of voltage, given that a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors. In addition, three tin whiskers grown from the same Space Shuttle Orbiter card guide used in the aforementioned experiment were cross-sectioned and studied using a focused ion beam (FIB).

  14. Micromachined electrical cauterizer

    DOEpatents

    Lee, A.P.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Northrup, M.A.

    1999-08-31

    A micromachined electrical cauterizer is disclosed. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 {mu}m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures. 7 figs.

  15. Micromachined electrical cauterizer

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Northrup, M. Allen

    1999-01-01

    A micromachined electrical cauterizer. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 .mu.m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures.

  16. Analysis of air ions in biological exposure systems, near HV dc electric power transmission lines, in rooms containing ion generators, and near exposed humans and animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaune, William T.; Gillis, Murlin F.; Weigel, Richard J.

    1983-11-01

    A number of systems containing space charge are analyzed using the transit-time technique developed in an earlier paper. (1) An inequality is derived for a room containing an air-ion generator which relates the ion source current to the minimum space-charge density. (2) Published wind-tunnel data are treated, and the characteristics of space-charge plumes produced downstream from localized corona and radioactive sources are explained. (3) Space-charge data published by other researchers can be evaluated; three examples are given, and in two of them published space-charge densities substantially exceed calculated upper-bound values. (4) Formulae are derived for the extrapolation of ground-level space-charge-density, electric field, and ion-current-density data to points above ground level; these formulae are useful for characterizing the three-dimensional environments in systems where only ground-level measurements are available. (5) A simple upper bound is derived for ground-level space-charge densities produced by high-voltage direct-current (HV dc) transmission lines, and it is shown that actual lines do produce densities closely approaching this upper-bound value. (6) The perturbed space-charge density at the surface of the body of an animal or human exposed to air ions and electric fields is estimated, and it is shown that perturbed and unperturbed space-charge densities are approximately equal for exposure conditions simulating those at ground level near HV dc transmission lines.

  17. EXTRACTION OF FRACTURE-MECHANICS AND TRANSMISSION-ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY SAMPLES FROM TRITIUM-EXPOSED RESERVOIRS USING ELECTRIC-DISCHARGE MACHINING

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M; Ken Imrich, K; Michael Tosten, M

    2006-08-31

    The Enhanced Surveillance Campaign is funding a program to investigate tritium aging effects on the structural properties of tritium reservoir steels. The program is designed to investigate how the structural properties of reservoir steels change during tritium service and to examine the role of microstructure and reservoir manufacturing on tritium compatibility. New surveillance tests are also being developed that can better gauge the long-term effects of tritium and its radioactive decay product, helium-3, on the properties of reservoir steels. In order to conduct these investigations, three types of samples are needed from returned reservoirs: tensile, fracture mechanics, and transmission-electron microscopy (TEM). An earlier report demonstrated how the electric-discharge machining (EDM) technique can be used for cutting tensile samples from serial sections of a 3T reservoir and how yield strength, ultimate strength and elongation could be measured from those samples. In this report, EDM was used successfully to section sub-sized fracture-mechanics samples from the inner and outer walls of a 3T reservoir and TEM samples from serial sections of a 1M reservoir. This report fulfills the requirements for the FY06 Level 3 milestone, TSR 15.1 ''Cut Fracture-Mechanics Samples from Tritium-Exposed Reservoir'' and TSR 15.2 ''Cut Transmission-electron-microscopy foils from Tritium-Exposed Reservoir'' for the Enhance Surveillance Campaign (ESC). This was in support of ESC L2-1870 Milestone-''Provide aging and lifetime assessments of selected components and materials for multiple enduring stockpile systems''.

  18. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  19. Update: cohort mortality study of workers highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during the manufacture of electrical capacitors, 1940-1998

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Mary M; Hein, Misty J; Ruder, Avima M; Waters, Martha A; Laber, Patricia A; Whelan, Elizabeth A

    2006-01-01

    Background The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health previously reported mortality for a cohort of workers considered highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) between 1939 and 1977 at two electrical capacitor manufacturing plants. The current study updated vital status, examined liver and rectal cancer mortality previously reported in excess in this cohort and evaluated mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and cancers of the stomach, intestine, breast, prostate, skin (melanoma) and brain reported to be in excess in other cohort and case-control studies of PCB-exposed persons. Methods Mortality was updated through 1998 for 2572 workers. Age-, gender-, race- and calendar year-adjusted standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using U.S., state and county referent rates. SMRs using U.S. referent rates are reported. Duration of employment was used as a surrogate for exposure. Results Consistent with the previous follow-up, mortality from biliary passage, liver and gall bladder cancer was significantly elevated (11 deaths, SMR 2.11, CI 1.05 – 3.77), but mortality from rectal cancer was not (6 deaths, SMR 1.47, CI 0.54 – 3.21). Among women, mortality from intestinal cancer (24 deaths, SMR 1.89, CI 1.21 – 2.82) and from "other diseases of the nervous system and sense organs", which include Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (15 deaths, SMR 2.07, CI 1.16 – 3.42) were elevated. There were four ALS deaths, all women (SMR 4.35, CI 1.19–11.14). Mortality was elevated for myeloma (7 deaths, SMR 2.11, CI 0.84 – 4.34), particularly among workers employed 10 years or more (5 deaths, SMR 2.80, CI 0.91 – 6.54). No linear associations between mortality and duration of employment were observed for the cancers of interest. Conclusion This update found that the earlier reported excess in this cohort for biliary, liver and gall bladder cancer persisted with longer follow

  20. An Empirical Model for Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers-Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courey, Karim; Wright, Clara; Asfour, Shihab; Bayliss, Jon; Ludwig, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has a currently unknown probability associated with it. Due to contact resistance, electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In this experiment, we study the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From this data, we can estimate the probability of an electrical short, as a function of voltage, given that a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors. In addition, three tin whiskers grown from the same Space Shuttle Orbiter card guide used in the aforementioned experiment were cross sectioned and studied using a focused ion beam (FIB).

  1. Epidemiologic study of electric utility workers exposed to magnetic fields. Volume 2: Extended results, tables, and peer-reviewed manuscripts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Savitz, D.A.; Loomis, D.P.

    1996-06-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies, including several focused on electric utility workers, have suggested that occupational exposure to magnetic fields may be associated with increased leukemia and brain cancer risk. This study examined mortality, especially leukemia and brain cancer mortality, among nearly 139,000 men employed at five US electric utility companies between 1950 and 1988. The study included a detailed assessment of magnetic field exposure accumulated over each worker`s career, as well as estimates of concomitant exposures to solvents and PCBs. The electric utility workers` mortality from all causes and from all types of cancer combined was substantially below that of the US male population. Analysis of mortality patterns in relation to magnetic field exposure supported the hypothesis that magnetic field exposure increases the risk of brain cancer. Brain cancer risk increased with increasing magnetic field exposure, and was highest among those with the highest cumulative exposure. The study did not support the hypothesized association between magnetic field exposure and leukemia. Volume 1 of this report contains principals results, an in-depth presentation of study methods, detailed tables of results, conclusions, and interpretation of results. Volume 2 contains additional tables of results and other peer-reviewed manuscripts.

  2. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  3. Chronically indwelling venous cannula and automatic blood sampling system for use with nonhuman primates exposed to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Lucas, J.H.; Smith, H.D.; Orr, J.L.; Mikiten, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    An automated blood sampling system was developed for use with tethered baboons (Papio cynocephalus) during concurrent exposure to 60 Hz 30 kV/m electric fields and 0.1 mT (1.0 G) magnetic fields. The system was controlled by a FORTH-based microcomputer, which operated a pump, a fraction collector, and two pinch valves. A swivel mechanism at the end of the tether allowed the baboons to move freely in their cages. The hardware and software were designed for fail-safe operation. Heparinized saline was infused at a rate of 0.5 ml/min until a sample cycle was initiated. Then, blood was drawn from the animal into a storage tube at a rate of 12.5 ml/min, a sample of undiluted blood was taken from the end of the storage tube near the baboon, and the blood remaining in the storage tube was then flushed back into the animal. Use of the storage tube prevented the peristaltic pump rollers from pressing on tubing containing blood, and return of the blood diluted with saline limited the blood wasted per sample to less than 0.5 ml. The system functioned reliably in three experiments, collecting samples as scheduled 97% of the time. Although it was initially designed for and used successfully with primates in an electric and magnetic field environment, this type of system could be employed in many areas of biomedical research or medical treatment.

  4. Mortality among 24,865 workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in three electrical capacitor manufacturing plants: a ten-year update.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Avima M; Hein, Misty J; Hopf, Nancy B; Waters, Martha A

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this analysis was to evaluate mortality among a cohort of 24,865 capacitor-manufacturing workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at plants in Indiana, Massachusetts, and New York and followed for mortality through 2008. Cumulative PCB exposure was estimated using plant-specific job-exposure matrices. External comparisons to US and state-specific populations used standardized mortality ratios, adjusted for gender, race, age and calendar year. Among long-term workers employed 3 months or longer, within-cohort comparisons used standardized rate ratios and multivariable Poisson regression modeling. Through 2008, more than one million person-years at risk and 8749 deaths were accrued. Among long-term employees, all-cause and all-cancer mortality were not elevated; of the a priori outcomes assessed only melanoma mortality was elevated. Mortality was elevated for some outcomes of a priori interest among subgroups of long-term workers: all cancer, intestinal cancer and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (women); melanoma (men); melanoma and brain and nervous system cancer (Indiana plant); and melanoma and multiple myeloma (New York plant). Standardized rates of stomach and uterine cancer and multiple myeloma mortality increased with estimated cumulative PCB exposure. Poisson regression modeling showed significant associations with estimated cumulative PCB exposure for prostate and stomach cancer mortality. For other outcomes of a priori interest--rectal, liver, ovarian, breast, and thyroid cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Alzheimer disease, and Parkinson disease--neither elevated mortality nor positive associations with PCB exposure were observed. Associations between estimated cumulative PCB exposure and stomach, uterine, and prostate cancer and myeloma mortality confirmed our previous positive findings.

  5. Window contamination on Expose-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  6. Nuclear qualified in-containment electrical connectors and method of connecting electrical conductors

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear qualified in-containment electrical connection comprises an insulated, sheathed instrument lead having electrical conductors extending from one end thereof to provide two exposed lead wires, a watertight cable having electrical conducting wires therein and extending from one end of the cable to provide two lead wires therefrom, two butt splice connectors each connecting the ends of respective ones of the lead wires from the instrument lead and cable, a length of heat shrinkable plastic tubing positioned over each butt splice connector and an adjacent portion of a respective lead wire from the cable and heat shrunk into position, a length of heat shrinkable plastic tubing on the end portion of the instrument lead adjacent the lead wires therefrom and heat shrunk thereon and a length of outer heat shrinkable plastic tubing extending over the end portion of the instrument lead and the heat shrinkable tubing thereon and over the butt splice connectors and a portion of the cable adjacent the cable lead lines, the outer heat shrinkable tubing being heat shrunk into sealing position on the instrument lead and cable.

  7. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and trace metals in the blood of nonoccupationally exposed residents living in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator and electric arc furnace.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Min; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Wu, Tzi-Yi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Ma, Wen-Feng

    2010-06-01

    This study examines levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and trace metals in the blood of the nonoccupationally exposed residents living in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and electric arc furnaces (EAFs). The analysis found that older females had higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs and older males had higher body mass index (BMI) values and higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs. Moreover, sex appeared to affect the levels of PCDD/Fs because, overall, females showed higher levels of PCDD/Fs. The results of a principal component analysis indicated that the characteristics of the blood were more similar to the characteristics of the stack flux gas in MSWIs than those in EAFs. When sex, age, and BMI values were taken into consideration, none of the factors appeared to significantly affect PCDD/F and trace metal blood levels. However, when participants were divided into eight categories and analyzed, it was found that sex was the most important factor affecting levels of trace metals in blood and that males had higher concentrations of Pb, Al, Cd, and Cu.

  8. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  9. MINARETS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, N. King; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Minarets Wilderness and adjacent areas in the central Sierra Nevada, California was conducted. The results of the survey indicate that the study area has a substantiated resource potential for small deposits of copper, silver, zinc, lead, and iron, and a probable mineral-resource potential for molybdenum. No energy-resource potential was identified in the study.

  10. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  11. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  12. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  13. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  14. Microemulsions as model fluids for enhanced oil recovery: dynamics adjacent to planar hydrophilic walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frielinghaus, H.; Holderer, O.; Lipfert, F.; Kerscher, M.; Mattauch, S.; Richter, D.

    2012-10-01

    After the dynamics of microemulsions adjacent to a planar hydrophilic wall have been characterized using grazing incidence neutron spin echo spectroscopy, the model of Seifert was employed to explain the discovered acceleration for the surface near lamellar ordered membranes. Reflections of hydrodynamic waves by the wall - or the volume conservation between the membrane and the wall - explain faster relaxations and, therefore, a lubrication effect that is important for flow fields in narrow pores. The whole scenery is now spectated by using different scenarios of a bicontinuous microemulsion exposed to clay particles and of a lamellar microemulsion adjacent to a planar wall. The Seifert concept could successfully be transferred to the new problems.

  15. Electrical Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your injuries are depends on how strong the electric current was, what type of current it was, how it moved through your body, and how long you were exposed. Other factors include how ... you should see a doctor. You may have internal damage and not realize it.

  16. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  17. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Chul

    2015-01-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  18. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion.

  19. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  20. An Investigation of the Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics of Tin Whiskers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courey, Karim J.

    2008-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has a currently unknown probability associated with it. Due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In this experiment, we study the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From this data we can estimate the probability of an electrical short, as a function of voltage, given that a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors. Also, three tin whiskers grown from the same Space Shuttle Orbiter card guide used in the aforementioned experiment were cross-sectioned and studied using a focused ion beam (FIB). The rare polycrystalline structure seen in the FIB cross section was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size to determine that the tin plating on the card guides had a bright finish.

  1. Stress Reduction in Adjacent Level Discs via Dynamic Instrumentation: A Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castellvi, Antonio E.; Huang, Hao; Vestgaarden, Tov; Saigal, Sunil; Pienkowski, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Conventional (rigid) fusion instrumentation is believed to accelerate the degeneration of adjacent discs by increasing stresses caused by motion discontinuity. Fusion instrumentation that employs reduced rod stiffness and increased axial motion, or dynamic instrumentation, may partially alleviate this problem, but the effects of this instrumentation on the stresses in the adjacent disc are unknown. We used a finiteelement model to calculate and compare the stresses in the adjacent-level disc that are induced by rigid and dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation. Methods A 3-dimensional finite-element model of the lumbar spine was obtained that simulated flexion and extension. The L5–S1 segment of this model was fused, and the L4–L5 segment was fixed with rigid or dynamic instrumentation. The mechanical properties of the dynamic instrumentation were determined by laboratory testing and then used in the finite-element model. Peak stresses in the lumbar discs were calculated and compared. Results The reduced-stiffness component of the dynamic instrumentation was associated with a 1% to 2% reduction in peak compressive stresses in the adjacent-level disc (at 45° flexion), and the increased axial motion component of this instrumentation reduced peak disc stress by 8% to 9%. Areas of disc tissue exposed to 80% of peak stresses of 6.17 MPa were 47% less for discs adjacent to dynamic instrumentation than for those adjacent to rigid instrumentation. Conclusions Reduced stiffness and increased axial motion of dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation designs result in an approximately 10% cumulative stress reduction for each flexion cycle. The effect of this stress reduction over many cycles may be substantial. Clinical Relevance The cumulative effect of this reduced amplitude and distribution of peak stresses in the adjacent disc may partially alleviate the problem of adjacent-level disc degeneration. PMID:25802582

  2. An engineered dimeric protein pore that spans adjacent lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Shiksha; Sapra, K. Tanuj; Cheley, Stephen; Sharp, Thomas H.; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-01-01

    The bottom-up construction of artificial tissues is an underexplored area of synthetic biology. An important challenge is communication between constituent compartments of the engineered tissue and between the engineered tissue and additional compartments, including extracellular fluids, further engineered tissue and living cells. Here we present a dimeric transmembrane pore that can span two adjacent lipid bilayers and thereby allow aqueous compartments to communicate. Two heptameric staphylococcal α-hemolysin (αHL) pores were covalently linked in an aligned cap-to-cap orientation. The structure of the dimer, (α7)2, was confirmed by biochemical analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-channel electrical recording. We show that one of two β barrels of (α7)2 can insert into the lipid bilayer of a small unilamellar vesicle, while the other spans a planar lipid bilayer. (α7)2 pores spanning two bilayers were also observed by TEM. PMID:23591892

  3. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, H.; Csaba, G.; Bernstein, G. H.; Porod, W.

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing.

  4. Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1974-01-01

    Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

  5. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  10. Seabed drifter movement in San Diego Bay and adjacent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Robert R.; Wallace, William J.

    1982-06-01

    The seabed drifter has been used successfully to provide valuable information in many estuarine and open sea environments. It was therefore selected for use in the San Diego area. Five hundred drifters were released in San Diego Bay and adjacent ocean waters to delineate bottom flow patterns. Four significant bottom drift regimes are differentiated: off-coastal, main bay channel, open and semi-enclosed docking basins. Mean residual bottom drift ranged between 0·17km day -1 off the coast to essentially zero in the docking basins. Off-coast drifter results (31% recovery) showed a persistent northmoving bottom current with shallow near-coast drift distances between 4 and 25 km. This nearshore north moving bottom current appears to cause a net bottom water inflow into the main San Diego Bay channel (44% recovery). In the open bay a reverse trend was observed from the 16% of the drifters recovered. At the head of the estuary, evaporative densification is believed to occur, with the heavier water sinking and moving outward, towards the estuary mouth, resulting in an area of opposing bottom water currents. In this area San Diego Gas and Electric power plant takes in an average 150 million gallons of cooling water daily which, discharged as warm surface water, is suggested as the surface divergence mode required to reconcile the observed flow. With the three San Diego Bay electric power plants utilizing more than 5% of the maximum tidal prism for cooling purposes, this flow may play a major role in the overall bay circulation and requires quantitative investigation.

  11. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  12. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  13. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  14. Microbial Source Tracking in Adjacent Karst Springs

    PubMed Central

    Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Rom, Meir; Guttman, Joseph; Berger, Diego; Kravitz, Valeria; Pilo, Shlomo; Huberman, Zohar; Kashi, Yechezkel; Rorman, Efrat

    2015-01-01

    Modern man-made environments, including urban, agricultural, and industrial environments, have complex ecological interactions among themselves and with the natural surroundings. Microbial source tracking (MST) offers advanced tools to resolve the host source of fecal contamination beyond indicator monitoring. This study was intended to assess karst spring susceptibilities to different fecal sources using MST quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting human, bovine, and swine markers. It involved a dual-time monitoring frame: (i) monthly throughout the calendar year and (ii) daily during a rainfall event. Data integration was taken from both monthly and daily MST profile monitoring and improved identification of spring susceptibility to host fecal contamination; three springs located in close geographic proximity revealed different MST profiles. The Giach spring showed moderate fluctuations of MST marker quantities amid wet and dry samplings, while the Zuf spring had the highest rise of the GenBac3 marker during the wet event, which was mirrored in other markers as well. The revelation of human fecal contamination during the dry season not connected to incidents of raining leachates suggests a continuous and direct exposure to septic systems. Pigpens were identified in the watersheds of Zuf, Shefa, and Giach springs and on the border of the Gaaton spring watershed. Their impact was correlated with partial detection of the Pig-2-Bac marker in Gaaton spring, which was lower than detection levels in all three of the other springs. Ruminant and swine markers were detected intermittently, and their contamination potential during the wet samplings was exposed. These results emphasized the importance of sampling design to utilize the MST approach to delineate subtleties of fecal contamination in the environment. PMID:26002893

  15. Microbial Source Tracking in Adjacent Karst Springs.

    PubMed

    Ohad, Shoshanit; Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Rom, Meir; Guttman, Joseph; Berger, Diego; Kravitz, Valeria; Pilo, Shlomo; Huberman, Zohar; Kashi, Yechezkel; Rorman, Efrat

    2015-08-01

    Modern man-made environments, including urban, agricultural, and industrial environments, have complex ecological interactions among themselves and with the natural surroundings. Microbial source tracking (MST) offers advanced tools to resolve the host source of fecal contamination beyond indicator monitoring. This study was intended to assess karst spring susceptibilities to different fecal sources using MST quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting human, bovine, and swine markers. It involved a dual-time monitoring frame: (i) monthly throughout the calendar year and (ii) daily during a rainfall event. Data integration was taken from both monthly and daily MST profile monitoring and improved identification of spring susceptibility to host fecal contamination; three springs located in close geographic proximity revealed different MST profiles. The Giach spring showed moderate fluctuations of MST marker quantities amid wet and dry samplings, while the Zuf spring had the highest rise of the GenBac3 marker during the wet event, which was mirrored in other markers as well. The revelation of human fecal contamination during the dry season not connected to incidents of raining leachates suggests a continuous and direct exposure to septic systems. Pigpens were identified in the watersheds of Zuf, Shefa, and Giach springs and on the border of the Gaaton spring watershed. Their impact was correlated with partial detection of the Pig-2-Bac marker in Gaaton spring, which was lower than detection levels in all three of the other springs. Ruminant and swine markers were detected intermittently, and their contamination potential during the wet samplings was exposed. These results emphasized the importance of sampling design to utilize the MST approach to delineate subtleties of fecal contamination in the environment.

  16. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  17. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Delayed Acquisition of Non-Adjacent Vocalic Distributional Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to compute non-adjacent regularities is key in the acquisition of a new language. In the domain of phonology/phonotactics, sensitivity to non-adjacent regularities between consonants has been found to appear between 7 and 10 months. The present study focuses on the emergence of a posterior-anterior (PA) bias, a regularity involving two…

  19. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  20. 14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen he designed and installed in the Congdon Canal, facing southeast. Photo dates ca. late 1920's. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  1. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  2. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  5. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  6. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature. PMID:27437018

  7. 2. DETAIL OF CONTROL GATE ADJACENT TO LIFT LOCK NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF CONTROL GATE ADJACENT TO LIFT LOCK NO. 7; THIS CONTROL GATE IS A 1980s RECONSTRUCTION. - Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lift Lock No. 7 & Control Gate, East side of DuPage River, Channahon, Will County, IL

  8. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  9. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 28. TOP VIEW OF CIRCUIT BREAKER ADJACENT TO BRIDGE, CATENARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. TOP VIEW OF CIRCUIT BREAKER ADJACENT TO BRIDGE, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  13. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  14. GENERAL VIEW OF WAREHOUSE ADJACENT TO BATCH PLANT, LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF WAREHOUSE ADJACENT TO BATCH PLANT, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM DREY STREET PLANT, INSIDE WELCOME WALL - Chambers Window Glass Company, Warehouse & Shipping, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  15. 10. SLATE PATIO ADJACENT TO SOUTH PORCH OF HOUSE, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SLATE PATIO ADJACENT TO SOUTH PORCH OF HOUSE, FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF REAR PORCH. SHED IS VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Butt Valley Dam, Gate Tender's House, Butt Valley Reservoir Road, Caribou, Plumas County, CA

  16. Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance of the northwest wing - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  18. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 2. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS AND NORTHWEST APPROACH SPANS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Red River Bridge, Spanning Red River at U.S. Highway 82, Garland, Miller County, AR

  20. 31. VAL, DETAIL OF LOADING PLATFORM ADJACENT TO LAUNCHER BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VAL, DETAIL OF LOADING PLATFORM ADJACENT TO LAUNCHER BRIDGE LOOKING WEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with soundproof walls and pedestal flooring - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  2. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  3. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  4. Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example is located between Buildings 26 and 27. Facing northeast - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Adjacent Segment Disease Perspective and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Pozo, Fanor M.; Deusdara, Renato A. M.; Benzel, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease has become a common topic in spine surgery circles because of the significant increase in fusion surgery in recent years and the development of motion preservation technologies that theoretically should lead to a decrease in this pathology. The purpose of this review is to organize the evidence available in the current literature on this subject. Methods For this literature review, a search was conducted in PubMed with the following keywords: adjacent segment degeneration and disease. Selection, review, and analysis of the literature were completed according to level of evidence. Results The PubMed search identified 850 articles, from which 41 articles were selected and reviewed. The incidence of adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine is close to 3% without a significant statistical difference between surgical techniques (fusion vs arthroplasty). Authors report the incidence of adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine to range from 2% to 14%. Damage to the posterior ligamentous complex and sagittal imbalances are important risk factors for both degeneration and disease. Conclusion Insufficient evidence exists at this point to support the idea that total disc arthroplasty is superior to fusion procedures in minimizing the incidence of adjacent segment disease. The etiology is most likely multifactorial but it is becoming abundantly clear that adjacent segment disease is not caused by motion segment fusion alone. Fusion plus the presence of abnormal end-fusion alignment appears to be a major factor in creating end-fusion stresses that result in adjacent segment degeneration and subsequent disease. The data presented cast further doubt on previously established rationales for total disc arthroplasty, at least with regard to the effect of total disc arthroplasty on adjacent segment degeneration pathology. PMID:24688337

  6. Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish.

  7. Analysis of adjacent segment reoperation after lumbar total disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Rainey, Scott; Blumenthal, Scott L.; Zigler, Jack E.; Guyer, Richard D.; Ohnmeiss, Donna D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fusion has long been used for treating chronic back pain unresponsive to nonoperative care. However, potential development of adjacent segment degeneration resulting in reoperation is a concern. Total disc replacement (TDR) has been proposed as a method for addressing back pain and preventing or reducing adjacent segment degeneration. The purpose of the study was to determine the reoperation rate at the segment adjacent to a level implanted with a lumbar TDR and to analyze the pre-TDR condition of the adjacent segment. Methods This study was based on a retrospective review of charts and radiographs from a consecutive series of 1000 TDR patients to identify those who underwent reoperation because of adjacent segment degeneration. Some of the patients were part of randomized studies comparing TDR with fusion. Adjacent segment reoperation data were also collected from 67 patients who were randomized to fusion in those studies. The condition of the adjacent segment before the index surgery was compared with its condition before reoperation based on radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography. Results Of the 1000 TDR patients, 20 (2.0%) underwent reoperation. The mean length of time from arthroplasty to reoperation was 28.3 months (range, 0.5–85 months). Of the adjacent segments evaluated on preoperative MRI, 38.8% were normal, 38.8% were moderately diseased, and 22.2% were classified as having severe degeneration. None of these levels had a different grading at the time of reoperation compared with the pre-TDR MRI study. Reoperation for adjacent segment degeneration was performed in 4.5% of the fusion patients. Conclusions The 2.0% rate of adjacent segment degeneration resulting in reoperation in this study is similar to the 2.0% to 2.8% range in other studies and lower than the published rates of 7% to 18% after lumbar fusion. By carefully assessing the presence of pre-existing degenerative changes before performing arthroplasty

  8. Electrical signaling and photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical irritation of trigger hairs and subsequent generation of action potentials have significant impact on photosynthesis and respiration in carnivorous Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula). Action potential-mediated inhibition of photosynthesis and stimulation of respiration is confined only to the trap and was not recorded in adjacent photosynthetic lamina. We showed that the main primary target of electrical signals on assimilation is in the dark enzymatic reaction of photosynthesis. Without doubt, the electrical signaling is costly, and the possible co-existence of such type of signals and photosynthesis in plant cell is discussed. PMID:21558815

  9. 30 CFR 57.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 57.12004 Section 57... Surface and Underground § 57.12004 Electrical conductors. Electrical conductors shall be of a sufficient... operations will not damage the insulating materials. Electrical conductors exposed to mechanical damage...

  10. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-10-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  11. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  12. On the Adjacent Eccentric Distance Sum Index of Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hui; Cao, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    For a given graph G, ε(v) and deg(v) denote the eccentricity and the degree of the vertex v in G, respectively. The adjacent eccentric distance sum index of a graph G is defined as ξsv(G)=∑v∈V(G)ε(v)D(v)deg(v), where D(v)=∑u∈V(G)d(u,v) is the sum of all distances from the vertex v. In this paper we derive some bounds for the adjacent eccentric distance sum index in terms of some graph parameters, such as independence number, covering number, vertex connectivity, chromatic number, diameter and some other graph topological indices. PMID:26091095

  13. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Jason D; Lee, Monica D; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  14. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica D.; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  15. Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.

  16. EXPOSE-R on Mission on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Kloss, Maria; Reitz, Guenther

    Currently EXPOSE-R is on mission! This astrobiological exposure facility was accommodated at the universal workplace URM-D Zenith payload site, located outside the Russian Svezda Module of the International Space Station (ISS) by extravehicular activity (EVA) on March 10th 2009. It contains 3 trays accommodating 12 sample compartments with sample carriers in three levels either open to space vacuum or kept in a defined gas environment. In its 8 experiments of biological and chemical content, more than 1200 individual samples are exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations, vacuum, cosmic rays or extreme temperature variations. In their different experiments the involved scientists are studying the question of life's origin on Earth and the results of their experiments are contributing to different aspects of the evolution and distribution of life in the Universe. Additionally integrated into the EXPOSE-R facility are several dosimeters monitoring the ionising and the solar UV-radiation during the mission to deliver useful information to complement the sample analysis. In close cooperation with the DLR and the Technical University Munich (TUM), the Rheinisch -Westfülische Technischen Hochschule Aachen (RWTH Aachen) operates the experiment "Spores". a This is one of the 6 astrobiological experiments of the ROSE-Consortium" (Response of Or-ganisms to Space Environment) of the EXPOSE-R mission. In these experiments spores of bacteria, fungi and ferns are being over layered or mixed with meteorite material. The analysis of the effect of the space parameters on different biological endpoints of the spores of the mi-croorganism Bacillus subtilis will be performed after the retrieval of the experiment scheduled for the end of 2010. Parallel to the space mission an identical set of samples was accommodated into EXPOSE-R trays identical in construction to perform the Mission Ground Reference (MGR) Test. Currently this MGR Test is carried out in the Planetary and Space

  17. 4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side of bridge, taken from river level. Note entire east side and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  18. 12. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM THE PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM THE PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO THE STEEL PLANT OFFICES. BAR AND BILLET MILLS AND, IN THE DISTANCE, THE BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES MAY BE SEEN. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  20. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  1. 11. Interior detail, Boiler Room, fire door to the adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior detail, Boiler Room, fire door to the adjacent Blacksmith Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to southwest (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  2. 1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN BUILDING (BASSIN'S RESTAURANT) (HABS No. DC-357), 501-511 14TH STREET (THE LOCKER ROOM) HABS No. DC-356) ON CORNER, AND MUNSEY BUILDING (HABS No. DC-358) - William J. Stone Building, 1345 E Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  9. 4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN BUILDING PERIODS 1 AND 3. NOTE REUSED WOOD STRIP NAILED TO BUILDING PERIOD 1 POST INSCRIBED 'ST. LEONARD'. THERE ARE NO NAIL HOLES IN THE PERIOD 3 POST, THE FARRING STRIPS ADJUST FOR CLADDING - Charles' Gift, State Routes 2 & 4, Lusby, Calvert County, MD

  10. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  11. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  12. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  13. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  14. Overview - Electric fields. [in magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauffman, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    The electric fields session is designed to review progress in observation, theory, and modeling of magnetospheric electric fields, and to expose important new results. The present report comments on the state and prospects of electric field research, with particular emphasis on relevance to quantitative modeling of the magnetospheric processes. Attention is given to underlying theories and models. Modeling philosophy is discussed relative to explanatory models and representative models. Modeling of magnetospheric electric fields, while in its infancy, is developing rapidly on many fronts employing a variety of approaches. The general topic of magnetospheric electric fields is becoming of prime importance in understanding space plasmas.

  15. 46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a location exposed to seas must...

  16. 46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a location exposed to seas must...

  17. 46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a location exposed to seas must...

  18. 46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a location exposed to seas must...

  19. 46 CFR 28.845 - General requirements for electrical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General requirements for electrical systems. 28.845... COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.845 General requirements for electrical systems. (a) Electrical equipment exposed to the weather or in a location exposed to seas must...

  20. Human responses to electricity: A literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, H. S.

    1972-01-01

    An extensive review of literature on research concerning biomedical sensors is presented for establishing standards for current limiting devices. The physiological and pathological responses of the human, when exposed to electricity are reported including the thresholds: for perception of electricity, pain by electric current, induction of muscular contraction by electric shock, and ventricular fibrillation. The passive electrical properties of cells and tissues are also reported.

  1. Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Larry L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    To comply with lead-free legislation, many manufacturers have converted from tin-lead to pure tin finishes of electronic components. However, pure tin finishes have a greater propensity to grow tin whiskers than tin-lead finishes. Since tin whiskers present an electrical short circuit hazard in electronic components, simulations have been developed to quantify the risk of said short circuits occurring. Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that had an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish .

  2. Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Larry L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    To comply with lead-free legislation, many manufacturers have converted from tin-lead to pure tin finishes of electronic components. However, pure tin finishes have a greater propensity to grow tin whiskers than tin-lead finishes. Since tin whiskers present an electrical short circuit hazard in electronic components, simulations have been developed to quantify the risk of said short circuits occurring. Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that had an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage.

  3. New adjacent Bis-tetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Rong; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chou, Chi-Jung; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2003-03-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, annocatacin A ( 1). and annocatacin B ( 2). from the seeds and the leaves, respectively, of Annona muricata. Compounds 1 and 2 are the first examples where the adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran ring system is located at C-15. The new structures were elucidated and characterized by spectral and chemical methods. Both Annonaceous acetogenins 1 and 2 showed significant in vitro cytotoxicity toward the human hepatoma cell lines, Hep G2 and 2,2,15, and were compared with the known adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, neoannonin ( 3). desacetyluvaricin ( 4). bullatacin ( 5). asimicin ( 6). annoglaucin ( 7). squamocin ( 8). and rollimusin ( 9).

