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Sample records for adjacent facilities tritium

  1. Tritium Plume Dynamics in the Shallow Unsaturated Zone Adjacent to an Arid Waste Disposal Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, S.; Andraski, B. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Cooper, C. A.; Michel, R. L.; Pohll, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southern Nevada have documented two plumes of tritiated water-vapor (3HHOg) adjacent to a closed, commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Wastes were disposed on-site from 1962-92. Tritium has moved long distances (> 400 m) through a shallow (1-2-m depth) dry gravelly layer—orders of magnitude further than anticipated by standard transport models. Geostatistical methods, spatial moment analyses and tritium flux calculations were applied to assess shallow plume dynamics. A grid-based plant-water sampling method was utilized to infer detailed, field-scale 3HHOg concentrations at 5-yr intervals during 2001-11. Results indicate that gravel-layer 3HHOg mass diminished faster than would be expected from radioactive decay (~70% in 10 yr). Both plumes exhibited center-of-mass stability, suggesting that bulk-plume movement is minimal during the period of study. Nonetheless, evidence of localized lateral advancement along some margins, combined with increases in the spatial covariance of concentration distribution, indicates intra-plume mass redistribution is ongoing. Previous studies have recognized that vertical movement of tritiated water from sub-root-zone gravel into the root-zone contributes to atmospheric release via evapotranspiration. Estimates of lateral and vertical tritium fluxes during the study period indicate (1) vertical tritiated water fluxes were dominated by diffusive-vapor fluxes (> 90%), and (2) vertical diffusive-vapor fluxes were roughly an order of magnitude greater than lateral diffusive-vapor fluxes. This behavior highlights the importance of the atmosphere as a tritium sink. Estimates of cumulative vertical diffusive-vapor flux and radioactive decay with time were comparable to observed declines in total shallow plume mass with time. This suggests observed changes in plume mass may (1) be attributed, in considerable part, to these removal

  2. Tritium Fluxes through the Shallow Unsaturated Zone adjacent to a Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in an Arid Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, S.; Andraski, B. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Cooper, C. A.; Pohll, G.

    2011-12-01

    Studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southern Nevada have documented long-distance (>400-m) tritium (3H) transport adjacent to a commercial, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Transport at this scale is orders of magnitude greater than anticipated; however, lateral 3H fluxes through the shallow unsaturated zone (UZ) have not been investigated in detail. The objective of this study is to estimate and compare lateral and vertical tritiated water-vapor (3HHOg) fluxes in the shallow UZ and their relation to the observed plume migration. Previous studies have recognized two distinct plumes of 3H emanating from the facility. Shallow (0.5 and 1.5-m depth) soil-water vapor samples were collected yearly along 400-m long transects through both plumes from 2003-09. Within the south plume, 3H concentrations at 1.5-m depth have decreased by 44 ± 0.3% during this period, and plume advancement there has effectively ceased (i.e., rate of advance equals rate of decay). During the same period, the west plume showed a net decrease in concentration of 34 ± 0.9% within 100-m of the facility; however, plume advancement is observed at the leading edge of the plume, and concentrations 200-300-m from the facility show an increase in 3H concentration of 64 ± 28.4%. Lateral and vertical diffusive fluxes within both plumes were calculated using 3HHOg concentrations from 2006. Lateral 3HHOg diffusive fluxes within both plumes have been estimated 25-300-m from the facility at 1.5-m depth. Mean lateral 3HHOg diffusive fluxes are 10-14 g m-2 yr-1 within the south plume, and 10-13 g m-2 yr-1 within the west plume. Mean lateral fluxes in the south plume are an order of magnitude lower than in the west plume. This behavior corresponds with the observed relative immobility of the south plume, while the elevated west plume fluxes agree with the plume advancement seen there. Shallow, upward directed, mean vertical 3HHOg fluxes 25-300-m from the

  3. Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wieneke, R.E.; Bowser, R.P.; Hedley, W.H.; Kissner, T.J.; Lamberger, P.H.; Morgan, F.G.; Van Patten, J.F.; Williams, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) will be a system for the continuous processing of tritium containing gases collected from various operations at Mound. The basis of the system operation will be the oxidation of elemental hydrogen isotopes and organic molecules at elevated temperatures on precious metal catalyst beds, and the adsorption of the resulting oxide (water) on molecular sieve dryers. The TERF will be expected to handle from 400,000 to 1,000,000 curies of tritium per year in the process gas stream and release no more than 200 curies per year to the atmosphere. Consequently, the TERF will need to convert and capture tritium at low concentrations in gas efficiently and reliably. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Weapons engineering tritium facility overview

    SciTech Connect

    Najera, Larry

    2011-01-20

    Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

  5. Radiological training for tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This program management guide describes a recommended implementation standard for core training as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The standard is to assist those individuals, both within DOE and Managing and Operating contractors, identified as having responsibility for implementing the core training recommended by the RCM. This training may also be given to radiological workers using tritium to assist in meeting their job specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  6. Hydrogen isotope separation installation for tritium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, B.M.; Perevezentsev, A.N.; Selivanenko, I.L.; Tenyaev, B.N.; Vedeneev, A.I.; Golubkov, A.N.

    1995-10-01

    The separation of hydrogen isotopes in the hydrogen-palladium system in sectioned separation columns with the simulation of counter-current isotopic exchange is described. The separation efficiency of sectioned columns is investigated with the experimental installation as a function of various parameters. The separation of deuterium-tritium mixtures with high tritium concentrations is tested with the pilot installation operating at room temperature and atmospheric hydrogen pressure. Due to very high separation efficiency, flexibility and simplicity of operation separation installations with sectioned columns are ideally suitable for tritium laboratories and facilities dealing with separation of hydrogen isotopes. Estimation of applicability of sectioned columns for regeneration of exhaust gas in a fuel cycle of thermonuclear reactors, such as JET and ITER, shows the number of advantages of separation installations with sectioned columns. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Report of the Task Group on operation Department of Energy tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the operation of DOE Tritium facilities: Environment, Safety, and Health Aspects of Tritium; Management of Operations and Maintenance Functions; Safe Shutdown of Tritium Facilities; Management of the Facility Safety Envelope; Maintenance of Qualified Tritium Handling Personnel; DOE Tritium Management Strategy; Radiological Control Philosophy; Implementation of DOE Requirements; Management of Tritium Residues; Inconsistent Application of Requirements for Measurement of Tritium Effluents; Interdependence of Tritium Facilities; Technical Communication among Facilities; Incorporation of Confinement Technologies into New Facilities; Operation/Management Requirements for New Tritium Facilities; and Safety Management Issues at Department of Energy Tritium Facilities.

  8. Human factors engineering for the TERF (Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility) project. [Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, W.H.; Adams, F.S. ); Wells, J.E. )

    1990-12-14

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) is being built by EG G Mound Applied Technologies to provide improved control of the tritium emissions from gas streams being processed. Mound handles tritium in connection with production, development, research, disassembly, recovery, and surveillance operations. During these operations, a small fraction of the tritium being processed escapes from its original containment. The objective of this report is to describe the human factors engineering as performed in connection with the design, construction, and testing of the TERF as required in DOE Order 6430.1A, section 1300-12. Human factors engineering has been involved at each step of the process and was considered during the preliminary research on tritium capture before selecting the specific process to be used. Human factors engineering was also considered in determining the requirements for the TERF and when the specific design work was initiated on the facility and the process equipment. Finally, human factors engineering was used to plan the specific acceptance tests that will be made during TERF installation and after its completion. These tests will verify the acceptability of the final system and its components. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  9. The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility: Status-2004*

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Anderl; G. R. Longhurst; R. J. Pawelko; J. P. Sharpe; S. T. Schuetz; D. A. Petti

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the current status of the development of the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Designated a National User Facility by the US DOE, the primary mission of STAR is to provide laboratory infrastructure to study tritium science and technology issues associated with the development of safe and environmentally friendly fusion energy. Both tritium and non-tritium fusion safety research is pursued along three key thrust areas: (1) plasma-material interactions of plasma-facing component (PFC) materials exposed to energetic tritium and deuterium ions, (2) fusion safety concerns related to PFC material chemical reactivity and dust/debris generation, activation product mobilization, and tritium behavior in fusion systems, and (3) molten salts and fusion liquids for tritium breeder and coolant applications. STAR comprises a multi-room complex with operations segregated to permit both tritium and non-tritium activities in separately ventilated rooms. Tritium inventory in STAR is limited to 15,000 Ci to maintain its classification as a Radiological Facility. Experiments with tritium are typically conducted in glovebox environments. Key components of the tritium infrastructure have been installed and tested. This includes the following subsystems: (1) a tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS) that uses two 50-g depleted uranium beds for tritium storage and PVT/beta-scintillation analyses for tritium accountability measurements, (2) a Tritium Cleanup System (TCS) that uses catalytic oxidation and molecular sieve water absorption to remove tritiated species from glovebox atmosphere gases and gaseous effluents from experiment and process systems, and (3) tritium monitoring instrumentation for room air, glovebox atmosphere and stack effluent tritium concentration measurements. Integration of the tritium infrastructure subsystems with the experimental and

  10. Development of a tritium recovery system from CANDU tritium removal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Draghia, M.; Pasca, G.; Porcariu, F.

    2015-03-15

    The main purpose of the Tritium Recovery System (TRS) is to reduce to a maximum possible extent the release of tritium from the facility following a tritium release in confinement boundaries and also to have provisions to recover both elemental and vapors tritium from the purging gases during maintenance and components replacement from various systems processing tritium. This work/paper proposes a configuration of Tritium Recovery System wherein elemental tritium and water vapors are recovered in a separated, parallel manner. The proposed TRS configuration is a combination of permeators, a platinum microreactor (MR) and a trickle bed reactor (TBR) and consists of two branches: one branch for elemental tritium recovery from tritiated deuterium gas and the second one for tritium recovery from streams containing a significant amount of water vapours but a low amount, below 5%, of tritiated gas. The two branches shall work in a complementary manner in such a way that the bleed stream from the permeators shall be further processed in the MR and TBR in view of achieving the required decontamination level. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed TRS in comparison with state of the art tritium recovery system from tritium processing facilities is also discussed. (authors)

  11. Tritium Release Estimate from CLWR-Tritium Extraction Facility Waste Overpack

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    2001-05-23

    Spent targets (Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods, TPBARs) from the Commercial Light Water Reactor-Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site will be sent to waste disposal contained in a so-called ''overpack''. The tritium permeation rate through a welded stainless steel overpack was estimated using a finite difference computer program in a previous report. This report is an evaluation of tritium permeation through three additional overpack designs: (1) a stainless steel overpack sealed using a mechanical closure with a metal gasket, (2) a mild steel overpack with the same mechanical closure, and (3) an aluminum overpack sealed by welding.

  12. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    McHood, M D

    2000-10-12

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Commercial Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  13. Recent Upgrades at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Merrill, Brad Johnson; Stewart, Dean Andrew; Loftus, Larry Shayne

    2016-03-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility operated by the Fusion Safety Program (FSP) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). FSP researchers use the STAR facility to carry out experiments in tritium permeation and retention in various fusion materials, including wall armor tile materials. FSP researchers also perform other experimentation as well to support safety assessment in fusion development. This lab, in its present two-building configuration, has been in operation for over ten years. The main experiments at STAR are briefly described. This paper discusses recent work to enhance personnel safety at the facility. The STAR facility is a Department of Energy less than hazard category 3 facility; the personnel safety approach calls for ventilation and tritium monitoring for radiation protection. The tritium areas of STAR have about 4 to 12 air changes per hour, with air flow being once through and then routed to the facility vent stack. Additional radiation monitoring has been installed to read the laboratory room air where experiments with tritium are conducted. These ion chambers and bubblers are used to verify that no significant tritium concentrations are present in the experiment rooms. Standby electrical power has been added to the facility exhaust blower so that proper ventilation will now operate during commercial power outages as well as the real-time tritium air monitors.

  14. Tertiary Containment in a Multi-Room Tritium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, L. R.

    1985-04-01

    An experimental system to provide tertiary containment at Mound has been upgraded to support a new multi-room tritium handling facility. This system is used to remove tritium from room air in the event of primary (process) and secondary (glovebox) containment failure. The upgraded system includes a faster response time, piping and valves that are more leaktight, and a new control panel that better indicates the system status and operating conditions.

  15. Operational Readiness Review: Savannah River Replacement Tritium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The Operational Readiness Review (ORR) is one of several activities to be completed prior to introducing tritium into the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Secretary of Energy will rely in part on the results of this ORR in deciding whether the startup criteria for RTF have been met. The RTF is a new underground facility built to safely service the remaining nuclear weapons stockpile. At RTF, tritium will be unloaded from old components, purified and enriched, and loaded into new or reclaimed reservoirs. The RTF will replace an aging facility at SRS that has processed tritium for more than 35 years. RTF has completed construction and is undergoing facility startup testing. The final stages of this testing will require the introduction of limited amounts of tritium. The US Department of Energy (DOE) ORR was conducted January 19 to February 4, 1993, in accordance with an ORR review plan which was developed considering previous readiness reviews. The plan also considered the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendations 90-4 and 92-6, and the judgements of experienced senior experts. The review covered three major areas: (1) Plant and Equipment Readiness, (2) Personnel Readiness, and (3) Management Systems. The ORR Team was comprised of approximately 30 members consisting of a Team Leader, Senior Safety Experts, and Technical Experts. The ORR objectives and criteria were based on DOE Orders, industry standards, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations guidelines, recommendations of external oversight groups, and experience of the team members.

  16. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.

    1999-12-16

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements.

  17. Consolidated Incineration Facility Tritium Emissions Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D. L.; Aggus, J.R.

    1995-03-29

    The Savannah River Technology Center, a research and development facility at the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site, provides environmental and regulatory compliance support to onsite operations. A new consolidated Incinerator Facility at SRS is being built to treat hazardous and a combination of hazardous and radioactive (mixed) wastes.

  18. Hydrogen isotope separation installation for the regeneration of tritium from gas mixtures in tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, B.M.; Perevezentsev, A.N.; Selivanenko, I.L.

    1994-12-31

    The advantages and disadvantages of different methods for hydrogen isotope separation are considered in terms of their applicability for tritium regeneration in a tritium facility. Due to low inventory, simplicity of operation, flexibility, and safety the methods of separation using solid phases are preferable for tritium facility. The detail consideration of the separation processes with a solid phase reveals that highest efficiency of separation should be achieved in a counter-current separation column, which allow multiplying the thermodynamic isotopic effect. Because of difficulties of the organization of a solid phase motion in a separation column this method did not found practical application for separation of hydrogen isotopic mixtures. The main efforts of a few researches groups were devoted to improve the chromatographic separation process and equipment. The detail comparison of the separation in sectioned column with that in chromatographic as well as in cryodistillation columns show that counter-current separation in a sectioned column is more effective and has other advantages when middle throughput is required. Complete regeneration of an isotopic mixture with separation into three practically pure isotopes independently from isotopic composition of feed can be provided using two sectioned separation columns. Separation installation can operate continuously as well as periodically.

  19. Health physics manual of good practices for tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Blauvelt, R.K.; Deaton, M.R.; Gill, J.T.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide written guidance defining the generally accepted good practices in use at Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities. A {open_quotes}good practice{close_quotes} is an action, policy, or procedure that enhances the radiation protection program at a DOE site. The information selected for inclusion in this document should help readers achieve an understanding of the key radiation protection issues at tritium facilities and provide guidance as to what characterizes excellence from a radiation protection point of view. The ALARA (As Low as Reasonable Achievable) program at DOE sites should be based, in part, on following the good practices that apply to their operations.

  20. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a health risk assessment that addresses continuous releases of tritium to the environment from the National Tritium Labeling Facility (NTLF) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The NTLF contributes approximately 95% of all tritium releases from LBL. Transport and transformation models were used to determine the movement of tritium releases from the NRLF to the air, surface water, soils, and plants and to determine the subsequent doses to humans. These models were calibrated against environmental measurements of tritium levels in the vicinity of the NTLF and in the surrounding community. Risk levels were determined for human populations in each of these zones. Risk levels to both individuals and populations were calculated. In this report population risks and individual risks were calculated for three types of diseases--cancer, heritable genetic effects, and developmental and reproductive effects.

  1. Tritium and ignition target management at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Draggoo, Vaughn

    2013-06-01

    Isotopic mixtures of hydrogen constitute the basic fuel for fusion targets of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A typical NIF fusion target shot requires approximately 0.5 mmoles of hydrogen gas and as much as 750 GBq (20 Ci) of 3H. Isotopic mix ratios are specified according to the experimental shot/test plan and the associated test objectives. The hydrogen isotopic concentrations, absolute amounts, gas purity, configuration of the target, and the physical configuration of the NIF facility are all parameters and conditions that must be managed to ensure the quality and safety of operations. An essential and key step in the preparation of an ignition target is the formation of a ~60 μm thick hydrogen "ice" layer on the inner surface of the target capsule. The Cryogenic Target Positioning System (Cryo-Tarpos) provides gas handling, cyro-cooling, x-ray imaging systems, and related instrumentation to control the volumes and temperatures of the multiphase (solid, liquid, and gas) hydrogen as the gas is condensed to liquid, admitted to the capsule, and frozen as a single spherical crystal of hydrogen in the capsule. The hydrogen fuel gas is prepared in discrete 1.7 cc aliquots in the LLNL Tritium Facility for each ignition shot. Post-shot hydrogen gas is recovered in the NIF Tritium Processing System (TPS). Gas handling systems, instrumentation and analytic equipment, material accounting information systems, and the shot planning systems must work together to ensure that operational and safety requirements are met.

  2. Radiological Characterization and Final Facility Status Report Tritium Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-08-01

    This document contains the specific radiological characterization information on Building 968, the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Complex and Facility. We performed the characterization as outlined in its Radiological Characterization Plan. The Radiological Characterization and Final Facility Status Report (RC&FFSR) provides historic background information on each laboratory within the TRL complex as related to its original and present radiological condition. Along with the work outlined in the Radiological Characterization Plan (RCP), we performed a Radiological Soils Characterization, Radiological and Chemical Characterization of the Waste Water Hold-up System including all drains, and a Radiological Characterization of the Building 968 roof ventilation system. These characterizations will provide the basis for the Sandia National Laboratory, California (SNL/CA) Site Termination Survey .Plan, when appropriate.

  3. NPH Risk Assessment and Mitigation of a SRS Facility for the Safe Storage of Tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.; Griffin, M.J.; Bjorkman, G.S.

    1995-10-18

    Because of the reduction in the nation`s stockpile of weapon systems a large amount of tritium is being returned to the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC. Due to the increased quantity of tritium returning to SRS, the SRS Tritium Facility was tasked to determine the most cost effective means to safely store the tritium gas in a short period of time. This paper presents results of the risk assessment developed to evaluate the safe storage of tritium at SRS, and highlights the structural design of the HIVES used as the cost-effective short term NPH mitigation solution.

  4. The operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Tritium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, C.A.; LaMarche, P.H.; Anderson, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    The TFTR tritium operations staff has successfully received, stored, handled, and processed over five hundred thousand curies of tritium for the purpose of supporting D-T (Deuterium-Tritium) operations at TFTR. Tritium operations personnel nominally provide continuous round the clock coverage (24 hours/day, 7 days/week) in shift complements consisting of I supervisor and 3 operators. Tritium Shift Supervisors and operators are required to have 5 years of operational experience in either the nuclear or chemical industry and to become certified for their positions. The certification program provides formal instruction, as well as on the job training. The certification process requires 4 to 6 months to complete, which includes an oral board lasting up to 4 hours at which time the candidate is tested on their knowledge of Tritium Technology and TFTR Tritium systems. Once an operator is certified, the training process continues with scheduled training weeks occurring once every 5 weeks. During D-T operations at TFTR the operators must evacuate the tritium area due to direct radiation from TFTR D-T pulses. During `` time operators maintain cognizance over tritium systems via a real time TV camera system. Operators are able to gain access to the Tritium area between TFTR D-T pulses, but have been excluded from die tritium area during D-T pulsing for periods up to 30 minutes. Tritium operators are responsible for delivering tritium gas to TFRR as well as processing plasma exhaust gases which lead to the deposition of tritium oxide on disposable molecular sieve beds (DMSB). Once a DMSB is loaded, the operations staff remove the expended DMSB, and replace it with a new DMSB container. The TFIR tritium system is operated via detailed procedures which require operator sign off for system manipulation. There are >300 procedures controlling the operation of the tritium systems.

  5. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility Geotechnical Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M R

    2000-01-11

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Circulating Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  6. Tritium Facilities Modernization and Consolidation Project Process Waste Assessment (Project S-7726)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Oji, L.N.

    1997-11-14

    Under the Tritium Facility Modernization {ampersand} Consolidation (TFM{ampersand}C) Project (S-7726) at the Savannah River Site (SS), all tritium processing operations in Building 232-H, with the exception of extraction and obsolete/abandoned systems, will be reestablished in Building 233-H. These operations include hydrogen isotopic separation, loading and unloading of tritium shipping and storage containers, tritium recovery from zeolite beds, and stripping of nitrogen flush gas to remove tritium prior to stack discharge. The scope of the TFM{ampersand}C Project also provides for a new replacement R&D tritium test manifold in 233-H, upgrading of the 233- H Purge Stripper and 233-H/234-H building HVAC, a new 234-H motor control center equipment building and relocating 232-H Materials Test Facility metallurgical laboratories (met labs), flow tester and life storage program environment chambers to 234-H.

  7. Development of a Remotely Operated Band Saw for the Tritium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J

    2001-01-10

    Future tritium production will be accomplished by irradiation of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The highly radioactive TPBARs will be shipped from the PWR to the Savannah River Site for processing. All processing operations will be accomplished remotely including preparation of the TPBARs for extraction by providing a vent path for the tritium. The Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) will accomplish this breaching operation by using a remotely operated band saw. The development of the system necessary to breach the TPBARs is the focus of this paper.

  8. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R.; Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1997-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

  10. Mercury recovery results of microwave digested tritium facility pump oil

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.J.; Clymire, J.W.

    1997-09-30

    This report is a follow up of work done earlier this year and recorded in document WSRC-RP-97-322. The scope of this document is to demonstrated the viability of digesting two non-radioactive Tritium facility pump oils, Welch Duoseal and Spindura, neat and spiked with low-level mercury to determine completeness of digestion and recoverability of mercury. As noted in document WSRC-RP-97-322 a microwave digestion methodology was developed with CEM`s ultimate digestion vessel system (UDV) and is the technique used for the follow up task of digesting the above mention pump oils for the preparatory step of cold-vapor mercury analysis.All analytical development for this project was performed at TNX. The determination of the mercury concentration in each digested sample was by cold vapor atomic absorption. The instrument used was a Varian SpectrAA 800 with a vapor generation attachment. This flameless AA procedure is a physical method based on the absorption of radiation at 253.7 nm of mercury vapor. Organo-mercury compounds will not respond to the cold vapor atomic absorption technique, therefore, to acquire a total mercury value it is necessary for a complete digestion to oxidize and convert the organo-mercury species to the mercuric ion.

  11. Tritium dynamics in soils and plants grown under three irrigation regimes at a tritium processing facility in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mihok, S; Wilk, M; Lapp, A; St-Amant, N; Kwamena, N-O A; Clark, I D

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of tritium released from nuclear facilities as tritiated water (HTO) have been studied extensively with results incorporated into regulatory assessment models. These models typically estimate organically bound tritium (OBT) for calculating public dose as OBT itself is rarely measured. Higher than expected OBT/HTO ratios in plants and soils are an emerging issue that is not well understood. To support the improvement of models, an experimental garden was set up in 2012 at a tritium processing facility in Pembroke, Ontario to characterize the circumstances under which high OBT/HTO ratios may arise. Soils and plants were sampled weekly to coincide with detailed air and stack monitoring. The design included a plot of native grass/soil, contrasted with sod and vegetables grown in barrels with commercial topsoil under natural rain and either low or high tritium irrigation water. Air monitoring indicated that the plume was present infrequently at concentrations of up to about 100 Bq/m(3) (the garden was not in a major wind sector). Mean air concentrations during the day on workdays (HTO 10.3 Bq/m(3), HT 5.8 Bq/m(3)) were higher than at other times (0.7-2.6 Bq/m(3)). Mean Tissue Free Water Tritium (TFWT) in plants and soils and OBT/HTO ratios were only very weakly or not at all correlated with releases on a weekly basis. TFWT was equal in soils and plants and in above and below ground parts of vegetables. OBT/HTO ratios in above ground parts of vegetables were above one when the main source of tritium was from high tritium irrigation water (1.5-1.8). Ratios were below one in below ground parts of vegetables when irrigated with high tritium water (0.4-0.6) and above one in vegetables rain-fed or irrigated with low tritium water (1.3-2.8). In contrast, OBT/HTO ratios were very high (9.0-13.5) when the source of tritium was mainly from the atmosphere. TFWT varied considerably through time as a result of SRBT's operations; OBT/HTO ratios showed no clear temporal

  12. Seasonal trends in environmental tritium concentrations in a small forest adjacent to a radioactive waste storage area

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Hikaru ); Garten, C.T. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Tritium (HTO) concentrations were studied for an entire year in a floodplain forest adjacent to a low-level radioactive solid waste storage area (SWSA No. 5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Tritium in soil was the principal source of HTO to the deciduous forest. Evaporation from the surface soil along with transpiration from trees leaves both contributed to HTO in the forest atmosphere. During the growing season, transpiration was the principal contributor of HTO to the forest atmosphere, while during the dormant season, the main source of atmospheric HTO was evaporation from the surface soil. Seasonal changes and the characteristics of vegetation will influence the relative importance of evaporation and transpiration as sources of atmospheric HTO near the ground in temperate deciduous forests. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Seasonal trends in environmental tritium concentrations in a small forest adjacent to a radioactive waste storage area

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, H. ); Garten, C.T. Jr. . Environmental Sciences Div.)

    1992-03-01

    Tritium (HTO) concentrations were studied for an entire year in a floodplain forest adjacent to a low-level radioactive solid waste storage areas (SWSA No. 5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Tritium in soil was the principal source of HTO to the deciduous forest. Evaporation from the surface soil along with transpiration from tree leaves both contributed to HTO in the forest atmosphere. During the growing season, transpiration was the principal contributor of HTO to the forest atmosphere, while during he dormant season, the main source of atmospheric HTO was evaporation from the surface soil. This paper discovers seasonal changes and the characteristics of vegetation which will influence the relative importance of evaporation and transpiration as sources of atmospheric HTO near the ground in temperate deciduous forests.

  14. Levels of tritium in soils and vegetation near Canadian nuclear facilities releasing tritium to the atmosphere: implications for environmental models.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P A; Kwamena, N-O A; Ilin, M; Wilk, M; Clark, I D

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) were measured over two growing seasons in vegetation and soil samples obtained in the vicinity of four nuclear facilities and two background locations in Canada. At the background locations, with few exceptions, OBT concentrations were higher than HTO concentrations: OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation varied between 0.3 and 20 and values in soil varied between 2.7 and 15. In the vicinity of the four nuclear facilities OBT/HTO ratios in vegetation and soils deviated from the expected mean value of 0.7, which is used as a default value in environmental transfer models. Ratios of the OBT activity concentration in plants ([OBT]plant) to the OBT activity concentration in soils ([OBT]soil) appear to be a good indicator of the long-term behaviour of tritium in soil and vegetation. In general, OBT activity concentrations in soils were nearly equal to OBT activity concentrations in plants in the vicinity of the two nuclear power plants. [OBT]plant/[OBT]soil ratios considerably below unity observed at one nuclear processing facility represents historically higher levels of tritium in the environment. The results of our study reflect the dynamic nature of HTO retention and OBT formation in vegetation and soil during the growing season. Our data support the mounting evidence suggesting that some parameters used in environmental transfer models approved for regulatory assessments should be revisited to better account for the behavior of HTO and OBT in the environment and to ensure that modelled estimates (e.g., plant OBT) are appropriately conservative.

  15. The Bremen mass spectrometric facility for the measurement of helium isotopes, neon, and tritium in water.

    PubMed

    Sültenfuss, Jürgen; Roether, Wolfgang; Rhein, Monika

    2009-06-01

    We describe the mass spectrometric facility for measuring helium isotopes, neon, and tritium that has been operative at this institute since 1989, and also the sampling and sample preparation steps that precede the mass spectrometric analysis. For water samples in a near-equilibrium with atmospheric air, the facility achieves precision for (3)He/(4)He ratios of+/-0.4% or better, and+/-0.8 % or better for helium and neon concentrations. Tritium precision is typically+/-3 % and the detection limit 10 mTU ( approximately 1.2.10(-3) Bq/kg of pure water). Sample throughputs can reach some thousands per year. These achievements are enabled, among other features, by automation of the measurement procedure and by elaborate calibration, assisted by continual development in detail. To date, we have measured more than 15,000 samples for tritium and 23,000 for helium isotopes and neon, mostly in the context of oceanographic and hydrologic work. Some results of such work are outlined. Even when atmospheric tritium concentrations have become rather uniform, tritium provides water ages if (3)He data are taken concurrently. The technique can resolve tritium concentrations in waters of the pre-nuclear era.

  16. CAPER as central and crucial facility to support R/D with tritium at TLK

    SciTech Connect

    Demange, D.; Fanghaenel, E.; Fischer, S.; Le, T.L.; Priester, F.; Roellig, M.; Schloesser, M.; Simon, K.H.

    2015-03-15

    The CAPER facility at TLK (Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe) originally devoted to Research/Development on tokamak exhaust processing has been significantly upgraded over the last years. Beside new programs on highly tritiated water, CAPER is presently largely used to support satellite experiments, mainly those dedicated to research on advanced analytics. Mutation from Research/Development to part of the TLK tritium infrastructure necessitated new features to be installed in order to facilitate and optimize tritiated mixtures preparation and sample filling, and to enable satellites experiments to discharge their waste gas to CAPER for clean-up. This paper presents recent CAPER mutations to become a central and key facility at TLK. (authors)

  17. Transporter Development for the Tritium Extraction Facility at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, J.

    1998-12-17

    The Commercial Light Water Reactor-Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) is planned for location at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the US Department of Energy CLWR tritium production alternative. This new facility will rely on processes and equipment that are significantly different from those proven in the past or currently in use at SRS. For instance, the CLWR-TEF reference design employs remote modules to provide an inert processing atmosphere, secondary confinement for tritium and the primary confinement for particulate contamination. The primary component of this modular system is the Transporter. A Transporter mock-up was developed to demonstrate concept feasibility of the required processing functions (sealing, attachment/alignment and materials handling). The module design, the seal door selection, and the planned test program are discussed.

  18. Medical Isotope Production With The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.; Cappiello, M.; Pitcher, E.; O`Brien, H.

    1998-08-01

    In order to meet US tritium needs to maintain the nuclear weapons deterrent, the Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing a dual track program to provide a new tritium source. A record of decision is planned for late in 1998 to select either the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) or the Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR) as the technology for new tritium production in the next century. To support this decision, an APT Project was undertaken to develop an accelerator design capable of producing 3 kg of tritium per year by 2007 (START I requirements). The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was selected to lead this effort with Burns and Roe Enterprises, Inc. (BREI) / General Atomics (GA) as the prime contractor for design, construction, and commissioning of the facility. If chosen in the downselect, the facility will be built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and operated by the SRS Maintenance and Operations (M{ampersand}O) contractor, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), with long-term technology support from LANL. These three organizations (LANL, BREI/GA, and WSRC) are working together under the direction of the APT National Project Office which reports directly to the DOE Office of Accelerator Production which has program authority and responsibility for the APT Project.

  19. TRITIUM RESEARCH FACILITY AND LABORATORY, TRA666 AND TRA666A. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM RESEARCH FACILITY AND LABORATORY, TRA-666 AND TRA-666A. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SHOWS SECURITY BUILDING, TRA-621, AT LEFT; TRA-643, AT RIGHT. TRA-666 BUILDING NUMBER IS ON WEST SIDE OF BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-38-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA666, INTERIOR. HYDRAULIC TEST FACILITY. INSIDE LABORATORY 103. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA-666, INTERIOR. HYDRAULIC TEST FACILITY. INSIDE LABORATORY 103. CAMERA FACES NORTH. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-24-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Environmental health-risk assessment for tritium releases at the National Tritium Labeling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Brand, K.P.; Shan, C.

    1997-04-01

    This risk assessment calculates the probability of experiencing health effects, including cancer incidence due to tritium exposure for three groups of people: (1) LBNL workers near the LBNL facility--Building 75--that uses tritium; (2) other workers at LBNL and nearby neighbors; and (3) people who use the UC Berkeley campus area, and some Berkeley residents. All of these groups share the same probability of health effects from the background radiation from natural sources in the Berkeley area environment, including an increased risk of developing a cancer of 11,000 chances per million. In calculating risk the authors assumed continuous operation in Building 75 for at least a human lifetime. Under this assumption, LBNL workers located near Building 75 have an additional risk of 60 chances out of one million to suffer a cancer; other workers at LBNL and people who live near LBNL have an additional risk of six chances out of one million over a lifetime of exposure; and users of the UC Berkeley campus area and other residents of Berkeley have an additional risk of less than once chance out of one million over a lifetime.

  2. Savannah River Site Mixed Waste Management Facility Southwest Plume Tritium Phytoremediation Evaluating Irrigation Management Strategies Over 25 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Riah, Susan; Rebel, Karin

    2004-02-27

    To minimize movement of tritium into surface waters at the Mixed Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Site, tritium contaminated seepage water is being retained in a constructed pond and used to irrigate forest acreage that lies above the pond and over the contaminated groundwater. Twenty five-year potential evapotranspiration and average precipitation are 1443 mm/year and 1127 mm/year, respectively, for the region in which the site is located. Management of the application of tritium contaminated irrigation water needs to be evaluated in the context of the large amount of rainfall relative to evapotranspiration, the strong seasonality in evapotranspiration, and intraannual and inter-annual variability in precipitation. A dynamic simulation model of water and tritium fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum was developed to assess the efficiency (tritium transpired/tritium applied) of several irrigation management strategies.

  3. The derived emission limit for tritiated hydrogen gas from the Darlington Tritium Removal Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neil, Barry C. J.

    1993-06-01

    The derivation of the emission limit for tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) from Tritium Removal Facility is described using the model CEDM-HT. This compartment model assumes equilibrium between HT in air and tritium oxide (HTO) in the soil resulting from HT oxidation by soil bacteria. Subsequent transfer of this HTO occurs to air and food, resulting in dose to people. The factors taken into account in determining the critical group and the dose and emission limit calculations are described. The consumption of local-grown fruits and root vegetables was found to be potentially the major contributor to adult dose resulting from HT emissions. For young children, milk consumption is also potentially significant.

  4. Evaluation of medical isotope production with the accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, R.W.; Frey, G.D.; McLean, D.C., Jr; Spicer, K.M.; Davis, S.E.; Baron, S.; Frysinger, J.R.; Blanpied, G.; Adcock, D.

    1997-07-10

    The accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility, with its high beam current and high beam energy, would be an ideal supplier of radioisotopes for medical research, imaging, and therapy. By-product radioisotopes will be produced in the APT window and target cooling systems and in the tungsten target through spallation, neutron, and proton interactions. High intensity proton fluxes are potentially available at three different energies for the production of proton- rich radioisotopes. Isotope production targets can be inserted into the blanket for production of neutron-rich isotopes. Currently, the major production sources of radioisotopes are either aging or abroad, or both. The use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine is growing and changing, both in terms of the number of nuclear medicine procedures being performed and in the rapidly expanding range of procedures and radioisotopes used. A large and varied demand is forecast, and the APT would be an ideal facility to satisfy that demand.

  5. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.; Heung, L.K.

    1997-10-20

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented.

  6. Particulate matter adjacent to cattle deep-bedded monoslope facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region. Many of these facilities add organic bedding material to the pens once or twice per week. Particulate matter concentrations and emissions from these facilities have not been evaluate...

  7. An overview of research activities on materials for nuclear applications at the INL Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility

    SciTech Connect

    P. Calderoni; P. Sharpe; M. Shimada

    2009-09-01

    The Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility at the Idaho National Laboratory is a US Department of Energy National User Facility engaged in various aspects of materials research for nuclear applications related to fusion and advanced fission systems. Research activities are mainly focused on the interaction of tritium with materials, in particular plasma facing components, liquid breeders, high temperature coolants, fuel cladding, cooling and blanket structures and heat exchangers. Other activities include validation and verification experiments in support of the Fusion Safety Program, such as beryllium dust reactivity and dust transport in vacuum vessels, and support of Advanced Test Reactor irradiation experiments. This paper presents an overview of the programs engaged in the activities, which include the US-Japan TITAN collaboration, the US ITER program, the Next Generation Power Plant program and the tritium production program, and a presentation of ongoing experiments as well as a summary of recent results with emphasis on fusion relevant materials.

  8. Design of a deuterium and tritium-ablator shock ignition target for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, Matthew R.; Perkins, L. John; Sepke, Scott M.

    2012-11-15

    Shock ignition presents a viable path to ignition and high gain on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In this paper, we describe the development of the 1D design of 0.5 MJ class, all-deuterium and tritium (fuel and ablator) shock ignition target that should be reasonably robust to Rayleigh-Taylor fluid instabilities, mistiming, and hot electron preheat. The target assumes 'day one' NIF hardware and produces a yield of 31 MJ with reasonable allowances for laser backscatter, absorption efficiency, and polar drive power variation. The energetics of polar drive laser absorption require a beam configuration with half of the NIF quads dedicated to launching the ignitor shock, while the remaining quads drive the target compression. Hydrodynamic scaling of the target suggests that gains of 75 and yields 70 MJ may be possible.

  9. Defense In-Depth Accident Analysis Evaluation of Tritium Facility Bldgs. 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-05-10

    'The primary purpose of this report is to document a Defense-in-Depth (DID) accident analysis evaluation for Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facility Buildings 232-H, 233-H, and 234-H. The purpose of a DID evaluation is to provide a more realistic view of facility radiological risks to the offsite public than the bounding deterministic analysis documented in the Safety Analysis Report, which credits only Safety Class items in the offsite dose evaluation.'

  10. RAMI modeling of plant systems for proposed tritium production and extraction facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-04-05

    The control of life-cycle cost is a primary concern during the development, construction, operation, and decommissioning of DOE systems and facilities. An effective tool that can be used to control these costs, beginning with the design stage, is called a reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability analysis or, simply, RAMI for short. In 1997, RAMI technology was introduced to the Savannah River Site with applications at the conceptual design stage beginning with the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project and later extended to the Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR) Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) Project. More recently it has been applied to the as-build Water Treatment Facilities designed for ground water environmental restoration. This new technology and database was applied to the assessment of balance-of-plant systems for the APT Conceptual Design Report. Initial results from the Heat Removal System Assessment revealed that the system conceptual design would cause the APT to fall short of its annual production goal. Using RAM technology to immediately assess this situation, it was demonstrated that the product loss could be gained back by upgrading the system's chiller unit capacity at a cost of less than $1.3 million. The reclaimed production is worth approximately $100 million. The RAM technology has now been extended to assess the conceptual design for the CLWR-TEF Project. More specifically, this technology and database is being used to translate high level availability goals into lower level system design requirements that will ensure the TEF meets its production goal. Results, from the limited number of system assessments performed to date, have already been used to modify the conceptual design for a remote handling system, improving its availability to the point that a redundant system, with its associated costs of installation and operation may no longer be required. RAMI results were also used to justify the elimination

  11. Darlington tritium removal facility and station upgrading plant dynamic process simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Busigin, A.; Williams, G. I. D.; Wong, T. C. W.; Kulczynski, D.; Reid, A.

    2008-07-15

    Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) has a 4 x 880 MWe CANDU nuclear station at its Darlington Nuclear Div. located in Bowmanville. The station has been operating a Tritium Removal Facility (TRF) and a D{sub 2}O station Upgrading Plant (SUP) since 1989. Both facilities were designed with a Distributed Control System (DCS) and programmable logic controllers (PLC) for process control. This control system was replaced with a DCS only, in 1998. A dynamic plant simulator was developed for the Darlington TRF (DTRF) and the SUP, as part of the computer control system replacement. The simulator was used to test the new software, required to eliminate the PLCs. The simulator is now used for operator training and testing of process control software changes prior to field installation. Dynamic simulation will be essential for the ITER isotope separation system, where the process is more dynamic than the relatively steady-state DTRF process. This paper describes the development and application of the DTRF and SUP dynamic simulator, its benefits, architecture, and the operational experience with the simulator. (authors)

  12. Sources of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1980-12-01

    A review of tritium sources is presented. The tritium production and release rates are discussed for light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs), liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and molten salt breeder reactors (MSBRs). In addition, release rates are discussed for tritium production facilities, fuel reprocessing plants, weapons detonations, and fusion reactors. A discussion of the chemical form of the release is included. The energy producing facilities are ranked in order of increasing tritium production and release. The ranking is: HTGRs, LWRs, LMFBRs, MSBRs, and HWRs. The majority of tritium has been released in the form of tritiated water.

  13. Transfer of tritium released into the marine environment by French nuclear facilities bordering the English Channel.

    PubMed

    Fiévet, Bruno; Pommier, Julien; Voiseux, Claire; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Laguionie, Philippe; Cossonnet, Catherine; Solier, Luc

    2013-06-18

    Controlled amounts of liquid tritium are discharged as tritiated water (HTO) by the nuclear industry into the English Channel. Because the isotopic discrimination between 3H and H is small, organically bound tritium (OBT) and HTO should show the same T/H ratio under steady-state conditions. We report data collected from the environment in the English Channel. Tritium concentrations measured in seawater HTO, as well as in biota HTO and OBT, confirm that tritium transfers from HTO to OBT result in conservation of the T/H ratio (ca. 1 × 10(-16)). The kinetics of the turnover of tritium between seawater HTO, biota HTO, and OBT was investigated. HTO in two algae and a mollusk is shown to exchange rapidly with seawater HTO. However, the overall tritium turnover between HTO and the whole-organism OBT is a slow process with a tritium biological half-life on the order of months. Nonsteady-state conditions exist where there are sharp changes in seawater HTO. As a consequence, for kinetic reasons, the T/H ratio in OBT may deviate transiently from that observed in HTO of samples from the marine ecosystem. Dynamic modeling is thus more realistic for predicting tritium transfers to biota OBT under nonsteady-state conditions.

  14. Deuterium-Tritium Fuel Layer Formation for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kozioziemski, B. J.; Mapoles, E. R.; Sater, J. D.; Chernov, A. A.; Moody, J. D.; Lugten, J. B.; Johnson, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion requires very smooth and uniform solid deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel layers. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) point design calls for a 65- to 75-m-thick D-T fuel layer inside of a 2-mm-diam spherical ablator shell to be 1.5 K below the D-T melting temperature (Tm) of 19.79 K. We also find that the layer quality depends on the initial crystal seeding, with the best layers grown from a single seed. The low modes of the layer are controlled by thermal shimming of the hohlraum and meet the NIF requirement with beryllium shells and nearly meet the requirement with plastic shells. The remaining roughness is localized in grain-boundary grooves and is minimal for a single crystal layer. Once formed, the layers need to be cooled to Tm - 1.5 K. Here, we studied dependence of the roughness on the cooling rate and found that cooling at rates of 0.03 to 0.5 K/s is able to preserve the layer structure for a few seconds after reaching the desired temperature. The entire fuel layer remains in contact with the shell during this rapid cooling. Therefore, rapid cooling of the layers is able to satisfy the NIF ignition requirements.

  15. Detailed implosion modeling of deuterium-tritium layered experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D. S.; Hinkel, D. E.; Eder, D. C.; Jones, O. S.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J. L.; Robey, H. F.; Suter, L. J.; Town, R. P. J.

