Science.gov

Sample records for adjacent facilities tritium

  1. Tritium Plume Dynamics in the Shallow Unsaturated Zone Adjacent to an Arid Waste Disposal Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, S.; Andraski, B. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Cooper, C. A.; Michel, R. L.; Pohll, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southern Nevada have documented two plumes of tritiated water-vapor (3HHOg) adjacent to a closed, commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Wastes were disposed on-site from 1962-92. Tritium has moved long distances (> 400 m) through a shallow (1-2-m depth) dry gravelly layer—orders of magnitude further than anticipated by standard transport models. Geostatistical methods, spatial moment analyses and tritium flux calculations were applied to assess shallow plume dynamics. A grid-based plant-water sampling method was utilized to infer detailed, field-scale 3HHOg concentrations at 5-yr intervals during 2001-11. Results indicate that gravel-layer 3HHOg mass diminished faster than would be expected from radioactive decay (~70% in 10 yr). Both plumes exhibited center-of-mass stability, suggesting that bulk-plume movement is minimal during the period of study. Nonetheless, evidence of localized lateral advancement along some margins, combined with increases in the spatial covariance of concentration distribution, indicates intra-plume mass redistribution is ongoing. Previous studies have recognized that vertical movement of tritiated water from sub-root-zone gravel into the root-zone contributes to atmospheric release via evapotranspiration. Estimates of lateral and vertical tritium fluxes during the study period indicate (1) vertical tritiated water fluxes were dominated by diffusive-vapor fluxes (> 90%), and (2) vertical diffusive-vapor fluxes were roughly an order of magnitude greater than lateral diffusive-vapor fluxes. This behavior highlights the importance of the atmosphere as a tritium sink. Estimates of cumulative vertical diffusive-vapor flux and radioactive decay with time were comparable to observed declines in total shallow plume mass with time. This suggests observed changes in plume mass may (1) be attributed, in considerable part, to these removal

  2. Tritium Fluxes through the Shallow Unsaturated Zone adjacent to a Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in an Arid Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, S.; Andraski, B. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Cooper, C. A.; Pohll, G.

    2011-12-01

    Studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southern Nevada have documented long-distance (>400-m) tritium (3H) transport adjacent to a commercial, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Transport at this scale is orders of magnitude greater than anticipated; however, lateral 3H fluxes through the shallow unsaturated zone (UZ) have not been investigated in detail. The objective of this study is to estimate and compare lateral and vertical tritiated water-vapor (3HHOg) fluxes in the shallow UZ and their relation to the observed plume migration. Previous studies have recognized two distinct plumes of 3H emanating from the facility. Shallow (0.5 and 1.5-m depth) soil-water vapor samples were collected yearly along 400-m long transects through both plumes from 2003-09. Within the south plume, 3H concentrations at 1.5-m depth have decreased by 44 ± 0.3% during this period, and plume advancement there has effectively ceased (i.e., rate of advance equals rate of decay). During the same period, the west plume showed a net decrease in concentration of 34 ± 0.9% within 100-m of the facility; however, plume advancement is observed at the leading edge of the plume, and concentrations 200-300-m from the facility show an increase in 3H concentration of 64 ± 28.4%. Lateral and vertical diffusive fluxes within both plumes were calculated using 3HHOg concentrations from 2006. Lateral 3HHOg diffusive fluxes within both plumes have been estimated 25-300-m from the facility at 1.5-m depth. Mean lateral 3HHOg diffusive fluxes are 10-14 g m-2 yr-1 within the south plume, and 10-13 g m-2 yr-1 within the west plume. Mean lateral fluxes in the south plume are an order of magnitude lower than in the west plume. This behavior corresponds with the observed relative immobility of the south plume, while the elevated west plume fluxes agree with the plume advancement seen there. Shallow, upward directed, mean vertical 3HHOg fluxes 25-300-m from the

  3. Weapons engineering tritium facility overview

    SciTech Connect

    Najera, Larry

    2011-01-20

    Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

  4. Effluent Treatment Facility tritium emissions monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.L.

    1991-07-25

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved sampling and analysis protocol was developed and executed to verify atmospheric emissions compliance for the new Savannah River Site (SRS) F/H area Effluent Treatment Facility. Sampling equipment was fabricated, installed, and tested at stack monitoring points for filtrable particulate radionuclides, radioactive iodine, and tritium. The only detectable anthropogenic radionuclides released from Effluent Treatment Facility stacks during monitoring were iodine-129 and tritium oxide. This paper only examines the collection and analysis of tritium oxide.

  5. Tritium recycling (processing) facility design

    SciTech Connect

    Metzler, J.; Le, T.

    1995-10-01

    The maintenance of a nuclear weapons capability requires the periodic replacement of tritium contained in each of the weapons in the nuclear weapons stockpile because the radioactive decay of tritium reduces its quantity by about 5.5 percent per year. The Tritium Recycling Plant (TRP) performs the activities necessary to recover, purify, and recycle tritium returned from the field. Tritium is contained in vessels called reservoirs. The TRP also has the capability to conduct environmental tests to ensure the reliability and quality of the reservoirs. Currently, the U.S. has no source of new tritium. The proposed new TRP is an option the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) is considering that could be collocated with the new Tritium Supply Plant if it is built at Oak Ridge, Pantex, Nevada Test Site, or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It will comply with applicable environment, safety and health, (ES&H) regulations and orders. If the new Tritium Supply Plant is built at the Savannah River Site, the existing TRP would be upgraded, as necessary. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Radiological training for tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This program management guide describes a recommended implementation standard for core training as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The standard is to assist those individuals, both within DOE and Managing and Operating contractors, identified as having responsibility for implementing the core training recommended by the RCM. This training may also be given to radiological workers using tritium to assist in meeting their job specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  7. Review of the Tritium Extraction Facility Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald W. Barton; Farid Bamdad; Joel Blackman

    2000-06-04

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) is an independent executive branch agency responsible for technical safety oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) defense nuclear facilities. One of DNFSB's responsibilities is the review of design and construction projects for DOE's defense nuclear facilities to ensure that adequate health and safety requirements are identified and implemented. These reviews are performed with the expectation that facility designs are being developed within the framework of a site's Integrated Safety Management (ISM) program. This paper describes the application of ISM principles in DNFSB's ongoing review of the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) design/construction project.

  8. The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility: Status-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Sharpe, J.P.; Schuetz, S.T.; Petti, D.A.

    2005-07-15

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility, a US DOE National User Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), comprises capabilities and infrastructure to support both tritium and non-tritium research activities important to the development of safe and environmentally friendly fusion energy. Research thrusts include (1) interactions of tritium and deuterium with plasma-facing-component (PFC) materials, (2) fusion safety issues [PFC material chemical reactivity and dust/debris generation, activation product mobilization, tritium behavior in fusion systems], and (3) molten salts and fusion liquids for tritium breeder and coolant applications. This paper updates the status of STAR and the capabilities for ongoing research activities, with an emphasis on the development, testing and integration of the infrastructure to support tritium research activities. Key elements of this infrastructure include a tritium storage and assay system, a tritium cleanup system to process glovebox and experiment tritiated effluent gases, and facility tritium monitoring systems.

  9. Design and operations at the National Tritium Labelling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, H.; Williams, P.G.

    1991-09-01

    The National Tritium Labelling Facility (NTLF) is a multipurpose facility engaged in tritium labeling research. It offers to the biomedical research community a fully equipped laboratory for the synthesis and analysis of tritium labeled compounds. The design of the tritiation system, its operations and some labeling techniques are presented.

  10. Report of the Task Group on operation Department of Energy tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the operation of DOE Tritium facilities: Environment, Safety, and Health Aspects of Tritium; Management of Operations and Maintenance Functions; Safe Shutdown of Tritium Facilities; Management of the Facility Safety Envelope; Maintenance of Qualified Tritium Handling Personnel; DOE Tritium Management Strategy; Radiological Control Philosophy; Implementation of DOE Requirements; Management of Tritium Residues; Inconsistent Application of Requirements for Measurement of Tritium Effluents; Interdependence of Tritium Facilities; Technical Communication among Facilities; Incorporation of Confinement Technologies into New Facilities; Operation/Management Requirements for New Tritium Facilities; and Safety Management Issues at Department of Energy Tritium Facilities.

  11. Stripper system performance in the replacement tritium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at the Savannah River Site in the United States was designed and built to handle kilogram levels of tritium. The RTF was started up in January 1994. All the design objectives were achieved. To minimize tritium release to the environment, the tritium handling process is installed inside nitrogen-atmosphere gloveboxes. Any tritium that might leak from the process to the gloveboxes is recovered by stripper systems. The tritium concentration in the gloveboxes is normally maintained at below 0.1 Ci/m{sup 3}. During a large tritium leak from the process to the glovebox, the stripper system lowered the tritium concentration in the glovebox from about 8,000 Ci/m{sup 3} to about 100 Ci/m{sup 3} in one hour. After that the tritium concentration decreased very slowly. It required 5 days of stripping before the concentration was down to about 10 Ci/m{sup 3}.

  12. Human factors engineering for the TERF (Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility) project. [Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, W.H.; Adams, F.S. ); Wells, J.E. )

    1990-12-14

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) is being built by EG G Mound Applied Technologies to provide improved control of the tritium emissions from gas streams being processed. Mound handles tritium in connection with production, development, research, disassembly, recovery, and surveillance operations. During these operations, a small fraction of the tritium being processed escapes from its original containment. The objective of this report is to describe the human factors engineering as performed in connection with the design, construction, and testing of the TERF as required in DOE Order 6430.1A, section 1300-12. Human factors engineering has been involved at each step of the process and was considered during the preliminary research on tritium capture before selecting the specific process to be used. Human factors engineering was also considered in determining the requirements for the TERF and when the specific design work was initiated on the facility and the process equipment. Finally, human factors engineering was used to plan the specific acceptance tests that will be made during TERF installation and after its completion. These tests will verify the acceptability of the final system and its components. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  13. The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility: Status-2004*

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Anderl; G. R. Longhurst; R. J. Pawelko; J. P. Sharpe; S. T. Schuetz; D. A. Petti

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the current status of the development of the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Designated a National User Facility by the US DOE, the primary mission of STAR is to provide laboratory infrastructure to study tritium science and technology issues associated with the development of safe and environmentally friendly fusion energy. Both tritium and non-tritium fusion safety research is pursued along three key thrust areas: (1) plasma-material interactions of plasma-facing component (PFC) materials exposed to energetic tritium and deuterium ions, (2) fusion safety concerns related to PFC material chemical reactivity and dust/debris generation, activation product mobilization, and tritium behavior in fusion systems, and (3) molten salts and fusion liquids for tritium breeder and coolant applications. STAR comprises a multi-room complex with operations segregated to permit both tritium and non-tritium activities in separately ventilated rooms. Tritium inventory in STAR is limited to 15,000 Ci to maintain its classification as a Radiological Facility. Experiments with tritium are typically conducted in glovebox environments. Key components of the tritium infrastructure have been installed and tested. This includes the following subsystems: (1) a tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS) that uses two 50-g depleted uranium beds for tritium storage and PVT/beta-scintillation analyses for tritium accountability measurements, (2) a Tritium Cleanup System (TCS) that uses catalytic oxidation and molecular sieve water absorption to remove tritiated species from glovebox atmosphere gases and gaseous effluents from experiment and process systems, and (3) tritium monitoring instrumentation for room air, glovebox atmosphere and stack effluent tritium concentration measurements. Integration of the tritium infrastructure subsystems with the experimental and

  14. Development of a tritium recovery system from CANDU tritium removal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Draghia, M.; Pasca, G.; Porcariu, F.

    2015-03-15

    The main purpose of the Tritium Recovery System (TRS) is to reduce to a maximum possible extent the release of tritium from the facility following a tritium release in confinement boundaries and also to have provisions to recover both elemental and vapors tritium from the purging gases during maintenance and components replacement from various systems processing tritium. This work/paper proposes a configuration of Tritium Recovery System wherein elemental tritium and water vapors are recovered in a separated, parallel manner. The proposed TRS configuration is a combination of permeators, a platinum microreactor (MR) and a trickle bed reactor (TBR) and consists of two branches: one branch for elemental tritium recovery from tritiated deuterium gas and the second one for tritium recovery from streams containing a significant amount of water vapours but a low amount, below 5%, of tritiated gas. The two branches shall work in a complementary manner in such a way that the bleed stream from the permeators shall be further processed in the MR and TBR in view of achieving the required decontamination level. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed TRS in comparison with state of the art tritium recovery system from tritium processing facilities is also discussed. (authors)

  15. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    McHood, M D

    2000-10-12

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Commercial Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  16. Tritium emission reduction at Darlington tritium removal facility using a Bubbler System

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyanam, K.; Leilabadi, A.; El-Behairy, O.; Williams, G. I. D.; Vogt, H. K.

    2008-07-15

    Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) has a 4 x 880 MWe CANDU nuclear station at its Darlington Nuclear Div. located in Bowmanville. The station operates a Tritium Removal Facility (TRF) to reduce and maintain low tritium levels in the Moderator and Heat Transport heavy water systems of Ontario's CANDU fleet by extracting, concentrating, immobilizing and storing as a metal tritide. Minimizing tritium releases to the environment is of paramount importance to ensure that dose to the public is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and to maintain credibility with the Public. Tritium is removed from the Cryogenic Distillation System to the Tritium Immobilization System (TIS) glove box via a transfer line that is protected by a rupture disc and relief valve. An overpressure event in 2003 had caused the rupture disc to blow, resulting in the release of a significant quantity of elemental tritium into the relief valve discharge line, which ties into the contaminated exhaust system. As a result of a few similar events occurring over a number of years of TRF operation, the released elemental tritium would have been converted to tritium oxide in the presence of a stagnant moist air environment in the stainless steel discharge line. A significant amount of tritium oxide hold-up in the discharge line was anticipated. To minimize any further releases to the environment, a Bubbler System was designed to remove and recover the tritium from the discharge line. This paper summarizes the results of several Bubbler recovery runs that were made over a period of a month. Approximately 3500 Ci of tritium oxide and 230 Ci of elemental tritium were removed and collected. The tritium contained in the water produced from the Bubbler system was later safely recovered in the station's downgraded D{sub 2}O clean-up and recovery system. (authors)

  17. Measurement and Control Systems of Tritium Facilities for Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradov, Yu.I.; Kuryakin, A.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.

    2005-07-15

    The technical approach, equipment and software developed during the creation of measurement and control systems for two complexes are described. The first one is a complex that prepares the gas mixture and targets of the 'TRITON' facility. The 'TRITON' facility is designed for studying muon catalyzed fusion reactions in triple mixtures of H/D/T hydrogen isotopes over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The second one is 'ACCULINNA' - the liquid tritium target designed to investigate the neutron overloaded hydrogen and helium nuclei. These neutron-overloaded nuclei are produced in reactions of tritium beams on a heavy hydrogen and tritium target.

  18. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Use of the fast flux test facility for tritium production

    SciTech Connect

    Drell, S.; Hammer, D.; Cornwall, J.M.; Dyson, F.; Garwin, R.

    1996-10-25

    This report provides the results of a JASON review of the technical feasibility of using the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to generate tritium needed for the enduring United States nuclear weapons stockpile.

  20. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.

    1999-12-16

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements.

  1. Determination of tritiated formaldehyde in effluents from tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Belot, Y.; Camus, H.; Marini, T. )

    1992-03-01

    Recent observations suggested that formal-dehyde can be incorporated in vegetation at a very high rate. In this paper, the authors develop a methodology for determining tritiated formaldehyde (CHTO) in gaseous effluent containing HTO and HT as dominant species. CHTO being very soluble in water is collected in a solution of carrier formaldehyde. This carrier is necessary for precipitating for formaldehyde derivative of dimedone and collecting it by filtration. The precipitate, which contains the formaldehyde hydrogens, is freed from exchangeable tritium, dried in oven, and combusted to water for tritium determination. CHTO can thus be separated from HTO with a high efficiency, leading to the possibility of determining accurately 1 Bq of CHTO in as much as 5 {times} 10{sup 4} Bq of HTO. The methodology has been applied in preliminary experiments to determine the ratio of CHTO to HTO in effluent from a tritium-handling facility and effluent released from solid miscellaneous wastes.

  2. Consolidated Incineration Facility Tritium Emissions Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D. L.; Aggus, J.R.

    1995-03-29

    The Savannah River Technology Center, a research and development facility at the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site, provides environmental and regulatory compliance support to onsite operations. A new consolidated Incinerator Facility at SRS is being built to treat hazardous and a combination of hazardous and radioactive (mixed) wastes.

  3. Seismic engineering for an expanded tritium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, D.E.; Olive, W.B.; Endebrocid, E.E.; Khan, P.K.; Rebillet, W.R.

    1997-10-01

    An existing complex of three single story concrete and masonry shear wall buildings will be integrated into an expanded tritium facility for neutron tube target loading. Known as the NTTL Project, the expanded plant is a major element of the Department of Energy`s tritium program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper describes seismic evaluation and upgrade modifications for the 1950`s concrete shear wall building; drift analyses of two 1980`s CMU [concrete masonry unit] shear wall buildings; design of a new CMU shear wall building linking existing structures and providing personnel change room services; and design of a new steel frame building housing HVAC and electrical power and communication equipment for the complex. All buildings are closely adjacent and drift analysis to establish separation to prevent pounding is a major seismic engineering concern for the project.

  4. Health physics manual of good practices for tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Blauvelt, R.K.; Deaton, M.R.; Gill, J.T.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide written guidance defining the generally accepted good practices in use at Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities. A {open_quotes}good practice{close_quotes} is an action, policy, or procedure that enhances the radiation protection program at a DOE site. The information selected for inclusion in this document should help readers achieve an understanding of the key radiation protection issues at tritium facilities and provide guidance as to what characterizes excellence from a radiation protection point of view. The ALARA (As Low as Reasonable Achievable) program at DOE sites should be based, in part, on following the good practices that apply to their operations.

  5. Catalytic reactor system for the tritium emissions reduction facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wieneke, R.E.

    1991-12-31

    Two platinum catalyst reactor subsystems have been built for the new Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) at Mound. The two parallel subsystems each consist of three major components: a passive conservation heat exchanger, an electric preheater, and a catalytic reactor. All subsystem components and interconnecting piping are fabricated from Inconel 625 for high temperature strength and corrosion resistance. System connections are welded for longevity and reliability. Active elements are backed up by installed spares, and the reactor catalyst is replaceable. Since double containment of tritium processing systems is an important safety concept, the entire subsystem is enclosed in a stainless steel glovebox. Careful planning during the design phase created thermal isolation from the glovebox, and the ability to translate the entire subsystem from the glovebox for major maintenance. 4 refs.

  6. Catalytic reactor system for the tritium emissions reduction facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wieneke, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two platinum catalyst reactor subsystems have been built for the new Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) at Mound. The two parallel subsystems each consist of three major components: a passive conservation heat exchanger, an electric preheater, and a catalytic reactor. All subsystem components and interconnecting piping are fabricated from Inconel 625 for high temperature strength and corrosion resistance. System connections are welded for longevity and reliability. Active elements are backed up by installed spares, and the reactor catalyst is replaceable. Since double containment of tritium processing systems is an important safety concept, the entire subsystem is enclosed in a stainless steel glovebox. Careful planning during the design phase created thermal isolation from the glovebox, and the ability to translate the entire subsystem from the glovebox for major maintenance. 4 refs.

  7. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a health risk assessment that addresses continuous releases of tritium to the environment from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The NTLF contributes approximately 95% of all tritium releases from LBL. Transport and transformation models were used to determine the movement of tritium releases from the NRLF to the air, surface water, soils, and plants and to determine the subsequent doses to humans. These models were calibrated against environmental measurements of tritium levels in the vicinity of the NTLF and in the surrounding community. Risk levels were determined for human populations in each of these zones. Risk levels to both individuals and populations were calculated. In this report population risks and individual risks were calculated for three types of diseases--cancer, heritable genetic effects, and developmental and reproductive effects.

  8. Tritium and ignition target management at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Draggoo, Vaughn

    2013-06-01

    Isotopic mixtures of hydrogen constitute the basic fuel for fusion targets of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A typical NIF fusion target shot requires approximately 0.5 mmoles of hydrogen gas and as much as 750 GBq (20 Ci) of 3H. Isotopic mix ratios are specified according to the experimental shot/test plan and the associated test objectives. The hydrogen isotopic concentrations, absolute amounts, gas purity, configuration of the target, and the physical configuration of the NIF facility are all parameters and conditions that must be managed to ensure the quality and safety of operations. An essential and key step in the preparation of an ignition target is the formation of a ~60 μm thick hydrogen "ice" layer on the inner surface of the target capsule. The Cryogenic Target Positioning System (Cryo-Tarpos) provides gas handling, cyro-cooling, x-ray imaging systems, and related instrumentation to control the volumes and temperatures of the multiphase (solid, liquid, and gas) hydrogen as the gas is condensed to liquid, admitted to the capsule, and frozen as a single spherical crystal of hydrogen in the capsule. The hydrogen fuel gas is prepared in discrete 1.7 cc aliquots in the LLNL Tritium Facility for each ignition shot. Post-shot hydrogen gas is recovered in the NIF Tritium Processing System (TPS). Gas handling systems, instrumentation and analytic equipment, material accounting information systems, and the shot planning systems must work together to ensure that operational and safety requirements are met. PMID:23629062

  9. Seasonal trends in environmental tritium concentrations in a small forest adjacent to a radioactive waste storage area

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Hikaru ); Garten, C.T. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Tritium (HTO) concentrations were studied for an entire year in a floodplain forest adjacent to a low-level radioactive solid waste storage area (SWSA No. 5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Tritium in soil was the principal source of HTO to the deciduous forest. Evaporation from the surface soil along with transpiration from trees leaves both contributed to HTO in the forest atmosphere. During the growing season, transpiration was the principal contributor of HTO to the forest atmosphere, while during the dormant season, the main source of atmospheric HTO was evaporation from the surface soil. Seasonal changes and the characteristics of vegetation will influence the relative importance of evaporation and transpiration as sources of atmospheric HTO near the ground in temperate deciduous forests. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Seasonal trends in environmental tritium concentrations in a small forest adjacent to a radioactive waste storage area

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, H. ); Garten, C.T. Jr. . Environmental Sciences Div.)

    1992-03-01

    Tritium (HTO) concentrations were studied for an entire year in a floodplain forest adjacent to a low-level radioactive solid waste storage areas (SWSA No. 5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Tritium in soil was the principal source of HTO to the deciduous forest. Evaporation from the surface soil along with transpiration from tree leaves both contributed to HTO in the forest atmosphere. During the growing season, transpiration was the principal contributor of HTO to the forest atmosphere, while during he dormant season, the main source of atmospheric HTO was evaporation from the surface soil. This paper discovers seasonal changes and the characteristics of vegetation which will influence the relative importance of evaporation and transpiration as sources of atmospheric HTO near the ground in temperate deciduous forests.

  11. D&D Characterization of the 232-F Old Tritium Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Scallon, K.L.; England, J.L.

    1995-01-17

    The 232-F ``Old Tritium Facility`` operated in the 1950s as the first tritium production facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 1957, the 232-F operation ceased with tritium production turned over to a larger, technologically improved facility at SRS. The 232-F Facility was abandoned in 1958 and the process areas have remained contaminated with radiological, hazardous and mixed constituents. Decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the 232-F Facility is scheduled to occur in the years 1995-1996. This paper presents the D&D characterization efforts for the 232-F Facility.

  12. Radiological Characterization and Final Facility Status Report Tritium Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-08-01

    This document contains the specific radiological characterization information on Building 968, the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Complex and Facility. We performed the characterization as outlined in its Radiological Characterization Plan. The Radiological Characterization and Final Facility Status Report (RC&FFSR) provides historic background information on each laboratory within the TRL complex as related to its original and present radiological condition. Along with the work outlined in the Radiological Characterization Plan (RCP), we performed a Radiological Soils Characterization, Radiological and Chemical Characterization of the Waste Water Hold-up System including all drains, and a Radiological Characterization of the Building 968 roof ventilation system. These characterizations will provide the basis for the Sandia National Laboratory, California (SNL/CA) Site Termination Survey .Plan, when appropriate.

  13. NPH Risk Assessment and Mitigation of a SRS Facility for the Safe Storage of Tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.; Griffin, M.J.; Bjorkman, G.S.

    1995-10-18

    Because of the reduction in the nation`s stockpile of weapon systems a large amount of tritium is being returned to the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Due to the increased quantity of tritium returning to SRS, the SRS Tritium Facility was tasked to determine the most cost effective means to safely store the tritium gas in a short period of time. This paper presents results of the risk assessment developed to evaluate the safe storage of tritium at SRS, and highlights the structural design of the HIVES used as the cost-effective short term NPH mitigation solution.

  14. The operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Tritium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, C.A.; LaMarche, P.H.; Anderson, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    The TFTR tritium operations staff has successfully received, stored, handled, and processed over five hundred thousand curies of tritium for the purpose of supporting D-T (Deuterium-Tritium) operations at TFTR. Tritium operations personnel nominally provide continuous round the clock coverage (24 hours/day, 7 days/week) in shift complements consisting of I supervisor and 3 operators. Tritium Shift Supervisors and operators are required to have 5 years of operational experience in either the nuclear or chemical industry and to become certified for their positions. The certification program provides formal instruction, as well as on the job training. The certification process requires 4 to 6 months to complete, which includes an oral board lasting up to 4 hours at which time the candidate is tested on their knowledge of Tritium Technology and TFTR Tritium systems. Once an operator is certified, the training process continues with scheduled training weeks occurring once every 5 weeks. During D-T operations at TFTR the operators must evacuate the tritium area due to direct radiation from TFTR D-T pulses. During `` time operators maintain cognizance over tritium systems via a real time TV camera system. Operators are able to gain access to the Tritium area between TFTR D-T pulses, but have been excluded from die tritium area during D-T pulsing for periods up to 30 minutes. Tritium operators are responsible for delivering tritium gas to TFRR as well as processing plasma exhaust gases which lead to the deposition of tritium oxide on disposable molecular sieve beds (DMSB). Once a DMSB is loaded, the operations staff remove the expended DMSB, and replace it with a new DMSB container. The TFIR tritium system is operated via detailed procedures which require operator sign off for system manipulation. There are >300 procedures controlling the operation of the tritium systems.

  15. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility Geotechnical Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M R

    2000-01-11

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Circulating Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  16. Estimation of Accumulated Dose to Residents due to Tritium Release from Fusion Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Masahiro

    2005-07-15

    The computer program TriStat (Tritium dose assessment for stationary release) was used to estimate the human dose under stationary release and to obtain a conservative estimate of the dose after an accidental release as well. The atmospheric behavior of tritium is described by a Gaussian dispersion model. The tritium concentration in the atmosphere, soil, vegetables and cereals were estimated on the basis of tritium inventory of the facility and the release rate of tritium. In the model description, the specific tritium concentrations for the free water component and the organic component are essential. The food chain for humans was modeled by assuming a forage compartment, a plant compartment and an animal compartment. In the model, a virtual plant and a virtual animal were defined.The calculation revealed that the exchange of HTO between atmosphere and plant leaves has a critical role for increasing the human dose both for stationary and accidental release of tritium.

  17. Tritium Facilities Modernization and Consolidation Project Process Waste Assessment (Project S-7726)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Oji, L.N.

    1997-11-14

    Under the Tritium Facility Modernization {ampersand} Consolidation (TFM{ampersand}C) Project (S-7726) at the Savannah River Site (SS), all tritium processing operations in Building 232-H, with the exception of extraction and obsolete/abandoned systems, will be reestablished in Building 233-H. These operations include hydrogen isotopic separation, loading and unloading of tritium shipping and storage containers, tritium recovery from zeolite beds, and stripping of nitrogen flush gas to remove tritium prior to stack discharge. The scope of the TFM{ampersand}C Project also provides for a new replacement R&D tritium test manifold in 233-H, upgrading of the 233- H Purge Stripper and 233-H/234-H building HVAC, a new 234-H motor control center equipment building and relocating 232-H Materials Test Facility metallurgical laboratories (met labs), flow tester and life storage program environment chambers to 234-H.

  18. Post service examination of a tritium permeator and a turbomolecular pump from the CAPER Facility at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell-Nichols, C. J.; Adami, H. D.; Bekris, N.; Demange, D.; Glugla, M.; Kramer, F.; Simon, K. H.

    2008-07-15

    After 8 years of operation at the CAPER facility at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, a permeator used to separate hydrogen species from processed gases ceased operation due to multiple heater failures. This was subjected to post service examination to find the cause of the failures. This paper describe the methods used to locate the failures in the heaters and the likely cause. It was also necessary to determine the tritium inventory embedded in the structure for safe disposal. Destructive examination, adapted from a full combustion technique, was used on sections of the permeator. A fine black powder deposit, presumed to be mostly carbon, coated the surfaces of the inlet section of the feed side. This powder contained nearly half of the tritium within the permeator. The likely source of the powder and the consequences for the operation and eventual decommissioning of the ITER Tritium Plant are discussed. A failed turbomolecular pump from CAPER was also examined. There was evidence of wear on the emergency support bearing, but more importantly, when the pump internals were exposed to the glove box atmosphere (dry air) large quantities of tritium were rapidly released, this despite the isotopic swamping before removal from the CAPER glove box. Significant uptake of tritium in electrical insulation was also found. (authors)

  19. Control of Tritium at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Prevo, P. R.

    1989-06-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is located on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The facility features a 400 MW(t) three-loop sodium-cooled, mixed-oxide-fueled reactor that was designed for irradiation testing of fuels and materials to support the commercial development of liquid metal fast reactors. The mission has subsequently been expanded to include a passive safety test program, irradiation of fusion and space reactor materials, and isotope production. The FFTF has been in operation for about 7 yr, which includes over 1600 d of full power operation of the fast test reactor (FTR). Radiological operating experience at the FFTF has been excellent. Collective dose equivalents received by operating personnel have been very low (5 person-rem/yr average). No major contamination problems have been encountered in operating and maintaining the plant, and release of radioactivity to the environment has been well below acceptable limits (Bunch and Prevo 1987). Skin contamination events have averaged less than two per year. There have been no internal depositions. This paper discusses the generation, transport and distribution, and radiological aspects of tritium control at the FFTF. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R.; Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1997-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

  1. Particulate matter adjacent to cattle deep-bedded monoslope facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region. Many of these facilities add organic bedding material to the pens once or twice per week. Particulate matter concentrations and emissions from these facilities have not been evaluate...

  2. Tritium dynamics in soils and plants grown under three irrigation regimes at a tritium processing facility in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mihok, S; Wilk, M; Lapp, A; St-Amant, N; Kwamena, N-O A; Clark, I D

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of tritium released from nuclear facilities as tritiated water (HTO) have been studied extensively with results incorporated into regulatory assessment models. These models typically estimate organically bound tritium (OBT) for calculating public dose as OBT itself is rarely measured. Higher than expected OBT/HTO ratios in plants and soils are an emerging issue that is not well understood. To support the improvement of models, an experimental garden was set up in 2012 at a tritium processing facility in Pembroke, Ontario to characterize the circumstances under which high OBT/HTO ratios may arise. Soils and plants were sampled weekly to coincide with detailed air and stack monitoring. The design included a plot of native grass/soil, contrasted with sod and vegetables grown in barrels with commercial topsoil under natural rain and either low or high tritium irrigation water. Air monitoring indicated that the plume was present infrequently at concentrations of up to about 100 Bq/m(3) (the garden was not in a major wind sector). Mean air concentrations during the day on workdays (HTO 10.3 Bq/m(3), HT 5.8 Bq/m(3)) were higher than at other times (0.7-2.6 Bq/m(3)). Mean Tissue Free Water Tritium (TFWT) in plants and soils and OBT/HTO ratios were only very weakly or not at all correlated with releases on a weekly basis. TFWT was equal in soils and plants and in above and below ground parts of vegetables. OBT/HTO ratios in above ground parts of vegetables were above one when the main source of tritium was from high tritium irrigation water (1.5-1.8). Ratios were below one in below ground parts of vegetables when irrigated with high tritium water (0.4-0.6) and above one in vegetables rain-fed or irrigated with low tritium water (1.3-2.8). In contrast, OBT/HTO ratios were very high (9.0-13.5) when the source of tritium was mainly from the atmosphere. TFWT varied considerably through time as a result of SRBT's operations; OBT/HTO ratios showed no clear temporal

  3. Levels of tritium in soils and vegetation near Canadian nuclear facilities releasing tritium to the atmosphere: implications for environmental models.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P A; Kwamena, N-O A; Ilin, M; Wilk, M; Clark, I D

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) were measured over two growing seasons in vegetation and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of four nuclear facilities and two background locations in Canada. At the background locations, with few exceptions, OBT concentrations were higher than HTO concentrations: OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation varied between 0.3 and 20 and values in soil varied between 2.7 and 15. In the vicinity of the four nuclear facilities OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation and soils deviated from the expected mean value of 0.7, which is used as a default value in environmental transfer models. Ratios of the OBT activity concentration in plants ([OBT]plant) to the OBT activity concentration in soils ([OBT]soil) appear to be a good indicator of the long-term behaviour of tritium in soil and vegetation. In general, OBT activity concentrations in soils were nearly equal to OBT activity concentrations in plants in the vicinity of the two nuclear power plants. [OBT]plant/[OBT]soil ratios considerably below unity observed at one nuclear processing facility represents historically higher levels of tritium in the environment. The results of our study reflect the dynamic nature of HTO retention and OBT formation in vegetation and soil during the growing season. Our data support the mounting evidence suggesting that some parameters used in environmental transfer models approved for regulatory assessments should be revisited to better account for the behavior of HTO and OBT in the environment and to ensure that modelled estimates (e.g., plant OBT) are appropriately conservative. PMID:25461522

  4. The Bremen mass spectrometric facility for the measurement of helium isotopes, neon, and tritium in water.

    PubMed

    Sültenfuss, Jürgen; Roether, Wolfgang; Rhein, Monika

    2009-06-01

    We describe the mass spectrometric facility for measuring helium isotopes, neon, and tritium that has been operative at this institute since 1989, and also the sampling and sample preparation steps that precede the mass spectrometric analysis. For water samples in a near-equilibrium with atmospheric air, the facility achieves precision for (3)He/(4)He ratios of+/-0.4% or better, and+/-0.8 % or better for helium and neon concentrations. Tritium precision is typically+/-3 % and the detection limit 10 mTU ( approximately 1.2.10(-3) Bq/kg of pure water). Sample throughputs can reach some thousands per year. These achievements are enabled, among other features, by automation of the measurement procedure and by elaborate calibration, assisted by continual development in detail. To date, we have measured more than 15,000 samples for tritium and 23,000 for helium isotopes and neon, mostly in the context of oceanographic and hydrologic work. Some results of such work are outlined. Even when atmospheric tritium concentrations have become rather uniform, tritium provides water ages if (3)He data are taken concurrently. The technique can resolve tritium concentrations in waters of the pre-nuclear era. PMID:20183223

  5. CAPER as central and crucial facility to support R/D with tritium at TLK

    SciTech Connect

    Demange, D.; Fanghaenel, E.; Fischer, S.; Le, T.L.; Priester, F.; Roellig, M.; Schloesser, M.; Simon, K.H.

    2015-03-15

    The CAPER facility at TLK (Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe) originally devoted to Research/Development on tokamak exhaust processing has been significantly upgraded over the last years. Beside new programs on highly tritiated water, CAPER is presently largely used to support satellite experiments, mainly those dedicated to research on advanced analytics. Mutation from Research/Development to part of the TLK tritium infrastructure necessitated new features to be installed in order to facilitate and optimize tritiated mixtures preparation and sample filling, and to enable satellites experiments to discharge their waste gas to CAPER for clean-up. This paper presents recent CAPER mutations to become a central and key facility at TLK. (authors)

  6. Transporter Development for the Tritium Extraction Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J.

    1998-12-17

    The Commercial Light Water Reactor-Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) is planned for location at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the US Department of Energy CLWR tritium production alternative. This new facility will rely on processes and equipment that are significantly different from those proven in the past or currently in use at SRS. For instance, the CLWR-TEF reference design employs remote modules to provide an inert processing atmosphere, secondary confinement for tritium and the primary confinement for particulate contamination. The primary component of this modular system is the Transporter. A Transporter mock-up was developed to demonstrate concept feasibility of the required processing functions (sealing, attachment/alignment and materials handling). The module design, the seal door selection, and the planned test program are discussed.

  7. Medical Isotope Production With The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.; Cappiello, M.; Pitcher, E.; O`Brien, H.

    1998-08-01

    In order to meet US tritium needs to maintain the nuclear weapons deterrent, the Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing a dual track program to provide a new tritium source. A record of decision is planned for late in 1998 to select either the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) or the Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR) as the technology for new tritium production in the next century. To support this decision, an APT Project was undertaken to develop an accelerator design capable of producing 3 kg of tritium per year by 2007 (START I requirements). The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was selected to lead this effort with Burns and Roe Enterprises, Inc. (BREI) / General Atomics (GA) as the prime contractor for design, construction, and commissioning of the facility. If chosen in the downselect, the facility will be built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and operated by the SRS Maintenance and Operations (M{ampersand}O) contractor, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), with long-term technology support from LANL. These three organizations (LANL, BREI/GA, and WSRC) are working together under the direction of the APT National Project Office which reports directly to the DOE Office of Accelerator Production which has program authority and responsibility for the APT Project.

  8. TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA666, INTERIOR. HYDRAULIC TEST FACILITY. INSIDE LABORATORY 103. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA-666, INTERIOR. HYDRAULIC TEST FACILITY. INSIDE LABORATORY 103. CAMERA FACES NORTH. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-24-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. TRITIUM RESEARCH FACILITY AND LABORATORY, TRA666 AND TRA666A. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM RESEARCH FACILITY AND LABORATORY, TRA-666 AND TRA-666A. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SHOWS SECURITY BUILDING, TRA-621, AT LEFT; TRA-643, AT RIGHT. TRA-666 BUILDING NUMBER IS ON WEST SIDE OF BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-38-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases at the National Tritium Labeling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P.; Shan, C.

    1997-04-01

    This risk assessment calculates the probability of experiencing health effects, including cancer incidence due to tritium exposure for three groups of people: (1) LBNL workers near the LBNL facility--Building 75--that uses tritium; (2) other workers at LBNL and nearby neighbors; and (3) people who use the UC Berkeley campus area, and some Berkeley residents. All of these groups share the same probability of health effects from the background radiation from natural sources in the Berkeley area environment, including an increased risk of developing a cancer of 11,000 chances per million. In calculating risk the authors assumed continuous operation in Building 75 for at least a human lifetime. Under this assumption, LBNL workers located near Building 75 have an additional risk of 60 chances out of one million to suffer a cancer; other workers at LBNL and people who live near LBNL have an additional risk of six chances out of one million over a lifetime of exposure; and users of the UC Berkeley campus area and other residents of Berkeley have an additional risk of less than once chance out of one million over a lifetime.

  11. Savannah River Site Mixed Waste Management Facility Southwest Plume Tritium Phytoremediation Evaluating Irrigation Management Strategies Over 25 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Riah, Susan; Rebel, Karin

    2004-02-27

    To minimize movement of tritium into surface waters at the Mixed Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Site, tritium contaminated seepage water is being retained in a constructed pond and used to irrigate forest acreage that lies above the pond and over the contaminated groundwater. Twenty five-year potential evapotranspiration and average precipitation are 1443 mm/year and 1127 mm/year, respectively, for the region in which the site is located. Management of the application of tritium contaminated irrigation water needs to be evaluated in the context of the large amount of rainfall relative to evapotranspiration, the strong seasonality in evapotranspiration, and intraannual and inter-annual variability in precipitation. A dynamic simulation model of water and tritium fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum was developed to assess the efficiency (tritium transpired/tritium applied) of several irrigation management strategies.

  12. Tritium monitoring in groundwater and evaluation of model predictions for the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R.; Freshley, M.D.; Wurstner, S.K.

    1997-08-01

    The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) disposal site, also known as the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS), receives treated effluent containing tritium, which is allowed to infiltrate through the soil column to the water table. Tritium was first detected in groundwater monitoring wells around the facility in July 1996. The SALDS groundwater monitoring plan requires revision of a predictive groundwater model and reevaluation of the monitoring well network one year from the first detection of tritium in groundwater. This document is written primarily to satisfy these requirements and to report on analytical results for tritium in the SALDS groundwater monitoring network through April 1997. The document also recommends an approach to continued groundwater monitoring for tritium at the SALDS. Comparison of numerical groundwater models applied over the last several years indicate that earlier predictions, which show tritium from the SALDS approaching the Columbia River, were too simplified or overly robust in source assumptions. The most recent modeling indicates that concentrations of tritium above 500 pCi/L will extend, at most, no further than {approximately}1.5 km from the facility, using the most reasonable projections of ETF operation. This extent encompasses only the wells in the current SALDS tritium-tracking network.

  13. SIRIUS-T: A study of a symmetrically illuminated inertial confinement fusion tritium production facility

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, B.; Sviatoslavksy, I.N.; Bruggink, D.; Engelstad, R.L.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Larsen, E.M.; Lovell, E.G.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Mogahed, E.A.; Moses, G.A.; Moucha, A.; Peterson, R.R.; Powers, J.; Sawan, M.E.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1990-12-01

    The aging US tritium production reactors are slowly being phased out and the US Department of Energy has initiated a New Production Reactors Program'' which will provide for the design, construction and operation of new facilities for the production of tritium and other special nuclear materials. Preliminary requirements are currently being prepared, leading to construction and operation by the year 2000. Unfortunately, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) cannot possibly be ready to perform such a task on this short time scale. However, it is instructive to see how well it can do in producing tritium when ICF has been demonstrated and a comparison with the proposed production schemes is conducted here. SIRIUS-T is conceptual design study of a tritium production facility utilizing direct drive symmetrically illuminated inertial confinement fusion. The T'' designation distinguishes it from SIRIUS-M, a materials facility, and SIRIUS-C, a commercial power plant. As in any other fusion related design study, a certain amount of technical extrapolation has been made in SIRIUS-T. It should be said early on, however, that in areas of uncertainty, we have always taken the conservative approach. This is evident in our choice of target gain, number of beams selected for symmetric illumination and elsewhere throughout the study. In performing the economic analysis we have also attempted to err on the conservative side. This too is evident in our costing of the driver and the reactor chamber. For these reasons, we feel that this study projects enough confidence as to make it worthy of comparison with the other proposed production systems.

  14. Cleanup of a Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility: Experience at the Los Alamos National Laboratory High Pressure Tritium Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, H.L.

    1995-02-01

    On October 25, 1990, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ceased programmatic operations at the High Pressure Tritium Laboratory (HPTL). Since that time, LANL has been preparing the facility for transfer into the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. LANL staff now has considerable operational experience with the cleanup of a 40-year-old facility used exclusively to conduct experiments in the use of tritium, the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. Tritium and its compounds have permeated the HPTL structure and equipment, have affected operations and procedures, and now dominate efforts at cleanup and disposal. At the time of shutdown, the HPTL still had a tritium inventory of over 100 grams in a variety of forms and containers.

  15. Evaluation of medical isotope production with the accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, R.W.; Frey, G.D.; McLean, D.C., Jr; Spicer, K.M.; Davis, S.E.; Baron, S.; Frysinger, J.R.; Blanpied, G.; Adcock, D.

    1997-07-10

    The accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility, with its high beam current and high beam energy, would be an ideal supplier of radioisotopes for medical research, imaging, and therapy. By-product radioisotopes will be produced in the APT window and target cooling systems and in the tungsten target through spallation, neutron, and proton interactions. High intensity proton fluxes are potentially available at three different energies for the production of proton- rich radioisotopes. Isotope production targets can be inserted into the blanket for production of neutron-rich isotopes. Currently, the major production sources of radioisotopes are either aging or abroad, or both. The use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine is growing and changing, both in terms of the number of nuclear medicine procedures being performed and in the rapidly expanding range of procedures and radioisotopes used. A large and varied demand is forecast, and the APT would be an ideal facility to satisfy that demand.

  16. An overview of research activities on materials for nuclear applications at the INL Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderoni, P.; Sharpe, J.; Shimada, M.; Denny, B.; Pawelko, B.; Schuetz, S.; Longhurst, G.; Hatano, Y.; Hara, M.; Oya, Y.; Otsuka, T.; Katayama, K.; Konishi, S.; Noborio, K.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2011-10-01

    The Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility at the Idaho National Laboratory is a US Department of Energy National User Facility engaged in various aspects of materials research for nuclear applications related to fusion and advanced fission systems. Research activities are mainly focused on the interaction of tritium with materials, in particular plasma facing components, liquid breeders, high temperature coolants, fuel cladding, cooling and blanket structures and heat exchangers. Other activities include validation and verification experiments in support of the Fusion Safety Program, such as beryllium dust reactivity and dust transport in vacuum vessels, and support of Advanced Test Reactor irradiation experiments. This paper presents an overview of the programs engaged in the activities, which include the US-Japan TITAN collaboration, the US ITER program, the Next Generation Power Plant program and the tritium production program, and a presentation of ongoing experiments as well as a summary of recent results with emphasis on fusion relevant materials.

  17. An overview of research activities on materials for nuclear applications at the INL Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility

    SciTech Connect

    P. Calderoni; P. Sharpe; M. Shimada

    2009-09-01

    The Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility at the Idaho National Laboratory is a US Department of Energy National User Facility engaged in various aspects of materials research for nuclear applications related to fusion and advanced fission systems. Research activities are mainly focused on the interaction of tritium with materials, in particular plasma facing components, liquid breeders, high temperature coolants, fuel cladding, cooling and blanket structures and heat exchangers. Other activities include validation and verification experiments in support of the Fusion Safety Program, such as beryllium dust reactivity and dust transport in vacuum vessels, and support of Advanced Test Reactor irradiation experiments. This paper presents an overview of the programs engaged in the activities, which include the US-Japan TITAN collaboration, the US ITER program, the Next Generation Power Plant program and the tritium production program, and a presentation of ongoing experiments as well as a summary of recent results with emphasis on fusion relevant materials.