  4. Electrically conductive proppant and methods for detecting, locating and characterizing the electrically conductive proppant

    SciTech Connect

    Cannan, Chad; Bartel, Lewis; Palisch, Terrence; Aldridge, David

    2015-01-13

    Electrically conductive proppants and methods for detecting, locating, and characterizing same are provided. The electrically conductive proppant can include a substantially uniform coating of an electrically conductive material having a thickness of at least 500 nm. The method can include injecting a hydraulic fluid into a wellbore extending into a subterranean formation at a rate and pressure sufficient to open a fracture therein, injecting into the fracture a fluid containing the electrically conductive proppant, electrically energizing the earth at or near the fracture, and measuring three dimensional (x, y, and z) components of electric and magnetic field responses at a surface of the earth or in an adjacent wellbore.

  5. 38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER. THIS UNIT GENERATED A MAGNETIC PULSE WHICH WAS TRANSMITTED TO THE COLLECTION PLATES IN THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. THESE PERIODIC PULSES VIBRATE THE PLATES AND CAUSE PRECIPITATED ARTICLES OF SMOKE AND FLY ASH TO FALL TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  6. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Osmium complex binding to mismatched methylcytosine: effect of adjacent bases.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Akiko; Tainaka, Kazuki; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of osmium complex formation at 5-methylcytosine in mismatched DNA duplexes. Osmium complexation was not observed in fully matched duplexes, whereas the complexation site and efficiency in mismatched duplexes depended on the 5'-neighboring base of the 5-methylcytosine. In particular, when the base adjacent to the 5' side of the mismatched base pair was thymine, a unique side reaction was observed. However, the mismatched base pairs did not influence the selectivity of osmium complexation with methylated DNA.

  8. Jaw position uncertainty and adjacent fields in breast cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hedin, Emma; Bäck, Anna; Chakarova, Roumiana

    2015-11-08

    Locoregional treatment of breast cancer involves adjacent, half blocked fields matched at isocenter. The objective of this work is to study the dosimetric effects of the uncertainties in jaw positioning for such a case, and how a treatment planning protocol including adjacent field overlap of 1 mm affects the dose distribution. A representative treatment plan, involving 6 and 15 photon beams, for a patient treated at our hospital is chosen. Monte Carlo method (EGSnrc/BEAMnrc) is used to simulate the treatment. Uncertainties in jaw positioning of ± 1 mm are addressed, which implies extremes in reality of 2 mm field gap/overlap when planning adjacent fields without overlap and 1 mm gap or 3 mm overlap for a planning protocol with 1 mm overlap. Dosimetric parameters for PTV, lung and body are analyzed. Treatment planning protocol with 1 mm overlap of the adjacent fields does not considerably counteract possible underdosage of the target in the case studied. PTV-V95% is for example reduced from 95% for perfectly aligned fields to 90% and 91% for 2 mm and 1 mm gap, respectively. However, the risk of overdosage in PTV and in healthy soft tissue is increased when following the protocol with 1 mm overlap. A 3 mm overlap compared to 2 mm overlap results in an increase in maximum dose to PTV, PTV-D2%, from 113% to 121%. V120% for 'Body-PTV' is also increased from 5 cm(3) to 14 cm(3). A treatment planning protocol with 1 mm overlap does not considerably improve the coverage of PTV in the case of erroneous jaw positions causing gap between fields, but increases the overdosage in PTV and doses to healthy tissue, in the case of overlapping fields, for the case investigated.

  9. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  10. Mutual Diffusional Interference Between Adjacent Stomata of a Leaf 1

    PubMed Central

    Cook, G. D.; Viskanta, R.

    1968-01-01

    The mutual diffusional interference between adjacent stomata in laminar flow over a leaf is shown to play a decisive role in determining overall transpiration. The magnitude of this interference varies with the interaction of the vapor diffusional shells forming above each stoma and the air flow over the leaf. The interference decreases with increasing incident radiation and wind velocity. The effect of interference on the stomatal resistance to diffusion plays a major role in the overall variations in transpiration. PMID:16656876

  11. Cutting Electricity Costs in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    ScienceCinema

    Alvarez, Carlos; Oliver, LeAnn; Kronheim, Steve; Gonzalez, Jorge; Woods-Richardson, Kathleen

    2016-07-12

    Miami-Dade County, Florida will be piping methane gas from their regional landfill to the adjacent wastewater plant to generate a significant portion of the massive facility's future electricity needs.

  12. Cutting Electricity Costs in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Carlos; Oliver, LeAnn; Kronheim, Steve; Gonzalez, Jorge; Woods-Richardson, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Miami-Dade County, Florida will be piping methane gas from their regional landfill to the adjacent wastewater plant to generate a significant portion of the massive facility's future electricity needs.

  13. Binaural unmasking with multiple adjacent masking electrodes in bilateral cochlear implant users

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thomas; Litovsky, Ruth; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral cochlear implant (BiCI) users gain an advantage in noisy situations from a second implant, but their bilateral performance falls short of normal hearing listeners. Channel interactions due to overlapping electrical fields between electrodes can impair speech perception, but its role in limiting binaural hearing performance has not been well characterized. To address the issue, binaural masking level differences (BMLD) for a 125 Hz tone in narrowband noise were measured using a pair of pitch-matched electrodes while simultaneously presenting the same masking noise to adjacent electrodes, representing a more realistic stimulation condition compared to prior studies that used only a single electrode pair. For five subjects, BMLDs averaged 8.9 ± 1.0 dB (mean ± s.e.) in single electrode pairs but dropped to 2.1 ± 0.4 dB when presenting noise on adjacent masking electrodes, demonstrating a negative impact of the additional maskers. Removing the masking noise from only the pitch-matched electrode pair not only lowered thresholds but also resulted in smaller BMLDs. The degree of channel interaction estimated from auditory nerve evoked potentials in three subjects was significantly and negatively correlated with BMLD. The data suggest that if the amount of channel interactions can be reduced, BiCI users may experience some performance improvements related to binaural hearing. PMID:21682415

  14. Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsson, Dan; Malm, Torleif

    2008-09-01

    A significant expansion of offshore wind power is expected in the near future, with thousands of turbines in coastal waters, and various aspects of how this may influence the coastal ecology including disturbance effects from noise, shadows, electromagnetic fields, and changed hydrological conditions are accordingly of concern. Further, wind power plants constitute habitats for a number of organisms, and may locally alter assemblage composition and biomass of invertebrates, algae and fish. In this study, fouling assemblages on offshore wind turbines were compared to adjacent hard substrate. Influences of the structures on the seabed were also investigated. The turbines differed significantly from adjacent boulders in terms of assemblage composition of epibiota and motile invertebrates. Species number and Shannon-Wiener diversity were, also, significantly lower on the wind power plants. It was also indicated that the turbines might have affected assemblages of invertebrates and algae on adjacent boulders. Off shore wind power plant offer atypical substrates for fouling assemblages in terms of orientation, depth range, structure, and surface texture. Some potential ecological implications of the addition of these non-natural habitats for coastal ecology are discussed.

  15. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  16. Dust release from surfaces exposed to plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, T. M.; Goree, J.

    2006-12-15

    Micrometer-sized particles adhered to a surface can be released when exposed to plasma. In an experiment with a glass surface coated with lunar-simulant dust, it was found that particle release requires exposure to both plasma and an electron beam. The dust release rate diminishes almost exponentially in time, which is consistent with a random process. As proposed here, charges of particles adhered to the surface fluctuate. These charges experience a fluctuating electric force that occasionally overcomes the adhesive van der Waals force, causing particle release. The release rate increases with plasma density, so that plasma cleaning is feasible at high plasma densities. Applications of this cleaning include controlling particulate contamination in semiconductor manufacturing, dust mitigation in the exploration of the moon and Mars, and dusty plasmas.

  17. Learning at a distance II. Statistical learning of non-adjacent dependencies in a non-human primate.

    PubMed

    Newport, Elissa L; Hauser, Marc D; Spaepen, Geertrui; Aslin, Richard N

    2004-09-01

    In earlier work we have shown that adults, infants, and cotton-top tamarin monkeys are capable of computing the probability with which syllables occur in particular orders in rapidly presented streams of human speech, and of using these probabilities to group adjacent syllables into word-like units. We have also investigated adults' learning of regularities among elements that are not adjacent, and have found strong selectivities in their ability to learn various kinds of non-adjacent regularities. In the present paper we investigate the learning of these same non-adjacent regularities in tamarin monkeys, using the same materials and familiarization methods. Three types of languages were constructed. In one, words were formed by statistical regularities between non-adjacent syllables. Words contained predictable relations between syllables 1 and 3; syllable 2 varied. In a second type of language, words were formed by statistical regularities between non-adjacent segments. Words contained predictable relations between consonants; the vowels varied. In a third type of language, also formed by regularities between non-adjacent segments, words contained predictable relations between vowels; the consonants varied. Tamarin monkeys were exposed to these languages in the same fashion as adults (21 min of exposure to a continuous speech stream) and were then tested in a playback paradigm measuring spontaneous looking (no reinforcement). Adult subjects learned the second and third types of language easily, but failed to learn the first. However, tamarin monkeys showed a different pattern, learning the first and third type of languages but not the second. These differences held up over multiple replications, using different sounds instantiating each of the patterns. These results suggest differences among learners in the elementary units perceived in speech (syllables, consonants, and vowels) and/or the distance over which such units can be related, and therefore differences

  18. Study of indium tin oxide films exposed to atomic axygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Paul G.; De, Bhola N.; Woollam, John A.; Coutts, T. J.; Li, X.

    1989-01-01

    A qualitative simulation of the effects of atomic oxygen has been conducted on indium tin oxide (ITO) films prepared by dc sputtering onto room-temperature substrates, by exposing them to an RF-excited oxygen plasma and characterizing the resulting changes in optical, electrical, and structural properties as functions of exposure time with ellipsometry, spectrophotometry, resistivity, and X-ray measurements. While the films thus exposed exhibit reduced resistivity and optical transmission; both of these effects, as well as partial crystallization of the films, may be due to sample heating by the plasma. Film resistivity is found to stabilize after a period of exposure.

  19. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and... leads underground shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters of approved type within 100...

  20. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and... leads underground shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters of approved type within 100...

  1. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and... leads underground shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters of approved type within 100...

  2. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and... leads underground shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters of approved type within 100...

  3. Brucellosis in Occupationally Exposed Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Annapurna G.; Mohite, Shivajirao T.; Gajul, Shivali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, high incidence of human brucellosis may be expected, as the conditions conducive for human brucellosis exist. Limited studies have been undertaken on human brucellosis especially in occupationally-exposed groups. Aim To estimate prevalence of anti-brucellar antibodies, evaluate the clinical manifestations, risk factors and Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) levels about brucellosis among occupationally exposed groups. Materials and Methods Blood samples were collected from 2337 occupationally exposed individuals. The serum samples were screened for the presence of anti-brucellar antibodies by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and 2-Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME). Clinical manifestations, risk factors and KAP levels were evaluated by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. Results Seroprevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and 2-ME test was 9.46%, 4.45% and 3.64 % respectively. Clinical symptoms resembling brucellosis were seen in 91 subjects. The major risk factors were animal exposure in veterinarians and abattoirs, both animal exposure and raw milk ingestion in farmers and shepherds, exposure to raw milk and its ingestion in dairy workers and exposure to Brucella culture in laboratory workers. Except laboratory workers, few veterinarians and dairy workers none had heard about brucellosis. KAP levels regarding brucellosis were too poor in all the groups except laboratory workers. Conclusion Brucellosis most of the times was missed or misdiagnosed. Regular screenings for brucellosis and awareness programmes to increase KAP levels are necessary to control brucellosis in occupationally exposed groups. PMID:27190804

  4. Adjacent channel interference degradation with minimum shift keyed modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Computer simulation results for degradation in signal-to-noise ratio for various values of bit error probability are given for minimum shift-keyed-type signaling in the presence of adjacent channel interference. A serial modulator structure which utilizes spectral shaping is characterized in terms of envelope deviation and bandwidth efficiency. This serial generation technique is convenient for implementation at high data rates and results in signal spectra with lower sidelobe levels than conventional minimum shift-keyed modulation at the expense of moderate envelope deviation. Because of the lower sidelobe levels, the resulting spectra allow denser channel packing than does ideal MSK.

  5. Synthesis of a Molecule with Four Different Adjacent Pnictogens.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Alexander; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-08-22

    The synthesis of a molecule containing four adjacent different pnictogens was attempted by conversion of a Group 15 allyl analogue anion [Mes*NAsPMes*](-) (Mes*=2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl) with antimony(III) chloride. A suitable precursor is Mes*N(H)AsPMes* (1) for which several syntheses were investigated. The anions afforded by deprotonation of Mes*N(H)AsPMes* were found to be labile and, therefore, salts could not be isolated. However, the in situ generated anions could be quenched with SbCl3 , yielding Mes*N(SbCl2 )AsPMes* (4). PMID:27377437

  6. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  7. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  8. Retroperitoneal multilocular bronchogenic cyst adjacent to adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Yang, S W; Linton, J A; Ryu, S J; Shin, D H; Park, C S

    1999-10-01

    Bronchogenic cysts are generally found in the mediastinum, particularly posterior to the carina, but they rarely occur in such unusual sites as the skin, subcutaneous tissue, pericardium, and even the retroperitoneum. A 30-year-old Korean man underwent surgery to remove a cystic adrenal mass incidentally discovered during routine physical checkup. At surgery, it proved to be a multilocular cyst located in the retroperitoneum adjacent to the left adrenal gland. Microscopically, the cyst was lined by respiratory epithelium over connective tissue with submucous glands, cartilage and smooth muscle, thereby histologically confirming bronchogenic cyst. This is the first reported case of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in an adult without other congenital anomalies in Korea.

  9. THERMO-ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, K.C.

    1958-07-22

    The conversion of heat energy into electrical energy by a small compact device is descrtbed. Where the heat energy is supplied by a radioactive material and thermopIIes convert the heat to electrical energy. The particular battery construction includes two insulating discs with conductive rods disposed between them to form a circular cage. In the center of the cage is disposed a cup in which the sealed radioactive source is located. Each thermopile is formed by connecting wires from two adjacent rods to a potnt on an annular ring fastened to the outside of the cup, the ring having insulation on its surface to prevent electrica1 contact with the thermopiles. One advantage of this battery construction is that the radioactive source may be inserted after the device is fabricated, reducing the radiation hazard to personnel assembling the battery.

  10. Imaging local electric fields produced upon synchrotron X-ray exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dettmar, Christopher M.; Newman, Justin A.; Toth, Scott J.; Becker, Michael; Fischetti, Robert F.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2015-01-01

    Electron–hole separation following hard X-ray absorption during diffraction analysis of soft materials under cryogenic conditions produces substantial local electric fields visualizable by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray photoelectron trajectories suggest the formation of substantial local electric fields in the regions adjacent to those exposed to X-rays, indicating a possible electric-field–induced SHG (EFISH) mechanism for generating the observed signal. In studies of amorphous vitreous solvents, analysis of the SHG spatial profiles following X-ray microbeam exposure was consistent with an EFISH mechanism. Within protein crystals, exposure to 12-keV (1.033-Å) X-rays resulted in increased SHG in the region extending ∼3 μm beyond the borders of the X-ray beam. Moderate X-ray exposures typical of those used for crystal centering by raster scanning through an X-ray beam were sufficient to produce static electric fields easily detectable by SHG. The X-ray–induced SHG activity was observed with no measurable loss for longer than 2 wk while maintained under cryogenic conditions, but disappeared if annealed to room temperature for a few seconds. These results provide direct experimental observables capable of validating simulations of X-ray–induced damage within soft materials. In addition, X-ray–induced local fields may potentially impact diffraction resolution through localized piezoelectric distortions of the lattice. PMID:25552555

  11. Imaging local electric fields produced upon synchrotron X-ray exposure.

    PubMed

    Dettmar, Christopher M; Newman, Justin A; Toth, Scott J; Becker, Michael; Fischetti, Robert F; Simpson, Garth J

    2015-01-20

    Electron-hole separation following hard X-ray absorption during diffraction analysis of soft materials under cryogenic conditions produces substantial local electric fields visualizable by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray photoelectron trajectories suggest the formation of substantial local electric fields in the regions adjacent to those exposed to X-rays, indicating a possible electric-field-induced SHG (EFISH) mechanism for generating the observed signal. In studies of amorphous vitreous solvents, analysis of the SHG spatial profiles following X-ray microbeam exposure was consistent with an EFISH mechanism. Within protein crystals, exposure to 12-keV (1.033-Å) X-rays resulted in increased SHG in the region extending ∼ 3 μm beyond the borders of the X-ray beam. Moderate X-ray exposures typical of those used for crystal centering by raster scanning through an X-ray beam were sufficient to produce static electric fields easily detectable by SHG. The X-ray-induced SHG activity was observed with no measurable loss for longer than 2 wk while maintained under cryogenic conditions, but disappeared if annealed to room temperature for a few seconds. These results provide direct experimental observables capable of validating simulations of X-ray-induced damage within soft materials. In addition, X-ray-induced local fields may potentially impact diffraction resolution through localized piezoelectric distortions of the lattice. PMID:25552555

  12. Imaging local electric fields produced upon synchrotron X-ray exposure.

    PubMed

    Dettmar, Christopher M; Newman, Justin A; Toth, Scott J; Becker, Michael; Fischetti, Robert F; Simpson, Garth J

    2015-01-20

    Electron-hole separation following hard X-ray absorption during diffraction analysis of soft materials under cryogenic conditions produces substantial local electric fields visualizable by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray photoelectron trajectories suggest the formation of substantial local electric fields in the regions adjacent to those exposed to X-rays, indicating a possible electric-field-induced SHG (EFISH) mechanism for generating the observed signal. In studies of amorphous vitreous solvents, analysis of the SHG spatial profiles following X-ray microbeam exposure was consistent with an EFISH mechanism. Within protein crystals, exposure to 12-keV (1.033-Å) X-rays resulted in increased SHG in the region extending ∼ 3 μm beyond the borders of the X-ray beam. Moderate X-ray exposures typical of those used for crystal centering by raster scanning through an X-ray beam were sufficient to produce static electric fields easily detectable by SHG. The X-ray-induced SHG activity was observed with no measurable loss for longer than 2 wk while maintained under cryogenic conditions, but disappeared if annealed to room temperature for a few seconds. These results provide direct experimental observables capable of validating simulations of X-ray-induced damage within soft materials. In addition, X-ray-induced local fields may potentially impact diffraction resolution through localized piezoelectric distortions of the lattice.

  13. Historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas: What is revisited?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakhanian, A.; Jrbashyan, R.; Trifonov, V.; Philip, H.; Arakelian, S.; Avagyan, A.; Baghdassaryan, H.; Davtian, V.

    2006-07-01

    The validity of some data in Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62] that are revisited by R. Haroutiunian is considered. A conclusion is made that the revisions suggested by Haroutiunian concern unessential parts of the content of work by Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62]. This article presents new evidence and re-proves the earlier conclusions that are disputed or revised by R. Haroutiunian.

  14. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  15. Adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection.

    PubMed

    Ying, Binbin

    2012-03-01

    Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lip. It is a common benign lesion in the oral region. Although there are many conservative treatments such as the creation of a pouch (marsupialization), freezing (cryosurgery), micromarsupialization, and CO2 laser vaporization, surgical resection is the most commonly used means. Generally speaking, an elliptic incision was made to fully enucleate the lesion along with the overlying mucosa and the affected glands, then direct suturing is adequate. However, in some cases, direct suturing could cause lower lip deformity, and adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection might be quite necessary. Based on our experience, adjacent mucosal flaps could be used when lesions were close to or even break through the vermilion border or their diameters were much more than 1 cm. A-T advancement flaps and transposition flaps were the mostly applied ones. Follow-up showed that all patients realized primary healing after 1 week postoperatively with satisfactory lower lip appearance, and there was no sign of increasing incidence of relapse. PMID:22421867

  16. Bacterial community structure in the Sulu Sea and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Nishimura, Masahiko; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    The deep waters of the Sulu Sea are characterized by relatively high and constant water temperatures and low oxygen concentrations. To examine the effect of these characteristics on the bacterial community structure, the culture-independent molecular method was applied to samples from the Sulu Sea and the adjacent areas. DNA was extracted from environmental samples, and the analysis was carried out on PCR-amplified 16S rDNA; fragments were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis. Stations in the Sulu Sea and the adjacent areas showed much more prominent vertical stratification of bacterial community structures than horizontal variation. As predominant sequences, cyanobacteria and α-proteobacteria at 10 m depth, δ-proteobacteria at 100 m depth, and green nonsulfur bacteria below 1000 m depth were detected in all sampling areas. High temperatures and low oxygen concentrations are thought to be minor factors in controlling community structure; the quantity and quality of organic materials supplied by the sinking particles, and hydrostatic pressure are believed to be important.

  17. Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains and adjacent Raton Basin, southern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains (Culebra Range) is interpreted as a system of west-dipping, basement-involved thrusts and reverse faults. The Culebra thrust is the dominant structure in the central part of the range; it dips 30 -55?? west and brings Precambrian metamorphic base-ment rocks over unmetamorphosed Paleozoic rocks. East of the Culebra thrust, thrusts and reverse faults break the basement and overlying cover rocks into north-trending fault blocks; these boundary faults probably dip 40-60?? westward. The orientation of fault slickensides indicates oblique (northeast) slip on the Culebra thrust and dip-slip (ranging from eastward to northward) movement on adjacent faults. In sedimentary cover rocks, east-vergent anticlines overlie and merge with thrusts and reverse faults; these anticlines are interpreted as fault-propagation folds. Minor east-dipping thrusts and reverse faults (backthrusts) occur in both the hanging walls and footwalls of thrusts. The easternmost faults and folds of the Culebra Range form a continuous structural boundary between the Laramide Sangre de Cristo highland and the Raton Basin. Boundary structures consist of west-dipping frontal thrusts flanked on the basinward side by poorly exposed, east-dipping backthrusts. The backthrusts are interpreted to overlie structural wedges that have been emplaced above blind thrusts in the basin margin. West-dipping frontal thrusts and blind thrusts are interpreted to involve basement, but backthrusts are rooted in basin-margin cover rocks. At shallow structural levels where erosion has not exposed a frontal thrust, the structural boundary of the basin is represented by an anticline or monocline. Based on both regional and local stratigraphic evidence, Laramide deformation in the Culebra Range and accompanying synorogenic sedimentation in the western Raton Basin probably took place from latest Cretaceous through early Eocene time. The earliest evidence of uplift and

  18. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in thin ferromagnetic films adjacent to high-k oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Meng; Bi, Chong; Rosales, Marcus; Newhouse-Illige, Ty; Almasi, Hamid; Wang, Weigang

    2015-03-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in thin ferromagnetic films has attracted a great deal of attention due to interesting physics and promising application in spintronic devices. The strength of PMA is often found to be strongly influenced by the adjacent heavy metal layer and oxide layer. A strong interest has emerged recently to control the PMA of these ultra-thin films by electric fields. Here we report the fabrication and characterization of perpendicularly magnetized 3d transitional metal films next to high-k oxides such as HfO2 and ZrO2. We have investigated structural, magnetic and transport properties of these films. The PMA strongly depends on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layers and the interfacial oxidation level of the bilayers. We will also discuss electric field controlled magnetic properties in these systems. This work was supported in part by NSF (ECCS-1310338) and by C-SPIN, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA.

  19. Cyclic AMP modulates electrical signaling in a weakly electric fish.

    PubMed

    McAnelly, L; Silva, A; Zakon, H H

    2003-04-01

    Many species of electric fish show diurnal or socially elicited variation in electric organ discharge amplitude. In Sternopygus macrurus, activation of protein kinase A by 8-bromo-cAMP increases electrocyte sodium current magnitude. To determine whether the behavioral plasticity in electric organ discharge amplitude is controlled by electrocyte biophysical properties, we examined whether the effects of phosphorylation on ion currents in the electric organ translate directly into electric organ discharge changes. We injected the electric organ of restrained fish with 8-bromo-cAMP and monitored the electric organ discharge. The effect of protein kinase A activation on electrocyte action potentials was examined in isolated electric organ using two-electrode current clamp. Electric organ discharge and action potential amplitude and pulse duration increased in response to 8-bromo-cAMP. Pulse and action potential duration both increased by about 25%. However, the increase in electric organ discharge amplitude (approximately 400%) was several-fold greater than the action potential amplitude increase (approximately 40%). Resting membrane resistance decreased in electrocytes exposed to 8-bromo-cAMP. We propose that in the Thevenin equivalent circuit of the electric organ a moderate increase in action potential amplitude combined with a decrease in internal resistance produces a greater voltage drop across the external resistance (the water around the fish), accounting for the large increase in the externally recorded electric organ discharge.

  20. Developing an Empirical Model for Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Larry L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    To comply with lead-free legislation, many manufacturers have converted from tin-lead to pure tin finishes of electronic components. However, pure tin finishes have a greater propensity to grow tin whiskers than tin-lead finishes. Since tin whiskers present an electrical short circuit hazard in electronic components, simulations have been developed to quantify the risk of said short circuits occurring. Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that had an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish.

  1. Determining resistivity of a formation adjacent to a borehole having casing using multiple electrodes and with resistances being defined between the electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III

    1996-10-29

    Methods of operation are disclosed for different types of multiple electrode apparatus vertically disposed in a cased well to measure information related to the resistivity of adjacent geological formations from inside the cased well. The multiple electrode apparatus have a minimum of three spaced-apart voltage measurement electrodes that electrically engage the interior of the cased well. Measurement information is obtained related to current which is caused to flow from the cased well into the adjacent geological formation. First compensation information is obtained related to a first casing resistance between a first pair of the spaced-apart voltage measurement electrodes. Second compensation information is obtained related to a second casing resistance between a second pair of the spaced-apart voltage measurement electrodes. The measurement information, and first and second compensation information are used to determine a magnitude related to the adjacent formation resistivity. 13 figs.

  2. Determining resistivity of a formation adjacent to a borehole having casing using multiple electrodes and with resistances being defined between the electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Methods of operation of different types of multiple electrode apparatus vertically disposed in a cased well to measure information related to the resistivity of adjacent geological formations from inside the cased well. The multiple electrode apparatus have a minimum of three spaced apart voltage measurement electrodes that electrically engage the interior of the cased well. Measurement information is obtained related to current which is caused to flow from the cased well into the adjacent geological formation. First compensation information is obtained related to a first casing resistance between a first pair of the spaced apart voltage measurement electrodes. Second compensation information is obtained related to a second casing resistance between a second pair of the spaced apart voltage measurement electrodes. The measurement information, and first and second compensation information are used to determine a magnitude related to the adjacent formation resistivity.

  3. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  4. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  5. Scolopendromorpha of New Guinea and adjacent islands (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A; Stoev, Pavel E

    2016-01-01

    The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20th century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings. The old and doubtful record of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844 from New Guinea is referred to S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and the species is here excluded from the present day list of New Guinean scolopendromorphs. Cryptops nepalensis Lewis, 1999 is here recorded from New Guinea for the first time. An annotated list and an identification key to the scolopendromorphs of the studied region are presented. PMID:27515618

  6. Geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Dilamarter, R.C.

    1982-07-01

    The geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas in Indiana, Illinois and Tennessee is presented as a background for interpreters evaluating the present land surface using remotely sensed imagery. Eight physiographic units were analyzed and are briefly discussed with reference to topography and surface deposits. Great diversity was found to be characteristic of the region, the result of different structural influences and geomorphic processes. The landscape bears the marks of fluvial, glacial, eolian, lacustrine and karstic environments, so a regional geomorphic history was compiled from the literature as an aid to understanding the land surface. Three smaller zones in Kentucky were analyzed in greater detail regarding topography and geomorphic development because of their potential importance in subsurface exploration.

  7. Configuration optimization of dampers for adjacent buildings under seismic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigdeli, Kasra; Hare, Warren; Tesfamariam, Solomon

    2012-12-01

    Passive coupling of adjacent structures is known to be an effective method to reduce undesirable vibrations and structural pounding effects. Past results have shown that reducing the number of dampers can considerably decrease the cost of implementation and does not significantly decrease the efficiency of the system. The main objective of this study was to find the optimal arrangement of a limited number of dampers to minimize interstorey drift. Five approaches to solving the resulting bi-level optimization problem are introduced and examined (exhaustive search, inserting dampers, inserting floors, locations of maximum relative velocity and a genetic algorithm) and the numerical efficiency of each method is examined. The results reveal that the inserting damper method is the most efficient and reliable method, particularly for tall structures. It was also found that increasing the number of dampers does not necessarily increase the efficiency of the system. In fact, increasing the number of dampers can exacerbate the dynamic response of the system.

  8. Reconnaissance geologic map of Kodiak Island and adjacent islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2013-01-01

    Kodiak Island and its adjacent islands, located on the west side of the Gulf of Alaska, contain one of the largest areas of exposure of the flysch and melange of the Chugach terrane of southern Alaska. However, in the past 25 years, only detailed mapping covering small areas in the archipelago has been done. This map and its associated digital files (Wilson and others, 2005) present the best available mapping compiled in an integrated fashion. The map and associated digital files represent part of a systematic effort to release geologic map data for the United States in a uniform manner. The geologic data have been compiled from a wide variety of sources, ranging from state and regional geologic maps to large-scale field mapping. The map data are presented for use at a nominal scale of 1:500,000, although individual datasets (see Wilson and others, 2005) may contain data suitable for use at larger scales.

  9. 38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A MOVABLE TIRE BENDER FOR SHAPING ELI WINDMILL WHEEL RIMS. AT THE CENTER IS A FLOOR-MOUNTED CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER OF THE TYPE USED FOR SMOOTHING ROUGH CASTINGS. ON THE WHEELED WORK STATION IS A SUNNEN BUSHING GRINDER, BEHIND WHICH IS A TRIPOD CHAIN VICE. IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND IS A WOODEN CHEST OF DRAWERS WHICH CONTAINS A 'RAG DRAWER' STILL FILLED WITH CLOTH RAGS PLACED IN THE FACTORY BUILDING AT THE INSISTENCE OF LOUISE (MRS. ARTHUR) KREGEL FOR THE CONVENIENCE AND CLEANLINESS OF WORKERS. IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND IS A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  10. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  11. Effect of Fluoridated Sealants on Adjacent Tooth Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cagetti, M.G.; Carta, G.; Cocco, F.; Sale, S.; Congiu, G.; Mura, A.; Strohmenger, L.; Lingström, P.; Campus, G.

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed in 6- to 7-yr-old schoolchildren to evaluate, in a 30-mo period, whether the caries increment on the distal surface of the second primary molars adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with fluoride release compounds would be lower with respect to those adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with a nonfluoridated sealant. In sum, 2,776 subjects were enrolled and randomly divided into 3 groups receiving sealants on sound first molars: high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (GIC group); resin-based sealant with fluoride (fluoride-RB group); and a resin-based sealant without fluoride (RB group). Caries (D1 – D3 level) was recorded on the distal surface of the second primary molar, considered the unit of analysis including only sound surfaces at the baseline. At baseline, no differences in caries prevalence were recorded in the 3 groups regarding the considered surfaces. At follow-up, the prevalence of an affected unit of analysis was statistically lower (p = .03) in the GIC and fluoride-RB groups (p = .04). In the GIC group, fewer new caries were observed in the unit of analysis respect to the other 2 groups. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.68; p < .01) for GIC vs. RB and 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.04; p = .005) for fluoride-RB vs. RB. Caries incidence was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status (IRR = 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.42; p = .05). Dental sealant high-viscosity GIC and fluoride-RB demonstrated protection against dental caries, and there was evidence that these materials afforded additional protection for the tooth nearest to the sealed tooth (clinical trial registration NCT01588210). PMID:24846910

  12. Subduction initiation adjacent to a relic island arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, W.; Gurnis, M.

    2013-12-01

    Although plate tectonics is well established, how subduction initiates over tectonic history has remained obscure. It has been proposed that passive margins may be a possible place for subduction initiation, but there is no obvious Cenozoic example of such a scenario, including along the passive margins of the Atlantic Ocean. With a computational method that follows the deformation of a visco-elasto-plastic medium, here we show that a favourable locale for subduction initiation is the juxtaposition of an old oceanic plate adjacent to a young, but relic arc. Significant density anomalies leading to subduction initiation arise from two major factors. One is the compositional difference between the relic arc crust and the oceanic lithospheric mantle; the other is the thermal difference due to the age offset between the two plates. With such a setup, we observe spontaneous subduction initiation if the oceanic crust is significantly weakened by pore fluid pressure. If the oceanic crust is relatively strong, a small amount of plate convergence is required to induce subduction. The evidence that Izu-Bonin-Mariana and Tonga-Kermedec subduction zones both initiate adjacent to a relic island arc support our conclusions. The initiation of both subduction zones at 51-52 Ma with commensurate compression on their respective overriding plates support a causal link between both subduction initiation events through a change in Pacific Plate motion. Our results provide an explanation for the rarity of subduction initiation at the passive margins. The continental lithosphere is typically old and cold. Consequently, the thermal effects cancel the compositional buoyancy contrast between the continental crust and the oceanic lithospheric mantle, making subduction initiation difficult at passive margins.