    2013-05-15

    More than two dozen inertial confinement fusion ignition experiments with cryogenic deuterium-tritium layers have now been performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 443, 2841 (2004)]. Each of these yields a wealth of data including neutron yield, neutron down-scatter fraction, burn-averaged ion temperature, x-ray image shape and size, primary and down-scattered neutron image shape and size, etc. Compared to 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations modeling both the hohlraum and the capsule implosion, however, the measured capsule yield is usually lower by a factor of 5 to 10, and the ion temperature varies from simulations, while most other observables are well matched between experiment and simulation. In an effort to understand this discrepancy, we perform detailed post-shot simulations of a subset of NIF implosion experiments. Using two-dimensional HYDRA simulations [M. M. Marinak, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2275 (2001).] of the capsule only, these simulations represent as accurately as possible the conditions of a given experiment, including the as-shot capsule metrology, capsule surface roughness, and ice layer defects as seeds for the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. The radiation drive used in these capsule-only simulations can be tuned to reproduce quite well the measured implosion timing, kinematics, and low-mode asymmetry. In order to simulate the experiments as accurately as possible, a limited number of fully three-dimensional implosion simulations are also being performed. Despite detailed efforts to incorporate all of the effects known and believed to be important in determining implosion performance, substantial yield discrepancies remain between experiment and simulation. Some possible alternate scenarios and effects that could resolve this discrepancy are discussed.

  16. Finding of no significant impact for the tritium facility modernization and consolidation project at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1222) for the proposed modernization and consolidation of the existing tritium facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issueing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  17. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  18. Tritium monitoring techniques

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, J.R.; Buckner, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    As part of their operations, the U.S. Navy is required to store or maintain operational nuclear weapons on ships and at shore facilities. Since these weapons contain tritium, there are safety implications relevant to the exposure of personnel to tritium. This is particularly important for shipboard operations since these types of environments can make low-level tritium detection difficult. Some of these ships have closed systems, which can result in exposure to tritium at levels that are below normally acceptable levels but could still cause radiation doses that are higher than necessary or could hamper ship operations. This report describes the state of the art in commercial tritium detection and monitoring and recommends approaches for low-level tritium monitoring in these environments.

  19. Tritium production, recovery and application in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Kim, Kwang-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Four CANDU reactors have been operating at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Generation in Korea. The Wolsong tritium removal facility was constructed to reduce the tritium levels in heavy water systems. This facility was designed to process 100kg/h of tritiated heavy water feed and to produce 99% pure T(2). This recovered tritium will be made available for commercial applications. The initial phases on the tritium applications are made to establish the infrastructure and the tritium controls.

  20. Tritium activities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; LaMarche, P.

    1995-07-01

    There have been many significant changes in the status of tritium activities in the US since the 4th Tritium Conference in October, 1991. The replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at Savannah River Site and the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory are now operational with tritium. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has initiated a highly successful experimental campaign studying DT plasmas, and has produced more than 10 Megawatts (MW) of fusion power in a D-T plasma. Sandia National Laboratory has ceased tritium operations at the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) and many of the activities previously performed there have been transferred to Los Alamos and Savannah River. The tritium laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has reduced the tritium inventory to <5 grams. The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos continues to be at the forefront of tritium technology and safety development for the fusion energy program.

  1. Development of tritium technology at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Bartlit, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is dedicated to the development, demonstration, and interfacing of technologies related to the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle for large scale fusion reactor systems starting with the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) or the International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR). This paper briefly describes the fuel cycle and safety systems at TSTA including the Vacuum Facility, Fuel Cleanup, Isotope Separation, Transfer Pumping, Emergency Tritium Cleanup, Tritium Waste Treatment, Tritium Monitoring, Data Acquisition and Control, Emergency Power and Gas Analysis systems. Discussed in further detail is the experimental program proposed for the startup and testing of these systems.

  2. The tritium operations experience on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    von Halle, A.; Gentile, C.; Anderson, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium gas system is administratively limited to 5 grains of tritium and provides the feedstock gas for the neutral beam and torus injection systems. Tritium operations on TFTR began with leak checking of gas handling systems, qualification of the gas injection systems, and high power plasma operations using using trace amounts of tritium in deuterium feedstock gas. Full tritium operation commenced with four highly diagnosed neutral beam pulses into a beamline calorimeter to verify planned tritium beam operating routines and to demonstrate the deuterium to tritium beam isotope exchange. Since that time, TFTR has successfully operated each of the twelve neutral beam ion sources in tritium during hundreds of tritium beam pulses and torus gas injections. This paper describes- the TFTR tritium gas handling systems and TFTR tritium operations of the gas injection systems and the neutral beam ion sources. Tritium accounting and accountability is discussed, including tritium retention issues of the torus limiters and beam impinged surfaces of the beamline components. Also included is tritium beam velocity analysis that compares the neutral beam extracted ion species composition for deuterium and tritium and that determines the extent of beam isotope exchange on subsequent deuterium and tritium beam pulses. The required modifications to TFTR operating routines to meet the US Department of Energy regulations for a low hazard nuclear facility and the problems encountered during initial tritium operations are described.

  3. Quantifying atmospheric stability conditions at a swine facility and an adjacent corn field in Iowa, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Ramirez, Guillermo; Sauer, Thomas J.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Prueger, John H.

    2011-10-01

    Atmospheric stability conditions in the atmospheric surface layer control the distance and direction of transport of air contaminants. Near confined animal facilities, transport processes significantly impact air quality as these sites typically act as point sources of dust and odor constituents; however, little information is available on atmospheric stability effects. This study was conducted to assess year-round temporal patterns of atmospheric stability at a swine production facility and an adjacent commercial corn field (CF) in the US Midwest. Two towers of 10 and 20 m heights for continuous micrometeorological measurements were deployed within a CF and between swine buildings (BSB), respectively. Each tower was equipped with an eddy-covariance system at 6.8 m height, infrared thermometers, and six cup anemometers with thermocouples installed at log-distributed heights. Overall results from gradient Richardson number and Monin-Obukhov (z/L) calculations revealed a greater prevalence of unstable conditions for BSB compared with CF. During the 13-month measurement period, unstable cases (z/L ranging from -1 to -0.01) occurred 1.4 times more frequently for BSB than CF (52 vs. 39%, respectively), while stable cases (0.011-0.2) were 1.8 times more frequent for CF than BSB (24 vs. 14%, respectively). These patterns were partly associated with higher surface radiometric temperatures for BSB. Relatively greater diurnal heat capture at BSB (ground and roof surfaces) and a cooling effect in CF through active canopy transpiration during the daytime explain these z/L and radiometric temperature results. Prevalent diurnal atmospheric instability at BSB suggests enhanced ascendant vertical transport of air pollutants perhaps causing greater mixing/dilution with the atmospheric layer and/or their facilitated transport over greater distances when sorbed onto particles. This enhanced understanding of the spatio-temporal patterns of atmospheric stability can be subsequently

  4. Indications of flow near maximum compression in layered deuterium-tritium implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Knauer, J. P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Munro, D. H.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Bionta, R. M.; Bond, E. J.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D.; Casey, D. T.; Döppner, T.; Frenje, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hurricane, O.; Kritcher, A.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Mackinnon, A.; Meezan, N.; Patel, P.; Petrasso, R. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Springer, P. T.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2016-08-01

    An accurate understanding of burn dynamics in implosions of cryogenically layered deuterium (D) and tritium (T) filled capsules, obtained partly through precision diagnosis of these experiments, is essential for assessing the impediments to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. We present measurements of neutrons from such implosions. The apparent ion temperatures Tion are inferred from the variance of the primary neutron spectrum. Consistently higher DT than DD Tion are observed and the difference is seen to increase with increasing apparent DT Tion. The line-of-sight rms variations of both DD and DT Tion are small, ˜150 eV , indicating an isotropic source. The DD neutron yields are consistently high relative to the DT neutron yields given the observed Tion. Spatial and temporal variations of the DT temperature and density, DD-DT differential attenuation in the surrounding DT fuel, and fluid motion variations contribute to a DT Tion greater than the DD Tion, but are in a one-dimensional model insufficient to explain the data. We hypothesize that in a three-dimensional interpretation, these effects combined could explain the results.

  5. Demonstration of High Performance in Layered Deuterium-Tritium Capsule Implosions in Uranium Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Döppner, T.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; ...

    2015-07-28

    We report on the first layered deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule implosions indirectly driven by a “highfoot” laser pulse that were fielded in depleted uranium hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility. Recently, high-foot implosions have demonstrated improved resistance to ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced mixing of ablator material into the DT hot spot [Hurricane et al., Nature (London) 506, 343 (2014)]. Uranium hohlraums provide a higher albedo and thus an increased drive equivalent to an additional 25 TW laser power at the peak of the drive compared to standard gold hohlraums leading to higher implosion velocity. Additionally, we observe an improved hot-spot shapemore » closer to round which indicates enhanced drive from the waist. In contrast to findings in the National Ignition Campaign, now all of our highest performing experiments have been done in uranium hohlraums and achieved total yields approaching 1016 neutrons where more than 50% of the yield was due to additional heating of alpha particles stopping in the DT fuel.« less

  6. Demonstration of High Performance in Layered Deuterium-Tritium Capsule Implosions in Uranium Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Döppner, T; Callahan, D A; Hurricane, O A; Hinkel, D E; Ma, T; Park, H-S; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Casey, D T; Celliers, P; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Haan, S W; Kritcher, A L; MacPhee, A; Le Pape, S; Pak, A; Patel, P K; Springer, P T; Salmonson, J D; Tommasini, R; Benedetti, L R; Bond, E; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J; Church, J; Dixit, S; Edgell, D; Edwards, M J; Fittinghoff, D N; Frenje, J; Gatu Johnson, M; Grim, G; Hatarik, R; Havre, M; Herrmann, H; Izumi, N; Khan, S F; Kline, J L; Knauer, J; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; Merrill, F E; Moody, J; Moore, A S; Nikroo, A; Ralph, J E; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Sayre, D; Schneider, M; Streckert, H; Town, R; Turnbull, D; Volegov, P L; Wan, A; Widmann, K; Wilde, C H; Yeamans, C

    2015-07-31

    We report on the first layered deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule implosions indirectly driven by a "high-foot" laser pulse that were fielded in depleted uranium hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility. Recently, high-foot implosions have demonstrated improved resistance to ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced mixing of ablator material into the DT hot spot [Hurricane et al., Nature (London) 506, 343 (2014)]. Uranium hohlraums provide a higher albedo and thus an increased drive equivalent to an additional 25 TW laser power at the peak of the drive compared to standard gold hohlraums leading to higher implosion velocity. Additionally, we observe an improved hot-spot shape closer to round which indicates enhanced drive from the waist. In contrast to findings in the National Ignition Campaign, now all of our highest performing experiments have been done in uranium hohlraums and achieved total yields approaching 10^{16} neutrons where more than 50% of the yield was due to additional heating of alpha particles stopping in the DT fuel.

  7. Indications of flow near maximum compression in layered deuterium-tritium implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Gatu Johnson, M; Knauer, J P; Cerjan, C J; Eckart, M J; Grim, G P; Hartouni, E P; Hatarik, R; Kilkenny, J D; Munro, D H; Sayre, D B; Spears, B K; Bionta, R M; Bond, E J; Caggiano, J A; Callahan, D; Casey, D T; Döppner, T; Frenje, J A; Glebov, V Yu; Hurricane, O; Kritcher, A; LePape, S; Ma, T; Mackinnon, A; Meezan, N; Patel, P; Petrasso, R D; Ralph, J E; Springer, P T; Yeamans, C B

    2016-08-01

    An accurate understanding of burn dynamics in implosions of cryogenically layered deuterium (D) and tritium (T) filled capsules, obtained partly through precision diagnosis of these experiments, is essential for assessing the impediments to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. We present measurements of neutrons from such implosions. The apparent ion temperatures T_{ion} are inferred from the variance of the primary neutron spectrum. Consistently higher DT than DD T_{ion} are observed and the difference is seen to increase with increasing apparent DT T_{ion}. The line-of-sight rms variations of both DD and DT T_{ion} are small, ∼150eV, indicating an isotropic source. The DD neutron yields are consistently high relative to the DT neutron yields given the observed T_{ion}. Spatial and temporal variations of the DT temperature and density, DD-DT differential attenuation in the surrounding DT fuel, and fluid motion variations contribute to a DT T_{ion} greater than the DD T_{ion}, but are in a one-dimensional model insufficient to explain the data. We hypothesize that in a three-dimensional interpretation, these effects combined could explain the results.

  8. Indications of flow near maximum compression in layered deuterium-tritium implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Knauer, J. P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Munro, D. H.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Bionta, R. M.; Bond, E. J.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D.; Casey, D. T.; Doppner, T.; Frenje, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hurricane, O.; Kritcher, A.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Mackinnon, A.; Meezan, N.; Patel, P.; Petrasso, R. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Springer, P. T.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2016-08-15

    Here, an accurate understanding of burn dynamics in implosions of cryogenically layered deuterium (D) and tritium (T) filled capsules, obtained partly through precision diagnosis of these experiments, is essential for assessing the impediments to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. We present measurements of neutrons from such implosions. The apparent ion temperatures Tion are inferred from the variance of the primary neutron spectrum. Consistently higher DT than DD Tion are observed and the difference is seen to increase with increasing apparent DT Tion. The line-of-sight rms variations of both DD and DT Tion are small, ~150eV, indicating an isotropic source. The DD neutron yields are consistently high relative to the DT neutron yields given the observed Tion. Spatial and temporal variations of the DT temperature and density, DD-DT differential attenuation in the surrounding DT fuel, and fluid motion variations contribute to a DT Tion greater than the DD Tion, but are in a one-dimensional model insufficient to explain the data. We hypothesize that in a three-dimensional interpretation, these effects combined could explain the results.

  9. Indications of flow near maximum compression in layered deuterium-tritium implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Knauer, J. P.; Cerjan, C. J.; ...

    2016-08-15

    Here, an accurate understanding of burn dynamics in implosions of cryogenically layered deuterium (D) and tritium (T) filled capsules, obtained partly through precision diagnosis of these experiments, is essential for assessing the impediments to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. We present measurements of neutrons from such implosions. The apparent ion temperatures Tion are inferred from the variance of the primary neutron spectrum. Consistently higher DT than DD Tion are observed and the difference is seen to increase with increasing apparent DT Tion. The line-of-sight rms variations of both DD and DT Tion are small, ~150eV, indicating an isotropicmore » source. The DD neutron yields are consistently high relative to the DT neutron yields given the observed Tion. Spatial and temporal variations of the DT temperature and density, DD-DT differential attenuation in the surrounding DT fuel, and fluid motion variations contribute to a DT Tion greater than the DD Tion, but are in a one-dimensional model insufficient to explain the data. We hypothesize that in a three-dimensional interpretation, these effects combined could explain the results.« less

  10. Deuterium-Tritium Beta-Layering Within a National Ignition Facility Scale Polymer Target in the LANL Cryogenic Pressure Loader

    SciTech Connect

    Ebey, Peter S.; Dole, James M.; Geller, Drew A.; Hoffer, James K.; Nobile, Arthur; Sheliak, John D.

    2005-11-15

    Beta-layering, the process of beta-decay heat-driven mass redistribution, has been demonstrated in a deuterium-tritium (D-T)-filled polymer sphere of the type required for fusion ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility. This is the first report, to the best of the authors' knowledge, of a D-T layer formed in a permeation-filled sphere. The 2-mm-diam sphere was filled with D-T by permeation; cooled to cryogenic temperatures while in the high-pressure permeation vessel; and, while cold, removed to an optical axis where the D-T was frozen, melted, and beta-layered in a series of experiments over several weeks' time. This work was performed in the Los Alamos National Laboratory cryogenic pressure loader system. The beta-layering time constant was 24.0 {+-} 2.5 min, less than the theoretical value of 26.8 min, and not showing the significant increase due to build-up of {sup 3}He often observed in beta-layered samples. Supercooling of the liquid D-T was observed. Neither the polymer target nor its tenting material showed visual signs of degradation after 5 weeks of exposure to D-T. Small external thermal gradients were used to shift the D-T material back and forth within the sphere.

  11. Demonstration of High Performance in Layered Deuterium-Tritium Capsule Implosions in Uranium Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Döppner, T.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Ma, T.; Park, H. -S.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. P.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Haan, S.; Kritcher, A. L.; MacPhee, A.; Le Pape, S.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Springer, P. T.; Salmonson, J. D.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Church, J.; Dixit, S.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Hatarik, R.; Havre, M.; Herrmann, H.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Knauer, J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Landen, O. L.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, J.; Moore, A. S.; Nikroo, A.; Ralph, J. E.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M.; Streckert, H.; Town, R.; Turnbull, D.; Volegov, P. L.; Wan, A.; Widmann, K.; Wilde, C. H.; Yeamans, C.

    2015-07-28

    We report on the first layered deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule implosions indirectly driven by a “highfoot” laser pulse that were fielded in depleted uranium hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility. Recently, high-foot implosions have demonstrated improved resistance to ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced mixing of ablator material into the DT hot spot [Hurricane et al., Nature (London) 506, 343 (2014)]. Uranium hohlraums provide a higher albedo and thus an increased drive equivalent to an additional 25 TW laser power at the peak of the drive compared to standard gold hohlraums leading to higher implosion velocity. Additionally, we observe an improved hot-spot shape closer to round which indicates enhanced drive from the waist. In contrast to findings in the National Ignition Campaign, now all of our highest performing experiments have been done in uranium hohlraums and achieved total yields approaching 1016 neutrons where more than 50% of the yield was due to additional heating of alpha particles stopping in the DT fuel.

  12. Overview of tritium: characteristics, sources, and problems.

    PubMed

    Okada, S; Momoshima, N

    1993-12-01

    Tritium has certain characteristics that present unique challenges for dosimetry and health-risk assessment. For example, in the gas form, tritium can diffuse through almost any container, including those made of steel, aluminum, and plastics. In the oxide form, tritium can generally not be detected by commonly used survey instruments. In the environment, tritium can be taken up by all hydrogen-containing molecules, distributing widely on a global scale. Tritium can be incorporated into humans through respiration, ingestion, and diffusion through skin. Its harmful effects are observed only when it is incorporated into the body. Several sources contribute to the inventory of tritium in our environment. These are 1) cosmic ray interaction with atmospheric molecules; 2) nuclear reactions in the earth's crust; 3) nuclear testing in the atmosphere during the 1950s and 1960s; 4) continuous release of tritium from nuclear power plants and tritium production facilities under normal operation; 5) incidental releases from these facilities; and 6) consumer products. An important future source will be nuclear fusion facilities expected to be developed for the purpose of electricity generation. The principal health physics problems associated with tritium are 1) the determination of the parameters for risk estimation with further reduction of their uncertainties (e.g., relative biological effectiveness and dose-rate dependency); 2) risk estimation from complex exposures to tritium in gas form, tritium in oxide form, tritium surface contamination, and other tritium-contaminated forms, with or without other ionizing radiations and/or nonionizing radiations; 3) the dose contributions of elemental tritium in the lung and from its oxidized tritium in the gastrointestinal tract; 4) prevention of tritium (in oxide form) intake and enhancement of tritium (oxide form) excretion from the human body; 5) precise health effects information for low-level tritium exposure; and 6) public

  13. Copper activation deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Cooper, G W; Ruiz, C L; Leeper, R J; Chandler, G A; Hahn, K D; Nelson, A J; Torres, J A; Smelser, R M; McWatters, B R; Bleuel, D L; Yeamans, C B; Knittel, K M; Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Petrasso, R D; Styron, J D

    2012-10-01

    A DT neutron yield diagnostic based on the reactions, (63)Cu(n,2n)(62)Cu(β(+)) and (65)Cu(n,2n)( 64) Cu(β(+)), has been fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The induced copper activity is measured using a NaI γ-γ coincidence system. Uncertainties in the 14-MeV DT yield measurements are on the order of 7% to 8%. In addition to measuring yield, the ratio of activities induced in two, well-separated copper samples are used to measure the relative anisotropy of the fuel ρR to uncertainties as low as 5%.

  14. First results of radiation-driven, layered deuterium-tritium implosions with a 3-shock adiabat-shaped drive at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Robey, H. F.; Döppner, T.; Jones, O. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Bachmann, B.; Baker, K. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bond, E.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Dixit, S. N.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Hurricane, O. A.; Jancaitis, K. S.; and others

    2015-08-15

    Radiation-driven, layered deuterium-tritium plastic capsule implosions were carried out using a new, 3-shock “adiabat-shaped” drive on the National Ignition Facility. The purpose of adiabat shaping is to use a stronger first shock, reducing hydrodynamic instability growth in the ablator. The shock can decay before reaching the deuterium-tritium fuel leaving it on a low adiabat and allowing higher fuel compression. The fuel areal density was improved by ∼25% with this new drive compared to similar “high-foot” implosions, while neutron yield was improved by more than 4 times, compared to “low-foot” implosions driven at the same compression and implosion velocity.

  15. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1994-01-01

    A system for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream.

  16. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, P.

    1994-06-14

    A system is described for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream. 1 fig.

  17. Shielding Design for Adjacent, Underground Buildings of a Megavoltage Radiotherapy Facility.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Darío Esteban

    2016-07-01

    In a radiotherapy facility, safety in areas next to the treatment room can be of concern when irradiating downward due to oblique x-ray transmission through the floor and/or walls, especially in areas immediately adjacent or underground. Even when there is no basement underneath, a usual conservative solution is to build a thick concrete slab as the base for the treatment room. Of course, this implies deeper soil excavation and higher associated costs. As a convenient alternative, the limiting walls can be buried a certain depth below floor level to shield oblique, downward irradiation. Besides, for space considerations, laminated barriers are usually employed, and some additional shielding to the floor may be required (L-shaped barriers). In this work, the author introduces an analytical method for calculating the required wall penetration below floor level or, alternatively, the additional floor shielding for L-shaped barriers, taking into account in either case the attenuation properties of the earth underneath the vault. Interestingly, the required penetration depth for a given wall barrier (primary or secondary), relative to a reference thickness, is only a function of basic attenuation data. Likewise, for a laminated, lead-concrete barrier, the required dimensions depend on the relative amount of lead used for the wall and on the corresponding attenuation data. The shielding design criteria developed in this work to protect underground nearby sites is conservative in nature, yet it yields optimal shield dimensions for wall footing and for wall-floor shielding, avoiding the need to construct oversized concrete slab floors.

  18. Tritium in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Frank, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Tritium is of environmental importance because it is released from nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities and because it has a half life of 12.26 y. Most of the tritium released into the atmosphere eventually reaches the aqueous environment, where it is rapidly taken up by aquatic organisms. This paper reviews the current literature on tritium in the aquatic environment. Conclusions from the review, which covered studies of algae, aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates, fish, and the food chain, were that aquatic organisms incorporate tritium into their tissue-free water very rapidly and reach concentrations near those of the external medium. The rate at which tritium from tritiated water is incorporated into the organic matter of cells is slower than the rate of its incorporation into the tissue-free water. If organisms consume tritiated food, incorporation of tritium into the organic matter is faster, and a higher tritium concentration is reached than when the organisms are exposed to only tritiated water alone. Incorporation of tritium bound to molecules into the organic matter depends on the chemical form of the ''carrier'' molecule. No evidence was found that biomagnification of tritium occurs at higher trophic levels. Radiation doses from tritium releases to large populations of humans will most likely come from the consumption of contaminated water rather than contaminated aquatic food products.

  19. Tritium protection at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Reinig, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant produces tritium for the nation's defense. In addition to the planned production, unwanted tritium results from neutron irradiation of the heavy water moderator in the plant's reactors. During the past 30 years, continual improvements have been made in methods to protect the large workforce at the reactors and at the tritium facility from the potential hazards of tritium. This paper describes the current protection program.

  20. Plant-based plume-scale mapping of tritium contamination in desert soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Michel, R.L.; Halford, K.J.; Radyk, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Plant-based techniques were tested for field-scale evaluation of tritium contamination adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada. Objectives were to (i) characterize and map the spatial variability of tritium in plant water, (ii) develop empirical relations to predict and map subsurface contamination from plant-water concentrations, and (iii) gain insight into tritium migration pathways and processes. Plant sampling [creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moc. ex DC.) Coville] required one-fifth the time of soil water vapor sampling. Plant concentrations were spatially correlated to a separation distance of 380 m; measurement uncertainty accounted for <0.1% of the total variability in the data. Regression equations based on plant tritium explained 96 and 90% of the variation in root-zone and sub-root-zone soil water vapor concentrations, respectively. The equations were combined with kriged plant-water concentrations to map subsurface contamination. Mapping showed preferential lateral movement of tritium through a dry, coarse-textured layer beneath the root zone, with concurrent upward movement through the root zone. Analysis of subsurface fluxes along a transect perpendicular to the LLRW facility showed that upward diffusive-vapor transport dominates other transport modes beneath native vegetation. Downward advective-liquid transport dominates at one endpoint of the transect, beneath a devegetated road immediately adjacent to the facility. To our knowledge, this study is the first to document large-scale subsurface vapor-phase tritium migration from a LLRW facility. Plant-based methods provide a noninvasive, cost-effective approach to mapping subsurface tritium migration in desert areas.

  1. Tritium breeding materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved.

  2. Evaluation of tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, T.; Ochiai, K.; Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y.

    2015-03-15

    Demonstration power plant (DEMO) fusion reactors require advanced tritium breeders with high thermal stability. Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) advanced tritium breeders with excess Li (Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y}) are stable in a reducing atmosphere at high temperatures. Although the tritium release properties of tritium breeders are documented in databases for DEMO blanket design, no in situ examination under fusion neutron (DT neutron) irradiation has been performed. In this study, a preliminary examination of the tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders was performed, and DT neutron irradiation experiments were performed at the fusion neutronics source (FNS) facility in JAEA. Considering the tritium release characteristics, the optimum grain size after sintering is <5 μm. From the results of the optimization of granulation conditions, prototype Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles with optimum grain size (<5 μm) were successfully fabricated. The Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles exhibited good tritium release properties similar to the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. In particular, the released amount of HT gas for easier tritium handling was higher than that of HTO water. (authors)

  3. Potential role of the Fast Flux Test Facility and the advanced test reactor in the U.S. tritium production system

    SciTech Connect

    Dautel, W.A.

    1996-10-01

    The Deparunent of Energy is currently engaged in a dual-track strategy to develop an accelerator and a conunercial light water reactor (CLWR) as potential sources of tritium supply. New analysis of the production capabilities of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at the Hanford Site argues for considering its inclusion in the tritium supply,system. The use of the FFTF (alone or together with the Advanced Test Reactor [ATR] at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) as an integral part of,a tritium production system would help (1) ensure supply by 2005, (2) provide additional time to resolve institutional and technical issues associated with the- dual-track strategy, and (3) reduce discounted total life-cycle`costs and near-tenn annual expenditures for accelerator-based systems. The FFRF would also provide a way to get an early start.on dispositioning surplus weapons-usable plutonium as well as provide a source of medical isotopes. Challenges Associated With the Dual-Track Strategy The Departinent`s purchase of either a commercial reactor or reactor irradiation services faces challenging institutional issues associated with converting civilian reactors to defense uses. In addition, while the technical capabilities of the individual components of the accelerator have been proven, the entire system needs to be demonstrated and scaled upward to ensure that the components work toge ther 1548 as a complete production system. These challenges create uncertainty over the ability of the du2a-track strategy to provide an assured tritium supply source by 2005. Because the earliest the accelerator could come on line is 2007, it would have to operate at maximum capacity for the first few years to regenerate the reserves lost through radioactive decay aftei 2005.

  4. Baseline radionuclide concentrations in soils and vegetation around the proposed Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility and the Weapons Subsystems Laboratory at TA-16

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Ennis, M.

    1995-09-01

    A preoperational environmental survey is required by the Department of Energy (DOE) for all federally funded research facilities that have the potential to cause adverse impacts on the environment. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, an environmental survey was conducted over the proposed sites of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) and the Weapons Subsystems Laboratory (WSL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at TA-16. Baseline concentrations of tritium ({sup 3}H), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu) and total uranium were measured in soils, vegetation (pine needles and oak leaves) and ground litter. Tritium was also measured from air samples, while cesium ({sup 137}Cs) was measured in soils. The mean concentration of airborne tritiated water during 1987 was 3.9 pCi/m{sup 3}. Although the mean annual concentration of {sup 3}H in soil moisture at the 0--5 cm (2 in) soil depth was measured at 0.6 pCi/mL, a better background level, based on long-term regional data, was considered to be 2.6 pCi/mL. Mean values for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 218}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium in soils collected from the 0--5 cm depth were 1.08 pCi/g, 0.0014 pCi/g, 0.0325 pCi/g, and 4.01 {micro}g/g, respectively. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) needles contained higher values of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium than did leaves collected from gambel`s oak (Quercus gambelii). In contrast, leaves collected from gambel`s oak contained higher levels of {sup 137}Cs than what pine needles did.

  5. Movement of a tritium plume in shallow groundwater at a legacy low-level radioactive waste disposal site in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C E; Cendón, D I; Harrison, J J; Hankin, S I; Johansen, M P; Payne, T E; Vine, M; Collins, R N; Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T

    2011-10-01

    Between 1960 and 1968 low-level radioactive waste was buried in a series of shallow trenches near the Lucas Heights facility, south of Sydney, Australia. Groundwater monitoring carried out since the mid 1970s indicates that with the exception of tritium, no radioactivity above typical background levels has been detected outside the immediate vicinity of the trenches. The maximum tritium level detected in ground water was 390 kBq/L and the median value was 5400 Bq/L, decay corrected to the time of disposal. Since 1968, a plume of tritiated water has migrated from the disposal trenches and extends at least 100 m from the source area. Tritium in rainfall is negligible, however leachate from an adjacent and fill represents a significant additional tritium source. Study data indicate variation in concentration levels and plume distribution in response to wet and dry climatic periods and have been used to determine pathways for tritium migration through the subsurface.

  6. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  7. Subwog 12-D tritium technology meeting. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    The first Subwog 12-D Tritium Technology Meeting was held at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site during the week of May 21, 1990. Subwog 12-D was created as a subwog of JOWOG 12 to address the need to understand tritium applications throughout the entire weapons complex. This includes weapons related concerns, but is primarily intended to cover tritium production and handling, environmental, safety and health issues, compatibility with materials in general; and facility design, commissioning and decommissioning activities. Tritium technology issues discussed included the physical and chemical properties, kinetics, storage, reservoir loading techniques, isotope exchange, radiolysis/aging, process and handling technology, compatibility, purification and filtering, analysis, monitoring methods, function testing, packaging and shipping, environmental and operational safety, facility design and safety, glovebox atmosphere clean-up systems, glovebox/facility decommissioning, tritium production target materials, and tritium recovery. This document provides a collection of most of the unclassified extended abstracts and abstracts presented at Subwog 12-D.

  8. Measurement of outdoor noise levels adjacent to K-25 facility, ORGDP

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, C.W.

    1981-08-27

    In order to obtain baseline data on environmental sound for a report on the expected environmental effects of constructing an incinerator adjacent to the ORGDP, an abbreviated measurement program was carried out. Ten measurement locations were selected for the measurements, six being representative of the ORGDP fenceline, and four representative of the surrounding area. Measurements consisted of short-term octave-band measurements and one-half hour A-weighted exceedance levels. It had been previously determined that the influence of the K-25 plant on the noise environment tends to stabilize the minimum sound level in such a way that nighttime measurements would not be needed.

  9. Atmospheric Stability Measurements at a Swine Facility and an Adjacent Corn Field in Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmospheric stability conditions at the surface layer can determine direction and momentum transport of air contaminants. Near confined animal facilities, these transport processes can significantly impact air quality as these sites typically act as net source of pollutants; however, little informat...

  10. UV/Ozone treatment to decontaminate tritium contaminated surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krasznai, J.P.; Mowat, R.

    1995-10-01

    Tritium contamination on surfaces is often encountered during operation and maintenance of equipment at the Darlington Tritium Removal Facility and likely at other tritium handling facilities. The use of efficient decontamination techniques that produce little or no secondary wastes is desirable. At Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT) we have been developing a process utilizing a combination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and ozone gas to remove tritium surface contamination from materials often used in tritium service. This paper summarizes the performance of the technique. The results are encouraging because the technique is very effective, simple in terms of equipment requirements and concentrates tritium in an easily managed waste form. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Development of a tritium monitor combined with an electrochemical tritium pump using a proton conducting oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Sugiyama, T.

    2015-03-15

    The detection of low level tritium is one of the key issues for tritium management in tritium handling facilities. Such a detection can be performed by tritium monitors based on proton conducting oxide technique. We tested a tritium monitoring system composed of a commercial proportional counter combined with an electrochemical hydrogen pump equipped with CaZr{sub 0.9}In{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-α} as proton conducting oxide. The hydrogen pump operated at 973 K under electrolysis conditions using tritiated water vapor (HTO). The proton conducting oxide extracts tritium molecules (HT) from HTO and tritium concentration is measured by the proportional counter. The advantage of the proposed tritium monitoring system is that it is able to convert HTO into molecular hydrogen.

  12. Comparison of Tritium Component Failure Rate Data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    Published failure rate values from the US Tritium Systems Test Assembly, the Japanese Tritium Process Laboratory, the German Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, and the Joint European Torus Active Gas Handling System have been compared. This comparison is on a limited set of components, but there is a good variety of data sets in the comparison. The data compared reasonably well. The most reasonable failure rate values are recommended for use on next generation tritium handling system components, such as those in the tritium plant systems for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and the tritium fuel systems of inertial fusion facilities, such as the US National Ignition Facility. These data and the comparison results are also shared with the International Energy Agency cooperative task on fusion component failure rate data.

  13. Use of system code to estimate equilibrium tritium inventory in fusion DT machines, such as ARIES-AT and components testing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    C.P.C. Wong; B. Merrill

    2014-10-01

    ITER is under construction and will begin operation in 2020. This is the first 500 MWfusion class DT device, and since it is not going to breed tritium, it will consume most of the limited supply of tritium resources in the world. Yet, in parallel, DT fusion nuclear component testing machines will be needed to provide technical data for the design of DEMO. It becomes necessary to estimate the tritium burn-up fraction and corresponding initial tritium inventory and the doubling time of these machines for the planning of future supply and utilization of tritium. With the use of a system code, tritium burn-up fraction and initial tritium inventory for steady state DT machines can be estimated. Estimated tritium burn-up fractions of FNSF-AT, CFETR-R and ARIES-AT are in the range of 1–2.8%. Corresponding total equilibrium tritium inventories of the plasma flow and tritium processing system, and with the DCLL blanket option are 7.6 kg, 6.1 kg, and 5.2 kg for ARIES-AT, CFETR-R and FNSF-AT, respectively.

  14. Tritium Plasma Experiment Upgrade for Fusion Tritium and Nuclear Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Masashi; Taylor, Chase N.; Kolasinski, Robert D.; Buchenauer, Dean A.

    2015-11-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) is a unique high-flux linear plasma device that can handle beryllium, tritium, and neutron-irradiated plasma facing materials, and is the only existing device dedicated to directly study tritium retention and permeation in neutron-irradiated materials [M. Shimada et.al., Rev. Sci. Instru. 82 (2011) 083503 and and M. Shimada, et.al., Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 013008]. Recently the TPE has undergone major upgrades in its electrical and control systems. New DC power supplies and a new control center enable remote plasma operations from outside of the contamination area for tritium, minimizing the possible exposure risk with tritium and beryllium. We discuss the electrical upgrade, enhanced operational safety, improved plasma performance, and development of tritium plasma-driven permeation and optical spectrometer system. This upgrade not only improves operational safety of the worker, but also enhances plasma performance to better simulate extreme plasma-material conditions expected in ITER, Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), and Demonstration reactor (DEMO). This work was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under the DOE Idaho Field Office contract number DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  15. A low tritium hydride bed inventory estimation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Shanahan, K.L.; Baker, R.A.; Foster, P.J.

    2015-03-15

    Low tritium hydride beds were developed and deployed into tritium service in Savannah River Site. Process beds to be used for low concentration tritium gas were not fitted with instrumentation to perform the steady-state, flowing gas calorimetric inventory measurement method. Low tritium beds contain less than the detection limit of the IBA (In-Bed Accountability) technique used for tritium inventory. This paper describes two techniques for estimating tritium content and uncertainty for low tritium content beds to be used in the facility's physical inventory (PI). PI are performed periodically to assess the quantity of nuclear material used in a facility. The first approach (Mid-point approximation method - MPA) assumes the bed is half-full and uses a gas composition measurement to estimate the tritium inventory and uncertainty. The second approach utilizes the bed's hydride material pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) properties and a gas composition measurement to reduce the uncertainty in the calculated bed inventory.

  16. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Coffin, D.O.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  17. Tritium oxidation in atmospheric transport

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, P.Y.; Rigdon, L.D.

    1996-09-01

    This study has been performed in support of the DOE/AL Tritium Limits Working Group (TLWG). The goal of the TLWG is to provide a technical basis for nuclear facility tritium limits based on test data, accident experience, and sound analytical modeling. Measured Tritiated water/tritium (HTO/HT) have shown that an HTO/HT conversion ratio of 0.01 would bound all the measured data by a factor of 2 to 500 for a downwind distance of up to 15 km. The 99.7% HTO/HT quantile is 6.1 x 10{sup -3}. Use of the HTO/HT ratio of 0.01 with site-specific or conservative meteorological data for three Los Alamos tritium facilities would bound the doses calculated based on the dose factors derived from sophisticated tritium transport codes with conservative meteorological and physical conditions. As a result, the proposed methodology, i.e. use of an HFO/HT conversion ratio of 0.01 with site-specific meteorological data or conservative meteorological data would provide an upper bound for off-site doses, and is recommended.

  18. Design and performance of a mass spectrometric facility for measuring helium isotopes in natural waters and for low-level tritium determination by the 3He ingrowth method.

    PubMed

    Jean-Baptiste, P; Mantisi, F; Dapoigny, A; Stievenard, M

    1992-07-01

    The design and performance of a mass spectrometric system for the measurement of helium isotopes and very low tritium concentrations in natural waters are described and discussed in the light of analytical precision and accuracy. The system consists of a VG 3000 mass spectrometer with a fully automated inlet system for preparation and purification of the samples. Along with this mass spectrometric system, different custom-fabricated units are described, especially designed for taking samples, extracting helium or degassing tritium samples prior to the mass spectrometric analysis. The 3He detection limit of the system is close to 10(-16) cm3 STP corresponding to a tritium level of 0.003 TU for a 500 g water sample stored six months for 3He regrowth. A vertical oceanic tritium profile from the south hemisphere is presented as an illustration of the system's capability to detect very low tritium concentrations in the environment.

  19. Tritium Exposure Reconstruction Using Tree Rings at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, A. H.; Hunt, J. R.; Knezovich, J. P.

    2002-12-01

    There are numerous instances where historical exposures to contaminants can determine future health impacts, but limited means exist to reconstruct those exposures from current measurements and models. The National Tritium Labeling Facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has released tritiated water into the atmosphere through an adjacent stack since 1969. Some members of the surrounding community are concerned about potential health effects from the emissions and have questioned the accuracy and thoroughness of reported historical release quantities and environmental monitoring. A grove of Eucalyptus globulus surround the emission stack and were used to reconstruct historical exposure levels. Previous studies have demonstrated that plants can be reliably used as passive monitors for tritiated water, as well as many other contaminants. Because trees can sequester tritium into wood during photosynthesis, a tree provides a temporal variation of exposure at least on an annual basis. Milligram-sized samples of wood from cores were measured for carbon-14 and tritium using accelerator mass spectrometry. The carbon-14 measurements were matched with bomb curve levels of carbon-14 to independently assess the age of the wood used for organically bound tritium measurements. The tritium exposure reconstruction was consistent with annual exposure monitoring and release quantities reported by LBNL over the last 30 years. Because this location has an episodic release pattern and complex topographic and meteorological variation, the historical assessment from these environmental measurements is likely to have less uncertainty than mathematical modeling efforts.

  20. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, lead, antimony, I,I-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, mercury, nickel, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 57 (49%) of the 116 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 21 (18%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations Sixty-one downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained constituents that exceeded the PDWS during first quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and HSB 85A, BC, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Upgradient well BGO 2D contained elevated tritium.

  1. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    McManus, Gary J.; Weesner, Forrest J.

    1989-05-30

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture and selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration.

  2. Magmatic tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Aams, A.I.; McMurtry, G.M.; Shevenell, L.; Pettit, D.R.; Stimac, J.A.; Werner, C.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Detailed geochemical sampling of high-temperature fumaroles, background water, and fresh magmatic products from 14 active volcanoes reveal that they do not produce measurable amounts of tritium ({sup 3}H) of deep origin (<0.1 T.U. or <0.32 pCi/kg H{sub 2}O). On the other hand, all volcanoes produce mixtures of meteoric and magmatic fluids that contain measurable {sup 3}H from the meteoric end-member. The results show that cold fusion is probably not a significant deep earth process but the samples and data have wide application to a host of other volcanological topics.

  3. Tritium glovebox stripper system seismic design evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Grinnell, J. J.; Klein, J. E.

    2015-09-01

    The use of glovebox confinement at US Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities has been discussed in numerous publications. Glovebox confinement protects the workers from radioactive material (especially tritium oxide), provides an inert atmosphere for prevention of flammable gas mixtures and deflagrations, and allows recovery of tritium released from the process into the glovebox when a glovebox stripper system (GBSS) is part of the design. Tritium recovery from the glovebox atmosphere reduces emissions from the facility and the radiological dose to the public. Location of US DOE defense programs facilities away from public boundaries also aids in reducing radiological doses to the public. This is a study based upon design concepts to identify issues and considerations for design of a Seismic GBSS. Safety requirements and analysis should be considered preliminary. Safety requirements for design of GBSS should be developed and finalized as a part of the final design process.

  4. Lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer mortality in a population attending school adjacent to styrene-butadiene facilities, 1963-1993

    PubMed Central

    Loughlin, J. E.; Rothman, K. J.; Dreyer, N. A.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of mortality from lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers and other causes among students. DESIGN: The study used school records, yearbooks, and Texas Department of Health records for the school years 1963-64 to 1992-93 to construct a cohort of 15,403 students. Three mortality databases were searched to identify deaths, and mortality rates in the cohort were compared with mortality rates from the United States and Texas. Computed standardised mortality ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used. SETTING: Eastern Texas high school adjacent to facilities that have been producing synthetic styrene-butadiene since 1943. MAIN RESULTS: 338 deaths were identified. The all causes standardised mortality ratio was 0.84 (95% confidence intervals 0.74, 0.95) for men and 0.89 (0.73, 1.09) for women. The standardised mortality ratio for all lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers was 1.64 (95% confidence intervals 0.85, 2.87) for men and 0.47 (0.06, 1.70) for women. The slight male excess in lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers was stronger among men who attended school for two years or less. CONCLUSIONS: The overall mortality from lymphatic and haematopoietic cancer among the students was little different from that of the United States as a whole. A moderate excess for men, predominantly among the shorter-term students, was offset by a deficit among women. These variations are compatible with random fluctuations; the overall pattern is not indicative of an effect of environmental exposure sustained while attending the high school.   PMID:10396534

  5. Pf/Zeolite Catalyst for Tritium Stripping

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.

    2001-03-26

    This report described promising hydrogen (protium and tritium) stripping results obtained with a Pd/zeolite catalyst at ambient temperature. Preliminary results show 90-99+ percent tritium stripping efficiency may be obtained, with even better performance expected as bed configuration and operating conditions are optimized. These results suggest that portable units with single beds of the Pd/zeolite catalyst may be utilized as ''catalytic absorbers'' to clean up both tritium gas and tritiated water. A cart-mounted prototype stripper utilizing this catalyst has been constructed for testing. This portable stripper has potential applications in maintenance-type jobs such as tritium line breaks. This catalyst can also potentially be utilized in an emergency stripper for the Replacement Tritium Facility.

  6. Thermal neutron calibration of a tritium extraction facility using the /sup 6/Li(n,t)/sup 4/He//sup 197/Au(n,. gamma. )/sup 198/Au cross section ratio for standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1980-08-01

    Absolute tritium activities in a neutron-activated metallic lithium samples have been measured by liquid scintillation methods to provide data needed for the determination of capture-to-fission ratios in fast breeder reactor spectra and for recent measurements of the /sup 7/Li(n,n't)/sup 4/He cross section. The tritium extraction facility used for all these experiments has now been calibrated by measuring the /sup 6/Li(n,t)/sup 4/He//sup 197/Au/n,..gamma..)/sup 198/Au activity ratio for thermal neutrons and comparing the result with the well-known cross sections. The calculated-to-measured activity ratio was found to be 1.033 +- 0.018. 2 figures, 20 tables.