  18. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Heung, L.K.

    1997-10-20

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented.

  19. Defense In-Depth Accident Analysis Evaluation of Tritium Facility Bldgs. 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-05-10

    'The primary purpose of this report is to document a Defense-in-Depth (DID) accident analysis evaluation for Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facility Buildings 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H. The purpose of a DID evaluation is to provide a more realistic view of facility radiological risks to the offsite public than the bounding deterministic analysis documented in the Safety Analysis Report, which credits only Safety Class items in the offsite dose evaluation.'

  20. Preliminary scoping safety analyses of the limiting design basis protected accidents for the Fast Flux Test Facility tritium production core

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.J.

    1997-11-19

    The SAS4A/SASSYS-l computer code is used to perform a series of analyses for the limiting protected design basis transient events given a representative tritium and medical isotope production core design proposed for the Fast Flux Test Facility. The FFTF tritium and isotope production mission will require a different core loading which features higher enrichment fuel, tritium targets, and medical isotope production assemblies. Changes in several key core parameters, such as the Doppler coefficient and delayed neutron fraction will affect the transient response of the reactor. Both reactivity insertion and reduction of heat removal events were analyzed. The analysis methods and modeling assumptions are described. Results of the analyses and comparison against fuel pin performance criteria are presented to provide quantification that the plant protection system is adequate to maintain the necessary safety margins and assure cladding integrity.

  1. Continuous Aqueous Tritium Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1995-03-29

    Continuous monitoring for tritium in the aqueous effluents of selected Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities is performed using a custom designed system that includes an automated water purification system and a flow-through radiation detection system optimized for tritium. Beads of plastic scintillators coupled with coincidence electronics provide adequate sensitivity (=25kBz/L) for tritium break-through detection int he aqueous discharge stream from these facilities. The tritium effluent water monitors (TEWMs) at SRS provide early warning (within 30 minutes) of an unanticipated release of tritium, supplement the routine sampling surveillances, and mitigate the impact of aqueous plant discharges of tritium releases to the environment.

  2. Continuous aqueous tritium monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1995-10-01

    Continuous monitoring for tritium in the aqueous effluents of selected Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities is performed using a unique system that includes an automated water purification system and a flow-through radiation detection system optimized for tritium. Beads of plastic scintillator coupled with coincidence electronics provide adequate sensitivity (approx.25kBq/L) for tritium breakthrough detection in the aqueous discharge stream from these facilities. The tritium effluent water monitors (TEWMs) at SRS provide early warning (within 30 minutes) of an unanticipated release of tritium, supplement the routine sampling surveillances, and mitigate the impact of aqueous plant discharges of tritium to the environment. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. RAMI modeling of plant systems for proposed tritium production and extraction facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-04-05

    The control of life-cycle cost is a primary concern during the development, construction, operation, and decommissioning of DOE systems and facilities. An effective tool that can be used to control these costs, beginning with the design stage, is called a reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability analysis or, simply, RAMI for short. In 1997, RAMI technology was introduced to the Savannah River Site with applications at the conceptual design stage beginning with the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project and later extended to the Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR) Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) Project. More recently it has been applied to the as-build Water Treatment Facilities designed for ground water environmental restoration. This new technology and database was applied to the assessment of balance-of-plant systems for the APT Conceptual Design Report. Initial results from the Heat Removal System Assessment revealed that the system conceptual design would cause the APT to fall short of its annual production goal. Using RAM technology to immediately assess this situation, it was demonstrated that the product loss could be gained back by upgrading the system's chiller unit capacity at a cost of less than $1.3 million. The reclaimed production is worth approximately $100 million. The RAM technology has now been extended to assess the conceptual design for the CLWR-TEF Project. More specifically, this technology and database is being used to translate high level availability goals into lower level system design requirements that will ensure the TEF meets its production goal. Results, from the limited number of system assessments performed to date, have already been used to modify the conceptual design for a remote handling system, improving its availability to the point that a redundant system, with its associated costs of installation and operation may no longer be required. RAMI results were also used to justify the elimination

  4. A real-time monitoring/emergency response modeling workstation for a tritium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lawver, B.S.; Sims, J.M.; Baskett, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we developed a real-time system to monitor two stacks on our tritium handling facility. The monitors transmit the stack data to a workstation which computes a 3D numerical model of atmospheric dispersion. The workstation also collects surface and upper air data from meteorological towers and a sodar. The complex meteorological and terrain setting in the Livermore Valley demands more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion than afforded by Gaussian models. We experience both mountain valley and sea breeze flows. To address these complexities, we have implemented the three-dimensional diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on the workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. Both MATHEW and ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 years within the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC[1,2]) project.

  5. Shielding Design for Adjacent, Underground Buildings of a Megavoltage Radiotherapy Facility.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Darío Esteban

    2016-07-01

    In a radiotherapy facility, safety in areas next to the treatment room can be of concern when irradiating downward due to oblique x-ray transmission through the floor and/or walls, especially in areas immediately adjacent or underground. Even when there is no basement underneath, a usual conservative solution is to build a thick concrete slab as the base for the treatment room. Of course, this implies deeper soil excavation and higher associated costs. As a convenient alternative, the limiting walls can be buried a certain depth below floor level to shield oblique, downward irradiation. Besides, for space considerations, laminated barriers are usually employed, and some additional shielding to the floor may be required (L-shaped barriers). In this work, the author introduces an analytical method for calculating the required wall penetration below floor level or, alternatively, the additional floor shielding for L-shaped barriers, taking into account in either case the attenuation properties of the earth underneath the vault. Interestingly, the required penetration depth for a given wall barrier (primary or secondary), relative to a reference thickness, is only a function of basic attenuation data. Likewise, for a laminated, lead-concrete barrier, the required dimensions depend on the relative amount of lead used for the wall and on the corresponding attenuation data. The shielding design criteria developed in this work to protect underground nearby sites is conservative in nature, yet it yields optimal shield dimensions for wall footing and for wall-floor shielding, avoiding the need to construct oversized concrete slab floors. PMID:27218288

  6. Sources of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1980-12-01

    A review of tritium sources is presented. The tritium production and release rates are discussed for light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for tritium production facilities, fuel reprocessing plants, weapons detonations, and fusion reactors. A discussion of the chemical form of the release is included. The energy producing facilities are ranked in order of increasing tritium production and release. The ranking is: HTGRs, LWRs, LMFBRs, MSBRs, and HWRs. The majority of tritium has been released in the form of tritiated water.

  7. Finding of no significant impact for the tritium facility modernization and consolidation project at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1222) for the proposed modernization and consolidation of the existing tritium facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issueing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. Measurement of outdoor noise levels adjacent to K-25 facility, ORGDP

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, C.W.

    1981-08-27

    In order to obtain baseline data on environmental sound for a report on the expected environmental effects of constructing an incinerator adjacent to the ORGDP, an abbreviated measurement program was carried out. Ten measurement locations were selected for the measurements, six being representative of the ORGDP fenceline, and four representative of the surrounding area. Measurements consisted of short-term octave-band measurements and one-half hour A-weighted exceedance levels. It had been previously determined that the influence of the K-25 plant on the noise environment tends to stabilize the minimum sound level in such a way that nighttime measurements would not be needed.

  9. Full-scale experimental facility for the development technologies for the reprocessing of tritium contaminated light and heavy water wastes by CECE process and cryogenic distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Trenin, V.D.; Alekseev, I.A.; Karpov, S.P.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V.; Konoplev, K.A.; Fedorchenko, O.A.; Uborski, V.V.; Voronina, T.

    1995-10-01

    The problem of the formation and accumulation of the tritiated heavy and light water wastes produced under operation of the various nuclear facilities is considered. It is shown that the tritium contaminated wastes may have a wide spectrum of isotope concentrations of H:D:T and correlation one with other. Reprocessing of these wastes is expensive matter due to the small tritium concentration respectfully to other hydrogen isotopes and as well as the small value of separation factor. It requires the development of the versatile technology. The description of the full scale experimental facility constructed at PNPI is given. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Atmospheric Stability Measurements at a Swine Facility and an Adjacent Corn Field in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric stability conditions at the surface layer can determine direction and momentum transport of air contaminants. Near confined animal facilities, these transport processes can significantly impact air quality as these sites typically act as net source of pollutants; however, little informat...

  11. UPPER-BOUND QUANTITATIVE CANCER RISK ESTIMATES FOR POPULATION ADJACENT TO SULFUR MUSTARD INCINERATION FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document characterizes the potential cancer hazard to populations residing near sulfur mustard incineration facilities while the incineration is taking place. he carcinogenicity of sulfur mustard is reviewed briefly to show what evidence has lead to the previously-accepted c...

  12. A decade of tritium technology development and operation at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, L.; Besserer, U.; Bekris, N.; Bornschein, B.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Demange, D.; Cristescu, I.; Cristescu, I. R.; Glugla, M.; Hellriegel, G.; Schaefer, P.; Weite, S.; Wendel, J.

    2008-07-15

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) has been designed to handle relevant amounts of tritium for the development of tritium technology for fusion reactors. This paper describes the tritium technology development and experience gained during the upgrade of facilities, interventions, replacement of failed components and operation of the TLK since its commissioning with tritium in 1994. (authors)

  13. Tritium confinement, retention, and releases at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Besserer, U.; Doerr, L.; Glugla, M.

    2008-07-15

    This paper describes the tritium confinement concept and the tritium retention systems at TLK. A description of the AMOR facility for the regeneration of the HTO loaded molecular sieve beds and the operational experience gained from the regeneration of molecular sieve beds (up to 20 times each) is also presented. Finally tritium releases over this period to the environment will also be given. (authors)

  14. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  15. Tritium monitoring techniques

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, J.R.; Buckner, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    As part of their operations, the U.S. Navy is required to store or maintain operational nuclear weapons on ships and at shore facilities. Since these weapons contain tritium, there are safety implications relevant to the exposure of personnel to tritium. This is particularly important for shipboard operations since these types of environments can make low-level tritium detection difficult. Some of these ships have closed systems, which can result in exposure to tritium at levels that are below normally acceptable levels but could still cause radiation doses that are higher than necessary or could hamper ship operations. This report describes the state of the art in commercial tritium detection and monitoring and recommends approaches for low-level tritium monitoring in these environments.

  16. Tritium production, recovery and application in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Kim, Kwang-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Four CANDU reactors have been operating at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Generation in Korea. The Wolsong tritium removal facility was constructed to reduce the tritium levels in heavy water systems. This facility was designed to process 100kg/h of tritiated heavy water feed and to produce 99% pure T(2). This recovered tritium will be made available for commercial applications. The initial phases on the tritium applications are made to establish the infrastructure and the tritium controls. PMID:19307127

  17. Tritium activities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; LaMarche, P.

    1995-07-01

    There have been many significant changes in the status of tritium activities in the US since the 4th Tritium Conference in October, 1991. The replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at Savannah River Site and the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory are now operational with tritium. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has initiated a highly successful experimental campaign studying DT plasmas, and has produced more than 10 Megawatts (MW) of fusion power in a D-T plasma. Sandia National Laboratory has ceased tritium operations at the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) and many of the activities previously performed there have been transferred to Los Alamos and Savannah River. The tritium laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has reduced the tritium inventory to <5 grams. The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos continues to be at the forefront of tritium technology and safety development for the fusion energy program.

  18. Reduction of COD in leachate from a hazardous waste landfill adjacent to a coke-making facility

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, K.; O`Toole, T.J.

    1995-12-01

    A hazardous waste landfill adjacent to a coke manufacturing facility was in operation between July 1990 and December 1991. A system was constructed to collect and treat the leachate from the landfill prior to discharge to the river. Occasionally, the discharge from the treatment facility exceeded the permit limitations for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). The objectives of this study were to determine treatment methods which would enable compliance with the applicable discharge limits; to establish the desired operating conditions of the process; and to investigate the effect of various parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, and reaction time on the COD destruction efficiency. The characteristics of the landfill leachate in question were significantly variable in terms of chemical composition. A review of the influent quality data suggests that the COD concentration ranges between 80 and 390 mg/l. The oxidation processes using Fenton`s reagent or a combination of UV/hydrogen peroxide/catalyst are capable of reducing the COD concentration of the leachate below the discharge limitation of 35 mg/l. The estimated capital cost associated with the Fenton`s reagent process is approximately $525,000, and the annual operating and maintenance cost is $560,000. The estimated capital cost for the UV/hydrogen peroxide/catalyst treatment system is $565,000. The annual operating and maintenance cost of this process would be approximately $430,000.

  19. BEATRIX-II: In situ tritium test

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.E. ); Kuraswa, T. ); Miller, J.M. . Chalk River Nuclear Labs.); Slagle, O.D. )

    1990-01-01

    The BEATRIX-II irradiation experiment is an in-situ tritium release experiment being carried out in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor to evaluate the tritium release characteristics of fusion solid breeder materials. A sophisticated tritium gas handling system has been developed to continuously monitor the tritium recovery from the specimens and facilitate tritium removal from the experiment's sweep gas flow stream. The in-situ recovery experiment accommodates two different in-reactor specimen canisters with individual gas streams and temperature monitoring/control. Ionization chambers have been specifically designed to respond to the rapid changes in the tritium release rate at the anticipated tritium concentrations. Two ceramic electrolysis cells have proved effective in reducing the moisture in the gas streams to hydrogen/tritium. A tritium getter system, capable of reducing the tritium level by a factor greater than 4000, is used to reduce the tritium in the sweep gas to a level acceptable for release.

  20. Indications of flow near maximum compression in layered deuterium-tritium implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Gatu Johnson, M; Knauer, J P; Cerjan, C J; Eckart, M J; Grim, G P; Hartouni, E P; Hatarik, R; Kilkenny, J D; Munro, D H; Sayre, D B; Spears, B K; Bionta, R M; Bond, E J; Caggiano, J A; Callahan, D; Casey, D T; Döppner, T; Frenje, J A; Glebov, V Yu; Hurricane, O; Kritcher, A; LePape, S; Ma, T; Mackinnon, A; Meezan, N; Patel, P; Petrasso, R D; Ralph, J E; Springer, P T; Yeamans, C B

    2016-08-01

    An accurate understanding of burn dynamics in implosions of cryogenically layered deuterium (D) and tritium (T) filled capsules, obtained partly through precision diagnosis of these experiments, is essential for assessing the impediments to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. We present measurements of neutrons from such implosions. The apparent ion temperatures T_{ion} are inferred from the variance of the primary neutron spectrum. Consistently higher DT than DD T_{ion} are observed and the difference is seen to increase with increasing apparent DT T_{ion}. The line-of-sight rms variations of both DD and DT T_{ion} are small, ∼150eV, indicating an isotropic source. The DD neutron yields are consistently high relative to the DT neutron yields given the observed T_{ion}. Spatial and temporal variations of the DT temperature and density, DD-DT differential attenuation in the surrounding DT fuel, and fluid motion variations contribute to a DT T_{ion} greater than the DD T_{ion}, but are in a one-dimensional model insufficient to explain the data. We hypothesize that in a three-dimensional interpretation, these effects combined could explain the results. PMID:27627237

  1. Indications of flow near maximum compression in layered deuterium-tritium implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Knauer, J. P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Munro, D. H.; Sayre, D. B.; et al

    2016-08-15

    Here, an accurate understanding of burn dynamics in implosions of cryogenically layered deuterium (D) and tritium (T) filled capsules, obtained partly through precision diagnosis of these experiments, is essential for assessing the impediments to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. We present measurements of neutrons from such implosions. The apparent ion temperatures Tion are inferred from the variance of the primary neutron spectrum. Consistently higher DT than DD Tion are observed and the difference is seen to increase with increasing apparent DT Tion. The line-of-sight rms variations of both DD and DT Tion are small, ~150eV, indicating an isotropicmore » source. The DD neutron yields are consistently high relative to the DT neutron yields given the observed Tion. Spatial and temporal variations of the DT temperature and density, DD-DT differential attenuation in the surrounding DT fuel, and fluid motion variations contribute to a DT Tion greater than the DD Tion, but are in a one-dimensional model insufficient to explain the data. We hypothesize that in a three-dimensional interpretation, these effects combined could explain the results.« less

  2. Demonstration of High Performance in Layered Deuterium-Tritium Capsule Implosions in Uranium Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döppner, T.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Ma, T.; Park, H.-S.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Haan, S. W.; Kritcher, A. L.; MacPhee, A.; Le Pape, S.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Springer, P. T.; Salmonson, J. D.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Church, J.; Dixit, S.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Hatarik, R.; Havre, M.; Herrmann, H.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Knauer, J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Landen, O. L.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, J.; Moore, A. S.; Nikroo, A.; Ralph, J. E.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M.; Streckert, H.; Town, R.; Turnbull, D.; Volegov, P. L.; Wan, A.; Widmann, K.; Wilde, C. H.; Yeamans, C.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the first layered deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule implosions indirectly driven by a "high-foot" laser pulse that were fielded in depleted uranium hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility. Recently, high-foot implosions have demonstrated improved resistance to ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced mixing of ablator material into the DT hot spot [Hurricane et al., Nature (London) 506, 343 (2014)]. Uranium hohlraums provide a higher albedo and thus an increased drive equivalent to an additional 25 TW laser power at the peak of the drive compared to standard gold hohlraums leading to higher implosion velocity. Additionally, we observe an improved hot-spot shape closer to round which indicates enhanced drive from the waist. In contrast to findings in the National Ignition Campaign, now all of our highest performing experiments have been done in uranium hohlraums and achieved total yields approaching 1016 neutrons where more than 50% of the yield was due to additional heating of alpha particles stopping in the DT fuel.

  3. Indications of flow near maximum compression in layered deuterium-tritium implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Knauer, J. P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Munro, D. H.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Bionta, R. M.; Bond, E. J.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D.; Casey, D. T.; Döppner, T.; Frenje, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hurricane, O.; Kritcher, A.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Mackinnon, A.; Meezan, N.; Patel, P.; Petrasso, R. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Springer, P. T.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2016-08-01

    An accurate understanding of burn dynamics in implosions of cryogenically layered deuterium (D) and tritium (T) filled capsules, obtained partly through precision diagnosis of these experiments, is essential for assessing the impediments to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. We present measurements of neutrons from such implosions. The apparent ion temperatures Tion are inferred from the variance of the primary neutron spectrum. Consistently higher DT than DD Tion are observed and the difference is seen to increase with increasing apparent DT Tion. The line-of-sight rms variations of both DD and DT Tion are small, ˜150 eV , indicating an isotropic source. The DD neutron yields are consistently high relative to the DT neutron yields given the observed Tion. Spatial and temporal variations of the DT temperature and density, DD-DT differential attenuation in the surrounding DT fuel, and fluid motion variations contribute to a DT Tion greater than the DD Tion, but are in a one-dimensional model insufficient to explain the data. We hypothesize that in a three-dimensional interpretation, these effects combined could explain the results.

  4. Demonstration of High Performance in Layered Deuterium-Tritium Capsule Implosions in Uranium Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Döppner, T; Callahan, D A; Hurricane, O A; Hinkel, D E; Ma, T; Park, H-S; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Casey, D T; Celliers, P; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Haan, S W; Kritcher, A L; MacPhee, A; Le Pape, S; Pak, A; Patel, P K; Springer, P T; Salmonson, J D; Tommasini, R; Benedetti, L R; Bond, E; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J; Church, J; Dixit, S; Edgell, D; Edwards, M J; Fittinghoff, D N; Frenje, J; Gatu Johnson, M; Grim, G; Hatarik, R; Havre, M; Herrmann, H; Izumi, N; Khan, S F; Kline, J L; Knauer, J; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; Merrill, F E; Moody, J; Moore, A S; Nikroo, A; Ralph, J E; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Sayre, D; Schneider, M; Streckert, H; Town, R; Turnbull, D; Volegov, P L; Wan, A; Widmann, K; Wilde, C H; Yeamans, C

    2015-07-31

    We report on the first layered deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule implosions indirectly driven by a "high-foot" laser pulse that were fielded in depleted uranium hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility. Recently, high-foot implosions have demonstrated improved resistance to ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced mixing of ablator material into the DT hot spot [Hurricane et al., Nature (London) 506, 343 (2014)]. Uranium hohlraums provide a higher albedo and thus an increased drive equivalent to an additional 25 TW laser power at the peak of the drive compared to standard gold hohlraums leading to higher implosion velocity. Additionally, we observe an improved hot-spot shape closer to round which indicates enhanced drive from the waist. In contrast to findings in the National Ignition Campaign, now all of our highest performing experiments have been done in uranium hohlraums and achieved total yields approaching 10^{16} neutrons where more than 50% of the yield was due to additional heating of alpha particles stopping in the DT fuel. PMID:26274424

  5. Demonstration of High Performance in Layered Deuterium-Tritium Capsule Implosions in Uranium Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Döppner, T.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Ma, T.; Park, H. -S.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. P.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Haan, S.; Kritcher, A. L.; MacPhee, A.; Le Pape, S.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Springer, P. T.; Salmonson, J. D.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Church, J.; Dixit, S.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Hatarik, R.; Havre, M.; Herrmann, H.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Knauer, J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Landen, O. L.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, J.; Moore, A. S.; Nikroo, A.; Ralph, J. E.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M.; Streckert, H.; Town, R.; Turnbull, D.; Volegov, P. L.; Wan, A.; Widmann, K.; Wilde, C. H.; Yeamans, C.

    2015-07-28

    We report on the first layered deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule implosions indirectly driven by a “highfoot” laser pulse that were fielded in depleted uranium hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility. Recently, high-foot implosions have demonstrated improved resistance to ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced mixing of ablator material into the DT hot spot [Hurricane et al., Nature (London) 506, 343 (2014)]. Uranium hohlraums provide a higher albedo and thus an increased drive equivalent to an additional 25 TW laser power at the peak of the drive compared to standard gold hohlraums leading to higher implosion velocity. Additionally, we observe an improved hot-spot shape closer to round which indicates enhanced drive from the waist. In contrast to findings in the National Ignition Campaign, now all of our highest performing experiments have been done in uranium hohlraums and achieved total yields approaching 1016 neutrons where more than 50% of the yield was due to additional heating of alpha particles stopping in the DT fuel.

  6. Demonstration of High Performance in Layered Deuterium-Tritium Capsule Implosions in Uranium Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Döppner, T.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Ma, T.; Park, H. -S.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. P.; Dewald, E. L.; et al

    2015-07-28

    We report on the first layered deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule implosions indirectly driven by a “highfoot” laser pulse that were fielded in depleted uranium hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility. Recently, high-foot implosions have demonstrated improved resistance to ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced mixing of ablator material into the DT hot spot [Hurricane et al., Nature (London) 506, 343 (2014)]. Uranium hohlraums provide a higher albedo and thus an increased drive equivalent to an additional 25 TW laser power at the peak of the drive compared to standard gold hohlraums leading to higher implosion velocity. Additionally, we observe an improved hot-spot shapemore » closer to round which indicates enhanced drive from the waist. In contrast to findings in the National Ignition Campaign, now all of our highest performing experiments have been done in uranium hohlraums and achieved total yields approaching 1016 neutrons where more than 50% of the yield was due to additional heating of alpha particles stopping in the DT fuel.« less

  7. Lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer mortality in a population attending school adjacent to styrene-butadiene facilities, 1963-1993

    PubMed Central

    Loughlin, J. E.; Rothman, K. J.; Dreyer, N. A.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of mortality from lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers and other causes among students. DESIGN: The study used school records, yearbooks, and Texas Department of Health records for the school years 1963-64 to 1992-93 to construct a cohort of 15,403 students. Three mortality databases were searched to identify deaths, and mortality rates in the cohort were compared with mortality rates from the United States and Texas. Computed standardised mortality ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used. SETTING: Eastern Texas high school adjacent to facilities that have been producing synthetic styrene-butadiene since 1943. MAIN RESULTS: 338 deaths were identified. The all causes standardised mortality ratio was 0.84 (95% confidence intervals 0.74, 0.95) for men and 0.89 (0.73, 1.09) for women. The standardised mortality ratio for all lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers was 1.64 (95% confidence intervals 0.85, 2.87) for men and 0.47 (0.06, 1.70) for women. The slight male excess in lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers was stronger among men who attended school for two years or less. CONCLUSIONS: The overall mortality from lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer among the students was little different from that of the United States as a whole. A moderate excess for men, predominantly among the shorter-term students, was offset by a deficit among women. These variations are compatible with random fluctuations; the overall pattern is not indicative of an effect of environmental exposure sustained while attending the high school.   PMID:10396534

  8. Copper activation deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Cooper, G W; Ruiz, C L; Leeper, R J; Chandler, G A; Hahn, K D; Nelson, A J; Torres, J A; Smelser, R M; McWatters, B R; Bleuel, D L; Yeamans, C B; Knittel, K M; Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Petrasso, R D; Styron, J D

    2012-10-01

    A DT neutron yield diagnostic based on the reactions, (63)Cu(n,2n)(62)Cu(β(+)) and (65)Cu(n,2n)( 64) Cu(β(+)), has been fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The induced copper activity is measured using a NaI γ-γ coincidence system. Uncertainties in the 14-MeV DT yield measurements are on the order of 7% to 8%. In addition to measuring yield, the ratio of activities induced in two, well-separated copper samples are used to measure the relative anisotropy of the fuel ρR to uncertainties as low as 5%. PMID:23126920

  9. Recovery of tritium from water

    SciTech Connect

    Sienkiewicz, C.J.; Lentz, J.E. . Mound)

    1988-09-01

    The pilot-scale Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) system developed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound facility has evolved into a fully operational tritium recovery system. This has resulted from the evaluation of recent developments in AECL/CRNL hydrophobic exchange catalyst in the CECE system. Data obtained during recent tests led to the design and installation of an aqueous tritium recovery facility. Operation of the Tritium Aqueous Waste Recovery System makes possible the recovery of tritium from low-level tritiated aqueous waste streams.

  10. Recovery of tritium from water

    SciTech Connect

    Sienkiewicz, C.J.; Lentz, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The pilot-scale Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) system developed at the US Department of Energy's Mound facility has evolved into a fully operational tritium recovery system. This has resulted from the evaluation of recent developments in AECL/ORNL hydrophobic exchange catalyst in the CECE system. Data obtained during recent tests led to the design and installation of an aqueous tritium recovery facility. Operation of the Tritium Aqueous Waste Recovery System makes possible the recovery of tritium from low-level tritiated aqueous waste streams. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Copper activation deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, G. W.; Nelson, A. J.; Styron, J. D.; Ruiz, C. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Chandler, G. A.; Hahn, K. D.; Torres, J. A.; Smelser, R. M.; McWatters, B. R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Yeamans, C. B.; Knittel, K. M.; Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2012-10-15

    A DT neutron yield diagnostic based on the reactions, {sup 63}Cu(n,2n){sup 62}Cu({beta}{sup +}) and {sup 65}Cu(n,2n) {sup 64} Cu({beta}{sup +}), has been fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The induced copper activity is measured using a NaI {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence system. Uncertainties in the 14-MeV DT yield measurements are on the order of 7% to 8%. In addition to measuring yield, the ratio of activities induced in two, well-separated copper samples are used to measure the relative anisotropy of the fuel {rho}R to uncertainties as low as 5%.

  12. TFTR tritium operations lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, C.A.; Raftopoulos, S.; LaMarche, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor which is the progenitor for full D-T operating tokamaks has successfully processed > 81 grams of tritium in a safe and efficient fashion. Many of the fundamental operational techniques associated with the safe movement of tritium through the TFTR facility were developed over the course of many years of DOE tritium facilities (LANL, LLNL, SRS, Mound). In the mid 1980`s The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at LANL began reporting operational techniques for the safe handling of tritium, and became a major conduit for the transfer of safe tritium handling technology from DOE weapons laboratories to non-weapon facilities. TFTR has built on many of the TSTA operational techniques and has had the opportunity of performing and enhancing these techniques at America`s first operational D-T fusion reactor. This paper will discuss negative pressure employing `elephant trunks` in the control and mitigation of tritium contamination at the TFTR facility, and the interaction between contaminated line operations and {Delta} pressure control. In addition the strategy employed in managing the movement of tritium through TFTR while maintaining an active tritium inventory of < 50,000 Ci will be discussed. 5 refs.

  13. First results of radiation-driven, layered deuterium-tritium implosions with a 3-shock adiabat-shaped drive at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Robey, H. F.; Döppner, T.; Jones, O. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Bachmann, B.; Baker, K. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bond, E.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Dixit, S. N.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Hurricane, O. A.; Jancaitis, K. S.; and others

    2015-08-15

    Radiation-driven, layered deuterium-tritium plastic capsule implosions were carried out using a new, 3-shock “adiabat-shaped” drive on the National Ignition Facility. The purpose of adiabat shaping is to use a stronger first shock, reducing hydrodynamic instability growth in the ablator. The shock can decay before reaching the deuterium-tritium fuel leaving it on a low adiabat and allowing higher fuel compression. The fuel areal density was improved by ∼25% with this new drive compared to similar “high-foot” implosions, while neutron yield was improved by more than 4 times, compared to “low-foot” implosions driven at the same compression and implosion velocity.

  14. Overview of tritium: characteristics, sources, and problems.

    PubMed

    Okada, S; Momoshima, N

    1993-12-01

    Tritium has certain characteristics that present unique challenges for dosimetry and health-risk assessment. For example, in the gas form, tritium can diffuse through almost any container, including those made of steel, aluminum, and plastics. In the oxide form, tritium can generally not be detected by commonly used survey instruments. In the environment, tritium can be taken up by all hydrogen-containing molecules, distributing widely on a global scale. Tritium can be incorporated into humans through respiration, ingestion, and diffusion through skin. Its harmful effects are observed only when it is incorporated into the body. Several sources contribute to the inventory of tritium in our environment. These are 1) cosmic ray interaction with atmospheric molecules; 2) nuclear reactions in the earth's crust; 3) nuclear testing in the atmosphere during the 1950s and 1960s; 4) continuous release of tritium from nuclear power plants and tritium production facilities under normal operation; 5) incidental releases from these facilities; and 6) consumer products. An important future source will be nuclear fusion facilities expected to be developed for the purpose of electricity generation. The principal health physics problems associated with tritium are 1) the determination of the parameters for risk estimation with further reduction of their uncertainties (e.g., relative biological effectiveness and dose-rate dependency); 2) risk estimation from complex exposures to tritium in gas form, tritium in oxide form, tritium surface contamination, and other tritium-contaminated forms, with or without other ionizing radiations and/or nonionizing radiations; 3) the dose contributions of elemental tritium in the lung and from its oxidized tritium in the gastrointestinal tract; 4) prevention of tritium (in oxide form) intake and enhancement of tritium (oxide form) excretion from the human body; 5) precise health effects information for low-level tritium exposure; and 6) public

  15. Potential role of the Fast Flux Test Facility and the advanced test reactor in the U.S. tritium production system

    SciTech Connect

    Dautel, W.A.

    1996-10-01

    The Deparunent of Energy is currently engaged in a dual-track strategy to develop an accelerator and a conunercial light water reactor (CLWR) as potential sources of tritium supply. New analysis of the production capabilities of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at the Hanford Site argues for considering its inclusion in the tritium supply,system. The use of the FFTF (alone or together with the Advanced Test Reactor [ATR] at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) as an integral part of,a tritium production system would help (1) ensure supply by 2005, (2) provide additional time to resolve institutional and technical issues associated with the- dual-track strategy, and (3) reduce discounted total life-cycle`costs and near-tenn annual expenditures for accelerator-based systems. The FFRF would also provide a way to get an early start.on dispositioning surplus weapons-usable plutonium as well as provide a source of medical isotopes. Challenges Associated With the Dual-Track Strategy The Departinent`s purchase of either a commercial reactor or reactor irradiation services faces challenging institutional issues associated with converting civilian reactors to defense uses. In addition, while the technical capabilities of the individual components of the accelerator have been proven, the entire system needs to be demonstrated and scaled upward to ensure that the components work toge ther 1548 as a complete production system. These challenges create uncertainty over the ability of the du2a-track strategy to provide an assured tritium supply source by 2005. Because the earliest the accelerator could come on line is 2007, it would have to operate at maximum capacity for the first few years to regenerate the reserves lost through radioactive decay aftei 2005.

  16. Plume-Scale Testing of a Simplified Method for Detecting Tritium Contamination in Plants and Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andraski, B. J.; Halford, K. J.; Johnson, M. J.; Michel, R. L.; Radyk, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    Research at the Amargosa Desert Research Site near Beatty, Nevada indicates that tritium movement from a closed low-level radioactive waste facility occurs primarily in the gas phase with preferential transport through coarse-textured sediment layers. However, models for movement of tritiated water vapor at the site fail to predict the extent of transport indicated by field measurements. In order to develop a better understanding of the spatial distribution of tritium contamination in the near-surface environment adjacent to the waste facility, a recently published tritium contamination-detection method was tested for collection and analysis of plume-scale data. The method entails solar distillation of plant water from foliage, followed by filtration and adsorption of scintillation-interfering constituents on a graphite-based solid-phase-extraction column prior to direct-scintillation counting. Samples were collected from 103 plants (creosote bush; Larrea tridentata) within a 72-ha area adjacent to the waste facility. Plant data showed elevated tritium concentrations up to 300 m from the waste facility. For a small ( ˜ 8 ha) area where high-density soil-water vapor data were already available, plant-based and soil-based concentration contours compared favorably. Plant data for previously unmeasured areas identified "hot spots" that were later verified by direct soil measurements. Regression analysis of tritium concentrations from collocated plant- and soil-sampling sites showed that empirical relations could be developed to predict soil concentrations (y) from the more simply determined plant concentrations (x): e.g., the equation for root-zone soil concentrations (Bq/L) was y = 1.156 x + 55.17 (r2 = 0.9521; SEE = 250). Results of this work have improved knowledge of the extent of tritium contamination in the near-surface environment. The pattern of the tritium concentrations indicated that the observed contamination originates from two sources--the waste

  17. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  18. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, P.

    1994-06-14

    A system is described for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream. 1 fig.

  19. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1994-01-01

    A system for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream.

  20. Baseline radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation around the proposed Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility and the Weapons Subsystems Laboratory at TA-16

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Ennis, M.

    1995-09-01

    A preoperational environmental survey is required by the Department of Energy (DOE) for all federally funded research facilities that have the potential to cause adverse impacts on the environment. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, an environmental survey was conducted over the proposed sites of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) and the Weapons Subsystems Laboratory (WSL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at TA-16. Baseline concentrations of tritium ({sup 3}H), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu) and total uranium were measured in soils, vegetation (pine needles and oak leaves) and ground litter. Tritium was also measured from air samples, while cesium ({sup 137}Cs) was measured in soils. The mean concentration of airborne tritiated water during 1987 was 3.9 pCi/m{sup 3}. Although the mean annual concentration of {sup 3}H in soil moisture at the 0--5 cm (2 in) soil depth was measured at 0.6 pCi/mL, a better background level, based on long-term regional data, was considered to be 2.6 pCi/mL. Mean values for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 218}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium in soils collected from the 0--5 cm depth were 1.08 pCi/g, 0.0014 pCi/g, 0.0325 pCi/g, and 4.01 {micro}g/g, respectively. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) needles contained higher values of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium than did leaves collected from gambel`s oak (Quercus gambelii). In contrast, leaves collected from gambel`s oak contained higher levels of {sup 137}Cs than what pine needles did.

  1. Evaluation of tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, T.; Ochiai, K.; Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y.

    2015-03-15

    Demonstration power plant (DEMO) fusion reactors require advanced tritium breeders with high thermal stability. Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) advanced tritium breeders with excess Li (Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y}) are stable in a reducing atmosphere at high temperatures. Although the tritium release properties of tritium breeders are documented in databases for DEMO blanket design, no in situ examination under fusion neutron (DT neutron) irradiation has been performed. In this study, a preliminary examination of the tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders was performed, and DT neutron irradiation experiments were performed at the fusion neutronics source (FNS) facility in JAEA. Considering the tritium release characteristics, the optimum grain size after sintering is <5 μm. From the results of the optimization of granulation conditions, prototype Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles with optimum grain size (<5 μm) were successfully fabricated. The Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles exhibited good tritium release properties similar to the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. In particular, the released amount of HT gas for easier tritium handling was higher than that of HTO water. (authors)

  2. Final Assessment: U.S. Virgin Islands Industrial Development Park and Adjacent Facilities Energy-Efficiency and Micro-Grid Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Joseph M.; Boyd, Paul A.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Parker, Graham B.

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of this assessment was to undertake an assessment and analysis of cost-effective options for energy-efficiency improvements and the deployment of a micro-grid to increase the energy resilience at the U.S. Virgin Islands Industrial Development Park (IDP) and adjacent facilities in St. Croix, Virgin Islands. The Economic Development Authority sought assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy to undertake this assessment undertaken by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The assessment included 18 buildings plus the perimeter security lighting at the Virgin Islands Bureau of Correctional Facility, four buildings plus exterior lighting at the IDP, and five buildings (one of which is to be constructed) at the Virgin Islands Police Department for a total of 27 buildings with a total of nearly 323,000 square feet.

  3. Tritium autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen distribution and diffusion within many materials may be investigated by autoradiography if the radioactive isotope tritium is used in the study. Tritium is unstable and decays to helium-3 by emission of a low energy (18 keV) beta particle which may be detected photographically. The basic principles of tritium autoradiography will be discussed. Limitations are imposed on the technique by: (1) the low energy of the beta particles; (2) the solubility and diffusivity of hydrogen in materials; and (3) the response of the photographic emulsion to beta particles. These factors control the possible range of application of tritium autoradiography. The technique has been applied successfully to studies of hydrogen solubility and distribution in materials and to studies of hydrogen damage.

  4. Atmospheric tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Oestlund, H.G.; Mason, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Research progress for the year 1979 to 1980 are reported. Concentrations of tritiated water vapor, tritium gas and tritiated hydrocarbons in the atmosphere at selected sampling points are presented. (ACR)

  5. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  6. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  7. Remediation of ground water containing volatile organic compounds and tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, S.N.; Folsom, E.N.

    1994-03-01

    The Trailer 5475 (T-5475) East Taxi Strip Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California was used as a taxi strip by the US Navy to taxi airplanes to the runway from 1942 to 1947. Solvents were used in some unpaved areas adjacent to the East Taxi Strip for cleaning airplanes. From 1953 through 1976, the area was used to store and treat liquid waste. From 1962 to 1976 ponds were constructed and used for evaporation of liquid waste. As a result, the ground water in this area contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium. The ground water in this area is also known to contain hexavalent chromium that is probably naturally occurring. Therefore, LLNL has proposed ``pump-and-treat`` technology above grade in a completely closed loop system. The facility will be designed to remove the VOCs and hexavalent chromium, if any, from the ground water, and the treated ground water containing tritium will be reinjected where it will decay naturally in the subsurface. Ground water containing tritium will be reinjected into areas with equal or higher tritium concentrations to comply with California regulations.

  8. UV/Ozone treatment to decontaminate tritium contaminated surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krasznai, J.P.; Mowat, R.

    1995-10-01

    Tritium contamination on surfaces is often encountered during operation and maintenance of equipment at the Darlington Tritium Removal Facility and likely at other tritium handling facilities. The use of efficient decontamination techniques that produce little or no secondary wastes is desirable. At Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT) we have been developing a process utilizing a combination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and ozone gas to remove tritium surface contamination from materials often used in tritium service. This paper summarizes the performance of the technique. The results are encouraging because the technique is very effective, simple in terms of equipment requirements and concentrates tritium in an easily managed waste form. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Tritium breeding measurements in a lithium blanket module with Pb/Be multipliers at the LOTUS facility

    SciTech Connect

    Azam, S.; Kumar, A.

    1987-01-01

    The lithium blanket module (LBM) was lent for a fixed duration in 1985 to Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne under an agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The first tritium breeding measurements in the central rod of the LBM and their analysis have been reported previously. Some time ago, we carried out additional experiments wherein the Li/sub 2/O sample disk, each having a theoretical density of /approx/85% and dimensions of 17.8-mm diam x 0.9-mm thickness, were placed in four removable rods. In addition to the central rod, the other rods were at /approx/6-, 18-, and 39-cm radial distances from the axis of the central one. The sample disks wee kept at every 3 cm inside each of these rods up to a length of 30 cm in the Li/sub 2/O part of the LBM. The choice of the off-axis rods resulted from our interest in investigating the effect of room return on tritium breeding in the LBM. We chose two of the leading neutron multipliers: (a) a 5-cm-thick (/approx/100- x 110-cm) lead slab and (b) a 6-cm-thick (/approx/66- x 66-cm) beryllium slab. The experimental assembly, consisting of the multiplier followed by the LBM, was kept at 10 cm from the generator. A packet of three foils, zirconium, indium, and aluminum, was placed at the center of the flat face of the generator to monitor the source intensity during the 10-h operation for the experiments with each multiplier. The source intensity is deduced to be /approx/1.9 x 10/sup 12/ n/s for both the experiments. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  10. PAH contamination in soils adjacent to a coal-transporting facility in Tapin district, south Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mizwar, Andy; Trihadiningrum, Yulinah

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the level of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), in surface soils around a coal-transporting facility in the western part of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Three composite soil samples were collected from a coal stockpile, coal-hauling road, and coal port. Identification and quantification of PAH was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total content of 16 USEPA-PAH ranged from 11.79 to 55.30 mg/kg with arithmetic mean value of 33.14 mg/kg and median of 32.33 mg/kg. The 16 USEPA-PAH measured levels were found to be greater compared with most of the literature values. The levels of high molecular-weight PAH (5- and 6-ring) were dominant and formed 67.77-80.69 % of the total 16 USEPA-PAH The most abundant of individual PAH are indeno[1,2,3-cd] pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene with concentration ranges of 2.11-20.56 and 1.59-17.84 mg/kg, respectively. The degree of PAH contamination and subsequent toxicity assessment suggest that the soils of the study area are highly contaminated and pose a potential health risk to humans. PMID:25672272

  11. Development of a tritium monitor combined with an electrochemical tritium pump using a proton conducting oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Sugiyama, T.

    2015-03-15

    The detection of low level tritium is one of the key issues for tritium management in tritium handling facilities. Such a detection can be performed by tritium monitors based on proton conducting oxide technique. We tested a tritium monitoring system composed of a commercial proportional counter combined with an electrochemical hydrogen pump equipped with CaZr{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-α} as proton conducting oxide. The hydrogen pump operated at 973 K under electrolysis conditions using tritiated water vapor (HTO). The proton conducting oxide extracts tritium molecules (HT) from HTO and tritium concentration is measured by the proportional counter. The advantage of the proposed tritium monitoring system is that it is able to convert HTO into molecular hydrogen.

  12. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, lead, antimony, I,I-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, mercury, nickel, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 57 (49%) of the 116 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 21 (18%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations Sixty-one downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained constituents that exceeded the PDWS during first quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and HSB 85A, BC, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Upgradient well BGO 2D contained elevated tritium.

  13. Use of system code to estimate equilibrium tritium inventory in fusion DT machines, such as ARIES-AT and components testing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    C.P.C. Wong; B. Merrill

    2014-10-01

    ITER is under construction and will begin operation in 2020. This is the first 500 MWfusion class DT device, and since it is not going to breed tritium, it will consume most of the limited supply of tritium resources in the world. Yet, in parallel, DT fusion nuclear component testing machines will be needed to provide technical data for the design of DEMO. It becomes necessary to estimate the tritium burn-up fraction and corresponding initial tritium inventory and the doubling time of these machines for the planning of future supply and utilization of tritium. With the use of a system code, tritium burn-up fraction and initial tritium inventory for steady state DT machines can be estimated. Estimated tritium burn-up fractions of FNSF-AT, CFETR-R and ARIES-AT are in the range of 1–2.8%. Corresponding total equilibrium tritium inventories of the plasma flow and tritium processing system, and with the DCLL blanket option are 7.6 kg, 6.1 kg, and 5.2 kg for ARIES-AT, CFETR-R and FNSF-AT, respectively.

  14. Tritium removal and separation technology developments

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnett, I.; Busigin, A.; Shapiro, A.

    2008-07-15

    Recent increased interest from regulators and the public has led more organizations to consider the environmental impact and safety considerations of tritium handling. Examples include the significance of the tritium isotope separation system on ITER licensing, remediation of ground water from power utilities and government facilities and concerns of high tritium concentrations within operational CANDU reactors. GE Healthcare, formerly Amersham pic, has been producing tritium-labelled chemicals since the late 1940's. GE's manufacturing site located near Cardiff, UK has installed a tritium waste treatment and enrichment facility to radically reduce tritium discharges to the environment. This facility employs a continuous processing plant that recovers tritium from a complex mixture of tritiated organic and aqueous waste compounds. Two isotope separation techniques are used to achieve a final pure tritium product, which is used in the manufacturing of labelled compounds. Building upon this experience, together with Special Separations Applications Inc. (SSAI), GE has developed a large-scale diffusion-based isotope separation process as an alternative to conventional cryogenic distillation. Having a tritium inventory an order of magnitude lower than conventional cryogenic distillation, this process is attractive for heavy water detritiation, applicable to single and multi-unit CANDU reactors and research reactors as well as fusion applications. Additionally, the new process has advantages of being cryogen-free, less complex, simple to operate and having improved conventional and radiological safety. (authors)

  15. Tritium Exposure Reconstruction Using Tree Rings at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, A. H.; Hunt, J. R.; Knezovich, J. P.