  13. Prevention of enamel demineralization adjacent to glass ionomer filling materials.

    PubMed

    Forss, H; Seppä, L

    1990-04-01

    In order to study the release of fluoride and prevention of enamel demineralization by different filling materials, standardized cavities were prepared in 80 extracted human molars. The cavities were filled as follows: 1. Fuji II F; 2. Ketac-Fil; 3. Ketac-Silver; 4. Silar. Twenty molars were used as controls (no filling). Enamel slabs with the fillings were subjected to 9 days of demineralization (30 min daily) and remineralization (artificial saliva, replaced daily). Fluoride release in the saliva was determined on days 1, 3, 5, and 9. Enamel fluoride content adjacent to the cavities was determined initially and after the de-remineralization using the acid etch technique. On day 1, the largest amount of fluoride in the saliva was released by Fuji, but on day 9 the largest amount was released by Ketac-Fil. Ketac-Silver released significantly less fluoride than Fuji and Ketac-Fil. The average initial fluoride content of enamel was 2200 ppm. After the test period, fluoride contents adjusted for biopsy depth were 1822, 1690, 1693, 1337, and 888 ppm in groups 1-5, respectively. The amounts of phosphorus dissolved by the second acid etch were 28.9 (SE 2.6), 30.2 (2.0), 34.4 (2.8), 44.1 (2.7), and 42.2 (2.4) micrograms, respectively. Softening of surface enamel during the test period was clearly reduced in teeth filled with Fuji and Ketac-Fil. The results show that glass ionomer materials release considerable amounts of fluoride and prevent demineralization of the adjacent enamel in vitro. Fuji and Ketac-Fil seem to be more effective than Ketac-Silver.

  14. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 35744, June 20, 2011. (a... adjacent waters, Mass. (a) * * * (2) Anchorage B. All waters bounded by a line beginning at 41°36′42.3″...

  15. Resistance after firing protected electric match

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, Arsenio P.

    1981-11-10

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  16. Electric autos and clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, C.

    1980-10-01

    Electric automobiles are touted for their energy efficiency and emission control properties. However, recent studies conducted at ANL indicate that more environmental damage would probably result from the manufacture of electric cars and their batteries than from actual operation of the vehicles themselves. Batteries do release emissions when recharged, although at a low level. Workers will be exposed to hazardous chemicals during the manufacture of batteries, and their protection must be ensured. (2 photos)

  17. New Technique of Exposed Glaucoma Drainage Tube Repair: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Berezina, Tamara L; Fechtner, Robert D; Cohen, Amir; Kim, Eliott E

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the case of successful repair of an exposed glaucoma drainage tube by cornea graft fixation with tissue adhesive, and without subsequent coverage by adjacent conjunctiva or donor tissues. Patient with history of keratoglobus with thin cornea and sclera, and phthisical contralateral eye, underwent three unsuccessful corneal grafts followed by Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis in the right eye. Ahmed drainage device with sclera patch graft was implanted to control the intraocular pressure. Two years later the tube eroded through sclera graft and conjunctiva. Repair was performed by covering the tube with a corneal patch graft secured by tissue adhesive after the conjunctiva in this area was dissected away. The cornea graft was left uncovered due to fragility of adjacent conjunctiva. The healing of ocular and graft surfaces was complete prior to the 1 month follow-up. Conjunctival epithelium covered the corneal patch graft. At 12 months follow-up, the graft and the tube remained stable. Our report suggests that corneal patch graft fixation to the sclera by means of tissue adhesive, without closing the conjunctiva, can be considered as an effective alternative surgical approach for managing exposed glaucoma drainage tube, accompanied by adjacent conjunctiva tissue deficiency. How to cite this article: Berezina TL, Fechtner RD, Cohen A, Kim EE, Chu DS. New Technique of Exposed Glaucoma Drainage Tube Repair: Report of a Case. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(2):62-64. PMID:26997836

  18. Pond use by captive African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) in an immersive exhibit adjacent to human bathers.

    PubMed

    Ozella, Laura; Favaro, Livio; Carnovale, Irene; Pessani, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in zoos are exposed to a continuous human presence, which affects their behaviors and welfare. However, little is known about what role the "visitor effect" has on penguins in captivity. The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is an endangered species commonly housed in zoos worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the abundance of human bathers could reduce the average time spent in the water of a colony of African penguins housed in an exhibit where their pond habitat was adjacent to a swimming pool. Observations were carried out on 7 penguins in the summer of 2009. Data were collected during 3 time periods (Time 1 [T1] = opening of the swimming season, Time 2 [T2] = core of the season, Time 3 [T3] = late season) of 14 days each. The human disturbance caused by bathers strongly reduced the pond use by penguins at T1 and T2, especially when there were large numbers of visitors. However, at T3, we observed that the overall use of the pond by penguins increased, and the average duration of their diving was no longer dependent on the number of visitors. PMID:25402201

  19. Pond use by captive African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) in an immersive exhibit adjacent to human bathers.

    PubMed

    Ozella, Laura; Favaro, Livio; Carnovale, Irene; Pessani, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in zoos are exposed to a continuous human presence, which affects their behaviors and welfare. However, little is known about what role the "visitor effect" has on penguins in captivity. The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is an endangered species commonly housed in zoos worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the abundance of human bathers could reduce the average time spent in the water of a colony of African penguins housed in an exhibit where their pond habitat was adjacent to a swimming pool. Observations were carried out on 7 penguins in the summer of 2009. Data were collected during 3 time periods (Time 1 [T1] = opening of the swimming season, Time 2 [T2] = core of the season, Time 3 [T3] = late season) of 14 days each. The human disturbance caused by bathers strongly reduced the pond use by penguins at T1 and T2, especially when there were large numbers of visitors. However, at T3, we observed that the overall use of the pond by penguins increased, and the average duration of their diving was no longer dependent on the number of visitors.

  20. Gluconic acid production in bioreactor with immobilized glucose oxidase plus catalase on polymer membrane adjacent to anion-exchange membrane.

    PubMed

    Godjevargova, Tzonka; Dayal, Rajeshwar; Turmanova, Sevdalina

    2004-10-20

    Gluconic acid was obtained in the permeate side of the bioreactor with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized onto anion-exchange membrane (AEM) of low-density polyethylene grafted with 4-vinylpiridine. The electric resistance of the anion-exchange membranes was increased after the enzyme immobilization on the membrane. The gluconic acid productions were relatively low with the GOD immobilized by any method on the AEM. To increase the enzyme reaction efficiency, GOD was immobilized on membrane of AN copolymer (PAN) adjacent to an anion-exchange membrane in bioreactor. Uses of anion-exchange membrane led to selective removal of the gluconic acid from the glucose solution and reduce the gluconic acid inhibition. The amount of gluconic acid obtained in the permeate side of the bioreactor with the GOD immobilized on the PAN membrane adjacent to the AEM under electrodialysis was about 30 times higher than that obtained with enzyme directly bound to the AEM. The optimal substrate concentration in the feed side was found to be about 1 g/l. Further experiments were carried out with the co-immobilized GOD plus Catalase (CAT) on the PAN membrane adjacent to the AEM to improve the efficiency of the immobilize system. The yield of this process was at least 95%. The storage stability of the co-immobilized GOD and CAT was studied (lost 20% of initial activity for 90 d). The results obtained clearly showed the higher potential of the dual membrane bioreactor with GOD plus CAT bound to ultrafiltration polymer membrane adjacent to the AEM. Storage stability of GOD activity in GOD plus CAT immobilized on PAN//AEM membranes and on AEM.

  1. How semantic biases in simple adjacencies affect learning a complex structure with non-adjacencies in AGL: a statistical account

    PubMed Central

    Poletiek, Fenna H.; Lai, Jun

    2012-01-01

    A major theoretical debate in language acquisition research regards the learnability of hierarchical structures. The artificial grammar learning methodology is increasingly influential in approaching this question. Studies using an artificial centre-embedded AnBn grammar without semantics draw conflicting conclusions. This study investigates the facilitating effect of distributional biases in simple AB adjacencies in the input sample—caused in natural languages, among others, by semantic biases—on learning a centre-embedded structure. A mathematical simulation of the linguistic input and the learning, comparing various distributional biases in AB pairs, suggests that strong distributional biases might help us to grasp the complex AnBn hierarchical structure in a later stage. This theoretical investigation might contribute to our understanding of how distributional features of the input—including those caused by semantic variation—help learning complex structures in natural languages. PMID:22688639

  2. Advances in treating exposed fractures.

    PubMed

    Nogueira Giglio, Pedro; Fogaça Cristante, Alexandre; Ricardo Pécora, José; Partezani Helito, Camilo; Lei Munhoz Lima, Ana Lucia; Dos Santos Silva, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The management of exposed fractures has been discussed since ancient times and remains of great interest to present-day orthopedics and traumatology. These injuries are still a challenge. Infection and nonunion are feared complications. Aspects of the diagnosis, classification and initial management are discussed here. Early administration of antibiotics, surgical cleaning and meticulous debridement are essential. The systemic conditions of patients with multiple trauma and the local conditions of the limb affected need to be taken into consideration. Early skeletal stabilization is necessary. Definitive fixation should be considered when possible and provisional fixation methods should be used when necessary. Early closure should be the aim, and flaps can be used for this purpose. PMID:26229904

  3. The "AMINO" experiment on expose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, B.; Coll, P.; Cottin, H.; Leach, S.; Maurel, M.-C.; Raulin, F.; Tepfer, D.; Brack, A.

    2002-11-01

    The "AMINO" experiment will take place, end of 2004, in the "EXPOSE" ESA device on the Columbus module outside the International Space Station (ISS). The objective of the "AMINO" experiment is mainly to study space chemistry in the solar system in relationship to the origin of life. The main goal is to support the hypothesis that extraterrestrial life-related compounds, ranging from bioorganic precursors to biological macromolecules, might have been delivered to the primitive Earth when associated with comets, meteorites or micrometeorites. Another aspect of organic chemistry in the solar system that one associated to Titan's environment. This domain is of primary interest for exobiology, due to the rich organic chemistry that occurs on Titan. The last interesting chemistry domain in the solar system concerns comets. Some cometary analogues and related compounds will be also studied.

  4. Advances in treating exposed fractures☆

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira Giglio, Pedro; Fogaça Cristante, Alexandre; Ricardo Pécora, José; Partezani Helito, Camilo; Lei Munhoz Lima, Ana Lucia; dos Santos Silva, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The management of exposed fractures has been discussed since ancient times and remains of great interest to present-day orthopedics and traumatology. These injuries are still a challenge. Infection and nonunion are feared complications. Aspects of the diagnosis, classification and initial management are discussed here. Early administration of antibiotics, surgical cleaning and meticulous debridement are essential. The systemic conditions of patients with multiple trauma and the local conditions of the limb affected need to be taken into consideration. Early skeletal stabilization is necessary. Definitive fixation should be considered when possible and provisional fixation methods should be used when necessary. Early closure should be the aim, and flaps can be used for this purpose. PMID:26229904

  5. Advances in treating exposed fractures.

    PubMed

    Nogueira Giglio, Pedro; Fogaça Cristante, Alexandre; Ricardo Pécora, José; Partezani Helito, Camilo; Lei Munhoz Lima, Ana Lucia; Dos Santos Silva, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The management of exposed fractures has been discussed since ancient times and remains of great interest to present-day orthopedics and traumatology. These injuries are still a challenge. Infection and nonunion are feared complications. Aspects of the diagnosis, classification and initial management are discussed here. Early administration of antibiotics, surgical cleaning and meticulous debridement are essential. The systemic conditions of patients with multiple trauma and the local conditions of the limb affected need to be taken into consideration. Early skeletal stabilization is necessary. Definitive fixation should be considered when possible and provisional fixation methods should be used when necessary. Early closure should be the aim, and flaps can be used for this purpose.

  6. Seismic responses of two adjacent buildings. I. Data and analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1993-01-01

    In this two-part paper, responses of two, adjacent, seven-story buildings in Norwalk, California, to the Whittier-Narrows, Calif, earthquake of Oct. 1, 1987 are studied. Building A, instrumented according to code recommendations, and building B, extensively instrumented, are offset by 16.3 m from one another. The data set includes motions from the superstructure of both buildings, from a downhole below the foundation of building B, and from three free-field sites. Part I of the paper includes descriptions of the buildings, site, instrumentation, and analysis of the data of each building. System identification and spectral analysis techniques are employed in part I. Building A has identical first-mode frequencies of 0.65 Hz for both building axes. The strong-motion response characteristics of building A are considerably different than those determined from low-amplitude tests. Building B has fundamental modes at 0.76 Hz and 0.83 Hz in the major and minor axes, respectively. Torsional and diaphragm effects in building B are negligible.

  7. Snow Distribution Patterns in Clearings and Adjacent Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Douglas L.; Swanson, Robert H.

    1986-12-01

    Snow accumulation patterns were determined for clearings and adjacent forest at Marmot Creek experimental watershed and James River, Alberta. At maximum accumulation snow water equivalent (SWE) was greater in clearings than in forest whether clearings were large, as in 8- to 13-ha blocks where SWE averaged 20% more than in the forest, or small as in the ¼ to 6-H (height) diameter circular clearings where SWE was 13-45% greater than in the forest. SWE was 42 to 52% less in north than in south sectors of 2-6 H clearings. These differences increased with clearing size and time since beginning of accumulation period and are caused by snow ablation (melt and evaporation), a function of direct solar radiation reaching the snowpack. In such situations the snow that has accumulated on the ground cannot be considered a measure of the snow that has actually fallen there. For water balances and hydrologic modeling, snow measurements in partially cleared watersheds must be adjusted for temporal and spatial factors specific to the watershed.

  8. Seismic responses of two adjacent buildings. II. Interaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1993-01-01

    Presented in this part of the two-part paper is a study of the relations between earthquake motions recorded from two, adjacent, seven-story buildings, from a downhole below the foundation of one of the buildings and from three free-field sites, all within one city block. This unique data set was obtained during the Whittier-Narrows, Calif. earthquake of Oct. 1, 1987, Part I includes background information on the two buildings, the site, and the data set. Building response characteristics of a code-type instrumented building (A) and an extensively instrumented building (B) are also studied. In this part, spectral analysis techniques are used to study the relationships between the motions of the roofs and basements, the downhole and the free-field sites. It is asserted that there is building-soil-building interaction between the two buildings at a frequency of 2.35 Hz. Furthermore, the free-field motions are shown to be influenced by the presence of the buildings.

  9. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  10. Repeated adjacent-segment degeneration after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Shinya; Oda, Takenori; Yamasaki, Ryoji; Maeno, Takafumi; Iwasaki, Motoki

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important sequelae affecting long-term results is adjacent-segment degeneration (ASD) after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Although several reports have described the incidence rate, there have been no reports of repeated ASD. The purpose of this report was to describe 1 case of repeated ASD after PLIF. A 62-year-old woman with L-4 degenerative spondylolisthesis underwent PLIF at L4-5. At the second operation, L3-4 PLIF was performed for L-3 degenerative spondylolisthesis 6 years after the primary operation. At the third operation, L2-3 PLIF was performed for L-2 degenerative spondylolisthesis 1.5 years after the primary operation. Vertebral collapse of L-1 was detected 1 year after the third operation, and the collapse had progressed. At the fourth operation, 3 years after the third operation, vertebral column resection of L-1 and replacement of titanium mesh cages with pedicle screw fixation between T-4 and L-5 was performed. Although the patient's symptoms resolved after each operation, the time between surgeries shortened. The sacral slope decreased gradually although each PLIF achieved local lordosis at the fused segment.

  11. Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.; Squillace, P.

    1994-01-01

    Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer and quantification of herbicide bank storage during high streamflow were investigated at a research site on the Cedar River flood plain, 10 km southeast of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. During high streamflow in March 1990, alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background in water from wells as distant as 20, 50, and 10 m from the river's edge, respectively. During high streamflow in May 1990, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background as distant as 20, 50, 10, and 20 m from the river's edge, respectively. Herbicide bank storage took place during high streamflow when hydraulic gradients were from the river to the alluvial aquifer and the laterally infiltrating river water contained herbicide concentrations larger than background concentrations in the aquifer. The herbicide bank storage can be quantified by multiplying herbicide concentration by the "effective area" that a well represented and an assumed porosity of 0.25. During March 1990, herbicide bank storage values were calculated to be 1.7,79, and 4.0 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor, respectively. During May 1990, values were 7.1, 54, 11, and 19 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor, respectively. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  12. Preparation and properties of adjacency crosslinked polyurethane-urea elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuan; Cao, Yu-Yang; Wu, Shou-Peng; Li, Zai-Feng

    2012-12-01

    Adjacency crosslinked polyurethane-urea (PUU) elastomers with different crosslinking density were prepared by using hydroxyl-terminated liquid butadiene-nitrile (HTBN), toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and chain extender 3,5-dimethyl thio-toluene diamine (DMTDA) as raw materials, dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as initiator, and N,N'-m-phenylene dimaleimide (HVA-2) as the crosslinking agent. The influences of the crosslinking density and temperature on the structure and properties of such elastomers were investigated. The crosslinking density of PUU elastomer was tested by the NMR method. It is found that when the content of HVA-2 is 1.5%, the mechanical properties of polyurethane elastomer achieve optimal performance. By testing thermal performance of PUU, compared with linear PUU, the thermal stability of the elastomers has a marked improvement. With the addition of HVA-2, the loss factor tan δ decreases. FT-IR spectral studies of PUU elastomer at various temperatures were performed. From this study, heat-resistance polyurethane could be prepared, and the properties of PUU at high temperature could be improved obviously.

  13. The Current Tectonics of the Yukon and Adjacent Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyndman, R. D.; Leonard, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    The current tectonics across the Yukon and adjacent areas of western Northwest Territories (NWT) and northern British Columbia appear to be driven primarily by the Yakutat Terrane collision, an "indenter" in the corner of the Gulf of Alaska. GPS data show 1-10 mm/yr northward and eastward, decreasing inland. The rates from earthquake statistics are similar although there are important discrepancies. The eastern Cordillera earthquake mechanisms are mainly thrust in the Mackenzie Mountains of southwestern NWT where the Cordillera upper crust is overthrusting the craton. To the north, the mechanisms are mainly strike-slip in the Richardson Mountains that appear to lie along the edge of the craton. The deformation appears to be limited to the hot and weak Cordillera with the strong craton providing an irregular eastern boundary. For example, there is an eastward bow in the craton edge and the deformation in the Mackenzie Mountains. On the Beaufort Sea margin in the region of the Mackenzie Delta there appears to be a type of "subduction zone" with the continent very slowly overthrusting the oceanic plate, a process that has continued since at least the Cretaceous. A northward moving continental margin block is bounded by left lateral faulting in the west (Canning Displacement Zone of eastern Alaska) and right lateral faulting in the east (Richardson Mountains in eastern Yukon). There is almost no seismicity on this thrust belt but as for some other subduction zones such as Cascadia there is the potential for very infrequent great earthquakes.

  14. Adjacent level spondylodiscitis after anterior cervical decompression and fusion.

    PubMed

    Basu, Saumyajit; Sreeramalingam, Rathinavelu

    2012-05-01

    Postoperative spondylodiscitis after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) is rare, but the same occurring at adjacent levels without disturbing the operated level is very rare. We report a case, with 5 year followup, who underwent ACDF from C5 to C7 for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. He showed neurological improvement after surgery but developed discharging sinus after 2 weeks, which healed with antibiotics. He improved on his preoperative symptoms well for the first 2 months. He started developing progressive neck pain and myelopathy after 3 months and investigations revealed spondylodiscitis at C3 and C4 with erosion, collapse, and kyphosis, without any evidence of implant failure or graft rejection at the operated level. He underwent reexploration and implant removal at the operated level (there was good fusion from C5 to C7) followed by debridement/decompression at C3, C4 along with iliac crest bone grafting and stabilization with plate and screws after maximum correction of kyphosis. The biopsy specimen grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa and appropriate sensitive antibiotics (gentamycin and ciprofloxacin) were given for 6 weeks. He was under regular followup for 5 years his myelopathy resolved completely and he is back to work. Complete decompression of the cord and fusion from C2 to C7 was demonstrable on postoperative imaging studies without any evidence of implant loosening or C1/C2 instability at the last followup. PMID:22719127

  15. The Thermomagnetic Instability in Superconducting Films with Adjacent Metal Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestgården, J. I.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dendritic flux avalanches is a frequently encountered consequence of the thermomagnetic instability in type-II superconducting films. The avalanches, which are potentially harmful for superconductor-based devices, can be suppressed by an adjacent normal metal layer, even when the two layers are not in thermal contact. The suppression of the avalanches in this case is due to so-called magnetic braking, caused by eddy currents generated in the metal layer by propagating magnetic flux. We develop a theory of magnetic braking by analyzing coupled electrodynamics and heat flow in a superconductor-normal metal bilayer. The equations are solved by linearization and by numerical simulation of the avalanche dynamics. We find that in an uncoated superconductor, even a uniform thermomagnetic instability can develop into a dendritic flux avalanche. The mechanism is that a small non-uniformity caused by the electromagnetic non-locality induces a flux-flow hot spot at a random position. The hot spot quickly develops into a finger, which at high speeds penetrates into the superconductor, forming a branching structure. Magnetic braking slows the avalanches, and if the normal metal conductivity is sufficiently high, it can suppress the formation of the dendritic structure. During avalanches, the braking by the normal metal layer prevents the temperature from exceeding the transition temperature of the superconductor. Analytical criteria for the instability threshold are developed using the linear stability analysis. The criteria are found to match quantitatively the instability onsets obtained in simulations.

  16. Macrobenthos of Yenisei Bay and the adjacent Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. V.; Vedenin, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Trawl samples were collected in the northern region of Yenisei Bay and adjacent parts of the Kara Sea shelf. A total of eight stations were taken. We found more than 200 species of benthic organisms. A consecutive replacement of benthic communities is observed when going to the north from the Ob and Yenisei estuaries to the open parts of the sea. We could distinguish four different species complexes in the investigated area: a brackish-water complex where Saduria entomon is dominant; an intermediate complex where S. sibirica, S. sabini and Portlandia aestuariorum are dominant; a transitional complex with P. arctica as a dominant species and with a small amount of Ophiocten sericeum; a marine complex where O. sericeum is dominant. When salinity increased, some brackish-water species were replaced by related euryhaline species. One such example was the replacement of brackish-water Saduria entomon isopods by two euryhaline species: S. sibirica and S. sabini. The consecutive replacement of benthic communities showed a break near Sverdrup Island. In this area the marine complex was replaced by a transitional complex with P. arctica.

  17. [Drug Exposed Infants and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This bulletin issue addresses the theme of drug-exposed infants and the services required by these infants and their families. "Cocaine-Exposed Infants: Myths and Misunderstandings" (Barbara J. Myers and others) comments on the negative accounts of drug-exposed babies presented by mass media and reviews the mix of positive and negative findings…

  18. Electrical Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Described are two activities designed to help children investigate electrical charges, electric meters, and electromagnets. Included are background information, a list of materials, procedures, and follow-up questions. Sources of additional information are cited. (CW)

  19. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... electrical shock shall be such as to produce immediate insensibility to pain in the exposed animal. (4) The... designed to properly accommodate the species of animals being anesthetized. Animals shall be free from...

  20. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... electrical shock shall be such as to produce immediate insensibility to pain in the exposed animal. (4) The... designed to properly accommodate the species of animals being anesthetized. Animals shall be free from...

  1. Coaxial Electric Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Coaxial electric heaters have been conceived for use in highly sensitive instruments in which there are requirements for compact heaters but stray magnetic fields associated with heater electric currents would adversely affect operation. Such instruments include atomic clocks and magnetometers that utilize heated atomic-sample cells, wherein stray magnetic fields at picotesla levels could introduce systematic errors into instrument readings. A coaxial electric heater is essentially an axisymmetric coaxial cable, the outer conductor of which is deliberately made highly electrically resistive so that it can serve as a heating element. As in the cases of other axisymmetric coaxial cables, the equal magnitude electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the inner and outer conductors give rise to zero net magnetic field outside the outer conductor. Hence, a coaxial electric heater can be placed near an atomic-sample cell or other sensitive device. A coaxial electric heater can be fabricated from an insulated copper wire, the copper core of which serves as the inner conductor. For example, in one approach, the insulated wire is dipped in a colloidal graphite emulsion, then the emulsion-coated wire is dried to form a thin, uniform, highly electrically resistive film that serves as the outer conductor. Then the film is coated with a protective layer of high-temperature epoxy except at the end to be electrically connected to the power supply. Next, the insulation is stripped from the wire at that end. Finally, electrical leads from the heater power supply are attached to the exposed portions of the wire and the resistive film. The resistance of the graphite film can be tailored via its thickness. Alternatively, the film can be made from an electrically conductive paint, other than a colloidal graphite emulsion, chosen to impart the desired resistance. Yet another alternative is to tailor the resistance of a graphite film by exploiting the fact that its resistance

  2. Use of Double Layer of Acellular Dermal Matrix and Modified Tunnel Technique to Treat Multiple Adjacent Gingival Recession Defects.

    PubMed

    Mahn, Douglas H

    2016-09-01

    The goal of connective tissue grafting is to cover exposed root surfaces with gingival tissues that are stable and have a natural appearance. The use of an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has been shown to be a successful alternative to the palatal connective tissue graft. Use of a double layer of an ADM has been shown to have stable results for 1 year. Tunnel grafting techniques can yield root coverage with a natural appearing soft-tissue architecture. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the use of a modified tunnel technique and a double layer of ADM in the treatment of multiple adjacent gingival recession defects. Treated teeth were found to have root coverage and natural soft-tissue contours that were stable at 20 months. PMID:27606567

  3. Electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    Worsnop, R.L.

    1993-07-09

    This article is devoted entirely to the subject of electric cars. Some of the topics covered are alternate fuels in relation to development of electric cars, the impact of zero-emission laws, the range and performance of electric cars, historical aspects, legislative incentives, and battery technology.

  4. Increased medication use in a community environmentally exposed to chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Gysens, Sabine; Hartney, Christopher; Ngo, Long; Rauch, Stephen S; Midtling, John

    2002-10-01

    An epidemiological health study compared the health status of residents of a town exposed to an accidental Catacarb chemical release from an adjacent oil refinery, with the health status of demographically similar residents of an unexposed town in the region. Few studies of Catacarb's effects on humans exist; however, animal studies have shown it to be a respiratory, gastro-intestinal, dermatological and visual irritant. As part of the study, health questionnaires assessing pre- and post exposure symptoms, illnesses and medication use were mailed to residents in both towns. Medication use is sometimes reported to be a more objective and reliable measure of health outcomes. The current paper compared medication use of exposed and unexposed residents. Significant increases after exposure were found in the use of the following medications: antacid, asthma medication, cough and cold medication, eye medication, headache medication and sleep medication. These increases were consistent with reported symptoms, albeit of greater magnitude; no increase in medication use for other illnesses was reported. Medication use in this sample was consistent with patients' report of symptoms and may be a better measure of outcome. PMID:12502236

  5. Effects of holmium:YAG laser on equine articular cartilage and subchondral bone adjacent to traumatic lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Michael A.; Haugland, L. Mark; Bellamy, Janine; Johnson, Lanny L.; Rohrer, Michael D.; Walls, Robert C.; Bartels, Kenneth E.

    1994-09-01

    The effects of Ho:YAG laser energy on articular cartilage and subchondral bone adjacent to traumatically created cartilage lesions in a continuous weight-bearing model were investigated. The 2.1 micrometers wavelength was delivered in hand-controlled contact and near-contact hard tissue arthroscopic surgery in a saline medium. Bilateral arthroscopy was performed on normal antebrachiocarpal and intercarpal joints of four adult horses. One-hundred twenty traumatic lesions were created on three weight-bearing articular surfaces with a knife, curette, or a motorized burr. Depths of the lesions were partial and full thickness. Configurations of the lesions were lacerations, scrapes, and craters. Left limbs were used as controls. Right limb lesions were treated with various intensities of laser energy. Animals were sacrificed at intervals of 1, 3, and 8 weeks. Gross microscopic anatomy was documented, and tissue sections were subjected to blind review by a pathologist. Mankin grading for cellularity and proteoglycan content was used to qualitatively evaluate cartilage response. Cartilage adjacent to all lesions exposed to laser energy had better cellularity and proteoglycan content than corresponding controls by Mankin grading.

  6. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ∼150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (∼1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  7. Seismotectonics of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Aggarwal, Y.P.

    1981-06-10

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2< or =m/sub b/< or =5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970--1979) with historical earthquakes (1534--1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada.

  8. Adjacent level disease following lumbar spine surgery: A review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Instrumented lumbar spine surgery is associated with an increased risk of adjacent segment disease (ASD). Multiple studies have explored the various risk factors contributing to ASD that include; fusion length (especially, three or more levels), sagittal malalignment, facet injury, advanced age, and prior cephalad degenerative disease. Methods: In this selective review of ASD, following predominantly instrumented fusions for lumbar degenerative disease, patients typically underwent open versus minimally invasive surgery (MIS), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusions (TLIFs), posterior lumbar interbody fusions (PLIFs), or rarely posterolateral lumbar instrumented or noninstrumented fusions (posterolateral lumbar fusion). Results: The incidence of ASD, following open or MI lumbar instrumented fusions, ranged up to 30%; notably, the addition of instrumentation in different series did not correlate with improved outcomes. Alternatively, in one series, at 164 postoperative months, noninstrumented lumbar fusions reduced the incidence of ASD to 5.6% versus 18.5% for ASD performed with instrumentation. Of interest, dynamic instrumented/stabilization techniques did not protect patients from ASD. Furthermore, in a series of 513 MIS TLIF, there was a 15.6% incidence of perioperative complications that included; a 5.1% frequency of durotomy and a 2.3% instrumentation failure rate. Conclusions: The incidence of postoperative ASD (up to 30%) is greater following either open or MIS instrumented lumbar fusions (e.g., TLIF/PLIF), while decompressions with noninstrumented fusions led to a much smaller 5.6% risk of ASD. Other findings included: MIS instrumented fusions contributed to higher perioperative complication rates, and dynamic stabilization did not protect against ASD. PMID:26693387

  9. Method of fabricating high-density hermetic electrical feedthroughs using insulated wire bundles

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Kedar G.; Benett, William J.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.

    2016-05-10

    A method of fabricating electrical feedthroughs coats of a plurality of electrically conductive wires with an electrically insulating material and bundles the coated wires together in a substantially parallel arrangement. The bundled coated wires are secured to each other by joining the electrically insulating material of adjacent wires together to form a monolithic block which is then cut transverse to the wires to produce a block section having opposing first and second sides with a plurality of electrically conductive feedthroughs extending between them.

  10. Layers Exposed at Polar Canyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This false-color subframe of an image from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the north polar layered deposits at top and darker materials at bottom, exposed in a scarp at the head of Chasma Boreale, a large canyon eroded into the layered deposits.

    The polar layered deposits appear red because of dust mixed within them, but are ice-rich as indicated by previous observations. Water ice in the layered deposits is probably responsible for the pattern of fractures seen near the top of the scarp. The darker material below the layered deposits may have been deposited as sand dunes, as indicated by the crossbedding (truncation of curved lines) seen near the middle of the scarp. It appears that brighter, ice-rich layers were deposited between the dark dunes in places. Exposures such as these are useful in understanding recent climate variations that are likely recorded in the polar layered deposits.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  11. Heat loss in exposed volunteers.

    PubMed

    English, M J; Farmer, C; Scott, W A

    1990-04-01

    Hypothermia is a common complication of major surgery and trauma. We studied this problem using Heat Flux Transducers to directly measure heat exchange between seven exposed volunteers and the environment. Heat exchange by radiation and convection was measured from the anterior chest wall and by conduction, between the back and a thermal mattress (CSZ, Blanketrol II). We determined the coefficients for: radiation = 6.6; convection = 8.3 square root of v; combined radiation and convection = 9.7; conductance = 41, all expressed in W/m2.degrees C. The clinical significance of these results is that heat loss, by radiation and convection alone, is 10 W/m2.degrees C. However, heat production under anaesthesia is only 40 W/m2, so a temperature gradient of greater than 4 degrees C between the skin and environment will cause more heat to be lost than is produced. The thermal mattress can supply 41 W/m2.degrees C, effectively doubling heat production.

  12. Electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

  13. Chemical Detection using Electrically Open Circuits having no Electrical Connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Olgesby, Donald M.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents investigations to date on chemical detection using a recently developed method for designing, powering and interrogating sensors as electrically open circuits having no electrical connections. In lieu of having each sensor from a closed circuit with multiple electrically connected components, an electrically conductive geometric pattern that is powered using oscillating magnetic fields and capable of storing an electric field and a magnetic field without the need of a closed circuit or electrical connections is used. When electrically active, the patterns respond with their own magnetic field whose frequency, amplitude and bandwidth can be correlated with the magnitude of the physical quantities being measured. Preliminary experimental results of using two different detection approaches will be presented. In one method, a thin film of a reactant is deposited on the surface of the open-circuit sensor. Exposure to a specific targeted reactant shifts the resonant frequency of the sensor. In the second method, a coating of conductive material is placed on a thin non-conductive plastic sheet that is placed over the surface of the sensor. There is no physical contact between the sensor and the electrically conductive material. When the conductive material is exposed to a targeted reactant, a chemical reaction occurs that renders the material non-conductive. The change in the material s electrical resistance within the magnetic field of the sensor alters the sensor s response bandwidth and amplitude, allowing detection of the reaction without having the reactants in physical contact with the sensor.

  14. Aging of the ear, exposed and not exposed to noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, Gerald; Müller, Reinhard; Heppelmann, Guido; Bache, Thomas; Gao, Xia; Wang, Feng; Huang, Weiguo

    2002-05-01

    Hearing in two special groups was compared, using pure-tone audiometry up to 16 kHz. One group consisted of commercial airline pilots in Germany, the other of people living in remote parts of the People's Republic of China, without electricity, cars or, other technical equipment. The age of the 502 pilots (99% male) ranged from 22 to 65 years, while that of the 644 Chinese (61% male) ranged from 6 to 82 years. In both groups participants with diseases of the ear and with acute acoustic trauma were excluded. Analysis showed that the threshold of hearing in young adults is identical in Germany and in China. It is evident that the effect of aging is reduced in pilots, as compared to people living without technical or industrial noise. Older pilots clearly hear better than people not subjected to technical noise, most prominently at higher frequencies. Together with other observations, it can be concluded that continuous wideband noise reduces the aging of the ear. Long-term exposure to such noise-within limits-appears to be good for the ear.