  7. Tritium waste disposal technology in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Albenesius, E.L.; Towler, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and 10 million curies in defense related sites. At three disposal sites in humid areas, tritium has migrated into the ground water, and at one arid site tritium vapor has been detected emerging from the soil above the disposal area. Leaching tests on tritium containing waste show that tritium in the form of HTO leaches readily from most waste forms, but that leaching rates of tritiated water into polymer impregnated concrete are reduced by as much as a factor of ten. Tests on improved tritium containment are ongoing. Disposal costs for tritium waste are 7 to 10 dollars per cubic foot for shallow land burial of low specific activity tritium waste, and 10 to 20 dollars per cubic foot for disposal of high specific activity waste. The cost of packaging the high specific activity waste is 150 to 300 dollars per cubic foot. 18 references.

  8. DECOMMISSIONING THE HIGH PRESSURE TRITIUM LABORATORY AT LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Peifer, M.J.; Rendell, K.; Hearnsberger, D.W.

    2003-02-27

    In May 0f 2000, the Cerro Grande wild land fire burned approximately 48,000 acres in and around Los Alamos. In addition to the many buildings that were destroyed in the town site, many structures were also damaged and destroyed within the 43 square miles that comprise the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A special Act of Congress provided funding to remove Laboratory structures that were damaged by the fire, or that could be threatened by subsequent catastrophic wild land fires. The High Pressure Tritium Laboratory (HPTL) is located at Technical Area (TA) 33, building 86 in the far southeast corner of the Laboratory property. It is immediately adjacent to Bandelier National Park. Because it was threatened by both the Cerro Grande fire in 2000, and the 16,000- acre Dome fire in 1996, the former tritium processing facility was placed on the list of facilities scheduled for Decontamination and Decommissioning under the Cerro Grande Rehabilitation Project. The work was performed through the Facilities and Waste Operations (FWO) Division and is integrated with other Laboratory D&D efforts. The primary demolition contractor was Clauss Construction of San Diego, California. Earth Tech Global Environmental Services of San Antonio, Texas was sub-contracted to Clauss Construction, and provided radiological decontamination support to the project. Although the forty-seven year old facility had been in a state of safe-shutdown since operations ceased in 1990, a significant amount of tritium remained in the rooms where process systems were located. Tritium was the only radiological contaminant associated with this facility. Since no specific regulatory standards have been set for the release of volumetrically contaminated materials, concentration guidelines were derived in order to meet other established regulatory criteria. A tritium removal system was developed for this project with the goal of reducing the volume of tritium concentrated in the concrete of the building

  9. Tritium handling experience at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    SciTech Connect

    Suppiah, S.; McCrimmon, K.; Lalonde, S.; Ryland, D.; Boniface, H.; Muirhead, C.; Castillo, I.

    2015-03-15

    Canada has been a leader in tritium handling technologies as a result of the successful CANDU reactor technology used for power production. Over the last 50 to 60 years, capabilities have been established in tritium handling and tritium management in CANDU stations, tritium removal processes for heavy and light water, tritium measurement and monitoring, and understanding the effects of tritium on the environment. This paper outlines details of tritium-related work currently being carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). It concerns the CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process for detritiation, tritium-compatible electrolysers, tritium permeation studies, and tritium powered batteries. It is worth noting that AECL offers a Tritium Safe-Handling Course to national and international participants, the course is a mixture of classroom sessions and hands-on practical exercises. The expertise and facilities available at AECL is ready to address technological needs of nuclear fusion and next-generation nuclear fission reactors related to tritium handling and related issues.

  10. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Gregory L. Guttadora; Lloyd P. Ciebiera

    2002-02-11

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system.

  11. Disposal of tritium residues at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Audit repost

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this audit was to determine whether Los Alamos disposed of wastewater containing tritium residues in a safe and cost-effective manner subsequent to an October 1991 report reviewing tritium facility management practices.

  12. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.

    1987-10-19

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

  13. REMOTE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-TRITIUM-CONTENT WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Diprete, D; Raymond Sigg, R; Leah Arrigo, L; Donald Pak, D

    2007-08-07

    Systems to safely analyze for tritium in moisture collected from glovebox atmospheres are being developed for use at Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities. Analysis results will guide whether the material contains sufficient tritium for economical recovery, or whether it should be stabilized for disposal as waste. In order to minimize potential radiation exposures that could occur in handling and diluting high-tritium-content water, SRS sought alternatives to the process laboratory's routine analysis by liquid-scintillation counting. The newer systems determine tritium concentrations by measuring bremsstrahlung radiation induced by low-energy beta interactions. One of the systems determines tritium activity in liquid streams, the other determines tritium activity in water vapor. Topics discussed include counting results obtained by modeling and laboratory testing and corrections that are made for low-energy photon attenuation.

  14. Second national topical meeting on tritium technology in fission, fusion and isotopic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Barlit, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    This conference presented information on the following topics: the development of a tritium dispersion code; global environmental transport models for tritium; HT/HTO conversion in mammals; tritium production, releases and population doses at nuclear power reactors; design of tritium processing facilities and equipment for aqueous and gaseous streams; tritium removal from circulating helium by hydriding of rare earth metals; the determination of deuterium and tritium in effluent wastewater by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; tritium surface contamination: process calculations for a moderator detritiation plant; recent developments in magnetically coupled vane pumps for tritium service; recovery and storage of tritium by Zr-V-Fe getter; gas handling systems using titanium-sponge and uranium bulk getters; isotope effects and helium retention behavior in vanadium tritide; interaction of hydrogen isotopes with stainless steel 316 L; and the interaction of polyethylene and tritium gas as monitored by Raman spectroscopy.

  15. Tritium handling safety and operating experience at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is a facility designed to develop and demonstrate, in full scale, technologies necessary for safe and efficient operation of tokamak fusion reactors. TSTA currently consists of systems for pumping DT gas mixtures; for removing impurities; for separating the isotopes of hydrogen; for storage of hydrogen isotopes; for gas analysis; and for assuring safety by the necessary control, monitoring, and detritiation of effluent gaseous streams. TSTA also has several small scale experiments to develop and test new equipment and processes necessary for fusion reactors. Tritium was introduced into TSTA in June 1984. Current inventory is approximately 100 grams. Approximately 10{sup 9} Curies of tritium have been processed in closed loop operation at TSTA. Total tritium releases from the facility stack have been less than 75 Curies. Total operating personnel exposures are less than 500 person-mrem. Exposures to the general public from TSTA tritium releases are extremely small (less than 10{sup {minus}2} mrem). Total tritium buried as waste is less than 36,000 Curies. In this paper, data on component reliability, failure types and rates, and waste quantities are presented. Operational experience under normal, abnormal, and emergency conditions is presented. The DOE requirements for the operation of a tritium facility like TSTA include personnel training, emergency preparedness, radiation protection, safety analysis, and preoperational appraisals. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Experimental results of radiation-driven, layered deuterium-tritium implosions with adiabat-shaped drives at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Robey, H. F.; Döppner, T.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Jones, O. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Bachmann, B.; Baker, K. L.; Benedetti, L. R.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C.; Chen, K.-C.; Goyon, C.; Grim, G.; Dixit, S. N.; Eckart, M. J.; Edwards, M. J.; Farrell, M.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Gharibyan, N.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Hartouni, E.; Hatarik, R.; Havre, M.; Hohenberger, M.; Hoover, D.; Hurricane, O. A.; Izumi, N.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Khan, S. F.; Knauer, J. P.; Kroll, J. J.; Kyrala, G.; Lafortune, K. N.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; MacGowan, B. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Mauldin, M.; Merrill, F. E.; Moore, A. S.; Nagel, S.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Sayre, D. B.; Shaughnessy, D.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Turnbull, D. P.; Velikovich, A. L.; Volegov, P. L.; Weber, C. R.; Widmayer, C. C.; Yeamans, C.

    2016-10-01

    Radiation-driven, layered deuterium-tritium (DT) implosions were carried out using 3-shock and 4-shock "adiabat-shaped" drives and plastic ablators on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. M. Campbell et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 429, 3 (1998)]. The purpose of these shots was to gain further understanding on the relative performance of the low-foot implosions of the National Ignition Campaign [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] versus the subsequent high-foot implosions [T. Döppner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 055001 (2015)]. The neutron yield performance in the experiment with the 4-shock adiabat-shaped drive was improved by factors ˜3 to ˜10, compared to five companion low-foot shots despite large low-mode asymmetries of DT fuel, while measured compression was similar to its low-foot companions. This indicated that the dominant degradation source for low-foot implosions was ablation-front instability growth, since adiabat shaping significantly stabilized this growth. For the experiment with the low-power 3-shock adiabat-shaped drive, the DT fuel compression was significantly increased, by ˜25% to ˜36%, compared to its companion high-foot implosions. The neutron yield increased by ˜20%, lower than the increase of ˜50% estimated from one-dimensional scaling, suggesting the importance of residual instabilities and asymmetries. For the experiment with the high-power, 3-shock adiabat-shaped drive, the DT fuel compression was slightly increased by ˜14% compared to its companion high-foot experiments. However, the compression was reduced compared to the lower-power 3-shock adiabat-shaped drive, correlated with the increase of hot electrons that hypothetically can be responsible for reduced compression in high-power adiabat-shaped experiments as well as in high-foot experiments. The total neutron yield in the high-power 3-shock adiabat-shaped shot N150416 was 8.5 × 1015 ± 0.2 × 1015, with the fuel areal density of 0.90 ± 0.07 g/cm2

  17. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, lead, antimony, I,I-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, mercury, nickel, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, and total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 57 (49%) of the 116 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 21 (18%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations Sixty-one downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained constituents that exceeded the PDWS during first quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and HSB 85A, BC, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Upgradient well BGO 2D contained elevated tritium.

  18. Target/Blanket Design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cappiello, M. W.

    1997-12-31

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium Target/Blanket (T/B) system is comprised of the T/B assembly and the attendant heat removal systems. The T/B assembly produces tritium using a high energy proton beam, and a spallation neutron source. The supporting heat removal systems safely remove the heat deposited by the proton beam during both normal and off-normal conditions. All systems reside within the T/B building, which is located at the end of a linear accelerator. Protons are accelerated to an energy of 1700 MeV at a current of 100 mA and are directed onto the T/B assembly. The protons interact with tungsten and lead nuclei to produce neutrons through the process of nuclear spallation. Neutron capture in {sup 3}He gas produces tritium which is removed on a continual basis in an adjacent Tritium Separation Facility (TSF). The T/B assembly is modular to allow for replacement of spent components and minimization of waste. Systems and components are designed with safety as a primary consideration to minimize risk to the workers and the public.

  19. Quick management of accidental tritium exposure cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Badiger, N M; Managanvi, S S; Bhat, H R

    2012-07-01

    Removal half-life (RHL) of tritium is one of the best means for optimising medical treatment, reduction of committed effective dose (CED) and quick/easy handling of a large group of workers for medical treatment reference. The removal of tritium from the body depends on age, temperature, relative humidity and daily rainfall; so tritium removal rate, its follow-up and proper data analysis and recording are the best techniques for management of accidental acute tritium exposed cases. The decision of referring for medical treatment or medical intervention (MI) would be based on workers' tritium RHL history taken from their bodies at the facilities. The workers with tritium intake up to 1 ALI shall not be considered for medical treatment as it is a derived limit of annual total effective dose. The short-term MI may be considered for tritium intake of 1-10 ALI; however, if the results show intake ≥100 ALI, extended strong medical/therapeutic intervention may be recommended based on the severity of exposure for maximum CED reduction requirements and annual total effective dose limit. The methodology is very useful for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) which are mainly operated by Canada and India and future fusion reactor technologies. Proper management will optimise the cases for medical treatment and enhance public acceptance of nuclear fission and fusion reactor technologies.

  20. Development of tritium technologies at KAERI

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.; Koo, D.; Lee, J.; Park, J.; Yim, S.P.; Yoon, C.; Lim, J.; Choi, W.; Ahn, H.; Kang, H.; Kim, I.; Paek, S.; Yunn, S.H.; Jung, K.J.

    2015-03-15

    Korea has been operating a CANDU nuclear power plant since 1983. Tritium generated in the heavy water of the plant is removed by the Wolsong TRF (Tritium Removal Facility) and measurement campaigns of tritium near the power plant have shown the efficiency of the TRF system. The HANARO reactor uses heavy water as both reflector and moderator. In HANARO the tritiated water removal system consists of compressors, condensers, and adsorption beds. A tritium behavior analysis code (TRIBAC) for a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) is under development at KAERI. The TRIBAC computer software has been equipped with models for tritium production, purification, and leakage, as well as chemisorption and tritium behavior, in the hydrogen production system. Korea takes part into the ITER program and is responsible for the supply of an SDS (Tritium Storage and Delivery System). Within this program Korea has launched an experimental program to study the physico-chemical properties of metal and their hydrides in which hydrogen isotope gases can be stored and removed safely.

  1. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  2. Tritium Loading of Pinellas U-Bed No. 874

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, K.L.

    1999-09-15

    The DOE-Richland Office has requested WSRC to supply PNNL with a Pinellas U-bed loaded with tritium for permeation experiments. It is desired to have less than 1000 Ci tritium in the bed to allow shipping without excessive packaging requirements. Pinellas U-Bed No. 874 was loaded with approximately 955 Ci of 98 percent purity tritium on the ETM manifold in the Materials Test Facility in Building 232-H.

  3. PDRD (SR13046) TRITIUM PRODUCTION FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Sheetz, S.

    2013-09-30

    Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) ran a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) model of a basic SFR for comparison. A 600MWth core surrounded by a lithium blanket produced approximately 1,000 grams of tritium annually with a 13% enriched, 6 year core. This is similar results to a mid-1990’s study where the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), a 400 MWth reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), could produce about 1,000 grams with an external lithium target. Normalized to the LWRs values, comparative tritium production for an SFR could be approximately 0.31 g-T/kg LEU.

  4. Management of tritium European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ene, D.; Andersson, K.; Jensen, M.; Nielsen, S.; Severin, G.

    2015-03-15

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) will produce tritium via spallation and activation processes during operational activities. Within the location of ESS facility in Lund, Sweden site it is mandatory to demonstrate that the management strategy of the produced tritium ensures the compliance with the country regulation criteria. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the different aspects of the tritium management in ESS facility. Besides the design parameter study of the helium coolant purification system of the target the consequences of the tritium releasing into the environment were also analyzed. Calculations show that the annual release of tritium during the normal operations represents a small fraction from the estimated total dose. However, more refined calculations of migration of activated-groundwater should be performed for higher hydraulic conductivities, with the availability of the results on soil examinations. With the assumption of 100% release of tritium to the atmosphere during the occurring of the extreme accidents, it was found as well that the total dose complies with the constraint. (authors)

  5. Development of tritium technology for the United States magnetic fusion energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Wilkes, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Tritium technology development for the DOE fusion program is taking place principally at three laboratories, Mound Facility, Argonne National Laboratory and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This paper will review the major aspects of each of the three programs and look at aspects of the tritium technology being developed at other laboratories within the United States. Facilities and experiments to be discussed include the Tritium Effluent Control Laboratory and the Tritium Storage and Delivery System for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Mound Facility; the Lithium Processing Test Loop and the solid breeder blanket studies at Argonne; and the Tritium Systems Test Assembly at Los Alamos.

  6. Final Assessment: U.S. Virgin Islands Industrial Development Park and Adjacent Facilities Energy-Efficiency and Micro-Grid Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Joseph M.; Boyd, Paul A.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Parker, Graham B.

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of this assessment was to undertake an assessment and analysis of cost-effective options for energy-efficiency improvements and the deployment of a micro-grid to increase the energy resilience at the U.S. Virgin Islands Industrial Development Park (IDP) and adjacent facilities in St. Croix, Virgin Islands. The Economic Development Authority sought assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy to undertake this assessment undertaken by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The assessment included 18 buildings plus the perimeter security lighting at the Virgin Islands Bureau of Correctional Facility, four buildings plus exterior lighting at the IDP, and five buildings (one of which is to be constructed) at the Virgin Islands Police Department for a total of 27 buildings with a total of nearly 323,000 square feet.

  7. Health risk assessment of potable water containing small amount of tritium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momot, O. A.; Synzynys, B. I.; Oudalova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of groundwater pollution with tritium in a vicinity of radiation-dangerous facilities in Obninsk is considered. The information on the specific activity of tritium in Obninsk water sources is provided. The formula for the calculation of the β-radiation absorbed dose from tritium ingestion is proposed, reflecting the biological behavior of tritium in a human body. To establish the extent of tritium effects on human, the health risk is assessed. It is shown that if the specific activity of tritium in drinking water amounts to 10 Bq/l, the risk of stochastic effects of radiation will not exceed the limit of the individual lifetime risk.

  8. Initial testing of the tritium systems at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Sissingh, R.A.P.; Gentile, C.A.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Walters, R.T.; Voorhees, D.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton will start its D-T experiments in late 1993, introducing and operating the tokamak with tritium in order to begin the study of burning plasma physics in D-T. Trace tritium injection experiments, using small amounts of tritium will begin in the fall of 1993. In preparation for these experiments, a series of tests with low concentrations of tritium inn deuterium have been performed as an initial qualification of the tritium systems. These tests began in April 1993. This paper describes the initial testing of the equipment in the TFTR tritium facility.

  9. Field Studies Provide Insight into Tritium Migration in an Arid Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andraski, B. J.; Garcia, C.; Michel, R. L.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Mayers, C.; Johnson, M.

    2009-12-01

    Questions concerning radionuclide migration include the spatial extent of contamination and the rate at which contamination spreads. Previous work at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nevada used a plant-based method to map large-scale, tritium plumes in a 72-ha area adjacent to a closed, commercial low-level radioactive waste facility. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine if the plant-mapped contaminant distribution has changed with time and (ii) use soil water-vapor samples to gain insight into subsurface transport. Mapping of plant-water tritium concentrations was repeated 5 yr after the initial mapping. During this 5-yr period, annual soil water-vapor samples from the root zone (~0 to 1-m depth) and sub-root-zone gravelly sand (~1 to 2-m depth) were collected along transects that passed through two tritium hot spots. Mapped plant-water tritium concentrations within the main body of both hot spots decreased ~30-40% over 5 yr. In contrast, the plant data along the periphery of the south hot spot showed little change with time, while those along the west hot spot increased and indicated continued lateral advancement of the western plume. The peak sub-root-zone water-vapor concentration within the south hot spot (2,150 Bq/L) was measured 100 m from the facility and that for the west hot spot (11,970 Bq/L) was immediately adjacent to the facility. Soil water-vapor transect data supported the plant-mapping results. For example, over 5 yr, sub-root-zone concentrations at south-transect locations within 200 m of the facility and west-transect locations within 25 m of the facility decreased by ~40%. In addition, the west-transect 200-m location showed a relatively steady increase in annual sub-root-zone water-vapor concentrations that confirmed lateral advancement of the western plume. Data collected in the south hot spot show that long-distance lateral migration of the shallow vapor-phase tritium plume occurs preferentially through the gravelly layer

  10. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, 12 constituents exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents: 57 (48%) and 23 (19%) of the 119 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium and trichloroethylene levels, respectively. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 1] (Barnwell/McBean). Elevated constituents also occurred in five Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, nonvolatile beta, thallium, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), or cadmium.

  11. Using the Tritium Plasma Experiment to evaluate ITER PFC safety

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Bartlit, J.R.; Causey, R.A.; Haines, J.R.

    1993-07-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment was assembled at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore to investigate interactions between dense plasmas at low energies and plasma-facing component materials. This apparatus has the unique capability of replicating plasma conditions in a tokamak divertor with particle flux densities of 2 {times} 10{sup 19} ions/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s and a plasma temperature of about 15 eV using a plasma that includes tritium. With the closure of the Tritium Research Laboratory at Livermore, the experiment was moved to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. An experimental program has been initiated there using the Tritium Plasma Experiment to examine safety issues related to tritium in plasma-facing components, particularly the ITER divertor. Those issues include tritium retention and release characteristics, tritium permeation rates and transient times to coolant streams, surface modification and erosion by the plasma, the effects of thermal loads and cycling, and particulate production. A considerable lack of data exists in these areas for many of the materials, especially beryllium, being considered for use in ITER. Not only will basic material behavior with respect to safety issues in the divertor environment be examined, but innovative techniques for optimizing performance with respect to tritium safety by material modification and process control will be investigated. Supplementary experiments will be carried out at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory to expand and clarify results obtained on the Tritium Plasma Experiment.

  12. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Construction of a New Entry Control Facility and Visitors Center Adjacent to the Bell Street Gate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Cannon Street, Building 1060 Maxwell AFB, AL 36112 Tel.: 334-953-5260 • 334-3964004 L E C Maxwell Support Division March 17, 2005 Mr. David Rabon ...Facility (ECF) and Visitors Center Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama Dear Mr. Rabon , The United States Air Force is preparing an Environmental Assessment

  13. Radionuclide Basics: Tritium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tritium is a hydrogen atom that has two neutrons in the nucleus and one proton. It is radioactive and behaves like other forms of hydrogen in the environment. Tritium is produced naturally in the upper atmosphere and as a byproduct of nuclear fission.

  14. Methods for tritium labeling

    DOEpatents

    Andres, Hendrik; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.

    1993-01-01

    Reagents and processes for reductively introducing deuterium or tritium into organic molecules are described. The reagents are deuterium or tritium analogs of trialkyl boranes, borane or alkali metal aluminum hydrides. The process involves forming these reagents in situ from alkali metal tritides or deuterides.

  15. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  16. Experiences with decontaminating tritium-handling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J.L.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R.G.; Kanna, R.L.; Mayhugh, S.R.; Taylor, D.T.

    1991-07-01

    Tritium-handling apparatus has been decontaminated as part of the shutdown of the LLNL Tritium Facility. Two stainless-steel gloveboxes that had been used to process lithium deuteride-tritide (LiDT) salt were decontaminated using the Portable Cleanup System so that they could be flushed with room air through the facility ventilation system. Further surface decontamination was performed by scrubbing the interior with paper towels and ethyl alcohol or Swish{trademark}. The surface contamination, as shown by swipe surveys, was reduced from 4{times}10{sup 4}--10{sup 6} disintegrations per minute (dpm)/cm{sup 2} to 2{times}10{sup 2}--4{times}10{sup 4} dpm/cm{sup 2}. Details on the decontamination operation are provided. A series of metal (palladium and vanadium) hydride storage beds have been drained of tritium and flushed with deuterium in order to remove as much tritium as possible. The bed draining and flushing procedure is described, and a calculational method is presented which allows estimation of the tritium remaining in a bed after it has been drained and flushed. Data on specific bed draining and flushing are given.

  17. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Groundwater Monitoring Report: Fourth quarter 1991 and 1991 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1991, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), total radium, mercury, and lead exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread contaminants; 55 (49%) wells exhibited elevated tritium activities, and 24 (21%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Tritium and trichloroethylene levels exceeding the PDWS also occurred in several wells in Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree). Levels of manganese, total organic halogens, nickel, iron, 1,1-dichloroethane, aluminum, nonvolatile beta, and trichlorofluoromethane that exceeded Flag 2 criteria were found in one or more wells beneath the MWMF. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units at the MWMF contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, total radium, chloroethene (vinyl chloride), lead, mercury, manganese, total organic halogens, nickel, iron, 1,1-dichloroethane, aluminum, nonvolatile beta, or trichlorofluoromethane. Groundwater samples from 81 (72%) of the monitoring wells at the MWMF and adjacent facilities contained elevated levels of several contaminants.

  18. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOEpatents

    Gentile, Charles A. , Guttadora, Gregory L. , Parker, John J.

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  19. Transport of tritium contamination to the atmosphere in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Andraski, Brian J.; Johnson, Michael J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Michel, Robert L.; Cooper, C.A.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Soil–plant–atmosphere interactions strongly influence water movement in desert unsaturated zones, but little is known about how such interactions affect atmospheric release of subsurface water-borne contaminants. This 2-yr study, performed at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site in southern Nevada, quantified the magnitude and spatiotemporal variability of tritium (3H) transport from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility. Tritium fluxes were calculated as the product of 3H concentrations in water vapor and respective evaporation and transpiration water-vapor fluxes. Quarterly measured 3H concentrations in soil water vapor and in leaf water of the dominant creosote-bush [Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville] were spatially extrapolated and temporally interpolated to develop daily maps of contamination across the 0.76-km2 study area. Maximum plant and root-zone soil concentrations (4200 and 8700 Bq L−1, respectively) were measured 25 m from the LLRW facility boundary. Continuous evaporation was estimated using a Priestley–Taylor model and transpiration was computed as the difference between measured eddy-covariance evapotranspiration and estimated evaporation. The mean evaporation/transpiration ratio was 3:1. Tritium released from the study area ranged from 0.12 to 12 μg d−1 and totaled 1.5 mg (8.2 × 1010 Bq) over 2 yr. Tritium flux variability was driven spatially by proximity to 3H source areas and temporally by changes in 3H concentrations and in the partitioning between evaporation and transpiration. Evapotranspiration removed and limited penetration of precipitation beneath native vegetation and fostered upward movement and release of 3H from below the root zone.

  20. Transport of tritium contamination to the atmosphere in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C.A.; Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Cooper, C.A.; Johnson, M.J.; Michel, R.L.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Soil-plant-atmosphere interactions strongly infl uence water movement in desert unsaturated zones, but litile is known about how such interactions aff ect atmospheric release of subsurface water-borne contaminants. This 2-yr study, performed at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site in southern Nevada, quantifi ed the magnitude and spatiotemporal variability of tritium (3H) transport from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility. Tritium fl uxes were calculated as the product of 3H concentrations in water vapor and respective evaporation and transpiration water-vapor fl uxes. Quarterly measured 3H concentrations in soil water vapor and in leaf water of the dominant creosote-bush [Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville] were spatially extrapolated and temporally interpolated to develop daily maps of contamination across the 0.76-km2 study area. Maximum plant and root-zone soil concentrations (4200 and 8700 Bq L-1, respectively) were measured 25 m from the LLRW facility boundary. Continuous evaporation was estimated using a Priestley-Taylor model and transpiration was computed as the diff erence between measured eddy-covariance evapotranspiration and estimated evaporation. The mean evaporation/transpiration ratio was 3:1. Tritium released from the study area ranged from 0.12 to 12 ??g d-1 and totaled 1.5 mg (8.2 ?? 1010 Bq) over 2 yr. Tritium fl ux variability was driven spatially by proximity to 3H source areas and temporally by changes in 3H concentrations and in the partitioning between evaporation and transpiration. Evapotranspiration removed and limited penetration of precipitation beneath native vegetation and fostered upward movement and release of 3H from below the root zone. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  1. Locating tritium sources in a research reactor building.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Masami

    2005-10-01

    Despite renovation of the D2O facility, tritium concentrations in the condensates of reactor room air showed tens of Bq mL before venting resumption on July 1997. This suggested the presence of tritium sources in the research reactor-containment building. An investigation was therefore initiated to locate the source and determine the distribution of tritium in the containment building. Air monitoring in the working area using a dish of water placed in the building suggested that the source of tritium was near the reactor core. Monitoring exhaust air from the two facilities (a cold neutron source and a D(2)O tank) showed high specific activity on the order of 10 Bq mL(-1), suggesting the presence of tritium in condensates near the reactor core. The major concern was whether the leakage of liquid deuterium (4 L) and heavy water (2 x 10(3) L) used as a moderator had occurred. The concentration of tritium in condensates has not increased over the past few years in either the exhaust line or working area, and the deuterium itself has not been found in the surrounding environment. The concentration of tritium measured using an ionization chamber after Ar decay was dependent on the thermal output of the research reactor, indicating that the tritium was produced by the irradiation process within shielding/moderator materials or cover gas with neutrons.

  2. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements.

  3. PAH contamination in soils adjacent to a coal-transporting facility in Tapin district, south Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mizwar, Andy; Trihadiningrum, Yulinah

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the level of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), in surface soils around a coal-transporting facility in the western part of South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Three composite soil samples were collected from a coal stockpile, coal-hauling road, and coal port. Identification and quantification of PAH was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total content of 16 USEPA-PAH ranged from 11.79 to 55.30 mg/kg with arithmetic mean value of 33.14 mg/kg and median of 32.33 mg/kg. The 16 USEPA-PAH measured levels were found to be greater compared with most of the literature values. The levels of high molecular-weight PAH (5- and 6-ring) were dominant and formed 67.77-80.69 % of the total 16 USEPA-PAH The most abundant of individual PAH are indeno[1,2,3-cd] pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene with concentration ranges of 2.11-20.56 and 1.59-17.84 mg/kg, respectively. The degree of PAH contamination and subsequent toxicity assessment suggest that the soils of the study area are highly contaminated and pose a potential health risk to humans.

  4. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.A.; Greene, G.A.; Boyack, B.E.

    1996-02-01

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities.

  5. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found.

  6. FINAL REPORT FOR TRITIUM WATER MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Sigg, R.; Ferguson, B.; DiPrete, D.

    2011-04-25

    The objective of this Plant Directed Research and Demonstration (PDRD) task was to develop a system to safetly analyze tritium in moisture collected from glovebox atmospheres in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facility. In order to minimize potential radiation exposures that could occur in handling and diluting high-tritium-content water, SRS sought alternatives to liquid-scintillation counting. The proposed system determines tritium concentrations by measuring Bremsstrahlung radiation induced by low-energy beta interactions in liquid samples. Results show that, after a short counting period (30 seconds), detection limits are three orders of magnitude below the described concentration of tritiated water in the zeolite beds. Additionally, this report covers the analysis of process samples and the investigation of several cell window materials including beryllium, aluminum, and copper. Final tests reveal that alternate window materials and thicknesses can be used to obtain useful results. In particular, a window of stainless steel of moderate thickness (0.3 cm) can be used for counting relatively high levels of tritium.

  7. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  8. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  9. Tritium dose criteria and radiological impact of a tritium plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    1993-06-01

    Radiation safetry criteria adopted in Russia (in the former USSR) distinguish five classes of tritium compounds. The lowest permissible tritium concentration in the air is set for insoluble tritium compounds (3.105 times lower than that for HT). Russia's criteria for tritiated radioactive waste are outlined. It is explained why the tritium weighting factor of two is used as a basis for the tritium dose criteria development in this country. The ecological situation nearby a large tritium processing plant is considered. Amounts of tritiated waste produced at the plant, sources of tritium effluents, tritium content in the air, water, snow, soil and vegetation as well as HTO sorption parameters of various food products are reported. On the basis of HTO near-surface concentrations in the air and public doses measured 3 km away from the plant stack, the tritium dose factor was calculated.

  10. Tritium dose criteria and radiological impact of a tritium plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbasov, B.N.

    1993-06-01

    Radiation safety criteria adopted in Russia (in the former USSR) distinguish five classes of tritium compounds. The lowest permissible tritium concentration in the air is set for insoluble tritium compounds (3 [times] 10[sup 5] times lower than that for HT). Russia's criteria for tritiated radioactive waste are outlined. It is explained why the tritium weighting factor of two is used as a basis for the tritium dose criteria development in this country. The ecological situation nearby a large tritium processing plant is considered. Amounts of tritiated waste produced at the plant, sources of tritium effluents, tritium content in the air, water, snow, soil and vegetation as well as HTO sorption parameters of various food products are reported. On the basis of HTO near-surface concentrations in the air and public doses measured 3 km away from the plant stack, the tritium dose factor was calculated.

  11. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    DOEpatents

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  12. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  13. Tritium retention in TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, C. H.; Mueller, D.; Walters, R. T.; TFTR Team; Causey, R.; Luckhardt, S.; Hirooka, J.

    1996-11-01

    The large tritium inventories projected for ITER pose an important constraint in the design of plasma facing components and the selection of first wall materials. Three years of deuterium-tritium operation in TFTR has provided a special opportunity to address the issues of tritium retention in a tokamak environment. More than 18 kCi of tritium has been injected into the torus via neutral beam injection and gas puffs and approximately half of this amount was retained in the vacuum vessel.(C.H. Skinner et al.), PPPL 3172 (Jan 1995). Tritium has been successfully removed by glow discharges, exposure to room air and other techniques and it is not a constraint on continued operations. A vacuum opening is scheduled for September 1996 and we plan to extract samples of tritiated carbon dust and flakes from the limiter and vacuum vessel for elemental and chemical analysis. We will present the TFTR experience in tritium recycling, retention and removal and its implications for ITER.

  14. Tritium permeation and related studies on barrier treated 316 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.R.; Allen, R.P.; Baldwin, D.L.; Bell, R.D.; Brimhall, J.L.; Clemmer, R.G.; Marschman, S.C.; McKinnon, M.A.; Page, R.E.; Powers, H.G.; Chalk, S.G.

    1991-09-01

    To verify the performance of permeation-resistant cladding for tritium targets designed for a New Production Reactor Light Water Reactor, a tritium test facility was designed, developed, and certified. Testing is ongoing to verify the performance of reference designed targets. Accurate measurements were taken of tritium permeating from barrier-coated cladding specimens immersed in high-temperature autoclaves configured to simulate reactor coolant conditions. The tritium test pressure is controlled by heating a zirconium-alloy getter, previously charged with tritium, to a temperature that corresponds to a specified test pressure.

  15. Performance of 500kCi Tritium Storage Vessel for WTRF

    SciTech Connect

    Paek, S.; Ahn, D.H.; Kim, K.R.; Chung, H.; Yim, S.P.; Lee, M.

    2005-07-15

    A prototype TSV (Tritide Storage Vessel) has been manufactured for the long-term storage of tritium of the WTRF (Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility). A performance test was carried out to demonstrate that the TSV could hold a minimum of 500kCi of tritium. This experiment was conducted by a batch type hydriding reaction. Hydrogen gas equivalent to 50kCi of tritium was reacted with the titanium sponge in a batch reaction. Experimental results for 10 batches show that the TSV has enough capacity to store 500kCi of tritium.

  16. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-12-01

    During third quarter 1992, 12 constituents exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents: 57 (48%) and 23 (19%) of the 119 monitoring wells contained elevated tritium and trichloroethylene levels, respectively. Elevated constituents were found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 1} (Barnwell/McBean). Elevated constituents also occurred in five Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS. Downgradient wells in the three hydrostratigraphic units contained elevated levels of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, gross alpha, lead, nonvolatile beta, thallium, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), or cadmium.

  17. Type A Accident Investigation Board report on the January 17, 1996, electrical accident with injury in Technical Area 21 Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    An electrical accident was investigated in which a crafts person received serious injuries as a result of coming into contact with a 13.2 kilovolt (kV) electrical cable in the basement of Building 209 in Technical Area 21 (TA-21-209) in the Tritium Science and Fabrication Facility (TSFF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In conducting its investigation, the Accident Investigation Board used various analytical techniques, including events and causal factor analysis, barrier analysis, change analysis, fault tree analysis, materials analysis, and root cause analysis. The board inspected the accident site, reviewed events surrounding the accident, conducted extensive interviews and document reviews, and performed causation analyses to determine the factors that contributed to the accident, including any management system deficiencies. Relevant management systems and factors that could have contributed to the accident were evaluated in accordance with the guiding principles of safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy in an October 1994 letter to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and subsequently to Congress.

  18. Tritium uptake by fish in a small stream. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1992-09-17

    The tritium concentration in the water from freeze drying and the water from combustion of the dry tissue was measured in fish (largemouth bass), stream macrophytes, and streamside vegetation at five sampling locations in Four Mile Branch on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Four Mile Branch has elevated tritium concentration, largely from migration of water through the soil from adjacent seepage basins that received industrial wastewater containing tritium. The stream water and the vegetation, through the food chain, are thought to be the two sources of tritium reaching the fish. Comparision of the tritium activity of the freeze-dried water from fish flesh and of the sources of tritium, indicates that the fish flesh approaches a steady-state concentration with the stream water. The freeze-dry water from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than the stream water. The water of combustion from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than stream water. The water of combustion from the fish flesh is somewhat higher in specific activity than the stream water or the water in the fish. The distribution of tritium among the components of this system can be explain in terms of the turnover of water and organic hydrogen in the components.

  19. Tritium uptake by fish in a small stream. [Largemouth Bass

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, D.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1992-09-17

    The tritium concentration in the water from freeze drying and the water from combustion of the dry tissue was measured in fish (largemouth bass), stream macrophytes, and streamside vegetation at five sampling locations in Four Mile Branch on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Four Mile Branch has elevated tritium concentration, largely from migration of water through the soil from adjacent seepage basins that received industrial wastewater containing tritium. The stream water and the vegetation, through the food chain, are thought to be the two sources of tritium reaching the fish. Comparision of the tritium activity of the freeze-dried water from fish flesh and of the sources of tritium, indicates that the fish flesh approaches a steady-state concentration with the stream water. The freeze-dry water from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than the stream water. The water of combustion from the vegetation is also at a lower specific activity than stream water. The water of combustion from the fish flesh is somewhat higher in specific activity than the stream water or the water in the fish. The distribution of tritium among the components of this system can be explain in terms of the turnover of water and organic hydrogen in the components.

  20. Wet processing of palladium for use in the tritium facility at Westinghouse, Savannah River, SC. Preparation of palladium using the Mound Muddy Water process

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.

    1998-11-10

    Palladium used at Savannah River for tritium storage is currently obtained from a commercial source. In order to better understand the processes involved in preparing this material, Savannah River is supporting investigations into the chemical reactions used to synthesize this material and into the conditions necessary to produce palladium powder that meets their specifications. This better understanding may help to guarantee a continued reliable source for this material in the future. As part of this evaluation, a work-for-others contract between Westinghouse Savannah River Company and the Ames Laboratory Metallurgy and Ceramics Program was initiated. During FY98, the process for producing palladium powder developed in 1986 by Dan Grove of Mound Applied Technologies (USDOE) was studied to understand the processing conditions that lead to changes in morphology in the final product. This report details the results of this study of the Mound Muddy Water process, along with the results of a round-robin analysis of well-characterized palladium samples that was performed by Savannah River and Ames Laboratory. The Mound Muddy Water process is comprised of three basic wet chemical processes, palladium dissolution, neutralization, and precipitation, with a number of filtration steps to remove unwanted impurity precipitates.

  1. Status and future of the tritium plasma experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Causey, R.A.; Buchenauer, D.; Taylor, D.; Harbin, W.; Anderl, B.

    1995-10-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) has been recently upgraded and relocated at the Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first tritium plasma in the upgraded system was achieved on May 11, 1995. TPE is a unique facility devoted to experiments on the migration and retention of tritium in fusion reactor materials. This facility is now capable of delivering 100 to 200 eV tritons at a level of 1 A/cm{sup 2} to a 5 mm diameter sample, similar to that expected for the divertor of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). An aggressive research plan has been established, and experiments are expected to begin in June of 1995. 4 figs.

  2. Glovebox stripper system tritium capture efficiency-literature review

    SciTech Connect

    James, D. W.; Poore, A. S.

    2015-09-28

    Glovebox Stripper Systems (GBSS) are intended to minimize tritium emissions from glovebox confinement systems in Tritium facilities. A question was raised to determine if an assumed 99% stripping (decontamination) efficiency in the design of a GBBS was appropriate. A literature review showed the stated 99% tritium capture efficiency used for design of the GBSS is reasonable. Four scenarios were indicated for GBSSs. These include release with a single or dual stage setup which utilizes either single-pass or recirculation for stripping purposes. Examples of single-pass as well as recirculation stripper systems are presented and reviewed in this document.

  3. Tritium analysis at TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, D.R.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Zimmer, G.

    1995-04-01

    The tritium analytical system at TFRR is used to determine the purity of tritium bearing gas streams in order to provide inventory and accountability measurements. The system includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer and beta scintillator originally configured at Monsanto Mound Research Laboratory in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. The system was commissioned and tested between 1991 and 1992 and is used daily for analysis of calibration standards, incoming tritium shipments, gases evolved from uranium storage beds and measurement of gases returned to gas holding tanks. The low resolution mass spectrometer is enhanced by the use of a metal getter pump to aid in resolving the mass 3 and 4 species. The beta scintillator complements the analysis as it detects tritium bearing species that often are not easily detected by mass spectrometry such as condensable species or hydrocarbons containing tritium. The instruments are controlled by a personal computer with customized software written with a graphical programming system designed for data acquisition and control. A discussion of the instrumentation, control systems, system parameters, procedural methods, algorithms, and operational issues will be presented. Measurements of gas holding tanks and tritiated water waste streams using ion chamber instrumentation are discussed elsewhere.

  4. Turbines and terrestrial vertebrates: variation in tortoise survivorship between a wind energy facility and an adjacent undisturbed wildland area in the desert southwest (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Augustine, Benjamin J.; Arundel, Terry; Murphy, Mason O.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David F.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18 year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  5. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R.; Murphy, Mason O.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises ( Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  6. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA).

    PubMed

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E; Ennen, Joshua R; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R; Murphy, Mason O; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V; Price, Steven J

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  7. Drum bubbler tritium processing system

    DOEpatents

    Rule, Keith; Gettelfinger, Geoff; Kivler, Paul

    1999-01-01

    A method of separating tritium oxide from a gas stream containing tritium oxide. The gas stream containing tritium oxide is fed into a container of water having a head space above the water. Bubbling the gas stream containing tritium oxide through the container of water and removing gas from the container head space above the water. Thereafter, the gas from the head space is dried to remove water vapor from the gas, and the water vapor is recycled to the container of water.

  8. Monitoring of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Corbett, James A.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1981-01-01

    The fluid from a breeder nuclear reactor, which may be the sodium cooling fluid or the helium reactor-cover-gas, or the helium coolant of a gas-cooled reactor passes over the portion of the enclosure of a gaseous discharge device which is permeable to hydrogen and its isotopes. The tritium diffused into the discharge device is radioactive producing beta rays which ionize the gas (argon) in the discharge device. The tritium is monitored by measuring the ionization current produced when the sodium phase and the gas phase of the hydrogen isotopes within the enclosure are in equilibrium.

  9. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1992 and 1992 summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    During fourth quarter 1992, nine constituents exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in one or more groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. As in previous quarters, tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents. Fifty-seven (48%) of the 120 monitoring wells, contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (19%) contained elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Total alpha-emitting radium, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, cadmium, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, or nonvolatile beta levels exceeded standards in one or more wells. During 1992, elevated levels of 13 constituents were found in one or more of 80 of the 120 groundwater monitoring wells (67%) at the MWMF and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene exceeded their final PDWS more frequently and more consistently than did other constituents. Tritium activity exceeded its final PDWS m 67 wells and trichloroethylene was. elevated in 28 wells. Lead, tetrachloroethylene, total alpha-emitting radium, gross alpha, cadmium, chloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethylene 1,2-dichloroethane, mercury, or nitrate exceeded standards in one or more wells during the year. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its drinking water screening level in 3 wells during the year.

  10. Preliminary Tritium Management Design Activities at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.; Felde, David K.; Logsdon, Randall J.; McFarlane, Joanna; Qualls, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Interest in salt-cooled and salt-fueled reactors has increased over the last decade (Forsberg et al. 2016). Several private companies and universities in the United States, as well as governments in other countries, are developing salt reactor designs and/or technology. Two primary issues for the development and deployment of many salt reactor concepts are (1) the prevention of tritium generation and (2) the management of tritium to prevent release to the environment (Holcomb 2013). In 2016, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a research project under the Advanced Reactor Technology Program to (1) experimentally assess the feasibility of proposed methods for tritium mitigation and (2) to perform an engineering demonstration of the most promising methods. This document describes results from the first year’s efforts to define, design, and build an experimental apparatus to test potential methods for tritium management. These efforts are focused on producing a final design document as the basis for the apparatus and its scheduled completion consistent with available budget and approvals for facility use.

  11. Tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Wilson, K.L.

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses the materials physics related to D-T operation in TFTR. Research activities are described pertaining to basic studies of hydrogenic retention in graphite, hydrogen recycling phenomena, first-wall and limiter conditioning, surface analysis of TFTR first-wall components, and estimates of the tritium inventory.