    2002-12-01

    There are numerous instances where historical exposures to contaminants can determine future health impacts, but limited means exist to reconstruct those exposures from current measurements and models. The National Tritium Labeling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has released tritiated water into the atmosphere through an adjacent stack since 1969. Some members of the surrounding community are concerned about potential health effects from the emissions and have questioned the accuracy and thoroughness of reported historical release quantities and environmental monitoring. A grove of Eucalyptus globulus surround the emission stack and were used to reconstruct historical exposure levels. Previous studies have demonstrated that plants can be reliably used as passive monitors for tritiated water, as well as many other contaminants. Because trees can sequester tritium into wood during photosynthesis, a tree provides a temporal variation of exposure at least on an annual basis. Milligram-sized samples of wood from cores were measured for carbon-14 and tritium using accelerator mass spectrometry. The carbon-14 measurements were matched with bomb curve levels of carbon-14 to independently assess the age of the wood used for organically bound tritium measurements. The tritium exposure reconstruction was consistent with annual exposure monitoring and release quantities reported by LBNL over the last 30 years. Because this location has an episodic release pattern and complex topographic and meteorological variation, the historical assessment from these environmental measurements is likely to have less uncertainty than mathematical modeling efforts.

  16. A low tritium hydride bed inventory estimation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Shanahan, K.L.; Baker, R.A.; Foster, P.J.

    2015-03-15

    Low tritium hydride beds were developed and deployed into tritium service in Savannah River Site. Process beds to be used for low concentration tritium gas were not fitted with instrumentation to perform the steady-state, flowing gas calorimetric inventory measurement method. Low tritium beds contain less than the detection limit of the IBA (In-Bed Accountability) technique used for tritium inventory. This paper describes two techniques for estimating tritium content and uncertainty for low tritium content beds to be used in the facility's physical inventory (PI). PI are performed periodically to assess the quantity of nuclear material used in a facility. The first approach (Mid-point approximation method - MPA) assumes the bed is half-full and uses a gas composition measurement to estimate the tritium inventory and uncertainty. The second approach utilizes the bed's hydride material pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) properties and a gas composition measurement to reduce the uncertainty in the calculated bed inventory.

  17. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R.; Murphy, Mason O.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises ( Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  18. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA).

    PubMed

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E; Ennen, Joshua R; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R; Murphy, Mason O; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V; Price, Steven J

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates. PMID:25894273

  19. Turbines and terrestrial vertebrates: variation in tortoise survivorship between a wind energy facility and an adjacent undisturbed wildland area in the desert southwest (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Augustine, Benjamin J.; Arundel, Terry; Murphy, Mason O.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David F.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18 year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  20. Tritium Plasma Experiment Upgrade for Fusion Tritium and Nuclear Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Masashi; Taylor, Chase N.; Kolasinski, Robert D.; Buchenauer, Dean A.

    2015-11-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) is a unique high-flux linear plasma device that can handle beryllium, tritium, and neutron-irradiated plasma facing materials, and is the only existing device dedicated to directly study tritium retention and permeation in neutron-irradiated materials [M. Shimada et.al., Rev. Sci. Instru. 82 (2011) 083503 and and M. Shimada, et.al., Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 013008]. Recently the TPE has undergone major upgrades in its electrical and control systems. New DC power supplies and a new control center enable remote plasma operations from outside of the contamination area for tritium, minimizing the possible exposure risk with tritium and beryllium. We discuss the electrical upgrade, enhanced operational safety, improved plasma performance, and development of tritium plasma-driven permeation and optical spectrometer system. This upgrade not only improves operational safety of the worker, but also enhances plasma performance to better simulate extreme plasma-material conditions expected in ITER, Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), and Demonstration reactor (DEMO). This work was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under the DOE Idaho Field Office contract number DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  1. HiPER Tritium factory elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER will include a Tritium target factory. This presentation is an overview. We start from process ideas to go to first sketch passing through safety principles. We will follow the Tritium management process. We need first a gas factory producing the right gas mixture from hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium storage. Then we could pass through the target factory. It is based on our LMJ single shot experiment and some new development like the injector. Then comes pellet burst and vapour recovery. The Tritium factory has to include the waste recovery, recycling process with gas purification before storage. At least, a nuclear plant is not a classical building. Tritium is also very special... All the design ideas have to be adapted. Many facilities are necessary, some with redundancy. We all have to well known these constraints. Tritium budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial one.

  2. Tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Doyle, B.L.

    1997-11-01

    Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

  3. Tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Doyle, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Tritium retention and removal are critical issues for the success of ITER or any DT fusion reactor. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, is the first fusion facility to afford the opportunity to study the tritium retention and removal over an extended period. In TFTR, tritium accumulates on all surfaces with line of sight to the plasma by codeposition of tritium with carbon. Measurements of both deuterium and tritium retention fractions have yielded retention between 0.2 and 0.6 of the injected fuel in the torus. Tritium has been successfully removed from TFTR by glow discharge cleaning and by air purges. The in-vessel inventory was reduced by a factor of 2, facilitating machine maintenance. In TFTR, the amount of dust recovered from the TFTR vacuum vessel has varied from several grams to a few kilograms.

  4. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Coffin, D.O.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  5. 1997 evaluation of tritium removal and mitigation technologies for Hanford Site wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Biyani, R.K.; Duncan, J.B.; Flyckt, D.L.; Mohondro, P.C.; Sinton, G.L.

    1997-07-24

    This report contains results of a biennial assessment of tritium separation technology and tritium nitration techniques for control of tritium bearing wastewaters at the Hanford Site. Tritium in wastewaters at Hanford have resulted from plutonium production, fuel reprocessing, and waste handling operations since 1944. this assessment was conducted in response to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order.

  6. Analysis of the tritium-water (T-H{sub 2}O) system for a fusion material test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.; Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.; Reed, C.B.

    1992-04-01

    The need for a high flux, high energy neutron test facility to evaluate performance of fusion reactor materials is urgent. An accelerator based D-Li source is generally accepted as the most reasonable approach to a high flux neutron source in the near future. The idea is to bombard a high energy (35 MeV) deuteron beam into a lithium target to produce high energy neutrons to simulate the fusion environment. More recently it was proposed to use a 21 MeV triton beam incident on a water jet target to produce the required neutron source for testing and simulating fusion material environments. The advantages of such a system are discussed. Major concerns regarding the feasibility of this system are also highlighted.

  7. Analysis of the tritium-water (T-H sub 2 O) system for a fusion material test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.; Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.; Reed, C.B.

    1992-04-01

    The need for a high flux, high energy neutron test facility to evaluate performance of fusion reactor materials is urgent. An accelerator based D-Li source is generally accepted as the most reasonable approach to a high flux neutron source in the near future. The idea is to bombard a high energy (35 MeV) deuteron beam into a lithium target to produce high energy neutrons to simulate the fusion environment. More recently it was proposed to use a 21 MeV triton beam incident on a water jet target to produce the required neutron source for testing and simulating fusion material environments. The advantages of such a system are discussed. Major concerns regarding the feasibility of this system are also highlighted.

  8. Tritium technology programs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium technology in the United States has advanced considerably since the 1988 Tritium Conferences in Toronto. This advance has come in facilities, processing and safety related technologies and in an ever increasing commitment to compliance related issues. The major laboratories in the US tritium programs continue to be (Westinghouse) Savannah River Site, EG G Mound, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Each of these Laboratories have made some significant changes in their programs and/or facilities in the past four years. 11 refs, 1 fig.

  9. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, lead, antimony, I,I-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, mercury, nickel, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 57 (49%) of the 116 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 21 (18%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations Sixty-one downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained constituents that exceeded the PDWS during first quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and HSB 85A, BC, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Upgradient well BGO 2D contained elevated tritium.

  10. Thermal neutron calibration of a tritium extraction facility using the /sup 6/Li(n,t)/sup 4/He//sup 197/Au(n,. gamma. )/sup 198/Au cross section ratio for standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1980-08-01

    Absolute tritium activities in a neutron-activated metallic lithium samples have been measured by liquid scintillation methods to provide data needed for the determination of capture-to-fission ratios in fast breeder reactor spectra and for recent measurements of the /sup 7/Li(n,n't)/sup 4/He cross section. The tritium extraction facility used for all these experiments has now been calibrated by measuring the /sup 6/Li(n,t)/sup 4/He//sup 197/Au/n,..gamma..)/sup 198/Au activity ratio for thermal neutrons and comparing the result with the well-known cross sections. The calculated-to-measured activity ratio was found to be 1.033 +- 0.018. 2 figures, 20 tables.

  11. Tritium glovebox stripper system seismic design evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, J. J.; Klein, J. E.

    2015-09-01

    The use of glovebox confinement at US Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities has been discussed in numerous publications. Glovebox confinement protects the workers from radioactive material (especially tritium oxide), provides an inert atmosphere for prevention of flammable gas mixtures and deflagrations, and allows recovery of tritium released from the process into the glovebox when a glovebox stripper system (GBSS) is part of the design. Tritium recovery from the glovebox atmosphere reduces emissions from the facility and the radiological dose to the public. Location of US DOE defense programs facilities away from public boundaries also aids in reducing radiological doses to the public. This is a study based upon design concepts to identify issues and considerations for design of a Seismic GBSS. Safety requirements and analysis should be considered preliminary. Safety requirements for design of GBSS should be developed and finalized as a part of the final design process.

  12. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    McManus, Gary J.; Weesner, Forrest J.

    1989-05-30

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture and selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration.

  13. Linear accelerator for tritium production

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, R.W.; Billen, J.H.; Chan, K.C.; Genzlinger, R.; Gray, E.R.; Nath, S.; Rusnak, B.; Schrage, D.L.; Stovall, J.E.; Takeda, H.; Wood, R.; Wangler, T.P.; Young, L.M.

    1996-06-01

    For many years now, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working to develop a conceptual design of a facility for accelerator production of tritium (APT). The APT accelerator will produce high energy protons which will bombard a heavy metal target, resulting in the production of large numbers of spallation neutrons. These neutrons will be captured by a low-{ital Z} target to produce tritium. This paper describes the latest design of a room-temperature, 1.0 GeV, 100 mA, cw proton accelerator for tritium production. The potential advantages of using superconducting cavities in the high-energy section of the linac are also discussed and a comparison is made with the baseline room-temperature accelerator. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Magmatic tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Aams, A.I.; McMurtry, G.M.; Shevenell, L.; Pettit, D.R.; Stimac, J.A.; Werner, C.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed geochemical sampling of high-temperature fumaroles, background water, and fresh magmatic products from 14 active volcanoes reveal that they do not produce measurable amounts of tritium ({sup 3}H) of deep origin (<0.1 T.U. or <0.32 pCi/kg H{sub 2}O). On the other hand, all volcanoes produce mixtures of meteoric and magmatic fluids that contain measurable {sup 3}H from the meteoric end-member. The results show that cold fusion is probably not a significant deep earth process but the samples and data have wide application to a host of other volcanological topics.

  15. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, 12 constituents exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents: 57 (48%) and 23 (19%) of the 119 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium and trichloroethylene levels, respectively. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 1] (Barnwell/McBean). Elevated constituents also occurred in five Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, nonvolatile beta, thallium, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), or cadmium.

  16. Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.

    2001-03-26

    This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.

  17. Development of nuclear micro-battery with solid tritium source.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Kyung; Son, Soon-Hwan; Kim, KwangSin; Park, Jong-Wan; Lim, Hun; Lee, Jae-Min; Chung, Eun-Su

    2009-01-01

    A micro-battery powered by tritium is being developed to utilize tritium produced from the Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility. The 3D p-n junction device has been designed and fabricated for energy conversion. Titanium tritide is adopted to increase tritium density and safety. Sub micron films or nano-powders of titanium tritide is applied on silicon semiconductor device to reduce the self absorption of beta rays. Until now protium has been used instead of tritium for safety. Hydrogen was absorbed up to atomic ratio of approximately 1.3 and approximately 1.7 in titanium powders and films, respectively. PMID:19328704

  18. Radiation protection aspects of repairing a highly contaminated tritium cold box.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, A B; Haynes, M J

    1991-11-01

    Radiation protection aspects of modifying a system exposed to tritium gas are discussed. This paper includes a brief discussion of the tritium gas and tritium surface contamination hazards associated with a facility designed to detritiate heavy water. Also described are the protective equipment, dosimetry, instrumentation, contamination control, and decontamination procedures used during welding of tubes that have been exposed to almost pure tritium gas. Absorption of the tritium gas on materials resulted in exposures to high peak concentrations of tritium oxide and high levels of tritium surface contamination (TSC). PMID:1661277

  19. Target/Blanket Design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cappiello, M. W.

    1997-12-31

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium Target/Blanket (T/B) system is comprised of the T/B assembly and the attendant heat removal systems. The T/B assembly produces tritium using a high energy proton beam, and a spallation neutron source. The supporting heat removal systems safely remove the heat deposited by the proton beam during both normal and off-normal conditions. All systems reside within the T/B building, which is located at the end of a linear accelerator. Protons are accelerated to an energy of 1700 MeV at a current of 100 mA and are directed onto the T/B assembly. The protons interact with tungsten and lead nuclei to produce neutrons through the process of nuclear spallation. Neutron capture in {sup 3}He gas produces tritium which is removed on a continual basis in an adjacent Tritium Separation Facility (TSF). The T/B assembly is modular to allow for replacement of spent components and minimization of waste. Systems and components are designed with safety as a primary consideration to minimize risk to the workers and the public.

  20. Tritium handling experience at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    SciTech Connect

    Suppiah, S.; McCrimmon, K.; Lalonde, S.; Ryland, D.; Boniface, H.; Muirhead, C.; Castillo, I.

    2015-03-15

    Canada has been a leader in tritium handling technologies as a result of the successful CANDU reactor technology used for power production. Over the last 50 to 60 years, capabilities have been established in tritium handling and tritium management in CANDU stations, tritium removal processes for heavy and light water, tritium measurement and monitoring, and understanding the effects of tritium on the environment. This paper outlines details of tritium-related work currently being carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). It concerns the CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process for detritiation, tritium-compatible electrolysers, tritium permeation studies, and tritium powered batteries. It is worth noting that AECL offers a Tritium Safe-Handling Course to national and international participants, the course is a mixture of classroom sessions and hands-on practical exercises. The expertise and facilities available at AECL is ready to address technological needs of nuclear fusion and next-generation nuclear fission reactors related to tritium handling and related issues.

  1. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Groundwater Monitoring Report: Fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1991, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), total radium, mercury, and lead exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread contaminants; 55 (49%) wells exhibited elevated tritium activities, and 24 (21%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Tritium and trichloroethylene levels exceeding the PDWS also occurred in several wells in Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree). Levels of manganese, total organic halogens, nickel, iron, 1,1-dichloroethane, aluminum, nonvolatile beta, and trichlorofluoromethane that exceeded Flag 2 criteria were found in one or more wells beneath the MWMF. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units at the MWMF contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, total radium, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), lead, mercury, manganese, total organic halogens, nickel, iron, 1,1-dichloroethane, aluminum, nonvolatile beta, or trichlorofluoromethane. Groundwater samples from 81 (72%) of the monitoring wells at the MWMF and adjacent facilities contained elevated levels of several contaminants.

  2. REMOTE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-TRITIUM-CONTENT WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Diprete, D; Raymond Sigg, R; Leah Arrigo, L; Donald Pak, D

    2007-08-07

    Systems to safely analyze for tritium in moisture collected from glovebox atmospheres are being developed for use at Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities. Analysis results will guide whether the material contains sufficient tritium for economical recovery, or whether it should be stabilized for disposal as waste. In order to minimize potential radiation exposures that could occur in handling and diluting high-tritium-content water, SRS sought alternatives to the process laboratory's routine analysis by liquid-scintillation counting. The newer systems determine tritium concentrations by measuring bremsstrahlung radiation induced by low-energy beta interactions. One of the systems determines tritium activity in liquid streams, the other determines tritium activity in water vapor. Topics discussed include counting results obtained by modeling and laboratory testing and corrections that are made for low-energy photon attenuation.

  3. Second national topical meeting on tritium technology in fission, fusion and isotopic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Barlit, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    This conference presented information on the following topics: the development of a tritium dispersion code; global environmental transport models for tritium; HT/HTO conversion in mammals; tritium production, releases and population doses at nuclear power reactors; design of tritium processing facilities and equipment for aqueous and gaseous streams; tritium removal from circulating helium by hydriding of rare earth metals; the determination of deuterium and tritium in effluent wastewater by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; tritium surface contamination: process calculations for a moderator detritiation plant; recent developments in magnetically coupled vane pumps for tritium service; recovery and storage of tritium by Zr-V-Fe getter; gas handling systems using titanium-sponge and uranium bulk getters; isotope effects and helium retention behavior in vanadium tritide; interaction of hydrogen isotopes with stainless steel 316 L; and the interaction of polyethylene and tritium gas as monitored by Raman spectroscopy.

  4. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Gregory L. Guttadora; Lloyd P. Ciebiera

    2002-02-11

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system.

  5. Tritium handling safety and operating experience at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is a facility designed to develop and demonstrate, in full scale, technologies necessary for safe and efficient operation of tokamak fusion reactors. TSTA currently consists of systems for pumping DT gas mixtures; for removing impurities; for separating the isotopes of hydrogen; for storage of hydrogen isotopes; for gas analysis; and for assuring safety by the necessary control, monitoring, and detritiation of effluent gaseous streams. TSTA also has several small scale experiments to develop and test new equipment and processes necessary for fusion reactors. Tritium was introduced into TSTA in June 1984. Current inventory is approximately 100 grams. Approximately 10{sup 9} Curies of tritium have been processed in closed loop operation at TSTA. Total tritium releases from the facility stack have been less than 75 Curies. Total operating personnel exposures are less than 500 person-mrem. Exposures to the general public from TSTA tritium releases are extremely small (less than 10{sup {minus}2} mrem). Total tritium buried as waste is less than 36,000 Curies. In this paper, data on component reliability, failure types and rates, and waste quantities are presented. Operational experience under normal, abnormal, and emergency conditions is presented. The DOE requirements for the operation of a tritium facility like TSTA include personnel training, emergency preparedness, radiation protection, safety analysis, and preoperational appraisals. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.

    1987-10-19

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

  7. Tritium processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS): Present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Ortman, M.S.; Heung, L.K.; Nobile, A.; Rabun, R.L. III.

    1989-01-01

    Tritium handling equipment and methods at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities have been continually improved since tritium processing operations began in 1955. Several new technologies were introduced into the Tritium Facilities in the 1980's. One of these is the use of fluidless, mechanical pumps (Normetex and Metal Bellows) to replace mercury pumps. A second is the use of metal hydride technology to store, purify, isotopically separate, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. Metal hydrides, such as La-Ni-Al alloys and Pd loaded on kieselguhr, offer significant flexibility and size advantages compared with conventional tritium handling technology, such as gas tanks, thermal diffusion columns, and mechanical compressors. Metal hydrides have been used in the Tritium Facilities since 1984 with the most important application of this technology being planned for the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $140 million facility scheduled for completion in 1990 and startup in 1991. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Tritium Loading of Pinellas U-Bed No. 874

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, K.L.

    1999-09-15

    The DOE-Richland Office has requested WSRC to supply PNNL with a Pinellas U-bed loaded with tritium for permeation experiments. It is desired to have less than 1000 Ci tritium in the bed to allow shipping without excessive packaging requirements. Pinellas U-Bed No. 874 was loaded with approximately 955 Ci of 98 percent purity tritium on the ETM manifold in the Materials Test Facility in Building 232-H.

  9. Development of tritium technology for the United States magnetic fusion energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Wilkes, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Tritium technology development for the DOE fusion program is taking place principally at three laboratories, Mound Facility, Argonne National Laboratory and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This paper will review the major aspects of each of the three programs and look at aspects of the tritium technology being developed at other laboratories within the United States. Facilities and experiments to be discussed include the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory and the Tritium Storage and Delivery System for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Mound Facility; the Lithium Processing Test Loop and the solid breeder blanket studies at Argonne; and the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos.

  10. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies. PMID:22349318

  11. Development of tritium technologies at KAERI

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.; Koo, D.; Lee, J.; Park, J.; Yim, S.P.; Yoon, C.; Lim, J.; Choi, W.; Ahn, H.; Kang, H.; Kim, I.; Paek, S.; Yunn, S.H.; Jung, K.J.

    2015-03-15

    Korea has been operating a CANDU nuclear power plant since 1983. Tritium generated in the heavy water of the plant is removed by the Wolsong TRF (Tritium Removal Facility) and measurement campaigns of tritium near the power plant have shown the efficiency of the TRF system. The HANARO reactor uses heavy water as both reflector and moderator. In HANARO the tritiated water removal system consists of compressors, condensers, and adsorption beds. A tritium behavior analysis code (TRIBAC) for a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) is under development at KAERI. The TRIBAC computer software has been equipped with models for tritium production, purification, and leakage, as well as chemisorption and tritium behavior, in the hydrogen production system. Korea takes part into the ITER program and is responsible for the supply of an SDS (Tritium Storage and Delivery System). Within this program Korea has launched an experimental program to study the physico-chemical properties of metal and their hydrides in which hydrogen isotope gases can be stored and removed safely.

  12. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  13. Management of tritium European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ene, D.; Andersson, K.; Jensen, M.; Nielsen, S.; Severin, G.

    2015-03-15

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) will produce tritium via spallation and activation processes during operational activities. Within the location of ESS facility in Lund, Sweden site it is mandatory to demonstrate that the management strategy of the produced tritium ensures the compliance with the country regulation criteria. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the different aspects of the tritium management in ESS facility. Besides the design parameter study of the helium coolant purification system of the target the consequences of the tritium releasing into the environment were also analyzed. Calculations show that the annual release of tritium during the normal operations represents a small fraction from the estimated total dose. However, more refined calculations of migration of activated-groundwater should be performed for higher hydraulic conductivities, with the availability of the results on soil examinations. With the assumption of 100% release of tritium to the atmosphere during the occurring of the extreme accidents, it was found as well that the total dose complies with the constraint. (authors)

  14. PDRD (SR13046) TRITIUM PRODUCTION FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Sheetz, S.

    2013-09-30

    Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) ran a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) model of a basic SFR for comparison. A 600MWth core surrounded by a lithium blanket produced approximately 1,000 grams of tritium annually with a 13% enriched, 6 year core. This is similar results to a mid-1990’s study where the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), a 400 MWth reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), could produce about 1,000 grams with an external lithium target. Normalized to the LWRs values, comparative tritium production for an SFR could be approximately 0.31 g-T/kg LEU.

  15. Tritium pellet injector results

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Bauer, M.L.; Baylor, L.R.; Deleanu, L.E.; Fehling, D.T.; Milora, S.L.; Whitson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Injection of solid tritium pellets is considered to be the most promising way of fueling fusion reactors. The Tritium Proof-of- Principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of forming and accelerating tritium pellets. This injector is based on the pneumatic pipe-gun concept, in which pellets are formed in situ in the barrel and accelerated with high-pressure gas. This injector is ideal for tritium service because there are no moving parts inside the gun and because no excess tritium is required in the pellet production process. Removal of /sup 3/He from tritium to prevent blocking of the cryopumping action by the noncondensible gas has been demonstrated with a cryogenic separator. Pellet velocities of 1280 m/s have been achieved for 4-mm-diam by 4-mm-long cylindrical tritium pellets with hydrogen propellant at 6.96 MPa (1000 psi). 10 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, 12 constituents exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents: 57 (48%) and 23 (19%) of the 119 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium and trichloroethylene levels, respectively. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1} (Barnwell/McBean). Elevated constituents also occurred in five Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, nonvolatile beta, thallium, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), or cadmium.

  17. Initial testing of the tritium systems at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Sissingh, R.A.P.; Gentile, C.A.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Walters, R.T.; Voorhees, D.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton will start its D-T experiments in late 1993, introducing and operating the tokamak with tritium in order to begin the study of burning plasma physics in D-T. Trace tritium injection experiments, using small amounts of tritium will begin in the fall of 1993. In preparation for these experiments, a series of tests with low concentrations of tritium inn deuterium have been performed as an initial qualification of the tritium systems. These tests began in April 1993. This paper describes the initial testing of the equipment in the TFTR tritium facility.

  18. Tritium-handling considerations for ETF and STARFIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Clemmer, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The tritium handling requirements for both the ETF and the STARFIRE fusion reactor designs are analyzed. The use of a limiter/vacuum system for STARFIRE produced a high fractional burnup (0.42) which resulted in a low tritium inventory in the fueling system. The importance of a fast process flow rate is achieving a rapid cleanup after a tritium release is demonstrated; another important factor is the rate at which HTO is released from building surfaces. A complete fusion reactor tritium facility is described.

  19. Transport of tritium contamination to the atmosphere in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C.A.; Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Cooper, C.A.; Johnson, M.J.; Michel, R.L.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Soil-plant-atmosphere interactions strongly infl uence water movement in desert unsaturated zones, but litile is known about how such interactions aff ect atmospheric release of subsurface water-borne contaminants. This 2-yr study, performed at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site in southern Nevada, quantifi ed the magnitude and spatiotemporal variability of tritium (3H) transport from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility. Tritium fl uxes were calculated as the product of 3H concentrations in water vapor and respective evaporation and transpiration water-vapor fl uxes. Quarterly measured 3H concentrations in soil water vapor and in leaf water of the dominant creosote-bush [Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville] were spatially extrapolated and temporally interpolated to develop daily maps of contamination across the 0.76-km2 study area. Maximum plant and root-zone soil concentrations (4200 and 8700 Bq L-1, respectively) were measured 25 m from the LLRW facility boundary. Continuous evaporation was estimated using a Priestley-Taylor model and transpiration was computed as the diff erence between measured eddy-covariance evapotranspiration and estimated evaporation. The mean evaporation/transpiration ratio was 3:1. Tritium released from the study area ranged from 0.12 to 12 ??g d-1 and totaled 1.5 mg (8.2 ?? 1010 Bq) over 2 yr. Tritium fl ux variability was driven spatially by proximity to 3H source areas and temporally by changes in 3H concentrations and in the partitioning between evaporation and transpiration. Evapotranspiration removed and limited penetration of precipitation beneath native vegetation and fostered upward movement and release of 3H from below the root zone. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  20. Transport of tritium contamination to the atmosphere in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Andraski, Brian J.; Johnson, Michael J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Michel, Robert L.; Cooper, C.A.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Soil–plant–atmosphere interactions strongly influence water movement in desert unsaturated zones, but little is known about how such interactions affect atmospheric release of subsurface water-borne contaminants. This 2-yr study, performed at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site in southern Nevada, quantified the magnitude and spatiotemporal variability of tritium (3H) transport from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility. Tritium fluxes were calculated as the product of 3H concentrations in water vapor and respective evaporation and transpiration water-vapor fluxes. Quarterly measured 3H concentrations in soil water vapor and in leaf water of the dominant creosote-bush [Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville] were spatially extrapolated and temporally interpolated to develop daily maps of contamination across the 0.76-km2 study area. Maximum plant and root-zone soil concentrations (4200 and 8700 Bq L−1, respectively) were measured 25 m from the LLRW facility boundary. Continuous evaporation was estimated using a Priestley–Taylor model and transpiration was computed as the difference between measured eddy-covariance evapotranspiration and estimated evaporation. The mean evaporation/transpiration ratio was 3:1. Tritium released from the study area ranged from 0.12 to 12 μg d−1 and totaled 1.5 mg (8.2 × 1010 Bq) over 2 yr. Tritium flux variability was driven spatially by proximity to 3H source areas and temporally by changes in 3H concentrations and in the partitioning between evaporation and transpiration. Evapotranspiration removed and limited penetration of precipitation beneath native vegetation and fostered upward movement and release of 3H from below the root zone.

  1. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1992 and 1992 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Fifty-seven (48%) of the 120 monitoring wells, contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (19%) contained elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Total alpha-emitting radium, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, cadmium, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels exceeded standards in one or more wells. During 1992, elevated levels of 13 constituents were found in one or more of 80 of the 120 groundwater monitoring wells (67%) at the MWMF and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene exceeded their final PDWS more frequently and more consistently than did other constituents. Tritium activity exceeded its final PDWS m 67 wells and trichloroethylene was. elevated in 28 wells. Lead, tetrachloroethylene, total alpha-emitting radium, gross alpha, cadmium, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene 1,2-dichloroethane, mercury, or nitrate exceeded standards in one or more wells during the year. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its drinking water screening level in 3 wells during the year.

  2. Plant-Based Plume-Scale Monitoring Reveals the Extents and Pathways of Tritium Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andraski, B. J.; Michel, R. L.; Halford, K. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Abraham, J. D.

    2005-05-01

    Cost-effective methods are needed to detect contamination near radioactive-waste and other contaminated sites. Such methods should be capable of providing an early warning of contaminant releases and be accurate and robust enough for monitoring the long-term performance of waste-isolation facilities and remediation measures. Plant-based methods were developed adjacent to a closed low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada. Objectives were to (i) characterize and map the spatial variability of plant-water tritium, (ii) develop empirical relations to predict subsurface tritium contamination from plant-water concentrations, and (iii) gain insight into transport pathways and processes. Tritium was selected because it is a common radionuclide disposed at radioactive waste sites and it is a good tracer of water movement. Solar-distillation and solid-phase-extraction were used to collect and prepare plant (creosote bush, Larrea tridentata) foliage water for direct-scintillation counting. The maximum plant-water tritium concentration was 4,890 Bq/L; background values averaged 2.5 Bq/L. Geostatistical analysis showed that plant concentrations were spatially correlated to a distance of 380 m. Simple-contour and kriged maps of plant concentrations identified "hot spots" that were verified by soil-water-vapor measurements. Empirical linear relations between plant water and soil-water-vapor concentrations measured at the 0.5- and 1.5-m sampling depths were used to map the spatial distributions of root-zone and sub-root-zone tritium, respectively. Results showed that tritium migration away from the waste source primarily occurs in the gas phase with preferential transport through a dry, gravelly layer beneath the root zone, from which it moves upward and is subsequently released to the surface environment. Shallow and deep geologic units controlling preferential transport through the unsaturated zone were mapped by direct-current electrical

  3. Radiation quality of tritium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2006-01-01

    Tritium occurs from both natural and manufactured processes. In the environment, tritium can exist in the form of tritiated water (HTO) and in an organic form known as organically-bound tritium (OBT). Although, the concentrations of environmental OBT are relatively low, there is concern that current risk factors may underestimate the risk from OBT. Because tritium poses an internal hazard at cellular levels, microdosimetric techniques provide suitable tools for the study of radiation quality of tritium. In this study, microdosimetric simulations are performed for tritium uniformly distributed in a medium, and for tritium bound to biologically critical sites of dimensions from 10 nm to 2 microm. Results of local energy density are different for these two cases in microscopic regions. Based on the spatial distribution of energy deposition, dose mean lineal energies are calculated for tritium in forms of HTO and OBT. The dose mean lineal energies of OBT are about a factor of 1.7 higher than those of HTO in a wide range of target dimensions of biological interest. The results are consistent with radiobiological findings that OBT is about twice as effective as that of HTO. PMID:17132658

  4. Methods for tritium labeling

    DOEpatents

    Andres, Hendrik; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.

    1993-01-01

    Reagents and processes for reductively introducing deuterium or tritium into organic molecules are described. The reagents are deuterium or tritium analogs of trialkyl boranes, borane or alkali metal aluminum hydrides. The process involves forming these reagents in situ from alkali metal tritides or deuterides.

  5. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  6. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOEpatents

    Gentile, Charles A. , Guttadora, Gregory L. , Parker, John J.

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  7. Monitoring and Source Tracking of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lagoons and Groundwater Adjacent to Swine Production Facilities over a 3-Year Period▿

    PubMed Central

    Koike, S.; Krapac, I. G.; Oliver, H. D.; Yannarell, A. C.; Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R. I.; Mackie, R. I.

    2007-01-01

    To monitor the dissemination of resistance genes into the environment, we determined the occurrence of tetracycline resistance (Tcr) genes in groundwater underlying two swine confinement operations. Monitoring well networks (16 wells at site A and 6 wells at site C) were established around the lagoons at each facility. Groundwater (n = 124) and lagoon (n = 12) samples were collected from the two sites at six sampling times from 2000 through 2003. Total DNA was extracted, and PCR was used to detect seven Tcr genes [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(C), tet(H), and tet(Z)]. The concentration of Tcr genes was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. To confirm the Tcr gene source in groundwater, comparative analysis of tet(W) gene sequences was performed on groundwater and lagoon samples. All seven Tcr genes were continually detected in groundwater during the 3-year monitoring period at both sites. At site A, elevated detection frequency and concentration of Tcr genes were observed in the wells located down-gradient of the lagoon. Comparative analysis of tet(W) sequences revealed that the impacted groundwater contained gene sequences almost identical (99.8% identity) to those in the lagoon, but these genes were not found in background libraries. Novel sequence clusters and unique indigenous resistance gene pools were also found in the groundwater. Thus, antibiotic resistance genes in groundwater are affected by swine manure, but they are also part of the indigenous gene pool. PMID:17545324

  8. Corroborative studies of tritium characterization and depth profiles in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Hochel, R.C.

    2000-05-05

    This report is the second by the authors on characterizing the tritium content of cement and structural concrete. The first report reviewed the literature and used several new methods to characterize tritium on the surface and through the bulk of contaminated concrete at two facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). In both cases, a relatively constant tritium concentration as a function of depth was observed, which has not been previously reported in the literature. These findings were explained as the relatively rapid transport of tritiated liquid through pores of the hydrated cement, and the exchange of tritium with hydrogen found primarily as free and bound water in the hydrated cement binder. The study reported here extended the measurement of surface and bulk tritium in concrete to three other locations at SRS. The purpose of the current study was to characterize locations whose tritium exposure histories were well documented, and to characterize a location exposed exclusively to gaseous tritium, to confirm and possibly extend the knowledge gained from the earlier study. Results of the current study corroborate the earlier findings, in that the tritium concentration was constant through the bulk when exposed to aqueous tritium, even from a single aqueous tritium exposure. Exposure to gaseous tritium, on the other hand, lead to the well-known diffusion controlled variation of tritium concentration reported in the literature. Sufficient exposure history is available to enable a semi-quantitative explanation of the magnitude and depth dependence of the tritium in both the aqueous- and gas-exposed locations. The penetration of tritium from a liquid can be described by a hydraulic flow model, and gaseous tritium permeates in a diffusive manner. The general correlation of properly measured surface tritium activity to that in the underlying bulk found in the earlier study was confirmed. However, the surface and near surface tritium

  9. Locating tritium sources in a research reactor building.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Masami

    2005-10-01

    Despite renovation of the D2O facility, tritium concentrations in the condensates of reactor room air showed tens of Bq mL before venting resumption on July 1997. This suggested the presence of tritium sources in the research reactor-containment building. An investigation was therefore initiated to locate the source and determine the distribution of tritium in the containment building. Air monitoring in the working area using a dish of water placed in the building suggested that the source of tritium was near the reactor core. Monitoring exhaust air from the two facilities (a cold neutron source and a D(2)O tank) showed high specific activity on the order of 10 Bq mL(-1), suggesting the presence of tritium in condensates near the reactor core. The major concern was whether the leakage of liquid deuterium (4 L) and heavy water (2 x 10(3) L) used as a moderator had occurred. The concentration of tritium in condensates has not increased over the past few years in either the exhaust line or working area, and the deuterium itself has not been found in the surrounding environment. The concentration of tritium measured using an ionization chamber after Ar decay was dependent on the thermal output of the research reactor, indicating that the tritium was produced by the irradiation process within shielding/moderator materials or cover gas with neutrons. PMID:16155451

  10. Decommissioning of a tritium-contaminated laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.R.; Garde, R.

    1981-11-01

    A tritium laboratory facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decommissioned in 1979. The project involved dismantling the laboratory equipment and disposing of the equipment and debris at an on-site waste disposal/storage area. The laboratory was constructed in 1953 and was in service for tritium research and fabrication of lithium tritide components until 1974. The major features of the laboratory included some 25 meters of gloveboxes and hoods, associated vacuum lines, utility lines, exhaust ducts, electrodryers, blowers, and laboratory benches. This report presents details on the decommissioning, health physics, waste management, environmental surveillance, and costs for the operation.

  11. Monitoring and source tracking of tetracycline resistance genes in lagoons and groundwater adjacent to swine production facilities over a 3-year period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koike, S.; Krapac, I.G.; Oliver, H.D.; Yannarell, A.C.; Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R.I.; Mackie, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    To monitor the dissemination of resistance genes into the environment, we determined the occurrence of tetracycline resistance (Tcr) genes in groundwater underlying two swine confinement operations. Monitoring well networks (16 wells at site A and 6 wells at site C) were established around the lagoons at each facility. Groundwater (n = 124) and lagoon (n = 12) samples were collected from the two sites at six sampling times from 2000 through 2003. Total DNA was extracted, and PCR was used to detect seven Tcr genes [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(C), tet(H), and tet(Z)]. The concentration of Tcr genes was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. To confirm the Tcr gene source in groundwater, comparative analysis of tet(W) gene sequences was performed on groundwater and lagoon samples. All seven Tcr genes were continually detected in groundwater during the 3-year monitoring period at both sites. At site A, elevated detection frequency and concentration of Tcr genes were observed in the wells located down-gradient of the lagoon. Comparative analysis of tet(W) sequences revealed that the impacted groundwater contained gene sequences almost identical (99.8% identity) to those in the lagoon, but these genes were not found in background libraries. Novel sequence clusters and unique indigenous resistance gene pools were also found in the groundwater. Thus, antibiotic resistance genes in groundwater are affected by swine manure, but they are also part of the indigenous gene pool. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress.

  13. Wet processing of palladium for use in the tritium facility at Westinghouse, Savannah River, SC. Preparation of palladium using the Mound Muddy Water process

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.

    1998-11-10

    Palladium used at Savannah River for tritium storage is currently obtained from a commercial source. In order to better understand the processes involved in preparing this material, Savannah River is supporting investigations into the chemical reactions used to synthesize this material and into the conditions necessary to produce palladium powder that meets their specifications. This better understanding may help to guarantee a continued reliable source for this material in the future. As part of this evaluation, a work-for-others contract between Westinghouse Savannah River Company and the Ames Laboratory Metallurgy and Ceramics Program was initiated. During FY98, the process for producing palladium powder developed in 1986 by Dan Grove of Mound Applied Technologies (USDOE) was studied to understand the processing conditions that lead to changes in morphology in the final product. This report details the results of this study of the Mound Muddy Water process, along with the results of a round-robin analysis of well-characterized palladium samples that was performed by Savannah River and Ames Laboratory. The Mound Muddy Water process is comprised of three basic wet chemical processes, palladium dissolution, neutralization, and precipitation, with a number of filtration steps to remove unwanted impurity precipitates.

  14. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.A.; Greene, G.A.; Boyack, B.E.

    1996-02-01

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities.

  15. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  16. Internal dosimetry of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    LaBone, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    Tritium is an interesting radionuclide from the perspective of internal dosimetry because of the wide variety of chemical compounds in which it can appear, its unusual routes of entry into the body, and its ability to exchange with stable hydrogen in surrounding material. In this report the internal dosimetry of tritium compounds is reviewed, with emphasis on methods of evaluating bioassay data following chronic and acute intakes. The assumptions and models used in the derivation of Annual Limits on Intake (ALI) and Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for tritium are also discussed.

  17. Internal dosimetry of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    LaBone, T.R.

    1992-06-01

    Tritium is an interesting radionuclide from the perspective of internal dosimetry because of the wide variety of chemical compounds in which it can appear, its unusual routes of entry into the body, and its ability to exchange with stable hydrogen in surrounding material. In this report the internal dosimetry of tritium compounds is reviewed, with emphasis on methods of evaluating bioassay data following chronic and acute intakes. The assumptions and models used in the derivation of Annual Limits on Intake (ALI) and Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for tritium are also discussed.

  18. FINAL REPORT FOR TRITIUM WATER MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, R.; Ferguson, B.; DiPrete, D.

    2011-04-25

    The objective of this Plant Directed Research and Demonstration (PDRD) task was to develop a system to safetly analyze tritium in moisture collected from glovebox atmospheres in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facility. In order to minimize potential radiation exposures that could occur in handling and diluting high-tritium-content water, SRS sought alternatives to liquid-scintillation counting. The proposed system determines tritium concentrations by measuring Bremsstrahlung radiation induced by low-energy beta interactions in liquid samples. Results show that, after a short counting period (30 seconds), detection limits are three orders of magnitude below the described concentration of tritiated water in the zeolite beds. Additionally, this report covers the analysis of process samples and the investigation of several cell window materials including beryllium, aluminum, and copper. Final tests reveal that alternate window materials and thicknesses can be used to obtain useful results. In particular, a window of stainless steel of moderate thickness (0.3 cm) can be used for counting relatively high levels of tritium.

  19. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found.

  20. Tritium uptake by fish in a small stream. [Largemouth Bass

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1992-09-17

    The tritium concentration in the water from freeze drying and the water from combustion of the dry tissue was measured in fish (largemouth bass), stream macrophytes, and streamside vegetation at five sampling locations in Four Mile Branch on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Four Mile Branch has elevated tritium concentration, largely from migration of water through the soil from adjacent seepage basins that received industrial wastewater containing tritium. The stream water and the vegetation, through the food chain, are thought to be the two sources of tritium reaching the fish. Comparision of the tritium activity of the freeze-dried water from fish flesh and of the sources of tritium, indicates that the fish flesh approaches a steady-state concentration with the stream water. The freeze-dry water from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than the stream water. The water of combustion from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than stream water. The water of combustion from the fish flesh is somewhat higher in specific activity than the stream water or the water in the fish. The distribution of tritium among the components of this system can be explain in terms of the turnover of water and organic hydrogen in the components.

  1. Performance of 500kCi Tritium Storage Vessel for WTRF

    SciTech Connect

    Paek, S.; Ahn, D.H.; Kim, K.R.; Chung, H.; Yim, S.P.; Lee, M.

    2005-07-15

    A prototype TSV (Tritide Storage Vessel) has been manufactured for the long-term storage of tritium of the WTRF (Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility). A performance test was carried out to demonstrate that the TSV could hold a minimum of 500kCi of tritium. This experiment was conducted by a batch type hydriding reaction. Hydrogen gas equivalent to 50kCi of tritium was reacted with the titanium sponge in a batch reaction. Experimental results for 10 batches show that the TSV has enough capacity to store 500kCi of tritium.

  2. Tritium permeation and related studies on barrier treated 316 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.R.; Allen, R.P.; Baldwin, D.L.; Bell, R.D.; Brimhall, J.L.; Clemmer, R.G.; Marschman, S.C.; McKinnon, M.A.; Page, R.E.; Powers, H.G.; Chalk, S.G.

    1991-09-01

    To verify the performance of permeation-resistant cladding for tritium targets designed for a New Production Reactor Light Water Reactor, a tritium test facility was designed, developed, and certified. Testing is ongoing to verify the performance of reference designed targets. Accurate measurements were taken of tritium permeating from barrier-coated cladding specimens immersed in high-temperature autoclaves configured to simulate reactor coolant conditions. The tritium test pressure is controlled by heating a zirconium-alloy getter, previously charged with tritium, to a temperature that corresponds to a specified test pressure.

  3. Tritium catalyzed deuterium tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.; Jung, J.; Gilligan, J.

    1984-04-01

    A preliminary assessment of the promise of the Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium (TCD) tokamak power reactors relative to that of deuterium-tritium (D-T) and catalyzed deuterium (Cat-D) tokamaks is undertaken. The TCD mode of operation is arrived at by converting the /sup 3/He from the D(D,n)/sup 3/He reaction into tritium, by neutron capture in the blanket; the tritium thus produced is fed into the plasma. There are three main parts to the assessment: blanket study, reactor design and economic analysis and an assessment of the prospects for improvements in the performance of TCD reactors (and in the promise of the TCD mode of operation, in general).

  4. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  5. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  6. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  7. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    DOEpatents

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  8. Status and future of the tritium plasma experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Causey, R.A.; Buchenauer, D.; Taylor, D.; Harbin, W.; Anderl, B.

    1995-10-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) has been recently upgraded and relocated at the Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first tritium plasma in the upgraded system was achieved on May 11, 1995. TPE is a unique facility devoted to experiments on the migration and retention of tritium in fusion reactor materials. This facility is now capable of delivering 100 to 200 eV tritons at a level of 1 A/cm{sup 2} to a 5 mm diameter sample, similar to that expected for the divertor of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). An aggressive research plan has been established, and experiments are expected to begin in June of 1995. 4 figs.

  9. Glovebox stripper system tritium capture efficiency-literature review

    SciTech Connect

    James, D. W.; Poore, A. S.

    2015-09-28

    Glovebox Stripper Systems (GBSS) are intended to minimize tritium emissions from glovebox confinement systems in Tritium facilities. A question was raised to determine if an assumed 99% stripping (decontamination) efficiency in the design of a GBBS was appropriate. A literature review showed the stated 99% tritium capture efficiency used for design of the GBSS is reasonable. Four scenarios were indicated for GBSSs. These include release with a single or dual stage setup which utilizes either single-pass or recirculation for stripping purposes. Examples of single-pass as well as recirculation stripper systems are presented and reviewed in this document.