  15. Results of en bloc resection for hepatocellular carcinoma extending to adjacent organs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan-Ming; Sui, Cheng-Jun; Li, Bin; Xu, Feng; Kan, Tong; Yang, Jia-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Background To curatively resect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with adjacent organ extension, the combined resection of these organs is inevitable. We analyzed the safety and effectiveness of en bloc resection for HCC extending to adjacent organs. Methods From December 2002 to May 2006, we compared the surgical outcomes of patients with HCC extending to adjacent organs with those of closely matched, randomly selected patients with HCC without adjacent organ extension. Results We included 42 patients whose HCC extended to adjacent organs and 126 patients whose HCC did not extend to adjacent organs. There was no significant difference in survival, operative morbidity or mortality between the groups. In patients with HCC extending to adjacent organs, histopathological examination of the specimen revealed true tumour invasion in 13 and adhesion in 29 patients. Those with tumour invasion were more likely to have a high incidence of capsule infiltration, microvascular invasion and early intrahepatic recurrence (≤ 1 yr after hepatectomy). The 5-year overall survival of patients with tumour invasion was 11.5%, whereas that of patients with tumour adhesion was 38.1% (p = 0.033). Conclusion En bloc resection is a safe and effective therapy for HCC extending to adjacent organs. Tumour invasion to adjacent organs exhibits a more aggressive clinical behaviour and is associated with worse survival than tumour adhesion. PMID:22617536

  16. Rain forest promotes trophic interactions and diversity of trap-nesting Hymenoptera in adjacent agroforestry.

    PubMed

    Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2006-03-01

    1. Human alteration of natural ecosystems to agroecosystems continues to accelerate in tropical countries. The resulting world-wide decline of rain forest causes a mosaic landscape, comprising simple and complex agroecosystems and patchily distributed rain forest fragments of different quality. Landscape context and agricultural management can be expected to affect both species diversity and ecosystem services by trophic interactions. 2. In Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, 24 agroforestry systems, differing in the distance to the nearest natural forest (0-1415 m), light intensity (37.5-899.6 W/m(-2)) and number of vascular plant species (7-40 species) were studied. Ten standardized trap nests for bees and wasps, made from reed and knotweed internodes, were exposed in each study site. Occupied nests were collected every month, over a period totalling 15 months. 3. A total of 13,617 brood cells were reared to produce adults of 14 trap-nesting species and 25 natural enemy species, which were mostly parasitoids. The total number of species was affected negatively by increasing distance from forest and increased with light intensity of agroforestry systems. The parasitoids in particular appeared to benefit from nearby forests. Over a 500-m distance, the number of parasitoid species decreased from eight to five, and parasitism rates from 12% to 4%. 4. The results show that diversity and parasitism, as a higher trophic interaction and ecosystem service, are enhanced by (i) improved connectivity of agroecosystems with natural habitats such as agroforestry adjacent to rain forest and (ii) management practices to increase light availability in agroforestry, which also enhances richness of flowering plants in the understorey.

  17. Seismic reflection characteristics of glacial and glacimarine sediment in the Gulf of Alaska and adjacent fjords

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    Glaciation together with tectonism have been dominant factors affecting sedimentation in the Gulf of Alaska area from at least the late Miocene throughout the Quaternary. The effects of tectonism are apparent in high mountains that border the gulf, raised terraces of Middleton Island and the eastern gulf coastal zone, and numerous active faults and related earthquakes. Glacial evidence includes magnificent glaciers and their onshore deposits, spectacular fjords, large sea valleys incised in the continental shelf, submarine morainal ridges at mouths of bays and sea valleys, and thick glacimarine sedimentary sequences (diamicts) that are exposed onshore and at the sea floor along the outer shelf. Seismic-reflection profiling and sampling of the uppermost marine sedimentary sequences in the Gulf of Alaska and adjacent fjords and bays have allowed identification of three discrete glacially related stratigraphic units. These units were delineated on the basis of seismic signature, geometry, physiographic location, stratigraphic position, and sedimentologic characteristics. The oldest unit, a Quaternary diamict, is portrayed on seismic profiles by irregular, discontinuous reflections. This unit probably includes till, outwash and glacimarine sediment. A geographically restricted unit, one incorporating Holocene end moraines at bay mouths and associated with some sea valleys, consists of jumbled masses of discontinuous reflections and very irregular surface morphology. The youngest unit, a blanket of Holocene sand to clayey silt prograding as a sediment wedge across the shelf, contains nearly horizontal, parallel reflections except where disrupted by mass movement. Although seismic-reflection data alone cannot provide definitive proof of the presence of glacial sediment, when combined with sea-floor sampling, seismic profiling is a powerful tool for determining the continuity of marine sedimentary units and relationships to past and modern glaciers. ?? 1989.

  18. Seismotectonics of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jih-Ping; Aggarwal, Yash Pal

    1981-06-01

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2 ≤ mb ≤ 5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970-1979) with historical earthquakes (1534-1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada. Highangle reverse or thrust faulting on N to NE trending planes

  19. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, R. Louise; Sobell, Mark; Velasquez, Mary M.; Ingersoll, Karen; Nettleman, Mary; Sobell, Linda; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Ceperich, Sherry; von Sternberg, Kirk; Bolton, Burt; Skarpness, Bradley; Nagaraja, Jyothi

    2010-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure is a leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. Design A randomized controlled trial (2002–2005; data analyzed 2005–2006) of a brief motivational intervention to reduce the risk of an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) in preconceptional women by focusing on both risk drinking and ineffective contraception use. Setting/Participants A total of 830 nonpregnant women, aged 18–44 years, and currently at risk for an AEP were recruited in six diverse settings in Florida, Texas, and Virginia. Combined settings had higher proportions of women at risk for AEP (12.5% overall) than in the general population (2%). Interventions Participants were randomized to receive information plus a brief motivational intervention (n=416) or to receive information only (n=414). The brief motivational intervention consisted of four counseling sessions and one contraception consultation and services visit. Main Outcome Measures Women consuming more than five drinks on any day or more than eight drinks per week on average, were considered risk drinkers; women who had intercourse without effective contraception were considered at risk of pregnancy. Reversing either or both risk conditions resulted in reduced risk of an AEP. Results Across the follow-up period, the odds ratios (ORs) of being at reduced risk for AEP were twofold greater in the intervention group: 3 months, 2.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.69–3.20); 6 months, 2.15 (CI=1.52–3.06); 9 months, 2.11 (CI=1.47–3.03). Between-groups differences by time phase were 18.0%, 17.0%, and 14. 8%, respectively. Conclusions A brief motivational intervention can reduce the risk of an AEP. PMID:17218187

  20. Ground-water resources of southern Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater resources in southern Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas were studied to determine their potential for development as an alternative to the Mississippi River as a water-supply source for Jefferson Parish. Eight major aquifers consisting of thick sand units that underlie the study area are, in descending order: (1) shallow, (2) upper Ponchatoula, (3) lower Ponchatoula, (4) Abita, (5) Covington, (6) Tchefuncta, (7) Hammond, and (8) Amite. A fault zone, referred to as the Baton Rouge fault, crosses southern Tangipahoa Parish. Analyses of geophysical logs indicated that the deep aquifers south of the fault zone had been displaced from 350 to 400 feet, and that the deeper aquifers were not in hydraulic connection with the flow system north of the fault. The groundwater resources of southeastern Louisiana are immense and the quality of groundwater in Tangipahoa Parish is suitable for most uses. The quality of water in these aquifers generally meets the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's standards for public supply. The hydrologic system underlying Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas in 1990 supplied about 19 Mgal/d of water that was suitable for public supply. However, substantial increases in pumping from the aquifer system would result in renewed water-level declines throughout the hydrologic system until a new equilibrium is established. A test we11 in southern Tangipahoa Parish, penetrated all eight aquifers. Total thickness of freshwater sand beds penetrated by the 3003-ft test hole was more than 1900 ft. Resistivity values from an electric log of the test typically averaged 200 ohm-meters, which indicates that the water has low dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations. An analysis of the Abita aquifer at Ruddock in St. John the Baptist Parish, for two of three hypothetical well fields, indicated that for a hypothetical we11 field with a pumping rate of 112 Mgal/d, the freshwater/saltwater interface could arrive at the outer perimeter we11 in

  1. Melatonin and puberty in female lambs exposed to EMF: A replicate study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.M. Jr.; Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J.M.; Hess, D.L.; Foster, D.L.

    1995-06-01

    In an earlier study, the authors found no effects of 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields (EMF) from a 500 kV transmission line on serum melatonin patterns or on puberty in ten female Suffolk lambs (Ovis aries). The authors conducted a larger replicate study of 15 lambs exposed to a mean electric field of 6.3 kV/m and a mean magnetic field of 3.77 {mu}T and 15 controls exposed to EMF two orders of magnitude weaker than in the line area. The replicate produced essentially the same results as their previous study.

  2. Improved Electrical Contact For Dowhhole Drilling Networks

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

    2005-08-16

    An electrical contact system for transmitting information across tool joints while minimizing signal reflections that occur at the tool joints includes a first electrical contact comprising an annular resilient material. An annular conductor is embedded within the annular resilient material and has a surface exposed from the annular resilient material. A second electrical contact is provided that is substantially equal to the first electrical contact. Likewise, the second electrical contact has an annular resilient material and an annular conductor. The two electrical contacts configured to contact one another such that the annular conductors of each come into physical contact. The annular resilient materials of each electrical contact each have dielectric characteristics and dimensions that are adjusted to provide desired impedance to the electrical contacts.

  3. Electric propulsion device for high power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Subrata (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electric propulsion device is disclosed having an anode and a cathode. The propulsion device includes a discharge annulus having the anode adjacent an end region thereof. At least one inlet aperture is adjacent the anode, the aperture(s) having propellant gas flow therethrough into the discharge annulus. The propellant gas has an ionization potential. Opposed, dielectric walls define the annulus, with at least one of the opposed dielectric walls having pores therein, the pores having cooling gas flow therethrough into the discharge annulus and substantially adjacent the opposed dielectric wall(s). The cooling gas has an ionization potential higher than the ionization energy of the propellant gas. The cooling gas is adapted to substantially prevent at least one of secondary electron emission and sputtering of the dielectric walls.

  4. Electrical stator

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1994-01-01

    An electrical stator of an electromagnetic pump includes first and second spaced apart coils each having input and output terminals for carrying electrical current. An elongate electrical connector extends between the first and second coils and has first and second opposite ends. The connector ends include respective slots receiving therein respective ones of the coil terminals to define respective first and second joints. Each of the joints includes a braze filler fixedly joining the connector ends to the respective coil terminals for carrying electrical current therethrough.

  5. Electric/magnetic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    Schill, Jr., Robert A.; Popek, Marc [Las Vegas, NV

    2009-01-27

    A UNLV novel electric/magnetic dot sensor includes a loop of conductor having two ends to the loop, a first end and a second end; the first end of the conductor seamlessly secured to a first conductor within a first sheath; the second end of the conductor seamlessly secured to a second conductor within a second sheath; and the first sheath and the second sheath positioned adjacent each other. The UNLV novel sensor can be made by removing outer layers in a segment of coaxial cable, leaving a continuous link of essentially uncovered conductor between two coaxial cable legs.

  6. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    SciTech Connect

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-05-15

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  7. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  8. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  9. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  10. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  11. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  12. 30 CFR 282.6 - Disclosure of data and information to an adjacent State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disclosure of data and information to an adjacent State. 282.6 Section 282.6 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR General § 282.6 Disclosure of data and information to an adjacent State....

  13. Large subarticular cysts (geodes) adjacent to the knee-joint in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Carter, A R; Liyanage, S P

    1975-10-01

    Two patients with rheumatoid arthritis are described, who developed very large bone cysts or geodes adjacent to the knee-joint. The existence of cysts adjacent to joints involved by rheumatoid arthritis is well recognised, but the occurrence of very large cysts is unusual and may present diagnostic difficulties. Possible aetiological factors are discussed.

  14. Learning at a Distance: I. Statistical Learning of Non-Adjacent Dependencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newport, Elissa L.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2004-01-01

    In earlier work we have shown that adults, young children, and infants are capable of computing transitional probabilities among adjacent syllables in rapidly presented streams of speech, and of using these statistics to group adjacent syllables into word-like units. In the present experiments we ask whether adult learners are also capable of such…

  15. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  17. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  18. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  19. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  20. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  1. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  2. Apparatus For Laminating Segmented Core For Electric Machine

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Robert Anthony; Stabel, Gerald R

    2003-06-17

    A segmented core for an electric machine includes segments stamped from coated electric steel. The segments each have a first end, a second end, and winding openings. A predetermined number of segments are placed end-to-end to form layers. The layers are stacked such that each of the layers is staggered from adjacent layers by a predetermined rotation angle. The winding openings of each of the layers are in vertical alignment with the winding openings of the adjacent layers. The stack of layers is secured to form the segmented core.

  3. Electric machine

    SciTech Connect

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  4. Electric avenues

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, P.; Chang, A.

    1994-12-31

    Highly efficient electric drive technology developed originally for defense applications is being applied to the development of all electric shuttle buses for the San Jose International Airport. An innovative opportunity charging system using induction chargers will be incorporated to extend operation hours. The project, if successful, is expected to reduce pollution at the airport and generate jobs for displaced defense workers.

  5. Geologic framework of the offshore region adjacent to Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, R.N.; Roberts, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Several multichannel, common depth point (CDP) seismic reflection profiles concentrated in the area of the entrance to Delaware Bay provide a tie between the known onshore geology of the Coastal Plain of Delaware and the offshore geology of the Baltimore Canyon Trough. The data provide a basis for understanding the geologic framework and petroleum resource potential of the area immediately offshore Delaware. Our research has focused on buried early Mesozoic rift basins and their geologic history. Assuming that the buried basins are analogous to the exposed Newark Supergroup basins of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic age, the most likely possibility for occurrence of hydrocarbon source beds in the area of the landward margin of the Baltimore Canyon Trough is presumed to be lacustrine, organic-rich shales probably present in the basins. Although buried basins mapped offshore Delaware are within reach of drilling, no holes have been drilled to date; therefore, direct knowledge of source, reservoir, and sealing beds is absent. Buried rift basins offshore Delaware show axial trends ranging from NW-SE to NNE-SSW. Seismic reflection profiles are too widely spaced to delineate basin boundaries accurately. Isopleths of two-way travel time representing basin fill suggest that, structurally, the basins are grabens and half-grabens. As shown on seismic reflection profiles, bounding faults of the basins intersect or merge with low-angle fault surfaces that cut the pre-Mesozoic basement. The rift basins appear to have formed by Mesozoic extension that resulted in reverse motion on reactivated basement thrust faults that originated from compressional tectonics during the Paleozoic. Computer-plotted structure contour maps derived from analysis of seismic reflection profiles provide information on the burial history of the rift basins. The postrift unconformity bevels the rift basins and, in the offshore area mapped, ranges from 2000 to 12,000 m below present sea level. The oldest

  6. Silent Victims: Children Exposed to Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Kathryn R.; Davey, Debrynda

    2007-01-01

    Annually an estimated 3 million or more children are exposed to acts of domestic violence between adults in their homes. These children are at risk for abuse themselves as well as other immediate and long-term problems, especially if they have been exposed to repeated episodes of domestic violence. Multiple behavioral manifestations, including…

  7. [Distribution of picophytoplanktons in Qingdao offshore and its adjacent waters in winter].

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Liang, Yan-tao; Bai, Xiao-ge; Jiang, Xue-jiao; Wang, Fang; Qiao, Qian

    2008-11-01

    Picophytoplankton (0.2-2.0 microm in size) is the smallest group of autotrophic plankton, being abundant and widespread in the world ocean and playing an important role in the organic matter cycling in ocean. By the method of epifluorescence microscopy (EFM), the abundance and its spatial and diurnal variations of the picophytoplanktons in Qingdao offshore and its adjacent waters in winter were investigated. The results showed that in the study area in winter, phycoerythrin-rich (PE) Synechococcus cells were dominant, followed by Picoeukaryote (Euk) cells, while the abundance of phycocyanin-rich (PC) Synechococcus cells was low and no Prochlorococcus (Pro) cells were observed. The abundance of Synechococcus (Syn) and Euk varied from 8.97 x 10(3) to 1.95 x 10(5) cells x ml(-1) (averaged 4.67 x 10(4) cells x ml(-1) and from 1.95 x 10(2) to 1.01 x 10(4) cells x m(l-1)(averaged 2.39 x 10(3) cells x ml(1) respectively. There was a high-value of Syn abundance in Jiaonan offshore and a low-value in Jimo and southeast Laoshan off-shores, while a high-value of Euk abundance in Rizhao offshore and a low-value in Laoshan offshore. No significant difference was observed in the vertical distribution of Syn and Euk abundance among four water layers (P>0.05) at a continuous station located in the center of Jiaozhou Bay, the abundance had an obvious diurnal fluctuation. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that Syn was positively correlated with water temperature and electrical conductivity (P<0.01) but negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen concentration (P<0.01) and Euk was negatively correlated with water salinity and dissolved oxygen concentration. In the study area in winter, picophytoplankton contributed about 20% to the total phytoplanktonic biomass. PMID:19238842

  8. Stem and leaf hydraulics of congeneric tree species from adjacent tropical savanna and forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guang-You; Hoffmann, William A; Scholz, Fabian G; Bucci, Sandra J; Meinzer, Frederick C; Franco, Augusto C; Cao, Kun-Fang; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2008-03-01

    Leaf and stem functional traits related to plant water relations were studied for six congeneric species pairs, each composed of one tree species typical of savanna habitats and another typical of adjacent forest habitats, to determine whether there were intrinsic differences in plant hydraulics between these two functional types. Only individuals growing in savanna habitats were studied. Most stem traits, including wood density, the xylem water potential at 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity, sapwood area specific conductivity, and leaf area specific conductivity did not differ significantly between savanna and forest species. However, maximum leaf hydraulic conductance (K (leaf)) and leaf capacitance tended to be higher in savanna species. Predawn leaf water potential and leaf mass per area were also higher in savanna species in all congeneric pairs. Hydraulic vulnerability curves of stems and leaves indicated that leaves were more vulnerable to drought-induced cavitation than terminal branches regardless of genus. The midday K (leaf) values estimated from leaf vulnerability curves were very low implying that daily embolism repair may occur in leaves. An electric circuit analog model predicted that, compared to forest species, savanna species took longer for their leaf water potentials to drop from predawn values to values corresponding to 50% loss of K (leaf) or to the turgor loss points, suggesting that savanna species were more buffered from changes in leaf water potential. The results of this study suggest that the relative success of savanna over forest species in savanna is related in part to their ability to cope with drought, which is determined more by leaf than by stem hydraulic traits. Variation among genera accounted for a large proportion of the total variance in most traits, which indicates that, despite different selective pressures in savanna and forest habitats, phylogeny has a stronger effect than habitat in determining most hydraulic traits

  9. Determining resistivity of a formation adjacent to a borehole having casing with an apparatus having all current conducting electrodes within the cased well

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William Banning

    2001-01-01

    Methods of operation of different types of multiple electrode apparatus vertically disposed in a cased well to measure information useful to determine the resistivity of adjacent geological formations from within the cased well are described. The multiple electrode apparatus has a plurality of spaced apart voltage measurement electrodes that electrically engage a portion of the interior of the cased well. During measurements of information useful to determine formation resistivity, current is conducted between a first current conducting electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the cased well to a second current conducting electrode that is also in electrical contact with the interior of the cased well. The first and second current conducting electrodes are separated by a distance sufficient so that at least a portion of the current conducted between the first and second current conducting electrodes is conducted through the geological formation of interest.

  10. Changes in the Expressions of Iba1 and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide in Adjacent Lumbar Spinal Segments after Lumbar Disc Herniation in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is commonly encountered in clinical practice and can induce sciatica due to mechanical and/or chemical irritation and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. However, symptoms are not confined to the affected spinal cord segment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether multisegmental molecular changes exist between adjacent lumbar spinal segments using a rat model of lumbar disc herniation. Twenty-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a sham-operated group (n=10) or a nucleus pulposus (NP)-exposed group (n=19). Rats in the NP-exposed group were further subdivided into a significant pain subgroup (n=12) and a no significant pain subgroup (n=7) using mechanical pain thresholds determined von Frey filaments. Immunohistochemical stainings of microglia (ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1; Iba1), astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein; GFAP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) was performed in spinal dorsal horns and dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) at 10 days after surgery. It was found immunoreactivity for Iba1-positive microglia was higher in the L5 (P=0.004) dorsal horn and in the ipsilateral L4 (P=0.009), L6 (P=0.002), and S1 (P=0.002) dorsal horns in the NP-exposed group than in the sham-operated group. The expression of CGRP was also significantly higher in ipsilateral L3, L4, L6, and S1 segments and in L5 DRGs at 10 days after surgery in the NP-exposed group than in the sham-operated group (P<0.001). Our results indicate that lumbar disc herniation upregulates microglial activity and CGRP expression in many adjacent and ipsilateral lumbar spinal segments. PMID:26713069

  11. 3 EXPOSE Missions - overview and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, E.; Willnekcer, R.; Reitz, G.; Aman, A.; Bman, B.; Cman, C.

    2011-10-01

    The International Space Station ISS provides a variety of external research platforms for experiments aiming at the utilization of space parameters like vacuum, temperature oscillation and in particular extraterrestrial short wavelength UV and ionizing radiation which cannot be simulated accurately in the laboratory. Three Missions, two past and one upcoming, will be presented. A family of astrobiological experimental ESA facilities called "EXPOSE" were and will be accommodated on these outside exposure platforms: on one of the external balconies of the European Columbus Module (EXPOSE-E) and on the URM-D platform on the Russian Zvezda Module (EXPOSE-R and EXPOSE-R2). Exobiological and radiation experiments, exposing chemical, biological and dosimetric samples to the harsh space environment are - and will be - accommodated on these facilities to increase our knowledge on the origin, evolution and distribution of life, on Earth and possibly beyond. The biological experiments investigate resistance and adaptation of organisms like bacteria, Achaea, fungi, lichens, plant seeds and small animals like mosquito larvae to extreme environmental conditions and underlying mechanisms like DNA repair. The organic chemical experiments analyse chemical reactions triggered by the extraterrestrial environment, especially short wavelength UV radiation, to better understand prebiotic chemistry. The facility is optimized to allow exposure of biological specimen and material samples under a variety of conditions, using optical filter systems. Environmental parameters like temperature and radiation are regularly recorded and down linked by telemetry. Two long term missions named according to their facility - EXPOSE-E and EXPOSE-R - are completed and a third mission is planned and currently prepared. Operations of all three missions including sample accommodation are performed by DLR. An overview of the two completed missions will be given including lessons learned as well as an outlook

  12. Study of electronic transport in gamma ray exposed nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlawat, Devender Chauhan, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A sharp decline in the I–V characteristics of Cu (and Cd) nanowires was experimentally observed after the gamma ray exposure of nanowires. Irradiation induced transformations in the granular properties and the resonance state of electron–phonon coupling beyond a particular value of external field may be accountable for observed shape of I–V characteristics in gamma ray exposed nanowires. - Highlights: • Cu and Cd nanowires were synthesized by technique of electrodeposition in templates. • The nanowires were exposed to different doses of gamma ray photons. • A sharp decline in the current in I–V characteristics (IVC) was observed. • Structural deviation in terms of granular orientations was also analysed. • The electron–phonon coupling may be responsible for observed sharp decline in IVC. - Abstract: One dimensional nanostructures provide the most restricted and narrow channel for the transport of charge carriers and therefore 1D structures preserve their significance from the viewpoint of electronic devices. The net radiation effect on nanomaterials is expected to be more (due to their increased reactivity and lesser bulk volume) than their bulk counterparts. Radiation often modifies the structure and simultaneously the other physical properties of materials. In this manner, the irradiation phenomenon could be counted as a strong criterion to induce changes in the structural and electrical properties of nanowires. We have studied the effect of gamma rays on the electronic flow through Cu and Cd nanowires by plotting their I–V characteristics (IVC). The IVC of gamma ray exposed nanowires was found to be a combination of the linear and nonlinear regions and a decreasing pattern in the electrical conductivity (calculated from the linear portion of IVC) was observed as we increased the dose of gamma rays.

  13. Subcellular effects of nanosecond electrical pulses.

    PubMed

    Schoenbach, Karl H; Joshi, Ravindra; Kolb, J; Buescher, Stephen; Beebe, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Electrical models for biological cells predict that reducing the duration of applied electrical pulses to values below the charging time of the outer membrane causes a strong increase in the probability for electric field interactions with intracellular structures. For electric field amplitudes exceeding MV/m such pulses are expected to cause electroporation of cell organelles, with the required electric field amplitude scaling linearly with the inverse of pulse duration. Experimental studies where human cells were exposed to pulsed electric field of up to 300 kV/cm amplitude with duration as short as 10 ns, have confirmed this hypothesis. The observed effects include the breaching of intracellular granule membranes without permanent damage to the cell membrane, abrupt rises in intracellular free calcium levels, and enhanced expression of genes. At increased electric fields, the application of nanosecond pulses induces apoptosis in biological cells, an effect that has been shown to reduce the growth of tumors.

  14. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  15. Electrical resistance tomography from measurements inside a steel cased borehole

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Schenkel, Clifford; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produced from measurements taken inside a steel cased borehole. A tomographic inversion of electrical resistance measurements made within a steel casing was then made for the purpose of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution in the formation remotely from the borehole. The ERT method involves combining electrical resistance measurements made inside a steel casing of a borehole to determine the electrical resistivity in the formation adjacent to the borehole; and the inversion of electrical resistance measurements made from a borehole not cased with an electrically conducting casing to determine the electrical resistivity distribution remotely from a borehole. It has been demonstrated that by using these combined techniques, highly accurate current injection and voltage measurements, made at appropriate points within the casing, can be tomographically inverted to yield useful information outside the borehole casing.

  16. Electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Dilliner, Jennifer L.; Baker, Thomas M.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2006-11-21

    An electrical connector includes a female component having one or more receptacles, a first test receptacle, and a second test receptacle. The electrical connector also includes a male component having one or more terminals configured to engage the one or more receptacles, a first test pin configured to engage the first test receptacle, and a second test pin configured to engage the second test receptacle. The first test receptacle is electrically connected to the second test receptacle, and at least one of the first test pin and the second test pin is shorter in length than the one or more terminals.

  17. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated dioxins, polychlorinated furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and biphenylenes after an electrical panel and transformer accident in an office building in Binghamton, NY.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Tiernan, T

    1985-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and tri- and tetrachlorinated benzene-containing electrical transformer was involved in an explosion and fire in a modern office building in Binghamton, New York, on February 5, 1981. Because of an unusual system of air shafts the entire building and adjacent garage became contaminated with toxic chemicals. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenylenes were formed as pyrolytic by-products. Before the extent of the chemical contamination was appreciated workers were exposed to these chemicals. Four years after the explosion and after the expenditure of over $22 million for cleaning and other expenses, the building remains closed. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:3928358

  18. Crestal bone changes on platform-switched implants and adjacent teeth when the tooth-implant distance is less than 1.5 mm.

    PubMed

    Vela, Xavier; Méndez, Víctor; Rodríguez, Xavier; Segalá, Maribel; Tarnow, Dennis P

    2012-04-01

    Because of the peri-implant bone resorption that occurs when a non-platform switched implant is exposed to the oral environment, it has been recommended to maintain 1.5 mm between the tooth and implant to preserve the bone adjacent to the teeth. Several studies have documented that platform-switched implants have less peri-implant bone resorption than matched implants. This retrospective radiographic analysis studied 70 platform-switched implants placed less than 1.5 mm from an adjacent tooth and with prostheses loaded for a minimum of 6 months. The mean distance between the implant and tooth was 0.99 mm (range, 0.20 to 1.49 mm); the mean horizontal and vertical bone resorption was 0.36 and 0.43 mm, respectively. The mean bone peak reduction was 0.37 mm. The results confirm that the use of platform-switched implants reduces bone resorption after two-piece implants have been uncovered and that it is possible to place this type of implant 1 mm from teeth while maintaining the bone level adjacent to them (the bone peak).

  19. A Practical Surgical Technique to Expose the Mental Nerve in Narrowing Genioplasty.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenglong; Gui, Lai; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-11-01

    In this article, the authors present a practical surgical technique using the anatomical character of the inferior alveolar nerve to fully expose the mental nerve (MN) in narrowing genioplasty. During the procedure, a rectangular mandibular outer cortex adjacent to the mental foramen is removed before the osteotomy. The objective is to avoid the injury of the MN from the reciprocating saw or bur and offer abundant space for the surgical operation. The technique has a minimal learning curve and will be useful to plastic surgeons to minimize unintentional cutting or pulling injury to the MN in narrowing genioplasty. PMID:26893979

  20. Radiologic Changes of Operated and Adjacent Segments after Anterior Cervical Microforaminotomy

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jang Ho; Park, Moon Sun; Kim, Seong Min; Chung, Seung Young; Lee, Do Sung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anterior cervical microforaminotomy (ACMF) is a motion-preserving surgical procedure. The purpose of this study is to assess radiologic changes of operated and adjacent segments after ACMF. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 52 patients who underwent ACMF between 1998 and 2008. From X-ray film-based changes, disc height and sagittal range of motion (ROM) of operated and adjacent segments were compared at preoperative and last follow-up periods. Radiological degeneration of both segments was analyzed as well. Results The mean follow-up period was 48.2 months. There were 78 operated, 52 upper adjacent, and 38 lower adjacent segments. There were statistically significant differences in the ROM and disc height of operated segment between preoperative and last follow-up periods. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the ROM and disc height of adjacent segment between both periods. Radiological degenerative changes of operated segments were observed in 30%. That of adjacent segments was observed in 11 and 11% at upper and lower segments, respectively. Conclusion After mean 4-year follow-up periods, there were degenerative changes of operated segments. However, ACMF preserved motion and prevented degenerative changes of adjacent segments. PMID:27799993

  1. A&M. Outdoor turntable. Workings and design exposed during demolition. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Outdoor turntable. Workings and design exposed during demolition. View between two of the four rails of the track. Note motor and electrical conduit. Date: February 3, 2003. INEEL negative no. HD-37-1-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.508 Lightning... conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are...

  3. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.508 Lightning... conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are...

  4. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.508 Lightning... conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are...

  5. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.508 Lightning... conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are...

  6. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1984-05-22

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

  7. Solar cell with improved electrical contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Cavicchi, B.T.; Dill, H.G.; Zemmrich, D.K.

    1987-10-06

    A solar cell is described comprising: a first layer of semiconductor material of a first conductivity type; a second layer of semiconductor material of a second opposite conductivity type disposed on the first layer forming a semiconductor junction therebetween. The first and second layers having first and second major essentially parallel surfaces, respectively, essentially parallel to the semiconductor junction; a layer of aluminum gallium arsenide semiconductor material of the second conductivity type disposed on the second major surface and having an exposed front major surface essentially parallel to the second major surface and further having grooves extending vertically to the second layer; electrically conductive material filling the grooves and electrically contacting the second layer to form metallic contact lines; a flat conductive bar transversely disposed on the exposed front major surface across the grooves and making electrical contact ot the electrically conductive material in the grooves; an electrically conductive flat strip disposed on the exposed major surface and spaced apart from the conductive bar; and at least one electrically conductive bridge electrically coupling the conductive bar to the contact strip.

  8. Auditory Responses to Vocal Sounds in the Songbird Nucleus Taeniae of the Amygdala and the Adjacent Arcopallium.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomoko G; Ikebuchi, Maki; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Many species of animals communicate with others through vocalizations. Over time, these species have evolved mechanisms to respond to biologically relevant vocal sounds via adaptive behaviors. Songbirds provide a good opportunity to search for the neural basis of this adaptation, because they interact with others through a variety of vocalizations in complex social relationships. The nucleus taeniae of the amygdala (TnA) is a structure located in the ventromedial arcopallium, which is akin to the mammalian medial amygdala. Studies on the anatomy and function of this nucleus have led to the speculation that the TnA is one of the possible neural substrates that represents the relevance of acoustic stimuli related to behavior. However, neural responses in this nucleus to auditory stimuli have not been studied in depth. To give a detailed description about auditory responses of the TnA in the songbird, we conducted neural recordings from the TnA and the adjacent arcopallium in adult male and female Bengalese finches under anesthesia. The birds were exposed to auditory stimuli including natural vocalizations as well as synthesized noise. We demonstrated that a substantial population of neurons in the TnA and the adjacent arcopallium responded to vocal sounds and that some neurons were selectively activated to specific stimuli. Proportions of responsive cells and stimulus-selective cells were larger in males than in females. In addition, a larger ratio of selective cells was observed in the arcopallium compared to the TnA. These findings support the idea that neuronal activity in the TnA and the neighboring area represents behavioral relevance of sounds. Further studies in electrophysiology combined with evidence from other fields, such as region-specific gene expression patterns, are required to fully understand the functions of the TnA as well as the evolution of the amygdala in songbirds and vertebrate animals. PMID:27529803

  9. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Philip B.

    1979-01-01

    Examines Drude's classical (1900) theory of electrical conduction, details the objections to and successes of the 1900 theory, and investigates the Quantum (1928) theory of conduction, reviewing its successes and limitations. (BT)

  10. Electrical injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... wiring Flashing of electric arcs from high-voltage power lines Lightning Machinery or occupational-related exposures Young ... a passenger in a vehicle struck by a power line, remain in it until help arrives unless ...

  11. Electrical Conductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  12. Assessment of low ABSPI among arsenic exposed and non-exposed populations: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Manzurul Haque; Sarkar, Sudipta; Khan, Nasreen; Sarwar, A F M; Ahmad, S Akhtar

    2010-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to assess and compare Ankle Brachial Systolic Pressure Index (ABSPI) amongst 120 arsenic exposed and 120 non-exposed populations of Samta village in Bangladesh. Abnormal ABSPI was more prevalent in arsenic exposed (13.3%) than in non-exposed (2.5%) group. The prevalence of abnormal ABSPI for respondents when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, blood pressure status and diabetic status, the prevalence remain significantly different. The findings suggest that those exposed to arsenic have increased chance of having abnormal ABSP and hence increased chance of peripheral arterial disease in Bangladesh.