  12. Drum bubbler tritium processing system

    DOEpatents

    Rule, K.; Gettelfinger, G.; Kivler, P.

    1999-08-17

    A method is described for separating tritium oxide from a gas stream containing tritium oxide. The gas stream containing tritium oxide is fed into a container of water having a head space above the water. The tritium oxide is separated by bubbling the gas stream containing tritium oxide through the container of water and removing gas from the container head space above the water. Thereafter, the gas from the head space is dried to remove water vapor from the gas, and the water vapor is recycled to the container of water. 2 figs.

  13. Transfer model of tritium in a local hydrosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Kiriko; Kimura, Ken Ichi; Hongo, Shozo

    1995-10-01

    For purpose of dose estimation a transfer model of tritium as well as some other important radionuclides that occur in the environment is being developed in our institute. Tritium is considered to be a significant source of internal exposure for man. Our present work is focussed on designing a tritium compartment model of the local hydrosphere. Our concept is based on the seven-box model of the hydrological cycle on a global scale that was proposed by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). To estimate the impact of nuclear facilities in a local area, geographical and geological conditions need to be taken into consideration. Therefore in present work, groundwater reservoir was divided into three layers and then the transfer coefficients were determined by analyzing time-series data on fallout tritium concentrations in the local environmental water. The most important difference between the NCRP model and ours is that the tritium metabolism of aquatic plants, invertebrates and fish is taken into consideration. For these aquatic organisms there are two sub-compartments, namely tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT). We developed this model because the living organisms in such aquatic systems are utilized as fishery products by the Japanese people. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  14. MODELING ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES OF TRITIUM FROM NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Okula, K

    2007-01-17

    Tritium source term analysis and the subsequent dispersion and consequence analyses supporting the safety documentation of Department of Energy nuclear facilities are especially sensitive to the applied software analysis methodology, input data and user assumptions. Three sequential areas in tritium accident analysis are examined in this study to illustrate where the analyst should exercise caution. Included are: (1) the development of a tritium oxide source term; (2) use of a full tritium dispersion model based on site-specific information to determine an appropriate deposition scaling factor for use in more simplified, broader modeling, and (3) derivation of a special tritium compound (STC) dose conversion factor for consequence analysis, consistent with the nature of the originating source material. It is recommended that unless supporting, defensible evidence is available to the contrary, the tritium release analyses should assume tritium oxide as the species released (or chemically transformed under accident's environment). Important exceptions include STC situations and laboratory-scale releases of hydrogen gas. In the modeling of the environmental transport, a full phenomenology model suggests that a deposition velocity of 0.5 cm/s is an appropriate value for environmental features of the Savannah River Site. This value is bounding for certain situations but non-conservative compared to the full model in others. Care should be exercised in choosing other factors such as the exposure time and the resuspension factor.

  15. Tritium in the burial ground of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.

    1993-06-01

    This memorandum reviews the available information on tritium-contaminated material discarded to burial grounds. Tritium was the first isotope studied because it represents the most immediate concern with regard to release to the environment. Substantial amounts of tritium are known to be present in the ground water underneath the area, and outcropping of this ground water in springs and seeps has been observed. The response to this release of tritium from the burial ground is a current concern. The amount of tritium emplaced in the burial ground facilities is very uncertain, however, some general conclusions can be made. In particular, most of the tritium buried is associated with spent equipment and other waste, rather than spent melts. Correspondingly, most of the tritium in the ground water seems to be associated with burials of this type, rather than the spent melts. Maps are presented showing the location of burials of tritiated waste by type, and the location of the largest individual burials according to COBRA records.

  16. Tritium: An analysis of key environmental and dosimetric questions

    SciTech Connect

    Till, J E; Meyer, H R; Etnier, E L; Bomar, E S; Gentry, R D; Killough, G G; Rohwer, P S; Tennery, V J; Travis, C C

    1980-05-01

    This document summarizes new theoretical and experimental data that may affect the assessment of environmental releases of tritium and analyzes the significance of this information in terms of the dose to man. Calculated doses resulting from tritium releases to the environment are linearly dependent upon the quality factor chosen for tritium beta radiation. A reevaluation of the tritium quality factor by the ICRP is needed; a value of 1.7 would seem to be more justifiable than the old 1.0 value. A new exposure model is proposed, based primarily upon the approach recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Employing a /open quotes/typical/close quotes/ LMFBR reprocessing facility source term, a /open quotes/base case/close quotes/ dose commitment to total body (for a maximally exposed individual) was calculated to be 4.0 /times/ 10/sup /minus/2/ mSv, with 3.2 /times/ 10/sup /minus// mSv of the dose due to intake of tritium. The study analyzes models which exist for evaluating the buildup of global releases of tritium from man-made sources. Scenarios for the release of man-made tritium to the environment and prediction of collective dose commitment to future generations suggest that the dose from nuclear weapons testing will be less than that from nuclear energy even though the weapons source term is greater than that for any of our energy scenarios.

  17. 2009 EVALUATION OF TRITIUM REMOVAL AND MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    LUECK KJ; GENESSE DJ; STEGEN GE

    2009-02-26

    Since 1995, a state-approved land disposal site (SALDS) has received tritium contaminated effluents from the Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Tritium in this effluent is mitigated by storage in slow moving groundwater to allow extended time for decay before the water reaches the site boundary. By this method, tritium in the SALDS is isolated from the general environment and human contact until it has decayed to acceptable levels. This report contains the 2009 update evaluation of alternative tritium mitigation techniques to control tritium in liquid effluents and groundwater at the Hanford site. A thorough literature review was completed and updated information is provided on state-of-the-art technologies for control of tritium in wastewaters. This report was prepared to satisfy the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-026-07B (Ecology, EPA, and DOE 2007). Tritium separation and isolation technologies are evaluated periodically to determine their feasibility for implementation to control Hanford site liquid effluents and groundwaters to meet the Us. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40 CFR 141.16, drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) for tritium of 20,000 pOll and/or DOE Order 5400.5 as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy. Since the 2004 evaluation, there have been a number of developments related to tritium separation and control with potential application in mitigating tritium contaminated wastewater. These are primarily focused in the areas of: (1) tritium recycling at a commercial facility in Cardiff, UK using integrated tritium separation technologies (water distillation, palladium membrane reactor, liquid phase catalytic exchange, thermal diffusion), (2) development and demonstration of Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) using hydrogen/water exchange to separate tritium from water, (3) evaporation of tritium contaminated water for dispersion in the

  18. Tritium plume dynamics in the shallow unsaturated zone in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maples, S.R.; Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Cooper, C.A.; Pohll, G.; Michel, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    The spatiotemporal variability of a tritium plume in the shallow unsaturated zone and the mechanisms controlling its transport were evaluated during a 10-yr study. Plume movement was minimal and its mass declined by 68%. Upward-directed diffusive-vapor tritium fluxes and radioactive decay accounted for most of the observed plume-mass declines. Effective isolation of tritium (3H) and other contaminants at waste-burial facilities requires improved understanding of transport processes and pathways. Previous studies documented an anomalously widespread (i.e., theoretically unexpected) distribution of 3H (>400 m from burial trenches) in a dry, sub-root-zone gravelly layer (1–2-m depth) adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) burial facility in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada, that closed in 1992. The objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize long-term, spatiotemporal variability of 3H plumes; and (ii) quantify the processes controlling 3H behavior in the sub-root-zone gravelly layer beneath native vegetation adjacent to the facility. Geostatistical methods, spatial moment analyses, and mass flux calculations were applied to a spatiotemporally comprehensive, 10-yr data set (2001–2011). Results showed minimal bulk-plume advancement during the study period and limited Fickian spreading of mass. Observed spreading rates were generally consistent with theoretical vapor-phase dispersion. The plume mass diminished more rapidly than would be expected from radioactive decay alone, indicating net efflux from the plume. Estimates of upward 3H efflux via diffusive-vapor movement were >10× greater than by dispersive-vapor or total-liquid movement. Total vertical fluxes were >20× greater than lateral diffusive-vapor fluxes, highlighting the importance of upward migration toward the land surface. Mass-balance calculations showed that radioactive decay and upward diffusive-vapor fluxes contributed the majority of plume loss. Results indicate that plume losses

  19. Recent progress on tritium technology research and development for a fusion reactor in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Nakamura, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Iwai, Y.; Isobe, K.; Yamada, M.; Kurata, R.; Edao, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Oyaizu, M.; Yamanishi, T.

    2015-03-15

    JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) manages 2 tritium handling laboratories: Tritium Processing Laboratory (TPL) in Tokai and DEMO-RD building in Rokkasho. TPL has been accumulating a gram level tritium safety handling experiences without any accidental tritium release to the environment for more than 25 years. Recently, our activities have focused on 3 categories, as follows. First, the development of a detritiation system for ITER. This task is the demonstration test of a wet Scrubber Column (SC) as a pilot scale (a few hundreds m{sup 3}/h of processing capacity). Secondly, DEMO-RD tasks are focused on investigating the general issues required for DEMO-RD design, such as structural materials like RAFM (Reduced Activity Ferritic/Martensitic steels) and SiC/SiC, functional materials like tritium breeder and neutron multiplier, and tritium. For the last 4 years, we have spent a lot of time and means to the construction of the DEMO-RD facility and to its licensing, so we have just started the actual research program with tritium and other radioisotopes. This tritium task includes tritium accountancy, tritium basic safety research such as tritium interactions with various materials, which will be used for DEMO-RD and durability. The third category is the recovery work from the Great East Japan earthquake (2011 earthquake). It is worth noting that despite the high magnitude of the earthquake, TPL was able to confine tritium properly without any accidental tritium release.

  20. Polarized tritium target development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.E.; Fedchak, J.A.; Kowalczyk, R.S.

    1995-08-01

    Work began on the development of a completely sealed polarized tritium target for experiments at CEBAF. Because of the similarities between optical pumping of tritium and hydrogen, all prototype work is done with hydrogen. We constructed a test station for filling glassware with hydrogen, where we can dissociate molecular hydrogen and monitor the purity of the gas. A simple two-cell glass system was constructed, consisting of a region in which the molecular hydrogen is dissociated with an RF discharge and a region where the atoms can be optically pumped. So far, a clean discharge was obtained in the glassware. With this system, we plan to investigate ways to eliminate the discharge from the optical pumping region and test the quality of the discharge once the pumping cell is coated with drifilm.

  1. Tritium Storage Material

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, Donald F.; Luo, Weifang; Smugeresky, John E.; Robinson, David B.; Fares, Stephen James; Ong, Markus D.; Arslan, Ilke; Tran, Kim L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Sartor, George B.; Clift, W. Miles

    2008-09-01

    Nano-structured palladium is examined as a tritium storage material with the potential to release beta-decay-generated helium at the generation rate, thereby mitigating the aging effects produced by enlarging He bubbles. Helium retention in proposed structures is modeled by adapting the Sandia Bubble Evolution model to nano-dimensional material. The model shows that even with ligament dimensions of 6-12 nm, elevated temperatures will be required for low He retention. Two nanomaterial synthesis pathways were explored: de-alloying and surfactant templating. For de-alloying, PdAg alloys with piranha etchants appeared likely to generate the desired morphology with some additional development effort. Nano-structured 50 nm Pd particles with 2-3 nm pores were successfully produced by surfactant templating using PdCl salts and an oligo(ethylene oxide) hexadecyl ether surfactant. Tests were performed on this material to investigate processes for removing residual pore fluids and to examine the thermal stability of pores. A tritium manifold was fabricated to measure the early He release behavior of this and Pd black material and is installed in the Tritium Science Station glove box at LLNL. Pressure-composition isotherms and particle sizes of a commercial Pd black were measured.

  2. A prototype wearable tritium monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Surette, R. A.; Dubeau, J.

    2008-07-15

    Sudden unexpected changes in tritium-in-air concentrations in workplace air can result in significant unplanned exposures. Although fixed area monitors are used to monitor areas where there is a potential for elevated tritium in air concentrations, they do not monitor personnel air space and may require some time for acute tritium releases to be detected. There is a need for a small instrument that will quickly alert staff of changing tritium hazards. A moderately sensitive tritium instrument that workers could wear would bring attention to any rise in tritium levels that were above predetermined limits and help in assessing the potential hazard therefore minimizing absorbed dose. Hand-held instruments currently available can be used but require the assistance of a fellow worker or restrict the user to using only one hand to perform some duties. (authors)

  3. Metabolism of organically bound tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model consisting of a free body water compartment, two organic compartments, and a small, rapidly metabolizing compartment. The utility of this model lies in the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase cumulative total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound-to-loose ratio of tritium in the diet. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements of tritium in human urine and tissue samples, and appear to be in close agreement. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Tritium monitor and collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.D.; Wickham, K.L.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Grafwaller, E.G.; Maltrud, H.R.; Bourne, G.L.

    1991-03-26

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next online getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter.

  5. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Gary L.; Meikrantz, David H.; Ely, Walter E.; Tuggle, Dale G.; Grafwallner, Ervin G.; Wickham, Keith L.; Maltrud, Herman R.; Baker, John D.

    1992-01-01

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter.

  6. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, G.L.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Wickham, K.L.; Maltrud, H.R.; Baker, J.D.

    1992-01-14

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter. 7 figs.

  7. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  8. Dismantling of the PETRA glove box: tritium contamination and inventory assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, R.

    2015-03-15

    The PETRA facility is the first installation in which experiments with tritium were carried out at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe. After completion of two main experimental programs, the decommissioning of PETRA was initiated with the aim to reuse the glove box and its main still valuable components. A decommissioning plan was engaged to: -) identify the source of tritium release in the glove box, -) clarify the status of the main components, -) assess residual tritium inventories, and -) de-tritiate the components to be disposed of as waste. Several analytical techniques - calorimetry on small solid samples, wipe test followed by liquid scintillation counting for surface contamination assessment, gas chromatography on gaseous samples - were deployed and cross-checked to assess the remaining tritium inventories and initiate the decommissioning process. The methodology and the main outcomes of the numerous different tritium measurements are presented and discussed. (authors)

  9. Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

  10. Possible parameters in the urinary excretion of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Cawley, C.N.; Lewis, B.A.; Cannon, L.A.

    1985-11-01

    Because of its mobility in both physical and biological systems, tritium is interesting both as a tracer and as an issue in health physics. Because tritium is extremely difficult to contain, it is one of the major radionuclides of concern if released to the environment from nuclear facilities. Relatively very large releases are tolerated because the beta particle has low energy and, therefore, the radioisotope is not a health hazard unless deposited internally. Moreover, on release to the environment, tritium enters the hydrologic cycle and is diluted and dispersed widely through the hydrosphere. It is likely that tritium uptake and loss in humans is more complex than generally believed and may be more functionally related to physiological processes, such as the bicarbonate and electrolyte balances, than to ambient environmental conditions such as temperature. Despite the many uncertainties in the analyses of experimental data on tritium contamination and excretion, it is likely that further investigations will establish both a better understanding of the tritium health hazard and the physiological processes governing excretion and, perhaps, its indefinite recycling through metabolic pools.

  11. UK contractors' experience of management of tritium during decommissioning projects

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Tommy; Stevens, Keith; Heaney, John; Murray, Alan; Warwick, Phil; Croudace, Ian

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: This paper provides an account of the tritium management experience of a UK decommissioning and remediation contracting organisation (NUKEM Limited), supported by a specialist radio-analysis organisation (GAU-Radioanalytical). This experience was gained during the execution of projects which involved the characterisation and remediation of facilities which had previously been used for tritium work and were contaminated with tritium. The emphasis of the paper is on the characterisation (sampling and analysis) of tritium. An account is given of the development of a methodology to improve the accuracy of tritium characterisation. The improved methodology evolved from recognition of the need to minimise tritium losses during sampling, storage, transport and preparation for analysis. These improvements were achieved in a variety of ways, including use of cold and dry sampling techniques in preference to hot or wet ones and freezing relevant samples during storage and transport. The major benefit was an improvement in the accuracy and reliability of the analyses results, essential for proper categorisation, sentencing and future management of tritiated waste. (authors)

  12. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S.; Moore, M.L.

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  13. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  14. Tritium monitoring of groundwater and surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.; Aamodt, P.; Bounds, J.; Koster, J.

    1999-03-01

    There are numerous facilities, both within the US and in the rest of the world, within the complex of radiation laboratories and production plants where tritium has been released into the environment because of historic or ongoing mission-related operations. Many of environmental restoration projects have detected low levels of tritium contamination in local streams, ponds, and/or ground water. Typically these waters are moving or have the potential to move offsite and are viewed as a potential risk to the public and environment. Los Alamos National Laboratory will modify the well-proven long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique for detection of ionizing radiation to optimize a system for detecting tritium in groundwater and other surfaces. The LRAD technique relies on detection of ionized air molecules rather than direct detection of ionizing radiation. The detected electrical current is proportional to the number of ionized air molecules present, which is in turn a measure of the amount of contamination present. Although this technique has been used commercially to measure alpha contamination on objects and surfaces, the technique is also ideal for monitoring low-energy beta particles. The authors have demonstrated beta detection using {sup 54}Mn, {sup 14}C, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 36}Cl sources. Thus, the detector technology and detection of beta particles using this technology have both been demonstrated. The extreme short range of tritium beta particles necessitates an optimization of the detector system. In this paper, the authors will discuss these new designs.

  15. Tritium profiles in snowpacks.

    PubMed

    Galeriu, D; Davis, P; Workman, W

    2010-10-01

    The release of tritiated water (HTO) to the atmosphere during the winter can contribute significantly to snow contamination and to water-soil-plant contamination after the spring thaw. The dose significance of such a release depends on the persistence of tritiated water in the snowpack, which is primarily controlled by the HTO diffusion process in snow and the rate of re-emission into the atmosphere from the snowpack surface. Monitoring data collected after an acute winter release at Chalk River Laboratories and data obtained in winter over a chronically contaminated area were analyzed to estimate the diffusion coefficient of HTO in the snowpack. Under conditions of cold and dry snow, the diffusion coefficient lay in the range 1-2x10(-10)m(2)s(-1), an order of magnitude lower than diffusion in water but an order of magnitude higher than self-diffusion in ice. These results confirm the theoretical predictions (Bales, 1991). Values up to six times higher were found for warmer periods and just before spring melt, when other processes contribute to profile evolution. The low diffusion rate of tritium in cold, dry snow means that tritium remains in the snowpack throughout the winter, to be released during spring thaw to potentially contaminate surface water, soil and crops.

  16. Low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic

    DOE PAGES

    Pawelko, R. J.; Shimada, M.; Katayama, K.; ...

    2015-11-28

    This paper describes a new experimental system designed to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in materials important to fusion technology. Experimental activities were carried out at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The tritium permeation measurement system was developed as part of the Japan/US TITAN collaboration to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in liquid lead lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy. The experimental system is configured to measure tritium mass transfer properties at low tritium partial pressures. Initial tritium permeation scoping tests were conducted on a 1 mm thick α-Fe plate to determinemore » operating parameters and to validate the experimental technique. A second series of permeation tests was then conducted with the α-Fe plate covered with an approximately 8.5 mm layer of liquid lead lithium eutectic alloy (α-Fe/LLE). We present preliminary tritium permeation data for α-Fe and α-Fe/LLE at temperatures between 400 and 600°C and at tritium partial pressures between 1.7E-3 and 2.5 Pa in helium. Preliminary results for the α-Fe plate and α-Fe/LLE indicate that the data spans a transition region between the diffusion-limited regime and the surface-limited regime. In conclusion, additional data is required to determine the existence and range of a surface-limited regime.« less

  17. Low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Pawelko, R. J.; Shimada, M.; Katayama, K.; Fukada, S.; Humrickhouse, P. W.; Terai, T.

    2015-11-28

    This paper describes a new experimental system designed to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in materials important to fusion technology. Experimental activities were carried out at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The tritium permeation measurement system was developed as part of the Japan/US TITAN collaboration to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in liquid lead lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy. The experimental system is configured to measure tritium mass transfer properties at low tritium partial pressures. Initial tritium permeation scoping tests were conducted on a 1 mm thick α-Fe plate to determine operating parameters and to validate the experimental technique. A second series of permeation tests was then conducted with the α-Fe plate covered with an approximately 8.5 mm layer of liquid lead lithium eutectic alloy (α-Fe/LLE). We present preliminary tritium permeation data for α-Fe and α-Fe/LLE at temperatures between 400 and 600°C and at tritium partial pressures between 1.7E-3 and 2.5 Pa in helium. Preliminary results for the α-Fe plate and α-Fe/LLE indicate that the data spans a transition region between the diffusion-limited regime and the surface-limited regime. In conclusion, additional data is required to determine the existence and range of a surface-limited regime.

  18. Operating Experience Review of Tritium-in-Water Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    S. A. Bruyere; L. C. Cadwallader

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring tritium facility and fusion experiment effluent streams is an environmental safety requirement. This paper presents data on the operating experience of a solid scintillant monitor for tritium in effluent water. Operating experiences were used to calculate an average monitor failure rate of 4E-05/hour for failure to function. Maintenance experiences were examined to find the active repair time for this type of monitor, which varied from 22 minutes for filter replacement to 11 days of downtime while waiting for spare parts to arrive on site. These data support planning for monitor use; the number of monitors needed, allocating technician time for maintenance, inventories of spare parts, and other issues.

  19. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOEpatents

    Griesbach, Otto A.; Stencel, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  20. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOEpatents

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  1. Tritium Elimination System Using Tritium Gas Oxidizing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ichimasa, Michiko; Awagakubo, Sayuri; Takahashi, Miho; Tauchi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Masataka; Ichimasa, Yusuke

    2005-07-15

    In order to eliminate atmospheric tritium gas (HT) released from tritium handling apparatus, we proposed to use the HT oxidizing ability (hydrogenase enzyme) of bacterial strains isolated from surface soils instead of a high temperature precious metal catalyst. Among the isolated strains with high HT oxidation activity, several strains were selected to develop a tritium elimination (detritiation) system. Bioreactors were made of bacterial cells grown on agar medium on a cartridge filter and stored in a refrigerator until use. The detritiation ability of these bioreactors at room temperature was investigated during the intentional HT release experiments carried out in the Cassion Assembly for Tritium Safety Study (CATS) in TPL/JAERI. When HT contaminated air from the CATS was introduced into the biological detritiation system, in which three bioreactors were connected in series, 86% of HT in air was removed as tritiated water in these bioreactors at a flow rate of 100 cm{sup 3}/min for 2 hours.

  2. The use of dynamic modeling in assessing tritium phytoremediation.

    SciTech Connect

    Rebel, Karin T.; Riha; S.J.; Seaman, J.C.; Barton, C.D.

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT - To minimize movement of tritium into surface waters at the Mixed Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Site, tritiumcontaminated groundwater released to the surface along seeps in the hillside is being retained in a constructed pond and used to irrigate forest acreage that lies over the contaminated groundwater. Management of the application of tritium-contaminated irrigation water needs to be evaluated in the context of the large amount of rainfall relative to evapotranspiration, the strong seasonality in evapotranspiration, and intra-annual and interannual variability in precipitation in this region. A dynamic simulation model of water and tritium fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum was developed to assess the efficiency (tritium transpired/tritium applied) of several irrigation management strategies. The model was parameterized using soil-water content data measured at 18 sites for the first year of the project and evaluated using tritium activity measurements made at the same 18 sites over 2.5 yr. The model was then used to evaluate several irrigation strategies. The 25-yr efficiencies (tritium transpired/tritiumapplied) of the irrigation strategies were related to the quantity of irrigation water applied. There was a strong (r2 = 0.99) negative linear relationship between irrigation water applied and efficiency. When a quasi-steady state has been reached in the system, the annual efficiencies of all the irrigation strategies were negatively correlated with annual rainfall. Quantification of these relationships allows irrigation managers to choose irrigation strategies based on desired long-term system efficiency, which differ with climate and irrigation strategy.

  3. Composition containing aerogel substrate loaded with tritium

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, Carol S.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ellefson, Robert E.; Gill, John T.; Reed, Scott; Walko, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The invention provides a process for loading an aerogel substrate with tritium and the resultant compositions. According to the process, an aerogel substrate is hydrolyzed so that surface OH groups are formed. The hydrolyzed aerogel is then subjected to tritium exchange employing, for example, a tritium-containing gas, whereby tritium atoms replace H atoms of surface OH groups. OH and/or CH groups of residual alcohol present in the aerogel may also undergo tritium exchange.

  4. Decontaminating and Melt Recycling Tritium Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1995-04-03

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and several university and industrial partners are evaluating recycling radioactively contaminated stainless steel. The goal of this program is to recycle contaminated stainless steel scrap from US Department of Energy national defense facilities. There is a large quantity of stainless steel at the DOE Savannah River Site from retired heavy water moderated Nuclear material production reactors (for example heat exchangers and process water piping), that will be used in pilot studies of potential recycle processes. These parts are contaminated by fission products, activated species, and tritium generated by neutron irradiation of the primary reactor coolant, which is heavy (deuterated) water. This report reviews current understanding of tritium contamination of stainless steel and previous studies of decontaminating tritium exposed stainless steel. It also outlines stainless steel refining methods, and proposes recommendations based on this review.

  5. Sandia, California Tritium Research Laboratory transition and reutilization project

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, T.B.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes a project within Sandia National Laboratory to convert the shut down Tritium Research Laboratory into a facility which could be reused within the laboratory complex. In the process of decommissioning and decontaminating the facility, the laboratory was able to save substantial financial resources by transferring much existing equipment to other DOE facilities, and then expeditiously implementing a decontamination program which has resulted in the building being converted into laboratory space for new lab programs. This project of facility reuse has been a significant financial benefit to the laboratory.

  6. Tritium in the Savannah River Site environment. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Marter, W.L.; Zeigler, C.C.; Stephenson, D.E.; Hoel, D.D.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-05-01

    Tritium is released to the environment from many of the operations at the Savannah River Site. The releases from each facility to the atmosphere and to the soil and streams, both from normal operations and inadvertent releases, over the period of operation from the early 1950s through 1988 are presented. The fate of the tritium released is evaluated through environmental monitoring, special studies, and modeling. It is concluded that approximately 91% of the tritium remaining after decay is now in the oceans. A dose and risk assessment to the population around the site is presented. It is concluded that about 0.6 fatal cancers may be associated with the tritium released during all the years of operation to the population of about 625,000. This same population (based on the overall US cancer statistics) is expected to experience about 105,000 cancer fatalities from all types of cancer. Therefore, it is considered unlikely that a relationship between any of the cancer deaths occurring in this population and releases of tritium from the SRS will be found.

  7. Dynamic model for tritium transfer in an aquatic food chain.

    PubMed

    Melintescu, A; Galeriu, D

    2011-08-01

    Tritium ((3)H) is released from some nuclear facilities in relatively large quantities. It is a ubiquitous isotope because it enters straight into organisms, behaving essentially identically to its stable analogue (hydrogen). Tritium is a key radionuclide in the aquatic environment, in some cases, contributing significantly to the doses received by aquatic, non-human biota and by humans. The updated model presented here is based on more standardized, comprehensive assessments than previously used for the aquatic food chain, including the benthic flora and fauna, with an explicit application to the Danube ecosystem, as well as an extension to the special case of dissolved organic tritium (DOT). The model predicts the organically bound tritium (OBT) in the primary producers (the autotrophs, such as phytoplankton and algae) and in the consumers (the heterotrophs) using their bioenergetics, which involves the investigation of energy expenditure, losses, gains and efficiencies of transformations in the body. The model described in the present study intends to be more specific than a screening-level model, by including a metabolic approach and a description of the direct uptake of DOT in marine phytoplankton and invertebrates. For a better control of tritium transfer into the environment, not only tritiated water must be monitored, but also the other chemical forms and most importantly OBT, in the food chain.

  8. WASTE CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERIC COMPONENTS EXPOSED TO TRITIUM GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E

    2008-02-15

    A recent independent review led to uncertainty about the technical basis for characterizing the residual amount of tritium in polymer components used in the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities that are sent for waste disposal. A review of a paper published in the open literature firmly establishes the basis of the currently used characterization, 10 Ci/cc. Information provided in that paper about exposure experiments performed at the DOE Mound Laboratory allows the calculation of the currently used characterization. These experiments involved exposure of high density polyethylene (HD-PE) to initially 1 atm tritium gas. In addition, a review of recent research at the Savannah River Site not only further substantiates this characterization, but also establishes its use for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, a trade name is Teflon{reg_sign}), and Vespel{reg_sign} polyimide. 10 Ci/cc tritium is a representative characterization for any type of polymer components exposed at ambient temperature and at approximately 1 atm. tritium gas.

  9. Transportation risk assessment for the shipment of irradiated FFTF tritium target assemblies from the Hanford Site to the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, D. L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This report examines the potential health and safety impacts associated with transportation of irradiated tritium targets from FFTF to the Savannah River Site for processing at the Tritium Extraction Facility. Potential risks to workers and members of the public during normal transportation and accident conditions are assessed.

  10. Tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Wilgen, J.B.; Schmidt, G.L.; Barnes, G.W.; Persing, R.G.

    1992-06-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

  11. Tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Wilgen, J.B. ); Schmidt, G.L.; Barnes, G.W.; Persing, R.G. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

  12. Investigation of durability of optical coatings in highly purified tritium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.; Schoenung, K.; Bornschein, B.; Rolli, R.; Schaefer, V.; Sturm, M.

    2015-03-15

    Anti-reflection coated windows are part of Raman spectroscopy systems for tritium analytics in the KATRIN experiment and fusion-related applications. Damages of such windows were observed after three months of expo-sure to highly purified tritium gas in the LOOPINO facility. In this work, the origin of the damages was investigated, identified and eliminated. Coating samples manufactured by various physical vapor deposition methods have been tested for durability by exposure to pure tritium gas and subsequent visual inspection. Electron beam deposited coatings showed indications for damage after 17 days of tritium exposure in contrast to samples manufactured by ion assisted deposition or sputtering. An improved coating layout of the sample cell is presented for reliable long-term monitoring of tritium gas using Raman spectroscopy. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of retention and disposal options for tritium in fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, W.R.; Hampson, D.C.; Larkin, D.J.; Skolrud, J.O.; Benjamin, R.W.

    1982-08-01

    Five options were evaluated as means of retaining tritium released from light-water reactor or fast breeder reactor fuel during the head-end steps of a typical Purex reprocessing scheme. Cost estimates for these options were compared with a base case in which no retention of tritium within the facility was obtained. Costs were also estimated for a variety of disposal methods of the retained tritium. The disposal costs were combined with the retention costs to yield total costs (capital plus operating) for retention and disposal of tritium under the conditions envisioned. The above costs were converted to an annual basis and to a dollars per curie retained basis. This then was used to estimate the cost in dollars per man-rem saved by retaining the tritium. Only the options that used the least expensive disposal costs could approach the $1000/man-rem cost used as a guide by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  14. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1991-12-31

    The development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluents has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion which was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%) was determined for a toluene-based cocktail. In another technique, the response of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium solutions was measured. A 2% tritium detection efficiency was observed for the most efficient solid scintillators tested. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency. While sensitivities of {approximately}25 kBg/L of tritium for a short count have been attained using several of these techniques, non can reach the environmental level of <1 kBg/L in aqueous solutions.

  15. Aqueous effluent tritium monitor development

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Wilson, H.T.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a low-level tritium monitor for aqueous effluents has explored several potential techniques. In one method, a water-immiscible liquid scintillation cocktail was ultrasonically mixed with an aqueous sample to form a water-cocktail dispersion which was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The organic cocktail could then be reused after phase separation. Of the cocktails tested, the highest tritium detection efficiency (7%) was determined for a toluene-based cocktail. In another technique, the response of various solid scintillators (plastic beads, crushed inorganic salts, etc.) to tritium solutions was measured. A 2% tritium detection efficiency was observed for the most efficient solid scintillators tested. In a third method, a large surface area detector was constructed from thin fibers of plastic scintillator. This detector had a 0.1% intrinsic tritium detection efficiency. While sensitivities of {approximately}25 kBg/L of tritium for a short count have been attained using several of these techniques, non can reach the environmental level of <1 kBg/L in aqueous solutions.

  16. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-25

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

  17. Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA) a Method for Quantifying Tritium Contaminated Trash and Debris at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Dominick, J L; Rasmussen, C L

    2008-07-23

    Several facilities and many projects at LLNL work exclusively with tritium. These operations have the potential to generate large quantities of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) with the same or similar radiological characteristics. A standardized documented approach to characterizing these waste materials for disposal as radioactive waste will enhance the ability of the Laboratory to manage them in an efficient and timely manner while ensuring compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements. This standardized characterization approach couples documented process knowledge with analytical verification and is very conservative, overestimating the radioactivity concentration of the waste. The characterization approach documented here is the Normalized Tritium Quantification Approach (NoTQA). This document will serve as a Technical Basis Document which can be referenced in radioactive waste characterization documentation packages such as the Information Gathering Document. In general, radiological characterization of waste consists of both developing an isotopic breakdown (distribution) of radionuclides contaminating the waste and using an appropriate method to quantify the radionuclides in the waste. Characterization approaches require varying degrees of rigor depending upon the radionuclides contaminating the waste and the concentration of the radionuclide contaminants as related to regulatory thresholds. Generally, as activity levels in the waste approach a regulatory or disposal facility threshold the degree of required precision and accuracy, and therefore the level of rigor, increases. In the case of tritium, thresholds of concern for control, contamination, transportation, and waste acceptance are relatively high. Due to the benign nature of tritium and the resulting higher regulatory thresholds, this less rigorous yet conservative characterization approach is appropriate. The scope of this document is to define an appropriate and acceptable

  18. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, nonvolatile beta, radium-228, thorium-228, or total alpha-emitting radium (radium-226 and radium-228) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 55 (48%) of the 115 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (20%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Sixty-three downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB{sub 2} (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained concentrations of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, nonvolatile beta, radium-228, thorium-228, or total alpha-emitting radium that exceeded the PDWS during second quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS.

  19. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) groundwater monitoring report, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, nonvolatile beta, radium-228, thorium-228, or total alpha-emitting radium (radium-226 and radium-228) exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) and adjacent facilities. Tritium and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents; 55 (48%) of the 115 monitored wells contained elevated tritium activities, and 23 (20%) wells exhibited elevated trichloroethylene concentrations. Sixty-three downgradient wells screened in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table), Aquifer Zone IIB[sub 2] (Barnwell/McBean), and Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) contained concentrations of tritium, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chloroethene, antimony, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead, nonvolatile beta, radium-228, thorium-228, or total alpha-emitting radium that exceeded the PDWS during second quarter 1992. Upgradient wells BGO 1D and 2D and HSB 85A, 85B, and 85C did not contain any constituents that exceeded the PDWS.

  20. Primer on tritium safe handling practices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This Primer is designed for use by operations and maintenance personnel to improve their knowledge of tritium safe handling practices. It is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. It is presented in general terms for use throughout the DOE Complex. After reading it, one should be able to: describe methods of measuring airborne tritium concentration; list types of protective clothing effective against tritium uptake from surface and airborne contamination; name two methods of reducing the body dose after a tritium uptake; describe the most common method for determining amount of tritium uptake in the body; describe steps to take following an accidental release of airborne tritium; describe the damage to metals that results from absorption of tritium; explain how washing hands or showering in cold water helps reduce tritium uptake; and describe how tritium exchanges with normal hydrogen in water and hydrocarbons.

  1. A study of tritium in municipal solid waste leachate and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Mutch Jr, R. D.; Mahony, J. D.

    2008-07-15

    It has become increasingly clear in the last few years that the vast majority of municipal solid waste landfills produce leachate that contains elevated levels of tritium. The authors recently conducted a study of landfills in New York and New Jersey and found that the mean concentration of tritium in the leachate from ten municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills was 33,800 pCi/L with a peak value of 192,000 pCi/L. A 2003 study in California reported a mean tritium concentration of 99,000 pCi/L with a peak value of 304,000 pCi/L. Studies in Pennsylvania and the UK produced similar results. The USEPA MCL for tritium is 20,000 pCi/L. Tritium is also manifesting itself as landfill gas and landfill gas condensate. Landfill gas condensate samples from landfills in the UK and California were found to have tritium concentrations as high as 54,400 and 513,000 pCi/L, respectively. The tritium found in MSW leachate is believed to derive principally from gaseous tritium lighting devices used in some emergency exit signs, compasses, watches, and even novelty items, such as 'glow stick' key chains. This study reports the findings of recent surveys of leachate from a number of municipal solid waste landfills, both open and closed, from throughout the United States and Europe. The study evaluates the human health and ecological risks posed by elevated tritium levels in municipal solid waste leachate and landfill gas and the implications to their safe management. We also assess the potential risks posed to solid waste management facility workers exposed to tritium-containing waste materials in transfer stations and other solid waste management facilities. (authors)

  2. Production of highly tritiated water for tritium exposure studies

    SciTech Connect

    Muirhead, C.; Pilatzke, K.; Tripple, A.; Philippi, N.; McCrimmon, K.; Castillo, I.; Boniface, H.; Suppiah, S.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium Facility staff at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) have successfully prepared highly tritiated water for use in radiation resistance of PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane-based)electrolyser membrane. The goal of System A was to convert a known amount of elemental tritium (HT) into tritiated water vapour using a copper(II) oxide bed, and to condense the tritiated water vapour into a known amount of chilled heavy water (D{sub 2}O). The conversion and capture of tritium using this system is close to 100%. The goal of System B was to transfer tritiated water from the containment vessel to an exposure vessel (experiment) in a controlled and safe manner. System B is based on the pushing of D{sub 2}0 with low-pressure argon carrier gas to a calibrated volume and then to the exposure vessel. A method for delivering a known and controlled amount of tritiated water has been successfully demonstrated at CRL. Using both systems Tritium Facility staff have made and distributed highly tritiated water in a safe and controlled manner. This paper focuses on how the tritiated water was produced and dispensed to the experiment.

  3. Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Olfert, J; Baglan, N; St-Amant, N; Carter, B; Clark, I; Bucur, C

    2015-12-01

    Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods.

  4. Laser-assisted isotope separation of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Herman, Irving P.; Marling, Jack B.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for laser-assisted isotope separation of tritium, using infrared multiple photon dissociation of tritium-bearing products in the gas phase. One such process involves the steps of (1) catalytic exchange of a deuterium-bearing molecule XYD with tritiated water DTO from sources such as a heavy water fission reactor, to produce the tritium-bearing working molecules XYT and (2) photoselective dissociation of XYT to form a tritium-rich product. By an analogous procedure, tritium is separated from tritium-bearing materials that contain predominately hydrogen such as a light water coolant from fission or fusion reactors.

  5. Recent progresses in tritium radioecology and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Davis, P.; Raskob, W.; Melintescu, A.

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, some aspects of recent progress in tritium radioecology and dosimetry are presented, with emphasis on atmospheric releases to terrestrial ecosystems. The processes involved in tritium transfer through the environment are discussed, together with the current status of environmental tritium models. Topics include the deposition and reemission of HT and HTO, models for the assessment of routine and accidental HTO emissions, a new approach to modeling the dynamics of tritium in mammals, the dose consequences of tritium releases and aspects of human dosimetry. The need for additional experimental data is identified, together with the attributes that would be desirable in the next generation of tritium codes. (authors)

  6. Using thermal evolution profiles to infer tritium speciation in nuclear site metals: an aid to decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phil E; Kim, Daeji

    2014-09-16

    Understanding the association and retention of tritium in metals has significance in nuclear decommissioning programs and can lead to cost benefits through waste reduction and recycling of materials. To develop insights, a range of metals from two nuclear sites and one non-nuclear site were investigated which had different exposure histories. Tritium speciation in metals was inferred through incremental heating experiments over the range of 20-900 °C using a Raddec Pyrolyser instrument. Systematic differences in thermal desorption profiles were found for nonirradiated and irradiated metals. In nonirradiated metals (e.g., stainless steel and copper), it was found that significant tritium had become incorporated following prolonged exposure to tritiated water vapor (HTO) or tritium/hydrogen gas (HT) in nuclear facilities. This externally derived tritium enters metals by diffusion with a rate controlled by the metal composition and whether the surface of the metal had been sealed or coated prior to exposure. The tritium is normally trapped in hydrated oxides lying along grain boundaries. In irradiated metals, an additional type of tritium can form internally through neutron capture reactions. The amount formed depends on the concentration and distribution of trace lithium and boron in the metal as well as the integrated neutron flux. Liberating this kind of tritium typically requires temperatures above 800 °C. The pattern of tritium evolution derived from simple thermal desorption experiments allows reliable inferences to be drawn on the likely origin, location, and phases that trap tritium. Any weakly bound tritium liberated at temperatures of ~100 °C is indicative of mostly HTO interactions in the metal. Any strongly bound tritium liberated over the range of 600-900 °C is indicative of neutrogenic tritium formed via neutron capture by trace Li and B. Neutron capture by lithium is likely to be more significant than for boron based on lithium's higher trace

  7. Preliminary analysis of the safety and environmental impact of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.V.; Jalbert, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) is a facility dedicated to the development of technologies associated with the D-T fuel cycle of future fusion reactors while demonstrating that TSTA can be operated safely with no significant losses to the environment. During the initial design stage of TSTA, a safety analysis was performed which investigated the effects of major subsystem component failure, the meteorology and seismicity of the site and their possible effect on the facility, and accident scenarios which result in tritium releases. Major releases of tritium to the environment are considered highly improbable since they require a compound failure of primary and secondary containment, along with either a breach of the building or a failure of the Emergency Tritium Cleanup system. Accidental releases caused by natural phenomena (earthquake, tornado, etc.) are considered highly improbable (< 10/sup -0//yr).

  8. How tritium illuminates catchment structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M.; Morgenstern, U.; McDonnell, J.

    2012-04-01

    Streams contain water which has taken widely-varying times to pass through catchments, and the distribution of ages is likely to change with the flow. Part of the water has 'runoff' straight to the stream with little delay, other parts are more delayed and some has taken years (in some cases decades) to traverse the deeper regolith or bedrock of the catchment. This work aims to establish the significance of the last component, which is important because it can cause catchments to have long memories of contaminant inputs (e.g. nitrate). Results of tritium studies on streams world-wide were accessed from the scientific literature. Most of the studies assumed that there were just two age-components present in the streams (i.e. young and old). The mean ages and proportions of the components were found by fitting simulations to tritium data. It was found that the old component in streams was substantial (average was 50% of the annual runoff) and had considerable age (average mean age was 10 years) (Stewart et al., 2010). Use of oxygen-18 or chloride variations to estimate streamflow mean age usually does not reveal the age or size of this old component, because these methods cannot detect water older than about four years. Consequently, the use of tritium has shown that substantial parts of streamflow in headwater catchments are older than expected, and that deep groundwater plays an active and sometimes even a dominant role in runoff generation. Difficulties with interpretation of tritium in streams in recent years due to interference from tritium due to nuclear weapons testing are becoming less serious, because very accurate tritium measurements can be made and there is now little bomb-tritium remaining in the atmosphere. Mean ages can often be estimated from single tritium measurements in the Southern Hemisphere, because there was much less bomb-tritium in the atmosphere. This may also be possible for some locations in the Northern Hemisphere. Age determination on

  9. Individual and population dose to users of the Savannah River following K-Reactor tritium release

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Hamby, D.M.

    1992-12-31

    Approximately 5700 curies of tritium were released to Pen Branch between December 22, 1991 and December 25, 1991. As expected, the tritiated water traveled through the Savannah River swamp to Steel Creek and the Savannah River. Elevated tritium concentrations in the river at Becks Ferry (Beaufort-Jasper) and Abercorn Creek (Port Wentworth) has caused some concern among downstream water users as to the amount of tritium available for uptake through the domestic drinking water supplies at the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment facilities. Radiation dose to the downstream drinking water population is estimated in this report.

  10. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    SciTech Connect

    Buekki-Deme, A.; Alecu, C.G.; Kloppe, B.; Bornschein, B.