  10. Tritium plume dynamics in the shallow unsaturated zone in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maples, S.R.; Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Cooper, C.A.; Pohll, G.; Michel, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    The spatiotemporal variability of a tritium plume in the shallow unsaturated zone and the mechanisms controlling its transport were evaluated during a 10-yr study. Plume movement was minimal and its mass declined by 68%. Upward-directed diffusive-vapor tritium fluxes and radioactive decay accounted for most of the observed plume-mass declines. Effective isolation of tritium (3H) and other contaminants at waste-burial facilities requires improved understanding of transport processes and pathways. Previous studies documented an anomalously widespread (i.e., theoretically unexpected) distribution of 3H (>400 m from burial trenches) in a dry, sub-root-zone gravelly layer (1–2-m depth) adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) burial facility in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada, that closed in 1992. The objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize long-term, spatiotemporal variability of 3H plumes; and (ii) quantify the processes controlling 3H behavior in the sub-root-zone gravelly layer beneath native vegetation adjacent to the facility. Geostatistical methods, spatial moment analyses, and mass flux calculations were applied to a spatiotemporally comprehensive, 10-yr data set (2001–2011). Results showed minimal bulk-plume advancement during the study period and limited Fickian spreading of mass. Observed spreading rates were generally consistent with theoretical vapor-phase dispersion. The plume mass diminished more rapidly than would be expected from radioactive decay alone, indicating net efflux from the plume. Estimates of upward 3H efflux via diffusive-vapor movement were >10× greater than by dispersive-vapor or total-liquid movement. Total vertical fluxes were >20× greater than lateral diffusive-vapor fluxes, highlighting the importance of upward migration toward the land surface. Mass-balance calculations showed that radioactive decay and upward diffusive-vapor fluxes contributed the majority of plume loss. Results indicate that plume losses

  11. Tritium analysis at TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, D.R.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Zimmer, G.

    1995-04-01

    The tritium analytical system at TFRR is used to determine the purity of tritium bearing gas streams in order to provide inventory and accountability measurements. The system includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer and beta scintillator originally configured at Monsanto Mound Research Laboratory in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. The system was commissioned and tested between 1991 and 1992 and is used daily for analysis of calibration standards, incoming tritium shipments, gases evolved from uranium storage beds and measurement of gases returned to gas holding tanks. The low resolution mass spectrometer is enhanced by the use of a metal getter pump to aid in resolving the mass 3 and 4 species. The beta scintillator complements the analysis as it detects tritium bearing species that often are not easily detected by mass spectrometry such as condensable species or hydrocarbons containing tritium. The instruments are controlled by a personal computer with customized software written with a graphical programming system designed for data acquisition and control. A discussion of the instrumentation, control systems, system parameters, procedural methods, algorithms, and operational issues will be presented. Measurements of gas holding tanks and tritiated water waste streams using ion chamber instrumentation are discussed elsewhere.

  12. Suggested methods for determining residual tritium in process beds

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelder, J.S.

    1992-10-29

    This memorandum has been written as a response to an H-Area EH Issue No. 3 milestone (SRTC FY93 Controlled Milestone 15C70) which requires WSRC to {open_quotes}develop methodology for determining residual tritium in process equipment.{close_quotes} An estimate of the tritium residing in process equipment sent for disposal must be reported on a Waste Stream Characterization Form. Currently, these estimates are crude and their technical bases are not well documented. The process equipment addressed in this report may be divided into two categories, routine and non-routine, based on their generation frequency. Magnesium Beds, Uranium Beds, and Gold Traps are regularly sent for disposal depending on the process load; Zeolite Beds and Catalyst Beds are rarely removed from the Tritium Facilities, as they may be regenerated. In general, there are two main sources of residual tritium that which resides in hydroxyl groups on internal surfaces and deposits, and that which has permeated the stainless steel walls and components. The tritiated hydroxyl groups may be exchangeable with gas phase deuterium, and minimized by oxidation at elevated temperatures. The tritium which has diffused into stainless steel is difficult to remove and amounts to a minor portion of the total tritium heel; this value may be calculated by a proven computer program and is on the order of 1--5 Ci per bed. Zeolite Beds are a unique case, as the packing material contains a substantial portion of crystalline hydrate (2% by weight), even after bake out at 500{degrees}C The solid state hydrate will assimilate tritium from adsorbed waters, and calculations show a typical Z-bed may contain 50,000 Ci of residual tritium. It is proposed that a calorimeter be designed and constructed to measure the tritium in Z-beds directly, and that steps be taken to reduce the residual tritium by extraction with deuterated water.

  13. Drum bubbler tritium processing system

    DOEpatents

    Rule, Keith; Gettelfinger, Geoff; Kivler, Paul

    1999-01-01

    A method of separating tritium oxide from a gas stream containing tritium oxide. The gas stream containing tritium oxide is fed into a container of water having a head space above the water. Bubbling the gas stream containing tritium oxide through the container of water and removing gas from the container head space above the water. Thereafter, the gas from the head space is dried to remove water vapor from the gas, and the water vapor is recycled to the container of water.

  14. Monitoring of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Corbett, James A.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1981-01-01

    The fluid from a breeder nuclear reactor, which may be the sodium cooling fluid or the helium reactor-cover-gas, or the helium coolant of a gas-cooled reactor passes over the portion of the enclosure of a gaseous discharge device which is permeable to hydrogen and its isotopes. The tritium diffused into the discharge device is radioactive producing beta rays which ionize the gas (argon) in the discharge device. The tritium is monitored by measuring the ionization current produced when the sodium phase and the gas phase of the hydrogen isotopes within the enclosure are in equilibrium.

  15. Environmental effects of a tritium release from the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.J.; Wilhite, E.L.; Buckner, M.R.

    1981-11-01

    On March 27, 1981, a small amount of tritiated water was inadvertently released from the tritium-processing facility during a routine maintenance operation. This report describes the environmental effects of this release both on the SRP site and offsite. Also, the operation of the WIND (Wind Information and Display) emergency response system during the incident is discussed, and the predicted and diagnosed behavior of the tritium plume is compared with tritium concentrations deduced from air, vegetation, soil, and bioassay samples.

  16. MODELING ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES OF TRITIUM FROM NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Okula, K

    2007-01-17

    Tritium source term analysis and the subsequent dispersion and consequence analyses supporting the safety documentation of Department of Energy nuclear facilities are especially sensitive to the applied software analysis methodology, input data and user assumptions. Three sequential areas in tritium accident analysis are examined in this study to illustrate where the analyst should exercise caution. Included are: (1) the development of a tritium oxide source term; (2) use of a full tritium dispersion model based on site-specific information to determine an appropriate deposition scaling factor for use in more simplified, broader modeling, and (3) derivation of a special tritium compound (STC) dose conversion factor for consequence analysis, consistent with the nature of the originating source material. It is recommended that unless supporting, defensible evidence is available to the contrary, the tritium release analyses should assume tritium oxide as the species released (or chemically transformed under accident's environment). Important exceptions include STC situations and laboratory-scale releases of hydrogen gas. In the modeling of the environmental transport, a full phenomenology model suggests that a deposition velocity of 0.5 cm/s is an appropriate value for environmental features of the Savannah River Site. This value is bounding for certain situations but non-conservative compared to the full model in others. Care should be exercised in choosing other factors such as the exposure time and the resuspension factor.

  17. Tritium in the burial ground of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.

    1993-06-01

    This memorandum reviews the available information on tritium-contaminated material discarded to burial grounds. Tritium was the first isotope studied because it represents the most immediate concern with regard to release to the environment. Substantial amounts of tritium are known to be present in the ground water underneath the area, and outcropping of this ground water in springs and seeps has been observed. The response to this release of tritium from the burial ground is a current concern. The amount of tritium emplaced in the burial ground facilities is very uncertain, however, some general conclusions can be made. In particular, most of the tritium buried is associated with spent equipment and other waste, rather than spent melts. Correspondingly, most of the tritium in the ground water seems to be associated with burials of this type, rather than the spent melts. Maps are presented showing the location of burials of tritiated waste by type, and the location of the largest individual burials according to COBRA records.

  18. Tritium: An analysis of key environmental and dosimetric questions

    SciTech Connect

    Till, J E; Meyer, H R; Etnier, E L; Bomar, E S; Gentry, R D; Killough, G G; Rohwer, P S; Tennery, V J; Travis, C C

    1980-05-01

    This document summarizes new theoretical and experimental data that may affect the assessment of environmental releases of tritium and analyzes the significance of this information in terms of the dose to man. Calculated doses resulting from tritium releases to the environment are linearly dependent upon the quality factor chosen for tritium beta radiation. A reevaluation of the tritium quality factor by the ICRP is needed; a value of 1.7 would seem to be more justifiable than the old 1.0 value. A new exposure model is proposed, based primarily upon the approach recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Employing a /open quotes/typical/close quotes/ LMFBR reprocessing facility source term, a /open quotes/base case/close quotes/ dose commitment to total body (for a maximally exposed individual) was calculated to be 4.0 /times/ 10/sup /minus/2/ mSv, with 3.2 /times/ 10/sup /minus// mSv of the dose due to intake of tritium. The study analyzes models which exist for evaluating the buildup of global releases of tritium from man-made sources. Scenarios for the release of man-made tritium to the environment and prediction of collective dose commitment to future generations suggest that the dose from nuclear weapons testing will be less than that from nuclear energy even though the weapons source term is greater than that for any of our energy scenarios.

  19. Transfer model of tritium in a local hydrosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Kiriko; Kimura, Ken Ichi; Hongo, Shozo

    1995-10-01

    For purpose of dose estimation a transfer model of tritium as well as some other important radionuclides that occur in the environment is being developed in our institute. Tritium is considered to be a significant source of internal exposure for man. Our present work is focussed on designing a tritium compartment model of the local hydrosphere. Our concept is based on the seven-box model of the hydrological cycle on a global scale that was proposed by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). To estimate the impact of nuclear facilities in a local area, geographical and geological conditions need to be taken into consideration. Therefore in present work, groundwater reservoir was divided into three layers and then the transfer coefficients were determined by analyzing time-series data on fallout tritium concentrations in the local environmental water. The most important difference between the NCRP model and ours is that the tritium metabolism of aquatic plants, invertebrates and fish is taken into consideration. For these aquatic organisms there are two sub-compartments, namely tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT). We developed this model because the living organisms in such aquatic systems are utilized as fishery products by the Japanese people. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  20. 2009 EVALUATION OF TRITIUM REMOVAL AND MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    LUECK KJ; GENESSE DJ; STEGEN GE

    2009-02-26

    Since 1995, a state-approved land disposal site (SALDS) has received tritium contaminated effluents from the Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Tritium in this effluent is mitigated by storage in slow moving groundwater to allow extended time for decay before the water reaches the site boundary. By this method, tritium in the SALDS is isolated from the general environment and human contact until it has decayed to acceptable levels. This report contains the 2009 update evaluation of alternative tritium mitigation techniques to control tritium in liquid effluents and groundwater at the Hanford site. A thorough literature review was completed and updated information is provided on state-of-the-art technologies for control of tritium in wastewaters. This report was prepared to satisfy the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-026-07B (Ecology, EPA, and DOE 2007). Tritium separation and isolation technologies are evaluated periodically to determine their feasibility for implementation to control Hanford site liquid effluents and groundwaters to meet the Us. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40 CFR 141.16, drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) for tritium of 20,000 pOll and/or DOE Order 5400.5 as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy. Since the 2004 evaluation, there have been a number of developments related to tritium separation and control with potential application in mitigating tritium contaminated wastewater. These are primarily focused in the areas of: (1) tritium recycling at a commercial facility in Cardiff, UK using integrated tritium separation technologies (water distillation, palladium membrane reactor, liquid phase catalytic exchange, thermal diffusion), (2) development and demonstration of Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) using hydrogen/water exchange to separate tritium from water, (3) evaporation of tritium contaminated water for dispersion in the

  1. ARIES-I tritium system

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Tam, S.W.; Billone, M.C.; Hassanein, A.M. ); Martin, R. )

    1990-09-01

    A key safety concern in a D-T fusion reactor is the tritium inventory. There are three components in a fusion reactor with potentially large inventories, i.e., the blanket, the fuel processing system and the plasma facing components. The ARIES team selected the material combinations, decided the operating conditions and refined the processing systems, with the aiming of minimizing the tritium inventories and leakage. The total tritium inventory for the ARIES-I reactor is only 700 g. This paper discussed the calculations and assumptions we made for the low tritium inventory. We also addressed the uncertainties about the tritium inventory. 13 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Drum bubbler tritium processing system

    DOEpatents

    Rule, K.; Gettelfinger, G.; Kivler, P.

    1999-08-17

    A method is described for separating tritium oxide from a gas stream containing tritium oxide. The gas stream containing tritium oxide is fed into a container of water having a head space above the water. The tritium oxide is separated by bubbling the gas stream containing tritium oxide through the container of water and removing gas from the container head space above the water. Thereafter, the gas from the head space is dried to remove water vapor from the gas, and the water vapor is recycled to the container of water. 2 figs.

  3. Tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Wilson, K.L.

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses the materials physics related to D-T operation in TFTR. Research activities are described pertaining to basic studies of hydrogenic retention in graphite, hydrogen recycling phenomena, first-wall and limiter conditioning, surface analysis of TFTR first-wall components, and estimates of the tritium inventory.

  4. Recent progress on tritium technology research and development for a fusion reactor in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Nakamura, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Iwai, Y.; Isobe, K.; Yamada, M.; Kurata, R.; Edao, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Oyaizu, M.; Yamanishi, T.

    2015-03-15

    JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) manages 2 tritium handling laboratories: Tritium Processing Laboratory (TPL) in Tokai and DEMO-RD building in Rokkasho. TPL has been accumulating a gram level tritium safety handling experiences without any accidental tritium release to the environment for more than 25 years. Recently, our activities have focused on 3 categories, as follows. First, the development of a detritiation system for ITER. This task is the demonstration test of a wet Scrubber Column (SC) as a pilot scale (a few hundreds m{sup 3}/h of processing capacity). Secondly, DEMO-RD tasks are focused on investigating the general issues required for DEMO-RD design, such as structural materials like RAFM (Reduced Activity Ferritic/Martensitic steels) and SiC/SiC, functional materials like tritium breeder and neutron multiplier, and tritium. For the last 4 years, we have spent a lot of time and means to the construction of the DEMO-RD facility and to its licensing, so we have just started the actual research program with tritium and other radioisotopes. This tritium task includes tritium accountancy, tritium basic safety research such as tritium interactions with various materials, which will be used for DEMO-RD and durability. The third category is the recovery work from the Great East Japan earthquake (2011 earthquake). It is worth noting that despite the high magnitude of the earthquake, TPL was able to confine tritium properly without any accidental tritium release.

  5. Tritium well depth, tritium well time and sponge mechanism for reducing tritium retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, B. Q.; Li, Z. X.; Li, C. Y.; Feng, K. M.

    2011-07-01

    New simulation results are predicted in a fusion reactor operation process. They are somewhat similar to, but quite different from, the xenon poisoning effects resulting from fission-produced iodine during the restart-up process of a fission reactor. We obtained completely new results of tritium well depth and tritium well time in magnetic confinement fusion energy research area. This study is carried out to investigate the following: what will be the least amount of tritium storage required to start up a fusion reactor and how long the fusion reactor needs to be operated for achieving the tritium break-even during the initial start-up phase due to the finite tritium-breeding time, which is dependent on the tritium breeder, specific structure of the breeding zone, layout of the coolant flow pipes, tritium recovery scheme and applied extraction process, the tritium retention of plasma facing component (PFC) and other reactor components, unrecoverable tritium fraction in the breeder, leakage to the inertial gas container and the natural radioactive decay time constant. We describe these new issues and answer these problems by setting up and solving a set of equations, which are described by a dynamic subsystem model of tritium inventory evolution in a fusion experimental breeder (FEB). Reasonable results are obtained using our simulation model. It is found that the tritium well depth is about 0.319 kg and the tritium well time is approximately 235 full power operation days for the reference case of the designed FEB configuration, and it is also found that after one-year operation the tritium storage reaches 0.767 kg, which is more than the least amount of tritium storage required to start up another FEB-like fusion reactor. The results show that the tritium retention in the PFC is equivalent to 11.9% of tritium well depth that is fairly consistent with the result of 10-20% deduced from the integrated particle balance of European tokamaks. Based on our experimental

  6. Tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-01-01

    A tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium was tested in the laboratory using deuterium and protium. The vessel contains 0.5 kg of depleted uranium and can hold up to 18 grams of tritium. The conditions for activation, tritium loading and tritium unloading were defined. The safety aspects that included air-ingress, tritium diffusion, temperature and pressure potentials were evaluated.

  7. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, nonvolatile beta, radium-228, thorium-228, or total alpha-emitting radium (radium-226 and radium-228) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 55 (48%) of the 115 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (20%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Sixty-three downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained concentrations of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, nonvolatile beta, radium-228, thorium-228, or total alpha-emitting radium that exceeded the PDWS during second quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS.

  8. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, nonvolatile beta, radium-228, thorium-228, or total alpha-emitting radium (radium-226 and radium-228) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 55 (48%) of the 115 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (20%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Sixty-three downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained concentrations of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, nonvolatile beta, radium-228, thorium-228, or total alpha-emitting radium that exceeded the PDWS during second quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS.

  9. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Polarized tritium target development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.E.; Fedchak, J.A.; Kowalczyk, R.S.

    1995-08-01

    Work began on the development of a completely sealed polarized tritium target for experiments at CEBAF. Because of the similarities between optical pumping of tritium and hydrogen, all prototype work is done with hydrogen. We constructed a test station for filling glassware with hydrogen, where we can dissociate molecular hydrogen and monitor the purity of the gas. A simple two-cell glass system was constructed, consisting of a region in which the molecular hydrogen is dissociated with an RF discharge and a region where the atoms can be optically pumped. So far, a clean discharge was obtained in the glassware. With this system, we plan to investigate ways to eliminate the discharge from the optical pumping region and test the quality of the discharge once the pumping cell is coated with drifilm.

  11. Using the Tritium Plasma Experiment to evaluate ITER PFC safety. [Plasma-Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A. ); Bartlit, J.R. ); Causey, R.A. ); Haines, J.R. )

    1993-01-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment was assembled at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore to investigate interactions between dense plasmas at low energies and plasma-facing component materials. This apparatus has the unique capability of replicating plasma conditions in a tokamak divertor with particle flux densities of 2 [times] 10[sup 19] ions/cm[sup 2] [center dot] s and a plasma temperature of about 15 eV using a plasma that includes tritium. With the closure of the Tritium Research Laboratory at Livermore, the experiment was moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. An experimental program has been initiated there using the Tritium Plasma Experiment to examine safety issues related to tritium in plasma-facing components, particularly the ITER divertor. Those issues include tritium retention and release characteristics, tritium permeation rates and transient times to coolant streams, surface modification and erosion by the plasma, the effects of thermal loads and cycling, and particulate production. A considerable lack of data exists in these areas for many of the materials, especially beryllium, being considered for use in ITER. Not only will basic material behavior with respect to safety issues in the divertor environment be examined, but innovative techniques for optimizing performance with respect to tritium safety by material modification and process control will be investigated. Supplementary experiments will be carried out at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory to expand and clarify results obtained on the Tritium Plasma Experiment.

  12. Decontamination, Dismantling and Refurbishing of the PETRA Glove Box at the Tritium Laboratory, Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell-Nichols, C.J.; Glugla, M.; Doerr, L.; Berndt, U.

    2005-07-15

    The PETRA facility at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) has finished its useful life and the glove box and auxiliary systems are being refurbished. During the lifetime of PETRA the glove box became contaminated with a small amount of tritium but the source has not been positively identified. Removing large redundant components would be hazardous as this would require removing the glove box panels and thus exposing the inner surfaces to moist air which would release tritium. Over several months defined amounts of water have been introduced into the glove box daily which has liberated significant quantities of tritium which has subsequently been absorbed by the in-built tritium retention system. This technique has slowly reduced the tritium liberated at each step. The large components, such as a getter bed, catalyst bed and a permeator, have been detritiated as far as possible in-situ in readiness for disposal once it is safe to remove them from the glove box.

  13. Dismantling of the PETRA glove box: tritium contamination and inventory assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.

    2015-03-15

    The PETRA facility is the first installation in which experiments with tritium were carried out at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe. After completion of two main experimental programs, the decommissioning of PETRA was initiated with the aim to reuse the glove box and its main still valuable components. A decommissioning plan was engaged to: -) identify the source of tritium release in the glove box, -) clarify the status of the main components, -) assess residual tritium inventories, and -) de-tritiate the components to be disposed of as waste. Several analytical techniques - calorimetry on small solid samples, wipe test followed by liquid scintillation counting for surface contamination assessment, gas chromatography on gaseous samples - were deployed and cross-checked to assess the remaining tritium inventories and initiate the decommissioning process. The methodology and the main outcomes of the numerous different tritium measurements are presented and discussed. (authors)

  14. Tritium release from beryllium discs and lithium ceramics irradiated in the SIBELIUS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Kopasz, J.P.; Baldwin, D.L.

    1993-11-01

    The SIBELIUS experiment was designed to obtain information on the compatibility between beryllium and ceramics, as well as beryllium and steel, in a neutron environment. This experiment comprised irradiation of eight capsules, seven of which were independently purged with a He/0.1% H{sub 2} gas mixture. Four capsules were used to examine beryllium/ceramic (Li{sub 2}O, LiAlO{sub 2}, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) and beryllium/steel (Types 316L and 1.4914) compacts. Isothermal anneal experiments have been run on representative beryllium and ceramic disks from each of the four capsules at 550{degrees}C to 850{degrees}C in steps of 100{degrees}C. The results indicate that tritium release from the beryllium did not exhibit burst release behavior, as previously reported, but rather a progressive release with increasing temperature. Generally, {approximately}99% of the tritium was released by 850{degrees}C. Tritium release from the ceramic discs was quite similar to the behavior shown in other dynamic tritium release experiments on lithium ceramics. The tritium content in beryllium discs adjacent to a steel sample was found to be significantly lower than that found in a beryllium disc adjacent to a ceramic sample. Recoil of tritium from the ceramic into the beryllium appears to be the source of tritium entering the beryllium, probably residing in the beryllium oxide layer.

  15. Tritium implantation in the accelerator production of tritium device

    SciTech Connect

    Kidman, R.B.

    1997-11-01

    We briefly describe the methods we have developed to compute the magnitude and spatial distribution of born and implanted tritons and protons in the Accelerator Production of Tritium (AFT) device. The methods are verified against experimental measurements and then used to predict that 16% of the tritium is implanted in the walls of the APT distribution tubes. The methods are also used to estimate the spatial distribution of implanted tritium, which will be required for determining the possible diffusion of tritium out of the walls and back into the gas stream.

  16. A prototype wearable tritium monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Surette, R. A.; Dubeau, J.

    2008-07-15

    Sudden unexpected changes in tritium-in-air concentrations in workplace air can result in significant unplanned exposures. Although fixed area monitors are used to monitor areas where there is a potential for elevated tritium in air concentrations, they do not monitor personnel air space and may require some time for acute tritium releases to be detected. There is a need for a small instrument that will quickly alert staff of changing tritium hazards. A moderately sensitive tritium instrument that workers could wear would bring attention to any rise in tritium levels that were above predetermined limits and help in assessing the potential hazard therefore minimizing absorbed dose. Hand-held instruments currently available can be used but require the assistance of a fellow worker or restrict the user to using only one hand to perform some duties. (authors)

  17. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Gary L.; Meikrantz, David H.; Ely, Walter E.; Tuggle, Dale G.; Grafwallner, Ervin G.; Wickham, Keith L.; Maltrud, Herman R.; Baker, John D.

    1992-01-01

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter.

  18. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, G.L.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Wickham, K.L.; Maltrud, H.R.; Baker, J.D.

    1992-01-14

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter. 7 figs.

  19. UK contractors' experience of management of tritium during decommissioning projects

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Tommy; Stevens, Keith; Heaney, John; Murray, Alan; Warwick, Phil; Croudace, Ian

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: This paper provides an account of the tritium management experience of a UK decommissioning and remediation contracting organisation (NUKEM Limited), supported by a specialist radio-analysis organisation (GAU-Radioanalytical). This experience was gained during the execution of projects which involved the characterisation and remediation of facilities which had previously been used for tritium work and were contaminated with tritium. The emphasis of the paper is on the characterisation (sampling and analysis) of tritium. An account is given of the development of a methodology to improve the accuracy of tritium characterisation. The improved methodology evolved from recognition of the need to minimise tritium losses during sampling, storage, transport and preparation for analysis. These improvements were achieved in a variety of ways, including use of cold and dry sampling techniques in preference to hot or wet ones and freezing relevant samples during storage and transport. The major benefit was an improvement in the accuracy and reliability of the analyses results, essential for proper categorisation, sentencing and future management of tritiated waste. (authors)

  20. Possible parameters in the urinary excretion of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Cawley, C.N.; Lewis, B.A.; Cannon, L.A.

    1985-11-01

    Because of its mobility in both physical and biological systems, tritium is interesting both as a tracer and as an issue in health physics. Because tritium is extremely difficult to contain, it is one of the major radionuclides of concern if released to the environment from nuclear facilities. Relatively very large releases are tolerated because the beta particle has low energy and, therefore, the radioisotope is not a health hazard unless deposited internally. Moreover, on release to the environment, tritium enters the hydrologic cycle and is diluted and dispersed widely through the hydrosphere. It is likely that tritium uptake and loss in humans is more complex than generally believed and may be more functionally related to physiological processes, such as the bicarbonate and electrolyte balances, than to ambient environmental conditions such as temperature. Despite the many uncertainties in the analyses of experimental data on tritium contamination and excretion, it is likely that further investigations will establish both a better understanding of the tritium health hazard and the physiological processes governing excretion and, perhaps, its indefinite recycling through metabolic pools.

  1. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  2. Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

  3. Continuous monitoring for tritium in aqueous effluents at SRS using solid scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Effluents from selected facilities that routinely handle or produce large quantities of tritium are now continuously monitored for tritium concentration at the Savannah River site (SRS). The tritium effluent water monitors (TEWMs), developed at SRS, are placed at strategic locations in these facilities to sample and analyze the aqueous effluents in real time. The TEWM includes a water purification system, a flow cell containing solid scintillator, coincidence electronics, and alarm interfaces to plant systems. The main purpose of the TEWM is to alert cognizant personnel to an upset condition that might result in an unplanned release of tritium to the environment. Operation of the TEWMs supports the existing programs for sampling and analyses of tritium in the site's aqueous discharges.

  4. Tritium monitoring of groundwater and surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.; Aamodt, P.; Bounds, J.; Koster, J.

    1999-03-01

    There are numerous facilities, both within the US and in the rest of the world, within the complex of radiation laboratories and production plants where tritium has been released into the environment because of historic or ongoing mission-related operations. Many of environmental restoration projects have detected low levels of tritium contamination in local streams, ponds, and/or ground water. Typically these waters are moving or have the potential to move offsite and are viewed as a potential risk to the public and environment. Los Alamos National Laboratory will modify the well-proven long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique for detection of ionizing radiation to optimize a system for detecting tritium in groundwater and other surfaces. The LRAD technique relies on detection of ionized air molecules rather than direct detection of ionizing radiation. The detected electrical current is proportional to the number of ionized air molecules present, which is in turn a measure of the amount of contamination present. Although this technique has been used commercially to measure alpha contamination on objects and surfaces, the technique is also ideal for monitoring low-energy beta particles. The authors have demonstrated beta detection using {sup 54}Mn, {sup 14}C, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 36}Cl sources. Thus, the detector technology and detection of beta particles using this technology have both been demonstrated. The extreme short range of tritium beta particles necessitates an optimization of the detector system. In this paper, the authors will discuss these new designs.

  5. Safety assessment of the tritium recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Safety Assessment (SA) contains descriptions and evaluations of the environmental, health, and safety issues associated with the Tritium Recovery System (TRS) at the Pinellas Plant. It provides: 1. site and facility descriptions, 2. an overall description of the TRS and its operations, 3. an evaluation of the hazards associated with TRS operations, 4. descriptions and analyses of the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate identified hazards, and 5. assessment of potential accidents and their associated risks. This SA contains the results of safety evaluations of TRS operations, equipment, and supplied systems. The evaluations include, as appropriate, preliminary hazards listings, qualitative risk assessments, and quantitative risk assessments.

  6. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S.; Moore, M.L.

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  7. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  8. Tritium transport and control in the FED

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The tritium systems for the FED have three primary purposes. The first is to provide tritium and deuterium fuel for the reactor. This fuel can be new tritium or deuterium delivered to the plant site, or recycled DT from the reactor that must be processed before it can be recycled. The second purpose of the FED tritium systems is to provide state-of-the-art tritium handling to limit worker radiation exposure and to minimize tritium losses to the environment. The final major objective of the FED tritium systems is to provide an integrated system test of the tritium handling technology necessary to support the fusion reactor program. Every effort is being made to incorporate available information from the Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium systems, and the tritium handling information generated within DOE for the past 20 years.

  9. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper discusses the development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluent which has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion for analysis by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, a toluene-based cocktail showed the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%). In another technique, the sensitivity of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium in aqueous solutions was measured. The most efficient solid scintillator had a 2% tritium detection efficiency. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency.

  10. Tritium Production from Palladium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Schwab, M.J.; Thoma, D.J.; Teter, D.F.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1998-04-19

    A number of palladium alloys have been loaded with deuterium or hydrogen under low energy bombardment in a system that allows the continuous measurement of tritium. Long run times (up to 200 h) result in an integration of the tritium and this, coupled with the high intrinsic sensitivity of the system ({approximately}0.1 nCi/l), enables the significance of the tritium measurement to be many sigma (>10). We will show the difference in tritium generation rates between batches of palladium alloys (Rh, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Be, B, Li, Hf, Hg and Fe) of various concentrations to illustrate that tritium generation rate is dependent on alloy type as well as within a specific alloy, dependent on concentration.

  11. Removal of tritium from TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Blanchard, W.; Collins, J.; Hosea, J.; Kamperschroer, J.; Nagy, A.; Owens, D.K.; Raftopoulos, S.; Skinner, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    Operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with a mixture of deuterium and tritium fueling has permitted the opportunity to measure the retention of tritium in the graphite limiter and other internal hardware. The use of discharge cleaning techniques and venting to remove the tritium was investigated. The tritium was introduced into TFTR by neutral beam injection and by gas puffing. The graphite limiter is subject to erosion and codeposition. While short term retention was high, the retention averaged over the 1993-1995 D-T campaign was 52% {+-} 15%. The tritium removal techniques resulted in lowering the in-vessel inventory from 16.4 kCi at the end of 1995 operation to 7.2 kCi at the start of the 1996 experimental program. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Tritium practices past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Gede, V.P.; Gildea, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    History of the production and use of tritium, as well as handling techniques, are reviewed. Handling techniques first used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory made use of glass vacuum systems and relatively crude ion chambers for monitoring airborne activity. The first use of inert atmosphere glove boxes demonstrated that uptake through the skin could be a serious personnel exposure problem. Growing environmental concerns in the early 1970's resulted in the implementation by the Atomic Energy Commission of a new criteria to limit atmospheric tritium releases to levels as low as practicable. An important result of the new criteria was the development of containment and recovery systems to capture tritium rather than vent it to the atmosphere. The Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Tritium Research Laboratory containment and decontamination systems are presented as a typical example of this technology. The application of computers to control systems is expected to provide the greatest potential for change in future tritium handling practices.

  13. Low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pawelko, R. J.; Shimada, M.; Katayama, K.; Fukada, S.; Humrickhouse, P. W.; Terai, T.

    2015-11-28

    This paper describes a new experimental system designed to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in materials important to fusion technology. Experimental activities were carried out at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The tritium permeation measurement system was developed as part of the Japan/US TITAN collaboration to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in liquid lead lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy. The experimental system is configured to measure tritium mass transfer properties at low tritium partial pressures. Initial tritium permeation scoping tests were conducted on a 1 mm thick α-Fe plate to determinemore » operating parameters and to validate the experimental technique. A second series of permeation tests was then conducted with the α-Fe plate covered with an approximately 8.5 mm layer of liquid lead lithium eutectic alloy (α-Fe/LLE). We present preliminary tritium permeation data for α-Fe and α-Fe/LLE at temperatures between 400 and 600°C and at tritium partial pressures between 1.7E-3 and 2.5 Pa in helium. Preliminary results for the α-Fe plate and α-Fe/LLE indicate that the data spans a transition region between the diffusion-limited regime and the surface-limited regime. In conclusion, additional data is required to determine the existence and range of a surface-limited regime.« less

  14. Low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Pawelko, R. J.; Shimada, M.; Katayama, K.; Fukada, S.; Humrickhouse, P. W.; Terai, T.

    2015-11-28

    This paper describes a new experimental system designed to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in materials important to fusion technology. Experimental activities were carried out at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The tritium permeation measurement system was developed as part of the Japan/US TITAN collaboration to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in liquid lead lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy. The experimental system is configured to measure tritium mass transfer properties at low tritium partial pressures. Initial tritium permeation scoping tests were conducted on a 1 mm thick α-Fe plate to determine operating parameters and to validate the experimental technique. A second series of permeation tests was then conducted with the α-Fe plate covered with an approximately 8.5 mm layer of liquid lead lithium eutectic alloy (α-Fe/LLE). We present preliminary tritium permeation data for α-Fe and α-Fe/LLE at temperatures between 400 and 600°C and at tritium partial pressures between 1.7E-3 and 2.5 Pa in helium. Preliminary results for the α-Fe plate and α-Fe/LLE indicate that the data spans a transition region between the diffusion-limited regime and the surface-limited regime. In conclusion, additional data is required to determine the existence and range of a surface-limited regime.

  15. Linear accelerator for production of tritium: Physics design challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Lawrence, G.P.; Bhatia, T.S.; Billen, J.H.; Chan, K.C.D.; Garnett, R.W.; Guy, F.W.; Liska, D.; Nath, S.; Neuschaefer, G.; Shubaly, M.

    1990-01-01

    In the summer of 1989, a collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory conducted a study to establish a reference design of a facility for accelerator production of tritium (APT). The APT concept is that of a neutron-spallation source, which is based on the use of high-energy protons to bombard lead nuclei, resulting in the production of large quantities of neutrons. Neutrons from the lead are captured by lithium to produce tritium. This paper describes the design of a 1.6-GeV, 250-mA proton cw linear accelerator for APT.

  16. Operating Experience Review of Tritium-in-Water Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. Bruyere; L. C. Cadwallader

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring tritium facility and fusion experiment effluent streams is an environmental safety requirement. This paper presents data on the operating experience of a solid scintillant monitor for tritium in effluent water. Operating experiences were used to calculate an average monitor failure rate of 4E-05/hour for failure to function. Maintenance experiences were examined to find the active repair time for this type of monitor, which varied from 22 minutes for filter replacement to 11 days of downtime while waiting for spare parts to arrive on site. These data support planning for monitor use; the number of monitors needed, allocating technician time for maintenance, inventories of spare parts, and other issues.

  17. Tritium-field betacells

    SciTech Connect

    Walko, R.J.; Lincoln, R.C.; Baca, W.E. ); Goods, S.H. ); Negley, G.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Betavoltaic power sources operate by converting the nuclear decay energy of beta-emitting radioisotopes into electricity. Since they are not chemically driven, they could operate at temperatures which would either be to hot or too cold for typical chemical batteries. Further, for long lived isotopes, they offer the possibility of multi-decade active lifetimes. Two approaches are being investigated: direct and indirect conversion. Direct conversion cells consist of semiconductor diodes similar to photovoltaic cells. Beta particle directly bombard these cells, generating electron-hole pairs in the semiconductor which are converted to useful power. Many using low power flux beta emitters, wide bandgap semiconductors are required to achieve useful conversion efficiencies. The combination of tritium, as the beta emitter, and gallium phosphide (GaP), as the semiconductor converter, was evaluated. Indirect conversion betacells first convert the beta energy to light with a phosphor, and then to electricity with photovoltaic cells. An indirect conversion power source using a tritium radioluminescent (RL) light is being investigated. Our analysis indicates that this approach has the potential for significant volume and cost savings over the direct conversion method. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Tritium processing and management during D-T experiments on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    La Marche, P.H.; Anderson, J.L.; Gentile, C.A.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hosea, J.; Kalish, M.; Kozub, T.; Murray, H.; Nagy, A.; Raftopoulos, S.

    1994-11-01

    TFTR performance has surpassed many of the previous tokamak records. This has been made possible by the use of tritium as fuel for DT plasma discharges. Stable operations of tritium systems provide for safe, routine DT operation of TFTR. In the preparation for DT operation, in the commissioning of the tritium systems and in the operation of the Nuclear Facility several key lessons have been learned. They include: the facility must take the lead in interpreting the applicable regulations and orders and then seek regulator approval; the use of ultra high vacuum technology in tritium system design and construction simplifies and enhances operations and maintenance; and central facility control under a single supervisory position is crucial to safely orchestrate operational and maintenance activities.

  19. Sandia, California Tritium Research Laboratory transition and reutilization project

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, T.B.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes a project within Sandia National Laboratory to convert the shut down Tritium Research Laboratory into a facility which could be reused within the laboratory complex. In the process of decommissioning and decontaminating the facility, the laboratory was able to save substantial financial resources by transferring much existing equipment to other DOE facilities, and then expeditiously implementing a decontamination program which has resulted in the building being converted into laboratory space for new lab programs. This project of facility reuse has been a significant financial benefit to the laboratory.

  20. Transportation risk assessment for the shipment of irradiated FFTF tritium target assemblies from the Hanford Site to the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, D. L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This report examines the potential health and safety impacts associated with transportation of irradiated tritium targets from FFTF to the Savannah River Site for processing at the Tritium Extraction Facility. Potential risks to workers and members of the public during normal transportation and accident conditions are assessed.

  1. The use of dynamic modeling in assessing tritium phytoremediation.

    SciTech Connect

    Rebel, Karin T.; Riha; S.J.; Seaman, J.C.; Barton, C.D.

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT - To minimize movement of tritium into surface waters at the Mixed Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Site, tritiumcontaminated groundwater released to the surface along seeps in the hillside is being retained in a constructed pond and used to irrigate forest acreage that lies over the contaminated groundwater. Management of the application of tritium-contaminated irrigation water needs to be evaluated in the context of the large amount of rainfall relative to evapotranspiration, the strong seasonality in evapotranspiration, and intra-annual and interannual variability in precipitation in this region. A dynamic simulation model of water and tritium fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum was developed to assess the efficiency (tritium transpired/tritium applied) of several irrigation management strategies. The model was parameterized using soil-water content data measured at 18 sites for the first year of the project and evaluated using tritium activity measurements made at the same 18 sites over 2.5 yr. The model was then used to evaluate several irrigation strategies. The 25-yr efficiencies (tritium transpired/tritiumapplied) of the irrigation strategies were related to the quantity of irrigation water applied. There was a strong (r2 = 0.99) negative linear relationship between irrigation water applied and efficiency. When a quasi-steady state has been reached in the system, the annual efficiencies of all the irrigation strategies were negatively correlated with annual rainfall. Quantification of these relationships allows irrigation managers to choose irrigation strategies based on desired long-term system efficiency, which differ with climate and irrigation strategy.

  2. Decontaminating and Melt Recycling Tritium Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1995-04-03

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and several university and industrial partners are evaluating recycling radioactively contaminated stainless steel. The goal of this program is to recycle contaminated stainless steel scrap from US Department of Energy national defense facilities. There is a large quantity of stainless steel at the DOE Savannah River Site from retired heavy water moderated Nuclear material production reactors (for example heat exchangers and process water piping), that will be used in pilot studies of potential recycle processes. These parts are contaminated by fission products, activated species, and tritium generated by neutron irradiation of the primary reactor coolant, which is heavy (deuterated) water. This report reviews current understanding of tritium contamination of stainless steel and previous studies of decontaminating tritium exposed stainless steel. It also outlines stainless steel refining methods, and proposes recommendations based on this review.

  3. Tritium Elimination System Using Tritium Gas Oxidizing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimasa, Michiko; Awagakubo, Sayuri; Takahashi, Miho; Tauchi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Masataka; Ichimasa, Yusuke

    2005-07-15

    In order to eliminate atmospheric tritium gas (HT) released from tritium handling apparatus, we proposed to use the HT oxidizing ability (hydrogenase enzyme) of bacterial strains isolated from surface soils instead of a high temperature precious metal catalyst. Among the isolated strains with high HT oxidation activity, several strains were selected to develop a tritium elimination (detritiation) system. Bioreactors were made of bacterial cells grown on agar medium on a cartridge filter and stored in a refrigerator until use. The detritiation ability of these bioreactors at room temperature was investigated during the intentional HT release experiments carried out in the Cassion Assembly for Tritium Safety Study (CATS) in TPL/JAERI. When HT contaminated air from the CATS was introduced into the biological detritiation system, in which three bioreactors were connected in series, 86% of HT in air was removed as tritiated water in these bioreactors at a flow rate of 100 cm{sup 3}/min for 2 hours.

  4. Tritium extraction throughput at Hanford, 1949--1954

    SciTech Connect

    Gydesen, S.P.

    1994-02-24

    Two tritium extraction campaigns were conducted at the 108 B facility. Both glass and metal extraction lines were utilized during the first campaign which began in February 1949 and was completed in March 1952. Five glass lines were constructed and made available for use as needed. Operation of the metal extraction line was begun on May 3, 1951. It continued in production until completion of the first campaign in March 1952. The second campaign used only the metal line. It was initiated in December 1953 and fulfilled in August 1954. Tritium production and extraction throughput information from Hanford operations was recently declassified. This document presents tritium extraction throughput information excerpted from monthly production reports which remain classified SECRET-RESTRICTED DATA because they contain information on weapon part fabrication, shipments, tritium technology and unit costs. Individuals with the appropriate level of clearance and need-to-know may request access to these reports through the DOE or appropriate Hanford contractor, following established written procedures. This data was collected for use by the Source Term Task Leader of the hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, to develop a source term for tritium to meet a 1994 milestone. The extraction quantities for the two campaigns are presented.

  5. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found.

  6. WASTE CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERIC COMPONENTS EXPOSED TO TRITIUM GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E

    2008-02-15

    A recent independent review led to uncertainty about the technical basis for characterizing the residual amount of tritium in polymer components used in the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities that are sent for waste disposal. A review of a paper published in the open literature firmly establishes the basis of the currently used characterization, 10 Ci/cc. Information provided in that paper about exposure experiments performed at the DOE Mound Laboratory allows the calculation of the currently used characterization. These experiments involved exposure of high density polyethylene (HD-PE) to initially 1 atm tritium gas. In addition, a review of recent research at the Savannah River Site not only further substantiates this characterization, but also establishes its use for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, a trade name is Teflon{reg_sign}), and Vespel{reg_sign} polyimide. 10 Ci/cc tritium is a representative characterization for any type of polymer components exposed at ambient temperature and at approximately 1 atm. tritium gas.

  7. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOEpatents

    Griesbach, Otto A.; Stencel, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  8. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOEpatents

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  9. Tritium retention measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry and full combustion of W-coated and uncoated CFC tiles from the JET divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Bekris, N.; Kizane, G.; Enachescu, M.; Likonen, J.; Halitovs, M.; Petre, A.; contributors, JET

    2016-04-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and the full combustion method (FCM) followed by liquid scintillation counting were applied to quantitatively determine the tritium retention in the tungsten-coated carbon fibre composites (CFC), in comparison to uncoated CFC tiles from the JET divertor. The tiles were adjacent and exposed to plasma operations between 2007 and 2009. The tritium depth profiles are showing that the tritium retention on the W-coated tile was reduced by a factor of 13.5 in comparison to the uncoated tile whereas the bulk tritium concentration is approximately the same for both tiles.

  10. Composition containing aerogel substrate loaded with tritium

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, Carol S.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ellefson, Robert E.; Gill, John T.; Reed, Scott; Walko, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The invention provides a process for loading an aerogel substrate with tritium and the resultant compositions. According to the process, an aerogel substrate is hydrolyzed so that surface OH groups are formed. The hydrolyzed aerogel is then subjected to tritium exchange employing, for example, a tritium-containing gas, whereby tritium atoms replace H atoms of surface OH groups. OH and/or CH groups of residual alcohol present in the aerogel may also undergo tritium exchange.

  11. Investigation of durability of optical coatings in highly purified tritium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.; Schoenung, K.; Bornschein, B.; Rolli, R.; Schaefer, V.; Sturm, M.

    2015-03-15

    Anti-reflection coated windows are part of Raman spectroscopy systems for tritium analytics in the KATRIN experiment and fusion-related applications. Damages of such windows were observed after three months of expo-sure to highly purified tritium gas in the LOOPINO facility. In this work, the origin of the damages was investigated, identified and eliminated. Coating samples manufactured by various physical vapor deposition methods have been tested for durability by exposure to pure tritium gas and subsequent visual inspection. Electron beam deposited coatings showed indications for damage after 17 days of tritium exposure in contrast to samples manufactured by ion assisted deposition or sputtering. An improved coating layout of the sample cell is presented for reliable long-term monitoring of tritium gas using Raman spectroscopy. (authors)

  12. Environmental Impact of a Tritium Extraction System Small Pipe Break by the Atmospheric Modelling of Elemental Tritium Gas transport with Flexpart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Paloma; Ardao, Jose; Velarde, Marta; Xiberta, Jorge; Sedano, Luis

    2014-05-01

    In the case of a little Tritium-Extraction-System (TES) pipe break (with critical failure of a fuelling line), the tritium source term has not yet been determined in the frame of European Test Blanket Systems, as Design Basis Accident (DBA) but it is expected to be in the order of a few grams. In this critical scenario acute modeling of environmental tritium transport forms (HT and HTO) for the assessment of fusion facilities dosimetric impact appears as of major interest. This paper considers different term releases of tritium-forms to the atmosphere from ITER which has experienced a frequent failure of a fueling line, due the little TES pipe break affecting a Helium-Cooled-Lithium-Lead Test-Blanket-Module. In case of 24.3 g of tritium were released from the broken fuelling-line directly into the gallery found only 0.5 g was released to the environment, assuming a little rupture in the TES piping located in the Port Cell. In this paper we assume a hypothetical daily release of one gram of tritium in HT and HTO forms. The daily failure is taken just in order to evaluate different meteorological scenarios or weather conditions. The FLEXPART working model simulates the tritium forms dispersion and environmental impact out of the complex ITER-tokamak (and its safeguards) of selected environmental patterns both inland and in-sea using ECMWF/FLEXPART model. We explore specific values of this ratio at different levels. We examine the influence of meteorological conditions of the tritium behavior during 48 hours after the release. For this purpose we have FLEXPART version 9.2 numerical weather model which is useful to follow real-time releases of tritium at low levels of the boundary layer to provide an approximation of tritium cloud behavior ranging from 3 to 48 hours.