  13. Electric generator

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Jr., John S.; Wilson, James R.; McDonald, Jr., Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    1. In an electrical energy generator, the combination comprising a first elongated annular electrical current conductor having at least one bare surface extending longitudinally and facing radially inwards therein, a second elongated annular electrical current conductor disposed coaxially within said first conductor and having an outer bare surface area extending longitudinally and facing said bare surface of said first conductor, the contiguous coaxial areas of said first and second conductors defining an inductive element, means for applying an electrical current to at least one of said conductors for generating a magnetic field encompassing said inductive element, and explosive charge means disposed concentrically with respect to said conductors including at least the area of said inductive element, said explosive charge means including means disposed to initiate an explosive wave front in said explosive advancing longitudinally along said inductive element, said wave front being effective to progressively deform at least one of said conductors to bring said bare surfaces thereof into electrically conductive contact to progressively reduce the inductance of the inductive element defined by said conductors and transferring explosive energy to said magnetic field effective to generate an electrical potential between undeformed portions of said conductors ahead of said explosive wave front.

  14. Conodont and Radiolarian Data from the De Long Mountains Quadrangle and Adjacent Areas, Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.; Blome, Charles D.; Young, Lorne E.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report presents biostratigraphic data from 289 collections at 189 localities in the De Long Mountains, Misheguk Mountain, and Noatak quadrangles (fig. 1); most of these data have never been previously published. The collections were made during studies of the Red Dog massive sulfide deposit in 1998?2004 and in support of regional mapping projects in 1979, 1981, 1983, and 1997?98. The collections?mostly conodonts and some radiolarians?tightly constrain the age of many stratigraphic units of Devonian through Triassic age exposed within the study area, and provide additional data on the depositional environments and thermal history of these rocks. The data are presented in a series of tables, organized by fossil type, stratigraphic unit, and location. Tables 1?12 contain conodont data, mostly from the De Long Mountains quadrangle. All of these collections were initially examined, or were reevaluated, from 1997 through 2004, and complete faunal lists are given for all samples. Table 13 lists ages and conodont color alteration indices (CAIs) of 27 collections from 24 localities in the Noatak quadrangle; updated faunal lists were not prepared for these samples. Radiolarian data?all from the De Long Mountains quadrangle?are given in table 14; these collections were analyzed between 1998 and 2003. Collection localities are shown in four maps (sheets 1, 2). Map 1 (sheet 1) shows all outcrop samples from the De Long Mountains and western Misheguk Mountain quadrangle (locs. 1-121). Maps 2?4 (sheets 1, 2) show all drill hole sample localities; samples come from the Su-Lik deposit and in and around the Anarraaq deposit (map 2, locs. 122?135), in and adjacent to the Red Dog deposits (Paalaaq, Aqqaluk, Main, and Qanaiyaq) (map 3, locs. 136?158), and from drill holes along the Port Road in the Noatak quadrangle (map 4, locs. 159?160). Map 4 (sheet 2) also shows all outcrop samples from the Noatak quadrangle (locs. 161?189). The text summarizes the lithofacies

  15. Electrical Strength of Multilayer Vacuum Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J R; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Caporaso, G J

    2008-07-01

    The electrical strength of vacuum insulators is a key constraint in the design of particle accelerators and pulsed power systems. Vacuum insulating structures assembled from alternating layers of metal and dielectric can result in improved performance compared to conventional insulators, but previous attempts to optimize their design have yielded seemingly inconsistent results. Here, we present two models for the electrical strength of these structures, one assuming failure by vacuum arcing between adjacent metal layers and the other assuming failure by vacuum surface flashover. These models predict scaling laws which are in agreement with the experimental data currently available.

  16. Electrical strength of multilayer vacuum insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. R.; Kendig, M.; Poole, B.; Sanders, D. M.; Caporaso, G. J.

    2008-12-01

    The electrical strength of vacuum insulators is a key constraint in the design of particle accelerators and pulsed power systems. Vacuum insulating structures assembled from alternating layers of metal and dielectric can result in improved performance compared to conventional insulators, but previous attempts to optimize their design have yielded seemingly inconsistent results. Here, we present two models for the electrical strength of these structures, one assuming failure by vacuum arcing between adjacent metal layers and the other assuming failure by vacuum surface flashover. These models predict scaling laws which are in agreement with the experimental data currently available.

  17. Cosmic Radiation Exposure of Biological Test Systems During the EXPOSE-E Mission

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Michael; Bilski, Pawel; Körner, Christine; Vanhavere, Filip; Reitz, Günther

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the frame of the EXPOSE-E mission on the Columbus external payload facility EuTEF on board the International Space Station, passive thermoluminescence dosimeters were applied to measure the radiation exposure of biological samples. The detectors were located either as stacks next to biological specimens to determine the depth dose distribution or beneath the sample carriers to determine the dose levels for maximum shielding. The maximum mission dose measured in the upper layer of the depth dose part of the experiment amounted to 238±10 mGy, which relates to an average dose rate of 408±16 μGy/d. In these stacks of about 8 mm height, the dose decreased by 5–12% with depth. The maximum dose measured beneath the sample carriers was 215±16 mGy, which amounts to an average dose rate of 368±27 μGy/d. These values are close to those assessed for the interior of the Columbus module and demonstrate the high shielding of the biological experiments within the EXPOSE-E facility. Besides the shielding by the EXPOSE-E hardware itself, additional shielding was experienced by the external structures adjacent to EXPOSE-E, such as EuTEF and Columbus. This led to a dose gradient over the entire exposure area, from 215±16 mGy for the lowest to 121±6 mGy for maximum shielding. Hence, the doses perceived by the biological samples inside EXPOSE-E varied by 70% (from lowest to highest dose). As a consequence of the high shielding, the biological samples were predominantly exposed to galactic cosmic heavy ions, while electrons and a significant fraction of protons of the radiation belts and solar wind did not reach the samples. Key Words: Space radiation—Dosimetry—Passive radiation detectors—Thermoluminescence—EXPOSE-E. Astrobiology 12, 387–392. PMID:22680685

  18. Lunar electric fields, surface potential and associated plasma sheaths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, J. W.; Ibrahim, M.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of studies of the electric-field environment of the moon. Surface electric potentials are reported for the dayside and terminator regions, electron and ion densities in the plasma sheath adjacent to each surface-potential regime are evaluated, and the corresponding Debye lengths are estimated. The electric fields, which are approximated by the surface potential over the Debye length, are shown to be at least three orders of magnitude higher than the pervasive solar-wind electric field and to be confined to within a few tens of meters of the lunar surface.

  19. Helping Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... withdrawal Depression or anxiety Loss of interest in school, friends or other things they enjoyed in the past Children and adolescents exposed to domestic violence should be evaluated by a trained mental health ...

  20. Geologic map of Colorado National Monument and adjacent areas, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.; Hood, William C.; Cole, Rex D.; Livaccari, Richard F.; Johnson, James B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Colorado National Monument Quadrangle and adjacent areas, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of and data for the stratigraphy, structure, geologic hazards in the area from the Colorado River in Grand Valley onto the Uncompahgre Plateau. The plateau drops abruptly along northwest-trending structures toward the northeast 800 m to the Redlands area and the Colorado River in Grand Valley. In addition to common alluvial and colluvial deposits, surficial deposits include Holocene and late Pleistocene charcoal-bearing valley-fill deposits, late to middle Pleistocene river-gravel terrace deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene younger, intermediate, and old fan-alluvium deposits, late to middle Pleistocene local gravel deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene rock-fall deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene young and old landslide deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene sheetwash deposits and eolian deposits, and Holocene Cienga-type deposits. Only the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale is exposed in the map area near the Colorado River. The Upper and Lower? Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation form resistant dipslopes in the Grand Valley and a prominent ridge on the plateau. Less resistant strata of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation consisting of the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members form slopes on the plateau and low areas below the mountain front of the plateau. The Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation nomenclature replaces the previously used Summerville Formation. Because an upper part of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Formation is not obviously correlated with strata found elsewhere, it is therefore not formally named; however, the lower rounded cliff former Slickrock Member is clearly present. The Lower Jurassic silica-cemented Kayenta Formation forms the cap rock for the Lower

  1. Crosstalk between adjacent nanopores in a solid-state membrane array for multi-analyte high-throughput biomolecule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Muhammad Usman; Saleem, Sajid; Ali, Waqas; Iqbal, Samir M.

    2016-08-01

    Single nanopores are used to detect a variety of biological molecules. The modulations in ionic current under applied bias across the nanopore contain important information about translocating species, thus providing single analyte detection. These systems are, however, challenged in practical situations where multiple analytes have to be detected at high throughput. This paper presents the analysis of a multi-nanopore system that can be used for the detection of analytes with high throughput. As a scalable model, two nanopores were simulated in a single solid-state membrane. The interactions of the electric fields at the mouths of the individual nanopores were analyzed. The data elucidated the electrostatic properties of the nanopores from a single membrane and provided a framework to calculate the -3 dB distance, akin to the Debye length, from one nanopore to the other. This distance was the minimum distance between the adjacent nanopores such that their individual electric fields did not significantly interact with one another. The results can help in the optimal experimental design to construct solid-state nanopore arrays for any given nanopore size and applied bias.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen at Perdido Bay and Adjacent Coastal Ocean

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC), a numerical estuarine and coastal ocean circulation hydrodynamic model, was used to simulate the distribution of the salinity, temperature, nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Perdido Bay and adjacent Gulf of Mexico. External forcing fa...

  3. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a) Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of No Mans Land—(1) The area. The waters surrounding No Mans Land within an...

  4. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a) Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of No Mans Land—(1) The area. The waters surrounding No Mans Land within an...

  5. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a) Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of No Mans Land—(1) The area. The waters surrounding No Mans Land within an...

  6. Divergent parasite faunas in adjacent populations of West Greenland caribou: suggested natural and anthropogenic influences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal parasite diversity was characterized for two adjacent populations of west Greenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) through examinations of abomasa and small intestines of adult and subadult females collected during late winter. Three trichostrongyline (Trichostrongylina: ...

  7. 7. WALKWAY/ENTRANCE TO ADMINSITRATIVE SITE ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE ROAD AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WALKWAY/ENTRANCE TO ADMINSITRATIVE SITE ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE ROAD AND INTERNAL POLICE POST, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Manzanar War Relocation Center, Owens Valley off U.S. Highway 395, 6 miles South of Independence, Independence, Inyo County, CA

  8. Studying the impact of climate change on coastal aquifers and adjacent wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigter, Tibor; Ribeiro, Luís.; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Samper, Javier; Fakir, Younes; Fonseca, Luís.; Monteiro, José Paulo; Nunes, João. Pedro; Pisani, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    negligible, groundwater recharge is determined by evapotranspiration methods. WP3 involves the monitoring and modeling of groundwater. Water level, electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature measurements are made on a regular basis. At the Portuguese study site, continuous recording of these parameters is performed in the estuary and adjacent aquifer, studying the effect of tidal fluctuations and seasonal variations in recharge and abstractions. Groundwater flow and transport models are created or further developed, integrating the climate scenarios and recharge calculations of WP2, in order to simulate the impact on aquifer hydrodynamics and the movement of the fresh/salt water interface. In WP4 the response of coastal ecosystems to changes in groundwater inputs is assessed with the aid of ecological diversity indices and by using particular taxonomic groups of invertebrates as bioindicators. Mesofauna groups are also characterized in groundwater and their potential as indicators of changes in water composition is assessed. Preliminary results at the Portuguese study site allow understanding that low salinity is apparently relevant for the colonization of the macroinvertebrate species in the groundwater receiving wetland, as the typically estuarine species, which tolerate low salinity, are abundant.

  9. Research on the thermal effect of copper between adjacent pulses under moving laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Boshi; Jin, Guangyong; Wang, Di; Wei, Zhi; Yu, HuaDong

    2014-12-01

    The research focused on the effect of the change in distance between adjacent centers and the size of the laser spots on the material temperature field. Aiming at the parameter optimization of pulse laser machining copper, the moving focus model based on heat conduction equation was introduced. And the finite element analysis software, COMSOL Multiphysics, was also utilized in the research. Without considering the phase transition process of copper, the results of the numerical simulation was shown in this paper. By the simulation study of copper's irradiation with two adjacent pulses, the effect of the change in distance between adjacent centers and the size of the laser spots on the temperature field of the copper and the quantized results under the specific laser spot conditions were obtained simultaneously. Based on the results, several conclusions could be reached, when the laser spot size was small or the distance between adjacent centers is large, the mutual effect of the adjacent pulses could be ignored. When the spot size increased or the distance between adjacent centers decreased, the mutual effect got obviously. And the conclusions could be applied on the field of laser drilling, laser welding, etc. The former pulse's temperature field was mainly used to increase the initial temperature of the later pulse's affecting field, while the influence from the later pulse to the former one was slowing down the temperature decrease and reheating.

  10. Resistance after firing protected electric match. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, A.P.

    1980-03-20

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  11. The astrobiological mission EXPOSE-R on board of the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, Andre; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; Burfeindt, Jürgen; Molter, Ferdinand; Jaramillo, Esther; Pereira, Carlos; Weiß, Peter; Willnecker, Rainer; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan

    2015-01-01

    EXPOSE-R flew as the second of the European Space Agency (ESA) EXPOSE multi-user facilities on the International Space Station. During the mission on the external URM-D platform of the Zvezda service module, samples of eight international astrobiology experiments selected by ESA and one Russian guest experiment were exposed to low Earth orbit space parameters from March 10th, 2009 to January 21st, 2011. EXPOSE-R accommodated a total of 1220 samples for exposure to selected space conditions and combinations, including space vacuum, temperature cycles through 273 K, cosmic radiation, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110, >170 or >200 nm at various fluences up to GJ m-2. Samples ranged from chemical compounds via unicellular organisms and multicellular mosquito larvae and seeds to passive radiation dosimeters. Additionally, one active radiation measurement instrument was accommodated on EXPOSE-R and commanded from ground in accordance with the facility itself. Data on ultraviolet radiation, cosmic radiation and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry and data carrier every few months. The EXPOSE-R trays and samples returned to Earth on March 9th, 2011 with Shuttle flight, Space Transportation System (STS)-133/ULF 5, Discovery, after successful total mission duration of 27 months in space. The samples were analysed in the individual investigators laboratories. A parallel Mission Ground Reference experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions following to the data transmitted from the flight mission.

  12. Modelling impact of northerly wind-generated waves on sediments resuspensions in the Dover Strait and adjacent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillou, Nicolas; Chapalain, Georges

    2011-11-01

    A numerical approach based on the coupling of the wave propagation module SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) with the three-dimensional circulation module COHERENS (COupled Hydrodynamical-Ecological model for RegioNal and Shelf seas) is developed to simulate the impact of a northerly wind-generated storm on the resuspensions of heterogeneous sediments in the Dover Strait and adjacent waters. Suspended sediment transport is computed for the four grain-size classes of silts (d1=25μm), very fine sands (d2=75μm), fine sands (d3=150μm) and medium sands (d4=350μm). Predicted times histories of wave variables and the near-bottom mean current and total suspended sediment concentration (SSC) are compared with field data collected off Merlimont Beach, in the south of Boulogne-sur-Mer. Mappings of the growth of the near-bottom total SSC during the storm are produced. The total SSC increases by four at the Merlimont site. The multiplying factor reaches 40 along the exposed northern French coastline revealing the Flandres bed features. This increase is limited to five in deep waters of the southern Dover Strait with local strengthening on the top of the Vergoyer and the Bassure de Baas sandbanks. The storm modifies the granulometric composition of suspended materials by increasing the contribution of medium sands. Main modifications appear at the south-western entrance of the Dover Strait and in the exposed southern North Sea. The near-bottom resuspensions remain elsewhere dominated by the local resuspensions of fine sands added to remote resuspended silts advected by currents.

  13. Dielectric and electrical hazard shoes.

    PubMed

    Hoagland, Hugh

    2011-04-01

    With OSHA early documents falling on the side of EH shoes for electrical work, companies would do well to consider them for all electrical workers and other workers exposed to electrical hazards or damp locations. These shoes rarely add more than $5 to the cost of the shoe and have been known to save lives. They should be considered for low-voltage (<750V) and low-risk tasks. High-risk tasks, environments, and medium and high voltages require more and more stable protection. ASTM F1117 shoes provide this type of protection and are the preferred step potential PPE option in both OSHA 1910.269 and NFPA 70E. PMID:21561006

  14. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  15. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  16. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  17. Correction of Flow Resistances of Plants Measured From Covered and Exposed Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Neil C.

    1981-01-01

    The difference in water potential between an enclosed nontranspiring leaf and an adjacent exposed transpiring leaf, and the transpiration rate of a similarly exposed leaf, were used to calculate the change in hydraulic resistance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves throughout the day and at various rates of transpiration. Since cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves enclosed in aluminum foil alone had enclosed leaf water potentials about 0.06 megapascals lower than similar leaves enclosed in a polyethylene bag shielded with aluminum foil, the sorghum and sunflower leaves were enclosed in polyethylene bags shielded with aluminum foil. Enclosing the exposed leaf in a plastic sheath just prior to excision led to the water potential measured by the pressure chamber technique being 0.3 to 0.4 megapascals higher at rapid transpiration rates than in exposed leaves not sheathed just prior to excision. This error, previously shown to arise from rapid water loss after excision, led to an overestimation of the leaf hydraulic resistance in both species. Correction of the error reduced the resistance by 40 to 90% in irrigated sorghum and by about 40% in irrigated and unirrigated sunflower. After correction, the hydraulic resistances were still flow-dependent, but the dependency was markedly reduced in sorghum. PMID:16662056

  18. 33 CFR 148.510 - What happens when a petition for exemption involves the interests of an adjacent coastal State?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exemption involves the interests of an adjacent coastal State? 148.510 Section 148.510 Navigation and... petition for exemption involves the interests of an adjacent coastal State? If the petition for exemption concerns an adjacent coastal State, the Commandant (CG-5) forwards the petition to the Governor of...

  19. 33 CFR 150.35 - How may an adjacent coastal State request an amendment to the operations manual?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How may an adjacent coastal State... § 150.35 How may an adjacent coastal State request an amendment to the operations manual? (a) An adjacent coastal State connected by pipeline to the deepwater port may petition the cognizant Captain...

  20. Testing wetland axioms at a watershed scale: Case studies of the aggregate hydrologic effects of non-adjacent wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands not adjacent to streams (i.e. “non-adjacent wetlands”) are hypothesized to affect downgradient hydrology in a number of ways. Non-adjacent wetlands may, for example, attenuate peak flows, serve as focal points for groundwater recharge, and decrease streamflow...

  1. Hormonal Perturbations in Occupationally Exposed Nickel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Beshir, Safia; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah; Shaheen, Weam; Shahy, Eman M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel exposure is recognized as an endocrine disruptor because of its adverse effects on reproduction. AIM: This study was designed to investigate the possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations on workers occupationally exposed to nickel and to assess its effects on human male sexual function. METHODS: Cross-sectional comparative study, comprising 105 electroplating male non-smoker, non-alcoholic workers exposed to soluble nickel and 60 controls was done. Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone levels and urinary nickel concentrations were determined for the studied groups. RESULTS: Serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, urinary nickel and the simultaneous incidence of more than one sexual disorder were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to controls. The occurrence of various types of sexual disorders (decreased libido, impotence and premature ejaculation) in the exposed workers was 9.5, 5.1 and 4.4 folds respectively than the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to nickel produces possible testiculo-hormonal perturbations in those exposed workers. PMID:27335607

  2. Developmental trajectories of cocaine-and-other-drug-exposed and non-cocaine-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Linda C; Cicchetti, Domenic; Acharyya, Suddhasatta; Zhang, Heping

    2003-10-01

    Few data are available concerning the trajectories of mental and motor development across time for cocaine-exposed children compared with others. Findings are presented from individual group curve analyses of the mental and motor development measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II) on repeated visits from 3 through 36 months of a group of prenatally cocaine-and-other-drug-exposed children (n = 265) compared with those exposed to no drugs (n = 129) or no-cocaine-but-other-drugs (n = 66), including alcohol and/or tobacco. Across time, there was a general decline in motor performance but cocaine-exposed-infants showed a trend toward a greater decrease than children in the other two comparison groups. For mental performance, there was also a decline across age but only through 24 months and no differences in the trajectory of the cocaine-exposed group compared to the other two. And, across all assessment ages, cocaine-exposed-infants showed lower BSID-II mental performance compared to both non-drug and non-cocaine-exposed children. Results suggest that prenatally cocaine-exposed children show delayed developmental indices, particularly in their mental performance, but their trajectories across time are similar to those from impoverished, non-cocaine-exposed groups. PMID:14578693

  3. Cosmic radiation exposure of biological test systems during the EXPOSE-E mission.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas; Hajek, Michael; Bilski, Pawel; Körner, Christine; Vanhavere, Filip; Reitz, Günther

    2012-05-01

    In the frame of the EXPOSE-E mission on the Columbus external payload facility EuTEF on board the International Space Station, passive thermoluminescence dosimeters were applied to measure the radiation exposure of biological samples. The detectors were located either as stacks next to biological specimens to determine the depth dose distribution or beneath the sample carriers to determine the dose levels for maximum shielding. The maximum mission dose measured in the upper layer of the depth dose part of the experiment amounted to 238±10 mGy, which relates to an average dose rate of 408±16 μGy/d. In these stacks of about 8 mm height, the dose decreased by 5-12% with depth. The maximum dose measured beneath the sample carriers was 215±16 mGy, which amounts to an average dose rate of 368±27 μGy/d. These values are close to those assessed for the interior of the Columbus module and demonstrate the high shielding of the biological experiments within the EXPOSE-E facility. Besides the shielding by the EXPOSE-E hardware itself, additional shielding was experienced by the external structures adjacent to EXPOSE-E, such as EuTEF and Columbus. This led to a dose gradient over the entire exposure area, from 215±16 mGy for the lowest to 121±6 mGy for maximum shielding. Hence, the doses perceived by the biological samples inside EXPOSE-E varied by 70% (from lowest to highest dose). As a consequence of the high shielding, the biological samples were predominantly exposed to galactic cosmic heavy ions, while electrons and a significant fraction of protons of the radiation belts and solar wind did not reach the samples.

  4. Test system for exposing fish to resuspended, contaminated sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Wiener, J.G.; Steingraeber, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a new test system for exposing fish to resuspended sediments and associated contaminants. Test sediments were resuspended by revolving test chambers on rotating shafts driven by an electric motor. The timing, speed, and duration of test-chamber revolution were controlled by a rheostat and electronic timer. Each chamber held 45 litres of water and accommodated about 49 g of test fish. The system described had three water baths, each holding six test chambers. We illustrate the performance of this system with results from a 28-day test in which juvenile bluegills Lepomis macrochirus were exposed to resuspended, riverine sediments differing in texture and cadmium content. The test had one sediment-free control and five sediment treatments, with three replicates (chambers) per treatment and 25 fish per replicate. Two-thirds (30 litres) of the test water and sediment in each chamber was renewed weekly. The mean concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) did not vary among treatments; the grand-mean TSS in the five sediment treatments was 975 mg litre-1, similar to the target TSS of 1000 mg litre-1. At the end of the test, an average of 50% of the introduced cadmium was associated with the suspended sediment compartment, whereas the filtered (0.45 μm) water contained 0.4% and bluegills 1.8% of the cadmium.

  5. The Expose-R2 mission: astrobiology and astrochemistry in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, René

    EXPOSE is an exposure platform developed by ESA which permits scientists to install test samples for 1 to 2 years at the outer surface of the ISS. In that way, the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical sample materials can be explored. This environment, featuring full-spectrum solar light, near-vacuum, cosmic radiation, wide temperature variations and near-weightlessness, is impossible to reproduce in its entirety in the lab. As such, EXPOSE offers astrochemists and astrobiologists a chance to acquire novel scientific data. Astrochemists are interested in Low Earth Orbit conditions due to the fact that photochemistry in space is quite different from photochemistry on Earth, where the high-energy UV compounds of the solar spectrum are filtered away by our atmosphere. As for the astro biologists, EXPOSE offers an attractive opportunity to expand earlier results obtained during short-duration LEO flights, which have shown that particular microbes and, amazingly, even some multi-cellular macroscopic organisms were able to cope with a two-week exposure to space. The open space environment, often described as harsh and hostile, can apparently be tolerated by some robust inhabitants of our Earth - unprotected, in the absence of a space suit! The first mission of EXPOSE, as an external payload on the European Columbus module, happened during 2008-2009 with the test samples provided by five separate research teams. Three additional teams were involved in the monitoring of space environment. The results were published collectively in 2012 in a special issue of the monthly journal Astrobiology. Several organisms survived, having spent 1.5 years in space. The second mission was called EXPOSE-R, the R referring to ‘Russian segment’, the location where the EXPOSE instrument was installed this time. The EXPOSE-R mission took place in 2009-2011, ten science teams were involved. The publication of the results, again as a collection, is currently in

  6. Changes in the properties of polymer films when exposed to typical transformer environments

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, H.E. Jr.; Brinkman, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Polymer films are being considered for several insulator applications where they will operate at temperatures above ambient. Test equipment was developed for exposing polymer samples under stress to SF/sub 6/ containing various amounts of water and Freon 113. Samples of polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate, polyethersulfone, polyparabanic acid, and polyimide were exposed at temperatures from 70 to 160/sup 0/C for 2000 h and were evaluated by visual examination, tensile tests, metallographic examination, and electrical breakdown tests. It was found that the properties of polycarbonate and polyethylene terephthalate degraded considerably due to exposure, the mechanical properties of polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid changed some, and the properties of polyimide were unaffected.

  7. Positive adjacency effects mediated by seed disperser birds in pine plantations.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Regino; Hódar, José Antonio; Matías, Luís; Mendoza, Irene

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the consequences of adjacent elements for a given patch, through their effects on zoochorous dispersion by frugivorous birds. The case study consists of pine plantations (the focal patch) adjacent to other patches of native vegetation (mixed patches of native forest and shrublands), and/or pine plantations. Our hypothesis is that input of native woody species propagules generated by frugivorous birds within plantations strongly depends on the nature of the surrounding vegetation. To test this hypothesis, we studied frugivorous-bird abundance, seed dispersion, and seedling establishment in nine pine plantation plots in contact with patches of native vegetation. To quantify adjacency arrangement effects, we used the percentage of common border between a patch and each of its adjacent elements. Frugivorous bird occurrence in pine plantations is influenced by the adjacent vegetation: the greater the contact with native vegetation patches, the more abundant were the frugivorous birds within pine plantations. Furthermore, frugivorous birds introduce into plantations the seeds of a large sample of native fleshy-fruited species. The results confirm the hypothesis that zoochorous seed rain is strongly determined by the kind of vegetation surrounding a given plantation. This finding underlines the importance of the composition of the mosaic surrounding plantations and the availability of mobile link species as key landscape features conditioning passive restoration processes. PMID:20597289

  8. Atrophy of hippocampal subfields and adjacent extrahippocampal structures in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Franciotti, Raffaella; Bubbico, Giovanna; Thomas, Astrid; Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The hippocampus and adjacent extrahippocampal structures are organized in distinct and specialized regions which process heterogeneous functions, including memory, and visuospatial functions. Specific alterations of the different hippocampal subfields and adjacent extrahippocampal structures could differently contribute to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Based on visual symptoms which characterize DLB patients, the hippocampal subfields and the adjacent extrahippocampal structures which are mainly involved in the visual functions could be impaired in DLB and preserved in AD. To test this hypothesis, we performed structural magnetic resonance imaging on 19 DLB, 15 AD, and 19 age-matched healthy controls. FreeSurfer's pipelines were used to perform parcellation of hippocampus and adjacent extrahippocampal structures and to assess the structural changes within each region. The cornu ammonis and subiculum were bilaterally damaged in AD and preserved in DLB. The perirhinal cortex and parahippocampus were damaged in DLB but not in AD. Our findings demonstrate that the hippocampal subfields and adjacent extrahippocampal structures were differently altered in AD and DLB. Particularly, DLB patients showed a more focused alteration of the extrahippocampal structures linked to visual functions.

  9. Uplink scheduling and adjacent-channel coupling loss analysis for TD-LTE deployment.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI. PMID:24707214

  10. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Gerow, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  11. Uplink scheduling and adjacent-channel coupling loss analysis for TD-LTE deployment.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI.

  12. [Effects of GA, and CPPU on grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis and fruit quality].

    PubMed

    Xin, Shou-peng; Liu, Shuai; Yu, Yang; Nie, Song-qing; Gao, Zhi-hong; Tao, Jian-min

    2015-06-01

    Taken the grape cultivar 'Shine Muscat' as the material, the effect of the combination of GA3 and CPPU on the light-response curves in the fruit adjacent leaves and fruit quality were investigated two weeks after blossoming. The results showed that non-rectangular hyperbolic model was more suitable for grape fruit adjacent leaf light response curve-fitting. Pn and g(s) of fruit adjacent leaves among all treatments increased with the increasing light intensity under the combination treat-ments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15, 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively, but Ci decreased. Fruit quality increased with the increasing CPPU concentration under the combination treatments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively. Grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was higher than the other treatments. The fruit quality under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was lower than the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment. It indicated that reasonable CPPU treatment concentration could improve fruit adjacent leaf photosynthetic ability and fruit quality. Too high concentration made the fruit quality lower instead. The 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was most appropriate in two weeks after blossoming. PMID:26572037

  13. Uplink Scheduling and Adjacent-Channel Coupling Loss Analysis for TD-LTE Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI. PMID:24707214

  14. [Effects of GA, and CPPU on grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis and fruit quality].

    PubMed

    Xin, Shou-peng; Liu, Shuai; Yu, Yang; Nie, Song-qing; Gao, Zhi-hong; Tao, Jian-min

    2015-06-01

    Taken the grape cultivar 'Shine Muscat' as the material, the effect of the combination of GA3 and CPPU on the light-response curves in the fruit adjacent leaves and fruit quality were investigated two weeks after blossoming. The results showed that non-rectangular hyperbolic model was more suitable for grape fruit adjacent leaf light response curve-fitting. Pn and g(s) of fruit adjacent leaves among all treatments increased with the increasing light intensity under the combination treat-ments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15, 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively, but Ci decreased. Fruit quality increased with the increasing CPPU concentration under the combination treatments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively. Grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was higher than the other treatments. The fruit quality under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was lower than the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment. It indicated that reasonable CPPU treatment concentration could improve fruit adjacent leaf photosynthetic ability and fruit quality. Too high concentration made the fruit quality lower instead. The 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was most appropriate in two weeks after blossoming.

  15. Non-target adjacent stimuli classification improves performance of classical ERP-based brain computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, G. A.; Hernández, L. F.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The classical ERP-based speller, or P300 Speller, is one of the most commonly used paradigms in the field of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). Several alterations to the visual stimuli presentation system have been developed to avoid unfavorable effects elicited by adjacent stimuli. However, there has been little, if any, regard to useful information contained in responses to adjacent stimuli about spatial location of target symbols. This paper aims to demonstrate that combining the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli with standard classification (target versus non-target) significantly improves classical ERP-based speller efficiency. Approach. Four SWLDA classifiers were trained and combined with the standard classifier: the lower row, upper row, right column and left column classifiers. This new feature extraction procedure and the classification method were carried out on three open databases: the UAM P300 database (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico), BCI competition II (dataset IIb) and BCI competition III (dataset II). Main results. The inclusion of the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli improves target classification in the classical row/column paradigm. A gain in mean single trial classification of 9.6% and an overall improvement of 25% in simulated spelling speed was achieved. Significance. We have provided further evidence that the ERPs produced by adjacent stimuli present discriminable features, which could provide additional information about the spatial location of intended symbols. This work promotes the searching of information on the peripheral stimulation responses to improve the performance of emerging visual ERP-based spellers.

  16. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas

    PubMed Central

    Skvortsova, Yulia V.; Zinovyeva, Marina V.; Stukacheva, Elena A.; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A.; Azhikina, Tatyana L.

    2016-01-01

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  17. Converting Sunlight to Electricity--Some Practical Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2005-01-01

    A photovoltaic panel can convert sunlight directly into electricity. If one connects enough of them in a series-parallel arrangement called a solar array, they can provide about half of a home's annual electricity needs. The panels comprise specially treated electronic materials that when exposed to sunlight will give up electrons freely, and…

  18. Electricity unplugged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karalis, Aristeidis

    2009-02-01

    The judge was driving back late one cold winter night. Entering the garage, the battery-charging indicator in his wirelessly powered electric car came on. "Home at last," crossed his mind. He swiped his personal smartcard on the front-door detector to be let in. He heard a "charging" beep from his mobile phone. The blinking cursor on the half-finished e-mail on the laptop had been waiting all day on the side table. He picked the computer up and walked towards his desk. "Good evening, your honour. Your wirelessly heated robe," said the butler-robot as it approached from the kitchen. Putting on the electric garment, he sat on the medical desk chair. His artificial heart was now beating faster.