    2015-03-15

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  11. Tritium retention measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry and full combustion of W-coated and uncoated CFC tiles from the JET divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Bekris, N.; Kizane, G.; Enachescu, M.; Likonen, J.; Halitovs, M.; Petre, A.; contributors, JET

    2016-04-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and the full combustion method (FCM) followed by liquid scintillation counting were applied to quantitatively determine the tritium retention in the tungsten-coated carbon fibre composites (CFC), in comparison to uncoated CFC tiles from the JET divertor. The tiles were adjacent and exposed to plasma operations between 2007 and 2009. The tritium depth profiles are showing that the tritium retention on the W-coated tile was reduced by a factor of 13.5 in comparison to the uncoated tile whereas the bulk tritium concentration is approximately the same for both tiles.

  12. Overview of Recent Tritium Experiments in TPE

    SciTech Connect

    Masashi Shimada; T. Otsuka; R. J. Pawelko; P. Calderoni; J. P. Sharpe

    2010-10-01

    Tritium retention in plasma-facing components influences the design, operation, and lifetime of fusion devices such as ITER. Most of the retention studies were carried out with the use of either hydrogen or deuterium. Tritium Plasma Experiment is a unique linear plasma device that can handle radioactive fusion fuel of tritium, toxic material of beryllium, and neutron-irradiated material. A tritium depth profiling method up to mm range was developed using a tritium imaging plate and a diamond wire saw. A series of tritium experiments (T2/D2 ratio: 0.2 and 0.5 %) was performed to investigate tritium depth profiling in bulk tungsten, and the results shows that tritium is migrated into bulk tungsten up to mm range.

  13. Groundwater Monitoring and Tritium-Tracking Plan for the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    DB Barnett

    2000-08-31

    The 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) is a drainfield which receives treated wastewater, occasionally containing tritium from treatment of Hanford Site liquid wastes at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Since operation of the SALDS began in December 1995, discharges of tritium have totaled {approx}304 Ci, only half of what was originally predicted for tritium quantity through 1999. Total discharge volumes ({approx}2.7E+8 L) have been commensurate with predicted volumes to date. This document reports the results of all tritium analyses in groundwater as determined from the SALDS tritium-tracking network since the first SALDS wells were installed in 1992 through July 1999, and provides interpretation of these results as they relate to SALDS operation and its effect on groundwater. Hydrologic and geochemical information are synthesized to derive a conceptual model, which is in turn used to arrive at an appropriate approach to continued groundwater monitoring at the facility.

  14. Design of the Target Fabrication Tritium Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sherohman, J.W.; Roberts, D.H.; Levine, B.H.

    1982-05-05

    The design of the Target Fabrication Tritium Laboratory for deuterium-tritium fuel processing for laser fusion targets has been accomplished with the intent of providing redundant safeguard systems. The design of the tritium laboratory is based on a combination of tritium handling techniques that are currently used by experienced laboratories. A description of the laboratory in terms of its interrelated processing systems is presented to provide an understanding of the design features for safe operation.

  15. Colonization of residents and staff of a long-term-care facility and adjacent acute-care hospital geriatric unit by multiresistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    March, A; Aschbacher, R; Dhanji, H; Livermore, D M; Böttcher, A; Sleghel, F; Maggi, S; Noale, M; Larcher, C; Woodford, N

    2010-07-01

    Long-term-care facilities (LTCFs) are reservoirs of resistant bacteria. We undertook a point-prevalence survey and risk factor analysis for specific resistance types among residents and staff of a Bolzano LTCF and among geriatric unit patients in the associated acute-care hospital. Urine samples and rectal, inguinal, oropharyngeal and nasal swabs were plated on chromogenic agar; isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; resistance genes and links to insertion sequences were sought by PCR; plasmids were analysed by PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism and incompatibility grouping. Demographic data were collected. Of the LTCF residents, 74.8% were colonized with ≥1 resistant organism, 64% with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers, 38.7% with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 6.3% with metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) producers, and 2.7% with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Corresponding rates for LTCF staff were 27.5%, 14.5%, 14.5%, 1.5% and 0%, respectively. Colonization frequencies for geriatric unit patients were lower than for those in the LTCF. Both clonal spread and plasmid transfer were implicated in the dissemination of MBL producers that harboured IncN plasmids bearing bla(VIM-1), qnrS, and bla(SHV-12). Most (44/45) ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates had bla(CTX-M) genes of group 1; a few had bla(CTX-M) genes of group 9 or bla(SHV-5); those with bla(CTX-M-15) or bla(SHV-5) were clonal. Risk factors for colonization of LTCF residents with resistant bacteria included age ≥86 years, antibiotic treatment in the previous 3 months, indwelling devices, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, physical disability, and the particular LTCF unit; those for geriatric unit patients were age and dementia. In conclusion, ESBL-producing and MBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and MRSA were prevalent among the LTCF residents and staff, but less so in the hospital geriatric unit. Education of LTCF employees and better

  16. Tritium control, October 1984-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1986-01-28

    This semi-annual report was previously titled ''Tritium Waste Control''. The current title denotes the enlarged scope of the document, which now includes nonwaste related subjects such as tritium monitoring and improved tritium containment systems. Individual projects are indexed separately.

  17. Implications of tritium in neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J; Stewart, L D

    1980-01-01

    Neutral injectors for heating plasmas of D-T burning fusion reactors are subject to tritium contamination. This paper discusses relevant questions and problem areas pertinent to tritium environment, including calculations of tritium contaminations in different neutral injectors, gas handling and pumping systems, and implications on beam line components.

  18. Monitoring and source tracking of tetracycline resistance genes in lagoons and groundwater adjacent to swine production facilities over a 3-year period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koike, S.; Krapac, I.G.; Oliver, H.D.; Yannarell, A.C.; Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R.I.; Mackie, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    To monitor the dissemination of resistance genes into the environment, we determined the occurrence of tetracycline resistance (Tcr) genes in groundwater underlying two swine confinement operations. Monitoring well networks (16 wells at site A and 6 wells at site C) were established around the lagoons at each facility. Groundwater (n = 124) and lagoon (n = 12) samples were collected from the two sites at six sampling times from 2000 through 2003. Total DNA was extracted, and PCR was used to detect seven Tcr genes [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(C), tet(H), and tet(Z)]. The concentration of Tcr genes was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. To confirm the Tcr gene source in groundwater, comparative analysis of tet(W) gene sequences was performed on groundwater and lagoon samples. All seven Tcr genes were continually detected in groundwater during the 3-year monitoring period at both sites. At site A, elevated detection frequency and concentration of Tcr genes were observed in the wells located down-gradient of the lagoon. Comparative analysis of tet(W) sequences revealed that the impacted groundwater contained gene sequences almost identical (99.8% identity) to those in the lagoon, but these genes were not found in background libraries. Novel sequence clusters and unique indigenous resistance gene pools were also found in the groundwater. Thus, antibiotic resistance genes in groundwater are affected by swine manure, but they are also part of the indigenous gene pool. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Tritium contamination and decontamination of sealing oil for vacuum pump

    SciTech Connect

    Takeishi, T.; Kotoh, K.; Kawabata, Y.; Tanaka, J.I.; Kawamura, S.; Iwata, M.

    2015-03-15

    The existence of tritium-contaminated oils from vacuum pumps used in tritium facilities, is becoming an important issue since there is no disposal way for tritiated waste oils. On recovery of tritiated water vapor in gas streams, it is well-known that the isotope exchange reaction between the gas phase and the liquid phase occurs effectively at room temperature. We have carried out experiments using bubbles to examine the tritium contamination and decontamination of a volume of rotary-vacuum-pump oil. The contamination of the pump oil was made by bubbling tritiated water vapor and tritiated hydrogen gas into the oil. Subsequently the decontamination was processed by bubbling pure water vapor and dry argon gas into the tritiated oil. Results show that the water vapor bubbling was more effective than dry argon gas. The experiment also shows that the water vapor bubbling in an oil bottle can remove and transfer tritium efficiently from the tritiated oil into another water-bubbling bottle.

  20. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.; Fox, E.; Kane, M.; Staack, G.

    2011-01-07

    Effects of tritium gas exposure on various polymers have been studied over the last several years. Despite the deleterious effects of beta exposure on many material properties, structural polymers continued to be used in tritium systems. Improved understanding of the tritium effects will allow more resistant materials to be selected. Currently polymers find use mainly in tritium gas sealing applications (eg. valve stem tips, O-rings). Future uses being evaluated including polymeric based cracking of tritiated water, and polymer-based sensors of tritium.

  1. Radiation and ecological aspects of tritium handling

    SciTech Connect

    Belovodskiy, L.F.

    1994-12-31

    Results of VNIIEF investigations into regularities of radioactive waste production in tritium handling (gaseous, liquid, solid wastes) as well as tritium and its oxide (HTO, DTO, TTO) migration in environmental objects (air, water, soil, vegetation) are presented. The doses of population exposure due to tritium release into the atmosphere have been determined. The dose factor being 2.2 E13 mrem{sup *}L/Ci/year. The constants of tritium oxide sorption by foods and the density of tritium fallout near the term source have been used to develop the conceptual international design of thermonuclear reactor (ITER).

  2. A Next Generation Digital Counting System For Low-Level Tritium Studies (Project Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, P.

    2016-10-03

    Since the early seventies, SRNL has pioneered low-level tritium analysis using various nuclear counting technologies and techniques. Since 1999, SRNL has successfully performed routine low-level tritium analyses with counting systems based on digital signal processor (DSP) modules developed in the late 1990s. Each of these counting systems are complex, unique to SRNL, and fully dedicated to performing routine tritium analyses of low-level environmental samples. It is time to modernize these systems due to a variety of issues including (1) age, (2) lack of direct replacement electronics modules and (3) advances in digital signal processing and computer technology. There has been considerable development in many areas associated with the enterprise of performing low-level tritium analyses. The objective of this LDRD project was to design, build, and demonstrate a Next Generation Tritium Counting System (NGTCS), while not disrupting the routine low-level tritium analyses underway in the facility on the legacy counting systems. The work involved (1) developing a test bed for building and testing new counting system hardware that does not interfere with our routine analyses, (2) testing a new counting system based on a modern state of the art DSP module, and (3) evolving the low-level tritium counter design to reflect the state of the science.

  3. Tritium Concentrations in Environmental Samples and Transpiration Rates from the Vicinity of Mary's Branch Creek and Background Areas, Barnwell, South Carolina, 2007-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Canova, Judy L.; Bradley, Paul M.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Tritium in groundwater from a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Barnwell, South Carolina, is discharging to Mary's Branch Creek. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an investigation from 2007 to 2009 to examine the tritium concentration in trees and air samples near the creek and in background areas, in groundwater near the creek, and in surface water from the creek. Tritium was found in trees near the creek, but not in trees from background areas or from sites unlikely to be in direct root contact with tritium-contaminated groundwater. Tritium was found in groundwater near the creek and in the surface water of the creek. Analysis of tree material has the potential to be a useful tool in locating shallow tritium-contaminated groundwater. A tritium concentration of 1.4 million picocuries per liter was measured in shallow groundwater collected near a tulip poplar located in an area of tritium-contaminated groundwater discharge. Evapotranspiration rates from the tree and tritium concentrations in water extracted from tree cores indicate that during the summer, this tulip poplar may remove more than 17.1 million picocuries of tritium per day from the groundwater that otherwise would discharge to Mary's Branch Creek. Analysis of air samples near the tree showed no evidence that the transpirative release of tritium to the air created a vapor hazard in the forest.

  4. Tritium pellet injection sequences for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Houlberg, W.A.; Milora, S.L.; Attenberger, S.E.; Singer, C.E.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium pellet injection into neutral deuterium, beam heated deuterium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is shown to be an attractive means of (1) minimizing tritium use per tritium discharge and over a sequence of tritium discharges; (2) greatly reducing the tritium load in the walls, limiters, getters, and cryopanels; (3) maintaining or improving instantaneous neutron production (Q); (4) reducing or eliminating deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron production in non-optimized discharges; and (5) generally adding flexibility to the experimental sequences leading to optimal Q operation. Transport analyses of both compression and full-bore TFTR plasmas are used to support the above observations and to provide the basis for a proposed eight-pellet gas gun injector for the 1986 tritium experiments.

  5. EVALUATION OF ALTERNATE STAINLESS STEEL SURFACE TREATMENTS FOR MASS SPECTROSCOPY AND OTHER TRITIUM SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.; Mauldin, C.; Neikirk, K.

    2012-02-29

    There are specific components in the SRS Tritium Facilities that are required to introduce as few chemical impurities (such as protium and methane) as possible into the process gas. Two such components are the inlet systems for the mass spectroscopy facilities and hydrogen isotope mix standard containers. Two vendors now passivate stainless steel components for these systems, and both are relatively small businesses whose future viability can be questioned, which creates the need for new sources. Stainless steel containers were designed to evaluate alternate surface treatment vendors for tritium storage and handling for these high purity tritium systems. Five vendors applied their own 'best' surface treatments to two containers each - one was a current vendor, another was a chemical vapor deposited silicon coating, and the other three were electropolishing and chemical cleaning vendors. Pure tritium gas was introduced into all ten containers and the composition was monitored over time. The only observed impurities in the gas were some HT, less CT{sub 4}, and very small amounts of T{sub 2}O in all cases. The currently used vendor treated containers contained the least impurities. The chemical vapor deposited silicon treatment resulted in the highest impurity levels. Sampling one set of containers after about one month of tritium exposure revealed the impurity level to be nearly the same as that after more than a year of exposure - this result suggests that cleaning new stainless steel components by tritium gas contact for about a month may be a worthy operation.

  6. Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An expansion of medical data collection facilities was necessary to implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The primary objective of the EDOMP was to ensure the capability of crew members to reenter the Earth's atmosphere, land, and egress safely following a 16-day flight. Therefore, access to crew members as soon as possible after landing was crucial for most data collection activities. Also, with the advent of EDOMP, the quantity of investigations increased such that the landing day maximum data collection time increased accordingly from two hours to four hours. The preflight and postflight testing facilities at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) required only some additional testing equipment and minor modifications to the existing laboratories in order to fulfill EDOMP requirements. Necessary modifications at the landing sites were much more extensive.

  7. Analysis of tritium mission FMEF/FAA fuel handling accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1997-11-18

    The Fuels Material Examination Facility/Fuel Assembly Area is proposed to be used for fabrication of mixed oxide fuel to support the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) tritium/medical isotope mission. The plutonium isotope mix for the new mission is different than that analyzed in the FMEF safety analysis report. A reanalysis was performed of three representative accidents for the revised plutonium mix to determine the impact on the safety analysis. Current versions computer codes and meterology data files were used for the analysis. The revised accidents were a criticality, an explosion in a glovebox, and a tornado. The analysis concluded that risk guidelines were met with the revised plutonium mix.

  8. Status and practicality of detritiation and tritium production strategies for environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Fulbright, H.H.; Schwirian-Spann, A.L.; Brunt, V. van; Jerome, K.M.; Looney, B.B.

    1996-02-26

    Operation of nuclear facilities throughout the world generates wastewater, groundwater and surface water contaminated with tritium. Because of a commitment to minimize radiation exposures to ''levels as low as reasonably achievable'', the US Department of Energy supports development of tritium isotope separation technologies. Also, DOE periodically documents the status and potential viability of alternative tritium treatment technologies and management strategies. The specific objectives of the current effort are to evaluate practical engineering issues, technology acceptability issues, and costs for realistic tritium treatment scenarios. A unique feature of the assessment is that the portfolio of options was expanded to include various management strategies rather than only evaluating detritiation technologies. The ultimate purpose of this effort is to assist Environmental Restoration and its support organizations in allocating future investments.

  9. Tritium Waste Treatment System component failure data analysis from June 18, 1984--December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C. ); Stolpe Gavett, M.A. )

    1990-09-01

    This document gives the failure rates for the major tritium-bearing components in the Tritium Waste Treatment System at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly, which is a fusion research and technology facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The failure reports, component populations, and operating demands/hours are given in this report, and sample calculations for binomial demand failure rates and poisson hourly failure rates are given in the appendices. The failure rates for tritium-bearing components were on the order of the screening failure rate values suggested for fusion reliability and risk analyses. More effort should be directed toward collecting and analyzing fusion component failure data, since accurate failure rates are necessary to refine reliability and risk analyses. 15 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Correlation of rates of tritium migration through porous concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, S.; Katayama, K.; Takeishi, T.; Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Yamanishi, T.

    2015-03-15

    In a nuclear facility when tritium leaks from a glovebox to room accidentally, an atmosphere detritiation system (ADS) starts operating, and HTO released is recovered by ADS. ADS starts when tritium activity in air becomes higher than its controlled level. Before ADS operates, the laboratory walls are the final enclosure facing tritium and are usually made of porous concrete coated with a hydrophobic paint. In the present study, previous data on the diffusivity and adsorption coefficient of concrete and paints are reviewed. Tritium penetrates and migrates into concrete by following 3 ways. First, gaseous HT or T{sub 2} easily penetrates into porous concrete. Its diffusivity is almost equal to that of H{sub 2}. When a gaseous molecule diffuses through pores with a smaller diameter than a mean free path, its migration rate is described by the Knudsen diffusion formula. The second mechanism is H{sub 2}O vapor diffusion in pores. Concrete holds a lot of structural water. Therefore, H{sub 2}O or HTO vapor can diffuse inside concrete pores along with adsorption-desorption and isotopic exchange with structural water, which is the third mechanism. Literature shows that the diffusivity of HTO through the epoxy-resin paint is determined as D(HTO)=1.0*10{sup -16} m{sup 2}/s. We have used this data to set a model and we have applied it to estimate residual tritium in laboratory walls. We have considered 2 accidental cases and a normal case: first, ADS starts operating 1 hour after 100 Ci HTO is released in the room, secondly, ADS starts 24 hours after 100 Ci HTO release and thirdly, when the walls are exposed to HTO for 10 years of normal operation. It appears that the immediate start up of ADS is indispensable for safety.

  11. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D.

    1994-04-15

    The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type.

  12. In-vessel tritium retention and removal in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Federici, G.; Anderl, R.A.; Andrew, P.

    1998-06-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is envisioned to be the next major step in the world`s fusion program from the present generation of tokamaks and is designed to study fusion plasmas with a reactor relevant range of plasma parameters. During normal operation, it is expected that a fraction of the unburned tritium, that is used to routinely fuel the discharge, will be retained together with deuterium on the surfaces and in the bulk of the plasma facing materials (PFMs) surrounding the core and divertor plasma. The understanding of he basic retention mechanisms (physical and chemical) involved and their dependence upon plasma parameters and other relevant operation conditions is necessary for the accurate prediction of the amount of tritium retained at any given time in the ITER torus. Accurate estimates are essential to assess the radiological hazards associated with routine operation and with potential accident scenarios which may lead to mobilization of tritium that is not tenaciously held. Estimates are needed to establish the detritiation requirements for coolant water, to determine the plasma fueling and tritium supply requirements, and to establish the needed frequency and the procedures for tritium recovery and clean-up. The organization of this paper is as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of the design and operating conditions of the main components which define the plasma boundary of ITER. Section 3 reviews the erosion database and the results of recent relevant experiments conducted both in laboratory facilities and in tokamaks. These data provide the experimental basis and serve as an important benchmark for both model development (discussed in Section 4) and calculations (discussed in Section 5) that are required to predict tritium inventory build-up in ITER. Section 6 emphasizes the need to develop and test methods to remove the tritium from the codeposited C-based films and reviews the status and the prospects of the

  13. Titanium for long-term tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

  14. Tritium retention in jet cryopanel samples

    SciTech Connect

    Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. ); Mayaux, C.; Obert, W. )

    1991-01-01

    The possibility that tritium might exchange with water trapped in aluminum anodize cryopanels in JET prompted a test program at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly, TSTA, Los Alamos, New Mexico. JET furnished two test pieces of cryopanel which were exposed to tritium at approximately liquid nitrogen temperature and 25 torr pressure for nearly two weeks. One specimen was removed and the retained tritium was measured. The second specimen was subjected to several increasing temperature vacuum bakeouts and the effectiveness of the bakeouts were inferred from the pressure history of the chamber. When the retained tritium in the second specimen was measured it was found that nearly 95% of the tritium, as measured in the first specimen, had been removed during the vacuum bakeouts. If the tritium retained in the cryopanel without bakeout were scaled to JET conditions according to a linear pressure time relationship, the tritium expected to become trapped in the JET cryopanels would be approximately 0.6 gram. Testing is currently underway at TSTA which will determine the tritium retention to be expected under more realistic JET operating conditions and which will assess the effectiveness of various bake or purge schemes in removing the trapped tritium. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public.

  16. Electron scattering from polarized tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.E.

    1993-11-01

    the recent development of high-intensity gaseous targets of polarized hydrogen and deuterium raises the interesting possibility of developing a polarized tritium target that can operate in relatively high current electron beams. Here I discuss the feasibility of a measurement of the helicity-dependent asymmetry in {sup 3}{rvec H}({rvec e},e{prime}) inclusive quasielastic scattering with such a target.

  17. Transit time estimation using tritium and stable isotopes in a Mediterranean mountain catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig-Planasdemunt, Maria; Stewart, Mike; Latron, Jérôme; Llorens, Pilar; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    transit time was observed in groundwater followed by stream water, while there were longer water retention times in springs. Analysing the spatial distribution of mean transit times using tritium, we observed a mix of different water ages at the catchment outflow. Two sub-catchments had mean water transit times shorter than the adjacent catchment area; this is attributed to differences in slopes and geologies of the areas.

  18. Tritium Removal from Carbon Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; J.P. Coad; G. Federici

    2003-11-24

    Tritium removal is a major unsolved development task for next-step devices with carbon plasma-facing components. The 2-3 order of magnitude increase in duty cycle and associated tritium accumulation rate in a next-step tokamak will place unprecedented demands on tritium removal technology. The associated technical risk can be mitigated only if suitable removal techniques are demonstrated on tokamaks before the construction of a next-step device. This article reviews the history of codeposition, the tritium experience of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and JET (Joint European Torus) and the tritium removal rate required to support ITER's planned operational schedule. The merits and shortcomings of various tritium removal techniques are discussed with particular emphasis on oxidation and laser surface heating.

  19. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  20. Tritium environmental transport studies at TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, P. D.; Dolan, T. J.; Longhurst, G. R.

    1993-06-01

    Environmental tritium concentrations will be measured near the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to help validate dynamic models of tritium transport in the environment. For model validation the database must contain sequential measurements of tritium concentrations in key environmental compartments. Since complete containment of tritium is an operational goal, the supplementary monitoring program should be able to glean useful data from an unscheduled acute release. Portable air samplers will be used to take samples automatically every 4 hours for a week after an acute release, thus obtaining the time resolution needed for code validation. Samples of soil, vegetation, and foodstuffs will be gathered daily at the same locations as the active air monitors. The database may help validate the plant/soil/air part of tritium transport models and enhance environmental tritium transport understanding for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

  1. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM EXPOSURE ON UHMW-PE, PTFE, AND VESPEL

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E; Kirk Shanahan, K

    2006-05-31

    total reflectance method. No significant change in the Vespel{reg_sign} infrared spectrum was observed after three months exposure. Protium significantly pressurized the UHMW-PE containers during exposure to about nine atmospheres (the initial pressure was one atmosphere of tritium). This is consistent with the well-known production of hydrogen by irradiation of polyethylene by ionizing radiation. The total pressure in the PTFE containers decreased, and a mass balance reveals that the observed decrease is consistent with the formation of small amounts of {sup 3}HF, which is condensed at ambient temperature. No significant change of pressure occurred in the Vespel{reg_sign} containers; however the composition of the gas became about 50% protium, showing that Vespel{reg_sign} interacted with the tritium gas atmosphere to some degree. The relative resistance to degradation from tritium exposure is least for PTFE, more for UHMW-PE, and the most for Vespel{reg_sign}, which is consistent with the known relative resistance of these polymers to gamma irradiation. This qualitatively agrees with the concept of equivalent effects for equivalent absorbed doses of radiation damage of polymers. Some of the changes of different polymers are qualitatively similar; however each polymer exhibited unique property changes when exposed to tritium. Information from this study that can be applied to a tritium facility is: (1) the relative resistance to tritium degradation of the three polymers studied is the same as the relative resistance to gamma irradiation in air (so relative rankings of polymer resistance to ionizing radiation can be used as a relative ranking for assessing tritium compatibility and polymer selection); and (2) all three polymers changed the gas atmosphere during tritium exposure--UHMW-PE and Vespel{reg_sign} exposed to tritium formed H{sub 2} gas (UHMW-PE much more so), and PTFE exposed to tritium formed {sup 3}HF. This observation of forming {sup 3}HF supports the

  2. Recovery of tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, W.A.

    1984-10-17

    This invention relates to the recovery of tritium from various tritiated molecules by reaction with uranium. More particularly, the invention relates to the recovery of tritium from tritiated molecules by reaction with uranium wherein the reaction is conducted in a reactor which permits the reaction to occur as a moving front reaction from the point where the tritium enters the reactor charged with uranium down the reactor until the uranium is exhausted.

  3. Tritium radioluminescent devices, Health and Safety Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Traub, R.J.; Jensen, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    This document consolidates available information on the properties of tritium, including its environmental chemistry, its health physics, and safe practices in using tritium-activated RL lighting. It also summarizes relevant government regulations on RL lighting. Chapters are divided into a single-column part, which provides an overview of the topic for readers simply requiring guidance on the safety of tritium RL lighting, and a dual-column part for readers requiring more technical and detailed information.

  4. Distribution of bomb tritium in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Broecker, W.S.; Peng, T.H.; Ostlund, G.

    1986-12-15

    A global picture of the water column inventories of bomb-produced tritium is constructed from the GEOSECS data set. This picture is compared with that obtained by combining the bomb tritium input function of Weiss and Roether (1980) with the bomb radiocarbon calibrate lateral redistribution model of Broecker et al. (1985). While differences between the calculated and observed distribution exist, they are surprisingly small. Tritium distributions calculated using the lateral redistribution model provide predictions of the changes to be expected in the next few decades. Such predictions are essential to the design of sound strategies for continued monitoring of the tritium transient.

  5. Tritium in precipitation of Vostok (Antarctica): conclusions on the tritium latitude effect.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Detlef

    2011-09-01

    During the Antarctic summer of 1985 near the Soviet Antarctic station Vostok, firn samples for tritium measurements were obtained down to a depth of 2.40 m. The results of the tritium measurements are presented and discussed. Based on this and other data, conclusions regarding the tritium latitude effect are derived.

  6. Monitoring of Airborne Tritium in Vicinity of Radioluminescent Light Manufacturer

    SciTech Connect

    Ilin, M.; Thompson, P.; Rabski, H.

    2005-07-15

    Passive diffusion samplers (PDS) composed of a vial with a solution of distilled water and ethylene glycol have an affinity to capture tritium oxide (tritiated water vapour, HTO) from surrounding air through an orifice in a lid. In order to ascertain the effectiveness of such samplers for tracking changes in the HTO air concentrations attributable to variations in tritium emission rates, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) measured the HTO concentrations in air for one year on a bi-weekly basis at various distances along four directions from an operating radioluminescent light manufacturing facility. The collected data demonstrate that the PDS are low cost and low maintenance means for reliable monitoring of airborne HTO emissions. The data indicate a rapid decrease of atmospheric HTO concentrations with increasing distance from the facility in all directions. A strong correlation (r=0.89) was found between reported releases of HTO from the facility and the HTO air concentrations observed at the monitoring locations. Distribution of HTO around the facility correlated strongly (r=0.99) with local wind distribution.

  7. Safety and environmental advantages of using tritium-lean targets for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Arzeni, S; Latkowski, J F; Logan, B G; Meier, W R; Moir, R W; Perkins, L J; Sanz, J

    1999-08-09

    While traditional inertial fusion energy target designs typically use equimolar portions of deuterium and tritium and have areal densities ({rho}r) of {approx} 3 g/cm{sup 2}, significant safety and environmental (S and E) advantages may be obtained through the use of high-density ({rho}r {approx} 10 g/cm{sup 2}) targets with tritium components as low as 0.5%. Such targets would absorb much of the neutron energy within the target and could be self-sufficient from a tritium breeding point of view. Tritium self-sufficiency within the target would free target chamber designers from the need to use lithium-bearing blanket materials, while low inventories within each target would translate into low inventories in target fabrication facilities. Absorption of much of the neutron energy within the target, the extremely low tritium inventories, and the greatly moderated neutron spectrum, make ''tritium-lean'' targets appear quite attractive from an S and E perspective.

  8. CALCULATION OF TRITIUM RETENTION AND RELEASE FROM COMPONENTS IN GROUT- SEGMENT 6 METALLIC WASTE FROM DEMOLISHED BUILDING 232-F

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E

    2007-02-09

    The amount of tritium remaining within and the release rate out of stainless steel process waste from the 232-F Tritium Facility at SRS is calculated as a function of time using the historical exposure of pipe during operation of the facility (1955-1958) and its subsequent deactivation and lay-up. The solution and diffusion of tritium in the wall is the mechanism that governs both the tritium contamination of the pipe during operation and its gradual release after deactivation, including radioactive decay while in the metal. This analysis applies to Segment 6 of the so-called Components in Grout waste form. Results of these calculations will be used in the Groundwater Transport assessment, part of the analysis of the Components in Grout.

  9. TRITIUM EFFECTS ON WELDMENT FRACTURE TOUGHNESS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M; Michael Tosten, M; Scott West, S

    2006-07-17

    The effects of tritium on the fracture toughness properties of Type 304L stainless steel and its weldments were measured. Fracture toughness data are needed for assessing tritium reservoir structural integrity. This report provides data from J-Integral fracture toughness tests on unexposed and tritium-exposed weldments. The effect of tritium on weldment toughness has not been measured until now. The data include tests on tritium-exposed weldments after aging for up to three years to measure the effect of increasing decay helium concentration on toughness. The results indicate that Type 304L stainless steel weldments have high fracture toughness and are resistant to tritium aging effects on toughness. For unexposed alloys, weldment fracture toughness was higher than base metal toughness. Tritium-exposed-and-aged base metals and weldments had lower toughness values than unexposed ones but still retained good toughness properties. In both base metals and weldments there was an initial reduction in fracture toughness after tritium exposure but little change in fracture toughness values with increasing helium content in the range tested. Fracture modes occurred by the dimpled rupture process in unexposed and tritium-exposed steels and welds. This corroborates further the resistance of Type 304L steel to tritium embrittlement. This report fulfills the requirements for the FY06 Level 3 milestone, TSR15.3 ''Issue summary report for tritium reservoir material aging studies'' for the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign (ESC). The milestone was in support of ESC L2-1866 Milestone-''Complete an annual Enhanced Surveillance stockpile aging assessment report to support the annual assessment process''.

  10. Tritium Permeation Estimate from APT and CLWR-TEF Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1999-03-18

    The amount of tritium permeating out of waste containers has been estimated for the Accelerator Production of Tritium project (APT) and for the Commercial Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility project (CLWR-TEF). The waste packages analyzed include the Aluminum, Window, Tungsten, Lead, and Steel packages for the APT project, and the overpack of extracted Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) for the CLWR-TEF project. All of the tritium contained in the waste was assumed to be available as a gas in the free volume inside the waste container at the beginning of disposal, and to then permeate the stainless steel waste container. From estimates of the tritium content of each waste form, the void or free volume of the package, disposal temperature and container geometry, the amount of tritium exiting the waste container by permeation was calculated. Two tritium permeation paths were considered separately: through the entire wall surface area and through the weld area only, the weld area having reduced thickness and significantly less surface area compared to the wall area. Permeation out of the five APT waste containers at 50 degrees Celsius is mainly through the welds, and at 100 degrees Celsius is through the permeation out of the entire wall surface area. The largest maximum offgas rate from an APT waste stream at 50 degrees Celsius (estimated disposal temperature) was 1.8E-6 Ci/year from the weld of the Window waste package, and the smallest maximum offgas rate was 3.7E-5 Ci/year from the weld of the Lead waste package. Permeation from the CLWR-TEF overpack at 40 degrees Celsius is mainly through the entire wall surface area, with a maximum offgas rate of 1.3E-5 Ci/year.

  11. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Leslie D.

    1982-01-01

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  12. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts - 13197

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

    2013-07-01

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg. C (1,500 deg. F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg. C (212 deg. F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total

  13. Thermal Removal Of Tritium From Concrete And Soil To Reduce Groundwater Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

    2012-12-04

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg C (1,500 deg F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg C (212 deg F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total of

  14. CHARACTERIZING TRITIUM WASTE USING HELIUM RATIOS

    SciTech Connect

    Ovink, R.W.; McMahon, W.J.; Borghese, J.V.; Olsen, K.B.

    2003-02-27

    When routine sampling revealed greatly elevated tritium levels (3.14 x 105 Bq/L [8.5-million pCi/liter]) in the groundwater near a solid waste landfill at the Hanford Site, an innovative technique was used to assess the extent of the plume. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios, relative to ambient air-in-soil gas samples, were used to identify the tritium source and initially delineate the extent of the groundwater tritium plume. This approach is a modification of a technique developed in the late 1960s to age-date deep ocean water as part of the GEOSECS ocean monitoring program. Poreda, et al. (1) and Schlosser, et al. (2) applied this modified technique to shallow aquifers. A study was also conducted to demonstrate the concept of using helium-3 as a tool to locate vadose zone sources of tritium and tracking groundwater tritium plumes at Hanford (3). Seventy sampling points were installed around the perimeter and along four transects downgradient of the burial ground. Soil gas samples were collected, analyzed for helium isotopes, and helium-3/helium-4 ratios were calculated for these 70 points. The helium ratios indicated a vadose zone source of tritium along the northern edge of the burial ground that is likely the source of tritium in the groundwater. The helium ratios also indicate the groundwater plume is traveling east-northeast from the burial ground and that no up-gradient tritium sources are affecting the burial ground. Based on the helium ratio results, six downgradient groundwater sampling locations were identified to verify the tritium plume extent and groundwater tritium concentrations. The tritium results from the initial groundwater samples confirmed that elevated helium ratios were indicative of tritium contamination in the local groundwater. The measurement of helium isotopes in soil gas provided a rapid and cost- effective technique to define the shape and extent of tritium contamination from the burial ground. Using this soil gas sampling approach, the

  15. HYLIFE-II tritium management system

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Dolan, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    The tritium management system performs seven functions: (1) tritium gas removal from the blast chamber, (2) tritium removal from the Flibe, (3) tritium removal from helium sweep gas, (4) tritium removal from room air, (5) hydrogen isotope separation, (6) release of non-hazardous gases through the stack, (7) fixation and disposal of hazardous effluents. About 2 TBq/s (5 MCi/day) of tritium is bred in the Flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) molten salt coolant by neutron absorption. Tritium removal is accomplished by a two-stage vacuum disengager in each of three steam generator loops. Each stage consists of a spray of 0.4 mm diameter, hot Flibe droplets into a vacuum chamber 4 m in diameter and 7 m tall. As droplets fall downward into the vacuum, most of the tritium diffuses out and is pumped away. A fraction {Phi}{approx}10{sup {minus}5} of the tritium remains in the Flibe as it leaves the second stage of the vacuum disengager, and about 24% of the remaining tritium penetrates through the steam generator tubes, per pass, so the net leakage into the steam system is about 4.7 MBq/s (11 Ci/day). The required Flibe pumping power for the vacuum disengager system is 6.6 MW. With Flibe primary coolant and a vacuum disengager, an intermediate coolant loop is not needed to prevent tritium from leaking into the steam system. An experiment is needed to demonstrate vacuum disengager operation with Flibe. A secondary containment shell with helium sweep gas captures the tritium permeating out of the Flibe ducts, limiting leaks there to about 1 Ci/day. The tritium inventory in the reactor is about 190 g, residing mostly in the large Flibe recirculation duct walls. The total cost of the tritium management system is 92 M$, of which the vacuum disengagers cost = 56%, the blast chamber vacuum system = 15%, the cryogenic plant = 9%, the emergency air cleanup and waste treatment systems each = 6%, the protium removal system = 3%, and the fuel storage system and inert gas system each = 2%.

  16. Uptake of atmospheric tritium by market foods

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Y.; Tanaka-Miyamoto, K.; Iwakura, T. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper uptake of tritium by market foods from tritiated water vapor in the air is investigated using cereals and beans purchased in Deep River, Canada. The concentrations of tissue free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) range from 12 to 79% and from 10 to 38% respectively, of that estimated for atmospheric water vapor of the sampling month. The specific activity ratios of OBT to TFWT were constant for cereals, but variable for beans. The elevated OBT was shown to be the result of isotopic exchange of labile hydrogen by the fact that washing the foods with tritium free-water reduced their tritium contents to levels characteristic of their production sites.

  17. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  18. Tritium issues in commercial pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.

    2008-07-15

    Tritium has become an important radionuclide in commercial Pressurized Water Reactors because of its mobility and tendency to concentrate in plant systems as tritiated water during the recycling of reactor coolant. Small quantities of tritium are released in routine regulated effluents as liquid water and as water vapor. Tritium has become a focus of attention at commercial nuclear power plants in recent years due to inadvertent, low-level, chronic releases arising from routine maintenance operations and from component failures. Tritium has been observed in groundwater in the vicinity of stations. The nuclear industry has undertaken strong proactive corrective measures to prevent recurrence, and continues to eliminate emission sources through its singular focus on public safety and environmental stewardship. This paper will discuss: production mechanisms for tritium, transport mechanisms from the reactor through plant, systems to the environment, examples of routine effluent releases, offsite doses, basic groundwater transport and geological issues, and recent nuclear industry environmental and legal ramifications. (authors)

  19. TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA666, INTERIOR. CAMERA ON MAIN FLOOR, FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA-666, INTERIOR. CAMERA ON MAIN FLOOR, FACING NORTH. CONCRETE BLOCK WALLS. PART OF HYDRAULIC TEST FACILITY CONTROL ROOM IS IN VIEW. CORRUGATED METAL CEILING. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD30-1-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 6/2001 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Tritium research laboratory cleanup and transition project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This Tritium Research Laboratory Cleanup and Transition Project Final Report provides a high-level summary of this project`s multidimensional accomplishments. Throughout this report references are provided for in-depth information concerning the various topical areas. Project related records also offer solutions to many of the technical and or administrative challenges that such a cleanup effort requires. These documents and the experience obtained during this effort are valuable resources to the DOE, which has more than 1200 other process contaminated facilities awaiting cleanup and reapplication or demolition.

  1. Diagnosing radiative shocks from deuterium and tritium implosions on NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, A.; Divol, L.; Weber, S.; Doeppner, T.; Izumi, N.; Glenn, S.; Ma, T.; Town, R. P.; Bradley, D. K.; Glenzer, S. H.; Kyrala, G. A.; Kilne, J.

    2012-10-15

    During the recent ignition tuning campaign at the National Ignition Facility, layered cryogenic deuterium and tritium capsules were imploded via x-ray driven ablation. The hardened gated x-ray imager diagnostic temporally and spatially resolves the x-ray emission from the core of the capsule implosion at energies above {approx}8 keV. On multiple implosions, {approx}200-400 ps after peak compression a spherically expanding radiative shock has been observed. This paper describes the methods used to characterize the radial profile and rate of expansion of the shock induced x-ray emission.

  2. Diagnosing radiative shocks from deuterium and tritium implosions on NIF.

    PubMed

    Pak, A; Divol, L; Weber, S; Döppner, T; Kyrala, G A; Kilne, J; Izumi, N; Glenn, S; Ma, T; Town, R P; Bradley, D K; Glenzer, S H

    2012-10-01

    During the recent ignition tuning campaign at the National Ignition Facility, layered cryogenic deuterium and tritium capsules were imploded via x-ray driven ablation. The hardened gated x-ray imager diagnostic temporally and spatially resolves the x-ray emission from the core of the capsule implosion at energies above ~8 keV. On multiple implosions, ~200-400 ps after peak compression a spherically expanding radiative shock has been observed. This paper describes the methods used to characterize the radial profile and rate of expansion of the shock induced x-ray emission.

  3. Mobility of Tritium in Engineered and Earth Materials at the NuMIFacility, Fermilab: Progress report for work performed between June 13and September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten; Conrad, Mark; Finsterle, Stefan; Kennedy, Mack; Kneafsey, Timothy; Salve, Rohit; Su, Grace; Zhou, Quanlin

    2006-10-25

    This report details the work done between June 13 andSeptember 30, 2006 by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)scientists to assist Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab)staff in understanding tritium transport at the Neutrino at the MainInjector (NuMI) facility. As a byproduct of beamline operation, thefacility produces (among other components) tritium in engineeredmaterials and the surrounding rock formation. Once the tritium isgenerated, it may be contained at the source location, migrate to otherregions within the facility, or be released to theenvironment.

  4. Tritium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    to liberate heat from the fusion of a deuteron D and a triton T to form an alpha particle, α, and a neutron, n, in the strongly exothermic nuclear...abundances of naturally occurring Li are 6Li 7.5%; and 7Li 92.5%. (8) The exothermic reaction (6) has a very large cross section, 940 b, for neutrons...primary fusion reaction (1). The cross section of the second, endothermic reaction, (7) is heavily suppressed because of the Coulomb barrier for

  5. Thermal Release of 3He from Tritium Aged LaNi4.25Al0.75 Hydride

    DOE PAGES

    Staack, Gregory C.; Crowder, Mark L.; Klein, James E.

    2015-02-01

    Recently, the demand for He-3 has increased dramatically due to widespread use in nuclear nonproliferation, cryogenic, and medical applications. Essentially all of the world’s supply of He-3 is created by the radiolytic decay of tritium. The Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities (SRS-TF) utilizes LANA.75 in the tritium process to store hydrogen isotopes. The vast majority of He-3 “born” from tritium stored in LANA.75 is trapped in the hydride metal matrix. The SRS-TF has multiple LANA.75 tritium storage beds that have been retired from service with significant quantities of He-3 trapped in the metal. To support He-3 recovery, the Savannah Rivermore » National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) on a tritium aged LANA.75 sample. TGA-MS testing was performed in an argon environment. Prior to testing, the sample was isotopically exchanged with deuterium to reduce residual tritium and passivated with air to alleviate pyrophoric concerns associated with handling the material outside of an inert glovebox. Analyses indicated that gas release from this sample was bimodal, with peaks near 220 and 490°C. The first peak consisted of both He-3 and residual hydrogen isotopes, the second was primarily He-3. The bulk of the gas was released by 600 °C« less

  6. Tritium related safety considerations for mirror upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Ghose, S.K.

    1983-11-30

    One of the primary objectives of the MFTF-B upgrades is to demonstrate the technology of tritium breeding in a reactor-like configuration. This requires use and processing of tritium, involving an inventory of several hundred grams at the plant. This paper reviews the results of a preliminary assessment of the radiation hazard associated with the handling of tritium. The radiation dose consequences due to tritium release from normal operation and due to postulated accidents on plant personnel and the public were assessed. Maximum credible (probability < 10/sup -3/, but > 10/sup -7//yr) accidental releases were estimated to be 10 gm in the reactor building and 100 gm in the tritium-processing building. Higher probability (> 10/sup -3//yr) accidents or component failures would result in much smaller releases. In the reactor building, the most severe accident would result from the rupture of a plasma exhaust duct from the end cell or the tritium feed pipe to the neutral beam injector, accompanied by a fire. In the tritium processing building, the most severe accident would be the rupture of the Isotope Separation System (ISS) distillation columns and vacuum jackets accompanied by a fire.

  7. Isotopic fractionation of tritium in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Pierre; Fromm, Michel; Vichot, Laurent; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Guétat, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Isotopic fractionation of tritium is a highly relevant issue in radiation protection and requires certain radioecological considerations. Sound evaluation of this factor is indeed necessary to determine whether environmental compartments are enriched/depleted in tritium or if tritium is, on the contrary, isotopically well-distributed in a given system. The ubiquity of tritium and the standard analytical methods used to assay it may induce biases in both the measurement and the signification that is accorded to the so-called fractionation: based on an exhaustive review of the literature, we show how, sometimes large deviations may appear. It is shown that when comparing the non-exchangeable fraction of organically bound tritium (neOBT) to another fraction of tritium (e.g. tritiated water) the preparation of samples and the measurement of neOBT reported frequently led to underestimation of the ratio of tritium to hydrogen (T/H) in the non-exchangeable compartment by a factor of 5% to 50%. In the present study, corrections are proposed for most of the biological matrices studied so far. Nevertheless, the values of isotopic fractionation reported in the literature remain difficult to compare with each other, especially since the physical quantities and units often vary between authors. Some improvements are proposed to better define what should encompass the concepts of exchangeable and non-exchangeable fractions.