  13. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D.

    1994-04-15

    The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type.

  14. Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA) a Method for Quantifying Tritium Contaminated Trash and Debris at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Dominick, J L; Rasmussen, C L

    2008-07-23

    Several facilities and many projects at LLNL work exclusively with tritium. These operations have the potential to generate large quantities of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) with the same or similar radiological characteristics. A standardized documented approach to characterizing these waste materials for disposal as radioactive waste will enhance the ability of the Laboratory to manage them in an efficient and timely manner while ensuring compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements. This standardized characterization approach couples documented process knowledge with analytical verification and is very conservative, overestimating the radioactivity concentration of the waste. The characterization approach documented here is the Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA). This document will serve as a Technical Basis Document which can be referenced in radioactive waste characterization documentation packages such as the Information Gathering Document. In general, radiological characterization of waste consists of both developing an isotopic breakdown (distribution) of radionuclides contaminating the waste and using an appropriate method to quantify the radionuclides in the waste. Characterization approaches require varying degrees of rigor depending upon the radionuclides contaminating the waste and the concentration of the radionuclide contaminants as related to regulatory thresholds. Generally, as activity levels in the waste approach a regulatory or disposal facility threshold the degree of required precision and accuracy, and therefore the level of rigor, increases. In the case of tritium, thresholds of concern for control, contamination, transportation, and waste acceptance are relatively high. Due to the benign nature of tritium and the resulting higher regulatory thresholds, this less rigorous yet conservative characterization approach is appropriate. The scope of this document is to define an appropriate and acceptable

  15. Workshop on tritium safety and environmental effects, October 15--17, 1990, Aiken, South Carolina: Session summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1991-04-18

    A meeting was held on October 15, 16, 17, 1990 to discuss the state of tritium safety and environmental effects. The meeting was organized with the help of the International Energy Agency planning committee consisting of K. Steinmetz, Y. Seki, G. Nardella, and G. Vivian. Representative of tritium production facilities and heavy water reactor power production were also involved. The meeting was organized to address seven topics in tritium safety that were thought to require further work. The topics were: (1) materials science, (2) environmental models, (3) environmental model validation, (4) tritiated organic compounds, (5) human dosimetry, (6) tritium sampling and measurement, and (7) long-term environmental databases.

  16. A study of tritium in municipal solid waste leachate and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Mutch Jr, R. D.; Mahony, J. D.

    2008-07-15

    It has become increasingly clear in the last few years that the vast majority of municipal solid waste landfills produce leachate that contains elevated levels of tritium. The authors recently conducted a study of landfills in New York and New Jersey and found that the mean concentration of tritium in the leachate from ten municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills was 33,800 pCi/L with a peak value of 192,000 pCi/L. A 2003 study in California reported a mean tritium concentration of 99,000 pCi/L with a peak value of 304,000 pCi/L. Studies in Pennsylvania and the UK produced similar results. The USEPA MCL for tritium is 20,000 pCi/L. Tritium is also manifesting itself as landfill gas and landfill gas condensate. Landfill gas condensate samples from landfills in the UK and California were found to have tritium concentrations as high as 54,400 and 513,000 pCi/L, respectively. The tritium found in MSW leachate is believed to derive principally from gaseous tritium lighting devices used in some emergency exit signs, compasses, watches, and even novelty items, such as 'glow stick' key chains. This study reports the findings of recent surveys of leachate from a number of municipal solid waste landfills, both open and closed, from throughout the United States and Europe. The study evaluates the human health and ecological risks posed by elevated tritium levels in municipal solid waste leachate and landfill gas and the implications to their safe management. We also assess the potential risks posed to solid waste management facility workers exposed to tritium-containing waste materials in transfer stations and other solid waste management facilities. (authors)

  17. Real-time tritium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, M.E.

    1981-09-15

    A real-time image of a tritium-containing titanium film has been made by detecting the secondary electrons produced by tritium ..beta.. decay with a simple two-element electrostatic lens and microchannel plate image intensifier. The obtained image indicates that a resolution of better than 100 ..mu..m is currently obtainable and suggests that image magnification to enhance resolution should be possible.

  18. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1991-12-31

    The development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluents has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion which was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%) was determined for a toluene-based cocktail. In another technique, the response of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium solutions was measured. A 2% tritium detection efficiency was observed for the most efficient solid scintillators tested. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency. While sensitivities of {approximately}25 kBg/L of tritium for a short count have been attained using several of these techniques, non can reach the environmental level of <1 kBg/L in aqueous solutions.

  19. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluents has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion which was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%) was determined for a toluene-based cocktail. In another technique, the response of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium solutions was measured. A 2% tritium detection efficiency was observed for the most efficient solid scintillators tested. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency. While sensitivities of {approximately}25 kBg/L of tritium for a short count have been attained using several of these techniques, non can reach the environmental level of <1 kBg/L in aqueous solutions.

  20. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-25

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

  1. Production of highly tritiated water for tritium exposure studies

    SciTech Connect

    Muirhead, C.; Pilatzke, K.; Tripple, A.; Philippi, N.; McCrimmon, K.; Castillo, I.; Boniface, H.; Suppiah, S.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium Facility staff at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) have successfully prepared highly tritiated water for use in radiation resistance of PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane-based)electrolyser membrane. The goal of System A was to convert a known amount of elemental tritium (HT) into tritiated water vapour using a copper(II) oxide bed, and to condense the tritiated water vapour into a known amount of chilled heavy water (D{sub 2}O). The conversion and capture of tritium using this system is close to 100%. The goal of System B was to transfer tritiated water from the containment vessel to an exposure vessel (experiment) in a controlled and safe manner. System B is based on the pushing of D{sub 2}0 with low-pressure argon carrier gas to a calibrated volume and then to the exposure vessel. A method for delivering a known and controlled amount of tritiated water has been successfully demonstrated at CRL. Using both systems Tritium Facility staff have made and distributed highly tritiated water in a safe and controlled manner. This paper focuses on how the tritiated water was produced and dispensed to the experiment.

  2. Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Olfert, J; Baglan, N; St-Amant, N; Carter, B; Clark, I; Bucur, C

    2015-12-01

    Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods. PMID:26372740

  3. Primer on tritium safe handling practices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This Primer is designed for use by operations and maintenance personnel to improve their knowledge of tritium safe handling practices. It is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. It is presented in general terms for use throughout the DOE Complex. After reading it, one should be able to: describe methods of measuring airborne tritium concentration; list types of protective clothing effective against tritium uptake from surface and airborne contamination; name two methods of reducing the body dose after a tritium uptake; describe the most common method for determining amount of tritium uptake in the body; describe steps to take following an accidental release of airborne tritium; describe the damage to metals that results from absorption of tritium; explain how washing hands or showering in cold water helps reduce tritium uptake; and describe how tritium exchanges with normal hydrogen in water and hydrocarbons.

  4. Preliminary analysis of the safety and environmental impact of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.V.; Jalbert, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) is a facility dedicated to the development of technologies associated with the D-T fuel cycle of future fusion reactors while demonstrating that TSTA can be operated safely with no significant losses to the environment. During the initial design stage of TSTA, a safety analysis was performed which investigated the effects of major subsystem component failure, the meteorology and seismicity of the site and their possible effect on the facility, and accident scenarios which result in tritium releases. Major releases of tritium to the environment are considered highly improbable since they require a compound failure of primary and secondary containment, along with either a breach of the building or a failure of the Emergency Tritium Cleanup system. Accidental releases caused by natural phenomena (earthquake, tornado, etc.) are considered highly improbable (< 10/sup -0//yr).

  5. BEATRIX-II: In situ tritium recovery from a fast neutron irradiation of solid breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Puigh, R J; Hollenberg, G W; Kurasawa, T; Watanabe, H; Hastings, I J; Miller, J M; Berk, S E; Bauer, R E; Baker, D E

    1988-09-01

    An in situ tritium recovery experiment is being fabricated for the irradiation of Li/sub 2/O in the Fast Flux Test Facility located at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, United States of America. Two in situ tritium recovery canisters will be irradiated with lithium atom burnups to 4%. One canister will provide fundamental data on tritium release as a function of temperature, gas composition, and flow rate. The other canister will provide integrated performance data from solid pellet specimens with large (450/degree/C) radial temperature gradients. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Individual and population dose to users of the Savannah River following K-Reactor tritium release

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Hamby, D.M.

    1992-12-31

    Approximately 5700 curies of tritium were released to Pen Branch between December 22, 1991 and December 25, 1991. As expected, the tritiated water traveled through the Savannah River swamp to Steel Creek and the Savannah River. Elevated tritium concentrations in the river at Becks Ferry (Beaufort-Jasper) and Abercorn Creek (Port Wentworth) has caused some concern among downstream water users as to the amount of tritium available for uptake through the domestic drinking water supplies at the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment facilities. Radiation dose to the downstream drinking water population is estimated in this report.

  7. New Systems for Waste Processing of Tritium-Containing Gases at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Poore, A.S.; Jacobs, W.D.

    2005-07-15

    A project to relocate and consolidate tritium processing activities from old, second generation buildings to newer buildings was initiated in the late 1990's at the Savannah River Site. The new waste gas processing systems located in the newer facility utilize recent technology, including metal getters, an innovative permeator design, and TCAP (Thermal Cycling Absorption Process) technology for removal of residual tritium prior to releasing the effluent to the environment. Startup testing results (using protium and deuterium) and corresponding lessons learned for these systems are presented. These systems have since successfully completed tritium startup testing and are operational.

  8. Laser-assisted isotope separation of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Herman, Irving P.; Marling, Jack B.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for laser-assisted isotope separation of tritium, using infrared multiple photon dissociation of tritium-bearing products in the gas phase. One such process involves the steps of (1) catalytic exchange of a deuterium-bearing molecule XYD with tritiated water DTO from sources such as a heavy water fission reactor, to produce the tritium-bearing working molecules XYT and (2) photoselective dissociation of XYT to form a tritium-rich product. By an analogous procedure, tritium is separated from tritium-bearing materials that contain predominately hydrogen such as a light water coolant from fission or fusion reactors.

  9. Recent progresses in tritium radioecology and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Davis, P.; Raskob, W.; Melintescu, A.

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, some aspects of recent progress in tritium radioecology and dosimetry are presented, with emphasis on atmospheric releases to terrestrial ecosystems. The processes involved in tritium transfer through the environment are discussed, together with the current status of environmental tritium models. Topics include the deposition and reemission of HT and HTO, models for the assessment of routine and accidental HTO emissions, a new approach to modeling the dynamics of tritium in mammals, the dose consequences of tritium releases and aspects of human dosimetry. The need for additional experimental data is identified, together with the attributes that would be desirable in the next generation of tritium codes. (authors)

  10. Groundwater Monitoring and Tritium-Tracking Plan for the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    DB Barnett

    2000-08-31

    The 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) is a drainfield which receives treated wastewater, occasionally containing tritium from treatment of Hanford Site liquid wastes at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Since operation of the SALDS began in December 1995, discharges of tritium have totaled {approx}304 Ci, only half of what was originally predicted for tritium quantity through 1999. Total discharge volumes ({approx}2.7E+8 L) have been commensurate with predicted volumes to date. This document reports the results of all tritium analyses in groundwater as determined from the SALDS tritium-tracking network since the first SALDS wells were installed in 1992 through July 1999, and provides interpretation of these results as they relate to SALDS operation and its effect on groundwater. Hydrologic and geochemical information are synthesized to derive a conceptual model, which is in turn used to arrive at an appropriate approach to continued groundwater monitoring at the facility.

  11. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    SciTech Connect

    Buekki-Deme, A.; Alecu, C.G.; Kloppe, B.; Bornschein, B.

    2015-03-15

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  12. How tritium illuminates catchment structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M.; Morgenstern, U.; McDonnell, J.

    2012-04-01

    Streams contain water which has taken widely-varying times to pass through catchments, and the distribution of ages is likely to change with the flow. Part of the water has 'runoff' straight to the stream with little delay, other parts are more delayed and some has taken years (in some cases decades) to traverse the deeper regolith or bedrock of the catchment. This work aims to establish the significance of the last component, which is important because it can cause catchments to have long memories of contaminant inputs (e.g. nitrate). Results of tritium studies on streams world-wide were accessed from the scientific literature. Most of the studies assumed that there were just two age-components present in the streams (i.e. young and old). The mean ages and proportions of the components were found by fitting simulations to tritium data. It was found that the old component in streams was substantial (average was 50% of the annual runoff) and had considerable age (average mean age was 10 years) (Stewart et al., 2010). Use of oxygen-18 or chloride variations to estimate streamflow mean age usually does not reveal the age or size of this old component, because these methods cannot detect water older than about four years. Consequently, the use of tritium has shown that substantial parts of streamflow in headwater catchments are older than expected, and that deep groundwater plays an active and sometimes even a dominant role in runoff generation. Difficulties with interpretation of tritium in streams in recent years due to interference from tritium due to nuclear weapons testing are becoming less serious, because very accurate tritium measurements can be made and there is now little bomb-tritium remaining in the atmosphere. Mean ages can often be estimated from single tritium measurements in the Southern Hemisphere, because there was much less bomb-tritium in the atmosphere. This may also be possible for some locations in the Northern Hemisphere. Age determination on

  13. Overview of Recent Tritium Experiments in TPE

    SciTech Connect

    Masashi Shimada; T. Otsuka; R. J. Pawelko; P. Calderoni; J. P. Sharpe

    2010-10-01

    Tritium retention in plasma-facing components influences the design, operation, and lifetime of fusion devices such as ITER. Most of the retention studies were carried out with the use of either hydrogen or deuterium. Tritium Plasma Experiment is a unique linear plasma device that can handle radioactive fusion fuel of tritium, toxic material of beryllium, and neutron-irradiated material. A tritium depth profiling method up to mm range was developed using a tritium imaging plate and a diamond wire saw. A series of tritium experiments (T2/D2 ratio: 0.2 and 0.5 %) was performed to investigate tritium depth profiling in bulk tungsten, and the results shows that tritium is migrated into bulk tungsten up to mm range.

  14. Modeling Tritium Life cycle in Nuclear Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hussey, D.; Saunders, P.; Morey, D.; Pitt, N.; Wilson, J.; Claes, B.

    2006-07-01

    The mathematical development of a tritium model for nuclear power plants is presented. The model requires that the water and tritium material balance be satisfied throughout normal operations and shutdown. The model results obtained at the time of publishing include the system definitions and comparison of the model predictions of tritium generations compared to the observed plant data of the Braidwood station. A scenario that models using ion exchange resin to remove coolant boron demonstrates the tritium concentration levels are manageable. (authors)

  15. Design of the Target Fabrication Tritium Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sherohman, J.W.; Roberts, D.H.; Levine, B.H.

    1982-05-05

    The design of the Target Fabrication Tritium Laboratory for deuterium-tritium fuel processing for laser fusion targets has been accomplished with the intent of providing redundant safeguard systems. The design of the tritium laboratory is based on a combination of tritium handling techniques that are currently used by experienced laboratories. A description of the laboratory in terms of its interrelated processing systems is presented to provide an understanding of the design features for safe operation.

  16. Accelerator for the production of tritium (APT)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.T.; Bhatia, T.S.; Guy, F.W.; Neuschaefer, G.H.; Wangler, T.P.; Young, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    A collaborative study by Los Alamos and Brookhaven National Laboratories, supported by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, investigating a facility to produce tritium for the nation's defense needs indicates that a 1.6-GeV, 250-mA proton accelerator is required. A reference design of this accelerator starts with two parallel 125-keV injectors feeding 350-MHz radio-frequency quadrupoles (RFQ) that funnel at 2.5 MeV into a 700-MHz drift-tube linac (DTL). The DTL injects at 100 MeV into a 1400-MHz side-coupled linac (SCL). The accelerator will cost about $1.2 B and require 746 MW of electricity. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Effects of tritium on material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The effecs of tritium on deformation and fracture of metals are reviewed with emphasis on similarities and differences between tritium and the other hydrogen isotopes. Helium generated by radioactive decay of tritium introduces time dependent property changes not observed with protium or deuterium. On-going studies and topics for further investigations are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Tritium contamination and decontamination of sealing oil for vacuum pump

    SciTech Connect

    Takeishi, T.; Kotoh, K.; Kawabata, Y.; Tanaka, J.I.; Kawamura, S.; Iwata, M.

    2015-03-15

    The existence of tritium-contaminated oils from vacuum pumps used in tritium facilities, is becoming an important issue since there is no disposal way for tritiated waste oils. On recovery of tritiated water vapor in gas streams, it is well-known that the isotope exchange reaction between the gas phase and the liquid phase occurs effectively at room temperature. We have carried out experiments using bubbles to examine the tritium contamination and decontamination of a volume of rotary-vacuum-pump oil. The contamination of the pump oil was made by bubbling tritiated water vapor and tritiated hydrogen gas into the oil. Subsequently the decontamination was processed by bubbling pure water vapor and dry argon gas into the tritiated oil. Results show that the water vapor bubbling was more effective than dry argon gas. The experiment also shows that the water vapor bubbling in an oil bottle can remove and transfer tritium efficiently from the tritiated oil into another water-bubbling bottle.

  19. Thermal cycle limits for tritium hydride beds

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.

    1992-12-31

    During revision of the Tritium Facility Technical Standards, a thermal cycle limit was added to the {open_quotes}Hydride Vessels{close_quotes} Technical Standard. A limit of 1,000 cycles was added since the metallurgical effect of repeated thermal cycling of the stainless steel hydride beds was not known. Procedures would require modifications to record the number of thermal cycles a bed has experienced during its life-time. The calculations in this report show that the operations of the hydride beds in the Tritium Facilities can experience at least 10,000 thermal cycles. Maximum temperature differences across the walls of the hydride beds were calculated to determine the cycle limits. The calculated temperature differentials were less than 50% of the temperature differentials which would require a 10,000 cycle limit. 10,000 cycles is equivalent to cycling the bed over nine times per day for the next three years or five times per day for the next five years. If the expected number of bed cycles for the beds are to be less than 10,000 cycles, the number of thermal cycles for the beds do not need to be recorded or logged. Not logging or tracking the number of thermal cycles for the beds will greatly reduce the administrative burden of operating these vessels. These results are based ultimately on the pressure drop of nitrogen through the hydride bed cooling coils which is controlled by the liquid nitrogen dewer`s 22 psig relief valve. This 22 psi differential for flow and the conservative assumptions made in the calculations gave maximum temperature differentials less than 50 percent of the values allowed for the 10,000 cycle limit. Changes which would increase the liquid nitrogen supply pressure for the beds would need to be reviewed to verify that the conclusions of this report were to remain valid.

  20. Thermal cycle limits for tritium hydride beds

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    During revision of the Tritium Facility Technical Standards, a thermal cycle limit was added to the [open quotes]Hydride Vessels[close quotes] Technical Standard. A limit of 1,000 cycles was added since the metallurgical effect of repeated thermal cycling of the stainless steel hydride beds was not known. Procedures would require modifications to record the number of thermal cycles a bed has experienced during its life-time. The calculations in this report show that the operations of the hydride beds in the Tritium Facilities can experience at least 10,000 thermal cycles. Maximum temperature differences across the walls of the hydride beds were calculated to determine the cycle limits. The calculated temperature differentials were less than 50% of the temperature differentials which would require a 10,000 cycle limit. 10,000 cycles is equivalent to cycling the bed over nine times per day for the next three years or five times per day for the next five years. If the expected number of bed cycles for the beds are to be less than 10,000 cycles, the number of thermal cycles for the beds do not need to be recorded or logged. Not logging or tracking the number of thermal cycles for the beds will greatly reduce the administrative burden of operating these vessels. These results are based ultimately on the pressure drop of nitrogen through the hydride bed cooling coils which is controlled by the liquid nitrogen dewer's 22 psig relief valve. This 22 psi differential for flow and the conservative assumptions made in the calculations gave maximum temperature differentials less than 50 percent of the values allowed for the 10,000 cycle limit. Changes which would increase the liquid nitrogen supply pressure for the beds would need to be reviewed to verify that the conclusions of this report were to remain valid.

  1. Characterization of LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} tritide for use as a long term tritium storage medium

    SciTech Connect

    Wermer, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    Applications of metal hydride technology has offered numerous safety as well as operating advantages for tritium processing operations. The SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) utilizes this technology extensively. During design of the RTF systems, LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA.75) was chosen as the primary tritium storage material. This material was selected largely because of the isotherm plateau pressure, which allows the tritium to be stored as a metal tritide at subatmospheric pressures while still being able to generate pressures of >1000 mm Hg needed for process applications. A benefit of this substitution is an increase in the stability of this material to tritium aging effects and to disproportionation. The LANA.75 material, like many metal tritides used for tritium processing, retains insoluble helium-3 which is born in the metal lattice through radiolytic decay of tritium. This causes changes in the thermodynamics of the metal-hydrogen system, decreasing the {alpha}-{beta} plateau pressure, increasing the plateau slope, and decreasing the reversible hydriding capacity. The latter also includes the growth of a tritium {open_quotes}heel{close_quotes} which cannot be removed under normal processing conditions. All of these factors affect the long-term performance of LANA.75-tritide in processing applications. Tritium aging studies have been underway on LANA.75 since 1987 in the SRTC Materials Test Facility. Material characterization of LANA.75-tritide has been completed on material exposed to tritium for 5.4 years at full stoichiometry.

  2. Tritium Concentrations in Environmental Samples and Transpiration Rates from the Vicinity of Mary's Branch Creek and Background Areas, Barnwell, South Carolina, 2007-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Canova, Judy L.; Bradley, Paul M.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Tritium in groundwater from a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Barnwell, South Carolina, is discharging to Mary's Branch Creek. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an investigation from 2007 to 2009 to examine the tritium concentration in trees and air samples near the creek and in background areas, in groundwater near the creek, and in surface water from the creek. Tritium was found in trees near the creek, but not in trees from background areas or from sites unlikely to be in direct root contact with tritium-contaminated groundwater. Tritium was found in groundwater near the creek and in the surface water of the creek. Analysis of tree material has the potential to be a useful tool in locating shallow tritium-contaminated groundwater. A tritium concentration of 1.4 million picocuries per liter was measured in shallow groundwater collected near a tulip poplar located in an area of tritium-contaminated groundwater discharge. Evapotranspiration rates from the tree and tritium concentrations in water extracted from tree cores indicate that during the summer, this tulip poplar may remove more than 17.1 million picocuries of tritium per day from the groundwater that otherwise would discharge to Mary's Branch Creek. Analysis of air samples near the tree showed no evidence that the transpirative release of tritium to the air created a vapor hazard in the forest.

  3. Tritium assay of Li sub 2 O pellets in the LBM/LOTUS experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Quanci, J.; Azam, S.; Bertone, P.

    1986-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) program is to test the ability of advanced neutronics codes to model the tritium breeding characteristics of a fusion blanket exposed to a toroidal fusion neutron source. The LBM consists of over 20,000 cylindrical lithium oxide pellets and numerous diagnostic pellets and wafers. The LBM has been irradiated at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) LOTUS facility with a Haefely sealed neutron generator that gives a point deuterium-tritium neutron source up to 5 {times} 10{sup 12} 14-MeV n/s. Both Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPL) and EPFL assayed the tritium bred at various positions in the LBM. EPFL employed a dissolution technique while PPL recovered the tritium by a thermal extraction method. EPFL uses 0.38-g, 75% TD, lithium oxide diagnostic wafers to evaluate the tritium bred in the LBM. PPPL employs a thermal extraction method to determine the tritium bred in lithium oxide samples. In the initial experiments, diagnostic pellets and wafers were placed at five locations in the LBM central removable test rod at distances of 3, 9, 21, 36, and 48 cm from the front face of the module. The two sets of data for the tritium bred in the LBM along its centerline as a function of distance from the front face of the module were compared with each other, and with the predictions of two-dimensional neutronics codes. 1 ref.

  4. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.; Fox, E.; Kane, M.; Staack, G.

    2011-01-07

    Effects of tritium gas exposure on various polymers have been studied over the last several years. Despite the deleterious effects of beta exposure on many material properties, structural polymers continued to be used in tritium systems. Improved understanding of the tritium effects will allow more resistant materials to be selected. Currently polymers find use mainly in tritium gas sealing applications (eg. valve stem tips, O-rings). Future uses being evaluated including polymeric based cracking of tritiated water, and polymer-based sensors of tritium.

  5. Tritium hazard via the ingestion pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model that allows for the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase the total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound to loose ratio of tritium in the diet. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATE STAINLESS STEEL SURFACE TREATMENTS FOR MASS SPECTROSCOPY AND OTHER TRITIUM SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.; Mauldin, C.; Neikirk, K.

    2012-02-29

    There are specific components in the SRS Tritium Facilities that are required to introduce as few chemical impurities (such as protium and methane) as possible into the process gas. Two such components are the inlet systems for the mass spectroscopy facilities and hydrogen isotope mix standard containers. Two vendors now passivate stainless steel components for these systems, and both are relatively small businesses whose future viability can be questioned, which creates the need for new sources. Stainless steel containers were designed to evaluate alternate surface treatment vendors for tritium storage and handling for these high purity tritium systems. Five vendors applied their own 'best' surface treatments to two containers each - one was a current vendor, another was a chemical vapor deposited silicon coating, and the other three were electropolishing and chemical cleaning vendors. Pure tritium gas was introduced into all ten containers and the composition was monitored over time. The only observed impurities in the gas were some HT, less CT{sub 4}, and very small amounts of T{sub 2}O in all cases. The currently used vendor treated containers contained the least impurities. The chemical vapor deposited silicon treatment resulted in the highest impurity levels. Sampling one set of containers after about one month of tritium exposure revealed the impurity level to be nearly the same as that after more than a year of exposure - this result suggests that cleaning new stainless steel components by tritium gas contact for about a month may be a worthy operation.

  7. Analysis of tritium mission FMEF/FAA fuel handling accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1997-11-18

    The Fuels Material Examination Facility/Fuel Assembly Area is proposed to be used for fabrication of mixed oxide fuel to support the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) tritium/medical isotope mission. The plutonium isotope mix for the new mission is different than that analyzed in the FMEF safety analysis report. A reanalysis was performed of three representative accidents for the revised plutonium mix to determine the impact on the safety analysis. Current versions computer codes and meterology data files were used for the analysis. The revised accidents were a criticality, an explosion in a glovebox, and a tornado. The analysis concluded that risk guidelines were met with the revised plutonium mix.

  8. Tritium Waste Treatment System component failure data analysis from June 18, 1984--December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C. ); Stolpe Gavett, M.A. )

    1990-09-01

    This document gives the failure rates for the major tritium-bearing components in the Tritium Waste Treatment System at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly, which is a fusion research and technology facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The failure reports, component populations, and operating demands/hours are given in this report, and sample calculations for binomial demand failure rates and poisson hourly failure rates are given in the appendices. The failure rates for tritium-bearing components were on the order of the screening failure rate values suggested for fusion reliability and risk analyses. More effort should be directed toward collecting and analyzing fusion component failure data, since accurate failure rates are necessary to refine reliability and risk analyses. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Status and practicality of detritiation and tritium production strategies for environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Fulbright, H.H.; Schwirian-Spann, A.L.; Brunt, V. van; Jerome, K.M.; Looney, B.B.

    1996-02-26

    Operation of nuclear facilities throughout the world generates wastewater, groundwater and surface water contaminated with tritium. Because of a commitment to minimize radiation exposures to ''levels as low as reasonably achievable'', the US Department of Energy supports development of tritium isotope separation technologies. Also, DOE periodically documents the status and potential viability of alternative tritium treatment technologies and management strategies. The specific objectives of the current effort are to evaluate practical engineering issues, technology acceptability issues, and costs for realistic tritium treatment scenarios. A unique feature of the assessment is that the portfolio of options was expanded to include various management strategies rather than only evaluating detritiation technologies. The ultimate purpose of this effort is to assist Environmental Restoration and its support organizations in allocating future investments.

  10. Tritium assay of Li/sub 2/O pellets in the LBM/LOTUS experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Quanci, J.; Azam, S.; Bertone, P.

    1986-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) program is to test the ability of advanced neutronics codes to model the tritium breeding characteristics of a fusion blanket exposed to a toroidal fusion neutron source. The LBM consists of over 20,000 cylindrical lithium oxide pellets and numerous diagnostic pellets and wafers. The LBM has been irradiated at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) LOTUS facility with a Haefely sealed neutron generator that gives a point deuterium-tritium neutron source up to 5 x 10/sup 12/ 14-MeV n/s. Both Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL) and EPFL assayed the tritium bred at various positions in the LBM. EPFL employed a dissolution technique while PPPL recovered the tritium by a thermal extraction method.

  11. Tritium pellet injection sequences for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, W.A.; Milora, S.L.; Attenberger, S.E.; Singer, C.E.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium pellet injection into neutral deuterium, beam heated deuterium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is shown to be an attractive means of (1) minimizing tritium use per tritium discharge and over a sequence of tritium discharges; (2) greatly reducing the tritium load in the walls, limiters, getters, and cryopanels; (3) maintaining or improving instantaneous neutron production (Q); (4) reducing or eliminating deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron production in non-optimized discharges; and (5) generally adding flexibility to the experimental sequences leading to optimal Q operation. Transport analyses of both compression and full-bore TFTR plasmas are used to support the above observations and to provide the basis for a proposed eight-pellet gas gun injector for the 1986 tritium experiments.

  12. Observation of tritium distribution in iron oxide with tritium micro autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Isobe, K.; Hayashi, T.; Nakamura, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Yamanishi, T.; Okuno, K.

    2008-07-15

    To clarify the tritium permeation behavior, tritium distribution in iron oxidized in high temperature water was observed with tritium micro autoradiography. It was found that tritium was distributed homogeneously in the iron metal. However the oxide surface (magnetite) was found to contain a very low concentration of tritium. The inner layer of oxide could strongly effect the tritium permeation. From a comparison with the permeation experiment that had been reported in Ref. 1, it was suggested that tritium would mainly diffuse other path except the oxide lattice. According to the chemical form of tritium, which was released from iron surface into water, two assumptions were suggested. One is based on the different combination of tritium on the water-surface interface. The other is based on the oxidation mechanism. (authors)

  13. Tritium Burn-up Depth and Tritium Break-Even Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Yue; Deng, Bai-Quan; Huang, Jin-Hua; Yan, Jian-Cheng

    2006-08-01

    Similarly to but quite different from the xenon poisoning effects resulting from fission-produced iodine during the restart-up process of a fission reactor, we introduce a completely new concept of the tritium burn-up depth and tritium break-even time in the fusion energy research area. To show what the least required amount of tritium storage is used to start up a fusion reactor and how long a time the fusion reactor needs to be operated for achieving the tritium break-even during the initial start-up phase due to the finite tritium breeding time that is dependent on the tritium breeder, specific structure of breeding zone, layout of coolant flow pipe, tritium recovery scheme, extraction process, the tritium retention of reactor components, unrecoverable tritium fraction in breeder, leakage to the inertial gas container, and the natural decay etc., we describe this new phenomenon and answer this problem by setting up and by solving a set of equations, which express a dynamic subsystem model of the tritium inventory evolution in a fusion experimental breeder (FEB). It is found that the tritium burn-up depth is 317 g and the tritium break-even time is approximately 240 full power days for FEB designed detail configuration and it is also found that after one-year operation, the tritium storage reaches 1.18 kg that is more than the least required amount of tritium storage to start up three of FEB-like fusion reactors.

  14. Correlation of rates of tritium migration through porous concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, S.; Katayama, K.; Takeishi, T.; Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Yamanishi, T.

    2015-03-15

    In a nuclear facility when tritium leaks from a glovebox to room accidentally, an atmosphere detritiation system (ADS) starts operating, and HTO released is recovered by ADS. ADS starts when tritium activity in air becomes higher than its controlled level. Before ADS operates, the laboratory walls are the final enclosure facing tritium and are usually made of porous concrete coated with a hydrophobic paint. In the present study, previous data on the diffusivity and adsorption coefficient of concrete and paints are reviewed. Tritium penetrates and migrates into concrete by following 3 ways. First, gaseous HT or T{sub 2} easily penetrates into porous concrete. Its diffusivity is almost equal to that of H{sub 2}. When a gaseous molecule diffuses through pores with a smaller diameter than a mean free path, its migration rate is described by the Knudsen diffusion formula. The second mechanism is H{sub 2}O vapor diffusion in pores. Concrete holds a lot of structural water. Therefore, H{sub 2}O or HTO vapor can diffuse inside concrete pores along with adsorption-desorption and isotopic exchange with structural water, which is the third mechanism. Literature shows that the diffusivity of HTO through the epoxy-resin paint is determined as D(HTO)=1.0*10{sup -16} m{sup 2}/s. We have used this data to set a model and we have applied it to estimate residual tritium in laboratory walls. We have considered 2 accidental cases and a normal case: first, ADS starts operating 1 hour after 100 Ci HTO is released in the room, secondly, ADS starts 24 hours after 100 Ci HTO release and thirdly, when the walls are exposed to HTO for 10 years of normal operation. It appears that the immediate start up of ADS is indispensable for safety.

  15. Transit time estimation using tritium and stable isotopes in a Mediterranean mountain catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig-Planasdemunt, Maria; Stewart, Mike; Latron, Jérôme; Llorens, Pilar; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    transit time was observed in groundwater followed by stream water, while there were longer water retention times in springs. Analysing the spatial distribution of mean transit times using tritium, we observed a mix of different water ages at the catchment outflow. Two sub-catchments had mean water transit times shorter than the adjacent catchment area; this is attributed to differences in slopes and geologies of the areas.

  16. The Use of Subsurface Barriers to Support Treatment of Metals and Reduce the Flux of Tritium to Fourmile Branch at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina - 13358

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, Gerald; Thibault, Jeffrey; Wells, Leslie; Prater, Phillip

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produced tritium, plutonium, and special nuclear materials for national defense, medicine, and the space programs. Acidic groundwater plumes containing metals, metallic radionuclides, non-metallic radionuclides and tritium sourced from the F and H Area Seepage Basins have impacted the surface water of Fourmile Branch on SRS. Tritium releases from Fourmile Branch have impacted the water quality within areas of the Savannah River adjacent to the SRS, and this circumstance has been an ongoing regulatory concern. The F and H Area Seepage Basins operated until 1988 for the disposition of deionized acidic waste water from the F and H Separations Facilities. The waste water contained dilute nitric acid and low concentrations of non-radioactive metals, and radionuclides, with the major isotopes being Cs-137, Sr-90, U-235, U-238, Pu-239, Tc-99, I-129, and tritium. The tritium concentration in the waste water was relatively elevated because there is not a practicable removal method in water. The acid content of the waste water during the operational period of the basins was equal to 12 billion liters of nitric acid. The seepage basins were closed in 1988 and backfilled and capped by 1991. The plumes associated with the F and H basins cover an area of nearly 2.4 square kilometers (600 acres) and discharge along ∼2,600 meters of Fourmile Branch. The acidic nature of the plumes and their overall discharge extent along the branch represent a large challenge with respect to reducing contaminant flux to Fourmile Branch. The introduction of nitric acid into the groundwater over a long time effectively reduced the retardation of metal migration from the basins to the groundwater and in the groundwater to Fourmile Branch, because most negatively charged surfaces on the aquifer materials were filled with hydrogen ion. Two large pump and treat systems were constructed in 1997 and operated until 2003 in an attempt to capture and control the releases to

  17. In-vessel tritium retention and removal in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Federici, G.; Anderl, R.A.; Andrew, P.

    1998-06-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is envisioned to be the next major step in the world`s fusion program from the present generation of tokamaks and is designed to study fusion plasmas with a reactor relevant range of plasma parameters. During normal operation, it is expected that a fraction of the unburned tritium, that is used to routinely fuel the discharge, will be retained together with deuterium on the surfaces and in the bulk of the plasma facing materials (PFMs) surrounding the core and divertor plasma. The understanding of he basic retention mechanisms (physical and chemical) involved and their dependence upon plasma parameters and other relevant operation conditions is necessary for the accurate prediction of the amount of tritium retained at any given time in the ITER torus. Accurate estimates are essential to assess the radiological hazards associated with routine operation and with potential accident scenarios which may lead to mobilization of tritium that is not tenaciously held. Estimates are needed to establish the detritiation requirements for coolant water, to determine the plasma fueling and tritium supply requirements, and to establish the needed frequency and the procedures for tritium recovery and clean-up. The organization of this paper is as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of the design and operating conditions of the main components which define the plasma boundary of ITER. Section 3 reviews the erosion database and the results of recent relevant experiments conducted both in laboratory facilities and in tokamaks. These data provide the experimental basis and serve as an important benchmark for both model development (discussed in Section 4) and calculations (discussed in Section 5) that are required to predict tritium inventory build-up in ITER. Section 6 emphasizes the need to develop and test methods to remove the tritium from the codeposited C-based films and reviews the status and the prospects of the

  18. Real-time aqueous tritium monitor using liquid scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, R.A.; McCarty, J.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Sanders, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    An ability to continuously monitor low-level tritium releases in aqueous effluents is of particular interest to heavy water facilities such as those at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Canadian CANDU reactors. SRS developed a real-time monitoring system based on flow-through liquid scintillation (LS) counting. Sensitivities of 16 pCi/mL and 1 pCi/mL result from five minute and daily averages of counting data respectively. This sensitivity is about 200 times better than similar methods using solid scintillants. The LS system features uncomplicated sample pretreatment, precise of the cocktail and sample water, system features uncomplicated sample pretreatment, precise proportioning of the cocktail and sample water, on-line quench corrections, cocktail consumption as low as 0.15 mL/min, and response to changes in environmental tritium is less than 30 minutes. Field tests demonstrate that conditions necessary for stable analytical results are achieved.

  19. Tritium production potential of beam research and magnetic fusion program technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Regular replenishment of tritium in the nuclear weapons stockpile is essential to maintain our nuclear deterrent. Nuclear reactor facilities presently used for the production of tritium are aging, and their operation is being curtailed awaiting the repairs and upgrades needed to meet modern standards of safety and environment. To provide improved capability in the future, DOE plans to construct a new production reactor. Alternatives to nuclear reactor methods for the production of tritium, mainly electrically-driven accelerator or fusion systems, have been proposed many times in the past. Given the critical national security implications of maintaining adequate tritium production facilities, it is clearly worthwhile for political decision-makers to have a clear and accurate picture of the technical options that could be made available at various points in the future. The goal of this white paper is to summarize available technical information on a set of non-nuclear-reactor options for tritium production with a minimum of advocacy for any one system of implicit assumptions about politically desirable attributes. Indeed, these various options differ considerably in aspects such as the maturity of the technology, the development cost and timescales required, and the capital and operating costs of a typical ''optimized'' facility.

  20. Titanium for long-term tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

  1. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM EXPOSURE ON UHMW-PE, PTFE, AND VESPEL

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E; Kirk Shanahan, K

    2006-05-31

    total reflectance method. No significant change in the Vespel{reg_sign} infrared spectrum was observed after three months exposure. Protium significantly pressurized the UHMW-PE containers during exposure to about nine atmospheres (the initial pressure was one atmosphere of tritium). This is consistent with the well-known production of hydrogen by irradiation of polyethylene by ionizing radiation. The total pressure in the PTFE containers decreased, and a mass balance reveals that the observed decrease is consistent with the formation of small amounts of {sup 3}HF, which is condensed at ambient temperature. No significant change of pressure occurred in the Vespel{reg_sign} containers; however the composition of the gas became about 50% protium, showing that Vespel{reg_sign} interacted with the tritium gas atmosphere to some degree. The relative resistance to degradation from tritium exposure is least for PTFE, more for UHMW-PE, and the most for Vespel{reg_sign}, which is consistent with the known relative resistance of these polymers to gamma irradiation. This qualitatively agrees with the concept of equivalent effects for equivalent absorbed doses of radiation damage of polymers. Some of the changes of different polymers are qualitatively similar; however each polymer exhibited unique property changes when exposed to tritium. Information from this study that can be applied to a tritium facility is: (1) the relative resistance to tritium degradation of the three polymers studied is the same as the relative resistance to gamma irradiation in air (so relative rankings of polymer resistance to ionizing radiation can be used as a relative ranking for assessing tritium compatibility and polymer selection); and (2) all three polymers changed the gas atmosphere during tritium exposure--UHMW-PE and Vespel{reg_sign} exposed to tritium formed H{sub 2} gas (UHMW-PE much more so), and PTFE exposed to tritium formed {sup 3}HF. This observation of forming {sup 3}HF supports the

  2. Tritium calorimeter setup and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, David E.

    2002-12-17

    The LBNL tritium calorimeter is a stable instrument capable of measuring tritium with a sensitivity of 25 Ci. Measurement times range from 8-hr to 7-days depending on the thermal conductivity and mass of the material being measured. The instrument allows accurate tritium measurements without requiring that the sample be opened and subsampled, thus reducing personnel exposure and radioactive waste generation. The sensitivity limit is primarily due to response shifts caused by temperature fluctuation in the water bath. The fluctuations are most likely a combination of insufficient insulation from ambient air and precision limitations in the temperature controller. The sensitivity could probably be reduced to below 5 Ci if the following improvements were made: (1) Extend the external insulation to cover the entire bath and increase the top insulation. (2) Improve the seal between the air space above the bath and the outside air to reduce evaporation. This will limit the response drift as the water level drops. (3) Install an improved temperature controller, preferably with a built in chiller, capable of temperature control to {+-}0.001 C.

  3. Tritium Retention and Removal in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Charles H.

    2009-02-19

    Management of tritium inventory remains one of the grand challenges in the development of fusion energy. Tritium is an important source term in safety assessments, it is expensive and in short supply. Tritium can be continuously retained in a tokamak by codeposition with eroded carbon or beryllium and JET and TFTR with carbon plasma facing components showed a tritium retention level that would be unacceptable in ITER or future fusion reactors. Asdex-U and Alcator C-mod have shown reduced hydrogenic retention with tungsten clad and molybdenum plasma facing components. Once the tritium inventory approaches the administrative limit, tritium must be removed to permit continued D-T plasma operations. Several candidate techniques are being considered and need to be proven at a relevant speed and efficiency in contemporary tokamaks. Projections for ITER are discussed.

  4. Tritium Removal from Carbon Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; J.P. Coad; G. Federici

    2003-11-24

    Tritium removal is a major unsolved development task for next-step devices with carbon plasma-facing components. The 2-3 order of magnitude increase in duty cycle and associated tritium accumulation rate in a next-step tokamak will place unprecedented demands on tritium removal technology. The associated technical risk can be mitigated only if suitable removal techniques are demonstrated on tokamaks before the construction of a next-step device. This article reviews the history of codeposition, the tritium experience of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and JET (Joint European Torus) and the tritium removal rate required to support ITER's planned operational schedule. The merits and shortcomings of various tritium removal techniques are discussed with particular emphasis on oxidation and laser surface heating.

  5. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  6. Recovery of tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, W.A.

    1984-10-17

    This invention relates to the recovery of tritium from various tritiated molecules by reaction with uranium. More particularly, the invention relates to the recovery of tritium from tritiated molecules by reaction with uranium wherein the reaction is conducted in a reactor which permits the reaction to occur as a moving front reaction from the point where the tritium enters the reactor charged with uranium down the reactor until the uranium is exhausted.

  7. Tritium radioluminescent devices, Health and Safety Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Traub, R.J.; Jensen, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document consolidates available information on the properties of tritium, including its environmental chemistry, its health physics, and safe practices in using tritium-activated RL lighting. It also summarizes relevant government regulations on RL lighting. Chapters are divided into a single-column part, which provides an overview of the topic for readers simply requiring guidance on the safety of tritium RL lighting, and a dual-column part for readers requiring more technical and detailed information.

  8. TRITIUM IN-BED ACCOUNTABILITY FOR A PASSIVELY COOLED, ELECTRICALLY HEATED HYDRIDE BED

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.; Foster, P.

    2011-01-21

    A PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been deployed into tritium service in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facilities. The bed design, absorption and desorption performance, and cold (non-radioactive) in-bed accountability (IBA) results have been reported previously. Six PACE Beds were fitted with instrumentation to perform the steady-state, flowing gas calorimetric inventory method. An IBA inventory calibration curve, flowing gas temperature rise ({Delta}T) versus simulated or actual tritium loading, was generated for each bed. Results for non-radioactive ('cold') tests using the internal electric heaters and tritium calibration results are presented. Changes in vacuum jacket pressure significantly impact measured IBA {Delta}T values. Higher jacket pressures produce lower IBA {Delta}T values which underestimate bed tritium inventories. The exhaust pressure of the IBA gas flow through the bed's U-tube has little influence on measured IBA {Delta}T values, but larger gas flows reduce the time to reach steady-state conditions and produce smaller tritium measurement uncertainties.

  9. Design, operation, and application of the LLNL Portable Tritium Processing System

    SciTech Connect

    Reitz, T.C.; Smuda, P.A.; Benapfl, M.A.

    1994-06-01

    A Portable Tritium Processing System (PTPS) has been developed at LLNL that could be applied to fusion energy related tritium processing and decontamination operations. The PTPS has four basic capabilities. These are: oil-free pumping, oil-free gas transfer, gas analysis, and gas phase tritium scrubbing. The design of the PTPS takes into consideration today`s stringent release requirements, and utilizes secondary containment throughout the system. Because the system is portable, it can provide complete stand alone tritium processing, and can pass through a typical 36 inch laboratory door, and into confined spaces. This system can easily be moved to different locations within a facility such that the single tritium processing system can provide close-coupled support to multiple operations. Typical setup time for the PTPS is approximately two weeks. The PTPS has been in operation at LLNL for approximately one year. During this time, gram quantities of tritium have been successfully processed through the system. Releases to the stack attributable directly to the PTPS have been less than 0.1 curies, with most of this quantity being a product of maintenance operations.