  19. Measuring exposed magnetic fields of welders in working time.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Ojima, Jun; Sekino, Masaki; Hojo, Minoru; Saito, Hiroyuki; Okuno, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of the occupational electromagnetic field exposure of welders is of great importance, especially in shielded-arc welding, which uses relatively high electric currents of up to several hundred amperes. In the present study, we measured the magnetic field exposure level of welders in the course of working. A 3-axis Hall magnetometer was attached to a subject's wrist in order to place the sensor probe at the closest position to the magnetic source (a cable from the current source). Data was acquired every 5 s from the beginning of the work time. The maximum exposed field was 0.35-3.35 mT (Mean ± SD: 1.55 ± 0.93 mT, N=17) and the average value per day was 0.04-0.12 mT (Mean ± SD: 0.07 ± 0.02 mT, N=17). We also conducted a finite element method-based analysis of human hand tissue for the electromagnetic field dosimetry. In addition, the magnetic field associated with grinders, an air hammer, and a drill using electromagnetic anchorage were measured; however, the magnetic fields were much lower than those generated in the welding process. These results agreed well with the results of the electromagnetic field dosimetry (1.49 mT at the wrist position), and the calculated eddy current (4.28 mA/m(2)) was much lower than the well-known guideline thresholds for electrical nerve or muscular stimulation.

  20. Electric Car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Lewis Research Center undertook research toward a practical, economical battery with higher energy density. Borrowing from space satellite battery technology, Lewis came up with a nickel-zinc battery that promises longer life and twice the range of the lead-acid counterpart. Lewis researchers fabricated a prototype battery and installed it in an Otis P-500 electric utility van, using only the battery space already available and allowing battery weight equal to that of the va's conventional lead-acid battery

  1. Interviews with Children Exposed to Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Maria; Nasman, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how research practices may simultaneously follow principles of children's citizenship rights to participation and principles of protection and support when children exposed to violence are informants. The article focuses upon organisation of interview processes and interactions between adult researchers and child…

  2. Exposing the Mathematical Wizard: Approximating Trigonometric Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2011-01-01

    For almost all students, what happens when they push buttons on their calculators is essentially magic, and the techniques used are seemingly pure wizardry. In this article, the author draws back the curtain to expose some of the mathematics behind computational wizardry and introduces some fundamental ideas that are accessible to precalculus…

  3. Cocaine Babies: Florida's Substance-Exposed Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpring, Jayme

    This report is designed to provide Florida's school personnel with assistance in working with students prenatally exposed to cocaine or other toxic substances. The report offers background data, practical strategies for teaching and learning, and resources for networking. The first chapter outlines statistics on the incidence of the problem of…

  4. Rural Canadian Youth Exposed to Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye, Adele M.; Mykota, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to physical violence is an unfortunate reality for many Canadian youth as it is associated with numerous negative psychosocial effects. The study aims to assist in understanding resilience in rural Canadian youth exposed to physical violence. This is accomplished by identifying the importance of protective factors, as measured by the…

  5. Electroencephalographic findings in workers exposed to benzene.

    PubMed

    Kellerová, V

    1985-01-01

    Preventive EEG examination was carried out in 40 workers significantly exposed to benzene. The EEG findings were compared with those of a control group of 48 healthy persons, a group of 110 workers significantly exposed to toluene and xylene and a group of 236 workers exposed to vinyl chloride. The individuals exposed to benzene exhibited 22.5% of abnormal and 45% threshold findings, the abnormalities being episodic, diffuse or a combination of the two. The effect of benzene entailed a frequent (32.5%) occurrence of a characteristic frequency lability. Sleep phenomena were found in a total of 60% cases (37.5% cases reached stage 1 B3 while 15% reached stage 2 according to Roth [14]). The rapid onset of deeper sleep stages (in 30% cases) is considered typical for benzene exposure. The photic driving response often had an extended frequency range (a total of 61.1%, to beta frequencies only in 30.55%, to both beta and theta frequencies also in 30.55% of cases). The different EEG features characteristic of the neurotoxic action of various types of organic solvents make possible a more efficient diagnostics of the effects of these chemicals on the CNS. PMID:4086812

  6. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  7. Lever arm extension of myosin VI is unnecessary for the adjacent binding state.

    PubMed

    Ikezaki, Keigo; Komori, Tomotaka; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Yanagida, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Myosin VI is a processive myosin that has a unique stepping motion, which includes three kinds of steps: a large forward step, a small forward step and a backward step. Recently, we proposed the parallel lever arms model to explain the adjacent binding state, which is necessary for the unique motion. In this model, both lever arms are directed the same direction. However, experimental evidence has not refuted the possibility that the adjacent binding state emerges from myosin VI folding its lever arm extension (LAE). To clarify this issue, we constructed a myosin VI/V chimera that replaces the myosin VI LAE with the IQ3-6 domains of the myosin V lever arm, which cannot fold, and performed single molecule imaging. Our chimera showed the same stepping patterns as myosin VI, indicating the LAE is not responsible for the adjacent binding state.

  8. Treatment of Symptomatic Osteoma on Eyebrow Using Adjacent Supraorbital Neuroperiosteal Flap.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwan Jun; Park, Jun Ho; Choi, Chang Yong

    2016-07-01

    Osteomas grow slowly, blocking or compressing adjacent structures, and frequently causing aesthetic deformity. Although most patients remain asymptomatic, development of facial pain and headaches due to compression of adjacent sensory nerves is not uncommon. Depending on the location of osteoma, many techniques were introduced to remove it. If the osteoma was located close to important structures such as nerves and vessels, surgeons can be concerned about damaging them resulting in unfavorable symptoms to patients. Osteoma is a benign slow-growing osteogenic lesion, composed of well-differentiated mature bone tissue, characterized by the proliferation of compact or cancellous bone, and found in the head and neck region. It is often slow growing and asymptomatic, diagnosed incidentally on radiographs. It can cause deformation of the bone and compression of the adjacent structures such as nerve compression. This case shows how symptomatic osteoma can be successfully extracted. PMID:27315313

  9. Summary geochemical maps, Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area, Mono and Tuolumne counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Hill, R.H.; Sutley, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Hoover Wilderness and the adjacent Hoover Extension (East), Hoover Extension (West), and Cherry Creek A Roadless Areas (the adjacent study area) encompass approximately 153,900 acres (241 mi2; 623 km2) in the Inyo, Stanislaus, and Toiyabe Naitonal Forests, Mono and Tuolumne Counties, Calif. These two areas lie along and mostly east of the crest of the Sierra Nevada, along the north and east sides of Yosemite National Park. Elevations vary from a high of 12,446 ft (3,793 m) on the crest of the Sierra Nevada to a low of about 6,500 ft (1,981 m) near the Bridgeport Ranger Station. Access to the Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area is by U.S. Highway 395, California State Highways 108 (Sonora Pass) and 120 (Tioga Pass), and by other paved and graded roads that lead off of these U.S. and State highways.

  10. Lever arm extension of myosin VI is unnecessary for the adjacent binding state

    PubMed Central

    Ikezaki, Keigo; Komori, Tomotaka; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Yanagida, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Myosin VI is a processive myosin that has a unique stepping motion, which includes three kinds of steps: a large forward step, a small forward step and a backward step. Recently, we proposed the parallel lever arms model to explain the adjacent binding state, which is necessary for the unique motion. In this model, both lever arms are directed the same direction. However, experimental evidence has not refuted the possibility that the adjacent binding state emerges from myosin VI folding its lever arm extension (LAE). To clarify this issue, we constructed a myosin VI/V chimera that replaces the myosin VI LAE with the IQ3-6 domains of the myosin V lever arm, which cannot fold, and performed single molecule imaging. Our chimera showed the same stepping patterns as myosin VI, indicating the LAE is not responsible for the adjacent binding state. PMID:27493514

  11. The biomechanical effect of vertebroplasty on the adjacent vertebral body: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, R K

    2006-05-01

    The increased use of vertebroplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures has led to concerns that the technique may increase the risk of fracture in the adjacent vertebrae. The aim of this study was to simulate the biomechanical effects of vertebroplasty using an osteoporotic two-vertebrae finite element model. Following a simulated compression fracture, the model was augmented with one of three volumes of PMMA-based cement or left untreated. Upon reloading, an increase in segment stiffness was found with increasing volumes of cement. However, in all the treated models there was an increase in endplate deflection into the adjacent vertebra causing plastic failure of the surrounding trabecular bone. More damage was caused in the adjacent vertebra of the treated models than in the untreated model. The model results suggest that clinicians should be wary of using standard vertebroplasty cements to treat compression fractures in patients with highly osteoporotic bone.

  12. Sound insulation property of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials carrying different masses at adjacent cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Wen, Jihong; Zhao, Honggang; Yu, Dianlong; Cai, Li; Wen, Xisen

    2013-08-01

    We present the experimental realization and theoretical understanding of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials embedded with different masses at adjacent cells, capable of increasing the transmission loss at low frequency. Owing to the reverse vibration of adjacent cells, Transmission loss (TL) peaks appear, and the magnitudes of the TL peaks exceed the predicted results of the composite wall. Compared with commonly used configuration, i.e., all cells carrying with identical mass, the nonuniformity of attaching masses causes another much low TL peak. Finite element analysis was employed to validate and provide insights into the TL behavior of the structure.

  13. Complete cage migration/subsidence into the adjacent vertebral body after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Corniola, Marco V; Jägersberg, Max; Stienen, Martin N; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2015-03-01

    A variety of implant-related short and long-term complications after lumbar fusion surgery are recognized. Mid to long-term complications due to cage migration and/or cage subsidence are less frequently reported. Here, we report a patient with a complete cage migration into the superior adjacent vertebral body almost 20 years after the initial posterior lumbar interbody fusion procedure. In this patient, the cage migration/subsidence was clinically silent, but a selective decompression for adjacent segment degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis was performed. We discuss the risk factors for cage migration/subsidence in view of the current literature.

  14. Saddle-point approximation for M-ary phase-shift keying with adjacent satellite interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, O.

    1980-09-01

    As the geosynchronous orbit for satellite communication becomes increasingly crowded, the effect of adjacent satellite interference is of primary concern. The saddle-point approximation technique for evaluating the error probability of M-ary PSK systems with adjacent satellite interference is described. In comparison with previous methods, this technique has the advantages of both computational simplicity and accuracy. Results include a sample calculation to study the effect of fading on the uplink of a 12/14-GHz quadraphase-shift-keying system with 3-degree satellite spacings and 3-m earth stations.

  15. Flow and transport within a coastal aquifer adjacent to a stratified water body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oz, Imri; Yechieli, Yoseph; Eyal, Shalev; Gavrieli, Ittai; Gvirtzman, Haim

    2016-04-01

    The existence of a freshwater-saltwater interface and the circulation flow of saltwater beneath the interface is a well-known phenomenon found at coastal aquifers. This flow is a natural phenomenon that occurs due to density differences between fresh groundwater and the saltwater body. The goals of this research are to use analytical, numerical, and physical models in order to examine the configuration of the freshwater-saltwater interface and the density-driven flow patterns within a coastal aquifer adjacent to long-term stratified saltwater bodies (e.g. meromictic lake). Such hydrological systems are unique, as they consist of three different water types: the regional fresh groundwater, and low and high salinity brines forming the upper and lower water layers of the stratified water body, respectively. This research also aims to examine the influence of such stratification on hydrogeological processes within the coastal aquifer. The coastal aquifer adjacent to the Dead Sea, under its possible future meromictic conditions, serves as an ideal example to examine these processes. The results show that adjacent to a stratified saltwater body three interfaces between three different water bodies are formed, and that a complex flow system, controlled by the density differences, is created, where three circulation cells are developed. These results are significantly different from the classic circulation cell that is found adjacent to non-stratified water bodies (lakes or oceans). In order to obtain a more generalized insight into the groundwater behavior adjacent to a stratified water body, we used the numerical model to perform sensitivity analysis. The hydrological system was found be sensitive to three dimensionless parameters: dimensionless density (i.e. the relative density of the three water bodies'); dimensionless thickness (i.e. the ratio between the relative thickness of the upper layer and the whole thickness of the lake); and dimensionless flux. The results

  16. Electrical isolation of component cells in monolithically interconnected modules

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    2001-01-01

    A monolithically interconnected photovoltaic module having cells which are electrically connected which comprises a substrate, a plurality of cells formed over the substrate, each cell including a primary absorber layer having a light receiving surface and a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, and a cell isolation diode layer having a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, the diode layer intervening the substrate and the absorber layer wherein the absorber and diode interfacial regions of a same conductivity type orientation, the diode layer having a reverse-breakdown voltage sufficient to prevent inter-cell shunting, and each cell electrically isolated from adjacent cells with a vertical trench trough the pn-junction of the diode layer, interconnects disposed in the trenches contacting the absorber regions of adjacent cells which are doped an opposite conductivity type, and electrical contacts.

  17. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  18. Surface contamination on LDEF exposed materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemminger, Carol S.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the surface composition and chemistry of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed materials including silvered Teflon (Ag/FEP), Kapton, S13GLO paint, quartz crystal monitors (QCM's), carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, and carbon fiber/Al Alloy composites. In each set of samples, silicones were the major contributors to the molecular film accumulated on the LDEF exposed surfaces. All surfaces analyzed have been contaminated with Si, O, and C; most have low levels (less than 1 atom percent) of N, S, and F. Occasionally observed contaminants included Cl, Na, K, P, and various metals. Orange/brown discoloration observed near vent slots in some Ag/FEP blankets were higher in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen relative to other contamination types. The source of contamination has not been identified, but amine/amide functionalities were detected. It is probable that this same source of contamination account for the low levels of sulfur and nitrogen observed on most LDEF exposed surfaces. XPS, which probes 50 to 100 A in depth, detected the major sample components underneath the contaminant film in every analysis. This probably indicates that the contaminant overlayer is patchy, with significant areas covered by less that 100 A of molecular film. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of LDEF exposed surfaces during secondary electron microscopy (SEM) of the samples confirmed contamination of the surfaces with Si and O. In general, particulates were not observed to develop from the contaminant overlayer on the exposed LDEF material surfaces. However, many SiO2 submicron particles were seen on a masked edge of an Ag/FEP blanket. In some cases such as the carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, interpretation of the contamination data was hindered by the lack of good laboratory controls. Examination of laboratory controls for the carbon fiber/Al alloy composites showed that preflight contamination was

  19. Direct measurement of an electric field in femtosecond Bessel-Gaussian beams.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Steve; Feng, Ximao; Khan, Sabih; Chini, Michael; Wang, He; Mashiko, Hiroki; Chang, Zenghu

    2009-08-15

    We demonstrated the mapping of the spatial oscillation of electric fields in the transverse plane of a femtosecond Bessel-Gaussian laser beam from the first principle of classical electrodynamics. An attosecond burst of electrons for probing the electric force was placed in the Bessel beam through photoemission with single isolated 276 as extreme ultraviolet pulses. The direction reversal of the electric field in adjacent Bessel rings was directly confirmed by observing the momentum shift of the probe electrons.

  20. The EXPOSE-R Experiment ROSE-3 SPORES in artificial meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, C.; Horneck, G.; Rabbow, E.; Rettberg, P.; Reitz, G.

    2011-10-01

    In the conducted experiment, spores of bacteria, fungi and ferns, especially adapted to survive extreme conditions, were either solely or embedded in artificial meteorites exposed to space environment in the ESA facility EXPOSE-R for 22 months (10.03.2009-21.02.2011). The experiment will provide experimental clues to the question whether meteorite material offers enough protection against the harsh environment of space for spores to survive a long-term stay in space. This question has received increased attention since the discovery of Martian meteorites has provided evidence that rocks can be transported from one planet to another in our solar

  1. Tracking the waning stages of caldera magmatism using exposed subcaldera plutons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerer, M. J.; McIntosh, W. C.

    2012-12-01

    The emplacement and thermal histories of exposed plutons at three caldera systems were investigated to understand the time scales of postcaldera magmatism and assembly patterns of subcaldera batholiths. Rio Grande rifting has exposed silicic intrusions at the Mt. Aetna caldera (central CO), the Questa caldera (northern NM), and the Organ caldera (southern NM). At all three caldera systems, significant volumes of magma were intruded into the upper crust following caldera collapse. U/Pb ages established the emplacement history of the exposed intrusions. Ar/Ar dating and multiple diffusion domain (MDD) thermal modeling of plutonic K-feldspar determined cooling histories and detected reheating events by the emplacement of nonexposed intrusions. U/Pb and Ar/Ar ages indicate protracted magmatism following caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions. The Mt. Aetna caldera erupted the Badger Creek Tuff at 34.3 Ma. Emplacement of post-Badger Creek Tuff luecogranites at 31 Ma caused reheating of adjacent rocks. MDD thermal modeling of postcaldera plutons indicates numerous reheating events between 27 and 30 Ma. The youngest reheating event occurred at 22 Ma. At the Questa caldera at least nine plutons were emplaced following the eruption of the 25.4 Ma Amalia Tuff. Ages of exposed plutons range from 25.4 to 19.3 Ma. MDD thermal modeling indicates a reheating event at 16.6 Ma, which corresponds to the emplacement of numerous small volume dikes in the southern portion of the field. The Organ caldera formed during the eruption of the 36.0 Ma Squaw Mountain Tuff. Few postcaldera plutons are exposed. The youngest postcaldera pluton was emplaced at 34.3 Ma. However, MDD thermal modeling indicates reheating events between 30 and 32 Ma and as young as 26 Ma. U/Pb and Ar/Ar ages provide useful information for understanding the assembly patterns of postcaldera magmas. The oldest intrusions are located at the top of the intrusive suite, indicating that these suites were assembled from the top

  2. Solar Electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  3. Electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Gerstler, William Dwight; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2016-06-21

    An apparatus, such as an electrical machine, is provided. The apparatus can include a rotor defining a rotor bore and a conduit disposed in and extending axially along the rotor bore. The conduit can have an annular conduit body defining a plurality of orifices disposed axially along the conduit and extending through the conduit body. The rotor can have an inner wall that at least partially defines the rotor bore. The orifices can extend through the conduit body along respective orifice directions, and the rotor and conduit can be configured to provide a line of sight along the orifice direction from the respective orifices to the inner wall.

  4. Electrical receptacle

    DOEpatents

    Leong, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a receptacle for a three prong electrical plug which has either a tubular or U-shaped grounding prong. The inventive receptacle has a grounding prong socket which is sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having two ridges to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket. The two ridges are made to prevent the socket from expanding when either the U-shaped grounding prong or the tubular grounding prong is inserted.

  5. Electrical receptacle

    DOEpatents

    Leong, R.

    1993-06-22

    The invention is a receptacle for a three prong electrical plug which has either a tubular or U-shaped grounding prong. The inventive receptacle has a grounding prong socket which is sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having two ridges to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket. The two ridges are made to prevent the socket from expanding when either the U-shaped grounding prong or the tubular grounding prong is inserted.

  6. 46 CFR 111.106-7 - Classification of adjacent spaces with access to hazardous locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations on OSVs § 111... by reference, see § 110.10-1). (b) A differential pressure-monitoring device or a...

  7. Metabolic measures of male southern toads (Bufo terrestris) exposed to coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.K.; Appel, A.G.; Mendonca, M.T.

    2006-03-15

    Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) are found in coal fly ash collection basins associated with coal-burning electrical power plants. These basins contain large amounts of trace metals and organisms found in these basins are known to accumulate large quantities of metals. Studies on a variety of organisms exposed to trace metals found that they experience a significant increase in standard metabolic rate. We experimentally exposed southern toads to metal-contaminated sediment and food and measured changes in standard and exercise metabolic rates as well as changes in body, liver and muscle mass, blood glucose, and corticosterone. We found that toads exposed to trace metal contamination gained significantly less mass (18.3%) than control toads (31.3%) when food was limited and experienced significantly decreased RQ after exercise. However, contaminated toads did not experience changes in standard or exercise metabolic rates, plasma glucose levels, and hepatic or muscle percentage indices whether food was limited or not.

  8. CT assessment of silicosis in exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Bégin, R; Bergeron, D; Samson, L; Boctor, M; Cantin, A

    1987-03-01

    For evaluation of the clinical usefulness of CT of the thorax in workers exposed to silica, 58 workers with long-term exposure to silica in the granite and foundry industries of the Eastern Townships of Quebec were examined. CT scans were compared with standard posteroanterior chest radiographs by using the International Labour Office 1980 grading system for silicosis. Six areas of the lung in each patient were assessed by both techniques for profusion (number) of opacities (small nodules), coalescence, and the presence of large opacities. CT scans and chest radiographs yielded similar average scores for detection of opacities. CT identified significantly more coalescence and large opacities in patients with simple silicosis. In patients with complicated silicosis, CT results were comparable with those of chest radiographs. CT of the thorax in workers exposed to silica does not identify more patients with minimal parenchymal disease, but it does detect earlier changes of coalescence.

  9. Children exposed to war/terrorism.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jon A

    2003-12-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.

  10. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  11. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  12. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  13. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  14. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  15. 76 FR 30023 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ..., 2010, issue of the Federal Register (75 FR 65278) with the docket number COE-2010-0037 and one comment... of Engineers, Department of the Army 33 CFR Part 334 Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is amending its regulations to establish a new danger zone....

  16. 75 FR 65278 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... of Engineers, Department of the Army 33 CFR Part 334 Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger... its regulations to establish one new danger zone in Pamlico Sound near Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina. Establishment of this danger zone will enable the Marine Corps to control...

  17. Adjacency-blurring-effect of scenes modeled by the radiosity method

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1992-05-01

    In this paper we describe a method to simulate images through a scattering atmosphere. We compute the scattering of light from adjacent surfaces into the field-of-view (FOV) with the extended radiosity method. Our simulation takes aerosol scattering phase functions and ground bidirectional reflectance distributions (BRDF) into account. 10 refs.

  18. 78 FR 14411 - Notice of Proposed Policy Clarification Concerning Designation of Adjacent Coastal States for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... internal waters, to a belt of sea adjacent to its coast, described as a territorial sea.'' \\10\\ Article 24... environment, waters of the contiguous zone, and waters of the high seas.'' \\9\\ \\7\\ 33 U.S.C. 1501(1)&(2). \\8... designation of an ACS should be measured. Article 1 of the Convention on the Territorial Sea and...

  19. 30 CFR 282.6 - Disclosure of data and information to an adjacent State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure of data and information to an adjacent State. 282.6 Section 282.6 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND...

  20. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits...

  1. Non-Adjacent Dependency Learning in Infants at Familial Risk of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Annemarie; de Bree, Elise; de Klerk, Maartje; Wijnen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that developmental dyslexia is (partly) caused by a deficit in implicit sequential learning, by investigating whether infants at familial risk of dyslexia can track non-adjacent dependencies in an artificial language. An implicit learning deficit would hinder detection of such dependencies, which mark grammatical…

  2. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. 334.1060 Section 334.1060 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1060 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. (a) The...

  3. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. 334.1060 Section 334.1060 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1060 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. (a) The...

  4. Irreversible Electroporation Adjacent to the Rectum: Evaluation of Pathological Effects in a Pig Model

    SciTech Connect

    Schoellnast, Helmut; Monette, Sebastien; Ezell, Paula C.; Single, Gordon; Maybody, Majid; Weiser, Martin R.; Fong Yuman; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the rectum wall after IRE applied adjacent to the rectum. CT-guided IRE adjacent to the rectum wall was performed in 11 pigs; a total of 44 lesions were created. In five pigs, ablations were performed without a water-filled endorectal coil (group A); in six pigs, ablation was performed with the coil to avoid displacement of the rectum wall (group B). The pigs were killed after 7-15 days and the rectums were harvested for pathological evaluation. There was no evidence of perforation on gross postmortem examination. Perirectal muscle lesions were observed in 18 of 20 ablations in group A and in 21 of 24 ablations in group B. Inflammation and fibrosis of the muscularis propria was observed in ten of 18 lesions in group A and in ten of 21 lesions in group B. In group A, findings were limited to the external layer of the muscularis propria except for one lesion; in group B, findings were transmural in all cases. Transmural necrosis with marked suppurative mucosal inflammation was observed in seven of 21 lesions in group B and in no lesion in group A. IRE-ablation adjacent to the rectum may be uneventful if the rectum wall is mobile and able to contract. IRE-ablation of the rectum may be harmful if the rectum wall is fixed adjacent to the IRE-probe.

  5. Long-Term Retention of an Intraorbital Metallic Foreign Body Adjacent to the Optic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Siedlecki, Andrew N.; Deng, Jie; Miller, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic 47 year-old male patient who suffered a penetrating wound from a metallic foreign body that became embedded adjacent to the optic nerve for over thirty years, as well as the associated examination, imaging, and fundus photography. Intraorbital metallic foreign bodies can be well tolerated and may not require surgical intervention despite proximity to important structures.

  6. Mesozoic tectonics and paleogeography of the western U. S. and the adjacent Pacific basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dilek, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    Recent geological, geochemical, and geochronological information from Jurassic and older ophiolite complexes and arc rocks in northern California provides new interpretations for Mesozoic tectonics of the western US and the adjacent Pacific basin. This information is discussed in conjunction with the Mesozoic tectonics and paleogeography of the western United States and the Pacific Ocean.

  7. 30 CFR 250.205 - Are there special requirements if my well affects an adjacent property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are there special requirements if my well affects an adjacent property? 250.205 Section 250.205 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... property, the Regional Supervisor may require special measures to protect the rights of the...

  8. Remodeling in myocardium adjacent to an infarction in the pig left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Scott D; Criscione, John; Covell, James W

    2004-12-01

    Changes in the structure of the "normal" ventricular wall adjacent to an infarcted area involve all components of the myocardium (myocytes, fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, and the coronary vasculature) and their three-dimensional structural relationship. Assessing changes in these components requires tracking material markers in the remodeling tissue over long periods of time with a three-dimensional approach as well as a detailed histological evaluation of the remodeled structure. The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypotheses that changes in the tissue adjacent to an infarct are related to myocyte elongation, myofiber rearrangement, and changes in the laminar architecture of the adjacent tissue. Three weeks after myocardial infarction, noninfarcted tissue adjacent to the infarct remodeled by expansion along the direction of the fibers and in the cross fiber direction. These changes are consistent with myocyte elongation and myofiber rearrangement (slippage), as well as a change in cell shape to a more elliptical cross section with the major axis in the epicardial tangent plane, and indicate that reorientation of fibers either via "cell slippage" or changes in orientation of the laminar structure of the ventricular wall are quantitatively important aspects of the remodeling of the normally perfused myocardium.

  9. 77 FR 13978 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... reconsideration. DATES: The effective date for the final rule published November 30, 2011, at 76 FR 74586, and... serious injury or death to roadway workers performing work with potentially distracting equipment near certain adjacent tracks. See 76 FR 74586. In particular, the rule requires that roadway workers...

  10. NON-NAVIGABLE STREAMS AND ADJACENT WETLANDS: ADDRESSING SCIENCE NEEDS FOLLOWING THE SUPREME COURT'S RAPANOS DECISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In June of 2006, the US Supreme Court ruled in two cases concerning jurisdiction under the Clean Water Act (CWA). The decisions suggest that hydrological permanence of non-navigable streams and adjacent wetlands (NNSAWs) and their effects on the chemical, physical, and biological...

  11. 78 FR 33754 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... November 30, 2011, at 76 FR 74586, and delayed on March 8, 2012, at 77 FR 13978, is further delayed until... with potentially distracting equipment near certain adjacent tracks. See 76 FR 74586. In particular... reconsideration. See 77 FR 13978 (March 8, 2012). FRA received five comments on the petitions for...

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    XUAN, JIAJIA; ZHANG, YUNFENG; ZHANG, XIUJUN; HU, FEN

    2015-01-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26137243

  13. 33 CFR 334.880 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval....880 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma. (a) The area. That portion of San Diego Bay southerly of Ballast Point, exclusive of the southwesterly portion of the...

  14. 33 CFR 334.880 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval....880 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma. (a) The area. That portion of San Diego Bay southerly of Ballast Point, exclusive of the southwesterly portion of the...

  15. Mass counts: ERP correlates of non-adjacent dependency learning under different exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Citron, Francesca M M; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D; Mueller, Jutta L

    2011-01-10

    Miniature language learning can serve to model real language learning as high proficiency can be reached after very little exposure. In a previous study by Mueller et al. [18] German participants acquired non-adjacent syntactic dependencies by mere exposure to correct Italian sentences, but their ERP pattern differed from the one shown by native speakers. The present study follows up on that experiment using a similar design and material and is focused on two important issues: the influence of acoustic cues in the material and the impact of the learning procedure. With respect to the latter we compared alternating learning and test phases to a continuous learning and test phase. In addition, a splicing procedure eliminated prosodic cues in order to ensure that non-adjacent dependencies were learned instead of adjacent ones. Results for the continuous phase design showed a native-like biphasic ERP pattern, an N400 followed by a left-focused positivity. In the alternating design behavioural accuracy was lower and only an N400 was found. The results suggest an advantage of continuous learning phases for adult learners, possibly due to the absence of ungrammatical items present in the test phases in the alternating learning procedure. Furthermore, the replication of the earlier study with prosodically controlled material adds evidence to the general finding that syntactic non-adjacent dependencies can be learned from mere exposure to correct examples.

  16. Geomechanical analysis of a welding salt layer and its effects on adjacent sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, Mahdi; Nikolinakou, Maria A.; Hudec, Michael R.; Flemings, Peter B.

    2016-06-01

    We simulate welding of the source layer of a salt diapir with a forward finite-element model and study stresses and deformation in the salt layer and the diapir, as well as in their adjacent sediments. Welded salt layers are abundant in mature salt basins, where most or all of the salt has withdrawn into diapirs. However, there is little understanding of the stress field in these layers and their adjacent sediments. We show that salt flow along the source layer leads to significant stress anomalies inside the layer and in adjacent sediments. In the source layer, salt pressure becomes higher than overburden stress in nearly welded areas and becomes lower than overburden stress in adjacent thicker areas. When the source layer welds, stresses increase significantly in sediments near the weld tip, which helps compaction of these sediments and possibly their fracturing and faulting. Our model illustrates that all sediments overlying the weld experience this stress increase and the associated material changes as the weld tip propagates along the weld. We present natural examples fitting our predictions and discuss the importance of our results for the exploration, characterization, and production of reservoirs near welded salt layers.

  17. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. 334.1060 Section 334.1060 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1060 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. (a) The...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. 334.1060 Section 334.1060 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1060 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. (a) The...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. 334.1060 Section 334.1060 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1060 Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area. (a) The...

  20. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of Sconticut... Sounds—(1) Anchorage E. South of a line beginning at a point bearing 180° about 3.25 miles from...

  1. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of Sconticut... Sounds—(1) Anchorage E. South of a line beginning at a point bearing 180° about 3.25 miles from...

  2. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of Sconticut... Sounds—(1) Anchorage E. South of a line beginning at a point bearing 180° about 3.25 miles from...

  3. Exposed proteins of the Schistosoma japonicum tegument.

    PubMed

    Mulvenna, Jason; Moertel, Luke; Jones, Malcolm K; Nawaratna, Sujeevi; Lovas, Erica M; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Colgrave, Michelle; Jones, Alun; Loukas, Alex; McManus, Donald P

    2010-04-01

    The ability of the mammalian blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum to survive in the inhospitable environment of the mammalian bloodstream can be attributed, at least in part, to its host-exposed outer surface, called the tegument. The tegument is a dynamic organ and is involved in nutrition, immune evasion and modulation, excretion, osmoregulation and signal transduction. Given its importance for parasite survival, proteins exposed to the host at the surface of the tegument are ideal targets for the development of vaccines and drugs. By biotinylating live adult worms and using a combination of OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry 54 proteins were identified as putatively host-exposed in S. japonicum. These included glucose transport proteins, an amino permease, a leucine aminopeptidase and a range of transporters, heat shock proteins and novel immune-active proteins. Members of the tetraspanin protein family and a homologue of Sm 29, a tegument membrane protein from Schistosoma mansoni, both effective vaccine antigens in S. mansoni, were also identified. The fate of labelled surface proteins was monitored over time using electron microscopy and revealed that biotinylated proteins were rapidly internalised from the surface of the tegument and trafficked into the cytoplasmic bridges that connect the distal cytoplasm of the tegument to the underlying cell bodies. The results reported herein dramatically increase the number of S. japonicum proteins known to be exposed to the host and, hence, those of interest as therapeutic targets. The ability of the parasite to rapidly internalise proteins at its surface has implications for the development of vaccines and may explain how these parasites are able to avoid the host immune system for long periods of time. PMID:19853607

  4. Hydrologic Connection Between Geysers and Adjacent Thermal Pools, Two Examples: El Tatio, Chile and Yellowstone, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Saez, C.; Fauria, K.; Manga, M.; Hurwitz, S.; Namiki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Geyser eruption cycles can be influenced by adjacent and distant thermals sources, suggesting a hydraulic connection through permeable pathways. Diffusion of fluid pressure can be responsible for the communication between geysers. In this study we examine the processes linking two different geysers with adjacent thermal pools. The first was Vega Rinconada, located at El Tatio geyser field, Chile, where we measured temperature inside the conduit between the ground surface and a depth of seven meters, at one-meter intervals. The second was Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, where we measured temperature of the overflow water at the base of the cone. Concurrently, we measured temperature and the water level in pools adjacent to both geysers. We found common elements in both geyser - pool systems: First, water temperature in both adjacent pools was below the boiling point and cooler than water in the geysers. Second, changes in pool water levels were correlated with eruptions of the geysers. During the quiescent period of the geysers, the water level increased in adjacent pools, while water level in the pools deceased during eruptions. Additionally, measurements inside of the conduit in Vega Rinconada Geyser showed that water temperature increased in the deepest part of the conduit during eruptions, while water temperature decreased in the shallow part of the geyser conduit (~1 to 2 m). These drops in temperature in the shallow conduit were coincident with the drop in water level in the adjacent pool. This suggests that after the initiation of an eruption, water may drain from the pool to the geyser. Furthermore, we observed a temperature drop of 3oC in the shallow conduit immediately preceding the end of an eruption. This suggests that flow from the pool to geyser contributes to eruption shut off. Our observations of geyser-pool systems indicate a hydrologic connection between the geysers and their adjacent pools. In the case of Vega Rinconada, cold water

  5. Biochemical markers in butadiene-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtold, W.E.; Hayes, R.B.; Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Henderson, R.F.