  8. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  9. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  10. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  11. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  12. 10 CFR 39.55 - Tritium neutron generator target sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tritium neutron generator target sources. 39.55 Section 39... Equipment § 39.55 Tritium neutron generator target sources. (a) Use of a tritium neutron generator target...) Use of a tritium neutron generator target source, containing quantities exceeding 1,110 GBg or in...

  13. Tritium monitor with improved gamma-ray discrimination

    DOEpatents

    Cox, S.A.; Bennett, E.F.; Yule, T.J.

    1982-10-21

    Apparatus and method are presented for selective measurement of tritium oxide in an environment which may include other radioactive components and gamma radiation, the measurement including the selective separation of tritium oxide from a sample gas through a membrane into a counting gas, the generation of electrical pulses individually representative by rise times of tritium oxide and other radioactivity in the counting gas, separation of the pulses by rise times, and counting of those pulses representative of tritium oxide. The invention further includes the separate measurement of any tritium in the sample gas by oxidizing the tritium to tritium oxide and carrying out a second separation and analysis procedure as described above.

  14. Tritium monitor with improved gamma-ray discrimination

    DOEpatents

    Cox, Samson A.; Bennett, Edgar F.; Yule, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for selective measurement of tritium oxide in an environment which may include other radioactive components and gamma radiation, the measurement including the selective separation of tritium oxide from a sample gas through a membrane into a counting gas, the generation of electrical pulses individually representative by rise times of tritium oxide and other radioactivity in the counting gas, separation of the pulses by rise times, and counting of those pulses representative of tritium oxide. The invention further includes the separate measurement of any tritium in the sample gas by oxidizing the tritium to tritium oxide and carrying out a second separation and analysis procedure as described above.

  15. Electrolytic gettering of tritium from air

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P.C.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Stevens, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    We have removed 90% of 1 part-per-million tritium gas in air of 25% to 35% humidity by the dc electrical action of the solid proton electrolyte hydrogen uranyl phosphate (HUP). Gettering takes 5 to 24 hours for a 1 cm/sup 2/ HUP disc at 2 to 4 V in a static, 1200 cc gas volume. Hydrogen gas may be used to flush captured tritium through the HUP. Liquid water leaches out the tritium but water vapor is ineffective. This technique promises an alternative to the conventional catalyst/zeolite method.

  16. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.; Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21 K and 9 K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenyl-alanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritium are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.; Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21/degree/K and 9/degree/K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenylalanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritiums are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins.

  18. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, George A.; Nelson, David A.; Molton, Peter M.

    1992-01-01

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium.

  19. Tritium containing polymers having a polymer backbone substantially void of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, G.A.; Nelson, D.A.; Molton, P.M.

    1992-03-31

    A radioluminescent light source comprises a solid mixture of a phosphorescent substance and a tritiated polymer. The solid mixture forms a solid mass having length, width, and thickness dimensions, and is capable of self-support. In one aspect of the invention, the phosphorescent substance comprises solid phosphor particles supported or surrounded within a solid matrix by a tritium containing polymer. The tritium containing polymer comprises a polymer backbone which is essentially void of tritium. 2 figs.

  20. Investigation of tritium incorporation of tritium incorporation by means of excreted metabolites.

    PubMed

    Biró, T; Szilágyi, M

    1978-01-01

    The commonly accepted urine analysis by liquid scintillation method was applied for whole body dose estimating. After the separation of metabolite fractions the organically bound tritium in urine could be measured. Urine samples from workers repeatedly exposed to tritium incorporation during the chemical processing of various labeled compounds have been collected and analyzed. The time dependence of tritium activity in certain metabolites was found to be characteristic, significantly differing from the 3H concentration curve of the native or treated urine sample.

  1. Progresses in tritium accident modelling in the frame of IAEA EMRAS II

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Melintescu, A.

    2015-03-15

    The assessment of the environmental impact of tritium release from nuclear facilities is a topic of interest in many countries. In the IAEA's Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS I) programme, progresses for routine releases were done and in the EMRAS II programme a dedicated working group (WG 7 - Tritium Accidents) focused on the potential accidental releases (liquid and atmospheric pathways). The progresses achieved in WG 7 were included in a complex report - a technical document of IAEA covering both liquid and atmospheric accidental release consequences. A brief description of the progresses achieved in the frame of EMRAS II WG 7 is presented. Important results have been obtained concerning washout rate, the deposition on the soil of HTO and HT, the HTO uptake by leaves and the subsequent conversion to OBT (organically bound tritium) during daylight. Further needs of the processes understanding and the experimental efforts are emphasised.

  2. Tritium Phytoremediation at the Savannah River Site (SRS), USA: Water Management, Operations, and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, D. R.; Singer, J.; Barton, C. D.; Seaman, J.

    2003-12-01

    A sprinkler irrigation system is being utilized on a 22-acre upland forested area for the distribution of tritiated groundwater that is collected by a constructed pond before it can enter the Savannah River. Irrigation scheduling for the phytoremediation system is typically based on continuous soil water deficit calculations using observed rainfall data and estimated evapotranspiration. In situ measurements include soil water moisutre and water table depth. Vadose zone soil water samples are also collected for tritium analyses. Complex hydrological, biochemical, and ecological factors, as well as operations strategies, influence remediation system success. Factors that contribute to tritium remediation efficiencies, including relationships with irrigation volumes and frequency, as well as soil and vegetation types and characteristics within irrigation plots, are being evaluated. Related studies associated with the tritium phytoremediation project include vadose zone transport modeling and watershed scale water balance estimations. Data analyses from this project should aid in developing design criteria for future phytoremediation systems at SRS and other nuclear facilities.

  3. Procedures for a modified tritium trick-helium doping and residual tritium analysis of vanadium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramey, D. W.; Braski, D. N.

    1985-05-01

    A modified tritium trick technique was used to implant three levels of 3He in V-15% Cr-5% Ti and Vanstar-7 specimens. The modifications include: (1) wrapping of the specimens with tantalum foil to minimize oxygen contamination and (2) tritiation treatment at 400°C to prevent vanadium tritide formation and to produce a 3He bubble distribution similar to that produced during elevated temperature irradiation. Preliminary results show that both modifications were successful. An electrochemical dissolution technique was developed to determine residual tritium levels in the vanadium alloys. Measured residual tritium levels after tritium removal were in the range of 500 to 1400 μCi/g (0.88 to 2.99 appm tritium in the alloy). Tritium solubilities in the alloys were calculated from the tritium decay time and the measured 3He content. Vanstar-7 specimens consistently absorbed about half as much tritium, and subsequently contained half as much 3He as V-15% Cr-5% Ti. Implanting 3He in vanadium alloys via the tritium trick offers a convenient technique to study the mechanism of helium embrittlement without irradiation and should provide a rapid screening method to help develop embrittlement-resistant vanadium alloys.

  4. Tritium experiments on components for fusion fuel processing at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Konishi, S.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse, Y. ); Carlson, R.V.; Binning, K.E.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Under a collaborative agreement between US and Japan, two tritium processing components, a palladium diffuser and a ceramic electrolysis cell have been tested with tritium for application to a Fuel Cleanup System (FCU) for plasma exhaust processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The fundamental characteristics, compatibility with tritium, impurities effects with tritium, and long-term behavior of the components, were studied over a three year period. Based on these studies, an integrated process loop, JAERI Fuel Cleanup System'' equipped with above components was installed at the TSTA for full scale demonstration of the plasma exhaust reprocessing.

  5. Measurement of tritium permeation in flibe (2LiF•BeF2)

    SciTech Connect

    P. Calderoni; P. Sharpe; M. Hara; Y. Oya

    2007-10-01

    This paper reports on the experimental investigation of tritium permeation in flibe (2LiF-BeF2) at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research facility of the Idaho National Laboratory. A stainless steel cell formed by two independent volumes separated by a 2mm thick nickel membrane is maintained at temperatures between 500 and 700 degrees Celsius. A controlled amount of T2 gas is flown in excess of argon in the source volume in contact with the bottom side of the nickel membrane, while a layer of molten salt is in contact with the top side. The tritium permeating above the liquid surface is carried by an argon flow to a diagnostic system comprised of a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a gas chromatographer and a proportional counter. Tritium permeability in flibe as a function of temperature is determined by the measured permeation flow rates reached in steady-state conditions, while the diffusivity is determined by fitting the transient process with the analytical solution for the diffusion process. As a result, the solubility of tritium in flibe as a function of temperature is also determined.

  6. THERMAL ENHANCEMENT CARTRIDGE HEATER MODIFIED TECH MOD TRITIUM HYDRIDE BED DEVELOPMENT PART I DESIGN AND FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.

    2014-03-06

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1{sup st} generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and 3{sup rd} generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen 3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed.

  7. Thermal enhancement cartridge heater modified (TECH Mod) tritium hydride bed development, Part 1 - Design and fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Estochen, E.G.

    2015-03-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used first generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and third generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed. (authors)

  8. Development of Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Eung S. Kim; Chang H. Oh; Mike Patterson

    2010-10-01

    Idaho National Laboratory developed the Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) for tritium permeation in the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (VHTR). All the component models in the VHTR were developed and were embedded into the MATHLAB SIMULINK package with a Graphic User Interface. The governing equations of the nuclear ternary reaction and thermal neutron capture reactions from impurities in helium and graphite core, reflector, and control rods were implemented. The TPAC code was verified using analytical solutions for the tritium birth rate from the ternary fission, the birth rate from 3He, and the birth rate from 10B. This paper also provides comparisons of the TPAC with the existing other codes. A VHTR reference design was selected for tritium permeation study from the reference design to the nuclear-assisted hydrogen production plant and some sensitivity study results are presented based on the HTGR outlet temperature of 750 degrees C.

  9. Tritium Measurements in Slovenia - Chronology Till 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Logar, Jasmina Kozar; Vaupotic, Janja; Kobal, Ivan

    2005-07-15

    Almost all the analyses of tritium in Slovenia have been performed by the tritium laboratory at the Jozef Stefan Institute. Nearly 90 % of its measurements have been covered by two national programs, both approved by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration: the radioactive monitoring program in the environs of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) and the program of global radioactive contamination monitoring in the environment. These programs include samples of groundwaters, surface waters, precipitation and drinking waters, as well as liquid and gaseous effluents from KNPP. Tritium was determined in some research projects and in hydrological studies of thermal waters, groundwater and coalmine waters. Tritium in the Karst region was mapped as well as the springs of entire territory of Slovenia. Around 5500 samples have been analyzed up to 2004.

  10. The Project 8 Radiofrequency Tritium Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monreal, Benjamin

    The Project 8 experiment aims to determine the electron neutrino mass by measuring the spectrum of tritium beta decay electrons near the 18.6 keV endpoint. Unlike past tritium experiments, which used electrostatic and magnetostatic spectrometers, Project 8 will detect decay electrons nondestructively via their cyclotron radiation emission in a magnetic field. An individual electron is expected to emit a detectable pulse of microwaves at a frequency which depends on the electron energy. Precise measurement of these pulse frequencies is a novel spectroscopy technique particularly well-suited for the high rate, high precision, low background needs of a tritium experiment. The collaboration is currently operating a prototype designed to detect single 83mKr conversion electron decays in an 0.9T magnetic field. We report on recent activities on the prototype, and on progress towards the design of a large tritium experiment with new neutrino-mass sensitivity.

  11. Scale-Up of Palladium Powder Production Process for Use in the Tritium Facility at Westinghouse, Savannah River, SC/Summary of FY99-FY01 Results for the Preparation of Palladium Using the Sandia/LANL Process

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Baldwin; Daniel S. Zamzow; R. Dennis Vigil; Jesse T. Pikturna

    2001-08-24

    Palladium used at Savannah River (SR) for process tritium storage is currently obtained from a commercial source. In order to understand the processes involved in preparing this material, SR is supporting investigations into the chemical reactions used to synthesize this material. The material specifications are shown in Table 1. An improved understanding of the chemical processes should help to guarantee a continued reliable source of Pd in the future. As part of this evaluation, a work-for-others contract between Westinghouse Savannah River Company and Ames Laboratory (AL) was initiated. During FY98, the process for producing Pd powder developed in 1986 by Dan Grove of Mound Applied Technologies, USDOE (the Mound muddy water process) was studied to understand the processing conditions that lead to changes in morphology in the final product. During FY99 and FY00, the process for producing Pd powder that has been used previously at Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories (the Sandia/LANL process) was studied to understand the processing conditions that lead to changes in the morphology of the final Pd product. During FY01, scale-up of the process to batch sizes greater than 600 grams of Pd using a 20-gallon Pfaudler reactor was conducted by the Iowa State University (ISU) Chemical Engineering Department. This report summarizes the results of FY99-FY01 Pd processing work done at AL and ISU using the Sandia/LANL process. In the Sandia/LANL process, Pd is dissolved in a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids. A number of chemical processing steps are performed to yield an intermediate species, diamminedichloropalladium (Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, or DADC-Pd), which is isolated. In the final step of the process, the Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2} intermediate is subsequently redissolved, and Pd is precipitated by the addition of a reducing agent (RA) mixture of formic acid and sodium formate. It is at this point that the morphology of the Pd product is

  12. Tritium Issues in Next Step Devices

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; G. Federici

    2001-09-05

    Tritium issues will play a central role in the performance and operation of next-step deuterium-tritium (DT) burning plasma tokamaks and the safety aspects associated with tritium will attract intense public scrutiny. The orders-of-magnitude increase in duty cycle and stored energy will be a much larger change than the increase in plasma performance necessary to achieve high fusion gain and ignition. Erosion of plasma-facing components will scale up with the pulse length from being barely measurable on existing machines to centimeter scale. Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) devices with carbon plasma-facing components will accumulate tritium by co-deposition with the eroded carbon and this will strongly constrain plasma operations. We report on a novel laser-based method to remove co-deposited tritium from carbon plasma-facing components in tokamaks. A major fraction of the tritium trapped in a co-deposited layer during the deuterium-tritium (DT) campaign on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was released by heating with a scanning laser beam. This technique offers the potential for tritium removal in a next-step DT device without the use of oxidation and the associated deconditioning of the plasma-facing surfaces and expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. The operational lifetime of alternative materials such as tungsten has significant uncertainties due to melt layer loss during disruptions. Production of dust and flakes will need careful monitoring and minimization, and control and accountancy of the tritium inventory will be critical issues. Many of the tritium issues in Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) are similar to MFE, but some, for example those associated with the target factory, are unique to IFE. The plasma-edge region in a tokamak has greater complexity than the core due to lack of poloidal symmetry and nonlinear feedback between the plasma and wall. Sparse diagnostic coverage and low dedicated experimental run time has hampered the

  13. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, L.D.

    1980-03-13

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator was designed to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  14. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Recommended tritium surface contamination release guides

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Draper, D.G.; Foulke, J.D.; Hafner, R.S.; Jalbert, R.A.; Kennedy, W.E.; Myers, D.S.; Strain, C.D. )

    1991-03-01

    This document was prepared to provide scientific basis for recommended changes in specific limits for tritium surface contamination in DOE Order 5480.11. A summary of the physical and biological characteristics of tritium has been provided that illustrate the unique nature of this radionuclide when compared to other pure beta emitters or to beta-gamma emitting radionuclides. This document is divided into nine sections. The introduction and the purpose and scope are addressed in Section 1.0 and Section 2.0, respectively. Section 3.0 contains recommended interpretation of terms used in this document. Section 4.0 addresses recommended methods for evaluating surface contamination. Biological and physical characteristics of tritium compounds are discussed in Section 5.0, as they relate to tritium radiotoxicity. Scenarios and dose calculations for selected, conservatively limiting cases of tritium intake are given and discussed in Section 6.0 and Section 7.0. Section 8.0 provides conclusions on the information given and recommendations for changes in the surface contamination limits for total tritium to 1 {times} 10{sup 6} dpm per 100 cm{sup 2}. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Tritium level along Romanian Black Sea Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Popescu, I.; Faurescu, I.

    2008-07-15

    Establishing the tritium level along the Romanian Black Sea Coast, after 10 years of exploitation of the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda, is a first step in evaluating its impact on the Black Sea ecosystem. The monitoring program consists of tritium activity concentration measurement in sea water and precipitation from Black Sea Coast between April 2005 and April 2006. The sampling points were spread over the Danube-Black Sea Canal - before the locks Agigea and Navodari, and Black Sea along the coast to the Bulgarian border. The average tritium concentration in sea water collected from the sampling locations had the value of 11.1 {+-} 2.1 TU, close to tritium concentration in precipitation. Although an operating nuclear power plant exists in the monitored area, the values of tritium concentration in two locations are slightly higher than those recorded elsewhere. To conclude, it could be emphasized that until now, Cernavoda NPP did not had any influence on the tritium concentration of the Black Sea Shore. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of selected ex-reactor accidents related to the tritium and medical isotope production mission at the FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, D.A.

    1997-11-17

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has been proposed as a production facility for tritium and medical isotopes. A range of postulated accidents related to ex-reactor irradiated fuel and target handling were identified and evaluated using new source terms for the higher fuel enrichment and for the tritium and medical isotope targets. In addition, two in-containment sodium spill accidents were re-evaluated to estimate effects of increased fuel enrichment and the presence of the Rapid Retrieval System. Radiological and toxicological consequences of the analyzed accidents were found to be well within applicable risk guidelines.

  19. Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Robert L.

    2004-05-01

    In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of

  20. Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of

  1. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, Paul W.

    1997-05-01

    A reliable supply of tritium is necessary to maintain the United States' nuclear defense capability. Because tritium decays to ^3He at the rate of 5.5 percent per year, it must be replenished continously. To make the required amount of tritium using an accelerator, neutrons will be generated by high-energy proton reactions with tungsten and lead, moderated in light water, and captured in ^3He. The plant will be operational in 2007 at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina. It will consist of a proton linear accelerator, tritium-production target/blankets, tritium-extraction, and conventional balance-of-plant systems. The accelerator will be a radio-frequency linac operating at 100 percent duty factor. It will have a combination of normal-conducting copper structures to accelerate a 100-mA beam to 217 MeV followed by superconducting niobium cavities to boost the beam energy to 1700 MeV. After acceleration, a high-energy transport system will expand the beam to a rectangular, 16-cm wide by 160-cm high distribution and deliver it to one of two identical target/blanket assemblies where tritium production and extraction will take place. Inside a target/blanket the proton beam will strike heavy-water cooled tungsten rods to produce neutrons. The tungsten will be surrounded by a decoupler consisting of aluminum tubes containing ^3He to reduce parasitic capture. Additional lead modules with aluminum tubes containing ^3He will lie outside the central region. The lead will produce additional neutrons from spallation and (n,xn) reactions. Light water coolant continuously circulated through the lead will moderate the neutrons to low energy, where they will be efficiently captured by ^3He gas to produce tritium. Tritium will be removed by continuous separation using permeation through a heated palladium-silver alloy membrane. Once separated, standard cryogenic distillation techniques will be used to isotopically purify the tritium. This presentation

  2. Tritium levels in milk in the vicinity of chronic tritium releases.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, P; Guétat, Ph; Vichot, L; Leconte, N; Badot, P M; Gaucheron, F; Fromm, M

    2016-01-01

    Tritium is the radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It can be integrated into most biological molecules. Even though its radiotoxicity is weak, the effects of tritium can be increased following concentration in critical compartments of living organisms. For a better understanding of tritium circulation in the environment and to highlight transfer constants between compartments, we studied the tritiation of different agricultural matrices chronically exposed to tritium. Milk is one of the most frequently monitored foodstuffs in the vicinity of points known for chronic release of radionuclides firstly because dairy products find their way into most homes but also because it integrates deposition over large areas at a local scale. It is a food which contains all the main nutrients, especially proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. We thus studied the tritium levels of milk in chronic exposure conditions by comparing the tritiation of the main hydrogenated components of milk, first, component by component, then, sample by sample. Significant correlations were found between the specific activities of drinking water and free water of milk as well as between the tritium levels of cattle feed dry matter and of the main organic components of milk. Our findings stress the importance of the metabolism on the distribution of tritium in the different compartments. Overall, dilution of hydrogen in the environmental compartments was found to play an important role dimming possible isotopic effects even in a food chain chronically exposed to tritium.

  3. Recovery of tritium from a liquid lithium blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The sorption of tritium on yttrium from liquid lithium and the subsequent release of tritium from yttrium by thermal regeneration of the metal sorbent were investigated to study such a tritium-recovery process for a fusion reactor blanket of liquid lithium. Recent static sorption experiments have shown the effects of lithium temperature and possible impurities on the sorption of tritium. Diffusivity data, obtained from previous tritium recovery experiments, were evaluated to show the importance of the yttrium surface condition in controlling the release of tritium.

  4. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, Terry R. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-04-01

    An improvement in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release.

  5. Method and apparatus for controlling accidental releases of tritium

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-01

    An improvement is described in a tritium control system based on a catalytic oxidation reactor wherein accidental releases of tritium into room air are controlled by flooding the catalytic oxidation reactor with hydrogen when the tritium concentration in the room air exceeds a specified limit. The sudden flooding with hydrogen heats the catalyst to a high temperature within seconds, thereby greatly increasing the catalytic oxidation rate of tritium to tritiated water vapor. Thus, the catalyst is heated only when needed. In addition to the heating effect, the hydrogen flow also swamps the tritium and further reduces the tritium release. 1 fig.

  6. 2001 Evaluation of Tritium Removal & Mitigation Technologies for Waste Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    PENWELL, D.L.

    2001-06-01

    This report contains the 2001 biennial update evaluation of separation technologies and other mitigation techniques to control tritium in liquid effluents and groundwater at the Hanford site. A thorough literature review was completed, and national and international experts in the field of tritium separation and mitigation techniques were consulted. Current state-of-the-art technologies to address the control of tritium in wastewaters were identified and are described. This report was prepared to satisfy the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Tri-Party Agreement, Milestone M-29-O5H (Ecology, EPA, and DOE 1996). Tritium separation and isolation technologies are evaluated on a biennial basis to determine their feasibility for implementation for the control of Hanford site liquid effluents and groundwater to meet the US. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40 CFR 141.16, drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) for tritium of 0.02 {mu} Ci/l ({approx}2 parts per quadrillion [10{sup -15}]) and/or DOE Order 5400.5 as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy The objectives of this evaluation were to (1) status the development of potentially viable tritium separations technologies with regard to reducing tritium concentrations in current Hanford site process waters and existing groundwater to MCL levels and (2) status control methods to prevent the flow of tritiated water at concentrations greater than the MCL to the environment. Current tritium releases are in compliance with applicable US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington State Department of Ecology, and U.S. Department of Energy requirements under the Tri-Party Agreement. Advances in technologies for the separation of tritium from wastewater since the 1999 Hanford Site evaluation report include: (1) construction and testing of the Combined Industrial Reforming and Catalytic Exchange (CIRCE) Prototype Plant by Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL). The plant has a stage that uses

  7. First measurements of tritium recycling in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Adler, H.; Budny, R.V.; Kamperschroer, J.; Johnson, L.C.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stotler, D.P.

    1994-06-01

    The first spectroscopic measurements of tritium Balmer-alpha (T{sub {alpha}}) emission from a fusion plasma were made on TFTR using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The T{sub {alpha}} emission line is partially blended with the D{sub {alpha}} line (deuterium-alpha), commonly used in edge plasma diagnostics, and the contributions of H{sub {alpha}}, D{sub {alpha}}, and T{sub {alpha}}, are separated by spectral analysis. The data are a measure of the fueling of the plasma by tritium accumulated in the TFTR limiter, as well as the amount of neutral tritium generated by charge exchange of plasma ions. The T{alpha} line first became detectable in a high power, tritium only, neutral beam injection discharge at the level of T{sub {alpha}}/(H{sub {alpha}}+D{sub {alpha}}+T{sub {alpha}}) = 2%. Subsequently this ratio has increased to as high as 7.5%. Data on the time evolution of the T{sub {alpha}} emission during a single discharge and over a series of tritium and deuterium discharges are presented.

  8. Radioactive waste tank ventilation system incorporating tritium control

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a ventilation system for radioactive waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The unique design of the system is aimed at cost-effective control of tritiated water vapor. The system includes recirculation ventilation and cooling for each tank in the facility and a central exhaust air clean-up train that includes a low-temperature vapor condenser and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME). A one-seventh scale pilot plant was built and tested to verify predicted performance of the low-temperature tritium removal system. Tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the removal of condensable vapor and soluble and insoluble aerosols and to estimate the operating life of the mist eliminator. Definitive design of the ventilation system relied heavily on the test data. The unique design features of the ventilation system will result in far less release of tritium to the atmosphere than from conventional high-volume dilution systems and will greatly reduce operating costs. NESHAPs and TAPs NOC applications have been approved, and field construction is nearly complete. Start-up is scheduled for late 1996. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Deuterium-tritium experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hosea, J.; Adler, J.H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J.L.; Anderson, J.W.; Arunasalam, V.; Ascione, G.; Ashcroft, D.

    1994-09-01

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) experimental program on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is underway and routine tritium operations have been established. The technology upgrades made to the TFTR facility have been demonstrated to be sufficient for supporting both operations and maintenance for an extended D-T campaign. To date fusion power has been increased to {approx}9 MW and several physics results of importance to the D-T reactor regime have been obtained: electron temperature, ion temperature, and plasma stored energy all increase substantially in the D-T regime relative to the D-D regime at the same neutral beam power and comparable limiter conditioning; possible alpha electron heating is indicated and energy confinement improvement with average ion mass is observed; and alpha particle losses appear to be classical with no evidence of TAE mode activity up to the PFUS {approx}6 MW level. Instability in the TAE mode frequency range has been observed at PFUS > 7 MW and its effect on performance in under investigation. Preparations are underway to enhance the alpha particle density further by increasing fusion power and by extending the neutral beam pulse length to permit alpha particle effects of relevance to the ITER regime to be more fully explored.

  10. National Ignition Facility environmental protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, J.M.; Reitz, T.C.; Tobin, M.T.

    1994-06-01

    The conceptual design of Environmental Protection Systems (EPS) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is described. These systems encompass tritium and activated debris handling, chamber, debris shield and general decontamination, neutron and gamma monitoring, and radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste handling. Key performance specifications met by EPS designs include limiting the tritium inventory to 300 Ci and total tritium release from NIF facilities to less than 10 Ci/yr. Total radiation doses attributable to NIF shall remain below 10 mrem/yr for any member of the general public and 500 mrem/yr for NIF staff. ALARA-based design features and operational procedures will, in most cases, result in much lower measured exposures. Waste minimization, improved cycle time and reduced exposures all result from the proposed CO2 robotic arm cleaning and decontamination system, while effective tritium control is achieved through a modern system design based on double containment and the proven detritiation technology.

  11. Organically bound tritium (OBT) for various plants in the vicinity of a continuous atmospheric tritium release.

    PubMed

    Vichot, L; Boyer, C; Boissieux, T; Losset, Y; Pierrat, D

    2008-10-01

    In order to quantify tritium impact on the environmental, we studied vegetation continuously exposed to a tritiated atmosphere. We chose lichens as bio-indicators, trees for determination of past tritium releases of the Valduc Centre, and lettuce as edible vegetables for dose calculation regarding neighbourhood. The Pasquill and Doury models from the literature were tested to estimate tritium concentration in the air around vegetable for distance from the release point less than 500 m. The results in tree rings show that organically bound tritium (OBT) concentration was strongly correlated with tritium releases. Using the GASCON model, the modelled variation of OBT concentration with distance was correlated with the measurements. Although lichens are recognized as bio-indicators, our experiments show that they were not convenient for environmental surveys because their age is not definitive. Thus, tritium integration time cannot be precisely determined. Furthermore, their biological metabolism is not well known and tritium concentration appears to be largely dependent on species. An average conversion rate of HTO to OBT was determined for lettuce of about 0.20-0.24% h(-1). Nevertheless, even if it is equivalent to values already published in the literature for other vegetation, we have shown that this conversion rate, established by weekly samples, varies by a factor of 10 during the different stages of lettuce development, and that its variation is linked to the biomass derivative.

  12. Low-exposure tritium radiotoxicity in mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, R.L.

    1982-02-11

    Studies of tritium radiotoxicity involving chronic /sup 3/H0H exposures in mammals demonstrate in both mice and monkeys that biological effects can be measured following remarkably low levels of exposure - levels in the range of serious practical interest to radiation protection. These studies demonstrate also that deleterious effects of /sup 3/H beta radiation do not differ significantly from those of gamma radiation at high exposures. In contrast, however, at low exposures tritium is significantly more effective than gamma rays, rad for rad, by a factor approaching 3. This is important for hazard evaluation and radiation protection because knowledge concerning biological effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure has come mainly from gamma-ray data; and predictions based on gamma-ray data will underestimate tritium effects - especially at low exposures - unless the RBE is fully taken into account.

  13. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, G.; Gaillard, J.; Hitchcock, D.; Peters, B.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Teprovich, J.; Coughlin, J.; Neikirk, K.; Fisher, C.

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  14. Fabrication of light water reactor tritium targets

    SciTech Connect

    Pilger, J.P.

    1991-11-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Development Task of the Tritium Target Development Project is: to produce a documented technology basis, including specifications and procedures for target rod fabrication; to demonstrate that light water tritium targets can be manufactured at a rate consistent with tritium production requirements; and to develop quality control methods to evaluate target rod components and assemblies, and establish correlations between evaluated characteristics and target rod performance. Many of the target rod components: cladding tubes, end caps, plenum springs, etc., have similar counterparts in LWR fuel rods. High production rate manufacture and inspection of these components has been adequately demonstrated by nuclear fuel rod manufacturers. This summary describes the more non-conventional manufacturing processes and inspection techniques developed to fabricate target rod components whose manufacturability at required production rates had not been previously demonstrated.

  15. Accumulative Tritium Transfer from Water into Biosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgaertner, Franz

    2005-07-15

    The energy balance of hydrogen isotopes in H bonds of water and biomolecules results in accumulative tritium transfer from water into biomolecules. Tests of DNA dissolved in tritiated water and of maize or barley hydroponically grown in tritiated water confirm the increase. The primary hydration shell of DNA shows an accumulation factor of {approx}1.4, and the exchangeable hydrogens inside DNA show {approx}2. Logistic growth analyses of maize and barley reveal the intrinsic growth rates of tritium 1.3 and 1.2 times larger than that of hydrogen. The higher rate of tritium than hydrogen incorporation in solid biomatter is caused by the hydration shells, which constitute an intrinsic component of biomolecules.

  16. Tritium migration studies at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.K.; Romney, E.M.; Fujii, L.M.; Greger, P.D. ); Kendall, E.W.; Hunter, R.B. )

    1991-08-01

    Emanation of tritium from waste containers is a commonly known phenomenon. Release of tritium from buried waste packages was anticipated, therefore a research program was developed to study both the rate of tritium release from buried containers and subsequent migration of tritium through soil. Migration of tritium away from low level radioactive wastes buried in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site was studied. Four distinct disposal events were investigated. The oldest burial event studied was a 1976 emplacement of 3.5 million curies of tritium in a shallow land burial trench. Tritium transport to the atmosphere by plant transpiration was determined to have risen sharply with the passage of time, and is now occurring at the rate of about 6 curies per year. The tritium being released from this waste has not resulted in elevated tritium levels in the urine of people working directly on the trench cap. Air samplers placed around the perimeter of the Area 5 site show no higher tritium levels than the Nevada Test Site in general. In another event, 248 thousand curies of tritium was disposed of in an overpack emplaced 6 meters below the floor of a low-level waste disposal pit. Measurement of the emanation rate of tritium out of 55 gallon drums to the overpack was studied, and an annual doubling of the emanation rate over a seven year period was found. No evidence of significant migration of tritium away from the overpack was found. In a third study, upward tritium migration in the soil was observed in a greater confinement disposal test. The movement was suspected largely to be the result of experimental anomalies and heat generated by other radionuclides present in the waste. Releases of tritium to the atmosphere were found to be insignificant. The fourth event consisted of burial of 2.2 million curies of tritium in a greater confinement disposal operation. No significant migration was found. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Problems and progress in tritium beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Balke, B.; Fackler, O.; Mugge, M.; White, R.

    1988-04-01

    It has been nearly eight years since the group led by Lubimov first saw evidence for a finite neutrino mass in the tritium beta decay spectrum. Their measurement provided a great stimulus to the field; the number of experiments currently underway reflects the significance of their claim. The fact that further data are only now beginning to appear reflects the difficulty of this measurement. As an introduction to related papers in these proceedings, we briefly consider the key elements involved in neutrino-mass measurements using tritium beta decay and list the experiments currently underway in the field. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  18. A tritium target system for. mu. CF

    SciTech Connect

    Zmeskal, J.; Ackerbauer, P. . Inst. fuer Mittelenergiephysik); Sherman, R.H. ); Durham, W.B.; Heard, H.C. ); Neumann, W. ); Bossy, H. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (

    1990-12-01

    An apparatus has been constructed for the safe handling of tritium as part of a series of muon-catalyzed fusion experiments. The equipment was designed to handle 100 kCi of tritium. The main parts of this system are the oil-free high vacuum and transfer system, and the quadrupole mass analyzer for a direct determination of the target content. The system was used successfully for five continuous periods of operation of over one month each. A new target system was constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for ultimate use at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) to investigate the high temperature and high pressure region. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Tritium migration studies at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.K.; Weaver, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    Emanation of tritium from waste containers is a commonly known phenomenon. Release of tritium from buried waste packages was anticipated; therefore, a research program was developed to study both the rate of tritium release from buried containers and subsequent migration of tritium through soil. Migration of tritium away from low-level radioactive wastes buried in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site was studied. Four distinct disposal events were investigated. The oldest burial event studied was a 1976 emplacement of 3.5 million curies of tritium in a shallow land burial trench. In another event, 248 thousand curies of tritium was disposed of in an overpack emplaced 6 m below the floor of a low-level waste disposal pit. Measurement of the emanation rate of tritium out of 55 gallon drums to the overpack was studied, and an annual doubling of the emanation rate over a seven year period, ending in 1990, was found. In a third study, upward tritium migration in the soil, resulting in releases in the atmosphere were observed in a greater confinement disposal test. Releases of tritium to the atmosphere were found to be insignificant. The fourth event consisted of burial of 2.2 million curies of tritium in a greater confinement disposal operation. Emanation of tritium from the buried containers has been increasing since disposal, but no significant migration was found four years following backfilling of the disposal hole.

  20. TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA666, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. CONTROL ROOM ENCLOSURE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA-666, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. CONTROL ROOM ENCLOSURE AT CENTER OF VIEW. SIGN ABOVE DOOR SAYS "HYDRAULIC TEST FACILITY CONTROL ROOM." SIGN IN WINDOW SAYS "EATING AREA." "EVACUATION AND EMERGENCY INFORMATION" IS POSTED ON CABINET AT LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD30-2-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 6/2001 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Apparent enrichment of organically bound tritium in rivers explained by the heritage of our past.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Claval, David; Charmasson, Sabine; Cossonnet, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    coastal marine biota (i.e., near river inputs). Our findings demonstrate that the persistence of terrestrial organic (3)H explains imbalances between organically bound tritium and free (3)H in most river systems in particular those not impacted by releases from nuclear facilities.

  2. Tritium and plutonium in waters from the Bering and Chukchi Seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Beals, D.M.; Halverson, J.E.; Michel, R.L.; Cefus, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    During the summer of 1993, seawater in the Bering and Chukchi Seas was sampled on a joint Russian-American cruise [BERPAC] of the RV Okean to determine concentrations of tritium, 239Pu and 240Pu. Concentrations of tritium were determined by electrolytic enrichment and liquid scintilation counting. Tritium levels ranged up to 420 mBq L-1 showed no evidence of inputs other than those attribute atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Plutonium was recovered from water samples by ferric hydroxide precipitation, and concentrations were determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. 239+240Pu concentrations ranged from <1 to 5.5 [mu]Bq L-1. These concentrations are lower than those measured in water samples from other parts of the ocean during the mid-1960's to the late 1980's. The 240Pu:239Pu ratios, although associated with large uncertainties, suggest that most of the plutonium is derived from world-wide fallout. As points of comparison, the highest concentrations of tritium and plutonium observed here were about five orders of magnitude lower than the maximum permissible concentrations allowed in water released to the off-site environs from licensed nuclear facilities in the United States. This study and others sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Office of Naval Research's Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program are providing data for the assessment of potential radiological impacts in the Arctic regions associated with nuclear waste disposal by the former Soviet Union.

  3. Technical and Scientific Aspects of the JET Trace-Tritium Experimental Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.T.C.; Brennan, D; Pearce, R.J.H.; Stork, D.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Balshaw, N.; Bell, A.C.; Bertalot, L.; Butcher, P.R.; Challis, C.D.; Ciric, D.; Clarke, R.; Conroy, S.; Darke, A.C.; Davies, N.; Edlington, T.; Ericsson, G.; Gibbons, C.; Hackett, L.J.; Haupt, T.; Hitchin, M.; Kaye, A.S.; King, R.; Kiptily, V.G.; Knipe, S.; Lawrence, G.; Lobel, R.; Mason, A.; Morgan, P.D.; Patel, B.; Popovichev, S.; Stamp, M.; Surrey, E.; Terrington, A.; Worth, L.; Young, D.

    2005-07-15

    The JET Trace Tritium (TTE) programme marked the first use of tritium in experiments under the managerial control of UKAEA, which operates the JET Facility on behalf of EFDA. The introduction of tritium into the plasma by gas fuelling and neutral beam injection, even in trace quantities, required the mobilisation of gram-quantities of tritium gas from the Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) product storage units into the supply lines connected to the torus gas valve and the neutral beam injectors. All systems for DT gas handling, recovery and reprocessing were therefore recommissioned and operating procedures re-established, involving extensive operations staff training. The validation of Key Safety Related Equipment (KSRE) is described with reference to specific examples. The differences between requirements for TTE and full DT operations are shown to be relatively small. The scientific motivation for TTE, such as the possibility to obtain high-quality measurements in key areas such as fuel-ion transport and fast ion dynamics, is described, and the re-establishment and development of JET's 14MeV neutron diagnostic capability for TTE and future DT campaigns are outlined. Some scientific highlights from the TTE campaign are presented.

  4. Validation test for CAP88 predictions of tritium dispersion at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Michelotti, Erika; Green, Andrew; Whicker, Jeffrey; Eisele, William; Fuehne, David; McNaughton, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Gaussian plume models, such as CAP88, are used regularly for estimating downwind concentrations from stack emissions. At many facilities, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) requires that CAP88 be used to demonstrate compliance with air quality regulations for public protection from emissions of radionuclides. Gaussian plume models have the advantage of being relatively simple and their use pragmatic; however, these models are based on simplifying assumptions and generally they are not capable of incorporating dynamic meteorological conditions or complex topography. These limitations encourage validation tests to understand the capabilities and limitations of the model for the specific application. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has complex topography but is required to use CAP88 for compliance with the Clean Air Act Subpart H. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the CAP88 predictions against ambient air measurements using released tritium as a tracer. Stack emissions of tritium from two LANL stacks were measured and the dispersion modeled with CAP88 using local meteorology. Ambient air measurements of tritium were made at various distances and directions from the stacks. Model predictions and ambient air measurements were compared over the course of a full year's data. Comparative results were consistent with other studies and showed the CAP88 predictions of downwind tritium concentrations were on average about three times higher than those measured, and the accuracy of the model predictions were generally more consistent for annual averages than for bi-weekly data.

  5. [Mechanism of tritium persistence in porous media like clay minerals].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong-Jie; Wang, Jin-Sheng; Teng, Yan-Guo; Zhang, Ke-Ni

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of tritium persistence in clay minerals, three types of clay soils (montmorillonite, kaolinite and illite) and tritiated water were used in this study to conduct the tritium sorption tests and the other related tests. Firstly, the ingredients, metal elements and heat properties of clay minerals were studied with some instrumental analysis methods, such as ICP and TG. Secondly, with a specially designed fractionation and condensation experiment, the adsorbed water, the interlayer water and the structural water in the clay minerals separated from the tritium sorption tests were fractionated for investigating the tritium distributions in the different types of adsorptive waters. Thirdly, the location and configuration of tritium adsorbed into the structure of clay minerals were studied with infrared spectrometry (IR) tests. And finally, the forces and mechanisms for driving tritium into the clay minerals were analyzed on the basis of the isotope effect of tritium and the above tests. Following conclusions have been reached: (1) The main reason for tritium persistence in clay minerals is the entrance of tritium into the adsorbed water, the interlayer water and the structural water in clay minerals. The percentage of tritium distributed in these three types of adsorptive water are in the range of 13.65% - 38.71%, 0.32% - 5.96%, 1.28% - 4.37% of the total tritium used in the corresponding test, respectively. The percentages are different for different types of clay minerals. (2) Tritium adsorbed onto clay minerals are existed in the forms of the tritiated hydroxyl radical (OT) and the tritiated water molecule (HTO). Tritium mainly exists in tritiated water molecule for adsorbed water and interlayer water, and in tritiated hydroxyl radical for structural water. (3) The forces and effects driving tritium into the clay minerals may include molecular dispersion, electric charge sorption, isotope exchange and tritium isotope effect.

  6. Small system for tritium accelerator mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Mark L.; Davis, Jay C.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for ionizing and accelerating a sample containing isotopes of hydrogen and detecting the ratios of hydrogen isotopes contained in the sample is disclosed. An ion source generates a substantially linear ion beam including ions of tritium from the sample. A radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator is directly coupled to and axially aligned with the source at an angle of substantially zero degrees. The accelerator accelerates species of the sample having different mass to different energy levels along the same axis as the ion beam. A spectrometer is used to detect the concentration of tritium ions in the sample. In one form of the invention, an energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a foil to block the passage of hydrogen, deuterium and .sup.3 He ions, and a surface barrier or scintillation detector to detect the concentration of tritium ions. In another form of the invention, a combined momentum/energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a magnet to separate the ion beams, with Faraday cups to measure the hydrogen and deuterium and a surface barrier or scintillation detector for the tritium ions.

  7. Small system for tritium accelerator mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, M.L.; Davis, J.C.

    1993-02-23

    Apparatus for ionizing and accelerating a sample containing isotopes of hydrogen and detecting the ratios of hydrogen isotopes contained in the sample is disclosed. An ion source generates a substantially linear ion beam including ions of tritium from the sample. A radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator is directly coupled to and axially aligned with the source at an angle of substantially zero degrees. The accelerator accelerates species of the sample having different mass to different energy levels along the same axis as the ion beam. A spectrometer is used to detect the concentration of tritium ions in the sample. In one form of the invention, an energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a foil to block the passage of hydrogen, deuterium and [sup 3]He ions, and a surface barrier or scintillation detector to detect the concentration of tritium ions. In another form of the invention, a combined momentum/energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a magnet to separate the ion beams, with Faraday cups to measure the hydrogen and deuterium and a surface barrier or scintillation detector for the tritium ions.

  8. Tritium management in fusion synfuel designs

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-04-25

    Two blanket types are being studied: a lithium-sodium pool boiler and a lithium-oxide- or lithium-sodium pool boiler and a lithium-oxide- or aluminate-microsphere moving bed. For each, a wide variety of current technology was considered in handling the tritium. Here, we show the pool boiler with the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle first developed and now being piloted by the General Atomic Company. The tritium (T/sub 2/) will be generated in the lithium-sodium mixture where the concentration is approx. 10 ppM and held constant by a scavenging system consisting mainly of permeators. An intermediate sodium loop carries the blanket heat to the thermochemical cycle, and the T/sub 2/ in this loop is held to 1 ppM by a similar scavenging system. With this design, we have maintained blanket inventory at 1 kg of tritium, kept thermochemical cycle losses to 5 Ci/d and environmental loss to 10 Ci/d, and held total plant risk inventory at 7 kg tritium.

  9. 10 CFR 30.55 - Tritium reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY TO DOMESTIC LICENSING OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records, Inspections, Tests, and Reports § 30.55 Tritium reports. (a)-(b) (c) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of... commit a theft or unlawful diversion of more than 10 curies of such material at any one time or more...