  10. Development of fusion fuel cycle technology at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe: The experiment CAPRICE

    SciTech Connect

    Glugla, M.; Penzhorn, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    The development of plasma exhaust fuel clean-up technology for the recovery of chemically bonded and elemental tritium/deuterium isotopes based on catalytic processes involving the thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons and the reduction of water vapor by carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction) in combination with hydrogen isotope permeation presently constitutes the main experimental activity at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). All basic steps of these processes have been tested with protium/deuterium under laboratory and technical scale conditions. In addition, the validity of the integral process concept has also been demonstrated with relevant concentrations of tritium in small scale runs performed in collaboration with TSTA, Los Alamos National Laboratory. A facility carrying the acronym CAPRICE (Catalytic: Purification Experiment) has been erected at the TLK to demonstrate the process assembly with tritium on a technical scale. The design throughput is approx. 10 mol/h of DT and about 1 mol/h of tritiated and untritiated impurities. Depending upon the selected process conditions within the fusion fuel cycle this throughput could actually approach the needs of ITER. These gloves boxes for the primary system and the containment for a 150 m{sup 3}/h scroll pump totaling a volume of 16.6 m{sup 3} are operated under an inert gas atmosphere (0.5-1% O{sub 2}) at slightly below laboratory pressure. Two tritium retention systems provide with four ionization chambers are employed to control the tritium activity in the glove box atmosphere.

  11. An improved air-supplied plastic suit for protection against tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Wiernicki, C.

    1987-01-01

    A newly developed Saran/CPE plastic suit material is described which offers significantly better protection against HTO penetration and permeation than the 12-mil PVC currently used at SRP and most other DOE and commercial sites where tritium and HTO are exposure hazards. Tritium breakthrough time is an important parameter when evaluating the applicability of protective clothing; previously published tritium permeation tests did not measure this parameter. Future studies should quantify steady-state permeation rate and breakthrough time to more fully evaluate potential tritium protective clothing. Saran/CPE has successfully been fabricated into a plastic suit because, in addition to its superior tritium resistance, it has all the characteristics required to construct a rugged, dependable, and comfortable suit. The use of the Saran/CPE suit at SRP reactor and tritium production facilities should be a major contribution to the site As Low As Reasonably Achievable program. Both Saran/CPE have demonstrated excellent resistance to a wide range of chemical contaminants; therefore, this suit material may have applications in the general chemical industry and hazardous waste site cleanup operations. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Tritium deformation interactions in FCC austenitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chene, J.

    2008-07-15

    Hydrogen deformation interactions are known to control the environmental degradation effects (H and He embrittlement, stress corrosion cracking,...) associated with the presence of H and its isotopes in structural materials. Different types of interaction have been investigated: trapping on stress field and strain-induced defects, enhanced diffusion along dislocation networks, transport by moving dislocation. For several reasons, the quantification of these interactions is a major challenge in nuclear systems involving the presence of tritium: prevention of tritium-induced damage, tritium inventory, management of tritiated waste... This paper reports recent results on the quantitative characterization of tritium deformation interactions in fee materials. (authors)

  13. Distribution of bomb tritium in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.; Ostlund, G.

    1986-12-15

    A global picture of the water column inventories of bomb-produced tritium is constructed from the GEOSECS data set. This picture is compared with that obtained by combining the bomb tritium input function of Weiss and Roether (1980) with the bomb radiocarbon calibrate lateral redistribution model of Broecker et al. (1985). While differences between the calculated and observed distribution exist, they are surprisingly small. Tritium distributions calculated using the lateral redistribution model provide predictions of the changes to be expected in the next few decades. Such predictions are essential to the design of sound strategies for continued monitoring of the tritium transient.

  14. Modeling of Tritium Retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, W.; Brooks, J.N.; Budny, R.V.; Hogan, J.T.; Hosea, J.; Skinner, C.H.; et al.

    1998-08-19

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium retention experience is reviewed and the data related to models of plasma surface interactions. Over 3.5 years of TFTR deuterium-tritium operations, approximately 51% of the tritium injected into TFTR was retained in the torus. Most of this was subsequently recovered by glow discharges and air ventilation. Co-deposition rates for representative conditions in tritium operation were modeled with the BBQ code. The calculations indicate that known erosion mechanisms and subsequent co-deposition are sufficient to account for the order of magnitude of retention.

  15. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.

    1991-07-01

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the formation and acceleration of the world's first tritium pellets for fueling of future fusion reactors. The experiment was first used to produce hydrogen and deuterium pellets at ORNL. It was then moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the production of tritium pellets. The injector used in situ condensation to produce cylindrical pellets in a 1-m-long, 4-mm-ID barrel. A cryogenic {sup 3}He separator, which was an integral part of the gun assembly, was capable of lowering {sup 3}He levels in the feed gas to <0.005%. The experiment was housed to a glovebox for tritium containment. Nearly 1500 pellets were produced during the course of the experiment, and about a third of these were pure tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. Over 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the experiment without incident. Tritium pellet velocities of 1400 m/s were achieved with high-pressure hydrogen propellant. The design, operation, and results of this experiment are summarized. 34 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. An analysis of the tritium content in fish from Upper Three Runs Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1991-05-02

    In November of 1988 the F/H-area effluent treatment facility (ETF) began releasing treated waste water to Upper Three Runs Creek. Previous to that time, there has been minimal discharge of plant waste water to this tributary of the Savannah River. The ETF is designed to remove the toxic and radioactive waste materials from the effluent stream and to meet the discharge limits of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The only radioactive nuclide not removed by the process is tritium. Tritium, an isotope of hydrogen, is chemically associated with the water molecules in the waste stream and can not be economically removed at this time. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the concentration of tritium in the stream water and the concentration of tritium in the fish. Fish collections were made at two locations. The most upstream location was 50 meters downstream from the SRS Road C bridge. This is immediately downstream of the effluent discharge pipe from the ETF. The other location was at the bridge of SRS Road A (SC Highway 125). The water is removed from the fish by freeze drying under vacuum. This study suggests that, on the average, the tritium concentration of fish in Upper Three Runs Creek will be in equilibrium with the tritium in the water of the creek. The water in the fish comes into equilibrium with the water in the stream quite rapidly and it is quite likely that any single fish sampled will be higher or lower in tritium content of an integrated water sample, such as those collected by the Environmental Monitoring samplers. Both the time of sampling and the sampling of a sufficient number of fish is important in obtaining an accurate estimate of the average tritium concentration in the tissue water of the fish.

  17. Tritium percolation, convection, and permeation in fusion solid breeder blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.; Liu, Y.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Models are developed to describe the percolation of released tritium through the breeder interconnected porosity to the purge stream, convection of tritium by the helium purge stream, and leakage or permeation of tritium through the structural material to the primary coolant system. Important parameters in the models are tritium generation rate, breeder microstructure, tritium species in the gas phase, temperatures, tritium diffusivities and permeabilities, and effectiveness of oxide barriers.

  18. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  19. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  20. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  1. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  2. TRITIUM EFFECTS ON WELDMENT FRACTURE TOUGHNESS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M; Michael Tosten, M; Scott West, S

    2006-07-17

    The effects of tritium on the fracture toughness properties of Type 304L stainless steel and its weldments were measured. Fracture toughness data are needed for assessing tritium reservoir structural integrity. This report provides data from J-Integral fracture toughness tests on unexposed and tritium-exposed weldments. The effect of tritium on weldment toughness has not been measured until now. The data include tests on tritium-exposed weldments after aging for up to three years to measure the effect of increasing decay helium concentration on toughness. The results indicate that Type 304L stainless steel weldments have high fracture toughness and are resistant to tritium aging effects on toughness. For unexposed alloys, weldment fracture toughness was higher than base metal toughness. Tritium-exposed-and-aged base metals and weldments had lower toughness values than unexposed ones but still retained good toughness properties. In both base metals and weldments there was an initial reduction in fracture toughness after tritium exposure but little change in fracture toughness values with increasing helium content in the range tested. Fracture modes occurred by the dimpled rupture process in unexposed and tritium-exposed steels and welds. This corroborates further the resistance of Type 304L steel to tritium embrittlement. This report fulfills the requirements for the FY06 Level 3 milestone, TSR15.3 ''Issue summary report for tritium reservoir material aging studies'' for the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign (ESC). The milestone was in support of ESC L2-1866 Milestone-''Complete an annual Enhanced Surveillance stockpile aging assessment report to support the annual assessment process''.

  3. Tritium waste control: April-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1982-05-17

    Progress reports are presented for the following: electrolysis of tritiated water; impurity removal from combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) feed water; gas generation measurements on tritiated waste materials; fixation of aqueous tritiated waste in polymer-impregnated concrete; management of high specific activity tritiated liquid wastes; and tritium assay of low specific activity (LSA) laboratory and LSA shoe cover waste. Some of the highlights are as follows: (1) gas generation rates caused by radiolysis of tritium waste materials were determined for polymer and nonpolymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete and fixated and nonfixated, tritiated waste vacuum pump oil; (2) the drum study monitoring the release of tritium from actual burial packages showed that the maximum fractional release rate for the three types of high activity, tritiated liquid waste generated is 1.25 x 10/sup -5/, and the maximum total permeation is 122 mCi after 5.5 y. These two values represent a 9 to 20% increase for the past six months. Tritium release from the polymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete (PITC) and the control (non-PITC) remains very low. Two assays were performed on low specific activity, tritium-contaminated waste generated at Mound. In one, four LSA drums were assayed for total tritium content by leaching the contents with water. The tritium content of all four drums was well within the LSA limit of less than 25 Ci per drum. In the second study a drum of discarded shoe covers from tritium-handling areas was filled with a measureed quantity of water for leaching tritium from the shoe covers. The minimum amount of tritium within the drum was determined. An annual average estimate of tritium removed and buried as LSA shoe cover trash was also made.

  4. TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA666, INTERIOR. CAMERA ON MAIN FLOOR, FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA-666, INTERIOR. CAMERA ON MAIN FLOOR, FACING NORTH. CONCRETE BLOCK WALLS. PART OF HYDRAULIC TEST FACILITY CONTROL ROOM IS IN VIEW. CORRUGATED METAL CEILING. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD30-1-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 6/2001 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts - 13197

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

    2013-07-01

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg. C (1,500 deg. F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg. C (212 deg. F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total

  6. Thermal Removal Of Tritium From Concrete And Soil To Reduce Groundwater Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

    2012-12-04

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg C (1,500 deg F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg C (212 deg F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total of

  7. Mobility of Tritium in Engineered and Earth Materials at the NuMIFacility, Fermilab: Progress report for work performed between June 13and September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten; Conrad, Mark; Finsterle, Stefan; Kennedy, Mack; Kneafsey, Timothy; Salve, Rohit; Su, Grace; Zhou, Quanlin

    2006-10-25

    This report details the work done between June 13 andSeptember 30, 2006 by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)scientists to assist Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab)staff in understanding tritium transport at the Neutrino at the MainInjector (NuMI) facility. As a byproduct of beamline operation, thefacility produces (among other components) tritium in engineeredmaterials and the surrounding rock formation. Once the tritium isgenerated, it may be contained at the source location, migrate to otherregions within the facility, or be released to theenvironment.

  8. Tritium research laboratory cleanup and transition project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This Tritium Research Laboratory Cleanup and Transition Project Final Report provides a high-level summary of this project`s multidimensional accomplishments. Throughout this report references are provided for in-depth information concerning the various topical areas. Project related records also offer solutions to many of the technical and or administrative challenges that such a cleanup effort requires. These documents and the experience obtained during this effort are valuable resources to the DOE, which has more than 1200 other process contaminated facilities awaiting cleanup and reapplication or demolition.

  9. Diagnosing radiative shocks from deuterium and tritium implosions on NIFa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, A.; Divol, L.; Weber, S.; Döppner, T.; Kyrala, G. A.; Kilne, J.; Izumi, N.; Glenn, S.; Ma, T.; Town, R. P.; Bradley, D. K.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2012-10-01

    During the recent ignition tuning campaign at the National Ignition Facility, layered cryogenic deuterium and tritium capsules were imploded via x-ray driven ablation. The hardened gated x-ray imager diagnostic temporally and spatially resolves the x-ray emission from the core of the capsule implosion at energies above ˜8 keV. On multiple implosions, ˜200-400 ps after peak compression a spherically expanding radiative shock has been observed. This paper describes the methods used to characterize the radial profile and rate of expansion of the shock induced x-ray emission.

  10. Tritium labeling of detonation nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Girard, Hugues A; El-Kharbachi, Abdelouahab; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Petit, Tristan; Bergonzo, Philippe; Rousseau, Bernard; Arnault, Jean-Charles

    2014-03-18

    For the first time, the radioactive labeling of detonation nanodiamonds was efficiently achieved using a tritium microwave plasma. According to our measurements, the total radioactivity reaches 9120 ± 120 μCi mg(-1), with 93% of (3)H atoms tightly bonded to the surface and up to 7% embedded into the diamond core. Such (3)H doping will ensure highly stable radiolabeled nanodiamonds, on which surface functionalization is still allowed. This breakthrough opens the way to biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies of nanodiamonds, while this approach can be scalable to easily treat bulk quantities of nanodiamonds at low cost. PMID:24492594

  11. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Leslie D.

    1982-01-01

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  12. Imaging of tritium implanted into graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, M.E.; Causey, R.A.

    1988-05-01

    The extensive use of graphite in plasma-facing surfaces of tokamaks such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, which has planned tritium discharges, makes two-dimensional tritium detection techniques important in helping to determine torus tritium inventories. We have performed experiments in which highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples were first tritium implanted with fluences of approx.10/sup 16/ T/cm/sup 2/ at energies approx. <25 eV and then the near-surface implant distributions were detected in two dimensions using tritium imaging. A portion of the sample was masked off during the implant in order to produce a well-defined implant boundary. Heating of the HOPG samples to temperatures as high as 500 /sup 0/C resulted in no discernible motion of tritium along the basal plane, but did show that significant desorption of the implanted tritium occurred. The current results indicate that tritium in quantities of 10/sup 12/ T/cm/sup 2/ in tritiated components could be readily detected by imaging at lower magnifications.

  13. TRITIUM AGING EFFECTS ON THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL BASE METAL AND WELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.

    2009-07-30

    Tritium reservoirs are constructed from welded stainless steel forgings. While these steels are highly resistant to the embrittling effects of hydrogen isotopes and helium from tritium decay; they are not immune. Tritium embrittlement is an enhanced form of hydrogen embrittlement because of the presence of helium-3 from tritium decay which nucleates as nanometer-sized bubbles on dislocations, grain boundaries, and other microstructural defects. Steels with decay helium bubble microstructures are hardened and less able to deform plastically and become more susceptible to embrittlement by hydrogen and its isotopes. Ductility, elongation-to-failure, and fracture toughness are reduced by exposures to tritium and the reductions increase with time as helium-3 builds into the material from tritium permeation and radioactive decay. Material and forging specifications have been developed for optimal material compatibility with tritium. These specifications cover composition, mechanical properties, and select microstructural characteristics like grain size, flow-line orientation, inclusion content, and ferrite distribution. For many years, the forming process of choice for reservoir manufacturing was high-energy-rate forging (HERF), principally because the DOE forging facility owned only HERF hammers. Today, some reservoir forgings are being made that use a conventional, more common process known as press forging (PF or CF). One of the chief differences between the two forging processes is strain rate: Conventional hydraulic or mechanical forging presses deform the metal at 4-8 ft/s, about ten-fold slower than the HERF process. The material specifications continue to provide successful stockpile performance by ensuring that the two forging processes produce similar reservoir microstructures. While long-term life storage tests have demonstrated the general tritium compatibility of tritium reservoirs, fracture-toughness properties of both conventionally forged and high

  14. Tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-10-01

    A tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium was tested in the laboratory using deuterium and protium. The vessel contains 0.5 kg of depleted uranium and can hold up to 18 grams of tritium. The conditions for activation, tritium loading and tritium unloading were defined. The safety aspects that included air-ingress, tritium diffusion, temperature and pressure potentials were evaluated. Air ingress did not cause any temperature surge when the uranium was fully hydrided, but created a temperature peak of 200 {degree}C when the uranium was dehydrided. Accumulation of non-reactive gases such as argon and moisture in the air blocked further air ingress. Only a flow-through type of air ingress could damage the vessel. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  15. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  16. Uptake of atmospheric tritium by market foods

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Y.; Tanaka-Miyamoto, K.; Iwakura, T. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper uptake of tritium by market foods from tritiated water vapor in the air is investigated using cereals and beans purchased in Deep River, Canada. The concentrations of tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) range from 12 to 79% and from 10 to 38% respectively, of that estimated for atmospheric water vapor of the sampling month. The specific activity ratios of OBT to TFWT were constant for cereals, but variable for beans. The elevated OBT was shown to be the result of isotopic exchange of labile hydrogen by the fact that washing the foods with tritium free-water reduced their tritium contents to levels characteristic of their production sites.

  17. Tritium issues in commercial pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.

    2008-07-15

    Tritium has become an important radionuclide in commercial Pressurized Water Reactors because of its mobility and tendency to concentrate in plant systems as tritiated water during the recycling of reactor coolant. Small quantities of tritium are released in routine regulated effluents as liquid water and as water vapor. Tritium has become a focus of attention at commercial nuclear power plants in recent years due to inadvertent, low-level, chronic releases arising from routine maintenance operations and from component failures. Tritium has been observed in groundwater in the vicinity of stations. The nuclear industry has undertaken strong proactive corrective measures to prevent recurrence, and continues to eliminate emission sources through its singular focus on public safety and environmental stewardship. This paper will discuss: production mechanisms for tritium, transport mechanisms from the reactor through plant, systems to the environment, examples of routine effluent releases, offsite doses, basic groundwater transport and geological issues, and recent nuclear industry environmental and legal ramifications. (authors)

  18. Scale-Up of Palladium Powder Production Process for Use in the Tritium Facility at Westinghouse, Savannah River, SC/Summary of FY99-FY01 Results for the Preparation of Palladium Using the Sandia/LANL Process

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Baldwin; Daniel S. Zamzow; R. Dennis Vigil; Jesse T. Pikturna

    2001-08-24

    Palladium used at Savannah River (SR) for process tritium storage is currently obtained from a commercial source. In order to understand the processes involved in preparing this material, SR is supporting investigations into the chemical reactions used to synthesize this material. The material specifications are shown in Table 1. An improved understanding of the chemical processes should help to guarantee a continued reliable source of Pd in the future. As part of this evaluation, a work-for-others contract between Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Ames Laboratory (AL) was initiated. During FY98, the process for producing Pd powder developed in 1986 by Dan Grove of Mound Applied Technologies, USDOE (the Mound muddy water process) was studied to understand the processing conditions that lead to changes in morphology in the final product. During FY99 and FY00, the process for producing Pd powder that has been used previously at Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories (the Sandia/LANL process) was studied to understand the processing conditions that lead to changes in the morphology of the final Pd product. During FY01, scale-up of the process to batch sizes greater than 600 grams of Pd using a 20-gallon Pfaudler reactor was conducted by the Iowa State University (ISU) Chemical Engineering Department. This report summarizes the results of FY99-FY01 Pd processing work done at AL and ISU using the Sandia/LANL process. In the Sandia/LANL process, Pd is dissolved in a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids. A number of chemical processing steps are performed to yield an intermediate species, diamminedichloropalladium (Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, or DADC-Pd), which is isolated. In the final step of the process, the Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2} intermediate is subsequently redissolved, and Pd is precipitated by the addition of a reducing agent (RA) mixture of formic acid and sodium formate. It is at this point that the morphology of the Pd product is

  19. TRITIUM RESERVOIR STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PREDICTION

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P.S.; Morgan, M.J

    2005-11-10

    The burst test is used to assess the material performance of tritium reservoirs in the surveillance program in which reservoirs have been in service for extended periods of time. A materials system model and finite element procedure were developed under a Savannah River Site Plant-Directed Research and Development (PDRD) program to predict the structural response under a full range of loading and aged material conditions of the reservoir. The results show that the predicted burst pressure and volume ductility are in good agreement with the actual burst test results for the unexposed units. The material tensile properties used in the calculations were obtained from a curved tensile specimen harvested from a companion reservoir by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). In the absence of exposed and aged material tensile data, literature data were used for demonstrating the methodology in terms of the helium-3 concentration in the metal and the depth of penetration in the reservoir sidewall. It can be shown that the volume ductility decreases significantly with the presence of tritium and its decay product, helium-3, in the metal, as was observed in the laboratory-controlled burst tests. The model and analytical procedure provides a predictive tool for reservoir structural integrity under aging conditions. It is recommended that benchmark tests and analysis for aged materials be performed. The methodology can be augmented to predict performance for reservoir with flaws.

  20. Thermal Release of 3He from Tritium Aged LaNi4.25Al0.75 Hydride

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Staack, Gregory C.; Crowder, Mark L.; Klein, James E.

    2015-02-01

    Recently, the demand for He-3 has increased dramatically due to widespread use in nuclear nonproliferation, cryogenic, and medical applications. Essentially all of the world’s supply of He-3 is created by the radiolytic decay of tritium. The Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities (SRS-TF) utilizes LANA.75 in the tritium process to store hydrogen isotopes. The vast majority of He-3 “born” from tritium stored in LANA.75 is trapped in the hydride metal matrix. The SRS-TF has multiple LANA.75 tritium storage beds that have been retired from service with significant quantities of He-3 trapped in the metal. To support He-3 recovery, the Savannah Rivermore » National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) on a tritium aged LANA.75 sample. TGA-MS testing was performed in an argon environment. Prior to testing, the sample was isotopically exchanged with deuterium to reduce residual tritium and passivated with air to alleviate pyrophoric concerns associated with handling the material outside of an inert glovebox. Analyses indicated that gas release from this sample was bimodal, with peaks near 220 and 490°C. The first peak consisted of both He-3 and residual hydrogen isotopes, the second was primarily He-3. The bulk of the gas was released by 600 °C« less

  1. National Ignition Facility environmental protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, J.M.; Reitz, T.C.; Tobin, M.T.

    1994-06-01

    The conceptual design of Environmental Protection Systems (EPS) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is described. These systems encompass tritium and activated debris handling, chamber, debris shield and general decontamination, neutron and gamma monitoring, and radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste handling. Key performance specifications met by EPS designs include limiting the tritium inventory to 300 Ci and total tritium release from NIF facilities to less than 10 Ci/yr. Total radiation doses attributable to NIF shall remain below 10 mrem/yr for any member of the general public and 500 mrem/yr for NIF staff. ALARA-based design features and operational procedures will, in most cases, result in much lower measured exposures. Waste minimization, improved cycle time and reduced exposures all result from the proposed CO2 robotic arm cleaning and decontamination system, while effective tritium control is achieved through a modern system design based on double containment and the proven detritiation technology.

  2. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  3. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  4. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  5. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  6. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  7. Progresses in tritium accident modelling in the frame of IAEA EMRAS II

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Melintescu, A.

    2015-03-15

    The assessment of the environmental impact of tritium release from nuclear facilities is a topic of interest in many countries. In the IAEA's Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS I) programme, progresses for routine releases were done and in the EMRAS II programme a dedicated working group (WG 7 - Tritium Accidents) focused on the potential accidental releases (liquid and atmospheric pathways). The progresses achieved in WG 7 were included in a complex report - a technical document of IAEA covering both liquid and atmospheric accidental release consequences. A brief description of the progresses achieved in the frame of EMRAS II WG 7 is presented. Important results have been obtained concerning washout rate, the deposition on the soil of HTO and HT, the HTO uptake by leaves and the subsequent conversion to OBT (organically bound tritium) during daylight. Further needs of the processes understanding and the experimental efforts are emphasised.

  8. Tritium Phytoremediation at the Savannah River Site (SRS), USA: Water Management, Operations, and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, D. R.; Singer, J.; Barton, C. D.; Seaman, J.

    2003-12-01

    A sprinkler irrigation system is being utilized on a 22-acre upland forested area for the distribution of tritiated groundwater that is collected by a constructed pond before it can enter the Savannah River. Irrigation scheduling for the phytoremediation system is typically based on continuous soil water deficit calculations using observed rainfall data and estimated evapotranspiration. In situ measurements include soil water moisutre and water table depth. Vadose zone soil water samples are also collected for tritium analyses. Complex hydrological, biochemical, and ecological factors, as well as operations strategies, influence remediation system success. Factors that contribute to tritium remediation efficiencies, including relationships with irrigation volumes and frequency, as well as soil and vegetation types and characteristics within irrigation plots, are being evaluated. Related studies associated with the tritium phytoremediation project include vadose zone transport modeling and watershed scale water balance estimations. Data analyses from this project should aid in developing design criteria for future phytoremediation systems at SRS and other nuclear facilities.

  9. Tritium monitor with improved gamma-ray discrimination

    DOEpatents

    Cox, S.A.; Bennett, E.F.; Yule, T.J.

    1982-10-21

    Apparatus and method are presented for selective measurement of tritium oxide in an environment which may include other radioactive components and gamma radiation, the measurement including the selective separation of tritium oxide from a sample gas through a membrane into a counting gas, the generation of electrical pulses individually representative by rise times of tritium oxide and other radioactivity in the counting gas, separation of the pulses by rise times, and counting of those pulses representative of tritium oxide. The invention further includes the separate measurement of any tritium in the sample gas by oxidizing the tritium to tritium oxide and carrying out a second separation and analysis procedure as described above.

  10. Tritium monitor with improved gamma-ray discrimination

    DOEpatents

    Cox, Samson A.; Bennett, Edgar F.; Yule, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for selective measurement of tritium oxide in an environment which may include other radioactive components and gamma radiation, the measurement including the selective separation of tritium oxide from a sample gas through a membrane into a counting gas, the generation of electrical pulses individually representative by rise times of tritium oxide and other radioactivity in the counting gas, separation of the pulses by rise times, and counting of those pulses representative of tritium oxide. The invention further includes the separate measurement of any tritium in the sample gas by oxidizing the tritium to tritium oxide and carrying out a second separation and analysis procedure as described above.

  11. THE TRITIUM UNDERFLOW STUDY AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R; Daniel Kaplan,D

    2007-05-21

    . Whether the trans-river flow is eastward or westward depends primarily on the position of the Savannah River as it meanders back and forth within the floodplain and is limited to narrow sections of land adjacent to the river. With respect to ''westward'' trans-river flow, the model indicates that it primarily occurs in locations south of SRS and within the deeper aquifers (Crouch Branch and McQueen Branch). Particle-tracking analysis of westward trans-river flow in these aquifers indicates that the groundwater crossing from South Carolina into Georgia originates as recharge in upland areas well to the east and south of SRS. The model identified one location (an area of less than one square mile) where westward trans-river flow originating as recharge within the boundaries of SRS and which could conceivably receive tritium or other contaminants from SRS as a result. The one-square-mile area occurs immediately adjacent to the Savannah River, where groundwater within the Gordon Aquifer flows immediately prior to discharging into the river and is indicated in Figure 1. Reverse particle tracking indicates that recharge zones associated with the one square mile are located in the upland areas between D-Area and K-Area. There is no known subsurface contamination at these recharge zones. The travel times associated with the particles were calculated to range from 90 to 820 years, although these estimates are shorter than actual travel times since no accounting of groundwater transit time across the uppermost aquifer was included in the model. It is important to note that the range of travel times represents seven to 66 half-lives of tritium (12.33 years), suggesting that even if tritium contamination existed at the recharge areas, it likely would decay away prior to discharging into the Savannah River.

  12. THERMAL ENHANCEMENT CARTRIDGE HEATER MODIFIED TECH MOD TRITIUM HYDRIDE BED DEVELOPMENT PART I DESIGN AND FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.

    2014-03-06

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1{sup st} generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and 3{sup rd} generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen 3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed.

  13. Thermal enhancement cartridge heater modified (TECH Mod) tritium hydride bed development, Part 1 - Design and fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Estochen, E.G.

    2015-03-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used first generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and third generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed. (authors)

  14. Transport of tritium in SS316 at moderate temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Naoe, S.; Torikai, Y.; Penzhorn, R. D.; Akaishi, K.; Watanabe, K.; Matsuyama, M.

    2008-07-15

    From tritium release experiments with stainless steel 316 carried out at several temperatures and tritium depth profiles of tritium-depleted specimen information on the transport of tritium by two diverse techniques was obtained. The results could be interpreted by a one dimensional diffusion model. The activation energy for the diffusion of tritium through stainless steel was found to be 61.3 kJ/mol. (authors)

  15. Tritium laboratory with multiple purposes at NIPNE Magurele Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Matei, L.; Postolache, C.

    2008-07-15

    The Tritium Laboratory from NIPNE (Romania)) is part of Radioisotope Research and Production Center. The Tritium Laboratory has been in operation since 1960, and carries out R and D activities involving tritium sources in gaseous, liquids and solid state, provides specialized service to CANDU NPP Cernavoda (Romania)), and provides tritium assay services to internal and external customers. The paper presents the activities and perspectives of Tritium Laboratory and its performances in accordance with Quality System Management. (authors)

  16. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, G.A.; Nelson, D.A.; Molton, P.M.

    1992-03-31

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium. 2 figs.

  17. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, George A.; Nelson, David A.; Molton, Peter M.

    1992-01-01

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium.

  18. Evaluation of selected ex-reactor accidents related to the tritium and medical isotope production mission at the FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, D.A.

    1997-11-17

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has been proposed as a production facility for tritium and medical isotopes. A range of postulated accidents related to ex-reactor irradiated fuel and target handling were identified and evaluated using new source terms for the higher fuel enrichment and for the tritium and medical isotope targets. In addition, two in-containment sodium spill accidents were re-evaluated to estimate effects of increased fuel enrichment and the presence of the Rapid Retrieval System. Radiological and toxicological consequences of the analyzed accidents were found to be well within applicable risk guidelines.

  19. Investigation of the tritium release from Building 324 in which the stack tritium sampler was off, April 14 through 17, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.H.

    1998-06-30

    On April 14, 1998, a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researcher performing work in the Building 324 facility approached facility management and asked if facility management could turn off the tritium sampler in the main exhaust stack. The researcher was demonstrating the feasibility of treating components from dismantled nuclear weapons in a device called a plasma arc furnace and was concerned that the sampler would compromise classified information. B and W Hanford Company (BWHC) operated the facility, and PNNL conducted research as a tenant in the facility. The treatment of 200 components in the furnace would result in the release of up to about 20 curies of tritium through the facility stack. The exact quantity of tritium was calculated from the manufacturing data for the weapons components and was known to be less than 20 curies. The Notice of Construction (NOC) approved by the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) had been modified to allow releasing 20 curies of tritium through the stack in support of this research. However, there were irregularities in the way the NOC modification was processed. The researcher was concerned that data performed on the sampler could be used to back-calculate the tritium content of the components, revealing classified information about the design of nuclear weapons. He had discussed this with the PNNZ security organization, and they had told him that data from the sampler would be classified. He was also concerned that if he could not proceed with operation of the plasma arc furnace, the furnace would be damaged. The researcher told BWHC management that the last time the furnace was shut down and restarted it had cost $0.5 million and caused a six month delay in the project`s schedule. He had already begun heating up the furnace before recognizing the security problem and was concerned that stopping the heatup could damage the furnace. The NOC that allowed the research did not have an explicit requirement to

  20. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  1. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  2. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will...

  3. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  4. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  5. A 1600 Liter Tritium Hydride Storage Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.

    2001-07-26

    Titanium was selected for evaluation as a tritium storage material. Titanium-deuterium desorption isotherm data at 550, 600, 649, 700, ad 760 degrees C are presented and were used to evaluate storage vessel design loading limits.

  6. Tritium target manufacturing for use in accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, P.; Monnin, C.; Van Rompay, M.; Ballanger, A.

    2001-07-01

    As a neutron tube manufacturer, SODERN is now in charge of manufacturing tritium targets for accelerators, in cooperation with CEA/DAM/DTMN in Valduc. Specific deuterium and tritium targets are manufactured on request, according to the requirements of the users, starting from titanium target on copper substrate, and going to more sophisticated devices. A wide range of possible uses is covered, including thin targets for neutron calibration, thick targets with controlled loading of deuterium and tritium, rotating targets for higher lifetimes, or large size rotating targets for accelerators used in boron neutron therapy. Activity of targets lies in the 1 to 1000 Curie, diameter of targets being up to 30 cm. Special targets are also considered, including surface layer targets for lowering tritium desorption under irradiation, or those made from different kinds of occluders such as titanium, zirconium, erbium, scandium, with different substrates. It is then possible to optimize either neutron output, or lifetime and stability, or thermal behavior.

  7. Tritium Inventory in Aries-AT

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, Glen Reed

    2001-02-01

    This report documents an investigation into the tritium inventory expected in the ARIES-AT fusion reactor. ARIES-AT features silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix as its primary construction. It uses the same fusion power core as the previous ARIES-RS. Based on experimental results of several researchers, consideration was given to swelling, sputtering, film coatings, erosion, and implantation. Estimates were made of tritium inventory using the TMAP4 code. About 700 g of tritium may be expected in the machines, two thirds of which would reside in the first wall. Under assumed accident conditions that involve firs wall temperatures up to 1000°C, evolution of retained tritium may be expected to vary from 0.8 to nearly 40 percent depending on the temperature of the first wall.

  8. Tritium Inventory in ARIES-AT

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, Glen R.

    2001-02-28

    This report documents an investigation into the tritium inventory expected in the ARIES-AT fusion reactor. ARIES-AT features silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix as its primary construction. It uses the same fusion power core as the previous ARIES-RS. Based on experimental results of several researchers, consideration was given to swelling, sputtering, film coatings, erosion, and implantation. Estimates were made of tritium inventory using the TMAP4 code. About 700 g of tritium may be expected in the machine, two thirds of which would reside in the first wall. Under assumed accident conditions that involve first wall temperatures up to 1000 C, evolution of retained tritium may be expected to vary from 0.8 to nearly 40 percent depending on the temperature of the first wall.

  9. Tritium Measurements in Slovenia - Chronology Till 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Logar, Jasmina Kozar; Vaupotic, Janja; Kobal, Ivan

    2005-07-15

    Almost all the analyses of tritium in Slovenia have been performed by the tritium laboratory at the Jozef Stefan Institute. Nearly 90 % of its measurements have been covered by two national programs, both approved by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration: the radioactive monitoring program in the environs of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and the program of global radioactive contamination monitoring in the environment. These programs include samples of groundwaters, surface waters, precipitation and drinking waters, as well as liquid and gaseous effluents from KNPP. Tritium was determined in some research projects and in hydrological studies of thermal waters, groundwater and coalmine waters. Tritium in the Karst region was mapped as well as the springs of entire territory of Slovenia. Around 5500 samples have been analyzed up to 2004.

  10. Development of Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Eung S. Kim; Chang H. Oh; Mike Patterson

    2010-10-01

    Idaho National Laboratory developed the Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) for tritium permeation in the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR). All the component models in the VHTR were developed and were embedded into the MATHLAB SIMULINK package with a Graphic User Interface. The governing equations of the nuclear ternary reaction and thermal neutron capture reactions from impurities in helium and graphite core, reflector, and control rods were implemented. The TPAC code was verified using analytical solutions for the tritium birth rate from the ternary fission, the birth rate from 3He, and the birth rate from 10B. This paper also provides comparisons of the TPAC with the existing other codes. A VHTR reference design was selected for tritium permeation study from the reference design to the nuclear-assisted hydrogen production plant and some sensitivity study results are presented based on the HTGR outlet temperature of 750 degrees C.

  11. Tritium Depth Profiles in 316 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torikai, Yuji; Murata, Daiju; Penzhorn, Ralf-Dieter; Akaishi, Kenya; Watanabe, Kuniaki; Matsuyama, Masao

    To investigate the behavior of hydrogen uptake and release by 316 stainless steel (SS316), as-received and finely polished stainless steel specimens were exposed at 573 K to tritium gas diluted with hydrogen. Then tritium concentration in the exposed specimens was measured as a function of depth using a chemical etching method. All the tritium concentration profiles showed a sharp drop in the range of 10 μm from the top surface up to the bulk. The amount of tritium absorbed into the polished specimens was three times larger than that into the as-received specimen. However, the polishing effects disappeared by exposing to the air for a long time.

  12. Tritium measurements with a tandem accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, R.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.

    1990-06-01

    Tritium concentrations ( 3H: 2H) of less than 10 -15 are readily measurable with almost any tandem accelerator and with an overall detection efficiency as high as 4.5%. The isobar, 3He, and other potential sources of interference (mainly 6Li, 2H and 1H) can all be removed by an absorber in front of the triton detector, so there is little need for analyzing elements other than the negative-and positive-ion magnets found on most tandems. The technique is particularly well suited for detecting tritium in deuterium absorbed in a metal and testing for cold fusion. We caution that tritium can occur in commercial deuterium and heavy water from sources other than cold fusion; one sample was observed to have a tritium-to-deuterium ratio of 10 -10.

  13. The hazards of tritium--revisited.

    PubMed

    Fairlie, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Tritium (3H) is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, with a half-life of 12.3 years. It is created naturally in the atmosphere, and in higher annual rates in nuclear reactors and in nuclear weapon tests. This article surveys the properties of tritium, its biokinetics and its biological effectiveness. The safety levels of tritium have been a subject of dispute for many years, as many scientists consider that its doses and risks, as promulgated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection are, too low and should be at least doubled. Recent reports and evidence of increased cancer risks near nuclear installations that release tritium are discussed; these are of interest in view of new proposals to expand civil nuclear power. PMID:19065871

  14. Tritium proof-of-principle injector experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.; Combs, S.K.; Carlson, R.V.; Coffin, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium Proof-of-Principle (TPOP) pellet injector was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the production and acceleration of tritium pellets for fueling future fision reactors. The injector uses the pipe-gun concept to form pellets directly in a short liquid-helium-cooled section of the barrel. Pellets are accelerated by using high-pressure hydrogen supplied from a fast solenoid valve. A versatile, tritium-compatible gas-handling system provides all of the functions needed to operate the gun, including feed gas pressure control and flow control, plus helium separation and preparation of mixtures. These systems are contained in a glovebox for secondary containment of tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). 18 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  16. Energy Metabolism and Human Dosimetry of Tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Takeda, H.; Melintescu, A.; Trivedi, A

    2005-07-15

    In the frame of current revision of human dosimetry of {sup 14}C and tritium, undertaken by the International Commission of Radiological Protection, we propose a novel approach based on energy metabolism and a simple biokinetic model for the dynamics of dietary intake (organic {sup 14}C, tritiated water and Organically Bound Tritium-OBT). The model predicts increased doses for HTO and OBT comparing to ICRP recommendations, supporting recent findings.

  17. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, L.D.

    1980-03-13

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator was designed to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  18. Guide to user facilities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories' user facilities are described. Specific facilities include: the National Center for Electron Microscopy; the Bevalac; the SuperHILAC; the Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility; the National Tritium Labeling Facility; the 88 inch Cyclotron; the Heavy Charged-Particle Treatment Facility; the 2.5 MeV Van de Graaff; the Sky Simulator; the Center for Computational Seismology; and the Low Background Counting Facility. (GHT)

  19. Recommended tritium surface contamination release guides

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Draper, D.G.; Foulke, J.D.; Hafner, R.S.; Jalbert, R.A.; Kennedy, W.E.; Myers, D.S.; Strain, C.D. )

    1991-03-01

    This document was prepared to provide scientific basis for recommended changes in specific limits for tritium surface contamination in DOE Order 5480.11. A summary of the physical and biological characteristics of tritium has been provided that illustrate the unique nature of this radionuclide when compared to other pure beta emitters or to beta-gamma emitting radionuclides. This document is divided into nine sections. The introduction and the purpose and scope are addressed in Section 1.0 and Section 2.0, respectively. Section 3.0 contains recommended interpretation of terms used in this document. Section 4.0 addresses recommended methods for evaluating surface contamination. Biological and physical characteristics of tritium compounds are discussed in Section 5.0, as they relate to tritium radiotoxicity. Scenarios and dose calculations for selected, conservatively limiting cases of tritium intake are given and discussed in Section 6.0 and Section 7.0. Section 8.0 provides conclusions on the information given and recommendations for changes in the surface contamination limits for total tritium to 1 {times} 10{sup 6} dpm per 100 cm{sup 2}. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I.

    2008-07-15

    Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

  1. A tritium vessel cleanup experiment in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Caorlin, M.; Kamperschroer, J.; Owens, D.K.; Voorhees, D.; Mueller, D.; Ramsey, A.T.; La Marche, P.H.; Barnes, C.W.; Loughlin, M.J.

    1995-03-01

    A simple tritium cleanup experiment was carried out in TFTR following the initial high power deuterium-tritium discharges in December 1993. A series of 34 ohmic and deuterium neutral beam fueled shots was used to study the removal of tritium implanted into the wall and limiters. A very large plasma was created in each discharge to ``scrub`` an area as large as possible. Beam-fueled shots at 2.5 to 7.5 MW of injected power were used to monitor tritium concentration levels in the plasma by detection of DT-neutrons. The neutron signal decreased by a factor of 4 during the experiment, remaining well above the expected T-burnup level. The amount of tritium recovered at the end of the cleanup was about 8% of the amount previously injected with high power DT discharges. The experience gained suggests that measurements of tritium inventory in the torus are very difficult to execute and require dedicated systems with overall accuracy of 1%.

  2. Tritium control: October 1982-March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1983-10-07

    Surveys in gloveboxes indicated surface activity on stainless steel and its apparent dependence on time and atmospheric tritium levels. Surveys in fumehoods were completed to investigate the extent of surface contamination on surfaces of various materials. Gas generation rates caused by radiolysis of tritiated waste materials were determined for polymer and nonpolymer-impregnated tritiated concrete and fixated and nonfixated tritiated waste vacuum pump oil. In addition, the pressure change of hydrogen cover gas over tritiated water on cement-plaster was determined. The test program to measure and compare the release of tritium from tritiated concrete with and without styrene impregnation continued. Tritium permeation data from small test blocks are given. The drum study monitoring the release of tritium from actual burial packages continued. The maximum fractional release rate for the three types of high activity, tritiated liquid waste generated is 5.1 x 10/sup -5/, and the maximum total permeation is 179 mCi after 8.5 yr. These two values represent a 13% increase for the past 6 months. Tritium release from the polymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete (PITC) and from the control (non-PITC) remains very low. The Emergency Containment System (ECS), an automatically actuated system developed at Mound to remove tritium from room air, has been modified and upgraded to support new applications. The leakage rate in the ECS area has been lowered, a fast-start system installed for greater conversion efficiency at startup, and the alumina beds regenerated.

  3. Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of

  4. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, Paul W.

    1997-05-01

    A reliable supply of tritium is necessary to maintain the United States' nuclear defense capability. Because tritium decays to ^3He at the rate of 5.5 percent per year, it must be replenished continously. To make the required amount of tritium using an accelerator, neutrons will be generated by high-energy proton reactions with tungsten and lead, moderated in light water, and captured in ^3He. The plant will be operational in 2007 at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina. It will consist of a proton linear accelerator, tritium-production target/blankets, tritium-extraction, and conventional balance-of-plant systems. The accelerator will be a radio-frequency linac operating at 100 percent duty factor. It will have a combination of normal-conducting copper structures to accelerate a 100-mA beam to 217 MeV followed by superconducting niobium cavities to boost the beam energy to 1700 MeV. After acceleration, a high-energy transport system will expand the beam to a rectangular, 16-cm wide by 160-cm high distribution and deliver it to one of two identical target/blanket assemblies where tritium production and extraction will take place. Inside a target/blanket the proton beam will strike heavy-water cooled tungsten rods to produce neutrons. The tungsten will be surrounded by a decoupler consisting of aluminum tubes containing ^3He to reduce parasitic capture. Additional lead modules with aluminum tubes containing ^3He will lie outside the central region. The lead will produce additional neutrons from spallation and (n,xn) reactions. Light water coolant continuously circulated through the lead will moderate the neutrons to low energy, where they will be efficiently captured by ^3He gas to produce tritium. Tritium will be removed by continuous separation using permeation through a heated palladium-silver alloy membrane. Once separated, standard cryogenic distillation techniques will be used to isotopically purify the tritium. This presentation

  5. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, P; Guétat, Ph; Vichot, L; Leconte, N; Badot, P M; Gaucheron, F; Fromm, M

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium. PMID:26551587

  6. Helium irradiation effects on tritium retention and long-term tritium release properties in polycrystalline tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobuta, Y.; Hatano, Y.; Matsuyama, M.; Abe, S.; Yamauchi, Y.; Hino, T.

    2015-08-01

    DT+ ion irradiation with energy of 0.5 and 1.0 keV was performed on helium pre-irradiated tungsten and the amount of retained tritium and the long-term release of retained tritium in vacuum was investigated using an IP technique and BIXS. Tritium retention and long-term tritium release were significantly influenced by helium pre-irradiation. The amount of retained tritium increased until it reached 1 × 1017 He/cm2, and at 1 × 1018 He/cm2 it became smaller compared to 1 × 1017 He/cm2. The amount of retained tritium in tungsten without helium pre-irradiation largely decreased after several weeks preservation in vacuum, and the long-term release rate during vacuum preservation was retarded by helium pre-irradiation. The results indicate that the long-term tritium release and the helium irradiation effect on it should be taken into account for more precise estimation of tritium retention in the long-term use of tungsten in fusion devices.

  7. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  8. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-01

    An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

  9. Metal getters for tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Willin, E.; Sirch, M.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Devillers, M.