    1994-11-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is used to manufacture a wide range of polymers and copolymers including styrene-butadiene rubber, polybutadiene, and acrylonitrile-butadiene-syrene resins. The carcinogenicity of BD has been determined in life-span inhalation studies in both Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F{sub 1} mice. Results suggest a marked species difference in the carcinogenic effects of BD. For example, female mice exposed to as low as 6.25 ppm BD exhibited increased alveolar/bronchiolar neoplasms. In contrast, BD was only a weak carcinogen in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were observed to have an increase only in mammary tumors after exposure to 1000 ppm. A biochemical study of highly exposed BD workers and unexposed controls is providing valuable information on BD metabolism in humans, and how this relates to the development of intermediate biologic effects. A group of heavily exposed workers were identified in a BD production facility in China. The purpose of this paper is to report the initial results from the sampling trip in the first quarter of 1994.

  6. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Jørs, Erik; Gonzáles, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. PMID:19662224

  7. The Effects of Single-Level Instrumented Lumbar Laminectomy on Adjacent Spinal Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Bisschop, Arno; Holewijn, Roderick M.; Kingma, Idsart; Stadhouder, Agnita; Vergroesen, Pieter-Paul A.; van der Veen, Albert J.; van Dieën, Jaap H.; van Royen, Barend J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Biomechanical study. Objective Posterior instrumentation is used to stabilize the spine after a lumbar laminectomy. However, the effects on the adjacent segmental stability are unknown. Therefore, we studied the range of motion (ROM) and stiffness of treated lumbar spinal segments and cranial segments after a laminectomy and after posterior instrumentation in flexion and extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR). These outcomes might help to better understand adjacent segment disease (ASD), which is reported cranial to the level on which posterior instrumentation is applied. Methods We obtained 12 cadaveric human lumbar spines. Spines were axially loaded with 250 N for 1 hour. Thereafter, 10 consecutive load cycles (4 Nm) were applied in FE, LB, and AR. Subsequently, a laminectomy was performed either at L2 or at L4. Thereafter, load-deformation tests were repeated, after similar preloading. Finally, posterior instrumentation was added to the level treated with a laminectomy before testing was repeated. The ROM and stiffness of the treated, the cranial adjacent, and the control segments were calculated from the load-displacement data. Repeated-measures analyses of variance used the spinal level as the between-subject factor and a laminectomy or instrumentation as the within-subject factors. Results After the laminectomy, the ROM increased (+19.4%) and the stiffness decreased (−18.0%) in AR. The ROM in AR of the adjacent segments also increased (+11.0%). The ROM of treated segments after instrumentation decreased in FE (−74.3%), LB (−71.6%), and AR (−59.8%). In the adjacent segments after instrumentation, only the ROM in LB was changed (−12.9%). Conclusions The present findings do not substantiate a biomechanical pathway toward or explanation for ASD. PMID:25649753

  8. Aberrant gene expression in mucosa adjacent to tumor reveals a molecular crosstalk in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A colorectal tumor is not an isolated entity growing in a restricted location of the body. The patient’s gut environment constitutes the framework where the tumor evolves and this relationship promotes and includes a complex and tight correlation of the tumor with inflammation, blood vessels formation, nutrition, and gut microbiome composition. The tumor influence in the environment could both promote an anti-tumor or a pro-tumor response. Methods A set of 98 paired adjacent mucosa and tumor tissues from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and 50 colon mucosa from healthy donors (246 samples in total) were included in this work. RNA extracted from each sample was hybridized in Affymetrix chips Human Genome U219. Functional relationships between genes were inferred by means of systems biology using both transcriptional regulation networks (ARACNe algorithm) and protein-protein interaction networks (BIANA software). Results Here we report a transcriptomic analysis revealing a number of genes activated in adjacent mucosa from CRC patients, not activated in mucosa from healthy donors. A functional analysis of these genes suggested that this active reaction of the adjacent mucosa was related to the presence of the tumor. Transcriptional and protein-interaction networks were used to further elucidate this response of normal gut in front of the tumor, revealing a crosstalk between proteins secreted by the tumor and receptors activated in the adjacent colon tissue; and vice versa. Remarkably, Slit family of proteins activated ROBO receptors in tumor whereas tumor-secreted proteins transduced a cellular signal finally activating AP-1 in adjacent tissue. Conclusions The systems-level approach provides new insights into the micro-ecology of colorectal tumorogenesis. Disrupting this intricate molecular network of cell-cell communication and pro-inflammatory microenvironment could be a therapeutic target in CRC patients. PMID:24597571

  9. Basic Electricity. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    This guide, the second (part 2) in a set of four guides, is designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, and includes two units: Unit IV--Electrical Theory, covering thirteen lessons (matter, the atom, electrical charges in the atom, rules of electric charges, electricity, atoms in an electrical conductor, electrical…

  10. The medial sural artery perforator flap and its application in electrical injury to the hand.

    PubMed

    Jeevaratnam, J A; Nikkhah, D; Nugent, N F; Blackburn, A V

    2014-11-01

    We describe the use of a free medial sural artery perforator flap to reconstruct a complex composite defect to the dorsum of the right index finger following a low voltage electrical injury. The resulting defect was a 3.5 × 5 cm full thickness wound, with segmental tendon loss and loss of underlying periosteum. Due to both size and local vascular injury related to the mechanism, free tissue transfer was felt to be the most reliable option to resurface the composite defect in a single stage. The medial sural artery perforator flap, for reasons outlined below, was felt to be the best option: 1. Thin profile. 2. Vascularised fascia can be taken as a tongue, adjacent to the skin paddle: a gliding surface to prevent the tendon graft sticking to exposed bone. 3. Long pedicle: micro-anastomosis away from zone of injury. 4. Little donor site morbidity: can be closed directly (if <6 cm wide) and does not require sacrifice of any major blood vessel. 5. Can be harvested with nerve and tendon from the same wound. 6. Can include as little or as much tissue required and compared to other fasciocutaneous flaps matches the texture and thickness of the hand most closely. We describe the reconstruction of the composite defect on day 42 post-injury, following one prior debridement. This case highlights the versatility and suitability of the medial sural artery flap in the reconstruction of complex hand burns with resulting composite defects.

  11. Aphid Acceptance of Barley Exposed to Volatile Phytochemicals Differs Between Plants Exposed in Daylight and Darkness

    PubMed Central

    Glinwood, Robert; Gradin, Therese; Karpinska, Barbara; Ahmed, Elham; Jonsson, Llisbeth

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that volatile cues from damaged plants may induce resistance in neighboring plants. Much less is known about the effects of volatile interaction between undamaged plants. In this study, barley plants, Hordeum vulgare cv. Kara, were exposed to volatiles from undamaged plants of barley cv. Alva or thistle Cirsium vulgare, and to the volatile phytochemicals, methyl salicylate or methyl jasmonate. Exposures were made either during natural daylight or darkness. Acceptance of exposed plants by the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi was assessed, as well as the expression of putative marker genes for the different treatments. Aphid acceptance of plants exposed to either barley or C. vulgare was significantly reduced, and an effect of the volatiles from undamaged plants was confirmed by the induction of pathogenesis-related protein, PR1a in exposed plants. However the effect on aphid acceptance was seen only when plants were exposed during darkness, whereas PR1a was induced only after treatment during daylight. Aphid acceptance of plants exposed to either methyl salicylate or methyl jasmonate was significantly reduced, but only when plants were exposed to the chemicals during daylight. AOS2 (allene oxide synthase) was induced by methyl jasmonate and BCI-4 (barley chemical inducible gene-4) by methyl salicylate in both daylight and darkness. It is concluded that (a) the effects on aphids of exposing barley to volatile phytochemicals was influenced by the presence or absence of light and (b) the response of barley to methyl salicylate/methyl jasmonate and to volatiles from undamaged plants differed at the gene and herbivore level. PMID:19516995

  12. Effect of chronic 60-Hz electric field exposure on mammary tumorigenesis in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.; Leung, F.C.; Rommereim, D.N.; Buschbom, R.L.; Wilson, B.W.; Stevens, R.G.

    1989-07-01

    Female rats were administered a single dosage of 7 or 10 mg of DMBA intragastrically between 50 and 55 days of age and palpated weekly for mammary tumors in two experiments. Rats were either exposed to a 40 kV/m 60-Hz electric field or sham-exposed in utero through 18 or 23 weeks of age. There was no difference between electric field exposed and sham-exposed in incidence of first tumor. When the results of the two experiments were combined, the electric field exposed groups had significantly more tumors per tumor-bearing animal than the sham-groups. These results may have implications for the role of electric power use in the etiology and promotion of breast cancer. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. 14 CFR 25.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that... time the airplane is exposed to lightning; and (2) The system automatically recovers normal...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that... after the time the rotorcraft is exposed to lightning; and (2) The system automatically recovers...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that... after the time the rotorcraft is exposed to lightning; and (2) The system automatically recovers...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that... time the airplane is exposed to lightning; and (2) The system automatically recovers normal...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1306 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Equipment General § 23.1306 Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and... affected during and after the time the airplane is exposed to lightning; and (2) The system...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that... after the time the rotorcraft is exposed to lightning; and (2) The system automatically recovers...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that... after the time the rotorcraft is exposed to lightning; and (2) The system automatically recovers...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that... after the time the rotorcraft is exposed to lightning; and (2) The system automatically recovers...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that... after the time the rotorcraft is exposed to lightning; and (2) The system automatically recovers...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1316 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and electronic system that... time the airplane is exposed to lightning; and (2) The system automatically recovers normal...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1306 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Equipment General § 23.1306 Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and... affected during and after the time the airplane is exposed to lightning; and (2) The system...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1306 - Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical and electronic system lightning... Equipment General § 23.1306 Electrical and electronic system lightning protection. (a) Each electrical and... affected during and after the time the airplane is exposed to lightning; and (2) The system...

  5. Effects of height and adjacent surfaces on captures of Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in pheromone-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; Phillips, Thomas W; Sanders, Stacy

    2004-08-01

    Diamond-shaped pheromone-baited traps are used widely in food storage and food processing facilities for monitoring of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), and here we evaluated to what extent trap captures were affected by 1) vertical placement of traps, 2) deployment of a horizontal landing platform to the diamond-shaped pheromone trap, and 3) placement of traps either freely exposed or along a sidewall. In the small sheds (height 1.8 m), traps were placed in three heights and significantly highest trap captures were obtained near the ceiling. When the same experiment was conducted in a larger room (height 6 m) with traps at seven heights, highest captures were obtained at both the lowest and highest traps. In a subsequent experiment, we deployed a horizontal platform to traps at seven heights and found that the importance of vertical placement became less important. Thus, it seemed that male moths preferred to orient to a pheromone source associated with a physical surface, such as the floor, ceiling, or landing platform. In a comparison of P. interpunctella male trap captures in a completely dark room (no visual cues), traps with a landing platform caught significantly more than traps without the platform. In a final experiment, we evaluated the effect of hanging traps either freely or adjacent to sidewalls, and significantly highest trap captures were obtained along side-walls. The results presented here suggest that deployment of a horizontal platform reduces the importance of the vertical placement of traps and seems to increase the trap efficiency, and we recommend placement of traps along sidewalls and/or near the ground.

  6. Electrode configuration for extreme-UV electrical discharge source

    DOEpatents

    Spence, Paul Andrew; Fornaciari, Neal Robert; Chang, Jim Jihchyun

    2002-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that debris generation within an electric capillary discharge source, for generating extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray, is dependent on the magnitude and profile of the electric field that is established along the surfaces of the electrodes. An electrode shape that results in uniform electric field strength along its surface has been developed to minimize sputtering and debris generation. The electric discharge plasma source includes: (a) a body that defines a circular capillary bore that has a proximal end and a distal end; (b) a back electrode positioned around and adjacent to the distal end of the capillary bore wherein the back electrode has a channel that is in communication with the distal end and that is defined by a non-uniform inner surface which exhibits a first region which is convex, a second region which is concave, and a third region which is convex wherein the regions are viewed outwardly from the inner surface of the channel that is adjacent the distal end of the capillary bore so that the first region is closest to the distal end; (c) a front electrode positioned around and adjacent to the proximal end of the capillary bore wherein the front electrode has an opening that is communication with the proximal end and that is defined by a non-uniform inner surface which exhibits a first region which is convex, a second region which is substantially linear, and third region which is convex wherein the regions are viewed outwardly from the inner surface of the opening that is adjacent the proximal end of the capillary bore so that the first region is closest to the proximal end; and (d) a source of electric potential that is connected across the front and back electrodes.

  7. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Draper, Robert; Lackey, Robert S.; Fagan, Jr., Thomas J.; Veyo, Stephen E.; Humphrey, Joseph R.

    1984-01-01

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module 10, an air mover module 12, and a resistance heat package module 14, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor 36 in a space adjacent the heat exchanger 28, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown in FIGS. 4-7 to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations.

  8. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs.

    PubMed

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M; Khaliullin, Timur O; Vasil'yeva, Olga L; Zalyalov, Ramil R; Mustafin, Ilshat G; Kisin, Elena R; Birch, M Eileen; Yanamala, Naveena; Shvedova, Anna A

    2016-05-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. PMID:26902652

  9. Physical examinations of workers exposed to trichlorotrifluoroethane.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imbus, H. R.; Adkins, C.

    1972-01-01

    A group of 50 workers, exposed for an average of 2.77 years in an environment, samples of which contained from 46 to 4700 ppm of trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113), was examined. There were no subjective complaints, other than one case of dryness of the skin, referable to this occupational exposure. At this time, it is our opinion that there is no evidence of adverse effects from exposure to trichlorotrifluoroethane under the conditions encountered by these personnel. We believe that continued, periodic, follow-up examinations of these workers will be helpful in further evaluating any possible long-range effects of this material.

  10. Chromosome aberrations in workers exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Beckman, G; Beckman, L; Nordenson, I

    1977-08-01

    The occurrence of chromosome aberrations was studied in short-term cultured lymphocytes from nine workers exposed to arsenic at the Rönnskär smeltery in northern Sweden. In the smelter workers, 87 aberrations were found in 819 mitoses. The number of aberrations varied individually from 0 to 25 aberrations per 100 cells. In a control material 13 aberrations were found in 1012 mitoses. The frequency of chromosome aberrations was significantly increased among the smelter workers, but due to the simultaneous exposure to other agents the effect of arsenic per se can not be assessed with certainty.

  11. Hexamitiasis in cadmium-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Exon, J H; Patton, N M; Koller, L D

    1975-09-01

    Mortality was observed in 4- to 5-week-old Swiss Webster mice exposed to 300 or 3 ppm cadmium as cadmium chloride in the drinking water. Mice receiving 300 ppm cadium suffered 26% mortality as compared with 7% of those on the low cadmium dose. Death did not occur in control mice. Clinical signs and histopathology established Hexamita muris as the causative agent. Cadmium lesions were not observed. It is suggested that mortality due to hexamitiasis resulted from synergism between cadmium and H muris.

  12. The PUR Experiment on the EXPOSE-R facility: biological dosimetry of solar extraterrestrial UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérces, A.; Egyeki, M.; Fekete, A.; Horneck, G.; Kovács, G.; Panitz, C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our experiment Phage and Uracil Response was to extend the use of bacteriophage T7 and uracil biological dosimeters for measuring the biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) dose in the harsh extraterrestrial radiation conditions. The biological detectors were exposed in vacuum-tightly cases in the European Space Agency (ESA) astrobiological exposure facility attached to the external platform of Zvezda (EXPOSE-R). EXPOSE-R took off to the International Space Station (ISS) in November 2008 and was installed on the External platform of the Russian module Zvezda of the ISS in March 2009. Our goal was to determine the dose-effect relation for the formation of photoproducts (i.e. damage to phage DNA and uracil, respectively). The extraterrestrial solar UV radiation ranges over the whole spectrum from vacuum-UV (λ<200 nm) to UVA (315 nm<λ<400 nm), which causes photolesions (photoproducts) in the nucleic acids/their components either by photoionization or excitation. However, these wavelengths cause not only photolesions but in a wavelength-dependent efficiency the reversion of some photolesions, too. Our biological detectors measured in situ conditions the resultant of both reactions induced by the extraterrestrial UV radiation. From this aspect the role of the photoreversion in the extension of the biological UV dosimetry are discussed.

  13. Physical controls of hypoxia in waters adjacent to the Yangtze Estuary: A numerical modeling study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Shen, Zhenyao; Li, Yangyang; Yang, Ye

    2015-08-15

    A three-dimensional circulation model (the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code) was used to examine the role that physical forcing (river discharge, wind speed and direction) plays in controlling hypoxia in waters adjacent to the Yangtze Estuary. The model assumes that the biological consumption of oxygen is constant in both time and space, which allows the role of physical forcing in modulating the oxygen dynamics to be isolated. Despite of the simplicity of this model, the simulation results showed that it can reproduce the observed variability of dissolved oxygen in waters adjacent to the Yangtze Estuary, thereby highlighting the important role of changes in physical forcing in the variation of hypoxia. The scenarios tested revealed appreciable changes in the areal extent of hypoxia as a function of wind speed and wind direction. Interestingly, well-developed hypoxia was insensitive to river discharge.

  14. Prose and Poetry Classification and Boundary Detection Using Word Adjacency Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roxas, Ranzivelle Marianne; Tapang, Giovanni

    Word adjacency networks constructed from written works reflect differences in the structure of prose and poetry. We present a method to disambiguate prose and poetry by analyzing network parameters of word adjacency networks, such as the clustering coefficient, average path length and average degree. We determine the relevant parameters for disambiguation using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and the effect size criterion. The accuracy of the method is 74.9 ± 2.9% for the training set and 73.7 ± 6.4% for the test set which are greater than the acceptable classifier requirement of 67.3%. This approach is also useful in locating text boundaries within a single article which falls within a window size where the significant change in clustering coefficient is observed. Results indicate that an optimal window size of 75 words can detect the text boundaries.

  15. Pounding Effects on the Earthquake Response of Adjacent Reinforced Concrete Structures Strengthened by Cable Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liolios, Angelos; Liolios, Asterios; Hatzigeorgiou, George; Radev, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    A numerical approach for estimating the effects of pounding (seismic interaction) on the response of adjacent Civil Engineering structures is presented. Emphasis is given to reinforced concrete (RC) frames of existing buildings which are seismically strengthened by cable-elements. A double discretization, in space by the Finite Element Method and in time by a direct incremental approach is used. The unilateral behaviours of both, the cable-elements and the interfaces contact-constraints, are taken strictly into account and result to inequality constitutive conditions. So, in each time-step, a non-convex linear complementarity problem is solved. It is found that pounding and cable strengthening have significant effects on the earthquake response and, hence, on the seismic upgrading of existing adjacent RC structures.

  16. Road to evolution? Local adaptation to road adjacency in an amphibian (Ambystoma maculatum)

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    The network of roads on the landscape is vast, and contributes a suite of negative ecological effects on adjacent habitats, ranging from fragmentation to contamination by runoff. In addition to the immediate consequences faced by biota living in roaded landscapes, road effects may further function as novel agents of selection, setting the stage for contemporary evolutionary changes in local populations. Though the ecological consequences of roads are well described, evolutionary outcomes remain largely unevaluated. To address these potential responses in tandem, I conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment on early life history stages of a pool-breeding salamander. My data show that despite a strong, negative effect of roadside pools on salamander performance, populations adjacent to roads are locally adapted. This suggests that the response of species to human-altered environments varies across local populations, and that adaptive processes may mediate this response. PMID:22355748

  17. Cutaneous plasmacytoma adjacent to Bowenoid actinic keratosis on the scalp: Is there a link?

    PubMed Central

    Mosea, A.; Millwaters, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cutaneous extramedullary plasmacytoma without bone marrow involvement is very rare. We present a plasmacytoma on the scalp with an adjacent Bowenoid disease. Presentation An 86 year old man presented to our unit with an ulcerated lump on the vertex of the scalp. Excisional biopsy showed plasmacytoma with adjacent Bowenoid actinic keratosis. Blood tests did not show any systemic multiple myeloma. However, skeletal survey showed possible osteolytic lesions in some areas. Sixteen months afterwards, the patient remains well on follow up. Discussion As far as we know, this is the first reported case of a cutaneous plasma cell tumour next to an area of Bowenoid actinic keratosis. Relevant literature is investigated here for possible correlation. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, solitary primary cutaneous plasmacytoma can be treated surgically with a favourable outcome. A hypothesis of correlation between Bowenoid actinic keratosis and plasmacytoma is investigated here. Further research is needed to confirm this finding. PMID:26930256

  18. Impaired statistical learning of non-adjacent dependencies in adolescents with specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsinjen J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2014-01-01

    Being able to track dependencies between syntactic elements separated by other constituents is crucial for language acquisition and processing (e.g., in subject-noun/verb agreement). Although long assumed to require language-specific machinery, research on statistical learning has suggested that domain-general mechanisms may support the acquisition of non-adjacent dependencies. In this study, we investigated whether individuals with specific language impairment (SLI)—who have problems with long-distance dependencies in language—also have problems with statistical learning of non-adjacent relations. The results confirmed this hypothesis, indicating that statistical learning may subserve the acquisition and processing of long-distance dependencies in natural language. PMID:24639661

  19. A study on the co- and adjacent channel protection requirements for mobile satellite ACSSB modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydor, John T.

    1988-01-01

    Samples of speech modulated by narrowband frequency modulation (NBFM) (cellular) and amplitude companded single sideband (ACSSB) radios were subjected to simulated co- and adjacent channel interference environments typical of proposed frequency division multiple access (FDMA) mobile satellite systems. These samples were then listened to by a group of evaluators whose subjective responses to the samples were used to produce a series of graphs showing the relationship between subjective acceptability, carrier to noise density (C/No), carrier to interference ratio (C/I), and frequency offset. The results show that in a mobile satellite environment, ACSSB deteriorates more slowly than NBFM. The co- and adjacent channel protection ratios for both modulation techniques were roughly the same, even though the mechanism for signal deterioration is different.

  20. Hg bioaccumulation in marine copepods around hydrothermal vents and the adjacent marine environment in northeastern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Shih-Hui; Fang, Tien-Hsi

    2013-09-15

    The Hg concentration in seawater and copepod samples collected from the area around hydrothermal vents at Kueishan Island and the adjacent marine environment in northeastern Taiwan were analyzed to study Hg bioaccumulation in copepods living in polluted and clean marine environments. The seawater collected from the hydrothermal vent area had an extremely high concentration of dissolved Hg, 50.6-256 ng l(-1). There was slightly higher Hg content in the copepods, 0.08-0.88 μg g(-1). The dissolved Hg concentration in the hydrothermal vent seawater was two to three orders of magnitude higher than that in the adjacent environment. The bioconcentration factor of the studied copepods ranged within 10(3)-10(6), and showed higher dissolved concentration as the bioconcentration factor was lower. A substantial abundance, but with less copepod diversity was recorded in the seawater around the hydrothermal vent area. Temora turbinata was the species of opportunity under the hydrothermal vent influence.

  1. Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar: Report of five rare cases

    PubMed Central

    Souki, Bernardo Q.; Cheib, Paula L.; de Brito, Gabriela M.; Pinto, Larissa S. M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar is a rare condition that practitioners might face in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. The early diagnosis and extraction of the adjacent ectopic third molar have been advocated, and prior research has reported a high rate of spontaneous eruption following third molar removal. However, some challenges in the daily practice are that the early diagnosis of this type of tooth impaction is difficult with conventional radiographic examination, and sometimes the early surgical removal of the maxillary third molar must be postponed because of the risks of damaging the second molar. The objective of this study is to report a case series of five young patients with maxillary second molar impaction and to discuss the difficulty of early diagnosis with the conventional radiographic examination, and unpredictability of self-correction. PMID:26321848

  2. Modeling limit languages via limit adjacency matrix and Yusof-Goode approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wen Li, Yusof, Yuhani

    2015-05-01

    Limit language was introduced by Goode and Pixton in 2004 under the framework of formal language theory. It is a subset of splicing languages which is restricted to the molecules that will be presented in the splicing system after the reaction of biochemical has run to its completion. In this paper, limit adjacency matrix will be introduced to model the existence of limit languages from splicing languages. Besides, it can be used to characterize the splicing language in terms of active persistent, adult/inert and transient properties based on Yusof-Goode splicing system. In this paper, some examples and theorems that have been formulated via limit adjacency matrix approach will be presented too.

  3. Modified hydrodynamics in canopies with longitudinal gaps exposed to oscillatory flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Allaoui, Nazha; Serra, Teresa; Soler, Marianna; Colomer, Jordi; Pujol, Dolors; Oldham, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    Longitudinal gaps are commonly found in aquatic canopies. While the ecological significance of gaps may be large, we know little about their impact on the hydrodynamics within the canopy. We used laboratory experiments to investigate the effect of longitudinal gaps within canopies exposed to a wave field. In rigid submerged and emergent vegetation, wave velocities were reduced compared to the case without vegetation. Flexible canopies also attenuated waves, but this attenuation was lower than for rigid canopies. The presence of the gap modified the mean current associated with the waves in both the gap and the lateral vegetation. A gap within a canopy of 5% solid plant fraction did not show differences in the wave attenuation between the gap and the lateral vegetation. In contrast, gaps within canopies of 10% solid plant fraction resulted in large differences between the gap and the lateral vegetation. In all the experiments, the effect of a gap within a canopy reduced the wave attenuation within the lateral vegetation adjacent to the gap when compared with a canopy without a gap. In canopies with rigid plants, the lateral vegetation modified the wave attenuation in the nearby gap. In contrast, the lateral flexible vegetation did not produce any effect on the wave attenuation of the adjacent gap. Canopy density, plant height and plant flexibility were critical for determining the hydrodynamics throughout the canopy and in the gap.

  4. Biological effects of electric fields: EPRI's role

    SciTech Connect

    Kavet, R.

    1982-07-01

    Since 1973 the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has supported research to evaluate the biological effects which may result from exposure to electric fields produced by AC overhead transmission lines; more recently, EPRI has also begun DC research. Through 1981 EPRI will have expended $8.7M on these efforts. Ongoing AC projects are studying a variety of lifeforms exposed to electric fields; these include humans, miniature swine, rats, honeybees, chick embryos, and crops. The status of these projects is discussed. The DC program has not as yet produced data. These studies will add to the current data base so as to enable a more complete assessment of health risks which may be associated with exposure to electric fields at power frequencies.

  5. Stability of Spherical Vesicles in Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The stability of spherical vesicles in alternating (ac) electric fields is studied theoretically for asymmetric conductivity conditions across their membranes. The vesicle deformation is obtained from a balance between the curvature elastic energies and the work done by the Maxwell stresses. The present theory describes and clarifies the mechanisms for the four types of morphological transitions observed experimentally on vesicles exposed to ac fields in the frequency range from 500 to 2 × 107 Hz. The displacement currents across the membranes redirect the electric fields toward the membrane normal to accumulate electric charges by the Maxwell−Wagner mechanism. These accumulated electric charges provide the underlying molecular mechanism for the morphological transitions of vesicles as observed on the micrometer scale. PMID:20575588

  6. Chromosome damage and aneuploidy detected by interphase multicolour FISH in benzene-exposed shale oil workers.

    PubMed

    Marcon, F; Zijno, A; Crebelli, R; Carere, A; Veidebaum, T; Peltonen, K; Parks, R; Schuler, M; Eastmond, D

    1999-09-30

    A multicolour tandem-labelling fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure was used to detect chromosome alterations in peripheral blood cells of a group of Estonian petrochemistry workers. Twelve workers employed in benzene production and five cokery workers, together with eight unexposed rural controls, were enrolled in the study. The methodology employed, based on the in situ hybridization of adjacent centromeric and pericentromeric regions, allowed the simultaneous detection of both chromosome breakage, involving damage-prone pericentromeric regions, and hyperploidy in interphase cells. Blood smears from all subjects were hybridized with chromosome 1 specific probes, in order to detect genotoxic damage in circulating lymphocytes and granulocytes. Moreover, lymphocyte cultures were established, harvested 48 h following mitogen stimulation and hybridized with the tandem chromosomes 1 and 9 probes. No significant difference in the incidence of breakage was detected in the nucleated cells of blood smears of exposed vs. control subjects. In contrast, modest but significantly increased frequencies of breakage affecting both chromosomes 1 and 9 were observed in the cultured lymphocytes of the benzene-exposed workers compared to the unexposed controls, suggesting an expression of premutagenic lesions during the S-phase in vitro. Across the entire study group, the frequencies of breakage affecting chromosomes 1 and 9 in the stimulated lymphocytes were highly intercorrelated (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found in the incidence of hyperploidy among the study groups, although a tendency to higher values was observed in benzene-exposed workers. Although the relatively small size of the study groups does not allow firm conclusions on the role of occupational exposure, the observed patterns are suggestive of effects in the benzene-exposed workers. This work also shows that tandem labelling FISH can be usefully applied in human biomonitoring, allowing the

  7. Erythrocyte survival in sheep exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.S.; Calabrese, E.J.; Labato, F.J.

    1981-07-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies in the Dorset ewe using chromium 51 were performed. The purpose of the study was to determine if ozone exposure produces decreased cell survival which may be the result of premature erythrocyte aging. This strain of sheep has an erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity that is very low, being comparable to human A-variants with G6PD deficiency. Ozone exposure may produce hemolytic effects in G6PD deficients more readily than in erythrocytes with normal activity. A decrease in hematocrit was observed in the ozone exposed groups. With respect to red cell destruction, ozone does not appear to act immediately, but rather there appears to be a delayed effect. At 0.25 ppM ozone, the group reached the 50% remaining level an average of 1 day sooner than the control group. There was no significant difference between control and exposed groups at the 0.50 ppM and 0.70 ppM levels. Also, the results demonstrate a net decrease in hematocrit which is greater for 0.25 ppM ozone than any other exposure level. (RJC)

  8. Heart disease in workers exposed to dinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.J.; Andjelkovich, D.A.; Kersteter, S.L.; Arp, E.W. Jr.; Balogh, S.A.; Blunden, P.B.; Stanley, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    To determine whether the carcinogenicity of dinitrotoluene (DNT) in rodent bioassays was predictive for humans, we examined the mortality experience of exposed workers at two ammunition plants. Cohorts of 156 and 301 men who had worked a month or more during the 1940s and 1950s at jobs with opportunity for substantial DNT exposure were followed through the end of 1980. Numbers of expected deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed, using mortality rates of US white males as the standard. No evidence of a carcinogenic effect was found, but unsuspected excesses of mortality from ischemic heart disease were noted at both plants (SMRs) 131 and 143; 95% confidence limits 65 to 234 and 107 to 187, respectively). Deaths from ischemic heart disease remained high even when compared with expected numbers derived using mortality rates of the counties in which the plants were located. Additional analyses revealed evidence of a 15-year latent period and suggested a relationship with duration and intensity of exposure. Epidemiologic investigations of other heavily exposed populations are needed to confirm the etiologic significance of the association between DNT and heart disease described here.

  9. Hedgerow restoration promotes pollinator populations and exports native bees to adjacent fields.

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; Kremen, Claire

    2013-06-01

    In intensive agricultural landscapes, restoration within farms could enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services such as pollination by native pollinators. Although governments and conservation groups are promoting small-scale restoration on working farms, there are few studies that assess whether these practices enhance pollinator communities in restored areas. Further, there is no information on whether floral enhancements will deplete pollinators in adjacent fields by concentrating ambient populations or whether they result in a net increase in abundance in adjacent farm fields. We investigated whether field edges restored with native perennial plants in California's Central Valley agricultural region increased floral abundance and potential bee nesting sites, and native bee and syrphid fly abundance and diversity, in comparison to relatively unmanaged edges. Native bees and syrphid flies collected from flowers were more abundant, species-rich, and diverse at hedgerow sites than in weedy, unmanaged edges. Abundance of bees collected passively in pan traps was negatively correlated with floral abundance, was significantly different from communities captured by net sampling from flowers, and did not distinguish between site types; we therefore focused on the results of net samples and visual observations. Uncommon species of native bees were sevenfold more abundant on hedgerow flowers than on flowers at weedy, unmanaged edges. Of the species on flowers at hedgerows, 40% were exclusive to hedgerow sites, but there were no species exclusively found on flowers at control sites. Hedgerows were especially important for supporting less-common species of native bees in our intensive agricultural landscape. Hedgerows did not concentrate ambient native bee, honey bee, or syphid fly populations, and they acted as net exporters of native bees into adjacent fields. Within-farm habitat restoration such as hedgerow creation may be essential for enhancing native pollinator

  10. Best Merge Region Growing Segmentation with Integrated Non-Adjacent Region Object Aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Tarabalka, Yuliya; Montesano, Paul M.; Gofman, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    Best merge region growing normally produces segmentations with closed connected region objects. Recognizing that spectrally similar objects often appear in spatially separate locations, we present an approach for tightly integrating best merge region growing with non-adjacent region object aggregation, which we call Hierarchical Segmentation or HSeg. However, the original implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg required excessive computing time even for moderately sized images because of the required intercomparison of each region with all other regions. This problem was previously addressed by a recursive approximation of HSeg, called RHSeg. In this paper we introduce a refined implementation of non-adjacent region object aggregation in HSeg that reduces the computational requirements of HSeg without resorting to the recursive approximation. In this refinement, HSeg s region inter-comparisons among non-adjacent regions are limited to regions of a dynamically determined minimum size. We show that this refined version of HSeg can process moderately sized images in about the same amount of time as RHSeg incorporating the original HSeg. Nonetheless, RHSeg is still required for processing very large images due to its lower computer memory requirements and amenability to parallel processing. We then note a limitation of RHSeg with the original HSeg for high spatial resolution images, and show how incorporating the refined HSeg into RHSeg overcomes this limitation. The quality of the image segmentations produced by the refined HSeg is then compared with other available best merge segmentation approaches. Finally, we comment on the unique nature of the hierarchical segmentations produced by HSeg.