  10. 10 CFR 30.55 - Tritium reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY TO DOMESTIC LICENSING OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records, Inspections, Tests, and Reports § 30.55 Tritium reports. (a)-(b) (c) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of... commit a theft or unlawful diversion of more than 10 curies of such material at any one time or more...

  11. 10 CFR 30.55 - Tritium reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY TO DOMESTIC LICENSING OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records, Inspections, Tests, and Reports § 30.55 Tritium reports. (a)-(b) (c) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of... commit a theft or unlawful diversion of more than 10 curies of such material at any one time or more...

  12. 10 CFR 30.55 - Tritium reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY TO DOMESTIC LICENSING OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records, Inspections, Tests, and Reports § 30.55 Tritium reports. (a)-(b) (c) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of... commit a theft or unlawful diversion of more than 10 curies of such material at any one time or more...

  13. 10 CFR 30.55 - Tritium reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY TO DOMESTIC LICENSING OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records, Inspections, Tests, and Reports § 30.55 Tritium reports. (a)-(b) (c) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of... commit a theft or unlawful diversion of more than 10 curies of such material at any one time or more...

  14. Stereo and regioselectivity in ''Activated'' tritium reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenkaufer, R.L.E.; Hembree, W.C.; Wolf, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the stereo and positional selectivity of the microwave discharge activation (MDA) method, the tritium labeling of several amino acids was undertaken. The labeling of L-valine and the diastereomeric pair L-isoleucine and L-alloisoleucine showed less than statistical labeling at the ..cap alpha..-amino C-H position mostly with retention of configuration. Labeling predominated at the single ..beta.. C-H tertiary (methyne) position. The labeling of L-valine and L-proline with and without positive charge on the ..cap alpha..-amino group resulted in large increases in specific activity (greater than 10-fold) when positive charge was removed by labeling them as their sodium carboxylate salts. Tritium NMR of L-proline labeled both as its zwitterion and sodium salt showed also large differences in the tritium distribution within the molecule. The distribution preferences in each of the charge states are suggestive of labeling by an electrophilic like tritium species(s). 16 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Operating and maintenance experience in tritium environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tuer, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    This presentation is a summary of practical experience gained over more than twenty years from analyzing failures of process equipment operated in tritium and deuterium environments. Significant improvements have been achieved in design and procurement of new equipment, testing and selection of materials, and gradually more favorable maintenance experience. Preferred materials and inspection methods are described. 6 tabs.

  16. Apparatus and method for stripping tritium from molten salt

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David E.; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-02-07

    A method of stripping tritium from flowing stream of molten salt includes providing a tritium-separating membrane structure having a porous support, a nanoporous structural metal-ion diffusion barrier layer, and a gas-tight, nonporous palladium-bearing separative layer, directing the flowing stream of molten salt into contact with the palladium-bearing layer so that tritium contained within the molten salt is transported through the tritium-separating membrane structure, and contacting a sweep gas with the porous support for collecting the tritium.

  17. Fracture toughness properties of welded stainless steels for tritium service

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.

    1994-10-01

    Studies to determine tritium exposure effects on the properties of welded steels are being conducted. In this investigation, the effects of tritium and decay helium on the fracture toughness properties of high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) Incoloy 903 were. Fracture toughness measurements were conducted for tritium-exposed samples in the as-forged condition and compared with welded samples. Tritium-exposed HERF Incoloy 903 had fracture toughness values that were 33% lower than those for unexposed HERF Incoloy 903. Tritium-exposed welded samples had fracture toughness values that were just 8% of the unexposed HERF alloys and 28% of unexposed welded alloys.

  18. Preliminary results on tritium in Surveyor 3 material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    Painted aluminum samples taken from Surveyor 3 were examined for possible tritium implanted by the solar wind. There was found to be a correlation of tritium content with exposure to sunlight. The amount of tritium in sample 1011,2 nearly perpendicular to the lunar surface exceeded the amount expected from the tritium content of lunar rock 12002 by at least a factor of 3. It is concluded that if there is tritium implanted by solar wind on lunar rocks, it is not retained by them.

  19. Tritium experience in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Blanchard, W.; Hosea, J.; Mueller, D.; Nagy, A.; Brooks, J.N.; Hogan, J.

    1998-07-01

    Tritium management is a key enabling element in fusion technology. Tritium fuel was used in 3.5 years of successful deuterium-tritium (D-T) operations in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The D-T campaign enabled TFTR to explore the transport, alpha physics, and MHD stability of a reactor core. It also provided experience with tritium retention and removal that highlighted the importance of these issues in future D-T machines. In this paper, the authors summarize the tritium retention and removal experience in TFTR and its implications for future reactors.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14

    A new radioactive shipping packaging for transporting bulk quantities of tritium, the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP), has been designed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a replacement for a package designed in the early 1970s. This paper summarizes significant design features and describes how the design satisfies the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials. This paper also discusses the results from testing of the BTSP to 10 CFR 71 Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Condition events. The programmatic need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to ship bulk quantities of tritium has been satisfied since the late 1970s by the UC-609 shipping package. The current Certificate of Conformance for the UC-609, USA/9932/B(U) (DOE), will expire in late 2011. Since the UC-609 was not designed to meet current regulatory requirements, it will not be recertified and thereby necessitates a replacement Type B shipping package for continued DOE tritium shipments in the future. A replacement tritium packaging called the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) is currently being designed and tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The BTSP consists of two primary assemblies, an outer Drum Assembly and an inner Containment Vessel Assembly (CV), both designed to mitigate damage and to protect the tritium contents from leaking during the regulatory Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT). During transport, the CV rests on a silicone pad within the Drum Liner and is covered with a thermal insulating disk within the insulated Drum Assembly. The BTSP packaging weighs approximately 500 lbs without contents and is 50

  1. Thermal Release of 3He from Tritium Aged LaNi4.25Al0.75 Hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, Gregory C.; Crowder, Mark L.; Klein, James E.

    2015-02-01

    Recently, the demand for He-3 has increased dramatically due to widespread use in nuclear nonproliferation, cryogenic, and medical applications. Essentially all of the world’s supply of He-3 is created by the radiolytic decay of tritium. The Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities (SRS-TF) utilizes LANA.75 in the tritium process to store hydrogen isotopes. The vast majority of He-3 “born” from tritium stored in LANA.75 is trapped in the hydride metal matrix. The SRS-TF has multiple LANA.75 tritium storage beds that have been retired from service with significant quantities of He-3 trapped in the metal. To support He-3 recovery, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) on a tritium aged LANA.75 sample. TGA-MS testing was performed in an argon environment. Prior to testing, the sample was isotopically exchanged with deuterium to reduce residual tritium and passivated with air to alleviate pyrophoric concerns associated with handling the material outside of an inert glovebox. Analyses indicated that gas release from this sample was bimodal, with peaks near 220 and 490°C. The first peak consisted of both He-3 and residual hydrogen isotopes, the second was primarily He-3. The bulk of the gas was released by 600 °C

  2. Improving tritium exposure reconstructions using accelerator mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J. R.; Vogel, J. S.; Knezovich, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Direct measurement of tritium atoms by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) enables rapid low-activity tritium measurements from milligram-sized samples and permits greater ease of sample collection, faster throughput, and increased spatial and/or temporal resolution. Because existing methodologies for quantifying tritium have some significant limitations, the development of tritium AMS has allowed improvements in reconstructing tritium exposure concentrations from environmental measurements and provides an important additional tool in assessing the temporal and spatial distribution of chronic exposure. Tritium exposure reconstructions using AMS were previously demonstrated for a tree growing on known levels of tritiated water and for trees exposed to atmospheric releases of tritiated water vapor. In these analyses, tritium levels were measured from milligram-sized samples with sample preparation times of a few days. Hundreds of samples were analyzed within a few months of sample collection and resulted in the reconstruction of spatial and temporal exposure from tritium releases. Although the current quantification limit of tritium AMS is not adequate to determine natural environmental variations in tritium concentrations, it is expected to be sufficient for studies assessing possible health effects from chronic environmental tritium exposure. PMID:14735274

  3. Improving tritium exposure reconstructions using accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Love, A H; Hunt, J R; Vogel, J S; Knezovich, J P

    2004-05-01

    Direct measurement of tritium atoms by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) enables rapid low-activity tritium measurements from milligram-sized samples and permits greater ease of sample collection, faster throughput, and increased spatial and/or temporal resolution. Because existing methodologies for quantifying tritium have some significant limitations, the development of tritium AMS has allowed improvements in reconstructing tritium exposure concentrations from environmental measurements and provides an important additional tool in assessing the temporal and spatial distribution of chronic exposure. Tritium exposure reconstructions using AMS were previously demonstrated for a tree growing on known levels of tritiated water and for trees exposed to atmospheric releases of tritiated water vapor. In these analyses, tritium levels were measured from milligram-sized samples with sample preparation times of a few days. Hundreds of samples were analyzed within a few months of sample collection and resulted in the reconstruction of spatial and temporal exposure from tritium releases. Although the current quantification limit of tritium AMS is not adequate to determine natural environmental variations in tritium concentrations, it is expected to be sufficient for studies assessing possible health effects from chronic environmental tritium exposure.

  4. Measurement of Tritium Surface Distribution on TFTR Bumper Limiter Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    K. Sugiyama; T. Tanabe; C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile

    2004-06-28

    The tritium surface distribution on graphite tiles used in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter and exposed to TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) discharges from 1993 to 1997 was measured by the Tritium Imaging Plate Technique (TIPT). The TFTR bumper limiter shows both re-/co-deposition and erosion. The tritium images for all tiles measured are strongly correlated with erosion and deposition patterns, and long-term tritium retention was found in the re-/co-depositions and flakes. The CFC tiles located at erosion dominated areas clearly showed their woven structure in their tritium images owing to different erosion yields between fibers and matrix. Significantly high tritium retention was observed on all sides of the erosion tiles, indicating carbon transport via repetition of local erosion/deposition cycles.

  5. Tokamak fusion reactors with less than full tritium breeding

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K. Jr.; Gilligan, J.G.; Jung, J.

    1983-05-01

    A study of commercial, tokamak fusion reactors with tritium concentrations and tritium breeding ratios ranging from full deuterium-tritium operation to operation with no tritium breeding is presented. The design basis for these reactors is similar to those of STARFIRE and WILDCAT. Optimum operating temperatures, sizes, toroidal field strengths, and blanket/shield configurations are determined for a sequence of reactor designs spanning the range of tritium breeding, each having the same values of beta, thermal power, and first-wall heat load. Additional reactor parameters, tritium inventories and throughputs, and detailed costs are calculated for each reactor design. The disadvantages, advantages, implications, and ramifications of tritium-depleted operation are presented and discussed.

  6. Investigation of tritium in groundwater at Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1985-12-30

    In 1984, landfill monitoring wells at Site 300, a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) explosive test site, revealed the presence of groundwater contaminated with tritium. These tritium levels were in excess of the State of California drinking water standard. A major investigation was initiated that included a search of records concerning tritium use, disposal, and previous analyses, and a survey of tritium levels in soil, vegetation, and water in contaminated and potentially contaminated areas. Over 50 boreholes were drilled for this investigation to characterize the local hydrogeology and tritium distributions, and a network of soil moisture and groundwater monitoring points was installed. This report presents the work completed through the end of September 1985: the records search; records for drilling completed as part of this study; characterization of the geology, hydrology, and tritium distributions in the contaminated area; and an initial assessment of the probable tritium sources, pathways, and migration rates. 19 refs.

  7. Plasma wall interaction and tritium retention in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C. H.; Amarescu, E.; Ascione, G.; Synakowski, E.

    1996-05-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been operating safely and routinely with deuterium-tritium fuel for more than two years. In this time, TFTR has produced an impressive number of record breaking results including core fusion power, ~ 2 MW/m³, comparable to that expected for ITER. Advances in wall conditioning via lithium pellet injection have played an essential role in achieving these results. Deuterium-tritium operation has also provided a special opportunity to address the issues of tritium recycling and retention. Tritium retention over two years of operation was approximately 40%. Recently, the in-torus tritium inventory was reduced by half through a combination of glow discharge cleaning, moist-air soaks, and plasma discharge cleaning. The tritium inventory is not a constraint in continued operations. The authors present recent results from TFTR in the context of plasma wall interactions and deuterium-tritium issues.

  8. Studying of tritium content in snowpack of Degelen mountain range.

    PubMed

    Turchenko, D V; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O; Lyakhova, O N

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of tritium content in the layers of snow located in the streambeds of the "Degelen" massif contaminated with tritium. The objects of investigation were selected watercourses Karabulak, Uzynbulak, Aktybai located beyond the "Degelen" site. We studied the spatial distribution of tritium relative to the streambed of watercourses and defined the borders of the snow cover contamination. In the centre of the creek watercourses the snow contamination in the surface layer is as high as 40 000 Bq/L. The values of the background levels of tritium in areas not related to the streambed, which range from 40 to 50 Bq/L. The results of snow cover measurements in different seasonal periods were compared. The main mechanisms causing tritium transfer in snow were examined and identified. The most important mechanism of tritium transfer in the streams is tritium emanation from ice or soil surface.

  9. Investigation of the tritium content in surface water, bottom sediments (zoobenthos), macrophytes, and fish in the mid-stream region of the Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia).

    PubMed

    Bondareva, Lydia; Schultz, Michael K

    2015-11-01

    The potential sources of tritium input to the Yenisei River ecosystem are derived from local operations of nuclear facilities of the Mining and Chemical Combine operated by the state-owned Rosatom corporation and from sources derived from global weapons testing fallout and nuclear power. The background tritium concentrations in zoobenthos, bottom sediments, relevant commercial fish species, and widespread endogenous aquatic plants have been obtained for the first time in this region. Our results demonstrate that the major input term of tritium to this region of the Yenisei is derived from nearby mining operations of Rosatom, with tritium concentrations in aquatic plants marginally exceeding the observed background values obtained from upstream control sample collection sites.

  10. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, M.; Clark, E.; Lascola, R.

    2009-12-16

    Effects of beta (tritium) and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of conducting polymer films are documented to determine their potential use as a sensing and surveillance device for the tritium facility. It was shown that surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma and tritium gas. In order to compare the results from the two radiation sources, an approximate dose equivalence was calculated. The materials were also sensitive to small radiation doses (<10{sup 5} rad), showing that there is a measurable response to relatively small total doses of tritium gas. Spectroscopy was also used to confirm the mechanism by which this sensing device would operate in order to calibrate this sensor for potential use. It was determined that one material (polyaniline) was very sensitive to oxidation while the other material (PEDOT-PSS) was not. However, polyaniline provided the best response as a sensing material, and it is suggested that an oxygen-impermeable, radiation-transparent coating be applied to this material for future device prototype fabrication. A great deal of interest has developed in recent years in the area of conducting polymers due to the high levels of conductivity that can be achieved, some comparable to that of metals [Gerard 2002]. Additionally, the desirable physical and chemical properties of a polymer are retained and can be exploited for various applications, including light emitting diodes (LED), anti-static packaging, electronic coatings, and sensors. The electron transfer mechanism is generally accepted as one of electron 'hopping' through delocalized electrons in the conjugated backbone, although other mechanisms have been proposed based on the type of polymer and dopant [Inzelt 2000, Gerard 2002]. The conducting polymer polyaniline (PANi) is of particular interest because there are extensive studies on the modulation of the conductivity by changing either the oxidation state of the

  11. Use of Tritium Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Tree Ring Analysis

    PubMed Central

    LOVE, ADAM H.; HUNT, JAMES R.; ROBERTS, MARK L.; SOUTHON, JOHN R.; CHIARAPPA - ZUCCA, MARINA L.; DINGLEY, KAREN H.

    2010-01-01

    Public concerns over the health effects associated with low-level and long-term exposure to tritium released from industrial point sources have generated the demand for better methods to evaluate historical tritium exposure levels for these communities. The cellulose of trees accurately reflects the tritium concentration in the source water and may contain the only historical record of tritium exposure. The tritium activity in the annual rings of a tree was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to reconstruct historical annual averages of tritium exposure. Milligram-sized samples of the annual tree rings from a Tamarix located at the Nevada Test Site are used for validation of this methodology. The salt cedar was chosen since it had a single source of tritiated water that was well-characterized as it varied over time. The decay-corrected tritium activity of the water in which the salt cedar grew closely agrees with the organically bound tritium activity in its annual rings. This demonstrates that the milligram-sized samples used in tritium accelerator mass spectrometry are suited for reconstructing anthropogenic tritium levels in the environment. PMID:12144257

  12. Tritium in Australian precipitation: A 50 year record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadros, Carol V.; Hughes, Catherine E.; Crawford, Jagoda; Hollins, Suzanne E.; Chisari, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Tritium in precipitation has been measured in Australia over the past 50 years, as an essential research tool in hydro-climate studies, and to contribute to the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Tritium, a component of the water molecule (HTO), is the only true age tracer for waters. The elevated level of tritium in the environment as a result of last century’s atmospheric thermonuclear testing delivers the benefit of tracing groundwater systems over a 100 year timeframe. The concentration of tritium in Australian precipitation reached a maximum of 160 Tritium Units (TU) in 1963, during one of the most intense periods of nuclear weapons testing. From 1963 to present we observe a rapid drop in the concentration of tritium, more than expected from natural decay, and this can be attributed to the wash out of tritium into the oceans and groundwater. Spikes in the tritium level are superimposed over this general trend; the first around 1969, with levels ranging from 39.4 to 84.4 TU was due to French atmospheric weapon testing, and again in 1990, levels peaked between 6.6 and 12.9 TU, which is attributed to tritium leaking from underground tests in the French Pacific. Since 1990 the levels of tritium have declined globally and regionally. Currently the levels of tritium in Australia are stabilising to around 2-3 TU increasing with latitude across the continent, suggesting that today the tritium in precipitation is predominantly natural. The spatial distribution of tritium is presented and found to be dominated by the annual stratosphere-troposphere exchange in combination with latitude and continental effects. A precipitation amount effect is also observed for inland sites.

  13. Estimated radiation dose from timepieces containing tritium

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell-Boyer, L M

    1980-01-01

    Luminescent timepieces containing radioactive tritium, either in elemental form or incorporated into paint, are available to the general public. The purpose of this study was to estimate potential radiation dose commitments received by the public annually as a result of exposure to tritium which may escape from the timepieces during their distribution, use, repair, and disposal. Much uncertainty is associated with final dose estimates due to limitations of empirical data from which exposure parameters were derived. Maximum individual dose estimates were generally less than 3 ..mu..Sv/yr, but ranged up to 2 mSv under worst-case conditions postulated. Estimated annual collective (population) doses were less than 5 person/Sv per million timepieces distributed.

  14. The Callaway Plant's airborne tritium sampling cart

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Roselius, R.R. )

    1986-07-01

    The water vapor condensation method for sampling airborne tritium offers significant advantages over other methods, including minimal sample preparation, high sensitivity, and independence from collection efficiency and sample flow rate. However, it does have disadvantages that must be overcome in the design of a sampler. This article describes a cart-mounted, portable airborne tritium sampler used at the Callaway Nuclear Plant that incorporates the advantages of the condensation technique while minimizing its shortcomings. The key elements in the design of the sampler are the use of a refrigerated bath to cool a series of three water vapor collection traps and the use of an optical condensation dew point hygrometer to measure the moisture content of the sample. Design considerations for the proper operation of dew point hygrometers are presented, and the method used to convert due point readings to water vapor content is described.

  15. Apparatus to recover tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, William A.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering tritium from tritiated compounds is provided, including a preheater for heating tritiated water and other co-injected tritiated compounds to temperatures of about 600.degree. C. and a reactor charged with a mixture of uranium and uranium dioxide for receiving the preheated mixture. The reactor vessel is preferably stainless steel of sufficient mass so as to function as a heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from approaching high temperatures. A disposable copper liner extends between the reaction chamber and stainless steel outer vessel to prevent alloying of the uranium with the outer vessel. The uranium dioxide functions as an insulating material and heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from attaining reaction temperatures to thereby minimize tritium permeation rates. The uranium dioxide also functions as a diluent to allow for volumetric expansion of the uranium as it is converted to uranium dioxide.

  16. Tritium transport in lithium ceramics porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, S. W.; Ambrose, V.

    1992-09-01

    A random network model has been utilized to analyze the problem of tritium percolation through porous Li ceramic breeders. Local transport in each pore channel is described by a set of convection-diffusion reaction equations. Long range transport is described by a matrix technique. The heterogeneous structure of the porous medium is accounted for via Monte Carlo methods. The model was then applied to an analysis of the approach to steady state tritium release from solid breeders. Diffusion was found to be the dominant transport process. The time constant for the approach to steady state was found to obey a scaling law with respect to the size L of the network. This scaling law was found to closely approximate the scaling law obeyed by conventional diffusion process in a completely homogeneous medium.

  17. Evaluation of Unfixed Tritium Surface Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Postolache, C.; Matei, Lidia

    2005-07-15

    Surface unfixed radioactive contamination represents the amount of surface total radioactive contamination which can be eliminated by pure mechanical processes. This unfixed contamination represents the main risk factor for contamination of the personnel which operates in tritium laboratories. Unfixed contamination was determined using sampling smears type FPCSN-PSE-AA. Those FPCSN-PSE-AA smears are disks of expanded polystyrene which contain acrylic acid fragments superficially grafted. Sampling factor was determinated by contaminated surface wiping with moisten smears in 50 {mu}L butylic alcohol and activity measuring at liquid scintillation measuring device. Sampling factor was determined by the ratio between measured activity and initially real conventional activity. The sampling factor was determined for Tritium Laboratory existent surfaces: stainless steel, aluminum, glass, ceramics, linoleum, washable coats, epoxy resins type ALOREX LP-52.The sampling factors and the reproducibility were determined in function of surface nature.

  18. Development of Tritium Storage and Transport Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Paek, S.; Lee, M.; Kim, K.R.; Ahn, D.H.; Song, K.M.; Shon, S.H.

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop tritium storage and transport vessels for industrial applications. Prototype tritium storage and transport vessels were designed and manufactured. Uranium and zirconium/cobalt (ZrCo) metals were selected for the storage materials. The prototype transport container for the vessel was designed on the basis of Type B transportation package standards. The transport container was composed of a steel drum, inner packing materials, and a storage vessel. A second refinement cap was installed on the prototype vessel to protect the valves on the 100 kCi vessel. The vessel is stored in a steel drum packed with a thermal barrier and a shock absorber. Structural, thermal, shielding, and confinement analyses have to be performed for this container based on Type B requirements. (authors)

  19. Assembly of high-areal-density deuterium-tritium fuel from indirectly driven cryogenic implosions.

    PubMed

    Mackinnon, A J; Kline, J L; Dixit, S N; Glenzer, S H; Edwards, M J; Callahan, D A; Meezan, N B; Haan, S W; Kilkenny, J D; Döppner, T; Farley, D R; Moody, J D; Ralph, J E; MacGowan, B J; Landen, O L; Robey, H F; Boehly, T R; Celliers, P M; Eggert, J H; Krauter, K; Frieders, G; Ross, G F; Hicks, D G; Olson, R E; Weber, S V; Spears, B K; Salmonsen, J D; Michel, P; Divol, L; Hammel, B; Thomas, C A; Clark, D S; Jones, O S; Springer, P T; Cerjan, C J; Collins, G W; Glebov, V Y; Knauer, J P; Sangster, C; Stoeckl, C; McKenty, P; McNaney, J M; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Nelson, A G; Chandler, G G A; Hahn, K D; Moran, M J; Schneider, M B; Palmer, N E; Bionta, R M; Hartouni, E P; LePape, S; Patel, P K; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Bond, E J; Caggiano, J A; Hatarik, R; Grim, G P; Merrill, F E; Fittinghoff, D N; Guler, N; Drury, O; Wilson, D C; Herrmann, H W; Stoeffl, W; Casey, D T; Johnson, M G; Frenje, J A; Petrasso, R D; Zylestra, A; Rinderknecht, H; Kalantar, D H; Dzenitis, J M; Di Nicola, P; Eder, D C; Courdin, W H; Gururangan, G; Burkhart, S C; Friedrich, S; Blueuel, D L; Bernstein, L A; Eckart, M J; Munro, D H; Hatchett, S P; Macphee, A G; Edgell, D H; Bradley, D K; Bell, P M; Glenn, S M; Simanovskaia, N; Barrios, M A; Benedetti, R; Kyrala, G A; Town, R P J; Dewald, E L; Milovich, J L; Widmann, K; Moore, A S; LaCaille, G; Regan, S P; Suter, L J; Felker, B; Ashabranner, R C; Jackson, M C; Prasad, R; Richardson, M J; Kohut, T R; Datte, P S; Krauter, G W; Klingman, J J; Burr, R F; Land, T A; Hermann, M R; Latray, D A; Saunders, R L; Weaver, S; Cohen, S J; Berzins, L; Brass, S G; Palma, E S; Lowe-Webb, R R; McHalle, G N; Arnold, P A; Lagin, L J; Marshall, C D; Brunton, G K; Mathisen, D G; Wood, R D; Cox, J R; Ehrlich, R B; Knittel, K M; Bowers, M W; Zacharias, R A; Young, B K; Holder, J P; Kimbrough, J R; Ma, T; La Fortune, K N; Widmayer, C C; Shaw, M J; Erbert, G V; Jancaitis, K S; DiNicola, J M; Orth, C; Heestand, G; Kirkwood, R; Haynam, C; Wegner, P J; Whitman, P K; Hamza, A; Dzenitis, E G; Wallace, R J; Bhandarkar, S D; Parham, T G; Dylla-Spears, R; Mapoles, E R; Kozioziemski, B J; Sater, J D; Walters, C F; Haid, B J; Fair, J; Nikroo, A; Giraldez, E; Moreno, K; Vanwonterghem, B; Kauffman, R L; Batha, S; Larson, D W; Fortner, R J; Schneider, D H; Lindl, J D; Patterson, R W; Atherton, L J; Moses, E I

    2012-05-25

    The National Ignition Facility has been used to compress deuterium-tritium to an average areal density of ~1.0±0.1 g cm(-2), which is 67% of the ignition requirement. These conditions were obtained using 192 laser beams with total energy of 1-1.6 MJ and peak power up to 420 TW to create a hohlraum drive with a shaped power profile, peaking at a soft x-ray radiation temperature of 275-300 eV. This pulse delivered a series of shocks that compressed a capsule containing cryogenic deuterium-tritium to a radius of 25-35 μm. Neutron images of the implosion were used to estimate a fuel density of 500-800 g cm(-3).

  20. Variation of atmospheric tritium concentration in three chemical forms at Toki, Japan: 2004-12.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Uda, T

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric tritium concentrations of HTO, HT and CH3T have been measured at Toki, Japan, for the environmental impact assessment of tritium for a fusion test facility. According to the data from 2004 to 2012, the concentrations of HT and HTO in water vapour tend to increase in spring. The seasonal variation in HT concentration at Toki was compared with the H2 concentration between 1990 and 2005 at Tae-ahn Peninsula, Republic of Korea, which is at approximately the same latitude as Toki. The monthly average of HT-specific activity varied from 1.24 × 10(5) to 1.76 × 10(5) TU. The peak of the monthly average H2 concentration did not match that of HT. This indicates that the mechanism of the production or the source of HT might be different from the production mechanism of H2.

  1. Tritium handling and processing experience at TSTA

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Okuno, K.

    1994-06-01

    In 1987, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) signed a collaborative agreement (Annex IV) for the joint funding and operation of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for a five year period ending June, 1992. After this initial five year collaboration, the Annex IV agreement was extended for another two year period ending June, 1994. During the first five years, a number of the integrated process loop tests of TSTA were conducted, as well as off-line testing of TSTA subsystems. During integrated loop testing the vacuum system, fuel cleanup systems, isotope separation system, transfer pumping system and gas analysis system, are interconnected and tested using 100 g-inventories of tritium to demonstrate steady-state operation of a tritium fuel processing cycle for a fusion reactor. These tests have resulted in a number of significant accomplishments and an experience data base on research, development and operation of the fuel processing system. One of the most significant accomplishments during the initial five year period was the continuous operation of the fuel processing loop for 25 days. During this 25-day extended operation, both the JAERI fuel cleanup system (J-FCU) and the original TSTA fuel cleanup system (FCU) were operated under similar conditions of flow, pressure, and impurity content of the DT gas. Both fuel cleanup systems were demonstrated to provide adequate impurity removal for plasma exhaust gas processing. The isotope separation system was operated continuously, producing pure tritium while rejecting protium as an impurity.

  2. Spectroscopic diagnostics of tritium recycling in TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, C. H.; Stotler, D. P.; Adler, H.; Ramsey, A. T.

    1995-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of tritium Balmer-alpha (Tα) emission from a fusion plasma are presented. A Fabry-Perot interferometer is used to measure the Hα, Dα, Tα spectrum in the current D-T experimental campaign on TFTR and the contributions of H, D, and T are separated by spectral analysis. The Tα line was measurable at concentrations Tα /(Hα+Dα+Tα) down to 2%.

  3. Progress report on the tritium remission simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Barbieri, J. F.

    1997-05-01

    A mathematical model has been developed which computes the concentration of tritiated water reemitted into the atmosphere by surface evaporation and plant transpiration using the Penman-Monteith equation. Using these rates, and assuming a deposition velocity for tritium, a coupled set of diffusion equations are then solved which yield the concentration of tritiated water as a function of time. The model is driven by a number of environmental parameters.

  4. Recovery of tritium from tritiated molecules

    DOEpatents

    Swansiger, William A.

    1987-01-01

    A method of recovering tritium from tritiated compounds comprises the steps of heating tritiated water and other co-injected tritiated compounds in a preheater to temperatures of about 600.degree. C. The mixture is injected into a reactor charged with a mixture of uranium and uranium dioxide. The injected mixture undergoes highly exothermic reactions with the uranium causing reaction temperatures to occur in excess of the melting point of uranium, and complete decomposition of the tritiated compounds to remove tritium therefrom. The uranium dioxide functions as an insulating material and heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from attaining reaction temperatures to thereby minimize tritium permeation rates. The uranium dioxide also functions as a diluent to allow for volumetric expansion of the uranium as it is converted to uranium dioxide. The reactor vessel is preferably stainless steel of sufficient mass so as to function as a heat sink preventing the reactor side walls from approaching high temperatures. A disposable copper liner extends between the reaction chamber and stainless steel outer vessel to prevent alloying of the uranium with the outer vessel. Apparatus used to carry out the method of the invention is also disclosed.

  5. Tritium monitoring system for near ambient measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, K.G.; Bauer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of research on an improved tritium measurement system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Navy. Present tritium-in-air monitoring systems installed by the Navy can reliably measure to less than 10 {mu}Ci/m{sup 3}, but medical and safety issues are pushing measurement needs to below 1 {mu}Ci/m{sup 3}, which is equivalent to 1--10 nCi/ml in liquid samples, using calcium metal converter. A significant effort has been expended over the past 10 years by the Navy RADIAC Development Program at ORNL on various schemes to improve the detection of tritium in both air and liquid at near ambient levels. One such scheme includes a liquid flow-through system based on an NE102 sponge scintillator with dual photomultiplier tubes for the tube noise rejection. (This document also contains copies of the slides used for presentation of this paper to the IEEE 1991 Nuclear Science Symposium). 4 refs., 17 figs.

  6. Tritium test of a ferro-fluidic rotary seal

    SciTech Connect

    Antipenkov, A.; Day, C.; Adami, H. D.

    2008-07-15

    The ferro-fluidic seal is being investigated as an internal rotary seal for tritium compatible mechanical roots type vacuum pumps. After its successful testing with helium and integration into a small (250 m{sup 3}/h) test roots pump, the seal, made as a cartridge, has been integrated into a special test unit and is currently being tested with tritium in order to define the leak rates and the possible degradation of the ferro-fluid under long term exposure to tritium radiation. The tritium pressure from one side of the seal is 0.125 MPa, the nitrogen pressure from the other side is 0.075 MPa, the rotation speed is maintained at 1500 rpm. The tritium leak through the cartridge contributes to the tritium concentration in the nitrogen, which is continuously measured by an ionisation chamber; the pressure in both chambers is continuously registered by precise pressure gauges. The experimental program is discussed. (authors)

  7. Optimization of simultaneous tritium-radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonicalzi, R. M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Mace, E. K.; Moran, J. J.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a natural methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium-counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta-decay interference.

  8. Tritium systems for the mirror upgrade MFTF-. cap alpha. +T

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    The tritium systems and the tritium needed for MFTF-..cap alpha..+T were assessed. This mirror reactor produces 20 MW of power, has 10% availability, and uses tritium positive neutral beams with 20 to 30% total gas efficiency as fuelers. The two burn times considered were 10 h and 100 h. A reference processing case was developed including types, sizes, and cost of units.

  9. Status of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, J.C.; Anderson, J.L.; Cappiello, M.W.

    1996-07-01

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen used in all United States nuclear weapons. Because the half-life of tritium is short, 12.3 years. it must be periodically replaced. To provide a new source, the United States Department of Energy is sponsoring conceptual design and engineering development and demonstration activities for a plant that will use a high-power proton linear accelerator to produce tritium. This paper presents an overview of activities planned or underway to support that work.

  10. TRIO-01 experiment: in-situ tritium recovery results

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Billone, M.C.; Misra, B.; Greenwood, L.R.; Dyer, F.F.; Dudley, I.T.; Bate, L.C.; Clemmer, E.D.; Fisher, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    The TRIO-01 experiment was designed to test in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a candidate solid breeder, ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/. The results showed that nearly all the tritium generated was recovered. Only < 0.1 wppM tritium remained in the solid after irradiation testing. The heat transfer performance showed that temperature profiles can be effectively controlled.

  11. Deuterium and tritium separation in a tokamak reactor divertor layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokar', M. Z.

    1989-04-01

    It's shown that the plasma isotope composition in a tokamak reactor divertor layer changes along the magnetic field and can notable differ from the gas composition in a pumping chamber. Heavier tritium must concentrate in the hot plasma far from the divertor plate due to thermal force stipulated by mutial collisions of deuterium and tritium ions. This circumstance is favourable from the point of view of tritium cycle optimization and must facilitate solution of the problem of tritium accumulation in the reactor construction elements.

  12. Tritium recovery from a breeder material: Gamma lithium aluminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, E.; Botter, F.; Briec, M.; Rostaing, M.; Werle, H.; Clemmer, R. G.

    1986-11-01

    This paper discusses phenomena that have been observed during tritium extraction from y-lithium aluminate, specifically: Increase of rate of extraction when adding hydrogen to the sweep gas formation of tritiated water in all cases permeation of tritium through gas pipes adsorption of tritiated water on gas lines.To minimize the blanket tritium inventory a flowchart is proposed whose specificity rests in the addition of hydrogen to the gas within the blanket, followed by recovery of the tritium after oxidation of hydrogen to water, electrolysis and reconcentration. This flowchart includes a provision for detritiation of the coolant which is separate from the purge gas.

  13. Tritium release during nuclear power operation in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, D J; Chen, X Q; Li, B

    2012-06-01

    Overviews were evaluated of tritium releases and related doses to the public from airborne and liquid effluents from nuclear power plants on the mainland of China before 2009. The differences between tritium releases from various nuclear power plants were also evaluated. The tritium releases are mainly from liquid pathways for pressurised water reactors, but tritium releases between airborne and liquid effluents are comparable for heavy water reactors. The airborne release from a heavy water reactor is obviously higher than that from a pressurised water reactor.

  14. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON EPDM ELASTOMER

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.

    2009-12-11

    Samples of four formulations of ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) elastomer were exposed to initially pure tritium gas at one atmosphere and ambient temperature for various times up to about 420 days in closed containers. Two formulations were carbon-black-filled commercial formulations, and two were the equivalent formulations without filler synthesized for this work. Tritium effects on the samples were characterized by measuring the sample volume, mass, flexibility, and dynamic mechanical properties and by noting changes in appearance. The glass transition temperature was determined by analysis of the dynamic mechanical properties. The glass transition temperature increased significantly with tritium exposure, and the unfilled formulations ceased to behave as elastomers after the longest tritium exposure. The filled formulations were more resistant to tritium exposure. Tritium exposure made all samples significantly stiffer and therefore much less able to form a reliable seal when employed as O-rings. No consistent change of volume or density was observed; there was a systematic lowering of sample mass with tritium exposure. In addition, the significant radiolytic production of gas, mainly protium (H{sub 2}) and HT, by the samples when exposed to tritium was characterized by measuring total pressure in the container at the end of each exposure and by mass spectroscopy of a gas sample at the end of each exposure. The total pressure in the containers more than doubled after {approx}420 days tritium exposure.

  15. Tritium release from SS316 under vacuum condition

    SciTech Connect

    Torikai, Y.; Penzhorn, R.D.

    2015-03-15

    The plasma facing surface of the ITER vacuum vessel, partly made of low carbon austenitic stainless steel type 316L, will incorporate tritium during machine operation. In this paper the kinetics of tritium release from stainless steel type 316 into vacuum and into a noble gas stream are compared and modelled. Type 316 stainless steel specimens loaded with tritium either by exposure to 1.2 kPa HT at 573 K or submersion into liquid HTO at 298 K showed characteristic thin surface layers trapping tritium in concentrations far higher than those determined in the bulk. The evolution of the tritium depth profile in the bulk during heating under vacuum was non-discernible from that of tritium liberated into a stream of argon. Only the relative amount of the two released tritium-species, i.e. HT or HTO, was different. Temperature-dependent depth profiles could be predicted with a one-dimensional diffusion model. Diffusion coefficients derived from fitting of the tritium release into an evacuated vessel or a stream of argon were found to be (1.4 ± 1.0)*10{sup -7} and (1.3 ± 0.9)*10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/s at 573 and 423 K, respectively. Polished surfaces on type SS316 stainless steel inhibit considerably the thermal release rate of tritium.

  16. Chronic Release of Tritium from Stainless Steel 316

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torikai, Yuji; Naoe, Shogo; Akaishi, Kenya; Watanabe, Kuniaki; Matsuyama, Masao

    To understand the release mechanism of tritium from solid materials, release rate of tritium was measured when a tritium loaded 316 stainless steel specimen was put in dry argon gas flow of atmospheric pressure at room temperature. During blowing of argon gas released products from the specimen were collected in water bubblers which were set in the downstream of the blowing circuit, and the tritium content in the bubbler water was periodically measured as a function of time by scintillation counter. More than 99% of released species from the specimen was tritiated water, HTO. The measured result of tritium release rate showed that tritium is released chronically for a long time. The chronic release rate of tritium was evaluated using the diffusion model reported by Calder and Lewin, and it was found that when a reasonable value for the bulk diffusion coefficient of tritium is assumed, the tritium release rate can be described with the diffusion flux at the surface boundary of the specimen.

  17. TRITIUM BARRIER MATERIALS AND SEPARATION SYSTEMS FOR THE NGNP

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, S; Thad Adams, T

    2008-07-17

    Contamination of downstream hydrogen production plants or other users of high-temperature heat is a concern of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Due to the high operating temperatures of the NGNP (850-900 C outlet temperature), tritium produced in the nuclear reactor can permeate through heat exchangers to reach the hydrogen production plant, where it can become incorporated into process chemicals or the hydrogen product. The concentration limit for tritium in the hydrogen product has not been established, but it is expected that any future limit on tritium concentration will be no higher than the air and water effluent limits established by the NRC and the EPA. A literature survey of tritium permeation barriers, capture systems, and mitigation measures is presented and technologies are identified that may reduce the movement of tritium to the downstream plant. Among tritium permeation barriers, oxide layers produced in-situ may provide the most suitable barriers, though it may be possible to use aluminized surfaces also. For tritium capture systems, the use of getters is recommended, and high-temperature hydride forming materials such as Ti, Zr, and Y are suggested. Tritium may also be converted to HTO in order to capture it on molecular sieves or getter materials. Counter-flow of hydrogen may reduce the flux of tritium through heat exchangers. Recommendations for research and development work are provided.

  18. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots

    2012-10-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  19. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High-Temperature Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots; Hans A. Schmutz

    2013-03-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. To prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this study examines the root causes and potential mitigation strategies for permeation of tritium (such as: materials selection, inert gas sparging, etc...). A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750 degrees C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for a steady production of tritium

  20. 2012 ACCOMPLISHMENTS - TRITIUM AGING STUDIES ON STAINLESS STEELS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.

    2013-01-31

    This report summarizes the research and development accomplishments during FY12 for the tritium effects on materials program. The tritium effects on materials program is designed to measure the long-term effects of tritium and its radioactive decay product, helium-3, on the structural properties of forged stainless steels which are used as the materials of construction for tritium reservoirs. The FY12 R&D accomplishments include: (1) Fabricated and Thermally-Charged 150 Forged Stainless Steel Samples with Tritium for Future Aging Studies; (2) Developed an Experimental Plan for Measuring Cracking Thresholds of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Steels in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas; (3) Calculated Sample Tritium Contents For Laboratory Inventory Requirements and Environmental Release Estimates; (4) Published report on “Cracking Thresholds and Fracture Toughness Properties of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Stainless Steels”; and, (5) Published report on “The Effects of Hydrogen, Tritium, and Heat Treatment on the Deformation and Fracture Toughness Properties of Stainless Steels”. These accomplishments are highlighted here and references given to additional reports for more detailed information.

  1. Influence of the tritium beta(-) decay on low-temperature thermonuclear burn-up in deuterium-tritium mixtures

    PubMed

    Frolov

    2000-09-01

    Low-temperature (Ttritium mixtures with various deuterium-tritium-helium-3 ratios is considered. The general dependence is studied for the critical burn-up parameter x(c)=rhor(c) upon the initial temperature T, density rho(0), and tritium molar concentration y for the [D]:y[T]:(1-y)[3He] mixture. In particular, it is shown that, if the tritium concentration y decreases, then the critical burn-up parameter x(c)(T,rho(0),y) grows very quickly (at fixed T and rho(0)). This means that tritium beta(-) decay significantly complicates thermonuclear burn-up in deuterium-tritium mixtures.

  2. Thermal release of {sup 3}He from tritium aged LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, G.C.; Crowder, M.L.; Klein, J.E.

    2015-03-15

    The Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities (SRS-TF) utilizes LANA.75 (LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75})in the tritium process to store hydrogen isotopes. The vast majority of {sup 3}He born from the radioactive decay of tritium stored in LANA.75 is trapped in the hydride metal matrix. The SRS-TF has multiple LANA.75 tritium storage beds that have been retired from service with significant quantities of He-3 trapped in the metal. To support He-3 recovery, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) on a tritium aged LANA.75 sample. TGA-MS testing was performed in an argon environment. Prior to testing, the sample was isotopically exchanged with deuterium to reduce residual tritium and passivated with air to alleviate pyrophoric concerns associated with handling the material outside of an inert glovebox. Analyses indicated that gas release from this sample was bimodal, with peaks near 220 and 490 C. degrees. The first peak consisted of both {sup 3}He and residual hydrogen isotopes, the second was primarily {sup 3}He. The bulk of the gas was released by 600 Celsius degrees. (author)

  3. Tritium contamination in the environment. January 1970-July 1989 (A Bibliography from Pollution Abstracts). Report for January 1970-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of tritium contamination in the environment. Topics include tritium pollution sources, tritium bioaccumulation, tritium genotoxicity, tritium transport through the food chain, tritium presence in drinking water, measurement techniques, containment and storage methods, and tritium buildup in the soil. Regulations on the permissible tritium levels discharged into the environment are described. (Contains 153 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  4. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U.; Jacqmin, G.

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  5. Tritium and stable isotopes of magmatic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, F.; McMurtry, G. M.