    1988-09-01

    Whereas titanium is a getter material mainly suitable for the long-term storage of tritium, zirconium cobalt alloy can also be employed for the interim storage and transport of this gas. Activated zirconium cobalt alloy reacts within minutes with hydrogen at room temperature. At the composition of /ZrCoH/sub 0.8/ the dissociation pressure at room temperature is estimated to be 10/sup -3/ Pa. The zirconium cobalt/H/sub 2/ system is not pyrophoric at room temperature. Methane is partially cracked on Ti and on ZrCo at temperatures above 600 and 300/sup 0/C respectively. With titanium the corresponding carbide is formed without affecting the storage properties of the getter. After reaction of ZrCo with CH/sub 4/ or N/sub 2/ the hydrogen adsorption capacity is reduced. Titanium powder, sponge or sheet react with nitrogen at temperatures above 750/sup 0/C with a parabolic rate law. In the overlayer of the metal substrate the phases N dissolved in /alpha/-Ti, Ti/sub 2/N and TiN were identified. The same phases were observed when NH/sub 3/ reacts with this metal.

  10. 2001 Evaluation of Tritium Removal & Mitigation Technologies for Waste Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    PENWELL, D.L.

    2001-06-01

    This report contains the 2001 biennial update evaluation of separation technologies and other mitigation techniques to control tritium in liquid effluents and groundwater at the Hanford site. A thorough literature review was completed, and national and international experts in the field of tritium separation and mitigation techniques were consulted. Current state-of-the-art technologies to address the control of tritium in wastewaters were identified and are described. This report was prepared to satisfy the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Tri-Party Agreement, Milestone M-29-O5H (Ecology, EPA, and DOE 1996). Tritium separation and isolation technologies are evaluated on a biennial basis to determine their feasibility for implementation for the control of Hanford site liquid effluents and groundwater to meet the US. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40 CFR 141.16, drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) for tritium of 0.02 {mu} Ci/l ({approx}2 parts per quadrillion [10{sup -15}]) and/or DOE Order 5400.5 as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy The objectives of this evaluation were to (1) status the development of potentially viable tritium separations technologies with regard to reducing tritium concentrations in current Hanford site process waters and existing groundwater to MCL levels and (2) status control methods to prevent the flow of tritiated water at concentrations greater than the MCL to the environment. Current tritium releases are in compliance with applicable US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington State Department of Ecology, and U.S. Department of Energy requirements under the Tri-Party Agreement. Advances in technologies for the separation of tritium from wastewater since the 1999 Hanford Site evaluation report include: (1) construction and testing of the Combined Industrial Reforming and Catalytic Exchange (CIRCE) Prototype Plant by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). The plant has a stage that uses

  11. Tritium metabolism in young pigs after exposure of the mothers to tritium oxide during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Van Bruwaene, R.; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.; van den Hoek, J.; Vankerkom, J.

    1982-07-01

    Pregnant sows were given tritiated water at two different doses (0.517 and 1.53 mCi/liter) during pregnancy and for 43 days thereafter (a total of 120 days). Some of the young pigs were left with their mother while the others were exchanged with uncontaiminated newborn to follow tritium oxide and organic tritium in different organs with respect to (a) continuing uptake, (b) uptake from milk, and (c) loss of activity after birth. Turnnover time of tritium oxide in adult sows is almost 10 days, and that in young pigs is about 8 days. In addition, components (less than or equal to 5%) of slower turnover are present. At equilibrium, the relative specific activity (i.e., the ratio of specific activity of tritium oxide isolated either directly or after combustion or organic matter to the specific activity of tritiated water ingested) is about 0.7 for body water in adult and newborn pigs and about 0.14 for organic tritium in most tissues. It is somewhat higher (0.22) in the brain of newborns than in other tissues. Turnover time for organic tritium in young pigs is longest in brain (59 days) and slower in muscular tissues (28 days), kidney, spleen, and pancreas (22 days), and liver and intestine (17 days). From the data presented it is estimated that the contribution of organic tritium to the integral tissue dose is on the order of one-third to two-thirds of that from tritium oxide alone, except in the case of brain, where the contribution to the dose from organic tritium may equal or even exceed that from tritium oxide.

  12. Radioactive waste tank ventilation system incorporating tritium control

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a ventilation system for radioactive waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The unique design of the system is aimed at cost-effective control of tritiated water vapor. The system includes recirculation ventilation and cooling for each tank in the facility and a central exhaust air clean-up train that includes a low-temperature vapor condenser and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME). A one-seventh scale pilot plant was built and tested to verify predicted performance of the low-temperature tritium removal system. Tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the removal of condensable vapor and soluble and insoluble aerosols and to estimate the operating life of the mist eliminator. Definitive design of the ventilation system relied heavily on the test data. The unique design features of the ventilation system will result in far less release of tritium to the atmosphere than from conventional high-volume dilution systems and will greatly reduce operating costs. NESHAPs and TAPs NOC applications have been approved, and field construction is nearly complete. Start-up is scheduled for late 1996. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. LANA0. 75 for the Replacement Tritium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen absorption-desorption behaviors of lanthanum-nickel-aluminum intermetallic alloys are related to material characteristics like composition, elemental homogeneity, phase stabilities, etc. These characteristics can differ from heat to heat because of variations in processing. Therefore the supplier suggested that the specifications be based upon desired performance rather than aim chemistry. Performance is determined by measurements of pressure (P) at specified ratios of hydrogen (H) to metal (M), H/M, from 115{degree}C hydrogen desorption isotherms.

  14. Computational modeling and analysis of airflow in a tritium storage room

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Konecni, S.; Whicker, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CFX-5.5, was utilized to assess flow field characteristics, and to simulate tritium gas releases and subsequent transport in a storage room in the tritium handling facility at Los Alamos. This study was done with mesh refinement and results compared. The results show a complex, ventilation-induced flow field with vortices, velocity gradients, and stagnant air pockets. This paper also explains the timedependent gas dispersion results. The numerical analysis method used in this study provides important information that is possible to be validated with an experimental technique of aerosol tracer measurement method frequently used at Los Alamos. Application of CFD can have a favorable impact on the design of ventilation systems and worker safety with consideration to facility costs.

  15. First measurements of tritium recycling in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Adler, H.; Budny, R.V.; Kamperschroer, J.; Johnson, L.C.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stotler, D.P.

    1994-06-01

    The first spectroscopic measurements of tritium Balmer-alpha (T{sub {alpha}}) emission from a fusion plasma were made on TFTR using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The T{sub {alpha}} emission line is partially blended with the D{sub {alpha}} line (deuterium-alpha), commonly used in edge plasma diagnostics, and the contributions of H{sub {alpha}}, D{sub {alpha}}, and T{sub {alpha}}, are separated by spectral analysis. The data are a measure of the fueling of the plasma by tritium accumulated in the TFTR limiter, as well as the amount of neutral tritium generated by charge exchange of plasma ions. The T{alpha} line first became detectable in a high power, tritium only, neutral beam injection discharge at the level of T{sub {alpha}}/(H{sub {alpha}}+D{sub {alpha}}+T{sub {alpha}}) = 2%. Subsequently this ratio has increased to as high as 7.5%. Data on the time evolution of the T{sub {alpha}} emission during a single discharge and over a series of tritium and deuterium discharges are presented.

  16. TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA666, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. CONTROL ROOM ENCLOSURE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA-666, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. CONTROL ROOM ENCLOSURE AT CENTER OF VIEW. SIGN ABOVE DOOR SAYS "HYDRAULIC TEST FACILITY CONTROL ROOM." SIGN IN WINDOW SAYS "EATING AREA." "EVACUATION AND EMERGENCY INFORMATION" IS POSTED ON CABINET AT LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD30-2-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 6/2001 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor applying membrane technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Efforts to develop continuous, real-time tritium monitors are focusing on liquid scintillation (LS) counting because its sensitivity for tritium can be below Environmental Protection Agency guidelines (20 pCi/ml). A flow-through LS counter should have a counting efficiency = 0.48, instrumental backgrounds = 5 count/min counting cell volume = 5 ml, and sample water loading capacities = 15 wt%. The system would offer minimum quantifiable activities at the {plus minus}10% level of <18 pCi/ml in a 10-min count or <1 pCi/ml if data are averaged for 1 day. The latter value is below the tritium background of surface waters worldwide. However, good time response in a flow-through LS monitor requires flow rates of at least several milliliters per minute. Such a single-pass system would consume large volumes of expensive LS cocktail, and it would generate notable amounts of mixed organic waste.

  18. Accumulative Tritium Transfer from Water into Biosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgaertner, Franz

    2005-07-15

    The energy balance of hydrogen isotopes in H bonds of water and biomolecules results in accumulative tritium transfer from water into biomolecules. Tests of DNA dissolved in tritiated water and of maize or barley hydroponically grown in tritiated water confirm the increase. The primary hydration shell of DNA shows an accumulation factor of {approx}1.4, and the exchangeable hydrogens inside DNA show {approx}2. Logistic growth analyses of maize and barley reveal the intrinsic growth rates of tritium 1.3 and 1.2 times larger than that of hydrogen. The higher rate of tritium than hydrogen incorporation in solid biomatter is caused by the hydration shells, which constitute an intrinsic component of biomolecules.

  19. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, G.; Gaillard, J.; Hitchcock, D.; Peters, B.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Teprovich, J.; Coughlin, J.; Neikirk, K.; Fisher, C.

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  20. Fabrication of light water reactor tritium targets

    SciTech Connect

    Pilger, J.P.

    1991-11-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Development Task of the Tritium Target Development Project is: to produce a documented technology basis, including specifications and procedures for target rod fabrication; to demonstrate that light water tritium targets can be manufactured at a rate consistent with tritium production requirements; and to develop quality control methods to evaluate target rod components and assemblies, and establish correlations between evaluated characteristics and target rod performance. Many of the target rod components: cladding tubes, end caps, plenum springs, etc., have similar counterparts in LWR fuel rods. High production rate manufacture and inspection of these components has been adequately demonstrated by nuclear fuel rod manufacturers. This summary describes the more non-conventional manufacturing processes and inspection techniques developed to fabricate target rod components whose manufacturability at required production rates had not been previously demonstrated.

  1. Low-exposure tritium radiotoxicity in mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, R.L.

    1982-02-11

    Studies of tritium radiotoxicity involving chronic /sup 3/H0H exposures in mammals demonstrate in both mice and monkeys that biological effects can be measured following remarkably low levels of exposure - levels in the range of serious practical interest to radiation protection. These studies demonstrate also that deleterious effects of /sup 3/H beta radiation do not differ significantly from those of gamma radiation at high exposures. In contrast, however, at low exposures tritium is significantly more effective than gamma rays, rad for rad, by a factor approaching 3. This is important for hazard evaluation and radiation protection because knowledge concerning biological effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure has come mainly from gamma-ray data; and predictions based on gamma-ray data will underestimate tritium effects - especially at low exposures - unless the RBE is fully taken into account.

  2. First tritium results of the KATRIN test experiment TRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Eichelhardt, F.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Kazachenko, O.; Kernert, N.; Sturm, M.

    2008-07-15

    The TRAP experiment (Tritium Argon frost Pump) has been built at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) as a test rig for the Cryogenic Pumping Section (CPS) of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN). TRAP employs a heterogeneous layer of pre-condensed argon to adsorb hydrogen isotopes at {approx} 4.2 K This paper presents results obtained in the first three tritium experiments with TRAP. (authors)

  3. Tritium migration studies at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.K.; Romney, E.M.; Fujii, L.M.; Greger, P.D. ); Kendall, E.W.; Hunter, R.B. )

    1991-08-01

    Emanation of tritium from waste containers is a commonly known phenomenon. Release of tritium from buried waste packages was anticipated, therefore a research program was developed to study both the rate of tritium release from buried containers and subsequent migration of tritium through soil. Migration of tritium away from low level radioactive wastes buried in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site was studied. Four distinct disposal events were investigated. The oldest burial event studied was a 1976 emplacement of 3.5 million curies of tritium in a shallow land burial trench. Tritium transport to the atmosphere by plant transpiration was determined to have risen sharply with the passage of time, and is now occurring at the rate of about 6 curies per year. The tritium being released from this waste has not resulted in elevated tritium levels in the urine of people working directly on the trench cap. Air samplers placed around the perimeter of the Area 5 site show no higher tritium levels than the Nevada Test Site in general. In another event, 248 thousand curies of tritium was disposed of in an overpack emplaced 6 meters below the floor of a low-level waste disposal pit. Measurement of the emanation rate of tritium out of 55 gallon drums to the overpack was studied, and an annual doubling of the emanation rate over a seven year period was found. No evidence of significant migration of tritium away from the overpack was found. In a third study, upward tritium migration in the soil was observed in a greater confinement disposal test. The movement was suspected largely to be the result of experimental anomalies and heat generated by other radionuclides present in the waste. Releases of tritium to the atmosphere were found to be insignificant. The fourth event consisted of burial of 2.2 million curies of tritium in a greater confinement disposal operation. No significant migration was found. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Apparent enrichment of organically bound tritium in rivers explained by the heritage of our past.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Claval, David; Charmasson, Sabine; Cossonnet, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    coastal marine biota (i.e., near river inputs). Our findings demonstrate that the persistence of terrestrial organic (3)H explains imbalances between organically bound tritium and free (3)H in most river systems in particular those not impacted by releases from nuclear facilities. PMID:24956583

  5. TRITIUM OPERATIONS AT THE LABORATORY FOR LASER ENERGETICS

    SciTech Connect

    Shmayda, W.T.; Loucks, S.J.; Janezic, R.; Duffy, T.W.; Harding, D. R.; Lund, L.D.

    2006-05-17

    The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester has conducted inertial confinement fusion experiments since the early 1970s. Beginning in 1996, LLE filled and fielded targets containing DT gas with pressures as high as 30 atm. Facilities are being upgraded to prepare, characterize, and field targets with DT ice on their inner surface. To this end, process loops that can pressurize DT gas to 1200 bar and operate at 17 K are in the final stages of commissioning. To preclude both accidental and chronic tritium releases and to minimize the potential for exposures to personnel, both metal hydride-based and oxidation drier-based cleanup systems have been installed and commissioned with hydrogen. Cryogenic DT targets will be fielded in 2006.

  6. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  7. Tritium waste control: April-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1980-11-26

    The Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) pilot system was operated using Maxey Flats trench water as feed. Two pneumatic seal electrolysis cells were procured. One will be used as a control (operated with nontritiated water) for the high-level tritiated water electrolysis tests. A test system for the cells was designed, built and successfully tested. Several additional impurity analyses were completed on effluent recovery system (ERS) water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to define methods and parameters for removal of oil-organics from ERS water. Four types of activated carbon were used to absorb vacuum pump oil from 1 to 10% mixtures in water. Two experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of the catalytic reactor to oxidize elemental tritium and also to determine the efficiency of the adsorption columns to capture the oxidized tritium. The resulting data indicate that reactor efficiency is >90% for concentrations on the order of 10 mCi/m/sup 3/, and about 50% at 0.5 mCi/m/sup 3/. The adsorption columns were also found to have less than the assumed 100% efficiency at capturing the HTO. Concentration data indicate possible channeling instead of breakthrough. The study of tritium release from representative burial packages continued. The two waste-water drums which have the highest tritium release (29 mCi and 85 mCi) also contain the highest amounts of tritium, originally 34,480 Ci and 52,128 Ci, respectively. The tritium release from the polymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete and the control remain too low to be illustrated on the current figures.

  8. Tritium migration studies at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.K.; Weaver, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    Emanation of tritium from waste containers is a commonly known phenomenon. Release of tritium from buried waste packages was anticipated; therefore, a research program was developed to study both the rate of tritium release from buried containers and subsequent migration of tritium through soil. Migration of tritium away from low-level radioactive wastes buried in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site was studied. Four distinct disposal events were investigated. The oldest burial event studied was a 1976 emplacement of 3.5 million curies of tritium in a shallow land burial trench. In another event, 248 thousand curies of tritium was disposed of in an overpack emplaced 6 m below the floor of a low-level waste disposal pit. Measurement of the emanation rate of tritium out of 55 gallon drums to the overpack was studied, and an annual doubling of the emanation rate over a seven year period, ending in 1990, was found. In a third study, upward tritium migration in the soil, resulting in releases in the atmosphere were observed in a greater confinement disposal test. Releases of tritium to the atmosphere were found to be insignificant. The fourth event consisted of burial of 2.2 million curies of tritium in a greater confinement disposal operation. Emanation of tritium from the buried containers has been increasing since disposal, but no significant migration was found four years following backfilling of the disposal hole.

  9. Tritium projectiles for fueling magnetic fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) plasma fueling development program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has fabricated a pellet (cylindrical projectile of frozen hydrogenic gas at a temperature in the range 6--16 K) injection system to test the mechanical and thermal properties of extruded tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. This repeating, single-stage, pneumatic injector, called the Tritium-Proof-of-Principle Phase 2 (TPOP-2) Pellet Injector, has a piston-driven mechanical extruder and is designed to extrude and accelerate hydrogenic pellets sized for the ITER device. The TPOP-2 program has the following development goals: evaluate the feasibility of extruding tritium and deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures for use in future pellet injection systems; determine the mechanical and thermal properties of tritium and D-T extrusions; integrate, test, and evaluate the extruder in a repeating, single-stage light gas gun that is sized for the ITER application (pellet diameter {approximately} 7 to 8 mm); evaluate options for recycling propellant and extruder exhaust gas; evaluate operability and reliability of ITER prototypical fueling systems in an environment of significant tritium inventory that requires secondary and room containment systems. In initial tests with deuterium feed at ORNL, up to 13 pellets have been extruded at rates up to 1 Hz and accelerated to speeds of 1.0 to 1.1 km/s, using hydrogen propellant gas at a supply pressure of 65 bar. The pellets, typically 7.4 mm in diameter and up to 11 mm in length, are the largest cryogenic pellets produced by the fusion program to date. These pellets represent about a 11% density perturbation to ITER. Hydrogenic pellets will be used in ITER to sustain the fusion power in the plasma core and may be crucial in reducing first-wall tritium inventories by a process called isotopic fueling in which tritium-rich pellets fuel the burning plasma core and deuterium gas fuels the edge.

  10. Validation test for CAP88 predictions of tritium dispersion at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Michelotti, Erika; Green, Andrew; Whicker, Jeffrey; Eisele, William; Fuehne, David; McNaughton, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Gaussian plume models, such as CAP88, are used regularly for estimating downwind concentrations from stack emissions. At many facilities, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) requires that CAP88 be used to demonstrate compliance with air quality regulations for public protection from emissions of radionuclides. Gaussian plume models have the advantage of being relatively simple and their use pragmatic; however, these models are based on simplifying assumptions and generally they are not capable of incorporating dynamic meteorological conditions or complex topography. These limitations encourage validation tests to understand the capabilities and limitations of the model for the specific application. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has complex topography but is required to use CAP88 for compliance with the Clean Air Act Subpart H. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the CAP88 predictions against ambient air measurements using released tritium as a tracer. Stack emissions of tritium from two LANL stacks were measured and the dispersion modeled with CAP88 using local meteorology. Ambient air measurements of tritium were made at various distances and directions from the stacks. Model predictions and ambient air measurements were compared over the course of a full year's data. Comparative results were consistent with other studies and showed the CAP88 predictions of downwind tritium concentrations were on average about three times higher than those measured, and the accuracy of the model predictions were generally more consistent for annual averages than for bi-weekly data. PMID:23803672

  11. Thermal Release of 3He from Tritium Aged LaNi4.25Al0.75 Hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, Gregory C.; Crowder, Mark L.; Klein, James E.

    2015-02-01

    Recently, the demand for He-3 has increased dramatically due to widespread use in nuclear nonproliferation, cryogenic, and medical applications. Essentially all of the world’s supply of He-3 is created by the radiolytic decay of tritium. The Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities (SRS-TF) utilizes LANA.75 in the tritium process to store hydrogen isotopes. The vast majority of He-3 “born” from tritium stored in LANA.75 is trapped in the hydride metal matrix. The SRS-TF has multiple LANA.75 tritium storage beds that have been retired from service with significant quantities of He-3 trapped in the metal. To support He-3 recovery, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) on a tritium aged LANA.75 sample. TGA-MS testing was performed in an argon environment. Prior to testing, the sample was isotopically exchanged with deuterium to reduce residual tritium and passivated with air to alleviate pyrophoric concerns associated with handling the material outside of an inert glovebox. Analyses indicated that gas release from this sample was bimodal, with peaks near 220 and 490°C. The first peak consisted of both He-3 and residual hydrogen isotopes, the second was primarily He-3. The bulk of the gas was released by 600 °C

  12. Results of Tritium Tracking and Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site 200 ARea State-Approved Land Disposal Site--Fiscal Year 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Rieger, JoAnne T.

    2002-09-19

    Tritium activities decreased in all three SALDS proximal wells during FY 2002, compared with FY 2001. Activities in well 699-48-77A first decreased to less than 3,000 pCi/L in January 2002, but rose to 150,000 in July, probably as a result of tritium discharges to SALDS that resumed in February 2002. Well 699-48-77C, where tritium analysis produced a maximum value of 750,000 pCi/L in January 2002, reflects the result of the delayed penetration of effluent deeper into the aquifer from tritium discharges. SALDS proximal well 699-48-77D produced a maximum result of 240,000 pCi/L in July 2002. Timing between detections of tritium and other constituents in well 699-48-77C suggest a delay of approximately three years from detection in wells 699-48-77A and 699-48-77D. Historically maxima for tritium (790 and 860 pCi/L in successive sample periods) suggest that tritium from SALDS may be reaching the northern edge of the 200 West Area, south of the facility.

  13. 10 CFR 70.64 - Requirements for new facilities or new processes at existing facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...., those housing or adjacent to the new process); however, all facilities and processes must comply with... single element of the design, construction, maintenance, or operation of the facility. The net effect...

  14. Results of Tritium Tracking and Groundwater Monitoring at the Hanford Site 200 Area State Approved Land Disposal SiteFiscal Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D BRENT.; Rieger, JoAnne T.; Thornton, Edward C.

    2003-11-30

    The Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated aqueous wastes derived from Hanford Site facilities. The treated wastewater occasionally contains tritium, which is not removed by the ETF, and is discharged to the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). During fiscal year (FY) 2003 to date (through August 31, 2003), approximately 96-million liters (25.3-million gallons) of water have been discharged to the SALDS. Groundwater monitoring for tritium and other constituents, and water-level measurements are required by the state-issued permit at the SALDS. The current network consists of 3 proximal monitoring wells and 16 tritium-tracking wells. Proximal wells were sampled in October 2002, and January, February, April, and September of 2003. Tritium-tracking wells were sampled in January and September of 2003, but September results were delayed because of fire hazards near the wellheads. Water-level measurements in three wells nearest the SALDS indicate the continuation of a small hydraulic mound beneath the SALDS facility as a result of discharges. This feature is directing groundwater flow radially outward a short distance before the regional northeasterly flow predominates. This condition also places several wells south of the SALDS hydraulically downgradient of the facility. Some of the wells south of the SALDS in the tritium-tracking network have dried or are projected to soon be dry. Wells 299-W7-6 went dry during FY 2003, preventing collection of the September sample from this well. Tritium activities decreased in all three SALDS proximal wells during FY 2003, compared with FY 2002. Timing between detections of tritium and other constituents in well 699-48-77C suggest a delay of approximately 3 years from detection in wells 699-48-77A and 699-48-77D. Sporadic detections in well 299-W7-5 suggest that tritium from SALDS may be reaching the northern edge of the 200 West Area, south of the facility and may be at the

  15. Preliminary results on tritium in Surveyor 3 material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    Painted aluminum samples taken from Surveyor 3 were examined for possible tritium implanted by the solar wind. There was found to be a correlation of tritium content with exposure to sunlight. The amount of tritium in sample 1011,2 nearly perpendicular to the lunar surface exceeded the amount expected from the tritium content of lunar rock 12002 by at least a factor of 3. It is concluded that if there is tritium implanted by solar wind on lunar rocks, it is not retained by them.

  16. Tritium rainout over the United States in 1962 and 1963

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, G.L.; Hoffman, C.M.

    1966-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of floods are defined regionally for small streams (drainage This report describes the tritium sampling network established by the U.S. Geological Survey. Tritium rainout data are included for 1962 and 1963 precipitation collected at 15 stations in the United States and Puerto Rico. These data are presented graphically to show seasonal variations and geographic distribution patterns for 1963 tritium rainout. Total tritium rainout during 1963 was considerably higher than it was in previous years. Peak tritium concentrations in late spring or early summer of 1963 were higher by a factor of three or more over concentrations measured in 1962.

  17. Comparative study of the tritium distribution in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perevezentsev, A. N.; Bell, A. C.; Rivkis, L. A.; Filin, V. M.; Gushin, V. V.; Belyakov, M. I.; Bulkin, V. I.; Kravchenko, I. M.; Ionessian, I. A.; Torikai, Y.; Matsuyama, M.; Watanabe, K.; Markin, A. I.

    2008-01-01

    Coupons of stainless steel, Inconel, beryllium, copper and aluminium bronze were exposed to tritium in hydrogen gas mixtures over a wide range of parameters: temperature up to 770 K, pressure from 1 × 10 -4 MPa to 0.05 MPa, tritium concentration from 1 at.% to 98 at.%. The tritium concentration on the surface and distribution through the metals were measured using radiography, radioluminography, β-ray induced X-ray spectroscopy and acid etching methods. The effect of metal processing, such as forging, polishing and heat treatment on the tritium distribution was studied along with parameters relating to the exposure of the metal to tritium.

  18. Tritium experience in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Blanchard, W.; Hosea, J.; Mueller, D.; Nagy, A.; Brooks, J.N.; Hogan, J.

    1998-07-01

    Tritium management is a key enabling element in fusion technology. Tritium fuel was used in 3.5 years of successful deuterium-tritium (D-T) operations in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The D-T campaign enabled TFTR to explore the transport, alpha physics, and MHD stability of a reactor core. It also provided experience with tritium retention and removal that highlighted the importance of these issues in future D-T machines. In this paper, the authors summarize the tritium retention and removal experience in TFTR and its implications for future reactors.

  19. SOLIDS TRANSPORT BETWEEN ADJACENT CAFB FLUIDIZED BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an experimental investigation of a pulsed, dense-phase pneumatic transport system for controlled circulation between adjacent fluidized beds. A model was developed to predict performance. The program provides technical support for EPA's program to demo...

  20. Border separation for adjacent orthogonal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, B.L.; Khan, F.M.; Sharma, S.C.; Lee, C.K.; Kim, T.H. )

    1991-06-01

    Field border separations for adjacent orthogonal fields can be calculated geometrically, given the validity of some important assumptions such as beam alignment and field uniformity. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements were used to investigate dose uniformity across field junctions as a function of field separation and, in particular, to review the CCSG recommendation for the treatment of medulloblastoma with separate head and spine fields.

  1. A rapid method for airborne tritium analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T. )

    1991-11-01

    Tritium is one of the principal radionuclides released to the environment from nuclear fuel and target reprocessing, heavy-water production, and other nuclear industry operations. For example, the majority of the off-site dose to the public at the Savannah River site (SRS) in 1988 was from tritium oxide (HTO). The absorbed dose is highly dependent on chemical form; HTO is 10,000 more hazardous than the elemental form (HT). Commercially available tritium monitors do not discriminate between chemical form and have high detection limits. Consequently, tedious laboratory methods must be used to analyze HTO in air. Desiccants are used to remove all the water from an air sample. The tritiated water is then desorbed and analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The method is complex and takes several hours to complete. During an unplanned release, present-time atmospheric tritium concentrations are never available. To improve emergency response capabilities, a rapid sampling and analysis method was developed for measuring low-level HTO concentrations in air. Standard desiccant sampling and water desorption procedure was modified for use in the SRS mobile laboratory, which is equipped with a liquid scintillation counter. These tests indicate that an HTO concentration of 0.2% DCG (7 Bq/m{sup 3}) can be detected by this method with a 10-min sample collection time and a 10-min count.

  2. Development of aqueous tritium effluent monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J. )

    1989-01-01

    A variety of techniques have been evaluated and tested in an attempt to develop a monitor for tritium at low-levels in aqueous streams. One system tested was commercially available, HPLC radioactivity monitor. This system uses crushed yttrium silicate as the scintillator and employs standard fast coincidence electronics to measure tritium in a flowing stream. Laboratory tests of this unit indicate that the monitor can sense tritium at concentrations above 600 pCi/cc using a two (2) minute counting interval. Pooling the count rate data over a longer interval, (e.g.,. 24 hours) results in a detection limit of {approximately}20 pCi/cc, under constant background conditions. Unfortunately, the cells are easily plugged with debris even under laboratory conditions. To overcome this problem, a prototype system was designed, fabricated, and is being tested in the laboratory. The prototype used unclad fibers of plastic scintillator as the detection medium. Approximately 500 1mm-diam fibers were assembled into a flow cell with two 51mm-diam photomultipliers (PMTs) coupled to the ends of the fiber bundles to detect the scintillations. Fast coincidence, pulse shaping electronics are used to minimize the single photon and dark current backgrounds. The tritium counting efficiency, background, and sensitivity will be determined in the laboratory followed by field reliability testing. 10 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Stereo and regioselectivity in ''Activated'' tritium reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenkaufer, R.L.E.; Hembree, W.C.; Wolf, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the stereo and positional selectivity of the microwave discharge activation (MDA) method, the tritium labeling of several amino acids was undertaken. The labeling of L-valine and the diastereomeric pair L-isoleucine and L-alloisoleucine showed less than statistical labeling at the ..cap alpha..-amino C-H position mostly with retention of configuration. Labeling predominated at the single ..beta.. C-H tertiary (methyne) position. The labeling of L-valine and L-proline with and without positive charge on the ..cap alpha..-amino group resulted in large increases in specific activity (greater than 10-fold) when positive charge was removed by labeling them as their sodium carboxylate salts. Tritium NMR of L-proline labeled both as its zwitterion and sodium salt showed also large differences in the tritium distribution within the molecule. The distribution preferences in each of the charge states are suggestive of labeling by an electrophilic like tritium species(s). 16 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. RF physics in Deuterium-Tritium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C. K.; Bell, M.; Bell, R. E.; Bernabei, S.; Fredrickson, E.; Hosea, J. C.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Majeski, R.; Medley, S.; Ono, M.

    1999-09-20

    A wide variety of potential ICRF heating scenarios relevant for the deuterium-tritium plasmas expected in tokamak reactor-class devices were explored in the TFTR and JET programs. Key physics results from the two programs are discussed. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Small system for tritium accelerator mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, M.L.; Davis, J.C.

    1993-02-23

    Apparatus for ionizing and accelerating a sample containing isotopes of hydrogen and detecting the ratios of hydrogen isotopes contained in the sample is disclosed. An ion source generates a substantially linear ion beam including ions of tritium from the sample. A radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator is directly coupled to and axially aligned with the source at an angle of substantially zero degrees. The accelerator accelerates species of the sample having different mass to different energy levels along the same axis as the ion beam. A spectrometer is used to detect the concentration of tritium ions in the sample. In one form of the invention, an energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a foil to block the passage of hydrogen, deuterium and [sup 3]He ions, and a surface barrier or scintillation detector to detect the concentration of tritium ions. In another form of the invention, a combined momentum/energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a magnet to separate the ion beams, with Faraday cups to measure the hydrogen and deuterium and a surface barrier or scintillation detector for the tritium ions.

  6. Small system for tritium accelerator mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Mark L.; Davis, Jay C.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for ionizing and accelerating a sample containing isotopes of hydrogen and detecting the ratios of hydrogen isotopes contained in the sample is disclosed. An ion source generates a substantially linear ion beam including ions of tritium from the sample. A radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator is directly coupled to and axially aligned with the source at an angle of substantially zero degrees. The accelerator accelerates species of the sample having different mass to different energy levels along the same axis as the ion beam. A spectrometer is used to detect the concentration of tritium ions in the sample. In one form of the invention, an energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a foil to block the passage of hydrogen, deuterium and .sup.3 He ions, and a surface barrier or scintillation detector to detect the concentration of tritium ions. In another form of the invention, a combined momentum/energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a magnet to separate the ion beams, with Faraday cups to measure the hydrogen and deuterium and a surface barrier or scintillation detector for the tritium ions.

  7. Tritium waste control: October 1981-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1982-08-16

    Progress reports and summaries are presented for the following: electrolysis of tritiated water; impurity removal from the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) feed water; gas generation measurements on tritiated waste materials; fixation of aqueous tritiated waste in polymer-impregnated concrete; management of high specific activity tritiated liquid wastes; and treatment of tritium contaminated water at Three Mile Island. (ATT)

  8. GASFLOW analysis of a tritium leak accident

    SciTech Connect

    Farman, R.F.; Fujita, R.K.; Travis, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    The consequences of an earthquake-induced fire involving a tritium leak were analyzed using the GASFLOW computer code. Modeling features required by the analysis include ventilation boundary conditions, flow of a gas mixture in an enclosure containing obstacles, thermally induced buoyancy, and combustion phenomena.

  9. Improving tritium exposure reconstructions using accelerator mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J. R.; Vogel, J. S.; Knezovich, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Direct measurement of tritium atoms by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) enables rapid low-activity tritium measurements from milligram-sized samples and permits greater ease of sample collection, faster throughput, and increased spatial and/or temporal resolution. Because existing methodologies for quantifying tritium have some significant limitations, the development of tritium AMS has allowed improvements in reconstructing tritium exposure concentrations from environmental measurements and provides an important additional tool in assessing the temporal and spatial distribution of chronic exposure. Tritium exposure reconstructions using AMS were previously demonstrated for a tree growing on known levels of tritiated water and for trees exposed to atmospheric releases of tritiated water vapor. In these analyses, tritium levels were measured from milligram-sized samples with sample preparation times of a few days. Hundreds of samples were analyzed within a few months of sample collection and resulted in the reconstruction of spatial and temporal exposure from tritium releases. Although the current quantification limit of tritium AMS is not adequate to determine natural environmental variations in tritium concentrations, it is expected to be sufficient for studies assessing possible health effects from chronic environmental tritium exposure. PMID:14735274

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14

    A new radioactive shipping packaging for transporting bulk quantities of tritium, the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP), has been designed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a replacement for a package designed in the early 1970s. This paper summarizes significant design features and describes how the design satisfies the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials. This paper also discusses the results from testing of the BTSP to 10 CFR 71 Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Condition events. The programmatic need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to ship bulk quantities of tritium has been satisfied since the late 1970s by the UC-609 shipping package. The current Certificate of Conformance for the UC-609, USA/9932/B(U) (DOE), will expire in late 2011. Since the UC-609 was not designed to meet current regulatory requirements, it will not be recertified and thereby necessitates a replacement Type B shipping package for continued DOE tritium shipments in the future. A replacement tritium packaging called the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) is currently being designed and tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The BTSP consists of two primary assemblies, an outer Drum Assembly and an inner Containment Vessel Assembly (CV), both designed to mitigate damage and to protect the tritium contents from leaking during the regulatory Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT). During transport, the CV rests on a silicone pad within the Drum Liner and is covered with a thermal insulating disk within the insulated Drum Assembly. The BTSP packaging weighs approximately 500 lbs without contents and is 50

  11. Investigation of the tritium content in surface water, bottom sediments (zoobenthos), macrophytes, and fish in the mid-stream region of the Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia).

    PubMed

    Bondareva, Lydia; Schultz, Michael K

    2015-11-01

    The potential sources of tritium input to the Yenisei River ecosystem are derived from local operations of nuclear facilities of the Mining and Chemical Combine operated by the state-owned Rosatom corporation and from sources derived from global weapons testing fallout and nuclear power. The background tritium concentrations in zoobenthos, bottom sediments, relevant commercial fish species, and widespread endogenous aquatic plants have been obtained for the first time in this region. Our results demonstrate that the major input term of tritium to this region of the Yenisei is derived from nearby mining operations of Rosatom, with tritium concentrations in aquatic plants marginally exceeding the observed background values obtained from upstream control sample collection sites. PMID:26178837

  12. Plasma wall interaction and tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Amarescu, E.; Ascione, G.; Synakowski, E.

    1996-05-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been operating safely and routinely with deuterium-tritium fuel for more than two years. In this time, TFTR has produced an impressive number of record breaking results including core fusion power, ~ 2 MW/m³, comparable to that expected for ITER. Advances in wall conditioning via lithium pellet injection have played an essential role in achieving these results. Deuterium-tritium operation has also provided a special opportunity to address the issues of tritium recycling and retention. Tritium retention over two years of operation was approximately 40%. Recently, the in-torus tritium inventory was reduced by half through a combination of glow discharge cleaning, moist-air soaks, and plasma discharge cleaning. The tritium inventory is not a constraint in continued operations. The authors present recent results from TFTR in the context of plasma wall interactions and deuterium-tritium issues.

  13. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-12-30

    In 1984, landfill monitoring wells at Site 300, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) explosive test site, revealed the presence of groundwater contaminated with tritium. These tritium levels were in excess of the State of California drinking water standard. A major investigation was initiated that included a search of records concerning tritium use, disposal, and previous analyses, and a survey of tritium levels in soil, vegetation, and water in contaminated and potentially contaminated areas. Over 50 boreholes were drilled for this investigation to characterize the local hydrogeology and tritium distributions, and a network of soil moisture and groundwater monitoring points was installed. This report presents the work completed through the end of September 1985: the records search; records for drilling completed as part of this study; characterization of the geology, hydrology, and tritium distributions in the contaminated area; and an initial assessment of the probable tritium sources, pathways, and migration rates. 19 refs.

  14. Studying of tritium content in snowpack of Degelen mountain range.

    PubMed

    Turchenko, D V; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O; Lyakhova, O N

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of tritium content in the layers of snow located in the streambeds of the "Degelen" massif contaminated with tritium. The objects of investigation were selected watercourses Karabulak, Uzynbulak, Aktybai located beyond the "Degelen" site. We studied the spatial distribution of tritium relative to the streambed of watercourses and defined the borders of the snow cover contamination. In the centre of the creek watercourses the snow contamination in the surface layer is as high as 40 000 Bq/L. The values of the background levels of tritium in areas not related to the streambed, which range from 40 to 50 Bq/L. The results of snow cover measurements in different seasonal periods were compared. The main mechanisms causing tritium transfer in snow were examined and identified. The most important mechanism of tritium transfer in the streams is tritium emanation from ice or soil surface. PMID:24657814

  15. Tritium control: April-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1984-01-27

    The Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) and Water Feed Cleanup (WFCU) systems were decommissioned, and the associated glovebox lines were decontaminated. Previously predicted correlations between atmospheric tritium concentrations and surface contamination and rates of atmospheric decontamination were examined during the decommissioning of the three gloveboxes. To expedite this procedure, the boxline was purged with air and N/sub 2/ by employing high volumetric flow rates of up to 1.7 vol %/min. The relationship between atmospheric concentration and cleanup times was examined for this purge rate. Results from surveys taken inside the boxline were compared to results expected according to the correlations predicted by previous surveys. Gas generation rates caused by radiolysis of tritiated waste materials were determined for polymer and nonpolymer-impregnated tritiated concrete and fixated and nonfixated tritiated waste vacuum pump oil. In addition, the pressure change of hydrogen cover gas over tritiated water on cement-plaster was determined. The test program to measure and compare the release of tritium from tritiated concrete with and without styrene impregnation continued. Tritium permeation data from small test blocks are given. The drum study monitoring the release of tritium from actual burial packages continued. The maximum fractional release rate for the three types of high activity, tritiated liquid waste generated is 7.05 x 10/sup -6/, and the maximum total permeation is 241 mCi after 9 yr. These two values represent a 7% increase for the past 6 months. Tritium release from the polymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete (PITC) and from the control (non-PITC) remains very low. A sample of the 10-year-old catalyst from the Emergency Containment System (ECS) reactor was tested to determine its efficiency. Preliminary results indicate a conversion rate of 90 +- 10%.

  16. Tritium transport in the NuMI decay pipe region - modeling and comparison with experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Hylen, J.; Plunkett, R.; /Fermilab

    2007-03-01

    The NuMI (Neutrinos at Main Injector) beam facility at Fermilab is designed to produce an intense beam of muon neutrinos to be sent to the MINOS underground experiment in Soudan, Minnesota. Neutrinos are created by the decay of heavier particles. In the case of NuMI, the decaying particles are created by interaction of high-energy protons in a target, creating mostly positive pions. These particles can also interact with their environment, resulting in production of a variety of short-lived radionuclides and tritium. In the NuMI beam, neutrinos are produced by 120 GeV protons from the Fermilab Main Injector accelerator which are injected into the NuMI beam line using single turn extraction. The beam line has been designed for 400 kW beam power, roughly a factor of 2 above the initial (2005-06) running conditions. Extracted protons are bent downwards at a 57mr angle towards the Soudan Laboratory. The meson production target is a 94 cm segmented graphite rod, cooled by water in stainless tubes on the top and bottom of the target. The target is followed by two magnetic horns which are pulsed to 200 kA in synchronization with the passage of the beam, producing focusing of the secondary hadron beam and its daughter neutrinos. Downstream of the second horn the meson beam is transported for 675 m in an evacuated 2 m diameter beam (''decay'') pipe. Subsequently, the residual mesons and protons are absorbed in a water cooled aluminum/steel absorber immediately downstream of the decay pipe. Some 200 m of rock further downstream ranges out all of the residual muons. During beam operations, after installation of the chiller condensate system in December 2005, the concentration of tritiated water in the MINOS sump flow of 177 gpm was around 12 pCi/ml, for a total of 0.010 pCi/day. A simple model of tritium transport and deposition via humidity has been constructed to aid in understanding how tritium reaches the sump water. The model deals with tritium transported as HTO, water

  17. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, M.; Clark, E.; Lascola, R.

    2009-12-16

    Effects of beta (tritium) and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of conducting polymer films are documented to determine their potential use as a sensing and surveillance device for the tritium facility. It was shown that surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma and tritium gas. In order to compare the results from the two radiation sources, an approximate dose equivalence was calculated. The materials were also sensitive to small radiation doses (<10{sup 5} rad), showing that there is a measurable response to relatively small total doses of tritium gas. Spectroscopy was also used to confirm the mechanism by which this sensing device would operate in order to calibrate this sensor for potential use. It was determined that one material (polyaniline) was very sensitive to oxidation while the other material (PEDOT-PSS) was not. However, polyaniline provided the best response as a sensing material, and it is suggested that an oxygen-impermeable, radiation-transparent coating be applied to this material for future device prototype fabrication. A great deal of interest has developed in recent years in the area of conducting polymers due to the high levels of conductivity that can be achieved, some comparable to that of metals [Gerard 2002]. Additionally, the desirable physical and chemical properties of a polymer are retained and can be exploited for various applications, including light emitting diodes (LED), anti-static packaging, electronic coatings, and sensors. The electron transfer mechanism is generally accepted as one of electron 'hopping' through delocalized electrons in the conjugated backbone, although other mechanisms have been proposed based on the type of polymer and dopant [Inzelt 2000, Gerard 2002]. The conducting polymer polyaniline (PANi) is of particular interest because there are extensive studies on the modulation of the conductivity by changing either the oxidation state of the

  18. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  19. Tritium-enrichment via CECE-process with high temperature steam electrolysis (HOT ELLY)

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, W.; Erdle, E.

    1988-09-01

    Aqueous waste which is a by-product of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, is contaminated with tritium in the form of HTO. This waste must be disposed of in a suitable compact manner. In order to minimize waste volume, tritiated water is enriched by several orders of magnitude of its original concentration. This task is accomplished by using the existing combined electrolysis catalytic exchange (CECE)-Process, which is presently in pilot operation with tritium in a German nuclear research facility (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, KfK, FRG). Substantial energy reduction can be achieved by substituting the conventional water electrolysis by high-temperature steam electrolysis (HOT ELLY) for separating tritiated water into its components.

  20. Tritium assay of Li/sub 2/O in the LBM/LOTUS experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Quanci, J.; Azam, S.; Bertone, P.

    1986-11-01

    The Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) is an assembly of over 20,000 cylindrical lithium oxide pellets in an array representative of a limited-coverage breeding zone for a toroidal fusion device. A principal objective of the LBM program is to test the ability of advanced neutronics coding to model the tritium breeding characteristics of a fusion device blanket. The LBM has been irradiated at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) LOTUS facility with a 14 MeV point-neutron source. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and EPFL assayed the tritium bred in lithium oxide diagnostic samples placed at various positions in the LBM. PPPL employed a thermal extraction technique while EPFL used a dissolution method. The results for the assay are reported and compared to MCNP Monte Carlo neutronics calculations for the LBM/LOTUS system.

  1. Variation of atmospheric tritium concentration in three chemical forms at Toki, Japan: 2004-12.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Uda, T

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric tritium concentrations of HTO, HT and CH3T have been measured at Toki, Japan, for the environmental impact assessment of tritium for a fusion test facility. According to the data from 2004 to 2012, the concentrations of HT and HTO in water vapour tend to increase in spring. The seasonal variation in HT concentration at Toki was compared with the H2 concentration between 1990 and 2005 at Tae-ahn Peninsula, Republic of Korea, which is at approximately the same latitude as Toki. The monthly average of HT-specific activity varied from 1.24 × 10(5) to 1.76 × 10(5) TU. The peak of the monthly average H2 concentration did not match that of HT. This indicates that the mechanism of the production or the source of HT might be different from the production mechanism of H2. PMID:25935005

  2. Tritium effects on germ cells and fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, R.L.; Kwan, T.C.; Straume, T.