  11. SPERTI Reactor Pit Building (PER605). Earth shielding protect adjacent Instrument ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPERT-I Reactor Pit Building (PER-605). Earth shielding protect adjacent Instrument Cell (PER-606). Security fencing surrounds complex, to which gate entry is provided next to Guard House (PER-607). Note gravel road leading to control area. Earth-covered conduit leads from instrument cell to terminal building out of view. Photographer: R.G. Larsen. Date: June 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1701 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Topography adjacent to Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topography adjacent to Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, showing conditions before construction, May 28, 1943, this drawing shows the Bonita Ridge access road retaining wall and general conditions at Bonita Ridge before the construction of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  13. Repeated adjacent segment diseases and fractures in osteoporotic patients: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Yao; Chen, Chiu-Liang; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Background Pedicle screw instrumentation for treating spinal disorder is becoming increasingly widespread. Many studies have advocated its use to facilitate rigid fixation for spine; however, adjacent segmental disease is a known complication. Instrumented fusion for osteoporotic spines remains a significant challenge for spine surgeons. Prophylactic vertebroplasty for adjacent vertebra has been reported to reduce the complications of junctional compression fractures but has raised a new problem of vertebral subluxation. This case report is a rare and an extreme example with many surgical complications caused by repeated instrumented fusion for osteoporotic spine in a single patient. This patient had various complications including adjacent segmental disease, vertebral subluxation, and junctional fractures on radiographs and magnetic resonance images. Case presentation An 81-year-old Taiwanese woman underwent decompression and instrumented fusion of L4-L5 in Taiwan 10 years ago. Due to degenerative spinal stenosis of L3-L4 and L2-L3, she had decompression with instrumented fusion from L5 to L1 at the previous hospital. However, catastrophic vertebral subluxations with severe neurologic compromise occurred, and she underwent salvage surgeries twice with prolonged instrumented fusion from L5 to T2. The surgeries did not resolve her problems of spinal instability and neurologic complications. Eventually, the patient remained with a Frankel Grade C spinal cord injury. Conclusion Adjacent segmental disease, junctional fracture, and vertebral subluxation are familiar complications following instrumented spinal fusion surgeries for osteoporotic spines. Neurologic injuries following long instrumentation are often serious and difficult to address with surgery alone. Conservative treatments should always be contemplated as an alternative method for patients with poor bone stock. PMID:27555778

  14. Seismic Monitoring Capabilities of the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Tsunami Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurel, Jean-Marie; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Crespo, Hector; McNamara, Dan; Huerfano, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions during the past 500 years. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Hundreds of thousands are currently threatened along the Caribbean coastlines. In 2005 the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established. It recommended the following minimum seismic performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of <30 km. The implementation plan of the CARIBE EWS currently includes 115 seismic stations in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions. The NOAA National Weather Service Caribbean Tsunami Warning Program prepares and distributes monthly reports on real time and archived seismic data availability of the contributing stations at the US Tsunami Warning Centers, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network and IRIS. As of early 2014, 99 of the proposed stations are being contributed by national, regional and international seismological institutions. Recent network additions (Nicaragua, Colombia, Mexico, Cayman Islands, and Venezuela) have reduced detection threshold, time and location error throughout much of the Caribbean region and Central America. Specifically, earthquakes (>M4.0) can be detected within 1 minute throughout much of the Caribbean. The remaining exceptions to this standard for detection are portions of northern South America and Mexico. Another performance criterion is 90% data availability. Currently 60-70% of the stations meet this standard. The presentation will further report on the status of the CARIBE EWS seismic capability for the timely and accurate detection and analysis of earthquakes for tsunami warning purposes for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions.

  15. Language testing during awake "anesthesia" in a bilingual patient with brain lesion adjacent to Wernicke's area.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, Federico; Stazi, Elisabetta; Delfini, Roberto; Rosa, Giovanni

    2011-04-01

    Awake "anesthesia" is the preferable anesthetic approach for neurosurgical procedures that require intraoperative localization of eloquent brain areas. We describe intraoperative inducible selective English aphasia in a bilingual (English and Italian) patient undergoing awake anesthesia for excision of a brain lesion adjacent to Wernicke's area with no postoperative neurological sequelae. We discuss the importance of intraoperative brain mapping and intraoperative language testing in bilingual patients to prevent iatrogenic-related morbidity.

  16. Paleomagnetic constraints on deformation of superfast-spread oceanic crust exposed at Pito Deep Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, A. J.; Varga, R. J.; Gee, J. S.; Karson, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    The uppermost oceanic crust produced at the superfast spreading (˜142 km Ma-1, full-spreading rate) southern East Pacific Rise (EPR) during the Gauss Chron is exposed in a tectonic window along the northeastern wall of the Pito Deep Rift. Paleomagnetic analysis of fully oriented dike (62) and gabbro (5) samples from two adjacent study areas yield bootstrapped mean remanence directions of 38.9° ± 8.1°, -16.7° ± 15.6°, n = 23 (Area A) and 30.4° ± 8.0°, -25.1° ± 12.9°, n = 44 (Area B), both are significantly distinct from the Geocentric Axial Dipole expected direction at 23° S. Regional tectonics and outcrop-scale structural data combined with bootstrapped remanence directions constrain models that involve a sequence of three rotations that result in dikes restored to subvertical orientations related to (1) inward-tilting of crustal blocks during spreading (Area A = 11°, Area B = 22°), (2) clockwise, vertical-axis rotation of the Easter Microplate (A = 46°, B = 44°), and (3) block tilting at Pito Deep Rift (A = 21°, B = 10°). These data support a structural model for accretion at the southern EPR in which outcrop-scale faulting and block rotation accommodates spreading-related subaxial subsidence that is generally less than that observed in crust generated at a fast spreading rate exposed at Hess Deep Rift. These data also support previous estimates for the clockwise rotation of crust adjacent to the Easter Microplate. Dike sample natural remanent magnetization (NRM) has an arithmetic mean of 5.96 A/m ± 3.76, which suggests that they significantly contribute to observed magnetic anomalies from fast- to superfast-spread crust.

  17. Determining resistivity of a formation adjacent to a borehole having casing by generating constant current flow in portion of casing and using at least two voltage measurement electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William Banning

    2000-01-01

    Methods of operation of different types of multiple electrode apparatus vertically disposed in a cased well to measure information related to the resistivity of adjacent geological formations from within the cased well are described. The multiple electrode apparatus has a minimum of two spaced apart voltage measurement electrodes that electrically engage a first portion of the interior of the cased well and that provide at least first voltage information. Current control means are used to control the magnitude of any selected current that flows along a second portion of the interior of the casing to be equal to a predetermined selected constant. The first portion of the interior of the cased well is spaced apart from the second portion of the interior of the cased well. The first voltage information and the predetermined selected constant value of any selected current flowing along the casing are used in part to determine a magnitude related to the formation resistivity adjacent to the first portion of the interior of the cased well. Methods and apparatus having a plurality of voltage measurement electrodes are disclosed that provide voltage related information in the presence of constant currents flowing along the casing which is used to provide formation resistivity.

  18. Mortality in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Milham, S. Jr.

    1985-10-01

    In an occupational mortality analysis of 486,000 adult male death records filed in Washington State in the years 1950-1982, leukemia and the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas show increased proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) in workers employed in occupations with intuitive exposures to electromagnetic fields. Nine occupations of 219 were considered to have electric or magnetic field exposures. These were: electrical and electronic technicians, radio and telegraph operators, radio and television repairmen, telephone and power linemen, power station operators, welders, aluminum reduction workers, motion picture projectionists and electricians. There were 12,714 total deaths in these occupations. Eight of the nine occupations had PMR increases for leukemia (International Classification of Diseases (ICD), seventh revision 204) and seven of the nine occupations had PMR increases for the other lymphoma category (7th ICD 200.2, 202). The highest PMRs were seen for acute leukemia: (67 deaths observed, 41 deaths expected; PMR 162), and in the other lymphomas (51 deaths observed, 31 deaths expected; PMR 164). No increase in mortality was seen for Hodgkin's disease or multiple myeloma. These findings offer some support for the hypothesis that electric and magnetic fields may be carcinogenic.

  19. Atmospheric electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    In the last three years the focus was on the information contained in the lightning measurement, which is independent of other meteorological measurements that can be made from space. The characteristics of lightning activity in mesoscale convective systems were quantified. A strong relationship was found between lightning activity and surface rainfall. It is shown that lightning provides a precursor signature for wet microbursts (the strong downdrafts that produce windshears hazardous to aircraft) and that the lightning signature is a direct consequence of storm evolution. The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) collaborated with NASA scientists in the preliminary analysis and scientific justification for the design and deployment of an optical instrument which can detect lightning from geostationary orbit. Science proposals for the NASA mesoscale science program and for the Tethered Satellite System were reviewed. The weather forecasting research and unmanned space vehicles. Software was written to ingest and analyze the lightning ground strike data on the MSFC McIDAS system. The capabilities which were developed have a wide application to a number of problems associated with the operational impacts of electrical discharge within the atmosphere.

  20. Temperature modulation of electric fields in biological matter.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Charlotte S; Rubinsky, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) have become an important minimally invasive surgical technology for various applications including genetic engineering, electrochemotherapy and tissue ablation. This study explores the hypothesis that temperature dependent electrical parameters of tissue can be used to modulate the outcome of PEF protocols, providing a new means for controlling and optimizing this minimally invasive surgical procedure. This study investigates two different applications of cooling temperatures applied during PEF. The first case utilizes an electrode which simultaneously delivers pulsed electric fields and cooling temperatures. The subsequent results demonstrate that changes in electrical properties due to temperature produced by this configuration can substantially magnify and confine the electric fields in the cooled regions while almost eliminating electric fields in surrounding regions. This method can be used to increase precision in the PEF procedure, and eliminate muscle contractions and damage to adjacent tissues. The second configuration considered introduces a third probe that is not electrically active and only applies cooling boundary conditions. This second study demonstrates that in this probe configuration the temperature induced changes in electrical properties of tissue substantially reduce the electric fields in the cooled regions. This novel treatment can potentially be used to protect sensitive tissues from the effect of the PEF. Perhaps the most important conclusion of this investigation is that temperature is a powerful and accessible mechanism to modulate and control electric fields in biological tissues and can therefore be used to optimize and control PEF treatments.

  1. Deformation mechanisms adjacent to a thrust fault, Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.C.; McConnell, D.A.; Friberg, V.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the character of grain-scale deformation adjacent to a Laramide thrust fault in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This site represents a window through the hanging wall of a thrust sheet which juxtaposes Precambrian rocks over Pennsylvanian rocks. It provides a rare opportunity to examine deformation mechanisms in the footwall of a basement-involved thrust. Brittle deformation is evident at both outcrop and grain-scale. Filled fractures and slickensides composed of quartz and epidote are present throughout the area, and increase in abundance adjacent to the fault zone, as does the frequency of mesoscopic faulting. Variations in deformation mechanisms can be seen between the Precambrian rocks of the thrust sheet and the Pennsylvanian metasedimentary rocks, and between the metamorphosed arkoses and metapelites within the Pennsylvanian section. Cataclastic textures are present in deformed Precambrian rocks, and the degree of cataclasis is greatest immediately adjacent to the fault zone. Deformation in the Pennsylvanian rocks is largely dependent upon the abundance of fine-grained matrix within each sample. The degree of brittle deformation is negatively correlated to the percentage of matrix. Coarser-grained sections show microscopic faults which offset quartz and feldspar grains. Offsets decrease on the faults as they pass from coarse grains into the matrix.

  2. Differential transcriptional profiling of damaged and intact adjacent dorsal root ganglia neurons in neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, A K; Batti, L; Bilbao, D; Buness, A; Rittner, H L; Heppenstall, P A

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain, caused by a lesion in the somatosensory system, is a severely impairing mostly chronic disease. While its underlying molecular mechanisms are not thoroughly understood, neuroimmune interactions as well as changes in the pain pathway such as sensitization of nociceptors have been implicated. It has been shown that not only are different cell types involved in generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain, like neurons, immune and glial cells, but, also, intact adjacent neurons are relevant to the process. Here, we describe an experimental approach to discriminate damaged from intact adjacent neurons in the same dorsal root ganglion (DRG) using differential fluorescent neuronal labelling and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Two fluorescent tracers, Fluoroemerald (FE) and 1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), were used, whose properties allow us to distinguish between damaged and intact neurons. Subsequent sorting permitted transcriptional analysis of both groups. Results and qPCR validation show a strong regulation in damaged neurons versus contralateral controls as well as a moderate regulation in adjacent neurons. Data for damaged neurons reveal an mRNA expression pattern consistent with established upregulated genes like galanin, which supports our approach. Moreover, novel genes were found strongly regulated such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), providing novel targets for further research. Differential fluorescent neuronal labelling and sorting allows for a clear distinction between primarily damaged neuropathic neurons and "bystanders," thereby facilitating a more detailed understanding of their respective roles in neuropathic processes in the DRG. PMID:25880204

  3. Interaction between two adjacent grounded sources in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haigen; Lin, Jun; Liu, Changsheng; Kang, Lili; Li, Gang; Zeng, Xinsen

    2016-03-01

    Multi-source and multi-frequency emission method can make full use of the valuable and short flight time in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic (FSAEM) exploration, which has potential to investigate the deep earth structure in complex terrain region. Because several sources are adjacent in multi-source emission method, the interaction of different sources should be considered carefully. An equivalent circuit model of dual-source is established in this paper to assess the interaction between two individual sources, where the parameters are given with the typical values based on the practical instrument system and its application. By simulating the output current of two sources in different cases, the influence from the adjacent source is observed clearly. The current waveforms show that the mutual resistance causes the fluctuation and drift in another source and that the mutual inductance causes transient peaks. A field test with dual-source was conducted to certify the existence of interaction between adjacent sources. The simulation of output current also shows that current errors at low frequency are mainly caused by the mutual resistance while those at high frequency are mainly due to the mutual inductance. Increasing the distance between neighboring sources is a proposed measure to reduce the emission signal errors with designed ones. The feasible distance is discussed in the end. This study gives a useful guidance to lay multi sources to meet the requirement of measurement accuracy in FSAEM survey.

  4. Bacterial community composition in Brazilian Anthrosols and adjacent soils characterized using culturing and molecular identification.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, B; Grossman, J; Tsai, M T; Gomes, J E; Lehmann, J; Peterson, J; Neves, E; Thies, J E

    2009-07-01

    Microbial community composition was examined in two soil types, Anthrosols and adjacent soils, sampled from three locations in the Brazilian Amazon. The Anthrosols, also known as Amazonian dark earths, are highly fertile soils that are a legacy of pre-Columbian settlement. Both Anthrosols and adjacent soils are derived from the same parent material and subject to the same environmental conditions, including rainfall and temperature; however, the Anthrosols contain high levels of charcoal-like black carbon from which they derive their dark color. The Anthrosols typically have higher cation exchange capacity, higher pH, and higher phosphorus and calcium contents. We used culture media prepared from soil extracts to isolate bacteria unique to the two soil types and then sequenced their 16S rRNA genes to determine their phylogenetic placement. Higher numbers of culturable bacteria, by over two orders of magnitude at the deepest sampling depths, were counted in the Anthrosols. Sequences of bacteria isolated on soil extract media yielded five possible new bacterial families. Also, a higher number of families in the bacteria were represented by isolates from the deeper soil depths in the Anthrosols. Higher bacterial populations and a greater diversity of isolates were found in all of the Anthrosols, to a depth of up to 1 m, compared to adjacent soils located within 50-500 m of their associated Anthrosols. Compared to standard culture media, soil extract media revealed diverse soil microbial populations adapted to the unique biochemistry and physiological ecology of these Anthrosols. PMID:19381712

  5. [Distribution of Aerobic Ammonia-Oxidizing Microorganisms in Sediments from Adjacent Waters of Rushan Bay].

    PubMed

    He, Hui; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tie-zhu; Zhang, Yu; Fu, Lu-lu; Yu, Zhi-gang

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen cycle is a key process in material circulation of marine ecosystem, which plays an important role in maintaining ecological balance. The ammonia oxidation process promoted by aerobic ammonia-oxidizing microorganism (AOM) is a rate-limiting step of nitrification. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR ), along with the determination of potential nitrification rates (PNR) was carried out in this study to understand the distribution of AOM in sediments of adjacent waters of Rushan Bay in August, 2014. The results indicated that the abundance of total ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was always greater than that of total ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the three sampling stations; the ratio of active AOB to total AOB was less than 1%, while no active AOA was detected in this study; the PNR significantly decreased after adding ampicillin which could inhibit the activity of AOB (P < 0.05). It was speculated that AOB might play a more important role in the ammonia oxidation in sediments of adjacent waters of Rushan Bay in August, 2014. Dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature and ammonium concentrations played a significant role in distribution of AOM in sediments of adjacent waters of Rushan Bay.

  6. Cascading Adjacent Level Vertebral Compression Fractures Necessitating a Series of Eleven Kyphoplasties.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Evan; Reuter, Matthew; Samad, Adil; Flynn, Daniel; Menkowitz, Marc; Paragioudakis, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral kyphoplasty is a procedure used for the treatment of compression fractures. While early randomized-controlled trials were equivocal regarding its benefits, more recent RCTs have shown favorable results for kyphoplasty with regard to pain relief, functional recovery, and health-care related quality of life compared to control patients. Risks of kyphoplasty include but are not limited to cement extrusion, infection, hematoma, and vertebral body fracture of adjacent levels. We describe a case of a 66-year-old male attorney who underwent eleven kyphoplasties in an approximately one-year period, the majority of which were for fractures of vertebrae adjacent to those previously treated with kyphoplasty. Information on treatment was gathered from the patient's hospital chart and outpatient office notes. Following the last of the eleven kyphoplasties (two at T8, one each at all vertebrae from T9 to L5), the patient was able to function without pain and return to work. His physiologic thoracic kyphosis of 40 degrees prior to the first procedure was maintained, as were his lung and abdominal volumes. We conclude that kyphoplasty is an appropriate procedure for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures and can be used repeatedly to address fractures of levels adjacent to a previous kyphoplasty. PMID:26509091

  7. Differential transcriptional profiling of damaged and intact adjacent dorsal root ganglia neurons in neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, A K; Batti, L; Bilbao, D; Buness, A; Rittner, H L; Heppenstall, P A

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain, caused by a lesion in the somatosensory system, is a severely impairing mostly chronic disease. While its underlying molecular mechanisms are not thoroughly understood, neuroimmune interactions as well as changes in the pain pathway such as sensitization of nociceptors have been implicated. It has been shown that not only are different cell types involved in generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain, like neurons, immune and glial cells, but, also, intact adjacent neurons are relevant to the process. Here, we describe an experimental approach to discriminate damaged from intact adjacent neurons in the same dorsal root ganglion (DRG) using differential fluorescent neuronal labelling and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Two fluorescent tracers, Fluoroemerald (FE) and 1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), were used, whose properties allow us to distinguish between damaged and intact neurons. Subsequent sorting permitted transcriptional analysis of both groups. Results and qPCR validation show a strong regulation in damaged neurons versus contralateral controls as well as a moderate regulation in adjacent neurons. Data for damaged neurons reveal an mRNA expression pattern consistent with established upregulated genes like galanin, which supports our approach. Moreover, novel genes were found strongly regulated such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), providing novel targets for further research. Differential fluorescent neuronal labelling and sorting allows for a clear distinction between primarily damaged neuropathic neurons and "bystanders," thereby facilitating a more detailed understanding of their respective roles in neuropathic processes in the DRG.

  8. Differential Transcriptional Profiling of Damaged and Intact Adjacent Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons in Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Reinhold, A. K.; Batti, L.; Bilbao, D.; Buness, A.; Rittner, H. L.; Heppenstall, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain, caused by a lesion in the somatosensory system, is a severely impairing mostly chronic disease. While its underlying molecular mechanisms are not thoroughly understood, neuroimmune interactions as well as changes in the pain pathway such as sensitization of nociceptors have been implicated. It has been shown that not only are different cell types involved in generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain, like neurons, immune and glial cells, but, also, intact adjacent neurons are relevant to the process. Here, we describe an experimental approach to discriminate damaged from intact adjacent neurons in the same dorsal root ganglion (DRG) using differential fluorescent neuronal labelling and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Two fluorescent tracers, Fluoroemerald (FE) and 1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), were used, whose properties allow us to distinguish between damaged and intact neurons. Subsequent sorting permitted transcriptional analysis of both groups. Results and qPCR validation show a strong regulation in damaged neurons versus contralateral controls as well as a moderate regulation in adjacent neurons. Data for damaged neurons reveal an mRNA expression pattern consistent with established upregulated genes like galanin, which supports our approach. Moreover, novel genes were found strongly regulated such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), providing novel targets for further research. Differential fluorescent neuronal labelling and sorting allows for a clear distinction between primarily damaged neuropathic neurons and “bystanders,” thereby facilitating a more detailed understanding of their respective roles in neuropathic processes in the DRG. PMID:25880204

  9. Differentially Expressed miRNAs in Tumor, Adjacent, and Normal Tissues of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fei; Li, Rui; Chen, Zhenzhu; Shen, Yanting; Lu, Jiafeng; Xie, Xueying; Ge, Qinyu

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the major type of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression profiles of miRNAs in adenocarcinoma (AC), one major subtype of NSCLC. In this study, the miRNAs were detected in normal, adjacent, and tumor tissues by next-generation sequencing. Then the expression levels of differential miRNAs were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In the results, 259, 401, and 389 miRNAs were detected in tumor, adjacent, and normal tissues of pooled AC samples, respectively. In addition, for the first time we have found that miR-21-5p and miR-196a-5p were gradually upregulated from normal to adjacent to tumor tissues; miR-218-5p was gradually downregulated with 2-fold or greater change in AC tissues. These 3 miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Lastly, we predicted target genes of these 3 miRNAs and enriched the potential functions and regulatory pathways. The aberrant miR-21-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-218-5p may become biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. This research may be useful for lung adenocarcinoma diagnosis and the study of pathology in lung cancer. PMID:27247934

  10. Intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), between adjacent cotton and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Bastola, Anup; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, R Patrick; Shrestha, Ram B; Chen, Fa-Jun; Carroll, Stanley C

    2016-02-01

    A 2-year study was conducted to characterize the intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) between adjacent cotton and alfalfa. A dual protein-marking method was used to assess the intercrop movement of the lady beetles in each crop. In turns field collected lady beetles in each crop were assayed by protein specific ELISA to quantify the movement of beetles between the crops. Results indicated that a high percentage of convergent lady beetles caught in cotton (46% in 2008; 56% in 2009) and alfalfa (46% in 2008; 71% in 2009) contained a protein mark, thus indicating that convergent lady beetle movement was largely bidirectional between the adjacent crops. Although at a much lower proportion, lady beetles also showed unidirectional movement from cotton to alfalfa (5% in 2008 and 6% in 2009) and from alfalfa to cotton (9% in 2008 and 14% in 2009). The season-long bidirectional movement exhibited by the beetles was significantly higher in alfalfa than cotton during both years of the study. The total influx of lady beetles (bidirectional and unidirectional combined) was significantly higher in alfalfa compared with that in cotton for both years. While convergent lady beetles moved between adjacent cotton and alfalfa, they were more attracted to alfalfa when cotton was not flowering and/or when alfalfa offered more opportunities for prey. This study offers much needed information on intercrop movement of the convergent lady beetle that should facilitate integrated pest management decisions in cotton utilizing conservation biological control.

  11. Can native clonal moso bamboo encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shangbin; Wang, Yixiang; Conant, Richard T.; Zhou, Guomo; Xu, Yong; Wang, Nan; Fang, Feiyan; Chen, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Native species are generally thought not to encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention. However, the phenomenon that native moso bamboo may encroach on surrounding natural forests by itself occurred in China. To certificate this encroaching process, we employed the transition front approach to monitor the native moso bamboo population dynamics in native Chinese fir and evergreen broadleaved forest bordering moso bamboo forest in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve during the period between 2005 and 2014. The results showed that the bamboo front moved toward the Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved stand with the new bamboo produced yearly. Moso bamboo encroached at a rate of 1.28 m yr‑1 in Chinese fir forest and 1.04 m yr‑1 in evergreen broadleaved forest, and produced 533/437 new culms hm‑2 yr‑1 in the encroaching natural Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved forest. Moso bamboo coverage was increasing while adjacent natural forest area decreasing continuously. These results indicate that native moso bamboo was encroaching adjacent natural forest gradually without human intervention. It should be considered to try to create a management regime that humans could selectively remove culms to decrease encroachment.

  12. Can native clonal moso bamboo encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention?

    PubMed

    Bai, Shangbin; Wang, Yixiang; Conant, Richard T; Zhou, Guomo; Xu, Yong; Wang, Nan; Fang, Feiyan; Chen, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Native species are generally thought not to encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention. However, the phenomenon that native moso bamboo may encroach on surrounding natural forests by itself occurred in China. To certificate this encroaching process, we employed the transition front approach to monitor the native moso bamboo population dynamics in native Chinese fir and evergreen broadleaved forest bordering moso bamboo forest in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve during the period between 2005 and 2014. The results showed that the bamboo front moved toward the Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved stand with the new bamboo produced yearly. Moso bamboo encroached at a rate of 1.28 m yr(-1) in Chinese fir forest and 1.04 m yr(-1) in evergreen broadleaved forest, and produced 533/437 new culms hm(-2) yr(-1) in the encroaching natural Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved forest. Moso bamboo coverage was increasing while adjacent natural forest area decreasing continuously. These results indicate that native moso bamboo was encroaching adjacent natural forest gradually without human intervention. It should be considered to try to create a management regime that humans could selectively remove culms to decrease encroachment. PMID:27600881

  13. Interaction between two adjacent grounded sources in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic survey.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haigen; Lin, Jun; Liu, Changsheng; Kang, Lili; Li, Gang; Zeng, Xinsen

    2016-03-01

    Multi-source and multi-frequency emission method can make full use of the valuable and short flight time in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic (FSAEM) exploration, which has potential to investigate the deep earth structure in complex terrain region. Because several sources are adjacent in multi-source emission method, the interaction of different sources should be considered carefully. An equivalent circuit model of dual-source is established in this paper to assess the interaction between two individual sources, where the parameters are given with the typical values based on the practical instrument system and its application. By simulating the output current of two sources in different cases, the influence from the adjacent source is observed clearly. The current waveforms show that the mutual resistance causes the fluctuation and drift in another source and that the mutual inductance causes transient peaks. A field test with dual-source was conducted to certify the existence of interaction between adjacent sources. The simulation of output current also shows that current errors at low frequency are mainly caused by the mutual resistance while those at high frequency are mainly due to the mutual inductance. Increasing the distance between neighboring sources is a proposed measure to reduce the emission signal errors with designed ones. The feasible distance is discussed in the end. This study gives a useful guidance to lay multi sources to meet the requirement of measurement accuracy in FSAEM survey. PMID:27036795

  14. Unmixing multiple adjacent fluorescent targets with multispectral excited fluorescence molecular tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan; Guang, Huizhi; Pu, Huangsheng; Zhang, Jiulou; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-06-20

    Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can visualize biological activities at cellular and molecular levels in vivo, and has been extensively used in drug delivery and tumor detection research of small animals. The ill-posedness of the FMT inverse problem makes it difficult to reconstruct and unmix multiple adjacent fluorescent targets that have different functional features but are labeled with the same fluorochrome. A method based on independent component analysis for multispectral excited FMT was proposed in our previous study. It showed that double fluorescent targets with certain edge-to-edge distance (EED) could be unmixed by the method. In this study, the situation is promoted to unmix multiple adjacent fluorescent targets (i.e., more than two fluorescent targets and EED=0). Phantom experiments on the resolving ability of the proposed algorithm demonstrate that the algorithm performs well in unmixing multiple adjacent fluorescent targets in both lateral and axial directions. And also, we recovered the locational information of each independent fluorescent target and described the variable trends of the corresponding fluorescent targets under the excitation spectrum. This method is capable of unmixing multiple fluorescent targets with small EED but labeled with the same fluorochrome, and may be used in imaging of nonspecific probe targeting and metabolism of drugs. PMID:27409108

  15. Can native clonal moso bamboo encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Shangbin; Wang, Yixiang; Conant, Richard T.; Zhou, Guomo; Xu, Yong; Wang, Nan; Fang, Feiyan; Chen, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Native species are generally thought not to encroach on adjacent natural forest without human intervention. However, the phenomenon that native moso bamboo may encroach on surrounding natural forests by itself occurred in China. To certificate this encroaching process, we employed the transition front approach to monitor the native moso bamboo population dynamics in native Chinese fir and evergreen broadleaved forest bordering moso bamboo forest in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve during the period between 2005 and 2014. The results showed that the bamboo front moved toward the Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved stand with the new bamboo produced yearly. Moso bamboo encroached at a rate of 1.28 m yr−1 in Chinese fir forest and 1.04 m yr−1 in evergreen broadleaved forest, and produced 533/437 new culms hm−2 yr−1 in the encroaching natural Chinese fir/evergreen broadleaved forest. Moso bamboo coverage was increasing while adjacent natural forest area decreasing continuously. These results indicate that native moso bamboo was encroaching adjacent natural forest gradually without human intervention. It should be considered to try to create a management regime that humans could selectively remove culms to decrease encroachment. PMID:27600881

  16. Growth and decline of shoreline industry in Sydney estuary (Australia) and influence on adjacent estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Lean, J; Gunns, T

    2015-06-01

    Sydney estuary (Australia), like many urbanised waterways, is degraded due to an extended history of anthropogenic activity. Two major sources of contamination to this estuary are discharge by former shoreline industries and historic and contemporary catchment stormwater. The objectives of the present study were to document changes in shoreline land use from European settlement to the present day and determine the influence of this trend on the metal content of adjacent estuarine sediments. Temporal analysis of land use for seven time horizons between 1788 and 2010 showed rapid expansion of industry along much of the Sydney estuary foreshore soon after European settlement due to the benefits of easy and inexpensive access and readily available water for cooling and power. Shoreline industry attained maximum development in 1978 (32-km length) and declined rapidly to the present-day (9-km length) through redevelopment of industrial sites into medium- to high-density, high-value residential housing. Cores taken adjacent to 11 long-term industrial sites showed that past industrial practices contributed significantly to contamination of estuarine sediment. Subsurface metal concentrations were up to 35 times that of present-day surface sediment and over 100 times greater than natural background concentrations. Sedimentation rates for areas adjacent to shoreline industry were between 0.6 and 2.5 cm/year, and relaxation times were estimated at 50 to 100 years. Natural relaxation and non-disturbance of sediments may be the best management practice in most locations.

  17. Matrix intensification alters avian functional group composition in adjacent rainforest fragments.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of farmland land-use matrices to surface mining is an increasing threat to the habitat quality of forest remnants and their constituent biota, with consequences for ecosystem functionality. We evaluated the effects of matrix type on bird community composition and the abundance and evenness within avian functional groups in south-west Ghana. We hypothesized that surface mining near remnants may result in a shift in functional composition of avifaunal communities, potentially disrupting ecological processes within tropical forest ecosystems. Matrix intensification and proximity to the remnant edge strongly influenced the abundance of members of several functional guilds. Obligate frugivores, strict terrestrial insectivores, lower and upper strata birds, and insect gleaners were most negatively affected by adjacent mining matrices, suggesting certain ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal may be disrupted by landscape change in this region. Evenness of these functional guilds was also lower in remnants adjacent to surface mining, regardless of the distance from remnant edge, with the exception of strict terrestrial insectivores. These shifts suggest matrix intensification can influence avian functional group composition and related ecosystem-level processes in adjacent forest remnants. The management of matrix habitat quality near and within mine concessions is important for improving efforts to preserveavian biodiversity in landscapes undergoing intensification such as through increased surface mining. PMID:24058634

  18. Atlantoaxial dislocation adjacent to kyphotic deformity in a case of adult Larsen syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sushanta K; Deepak, Arsikere N; Salunke, Pravin

    2016-01-01

    Kyphotic deformity is often seen in Larsen syndrome. However, its progress in adults is not clear. The adjacent level compression in these patients adds to the difficulty regarding the level that needs to be operated. A 56-year-old male presented with neck pain and spastic quadriplegia. Radiology showed kyphotic deformity (sequelae of Larsen syndrome) with atlantoaxial dislocation. Cord compression was apparent at both levels but careful evaluation showed C1-2 level compression and some compression below the kyphotic deformity. The kyphotic spine was already fused and the canal diameter was adequate. The adjacent level C1-2 was fused and he improved dramatically. Correction of long-standing kyphotic deformity may not be necessary, as it unlikely to progress because of its tendency to fuse naturally. Rather, the adjacent levels are likely to compress the cord due to excessive stress. A proper clinical history and a thorough radiological examination help the surgeon to make an appropriate decision. PMID:27217658

  19. Bird communities of highway verges: Influence of adjacent habitat and roadside management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Francis D.; Verheyden, Christophe; Jouventin, Pierre

    1999-02-01

    We have investigated the effects of landscape traversed and roadside structure on the use of highway verges by birds. Three contrasted landscapes were chosen in terms of human land use and vegetation structure: an intensive farmland, a pine plantation, and a matoral. The roadside sections varied in vegetation structure, width and profile. We recorded birds present in roadsides and adjacent habitats by transect counts over all seasons. Roadside bird species appeared for a great part similar to those of adjacent habitats. However, diversity and abundance in verges did not depend on that of adjacent habitats. Woody roadsides were comparable to hedges, as trees (and shrubs) in verges enhanced species richness and abundance of birds in the farmland and woodland sites. Width and profile of verges had less influence. In all sites, typical species of the habitat traversed partly avoided roadsides. On the contrary, numerous species associated with 'rare' habitats in one site preferred roadsides, provided that verge vegetation contrasted with the dominant habitat. It is concluded that birds responses to highways can vary greatly with landscape traversed and verge vegetation. Highway verges could be favorable to birds, if they constitute a complementary habitat to the dominant habitat within a landscape.

  20. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...