    1982-11-19

    Primordial oocytes in juvenile mice show acute gamma-ray LD/sub 50/ as low as 6 rad. This provides opportunities for determining dose-response relations at low doses and chronic exposure in the intact animal - conditions of particular interest for hazard evaluation. Examined in this way, /sup 3/HOH in body water is found to kill murine oocytes exponentially with dose, the LD/sub 50/ level for chronic exposure being only 2..mu..Ci/ml (delivering 0.4 rad/day). At very low doses and dose rates, where comparisons between tritium and other radiations are of special significance for radiological protection, the RBE of tritium compared with /sup 60/Co gamma radiation reaches approximately 3. Effects on murine fertility from tritium-induced oocyte loss have been quantified by reproductive capacity measurements. Chronic low-level exposure has been examined also in three primate species - squirrel, rhesus, and bonnet monkeys. In squirrel monkeys the ovarian germ-cell supply is 99% destroyed by the time of birth from prenatal exposure to body-water levels of /sup 3/HOH (administered in maternal drinking water) of only 3 ..mu..Ci/ml, the LD/sub 50/ level being 0.5 ..mu..Ci/ml (giving 0.1 rad/day), one fourth that in mice. Though not completely ruled out, similar high sensitivity of female germ cells has not been found in macaques; and it probably does not occur in man. The exquisite radiosensitivity of primordial oocytes in mice is apparently due to vulnerability of the plasma membrane (or something of similar geometry and location), not DNA. Evidence for this comes from tritium data as well as neutron studies. Tritium administered as /sup 3/HOH, and therefore generally distributed, is much more effective in killing murine oocytes than is tritium administered as /sup 3/H-TdR, localized in the nucleus. This situation in the mouse may have implications for estimating radiation genetic risk in the human female.

  3. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  4. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  5. Use of Tritium Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Tree Ring Analysis

    PubMed Central

    LOVE, ADAM H.; HUNT, JAMES R.; ROBERTS, MARK L.; SOUTHON, JOHN R.; CHIARAPPA - ZUCCA, MARINA L.; DINGLEY, KAREN H.

    2010-01-01

    Public concerns over the health effects associated with low-level and long-term exposure to tritium released from industrial point sources have generated the demand for better methods to evaluate historical tritium exposure levels for these communities. The cellulose of trees accurately reflects the tritium concentration in the source water and may contain the only historical record of tritium exposure. The tritium activity in the annual rings of a tree was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to reconstruct historical annual averages of tritium exposure. Milligram-sized samples of the annual tree rings from a Tamarix located at the Nevada Test Site are used for validation of this methodology. The salt cedar was chosen since it had a single source of tritiated water that was well-characterized as it varied over time. The decay-corrected tritium activity of the water in which the salt cedar grew closely agrees with the organically bound tritium activity in its annual rings. This demonstrates that the milligram-sized samples used in tritium accelerator mass spectrometry are suited for reconstructing anthropogenic tritium levels in the environment. PMID:12144257

  6. Use of tritium accelerator mass spectrometry for tree ring analysis.

    PubMed

    Love, Adam H; Hunt, James R; Roberts, Mark L; Southon, John R; Chiarapp-Zucca, Marina L; Dingley, Karen H

    2002-07-01

    Public concerns over the health effects associated with low-level and long-term exposure to tritium released from industrial point sources have generated the demand for better methods to evaluate historical tritium exposure levels for these communities. The cellulose of trees accurately reflects the tritium concentration in the source water and may contain the only historical record of tritium exposure. The tritium activity in the annual rings of a tree was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to reconstruct historical annual averages of tritium exposure. Milligram-sized samples of the annual tree rings from a Tamarix located at the Nevada Test Site are used for validation of this methodology. The salt cedar was chosen since it had a single source of tritiated water that was well-characterized as it varied over time. The decay-corrected tritium activity of the water in which the salt cedar grew closely agrees with the organically bound tritium activity in its annual rings. This demonstrates that the milligram-sized samples used in tritium accelerator mass spectrometry are suited for reconstructing anthropogenic tritium levels in the environment. PMID:12144257

  7. On the mechanism of biological activation by tritium.

    PubMed

    Rozhko, T V; Badun, G A; Razzhivina, I A; Guseynov, O A; Guseynova, V E; Kudryasheva, N S

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism of biological activation by beta-emitting radionuclide tritium was studied. Luminous marine bacteria were used as a bioassay to monitor the biological effect of tritium with luminescence intensity as the physiological parameter tested. Two different types of tritium sources were used: HTO molecules distributed regularly in the surrounding aqueous medium, and a solid source with tritium atoms fixed on its surface (tritium-labeled films, 0.11, 0.28, 0.91, and 2.36 MBq/cm(2)). When using the tritium-labeled films, tritium penetration into the cells was prevented. The both types of tritium sources revealed similar changes in the bacterial luminescence kinetics: a delay period followed by bioluminescence activation. No monotonic dependences of bioluminescence activation efficiency on specific radioactivities of the films were found. A 15-day exposure to tritiated water (100 MBq/L) did not reveal mutations in bacterial DNA. The results obtained give preference to a "non-genomic" mechanism of bioluminescence activation by tritium. An activation of the intracellular bioluminescence process develops without penetration of tritium atoms into the cells and can be caused by intensification of trans-membrane cellular processes stimulated by ionization and radiolysis of aqueous media. PMID:27035890

  8. Tritium in Australian precipitation: A 50 year record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadros, Carol V.; Hughes, Catherine E.; Crawford, Jagoda; Hollins, Suzanne E.; Chisari, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Tritium in precipitation has been measured in Australia over the past 50 years, as an essential research tool in hydro-climate studies, and to contribute to the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Tritium, a component of the water molecule (HTO), is the only true age tracer for waters. The elevated level of tritium in the environment as a result of last century’s atmospheric thermonuclear testing delivers the benefit of tracing groundwater systems over a 100 year timeframe. The concentration of tritium in Australian precipitation reached a maximum of 160 Tritium Units (TU) in 1963, during one of the most intense periods of nuclear weapons testing. From 1963 to present we observe a rapid drop in the concentration of tritium, more than expected from natural decay, and this can be attributed to the wash out of tritium into the oceans and groundwater. Spikes in the tritium level are superimposed over this general trend; the first around 1969, with levels ranging from 39.4 to 84.4 TU was due to French atmospheric weapon testing, and again in 1990, levels peaked between 6.6 and 12.9 TU, which is attributed to tritium leaking from underground tests in the French Pacific. Since 1990 the levels of tritium have declined globally and regionally. Currently the levels of tritium in Australia are stabilising to around 2-3 TU increasing with latitude across the continent, suggesting that today the tritium in precipitation is predominantly natural. The spatial distribution of tritium is presented and found to be dominated by the annual stratosphere-troposphere exchange in combination with latitude and continental effects. A precipitation amount effect is also observed for inland sites.

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Tritium inventory in ITER plasma-facing materials and tritium removal procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Joachim; Tsitrone, Emmanuelle; Loarer, Thierry; Philipps, Volker; Brezinsek, Sebastijan; Loarte, Alberto; Counsell, Glenn F.; Doerner, Russell P.; Schmid, Klaus; Ogorodnikova, Olga V.; Causey, Rion A.

    2008-10-01

    Interactions between the plasma and the vessel walls constitute a major engineering problem for next step fusion devices, such as ITER, determining the choice of the plasma-facing materials. A prominent issue in this choice is the tritium inventory build-up in the vessel, which must be limited for safety reasons. The initial material selection, i.e. beryllium (Be) on the main vessel walls, tungsten (W) on the divertor upper baffle and dome, and carbon fibre composite around the strike points on the divertor plates, results both from the attempt to reduce the tritium inventory and to optimize the lifetime of the plasma-facing components. In the framework of the EU Task Force on Plasma-Wall Interaction (PWI TF), the many physics aspects governing the tritium inventory are brought together. Together with supporting information from international experts represented by the ITPA SOL/DIV section, this paper describes the present status of knowledge of the in-vessel tritium inventory build-up. Firstly, the main results from present fusion devices in this field are briefly reviewed. Then, the processes involved are discussed: implantation, trapping and diffusion in plasma-facing materials are considered as well as surface erosion and co-deposition of tritium with eroded material. The intermixing of the different materials and its influence on hydrogen retention and co-deposition is a major source of uncertainty on present estimates and is also addressed. Based on the previous considerations, estimates for the tritium inventory build-up are given for the initial choice of ITER materials, as well as for alternative options. Present estimates indicate a build-up of the tritium inventory to the administrative limit within a few hundred nominal full power D : T discharges, co-deposition with carbon being the dominant process. Therefore, tritium removal methods are also an active area of research within the EU PWI TF, and are discussed. An integrated operational scheme to slow

  10. IN-SITU TRITIUM BETA DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Berthold; L.A. Jeffers

    1998-04-15

    The objectives of this three-phase project were to design, develop, and demonstrate a monitoring system capable of detecting and quantifying tritium in situ in ground and surface waters, and in water from effluent lines prior to discharge into public waterways. The tritium detection system design is based on measurement of the low energy beta radiation from the radioactive decay of tritium using a special form of scintillating optical fiber directly in contact with the water to be measured. The system consists of the immersible sensor module containing the optical fiber, and an electronics package, connected by an umbilical cable. The system can be permanently installed for routine water monitoring in wells or process or effluent lines, or can be moved from one location to another for survey use. The electronics will read out tritium activity directly in units of pico Curies per liter, with straightforward calibration. In Phase 1 of the project, we characterized the sensitivity of fluor-doped plastic optical fiber to tritium beta radiation. In addition, we characterized the performance of photomultiplier tubes needed for the system. In parallel with this work, we defined the functional requirements, target specifications, and system configuration for an in situ tritium beta detector that would use the fluor-doped fibers as primary sensors of tritium concentration in water. The major conclusions from the characterization work are: A polystyrene optical fiber with fluor dopant concentration of 2% gave best performance. This fiber had the highest dopant concentration of any fibers tested. Stability may be a problem. The fibers exposed to a 22-day soak in 120 F water experienced a 10x reduction in sensitivity. It is not known whether this was due to the build up of a deposit (a potentially reversible effect) or an irreversible process such as leaching of the scintillating dye. Based on the results achieved, it is premature to initiate Phase 2 and commit to a prototype

  11. The Callaway Plant's airborne tritium sampling cart

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Roselius, R.R. )

    1986-07-01

    The water vapor condensation method for sampling airborne tritium offers significant advantages over other methods, including minimal sample preparation, high sensitivity, and independence from collection efficiency and sample flow rate. However, it does have disadvantages that must be overcome in the design of a sampler. This article describes a cart-mounted, portable airborne tritium sampler used at the Callaway Nuclear Plant that incorporates the advantages of the condensation technique while minimizing its shortcomings. The key elements in the design of the sampler are the use of a refrigerated bath to cool a series of three water vapor collection traps and the use of an optical condensation dew point hygrometer to measure the moisture content of the sample. Design considerations for the proper operation of dew point hygrometers are presented, and the method used to convert due point readings to water vapor content is described.

  12. Atomic Masses of Tritium and Helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, E. G.; Wagner, A.; Kracke, H.; Wesson, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    By measuring the cyclotron frequency ratios of 3He+ to HD+ and T+ to HD+ , and using HD+ as a mass reference, we obtain new atomic masses for 3He and T. Our results are M [3He]=3.016 029 322 43 (19 ) u and M [T ]=3.016 049 281 78 (19 ) u , where the uncertainty includes an uncertainty of 0.12 nu in the mass reference. Allowing for cancellation of common systematic errors, we find the Q value for tritium β decay to be (M [T ]-M [3He])c2=18 592.01 (7 ) eV . This allows an improved test of systematics in measurements of tritium β decay that set limits on neutrino mass.

  13. Apparatus to recover tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, William A.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering tritium from tritiated compounds is provided, including a preheater for heating tritiated water and other co-injected tritiated compounds to temperatures of about 600.degree. C. and a reactor charged with a mixture of uranium and uranium dioxide for receiving the preheated mixture. The reactor vessel is preferably stainless steel of sufficient mass so as to function as a heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from approaching high temperatures. A disposable copper liner extends between the reaction chamber and stainless steel outer vessel to prevent alloying of the uranium with the outer vessel. The uranium dioxide functions as an insulating material and heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from attaining reaction temperatures to thereby minimize tritium permeation rates. The uranium dioxide also functions as a diluent to allow for volumetric expansion of the uranium as it is converted to uranium dioxide.

  14. Tritium waste control, October 1979-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-19

    Modifications were made to the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) pilot unit. After the SPE cell was dismantled to investigate a water circulation problem, an internal short circuit developed. Analyses were done for impurities in the CECE system; the problem appears to be a 1 to 2% oil (mostly insoluble organics) layer. A polystyrene-impregnated, tritiated-concrete waste package was prepared with 7921 Ci of tritium. The study of tritium release from representative burial packages was continued. Gas generation rates were determined for polymer and non-polymer impregnated tritiated concrete and fixated and non-fixated tritiated waste vacuum pump oil. The pressure change of hydrogen cover gas over tritiated water on cement-plaster was determined.

  15. Measurement of tritium in natural water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meifen

    1985-06-01

    A detergent-scintillation liquid mixture applied to measure low specific activity of tritium in natural water was studied. The DYS-1 low level liquid scintillation counter designed and manufactured by our institute was employed. In comparing the Triton X-100 scintillation liquid mixture with the dioxane-based-scintillation liquid, a better formula for Triton X-100 scintillation liquid mixture was determined, the mixture possesses the quality of high water content; high efficiency and low back-ground in measuring tritium in water. Chemiluminescence of the Triton X-100 scintillation liquid mixture can be totally de-excited in short time. It can be employed at ambient temperature 11 28°C. For 20ml sample in quartz vials, counting efficiency is 15% with a background 2.17 cpm, Y=31 TU (t=30 min).

  16. Progress report on the tritium remission simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Barbieri, J. F.

    1997-05-01

    A mathematical model has been developed which computes the concentration of tritiated water reemitted into the atmosphere by surface evaporation and plant transpiration using the Penman-Monteith equation. Using these rates, and assuming a deposition velocity for tritium, a coupled set of diffusion equations are then solved which yield the concentration of tritiated water as a function of time. The model is driven by a number of environmental parameters.

  17. Tritium handling and processing experience at TSTA

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Okuno, K.

    1994-06-01

    In 1987, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) signed a collaborative agreement (Annex IV) for the joint funding and operation of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for a five year period ending June, 1992. After this initial five year collaboration, the Annex IV agreement was extended for another two year period ending June, 1994. During the first five years, a number of the integrated process loop tests of TSTA were conducted, as well as off-line testing of TSTA subsystems. During integrated loop testing the vacuum system, fuel cleanup systems, isotope separation system, transfer pumping system and gas analysis system, are interconnected and tested using 100 g-inventories of tritium to demonstrate steady-state operation of a tritium fuel processing cycle for a fusion reactor. These tests have resulted in a number of significant accomplishments and an experience data base on research, development and operation of the fuel processing system. One of the most significant accomplishments during the initial five year period was the continuous operation of the fuel processing loop for 25 days. During this 25-day extended operation, both the JAERI fuel cleanup system (J-FCU) and the original TSTA fuel cleanup system (FCU) were operated under similar conditions of flow, pressure, and impurity content of the DT gas. Both fuel cleanup systems were demonstrated to provide adequate impurity removal for plasma exhaust gas processing. The isotope separation system was operated continuously, producing pure tritium while rejecting protium as an impurity.

  18. Tritium and tritons in cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.L.; Whitesell, L.; Jabs, H.; Shoemaker, J. )

    1991-05-10

    An analysis is conducted on reports of tritium production and of charged-particle emission from deuterated palladium and titanium. Possible sources of error are outline and the lack of definitive experiments is discussed. Extensive sets of experiments are reported in which two previously reported results are checked in detail. A search for charged-particle emission was conducted on deuterated titanium and 6{minus}6{minus}2 titanium alloy that was subjected to cryogenic cycling. Two delta E-E silicon telescopes were used to count 42 samples for 3--4 cycles each from 84K to room temperature. No charge-one particles were detected and alpha particle yields of a few counters per day corresponded to background levels. A search for tritium production from 1 mm diameter palladium wire was conducted on 130 electrolytic cells in D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O, and in 250 metal samples. Several samples associated with one lot of palladium stock showed latent tritium levels well above background. No evidence was obtained for the occurrence of nuclear reactions in the electrolytic cells.

  19. Recovery of tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, William A.

    1987-01-01

    A method of recovering tritium from tritiated compounds comprises the steps of heating tritiated water and other co-injected tritiated compounds in a preheater to temperatures of about 600.degree. C. The mixture is injected into a reactor charged with a mixture of uranium and uranium dioxide. The injected mixture undergoes highly exothermic reactions with the uranium causing reaction temperatures to occur in excess of the melting point of uranium, and complete decomposition of the tritiated compounds to remove tritium therefrom. The uranium dioxide functions as an insulating material and heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from attaining reaction temperatures to thereby minimize tritium permeation rates. The uranium dioxide also functions as a diluent to allow for volumetric expansion of the uranium as it is converted to uranium dioxide. The reactor vessel is preferably stainless steel of sufficient mass so as to function as a heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from approaching high temperatures. A disposable copper liner extends between the reaction chamber and stainless steel outer vessel to prevent alloying of the uranium with the outer vessel. Apparatus used to carry out the method of the invention is also disclosed.

  20. Tritium and tritons in cold fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, K. L.; Whitesell, L.; Jabs, H.; Shoemaker, J.

    1991-05-01

    An analysis is conducted on reports of tritium production and of charged-particle emission from deuterated palladium and titanium. Possible sources of error are outline and the lack of definitive experiments is discussed. Extensive sets of experiments are reported in which two previously reported results are checked in detail. A search for charged-particle emission was conducted on deuterated titanium and 6-6-2 titanium alloy that was subjected to cryogenic cycling. Two delta E-E silicon telescopes were used to count 42 samples for 3-4 cycles each from 84K to room temperature. No charge-one particles were detected and alpha particle yields of a few counters per day corresponded to background levels. A search for tritium production from 1 mm diameter palladium wire was conducted on 130 electrolytic cells in D2O and H2O, and in 250 metal samples. Several samples associated with one lot of palladium stock showed latent tritium levels well above background. No evidence was obtained for the occurrence of nuclear reactions in the electrolytic cells.

  1. Tritium monitoring system for near ambient measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, K.G.; Bauer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of research on an improved tritium measurement system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Navy. Present tritium-in-air monitoring systems installed by the Navy can reliably measure to less than 10 {mu}Ci/m{sup 3}, but medical and safety issues are pushing measurement needs to below 1 {mu}Ci/m{sup 3}, which is equivalent to 1--10 nCi/ml in liquid samples, using calcium metal converter. A significant effort has been expended over the past 10 years by the Navy RADIAC Development Program at ORNL on various schemes to improve the detection of tritium in both air and liquid at near ambient levels. One such scheme includes a liquid flow-through system based on an NE102 sponge scintillator with dual photomultiplier tubes for the tube noise rejection. (This document also contains copies of the slides used for presentation of this paper to the IEEE 1991 Nuclear Science Symposium). 4 refs., 17 figs.

  2. Optimization of simultaneous tritium-radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonicalzi, R. M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Mace, E. K.; Moran, J. J.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a natural methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium-counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta-decay interference.

  3. Moving to atomic tritium for neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazkaz, Kareem; Project8 Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    For direct measurements of the neutrino mass, the tritium-based experiments Mainz and Troitsk have provided the most sensitive measurements to date, with upper limits near 2200 meV. The KATRIN experiment, beginning its first science run in 2016, also uses tritium as its source and has an anticipated ultimate sensitivity of 200 meV. The largest single systematic effect limiting the mass sensitivity beyond KATRIN is the energy sharing between the emitted beta particle and the resulting T-3He molecule. It therefore behooves all future tritium-based experiments to use atomic, rather than molecular, tritium. In this presentation we will outline experimental considerations of atomic tritium: production, purification, inhibiting recombination, and cooling. We will discuss these considerations within the context of Project8, a tritium-based, cyclotron radiation emission spectroscopy neutrino mass measurement with an ultimate target sensitivity of 50 meV. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Measurements of tritium retention and removal on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Blanchard, W.; Kamperschroer, J.

    1996-05-01

    Recent experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have afforded an opportunity to measure the retention of tritium in a graphite limiter that is subject to erosion, codeposition and high neutron flux. The tritium was injected by both gas puff and neutral beams. The isotopic mix of hydrogenic recycling was measured spectroscopically and the tritium fraction T/(H+D+T) increased to as high as 75%. Some tritium was pumped out during the experimental run and some removed in a subsequent campaign using various clean-up techniques. While the short term retention of tritium was high, various conditioning techniques were successful in removing {approx} 8,000 Ci and restoring the tritium inventory to a level well below the administrative limit.

  5. Tritium test of a ferro-fluidic rotary seal

    SciTech Connect

    Antipenkov, A.; Day, C.; Adami, H. D.

    2008-07-15

    The ferro-fluidic seal is being investigated as an internal rotary seal for tritium compatible mechanical roots type vacuum pumps. After its successful testing with helium and integration into a small (250 m{sup 3}/h) test roots pump, the seal, made as a cartridge, has been integrated into a special test unit and is currently being tested with tritium in order to define the leak rates and the possible degradation of the ferro-fluid under long term exposure to tritium radiation. The tritium pressure from one side of the seal is 0.125 MPa, the nitrogen pressure from the other side is 0.075 MPa, the rotation speed is maintained at 1500 rpm. The tritium leak through the cartridge contributes to the tritium concentration in the nitrogen, which is continuously measured by an ionisation chamber; the pressure in both chambers is continuously registered by precise pressure gauges. The experimental program is discussed. (authors)

  6. RESULTS OF TRITIUM TRACKING AND GROUNDWATER MONITORING AT THE HANFORD SITE 200 AREA STATE APPROVED LAND DISPOSAL SITE FY2008

    SciTech Connect

    ERB DB

    2008-11-19

    The Hanford Site's 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated aqueous wastes derived from Hanford Site facilities. The treated wastewater occasionally contains tritium, which cannot be removed by the ETF prior to the wastewater being discharged to the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). During the first 11 months of fiscal year 2008 (FY08) (September 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008), approximately 75.15 million L (19.85 million gal) of water were discharged to the SALDS. Groundwater monitoring for tritium and other constituents, as well as water-level measurements, is required for the SALDS by State Waste Discharge Permit Number ST-4500 (Ecology 2000). The current monitoring network consists of three proximal (compliance) monitoring wells and nine tritium-tracking wells. Quarterly sampling of the proximal wells occurred in October 2007 and in January/February 2008, April 2008, and August 2008. The nine tritium-tracking wells, including groundwater monitoring wells located upgradient and downgradient of the SALDS, were sampled in January through April 2008. Water-level measurements taken in the three proximal SALDS wells indicate that a small groundwater mound is present beneath the facility, which is a result of operational discharges. The mound increased in FY08 due to increased ETF discharges from treating groundwater from extraction wells at the 200-UP-l Operable Unit and the 241-T Tank Farm. Maximum tritium activities increased by an order of magnitude at well 699-48-77A (to 820,000 pCi/L in April 2008) but remained unchanged in the other two proximal wells. The increase was due to higher quantities of tritium in wastewaters that were treated and discharged in FY07 beginning to appear at the proximal wells. The FY08 tritium activities for the other two proximal wells were 68,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77C (October 2007) and 120,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77D (October 2007). To date, no indications of a tritium incursion from the

  7. Measurement of tritium permeation through resistant materials near room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J.; DuVal, V.; McMurphy, F.; Uribe, F.; Musket, R.; Brown, D.

    1985-01-01

    To measure tritium permeation through low-permeability materials at 50 to 170/sup 0/C, we use highly-sensitive liquid scintillation counting to detect the permeating tritium. To validate our method, we conducted extensive experiments with copper, for which much data exists for comparison. We report permeability of tritium through copper at 50, 100, and 170/sup 0/C, and discuss details of the experimental technique. Further plans are outlined. 15 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Tritium systems for the tokamak fusion core experiment, TFCX

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium systems, tritium needs and possible tritium release scenarios were assessed for a TFCX class of device, 250 MW, 2 x 10/sup 5/ s of burn, with burn times from 20 s to 300 s. On-site and off-site, continuous and batch processing modes were considered. A reference case, batch processing was developed which fulfills the requirements for plasma physics experiments.

  9. TRIO-01 experiment: in-situ tritium-recovery results

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Billone, M.C.; Misra, B.; Arons, R.M.; Poeppel, R.B.; Dyer, F.F.; Dudley, I.T.; Bate, L.C.; Clemmer, E.D.

    1983-08-01

    The TRIO-01 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery from ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/ with test conditions chosen to simulate those anticipated in fusion power reactors. A status report is presented which describes qualitatively the results observed during the irradiation phase of the experiment. Both the rate of tritium release and the chemical forms of tritium were measured using a helium sweep gas which flowed past the breeder material to a gas analysis system.

  10. TRIO-01 experiment: in-situ tritium recovery results

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Billone, M.C.; Misra, B.; Arons, R.M.; Poeppel, R.B.; Dyer, F.F.; Dudley, I.T.; Bate, L.C.; Clemmer, E.D.

    1983-10-01

    The TRIO-01 experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery from ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/ with test conditions chosen to simulate those anticipated in fusion power reactors. A status report is presented which describes qualitatively the results observed during the irradiation phase of the experiment. Both the rate of tritium release and the chemical forms of tritium were measured using a helium sweep gas which flowed past the breeder material to a gas analysis system.

  11. TRIO-01 experiment: in-situ tritium recovery results

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Billone, M.C.; Misra, B.; Greenwood, L.R.; Dyer, F.F.; Dudley, I.T.; Bate, L.C.; Clemmer, E.D.; Fisher, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    The TRIO-01 experiment was designed to test in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a candidate solid breeder, ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/. The results showed that nearly all the tritium generated was recovered. Only < 0.1 wppM tritium remained in the solid after irradiation testing. The heat transfer performance showed that temperature profiles can be effectively controlled.

  12. Reconstructing genome mixtures from partial adjacencies.

    PubMed

    Mahmoody, Ahmad; Kahn, Crystal L; Raphael, Benjamin J

    2012-01-01

    Many cancer genome sequencing efforts are underway with the goal of identifying the somatic mutations that drive cancer progression. A major difficulty in these studies is that tumors are typically heterogeneous, with individual cells in a tumor having different complements of somatic mutations. However, nearly all DNA sequencing technologies sequence DNA from multiple cells, thus resulting in measurement of mutations from a mixture of genomes. Genome rearrangements are a major class of somatic mutations in many tumors, and the novel adjacencies (i.e. breakpoints) resulting from these rearrangements are readily detected from DNA sequencing reads. However, the assignment of each rearrangement, or adjacency, to an individual cancer genome in the mixture is not known. Moreover, the quantity of DNA sequence reads may be insufficient to measure all rearrangements in all genomes in the tumor. Motivated by this application, we formulate the k-minimum completion problem (k-MCP). In this problem, we aim to reconstruct k genomes derived from a single reference genome, given partial information about the adjacencies present in the mixture of these genomes. We show that the 1-MCP is solvable in linear time in the cases where: (i) the measured, incomplete genome has a single circular or linear chromosome; (ii) there are no restrictions on the chromosomal content of the measured, incomplete genome. We also show that the k-MCP problem, for k ≥ 3 in general, and the 2-MCP problem with the double-cut-and-join (DCJ) distance are NP-complete, when there are no restriction on the chromosomal structure of the measured, incomplete genome. These results lay the foundation for future algorithmic studies of the k-MCP and the application of these algorithms to real cancer sequencing data. PMID:23282028

  13. Thermal release of {sup 3}He from tritium aged LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, G.C.; Crowder, M.L.; Klein, J.E.

    2015-03-15

    The Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities (SRS-TF) utilizes LANA.75 (LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75})in the tritium process to store hydrogen isotopes. The vast majority of {sup 3}He born from the radioactive decay of tritium stored in LANA.75 is trapped in the hydride metal matrix. The SRS-TF has multiple LANA.75 tritium storage beds that have been retired from service with significant quantities of He-3 trapped in the metal. To support He-3 recovery, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) on a tritium aged LANA.75 sample. TGA-MS testing was performed in an argon environment. Prior to testing, the sample was isotopically exchanged with deuterium to reduce residual tritium and passivated with air to alleviate pyrophoric concerns associated with handling the material outside of an inert glovebox. Analyses indicated that gas release from this sample was bimodal, with peaks near 220 and 490 C. degrees. The first peak consisted of both {sup 3}He and residual hydrogen isotopes, the second was primarily {sup 3}He. The bulk of the gas was released by 600 Celsius degrees. (author)

  14. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector results

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Fehling, D.T.; Gouge, M.J.; Milora, S.L. )

    1989-01-01

    The tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment was built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the feasibility of forming solid tritium pellets and accelerating them to high velocities for fueling future fusion reactors. TPOP used a pneumatic pipe-gun with a 4-mm-i.d. by 1-m-long barrel. Nearly 1500 pellets were fired by the gun during the course of the experiment; about a third of these were tritium or mixtures of deuterium and tritium. The system also contained a cryogenic {sup 3}He separator that reduced the {sup 3}He level to <0.005%. Pure tritium pellets were accelerated to 1400 m/s. Experiments evaluated the effect of cryostat temperature and fill pressure on pellet size, the production of pellets from mixtures of tritium and deuterium, and the effect of aging on pellet integrity. The tritium phase of these experiments was performed at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. About 100 kCi of tritium was processed through the apparatus without incident. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots; Hans A. Schmutz

    2013-03-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  16. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Gentile; S.W. Langish; C.H. Skinner; L.P. Ciebiera

    2004-09-10

    In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. Tritium decontamination, by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying motivational forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination.

  17. Tritium release from SS316 under vacuum condition

    SciTech Connect

    Torikai, Y.; Penzhorn, R.D.

    2015-03-15

    The plasma facing surface of the ITER vacuum vessel, partly made of low carbon austenitic stainless steel type 316L, will incorporate tritium during machine operation. In this paper the kinetics of tritium release from stainless steel type 316 into vacuum and into a noble gas stream are compared and modelled. Type 316 stainless steel specimens loaded with tritium either by exposure to 1.2 kPa HT at 573 K or submersion into liquid HTO at 298 K showed characteristic thin surface layers trapping tritium in concentrations far higher than those determined in the bulk. The evolution of the tritium depth profile in the bulk during heating under vacuum was non-discernible from that of tritium liberated into a stream of argon. Only the relative amount of the two released tritium-species, i.e. HT or HTO, was different. Temperature-dependent depth profiles could be predicted with a one-dimensional diffusion model. Diffusion coefficients derived from fitting of the tritium release into an evacuated vessel or a stream of argon were found to be (1.4 ± 1.0)*10{sup -7} and (1.3 ± 0.9)*10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/s at 573 and 423 K, respectively. Polished surfaces on type SS316 stainless steel inhibit considerably the thermal release rate of tritium.

  18. TRITIUM BARRIER MATERIALS AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR THE NGNP

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, S; Thad Adams, T

    2008-07-17

    Contamination of downstream hydrogen production plants or other users of high-temperature heat is a concern of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Due to the high operating temperatures of the NGNP (850-900 C outlet temperature), tritium produced in the nuclear reactor can permeate through heat exchangers to reach the hydrogen production plant, where it can become incorporated into process chemicals or the hydrogen product. The concentration limit for tritium in the hydrogen product has not been established, but it is expected that any future limit on tritium concentration will be no higher than the air and water effluent limits established by the NRC and the EPA. A literature survey of tritium permeation barriers, capture systems, and mitigation measures is presented and technologies are identified that may reduce the movement of tritium to the downstream plant. Among tritium permeation barriers, oxide layers produced in-situ may provide the most suitable barriers, though it may be possible to use aluminized surfaces also. For tritium capture systems, the use of getters is recommended, and high-temperature hydride forming materials such as Ti, Zr, and Y are suggested. Tritium may also be converted to HTO in order to capture it on molecular sieves or getter materials. Counter-flow of hydrogen may reduce the flux of tritium through heat exchangers. Recommendations for research and development work are provided.

  19. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots

    2012-10-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  20. 2012 ACCOMPLISHMENTS - TRITIUM AGING STUDIES ON STAINLESS STEELS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.

    2013-01-31

    This report summarizes the research and development accomplishments during FY12 for the tritium effects on materials program. The tritium effects on materials program is designed to measure the long-term effects of tritium and its radioactive decay product, helium-3, on the structural properties of forged stainless steels which are used as the materials of construction for tritium reservoirs. The FY12 R&D accomplishments include: (1) Fabricated and Thermally-Charged 150 Forged Stainless Steel Samples with Tritium for Future Aging Studies; (2) Developed an Experimental Plan for Measuring Cracking Thresholds of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Steels in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas; (3) Calculated Sample Tritium Contents For Laboratory Inventory Requirements and Environmental Release Estimates; (4) Published report on “Cracking Thresholds and Fracture Toughness Properties of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Stainless Steels”; and, (5) Published report on “The Effects of Hydrogen, Tritium, and Heat Treatment on the Deformation and Fracture Toughness Properties of Stainless Steels”. These accomplishments are highlighted here and references given to additional reports for more detailed information.

  1. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON EPDM ELASTOMER

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.

    2009-12-11

    Samples of four formulations of ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) elastomer were exposed to initially pure tritium gas at one atmosphere and ambient temperature for various times up to about 420 days in closed containers. Two formulations were carbon-black-filled commercial formulations, and two were the equivalent formulations without filler synthesized for this work. Tritium effects on the samples were characterized by measuring the sample volume, mass, flexibility, and dynamic mechanical properties and by noting changes in appearance. The glass transition temperature was determined by analysis of the dynamic mechanical properties. The glass transition temperature increased significantly with tritium exposure, and the unfilled formulations ceased to behave as elastomers after the longest tritium exposure. The filled formulations were more resistant to tritium exposure. Tritium exposure made all samples significantly stiffer and therefore much less able to form a reliable seal when employed as O-rings. No consistent change of volume or density was observed; there was a systematic lowering of sample mass with tritium exposure. In addition, the significant radiolytic production of gas, mainly protium (H{sub 2}) and HT, by the samples when exposed to tritium was characterized by measuring total pressure in the container at the end of each exposure and by mass spectroscopy of a gas sample at the end of each exposure. The total pressure in the containers more than doubled after {approx}420 days tritium exposure.

  2. Considerations for tritium protection at a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to indicate the general direction of current fusion reactor concepts regarding tritium, and to indicate some options in tritium control strategies. Certain strategies, in addition to providing reduced potential health hazard, afford the potential for engineering alternatives for in-plant tritium control systems. The overall coupling of containment cleanup systems and health protection must continue to develop with increased knowledge of the health effects of different tritium species and the consequent systems options available subsequent to this understanding.

  3. Tritium release during nuclear power operation in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, D J; Chen, X Q; Li, B

    2012-06-01

    Overviews were evaluated of tritium releases and related doses to the public from airborne and liquid effluents from nuclear power plants on the mainland of China before 2009. The differences between tritium releases from various nuclear power plants were also evaluated. The tritium releases are mainly from liquid pathways for pressurised water reactors, but tritium releases between airborne and liquid effluents are comparable for heavy water reactors. The airborne release from a heavy water reactor is obviously higher than that from a pressurised water reactor. PMID:22562963

  4. Analysis of residual tritium in an LP 50 product container

    SciTech Connect

    Wermer, J.R.

    1996-06-04

    The analysis was done by sampling coupons cut from the side of the vessel. Tests were performed to analyze the amount of residual tritium in the container wall, as well as the amount of tritium removed through exposure to moist air. Based on this data, the PC contained 62 curies of residual tritium. Air exposure and leaching of the coupons in aqua regia accounted for 27 curies. Recommendations are given for final processing of these containers in order to reduce the final tritium content.

  5. A Low-Level Real-Time In Situ Monitoring System for Tritium in Groundwater and Vadose Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, J. T.; Levitt, D. G.

    2002-12-01

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen produced as a by-product of the nuclear fuel cycle. It is also an integral part of the nuclear weapons industry and has been released into the environment through both the production and testing of nuclear weapons. There are many sites across the DOE complex where tritium has been released into the subsurface through the disposal of radioactive waste and at the Nevada Test Site, through the underground testing of nuclear weapons. Numerous DOE facilities have an on-going regulatory need to be able to monitor tritium concentrations in groundwater within deep hydrologic zones and in the shallower non-saturated vadose zone beneath waste disposal pits and shafts and other release sites. Typical access to groundwater is through deep monitoring wells and situated in remote locations. In response to this need, Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) and its subcontractor, the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) Harry Reid Center (HRC) for Environmental Studies has conducted the applied research and engineering and produced a real time, in situ monitoring system for the detection and measurement of low levels of tritium in the groundwater and in the shallower vadose zone. The monitoring system has been deployed to measure tritium in both the vadose zone near a subsurface radioactive waste package and the groundwater in a deep hydrologic reservoir at the Nevada Test Site. The monitoring system has been designed to detect tritium in the subsurface below federal and/or state regulatory limits for safe drinking water and has been successfully demonstrated. The development effort is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory and the DOE Nevada Operations Office Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI).

  6. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U.; Jacqmin, G.

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  7. Production of {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, and tritium from Be irradiated in FFTF-MOTA-2B

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.

    1998-03-01

    The production of {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, and tritium has been calculated for beryllium irradiated in the Materials Open Test Assembly (MOTA)-2B experiment in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Reaction rates were based on adjusted neutron spectra determined from reactor dosimetry measurements at seven different elevations in the irradiation assembly. Equations are given so that gas production, dpa, and neutron fluences can be calculated for any specific elevation in the MOTA-2B assembly.

  8. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Dey, H; Csaba, G; Bernstein, G H; Porod, W

    2016-09-30

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing. PMID:27535227

  9. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  10. Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1974-01-01

    Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

  11. Tritium contamination at EG&G/EM in North Las Vegas, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Sowell, C.V.; Arent, L.J.

    1996-06-01

    The tritium contamination discovered at the EG&G Energy Measurements (EG&G/EM) facility in North Las Vegas, Nevada, on 20 April 1995, could have been averted by good health physics practices and/or adequate management oversight. Scandium tritide (ScT{sub 3}) targets were installed for use in sealed tube neutron generators at EG&G/EM. In addition, EG&G/EM was also storing zirconium tritide (ZrT{sub 3}) and titanium tritide (TiT{sub 3}) foils. Since the targets were classified as sealed sources, the appropriate administrative and engineering control measures such as relocating targets/sources, air monitoring, bioassay, waste stream management, labeling/posting and training were not implemented. In all there were six unreported incidents of tritium contamination from March 1994 to July 1995. Swipe surveys revealed areas exceeding the action level of 10,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} by up to three orders of magnitude. After reclassifying the targets as unsealed sources, a bioassay program was instituted, and the results were higher than expected for three employees. The doses assigned to the three individuals working in the contaminated area were 35, 58, and 61 mrem committed effective dose equivalent. Though the doses were low, the decontamination costs were in excess of $350,000.00. An investigation, was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office to analyze the events that led to the tritium contamination and recommend actions to prevent recurrence. Event and causal factor charting, Project Evaluation Tree (PET) analysis techniques, and root cause analysis, were used to evaluate management systems, causal sequences, and systems factors contributing to the tritium release.

  12. Assessment of erosion and surface tritium inventory issues for the ITER divertor

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.N.; Causey, R.; Federici, G.; Ruzic, D.N.

    1996-08-01

    The authors analyzed sputtering erosion and tritium codeposition for the ITER vertical target divertor design using erosion and plasma codes (WBC/REDEP/DEGAS+) coupled to available materials data. Computations were made for a beryllium, carbon, and tungsten coated divertor plate, and for three edged plasma regimes. New data on tritium codeposition in beryllium was obtained with the TPE facility. This shows codeposited H/Be ratios of the order of 10% for surface temperatures {le} 300 C, beryllium thereby being similar to carbon in this respect. Hydrocarbon transport calculations show significant loss (10--20%) of chemically sputtered carbon for detached conditions (T{sub e} {approx} 1 eV at the divertor), compared to essentially no loss (100% redeposition) for higher temperature plasmas. Calculations also show a high, non-thermal, D-T molecular flux for detached conditions. Tritium codeposition rates for carbon are very high for detached conditions ({approximately} 20g-T/1000 s discharge), due to buildup of chemically sputtered carbon on relatively cold surfaces of the divertor cassette. Codeposition is lower ({approximately} 10X) for higher edge temperatures ({approximately} 8--30 eV) and is primarily due to divertor plate buildup of physically sputtered carbon. Peak net erosion rates for carbon are of order 30 cm/burn-yr. Erosion and codeposition rates for beryllium are much lower than for carbon at detached conditions, but are similar to carbon for the higher temperatures. Both erosion and tritium codeposition are essentially nil for tungsten for the regimes studied.

  13. Tritium and stable isotopes of magmatic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, F.; McMurtry, G. M.

    2000-04-01

    To investigate the isotopic composition and age of water in volcanic gases and magmas, we analyzed samples from 11 active volcanoes ranging in composition from tholeiitic basalt to rhyolite: Mount St. Helens (USA), Kilauea (USA), Pacaya (Guatemala), Galeras (Colombia), Satsuma Iwo-Jima (Japan), Sierra Negra and Alcedo (Ecuador), Vulcano (Italy), Parı´cutin (Mexico), Kudryavy (Russia), and White Island (New Zealand). Tritium at relatively low levels (0.1-5 T.U.) is found in most emissions from high-temperature volcanic fumaroles sampled, even at discharge temperatures >700°C. Although magmatic fluids sampled from these emissions usually contain high CO 2, S total, HCl, HF, B, Br, 3He R/ RA, and low contents of air components, stable isotope and tritium relations of nearly all such fluids show mixing of magmatic volatiles with relatively young meteoric water (model ages≤75 y). Linear δD/ δ18O and 3H/ δ18O mixing trends of these two end-members are invariably detected at arc volcanoes. Tritium is also detected in fumarole condensates at hot spot basalt volcanoes, but collecting samples approaching the composition of end-member magmatic fluid is exceedingly difficult. In situ production of 3H, mostly from spontaneous fission of 238U in magmas is calculated to be <0.001 T.U., except for the most evolved compositions (high U, Th, and Li and low H 2O contents). These values are below the detection limit of 3H by conventional analytical techniques (about 0.01 T.U. at best). We found no conclusive evidence that natural fusion in the Earth produces anomalous amounts of detectable 3H (>0.05 T.U.).

  14. Spectroscopic diagnostics of tritium recycling in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Stotler, D.P.; Adler, H.; Ramsey, A.T.

    1995-03-01

    The authors present the first spectroscopic measurements of tritium Balmer-alpha (T{sub {alpha}}) emission from a fusion plasma. A Fabry-Perot interferometer is used to measure the H{sub {alpha}}, D{sub {alpha}}, T{sub {alpha}} spectrum in the current D-T a experimental campaign on TFTR and the contributions of H, D and T are separated by spectral analysis. The T{sub {alpha}} line was measurable at concentrations T{sub {alpha}}/(H{sub {alpha}} + D{sub {alpha}} + T{sub {alpha}}) down to 2%.

  15. Tritiation methods and tritium NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, D.K.; Morimoto, H.; Salijoughian, M.; Williams, P.G.

    1991-09-01

    We have used a simple process for the production of highly tritiated water and characterized the product species by {sup 1}H and {sup 3}H NMR spectroscopy. The water is readily manipulated and used in subsequent reactions either as T{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}COOT or CF{sub 3}COOT. Development of tritiated diimide has progressed to the point where cis-hydrogenated products at 1-20 Ci/mmole S.A. are possible. Tri-n-butyl tin tritide has been produced at >95% tritium content and well characterized by multinuclear NMR techniques. 27 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Tritium labeling of organic compounds deposited on porous structures

    DOEpatents

    Ehrenkaufer, Richard L. E.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Hembree, Wylie C.

    1979-01-01

    An improved process for labeling organic compounds with tritium is carried out by depositing the selected compound on the extensive surface of a porous structure such as a membrane filter and exposing the membrane containing the compound to tritium gas activated by the microwave discharge technique. The labeled compound is then recovered from the porous structure.

  17. Determination of tritium distribution in labeled compounds using EPR spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Postolache, C.; Matei, L.; Georgescu, R.

    2008-07-15

    Usually, the tritium distribution in a labeled compound is analyzed by T-NMR spectrometry. NMR equipment is expensive and its sensitivity is lower in comparison to EPR spectrometry. In this paper, the possibility of determining the distribution of tritium in a labeled molecule using self-radiolytic decay processes was analyzed. (authors)

  18. Confinement and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R. J.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Synakowski, E.

    1994-03-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has performed initial high-power experiments with the plasma fueled by deuterium and tritium to nominally equal densities. Compared to pure deuterium plasmas, the energy stored in the electron and ions increased by ~20%. These increases indicate improvements in confinement associated with the use of tritium and possibly heating of electrons by α-particles.

  19. UTILIZATION OF KINETIC ISOTOPE EFFECTS FOR THE CONCENTRATION OF TRITIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to develop methods for concentrating tritium in water based on large primary isotope effects in catalytic redox processes. A process will be developed to remove tritium from H2O by concentrating it with respect to protio-water that can be employed...

  20. Tritium measurement technique using ``in-bed`` calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Mallory, M.K.; Nobile, A. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    One of the new technologies that has been introduced to the Savannah River Site (SRS) is the production scale use of metal hydride technology to store, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. For tritium stored in metal hydride storage beds, a unique relationship does not exist between the amount of tritium in the bed and the pressure-volume-temperature properties of the hydride material. Determining the amount of tritium in a hydride bed after desorbing the contents of the bed to a tank and performing pressure, volume, temperature, and composition (PVTC) measurements is not practical due to long desorption/absorption times and the inability to remove tritium ``heels`` from the metal hydride materials under normal processing conditions. To eliminate the need to remove tritium from hydride storage beds for measurement purposes, and ``in-bed`` tritium calorimetric measurement technique has been developed. The steady-state temperature rise of a gas stream flowing through a jacketed metal hydride storage bed is measured and correlated with power input to electric heaters used to simulate the radiolytic power generated by the decay of tritium to {sup 3}He. Temperature rise results for prototype metal hydride storage beds and the effects of using different gases in the bed are shown. Linear regression results shows that for 95% confidence intervals, temperature rise measurements can be obtained in 14 hours and have an accuracy of {plus_minus}1.6% of a tritium filled hydride storage bed.