    2000-04-01

    To investigate the isotopic composition and age of water in volcanic gases and magmas, we analyzed samples from 11 active volcanoes ranging in composition from tholeiitic basalt to rhyolite: Mount St. Helens (USA), Kilauea (USA), Pacaya (Guatemala), Galeras (Colombia), Satsuma Iwo-Jima (Japan), Sierra Negra and Alcedo (Ecuador), Vulcano (Italy), Parı´cutin (Mexico), Kudryavy (Russia), and White Island (New Zealand). Tritium at relatively low levels (0.1-5 T.U.) is found in most emissions from high-temperature volcanic fumaroles sampled, even at discharge temperatures >700°C. Although magmatic fluids sampled from these emissions usually contain high CO 2, S total, HCl, HF, B, Br, 3He R/ RA, and low contents of air components, stable isotope and tritium relations of nearly all such fluids show mixing of magmatic volatiles with relatively young meteoric water (model ages≤75 y). Linear δD/ δ18O and 3H/ δ18O mixing trends of these two end-members are invariably detected at arc volcanoes. Tritium is also detected in fumarole condensates at hot spot basalt volcanoes, but collecting samples approaching the composition of end-member magmatic fluid is exceedingly difficult. In situ production of 3H, mostly from spontaneous fission of 238U in magmas is calculated to be <0.001 T.U., except for the most evolved compositions (high U, Th, and Li and low H 2O contents). These values are below the detection limit of 3H by conventional analytical techniques (about 0.01 T.U. at best). We found no conclusive evidence that natural fusion in the Earth produces anomalous amounts of detectable 3H (>0.05 T.U.).

  6. JUPITER-II Molten Salt Flibe Research: An Update On Tritium, Mobilization and Redox Chemistry Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Petti; D. A. Petti; G. R. Smolik; Michael F. Simpson; John P. Sharpe; R. A. Anderl; S. Fukada; Y. Hatano; Masanori Hara; Y. Oya; T. Terai; D.-K. Sze; S. Tanaka

    2005-05-01

    The second Japan/US Program on Irradiation Tests for Fusion Research (JUPITER-II) began on April 1, 2001. Part of the collaborative research centers on studies of the molten salt 2LiF2–BeF2 (also known as Flibe) for fusion applications. Flibe has been proposed as a self-cooled breeder in both magnetic and inertial fusion power plant designs over the last 25 years. The key feasibility issues associated with the use of Flibe are the corrosion of structural material by the molten salt, tritium behavior and control in the molten salt blanket system, and safe handling practices and releases from Flibe during an accidental spill. These issues are all being addressed under the JUPITER-II program at the Idaho National Laboratory in the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility. In this paper, we review the program to date in the area of tritium/deuterium behavior, Flibe mobilization under accident conditions and testing of Be as a redox agent to control corrosion. Future activities planned through the end of the collaboration are also presented.

  7. Tritium labeling of organic compounds deposited on porous structures

    DOEpatents

    Ehrenkaufer, Richard L. E.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Hembree, Wylie C.

    1979-01-01

    An improved process for labeling organic compounds with tritium is carried out by depositing the selected compound on the extensive surface of a porous structure such as a membrane filter and exposing the membrane containing the compound to tritium gas activated by the microwave discharge technique. The labeled compound is then recovered from the porous structure.

  8. Effectiveness Monitoring Report, MWMF Tritium Phytoremediation Interim Measures.

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, Dan; Blake, John, I.

    2003-02-10

    This report describes and presents the results of monitoring activities during irrigation operations for the calendar year 2001 of the MWMF Interim Measures Tritium Phytoremediation Project. The purpose of this effectiveness monitoring report is to provide the information on instrument performance, analysis of CY2001 measurements, and critical relationships needed to manage irrigation operations, estimate efficiency and validate the water and tritium balance model.

  9. A tritium permeation model for conceptual fusion reactor designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanchar, D. R.; Kazimi, M. S.

    1983-02-01

    A transient tritium permeation model is developed based on a simplified conceptual DT-fueled fusion reactor design. The major design features described in the model are a solid breeder blanket, a low pressure purge gas in the blanket, and a high pressure helium primary coolant. Tritium inventory in the breeder is considered to be due to diffusive hold-up and solubility effects. It is assumed that diffusive hold-up is the dominant factor in order to separate the solution for the breeder tritium concentration. The model was applied to the STARFIRE-Interim Reference Design, whose system parameters yielded a breeder tritium inventory on the order of grams, based on an average pellet radius of 10-3 cm. The breeder pellets reach their steady-state tritium content in approximately 1.4×104 s from system start-up, assuming continuous full power operation. Both the steady-state breeder tritium concentration and the time to reach that steady-state are proportional to the pellet radius squared. Other candidate solid breeders were considered, and their effect on the blanket tritium inventory was noted. The addition of oxygen to the primary coolant loop was required in order to keep the tritium losses through the heat exchanger to within the design goal of 0.1 Ci/day.

  10. Confinement and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R. J.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Synakowski, E.

    1994-03-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has performed initial high-power experiments with the plasma fueled by deuterium and tritium to nominally equal densities. Compared to pure deuterium plasmas, the energy stored in the electron and ions increased by ~20%. These increases indicate improvements in confinement associated with the use of tritium and possibly heating of electrons by α-particles.

  11. Tritium in Australian Precipitation: a 40 Year Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadros, C. V.; Stone, D. J.; Hill, D. M.; Henderson-Sellers, A.

    2004-12-01

    Tritium, the radioisotope of hydrogen, directly incorporated into water molecules in the global hydrological system, is the most commonly used radioisotope indicator of groundwater recharge. Tritium in precipitation has been measured in Australia over the past 40 years, as an essential research tool in hydro-climate studies and to contribute to the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Tritium, which as tritiated water (3H 1H O) is very mobile in the environment, delivers the benefit of tracing groundwater systems in a 10 - 20 year timeframe as a result of last century's atmospheric thermonuclear testing. The concentration of tritium in Australian precipitation reached a maximum level of 160 TU in 1963, during one of the most intense periods of nuclear testing. Our data reveal Australia experienced a `minor' bomb pulse compared to the Northern Hemisphere eg. in Ottawa, Canada a value of 6000 TU was recorded in 1963 for tritium in precipitation. From 1963 to 1980 we observe a rapid drop in the concentration of tritium, more than expected from natural decay, mainly due to the wash out of tritium into the oceans and groundwater. Since 1990 the levels of tritium have stabilised globally and regionally. Currently the levels of tritium in Australia have stabilised to 2 to 3 TU latitudinally across the continent, a factor of 10 lower than values observed at stations in the Northern Hemisphere. At present, levels of tritium in Australia appear to have ceased declining and our analyses suggest that today the tritium in precipitation is predominantly natural. We believe that it may be possible that the increased levels observed in the Northern Hemisphere, due to nuclear power generation [1] could `leak' into the Southern Hemisphere. This is important for research in Australia because it could hinder the exploitation of tritium in providing information on the origin and mechanism of recharge of shallow groundwaters and rivers [2]. 1. J.D. Happell, et al. A

  12. Differences between the TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, W.H.; Lamberger, P.H.; Colvin, C.M.; Gibbs, G.E.; Adams, F.S.; Bowser, R.P.; Kissner, T.J.; Morgan, F.E.; Schmidt, M.J.; Van Patten, J.F.; Wieneke, R.E.

    1991-12-31

    The TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems are alike in that they both use the ``oxidize and dry`` principle to remove tritium from gases, but they differ significantly in engineering details. The newer TERF system benefited in many ways from experience with the ERS. The TERF is expected to: (1) operate at a higher pressure, leading to greater throughput, (2) have redesigned reactors with better efficiency to process tritiated organic compounds, (3) have better energy conservation, (4) use an advanced process control system to provide more versatility in operation of the system, to account for the amount of tritium in the system at all times, and to more completely log operating results, (5) utilize more corrosion resistant materials to minimize maintenance, and (6) provide double containment of all pressurized tritium containing equipment to reduce tritium losses and increase operating safety. 6 refs.

  13. Differences between the TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, W.H.; Lamberger, P.H.; Colvin, C.M.; Gibbs, G.E.; Adams, F.S.; Bowser, R.P.; Kissner, T.J.; Morgan, F.E.; Schmidt, M.J.; Van Patten, J.F.; Wieneke, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The TERF and the ERS tritium capture systems are alike in that they both use the oxidize and dry'' principle to remove tritium from gases, but they differ significantly in engineering details. The newer TERF system benefited in many ways from experience with the ERS. The TERF is expected to: (1) operate at a higher pressure, leading to greater throughput, (2) have redesigned reactors with better efficiency to process tritiated organic compounds, (3) have better energy conservation, (4) use an advanced process control system to provide more versatility in operation of the system, to account for the amount of tritium in the system at all times, and to more completely log operating results, (5) utilize more corrosion resistant materials to minimize maintenance, and (6) provide double containment of all pressurized tritium containing equipment to reduce tritium losses and increase operating safety. 6 refs.

  14. Estimation of dose to man from environmental tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwer, P S; Etnier, E L

    1980-01-01

    Factors important for characterization of tritium in environmental pathways leading to exposure of man are reviewed and quantification of those factors is discussed. Parameters characterizing the behavior of tritium in man are also subjected to review. Factors to be discussed include organic binding, bioaccumulation, quality factor and transmutation. A variety of models are presently in use to estimate dose to man from environmental releases of tritium. Results from four representative models are compared and discussed. Site-specific information is always preferable when parameterizing models to estimate dose to man. There may be significant differences in dose potential among geographic regions due to variable factors. An example of one such factor examined is absolute humidity. It is concluded that adequate methodologies exist for estimation of dose to man from environmental tritium although a number of areas are identified where additional tritium research is desirable.

  15. Tritium trapping on the plasma irradiated tungsten surface

    SciTech Connect

    Torikai, Y.; Alimov, V.K.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Isobe, K.; Oyaidzu, M.; Yamanishi, T.; Ueda, Y.; Kurishita, H.; Philipps, V.; Kreter, A.; Zlobinski, M.

    2015-03-15

    Tungsten (W) is a candidate material for plasma-facing high heat-flux structures in future fusion reactors. The aim of this study is to assess how reasonably one can predict the tritium inventory in actual fusion machines using data on the hydrogen isotope inventory obtained in laboratory experiments. W specimens previously exposed to deuterium (D) plasmas both in the TEXTOR tokamak and high flux linear plasma generator (LPG) were subsequently loaded with tritium at 573 K for 3 h. The retention of tritium in the near-surface W layer was examined by imaging plate technique. The study shows that on the TEXTOR-plasma-exposed W surface, tritium was mainly trapped in carbon deposits, and for LPG-plasma-exposed W specimens, tritium was trapped in defects created in the near-surface layer during the course of D plasma exposure.

  16. Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping: Charcoal cryosorber tritium exposure results

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments, have shown the practically of using activated charcoal (coconut charcoal) at 4{degrees}K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were shown to be satisfactory. The long term effects of tritium on the charcoal/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL were not known and a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber. Several charcoal on aluminum test samples were subjected to six months exposure of tritium at approximately 77{degrees}K. The tritium was scanned several times with a residual gas analyzer and the speed-capacity performance of the samples was measured before, approximately half way through and after the exposure. Modest effects were noted which would not seriously restrict charcoal's use as a cryosorber for fusion reactor high vacuum pumping applications. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Tritium analysis in titanium films by the BIXS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. G.; Sun, H. W.; Zeng, F. Y.; Mao, L.; Wu, Q. Q.; Zhu, J. J.; An, Z.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, tritium analyses in titanium films has been carried out by β-decay induced X-ray spectroscopy (BIXS), based on Monte Carlo simulations and the Tikhonov regularization. In our analysis, for the first time the internal bremsstrahlung of tritium β-decay has been taken into account in the BIXS method. Meanwhile, parallel computation using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE has been realized within the frame of a message passing interface. The tritium depth distributions, surface homogeneity and the total tritium content of the analyzed samples have been obtained. The total tritium contents obtained by the present BIXS method are found to be in good agreement with those obtained by the PVT method.

  18. Production of {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, and tritium from Be irradiated in FFTF-MOTA-2B

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.

    1998-03-01

    The production of {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, and tritium has been calculated for beryllium irradiated in the Materials Open Test Assembly (MOTA)-2B experiment in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Reaction rates were based on adjusted neutron spectra determined from reactor dosimetry measurements at seven different elevations in the irradiation assembly. Equations are given so that gas production, dpa, and neutron fluences can be calculated for any specific elevation in the MOTA-2B assembly.

  19. Tau neutrino component to tritium beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Snyderman, N.J.

    1995-06-01

    A framework is given for explaining anomalous results of neutrino mass experiments that measure the high energy electron spectrum of tritium {beta} decay. The experimental results have been fit to a negative neutrino mass square. We show that there is a consistent phenomenological interpretation due to a positive mass tau neutrino component of the {beta} decay spectrum, with strong near threshold final state interactions with the He nucleus. If this enhancement is due to new interactions between low energy tau neutrinos and nuclei, then the tritium 0 decay experiments could be used as detectors for cosmic background tau neutrinos. The model predicts a distinctive spectrum shape that is consistent with a recent high statistics LLNL experiment. A fit to the experiment gives a tau neutrino mass of 23 eV. Tau neutrinos of this mass would dominate the mass of the universe. Requirements for a theoretical model are given, as well as models that realize different aspects of these requirements. While qualitatively successful, the theoretical models have such severe quantitative difficulties that the accuracy of the molecular physics of the T-{sup 3}He ion, assumed in the analysis of the experimental data, is called into question.

  20. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  1. Organically bound tritium analysis in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Baglan, N.; Cossonnet, C.; Fournier, M.; Momoshima, N.; Ansoborlo, E.

    2015-03-15

    Organically bound tritium (OBT) has become of increased interest within the last decade, with a focus on its behaviour and also its analysis, which are important to assess tritium distribution in the environment. In contrast, there are no certified reference materials and no standard analytical method through the international organization related to OBT. In order to resolve this issue, an OBT international working group was created in May 2012. Over 20 labs from around the world participated and submitted their results for the first intercomparison exercise results on potato (Sep 2013). The samples, specially-prepared potatoes, were provided in March 2013 to each participant. Technical information and results from this first exercise are discussed here for all the labs which have realised the five replicates necessary to allow a reliable statistical treatment. The results are encouraging as the increased number of participating labs did not degrade the observed dispersion of the results for a similar activity level. Therefore, the results do not seem to depend on the analytical procedure used. From this work an optimised procedure can start to be developed to deal with OBT analysis and will guide subsequent planned OBT trials by the international group.

  2. A metabolic derivation of tritium transfer coefficients in animal products.

    PubMed

    Galeriu, D; Crout, N M; Melintescu, A; Beresford, N A; Peterson, S R; Van Hees, M

    2001-12-01

    Tritium is a potentially important environmental contaminant originating from the nuclear industry, and its behaviour in the environment is controlled by that of hydrogen. Animal food products represent a potentially important source of tritium in the human diet and a number of transfer coefficient values for tritium transfer to a limited number of animal products are available. In this paper we present an approach for the derivation of tritium transfer coefficients which is based on the metabolism of hydrogen in animals. The derived transfer coefficients separately account for transfer to and from free (i.e. water) and organically bound tritium. A novel aspect of the approach is that tritium transfer can be predicted for any animal product for which the required metabolic input parameters are available. The predicted transfer coefficients are compared to available independent data. Agreement is good (R2=0.97) with the exception of the transfer coefficient for transfer from tritiated water to organically bound tritium in ruminants. This may be attributable to the particular characteristics of ruminant digestion. We show that tritium transfer coefficients will vary in response to the metabolic status of an animal (e.g. stage of lactation, diet digestibility etc.) and that the use of a single transfer coefficient from diet to animal product is inappropriate. It is possible to derive concentration ratio values from the estimated transfer coefficients which relate the concentration of tritiated water and organically bound tritium in an animal product to their respective concentrations in the animals diet. These concentration ratios are shown to be less subject to metabolic variation and may be more useful radioecological parameters than transfer coefficients. For tritiated water the concentration ratio shows little variation between animal products ranging from 0.59 to 0.82. In the case of organically bound tritium the concentration ratios vary between animal products

  3. Human Health and the Biological Effects of Tritium in Drinking Water: Prudent Policy Through Science - Addressing the ODWAC New Recommendation.

    PubMed

    Dingwall, S; Mills, C E; Phan, N; Taylor, K; Boreham, D R

    2011-02-22

    Tritium is a radioactive form of hydrogen and is a by-product of energy production in Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The release of this radioisotope into the environment is carefully managed at CANDU facilities in order to minimize radiation exposure to the public. However, under some circumstances, small accidental releases to the environment can occur. The radiation doses to humans and non-human biota from these releases are low and orders of magnitude less than doses received from naturally occurring radioisotopes or from manmade activities, such as medical imaging and air travel. There is however a renewed interest in the biological consequences of low dose tritium exposures and a new limit for tritium levels in Ontario drinking water has been proposed. The Ontario Drinking Water Advisory Council (ODWAC) issued a formal report in May 2009 in response to a request by the Minister of the Environment, concluding that the Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standard for tritium should be revised from the current 7,000 Bq/L level to a new, lower 20 Bq/L level. In response to this recommendation, an international scientific symposium was held at McMaster University to address the issues surrounding this change in direction and the validity of a new policy. Scientists, regulators, government officials, and industrial stakeholders were present to discuss the potential health risks associated with low level radiation exposure from tritium. The regulatory, economic, and social implications of the new proposed limit were also considered.The new recommendation assumed a linear-no-threshold model to calculate carcinogenic risk associated with tritium exposure, and considered tritium as a non-threshold chemical carcinogen. Both of these assumptions are highly controversial given that recent research suggests that low dose exposures have thresholds below which there are no observable detrimental effects. Furthermore, mutagenic and carcinogenic risk calculated from

  4. Correcting Tritium Concentrations in Water Vapor Monitored with Silica Gel

    SciTech Connect

    Fledderman, P.D.

    1999-01-19

    A correction is needed to calculate the concentration of airborne tritium oxide when dried silica gel is used as the collector. This tracer study with tritiated water shows that the concentration of tritium in the water desorbed from silica gel is lower than in the adsorbed water by a fraction that increases with the amount of adsorbed water. The hypothesis was tested that the tritium in adsorbed tritiated water is diluted by isotopic exchange with non-tritiated water and hydroxyl groups in the silica gel collector. The extent of dilution was measured from 4 percent to 14 percent adsorbed water, which is typical of moisture on field collectors for monitoring airborne tritium oxide. For this entire range of percent adsorbed water, the inferred percent exchangeable water in the silica gel under study was 6.3 +/- 0.1 percent. This value compares to the silica gel weight loss of 5.3 percent by heating to 1,050 degrees C. An explanation of the difference is proposed. The contribution of the HTO/H2O vapor pressure isotope effect was considered in calculating isotopic exchange. A curve is presented for correcting the measured tritium concentration in the distillate from the silica gel as a function of the amount of adsorbed water. The tritium tracer procedure is recommended for determining the percent exchangeable water in other silica gels to correct tritium measurements of water vapor collected by them.

  5. In situ measurement of tritium permeation through stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Walter G. Luscher; David J. Senor; Kevin K. Clayton; Glen R. Longhurst

    2013-06-01

    The TMIST-2 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory to evaluate tritium permeation through Type 316 stainless steel (316 SS). The interior of a 316 SS seamless tube specimen was exposed to a 4He carrier gas mixed with a specified quantity of tritium (T2) to yield partial pressures of 0.1, 5, and 50 Pa at 292 degrees C and 330 degrees C. In situ tritium permeation measurements were made by passing a He-Ne sweep gas over the outer surface of the specimen to carry the permeated tritium to a bubbler column for liquid scintillation counting. Results from in situ permeation measurements were compared with predictions based on an ex-reactor permeation correlation in the literature. In situ permeation data were also used to derive an in-reactor permeation correlation as a function of temperature and pressure over the ranges considered in this study. In addition, the triton recoil contribution to tritium permeation, which results from the transmutation of 3He to T, was also evaluated by introducing a 4He carrier gas mixed with 3He at a partial pressure of 1013 Pa at 330 degrees C. Less than 3% of the tritium resulting from 3He transmutation contributed to tritium permeation.

  6. In Situ Measurement of Tritium Permeation Through Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin; Longhurst, Glen

    2013-06-01

    The TMIST-2 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory to evaluate tritium permeation through Type 316 stainless steel (316 SS). The interior of a 316 SS seamless tube specimen was exposed to a 4He carrier gas mixed with a specified quantity of tritium (T2) to yield partial pressures of 0.1, 5, and 50 Pa at 292° and 330°C. In-situ tritium permeation measurements were made by passing a He-Ne sweep gas over the outer surface of the specimen to carry the permeated tritium to a bubbler column for liquid scintillation counting. An irradiation enhancement factor (IEF) was determined by comparing in-situ permeation data with a correlation for ex-reactor hydrogen permeation through austenitic stainless steel developed from literature data and reported by Le Claire. Nominal values for the IEF ranged between 3 and 5 for 316 SS. In-situ permeation data were also used to derive an in-reactor permeation correlation as a function of temperature and pressure. In addition, the triton recoil contribution to tritium permeation, which results from the transmutation of 3He to T, was also evaluated by introducing a 4He carrier gas mixed with 3He at a partial pressure of 1013 Pa at 330°C. Less than 3% of the tritium resulting from 3He transmutation contributed to tritium permeation.

  7. IN-SITU MEASUREMENT OF TRITIUM PERMEATION THROUGH STAINLESS STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin; Longhurst, Glen R.

    2013-06-01

    The TMIST-2 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory to evaluate tritium permeation through Type 316 stainless steel (316 SS). The interior of a 316 SS seamless tube specimen was exposed to a 4He carrier gas mixed with a specified quantity of tritium (T2) to yield partial pressures of 0.1, 5, and 50 Pa at 292° and 330°C. In-situ tritium permeation measurements were made by passing a He-Ne sweep gas over the outer surface of the specimen to carry the permeated tritium to a bubbler column for liquid scintillation counting. An irradiation enhancement factor (IEF) was determined by comparing in-situ permeation data with a correlation for ex-reactor hydrogen permeation through austenitic stainless steel developed from literature data and reported by Le Claire. Nominal values for the IEF ranged between 3 and 5 for 316 SS. In-situ permeation data were also used to derive an in-reactor permeation correlation as a function of temperature and pressure. In addition, the triton recoil contribution to tritium permeation, which results from the transmutation of 3He to T, was also evaluated by introducing a 4He carrier gas mixed with 3He at a partial pressure of 1013 Pa at 330°C. Less than 3% of the tritium resulting from 3He transmutation contributed to tritium permeation.

  8. Tritium Removal by Laser Heating and Its Application to Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile; G. Guttadora; A. Carpe; S. Langish; K.M. Young; M. Nishi; W. Shu

    2001-11-16

    A novel laser heating technique has recently been applied to removing tritium from carbon tiles that had been exposed to deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas in the Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR). A continuous wave neodymium laser, of power up to 300 watts, was used to heat the surface of the tiles. The beam was focused to an intensity, typically 8 kW/cm{sup 2}, and rapidly scanned over the tile surface by galvanometer-driven scanning mirrors. Under the laser irradiation, the surface temperature increased dramatically, and temperatures up to 2,300 degrees C were recorded by an optical pyrometer. Tritium was released and circulated in a closed-loop system to an ionization chamber that measured the tritium concentration. Most of the tritium (up to 84%) could be released by the laser scan. This technique appears promising for tritium removal in a next-step DT device as it avoids oxidation, the associated deconditioning of the plasma facing surfaces, and the expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. Some engineering aspects of the implementation of this method in a next-step fusion device will be discussed.

  9. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glovebox using SAES St 198

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.

    1994-08-31

    SAES metal getter material St 198 was chosen for glovebox stripper tests to evaluate its effectiveness of removing tritium from a nitrogen atmosphere. The St 198 material is unique from a number of other metal hydride-based getter materials in that it is relatively inert to nitrogen and can thus be used in nitrogen glovebox atmospheres. Six tritium stripper experiments which mock-up the use of a SAES St 198 stripper bed for a full-scale (10,500 liter) nitrogen glovebox have been completed. Experiments consisted of a release of small quantity of protium/deuterium spiked with tritium which were scaled to simulate tritium releases of 0.1 g., 1.0 g., and 10 g. into the glovebox. The tritium spike allows detection using tritium ion chambers. The St 198 stripper system produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two orders of magnitude in 24 hours (6--8 atmosphere turn-overs) of stripper operation.

  10. Uptake of tritium by plants from atmosphere and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, H; Garten Jr, Charles T

    1991-01-01

    Uptake of tritiated water (HTO) by plants was examined under field conditions when tritium was available to leaves from only the atmosphere and when tritium was available from both the soil (root uptake) and the atmosphere. Maple, oak, and elm trees, planted in clean soil, were transported to a tritium-contaminated forest, where the atmospheric tritium concentration was elevated, to examine HTO uptake by tree leaves when the source was only in the atmosphere. The results partially agreed with a diffusion model of tritium uptake by plants. Discrepancies found between predicted and measured leaf HTO/air HTO ratios should be attributed to the existence of some isolated water, which is isolated from the transpiration stream in the leaves, that was not available for rapid turnover. The uptake of tritium by trees, when the source was both in the soil and atmosphere, was also examined using deciduous trees (maple and elm) resident to the tritium-contaminated forest. The results were in agreement with a prediction model.

  11. MEASUREMENT OF TRITIUM DURING VOLOXIDATION OF ZIRCALOY-2 FUEL HULLS

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Laurinat, J.; Stillman, J.

    2010-10-14

    A straightforward method to evaluate the tritium content of Zircaloy-2 cladding hulls via oxidation of the hull and capture of the volatilized tritium in liquids has been demonstrated. Hull samples were heated in air inside a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The TGA was rapidly heated to 1000 C to oxidize the hulls and release absorbed tritium. To capture tritium, the TGA off-gas was bubbled through a series of liquid traps. The concentrations of tritium in bubbler solutions indicated that tritiated water vapor was captured nearly quantitatively. The average tritium content measured in the hulls was 19% of the amount of tritium produced by the fuel, according to ORIGEN2 isotope generation and depletion calculations. Published experimental data show that Zircaloy-2 oxidation follows an Arrhenius model, and that an initial, nonlinear oxidation rate is followed by a faster, linear rate after 'breakaway' of the oxide film. This study demonstrates that the linear oxidation rate of Zircaloy samples at 974 C is faster than predicted by the extrapolation of data from lower temperatures.

  12. Tritium localisation and release from the ceramic pebbles of breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizane, G.; Tiliks, J.; Vitinš, A.; Rudzitis, J.

    2004-08-01

    Magnetic field (MF) effects on the radiolysis and tritium release from Li 4SiO 4 (FZK) and Li 2TiO 3 (CEA) ceramic pebbles were investigated. The tritium chemical forms in Li 4SiO 4 were estimated by means of lyomethods. In the case of the neutron fluence Fn⩽10 18 n m -2, the tritium is mostly in the T + form, but in the case of Fn≈10 25 n m -2, the T + form accounts for 86-95% of the tritium. A high subsurface concentration of tritium is characteristic of a separate pebble and correlates with the distribution of radiation-induced defects. The MF increases the radiolysis of Li 4SiO 4 by 20-25%. Irradiation with electrons to 1000 MGy at 1200 K increases the grain size by 5-10%, decreasing the parameters of tritium release. The increased grain size was observed for the Li 4SiO 4 pebbles irradiated in EXOTIC-8. A considerable tritium detention (up to 40%) was observed after annealing to 1120 K in the MF of 2.4 T.

  13. Current understanding of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Baglan, N; Davis, P A

    2013-12-01

    It has become increasingly recognized that organically bound tritium (OBT) is the more significant tritium fraction with respect to understanding tritium behaviour in the environment. There are many different terms associated with OBT; such as total OBT, exchangeable OBT, non-exchangeable OBT, soluble OBT, insoluble OBT, tritiated organics, and buried tritium, etc. A simple classification is required to clarify understanding within the tritium research community. Unlike for tritiated water (HTO), the environmental quantification and behaviour of OBT are not well known. Tritiated water cannot bio-accumulate in the environment. However, it is not clear whether or not this is the case for OBT. Even though OBT can be detected in terrestrial biological materials, aquatic biological materials and soil samples, its behaviour is still in question. In order to evaluate the radiation dose from OBT accurately, further study will be required to understand OBT measurements and determine OBT fate in the environment. The relationship between OBT speciation and the OBT/HTO ratio in environmental samples will be useful in this regard, providing information on the previous tritium exposure conditions in the environment and the current tritium dynamics.

  14. Tritium discrimination using cluster size information from a DGEM detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surette, R. A.; Dubeau, J.

    2005-02-01

    Measurement of tritium-in-air concentrations is complicated by the presence of gamma radiation, 14C, and noble gas radionuclides. In most cases the signal from tritium, in conventional ion chamber-based monitors, is much smaller than that from equal concentrations of interfering radioactive gases. The lack of discrimination between tritium and other radioactive interferences frequently results in an overestimation of the tritium hazard. This report describes a method to effectively discriminate between tritium and other interfering airborne radioactive gases using ionization cluster size information from a double gas electron multiplier (DGEM) and a suitable readout array. The readout array consists of 121 pads (an 11×11 matrix of 4×4 mm pads on 6 mm centres) on a printed circuit board, each connected to a charge sensitive amplifier. The prototype-automated discriminating monitor typically indicated a spillover fraction, in the tritium channel, in the order of ±5% for binary mixtures of tritium and 14C, 85Kr, 133Xe or 41Ar. A custom-made dynamic cluster-fitting algorithm gives results in real-time with very good accuracy under extreme conditions.

  15. Tritium Based Water Balance Modelling In The Weser Catchment, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeniger, P.; Krause, W.; Leibundgut, Ch.; Reisewitz, R.

    The Institute of Hydrology of the Freiburg University (IHF) in conjunction with the German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) are to integrating tritium data for a water balance model. Tritium observations in precipitation and river water covering a period of 30 years are used to establish a tritium aided water balance for a 46.300 km2 area in Germany (Weser catchment). Environmental tritium in precipitation, that was mainly introduced into the water cycle by nuclear weapon testing in the 60s, and wastewater from nuclear power plants located in the catchment area are sources of the tritium input. The model is established in combination with a software routine (TRIBIL), which was developed for semi distributed water and tritium balance calculations. A mesoscale, physically based model approach with spatial classification of sub areas is used and will consider evaporation, transpiration, soil characteristics, vegetation and different runoff components. The modelling is performed in monthly time steps. Hydrological, meteorological and land use data are available from different German authorities. An outline of the project, model structure and input data as well as first results for the tributary river systems Fulda and Werra will be presented. Including the conser- vative tracer tritium into large scale modelling is a rather new approach. Feasibilities and possibilities will be tested within this project. Balancing of solutes in catchment studies can be improved and this approach can serve as an additional validation tool for water balance models.

  16. Apparatus for monitoring tritium in tritium-contaminating environments using a modified Kanne chamber

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1981-01-27

    A conventional Kanne tritium monitor has been redesigned to reduce its sensitivity to such contaminants as tritiated water vapor and tritiated oil. The high voltage electrode has been replaced by a wire cylinder and the collector electrode has been reduced in diameter. The area sensitive to contamination has thereby been reduced by about a factor of forty while the overall apparatus sensitivity and operation has not been affected. The design allows for in situ decontamination of the chambers, if necessary.

  17. Apparatus for monitoring tritium in tritium contaminating environments using a modified Kanne chamber

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A conventional Kanne tritium monitor has been redesigned to reduce its sensitivity to such contaminants as tritiated water vapor and tritiated oil. The high voltage electrode has been replaced by a wire cylinder and the collector electrode has been reduced in diameter. The area sensitive to contamination has thereby been reduced by about a factor of forty while the overall apparatus sensitivity and operation has not been affected. The design allows for in situ decontamination of the chambers, if necessary.

  18. Mean transit times in contrasting headwater catchments from southeast Australia determined using Tritium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe; Irvine, Dylan

    2016-04-01

    Headwater streams contribute a significant proportion of the total discharge of many river systems. However, despite their importance, the time taken for rainfall to pass through the catchment into the streams (the transit time) in headwater catchments is largely unknown as are the catchment characteristics (such as drainage density, topography, landuse, or geology) that determine variations in transit times. Because the peak in Tritium activities in rainfall produced by atmospheric nuclear tests in the1950's and 1960's (the "bomb-pulse") was several orders of magnitude lower in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere, Tritium activities of remnant bomb pulse water in the southern hemisphere have decayed below those of modern rainfall. This allows mean transit times to be estimated from single Tritium measurements. Here we use Tritium to estimate transit times of water contributing to perennial streams in the adjacent upper catchments of the Yarra and Latrobe Rivers (southeast Australia). Samples were collected at varying flow from six headwater tributary sites in the Latrobe catchment, which is largely forested and four tributaries in the Yarra catchment which has been extensively cleared for dryland agriculture. The lowest Tritium activities were recorded during summer baseflow conditions and are between 1.25 and 1.75 TU, these are significantly below the Tritium activity of local rainfall (~2.8 TU). Mean transit times calculated using an exponential-piston flow lumped parameter model are 21 to 47 years. Tritium activities during the recession periods following winter high flows are higher (1.54 to 2.1 TU), which may reflect either the dilution of a baseflow component with recent surface runoff or mobilisation of different stores of water with different residence times (e.g., from the soils or the regolith) from within the catchment. The variation of major ion concentrations with discharge suggests it is more likely that that different stores of

  19. Tritium pellet injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma phase. An existing deuterium pellet injector (DPI) was modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed for frozen pellets ranging in size from 3 to 4 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at tritium pellet speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were also made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI has been installed and operated on TFTR in support of the CY-92 deuterium plasma run period. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and tritium gloveboxes and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

  20. Tritium pellet injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.

    1992-11-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma phase. An existing deuterium pellet injector (DPI) was modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed for frozen pellets ranging in size from 3 to 4 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at tritium pellet speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were also made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI has been installed and operated on TFTR in support of the CY-92 deuterium plasma run period. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and tritium gloveboxes and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

  1. Tritium Superpermeability: Experimental Investigation and Simulation of Tritium Recirculation in 'Prometheus' Setup

    SciTech Connect

    Musyaev, R.K.; Lebedev, B.S.; Grishechkin, S.K.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Busnyuk, A.A; Notkin, M.E.; Samartsev, A.A.; Livshits, A.I.

    2005-07-15

    The superpermeability phenomenon was suggested to use in fusion machines to separate the fuel mixture from helium ashes, to arrange in-vessel fuel recirculation contours and effective evacuation of fuel mixture out of machine exhaust. To develop this technology and to simulate tritium recirculation in RFNC-VNIIEF at the 'Prometheus' setup the experiments on superpermeation of hydrogen isotopes through metal membrane were realized.The results of experiments on superpermeation of hydrogen isotopes through cylindrical niobium membrane are presented. As the experiment has shown, membrane pumping rate is inversely proportional to square root of isotope mass and amount to 2.5 l/cm{sup 2}s for protium, 1.8 l/cm{sup 2}s for deuterium and 1.5 l/cm{sup 2}s for tritium. The possibility of effective pumping, separation of hydrogen isotopes from helium and residual gas, compression and recuperation of hydrogen isotopes by means of superpermeable membrane was demonstrated. It follows from results that the separation of D/T from He with employment of the techniques of superpermeable membranes might reduce the total amount of tritium in fuel cycle and substantially enhance the resource of cryogenic pumps evacuating helium.

  2. HEAT TRANSFER AND TRITIUM PRODUCING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, E.F.

    1962-06-01

    This invention related to a circulating lithium-containing blanket system in a neution source hav'ing a magnetic field associated therewith. The blanket serves simultaneously and efficiently as a heat transfer mediunm and as a source of tritium. The blanket is composed of a lithium-6-enriched fused salt selected from the group consisting of lithium nitrite, lithium nitrate, a mixture of said salts, a mixture of each of said salts with lithium oxide, and a mixture of said salts with each other and with lithium oxide. The moderator, which is contained within the blanket in a separate conduit, can be water. A stellarator is one of the neutron sources which can be used in this invention. (AEC)

  3. On-line tritium production monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    1993-11-23

    A scintillation optical fiber system for the on-line monitoring of nuclear reactions in an event-by-event manner is described. In the measurement of tritium production one or more optical fibers are coated with enriched {sup 6}Li and connected to standard scintillation counter circuitry. A neutron generated {sup 6}Li(n)T reaction occurs in the coated surface of {sup 6}Li-coated fiber to produce energetic alpha and triton particles one of which enters the optical fiber and scintillates light through the fiber to the counting circuit. The coated optical fibers can be provided with position sensitivity by placing a mirror at the free end of the fibers or by using pulse counting circuits at both ends of the fibers. 5 figures.

  4. Tritium-powered radiation sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litz, Marc S.; Russo, Johnny A.; Katsis, Dimos

    2016-05-01

    Isotope power supplies offer long-lived (100 years using 63Ni), low-power energy sources, enabling sensors or communications nodes for the lifetime of infrastructure. A tritium beta-source (12.5-year half-life) encapsulated in a phosphor-lined vial couples directly to a photovoltaic (PV) to generate a trickle current into an electrical load. An inexpensive design is described using commercial-of-the-shelf (COTS) components that generate 100 μWe for nextgeneration compact electronics/sensors. A matched radiation sensor has been built for long-duration missions utilizing microprocessor-controlled sleep modes, low-power electronic components, and a passive interrupt driven environmental wake-up. The low-power early-warning radiation detector network and isotope power source enables no-maintenance mission lifetimes.

  5. On-line tritium production monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, John T.

    1993-01-01

    A scintillation optical fiber system for the on-line monitoring of nuclear reactions in an event-by-event manner is described. In the measurement of tritium production one or more optical fibers are coated with enriched .sup.6 Li and connected to standard scintillation counter circuitry. A neutron generated .sup.6 Li(n )T reaction occurs in the coated surface of .sup.6 Li-coated fiber to produce energetic alpha and triton particles one of which enters the optical fiber and scintillates light through the fiber to the counting circuit. The coated optical fibers can be provided with position sensitivity by placing a mirror at the free end of the fibers or by using pulse counting circuits at both ends of the fibers.

  6. Ignition of deuterium-tritium fuel targets

    DOEpatents

    Musinski, D.L.; Mruzek, M.T.

    1991-08-27

    Disclosed is a method of igniting a deuterium-tritium ICF fuel target to obtain fuel burn in which the fuel target initially includes a hollow spherical shell having a frozen layer of DT material at substantially uniform thickness and cryogenic temperature around the interior surface of the shell. The target is permitted to free-fall through a target chamber having walls heated by successive target ignitions, so that the target is uniformly heated during free-fall to at least partially melt the frozen fuel layer and form a liquid single-phase layer or a mixed liquid/solid bi-phase layer of substantially uniform thickness around the interior shell surface. The falling target is then illuminated from exteriorly of the chamber while the fuel layer is at substantially uniformly single or bi-phase so as to ignite the fuel layer and release energy therefrom. 5 figures.

  7. Raman spectroscopy at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Schloesser, M.; Bornschein, B.; Fischer, S.; Kassel, F.; Rupp, S.; Sturm, M.; James, T.M.; Telle, H.H.

    2015-03-15

    Raman spectroscopy is employed successfully for analysis of hydrogen isotopologues at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). Raman spectroscopy is based on the inelastic scattering of photons off molecules. Energy is transferred to the molecules as rotational/vibrational excitation being characteristic for each type of molecule. Thus, qualitative analysis is possible from the Raman shifted light, while quantitative information can be obtained from the signal intensities. After years of research and development, the technique is now well-advanced providing fast (< 10 s), precise (< 0.1%) and true (< 3%) compositional analysis of gas mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues. In this paper, we summarize the recent achievements in the further development on this technique, and the various applications for which it is used at TLK. Raman spectroscopy has evolved as a versatile, highly accurate key method for quantitative analysis complementing the port-folio of analytic techniques at the TLK.

  8. Tritium analyses of COBRA-1A2 beryllium pebbles

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.L.

    1998-03-01

    Selected tritium measurements have been completed for the COBRA-1A2 experiment C03 and D03 beryllium pebbles. The completed results, shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3, include the tritium assay results for the 1-mm and 3-mm C03 pebbles, and the 1-mm D03 pebbles, stepped anneal test results for both types of 1-mm pebbles, and the residual analyses for the stepped-anneal specimens. All results have been reported with date-of-count and are not corrected for decay. Stepped-anneal tritium release response is provided in addenda.

  9. Tritium as an indicator of venues for nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Mulgin, S I; Zhdanov, S V

    2013-10-01

    Currently, due to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons there is a highly topical issue of an accurate verification of nuclear explosion venues. This paper proposes to consider new method for verification by using tritium as an indicator. Detailed studies of the tritium content in the air were carried in the locations of underground nuclear tests - "Balapan" and "Degelen" testing sites located in Semipalatinsk Test Site. The paper presents data on the levels and distribution of tritium in the air where tunnels and boreholes are located - explosion epicentres, wellheads and tunnel portals, as well as in estuarine areas of the venues for the underground nuclear explosions (UNE).

  10. Tritium and workers in fusion devices-lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Elbez-Uzan, Joelle; Alejaldre, Carlos

    2009-09-01

    Fusion machines from all over the world have contributed to the knowledge accumulated in fusion science. This knowledge has been applied to design new experimental fusion machines and in particular ITER. Only two fusion devices based on magnetic confinement have used deuterium and tritium fuels to-date-the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, in Princeton, USA, and JET, the European tokamak. These machines have demonstrated that the fusion reaction is achievable with these fuels, and have provided valuable lessons on radioprotection-related issues as concerns tritium and workers. Dedicated tritium installations for fusion research and development have also contributed to this knowledge base.

  11. Tritium Experience in Large Tokamaks: Application to ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Gentile, C.; Hosea, J.; Mueller, D; Gentile, C.; Federici, G.; Haanges, R.

    1998-05-01

    Recent experience with the use of tritium fuel in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and the Joint European Torus, together with progress in developing the technical design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor has expanded the technical knowledge base for tritium issues in fusion. This paper reports on an IEA workshop that brought together scientists and engineers to share experience and expertise on all fusion-related tritium issues. Extensive discussion periods were devoted to exploring outstanding issues and identifying potential R{ampersand}D avenues to address them. This paper summarizes the presentations, discussions, and recommendations.

  12. Assessment of tritium breeding requirements for fusion power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents an assessment of tritium-breeding requirements for fusion power reactors. The analysis is based on an evaluation of time-dependent tritium inventories in the reactor system. The method presented can be applied to any fusion systems in operation on a steady-state mode as well as on a pulsed mode. As an example, the UWMAK-I design was analyzed and it has been found that the startup inventory requirement calculated by the present method significantly differs from those previously calculated. The effect of reactor-parameter changes on the required tritium breeding ratio is also analyzed for a variety of reactor operation scenarios.

  13. Enhanced activities of organically bound tritium in biota samples.

    PubMed

    Svetlik, I; Fejgl, M; Malátová, I; Tomaskova, L

    2014-11-01

    A pilot study aimed on possible occurrence of elevated activity of non-exchangable organically bound tritium (NE-OBT) in biota was performed. The first results showed a significant surplus of NE-OBT activity in biota of the valley of Mohelno reservoir and Jihlava river. The liquid releases of HTO from the nuclear power plant Dukovany is the source of tritium in this area. This area can be a source of various types of natural samples for future studies of tritium pathways.

  14. Constraining the North Atlantic circulation with tritium data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memery, Laurent; Wunsch, Carl

    1990-01-01

    The North Atlantic circulation derived from an inverse calculation by singular-value decomposition is tested against the historical record of tritium. A forward calculation of the tritium transient is performed using the circulation model, published estimates of atmospheric injection rates, and plausible estimates of the tracer history at the open boundaries of the model. The results do not agree with observations of the interior distributions of tritium. Consideration is given to the possibility of improving the agreement by modifying the atmospheric injection rates and the initial estimates of open boundary time histories, treating the boundary conditions as control variables.

  15. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots

    2012-08-01

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. In order to prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this paper examines the root causes and potential solutions for the production of this radionuclide, including materials selection and inert gas sparging. A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750°C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for one steadystate value of tritium production in the reactor.

  16. Tritium distribution in ground water around large underground fusion explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stead, F.W.

    1963-01-01

    Tritium will be released in significant amounts from large underground nuclear fusion explosions in the Plowshare Program. The tritium could become highly concentrated in nearby ground waters, and could be of equal or more importance as a possible contaminant than other long-lived fission-product and induced radionuclides. Behavior of tritiated water in particular hydrologic and geologic environments, as illustrated by hypothetical explosions in dolomite and tuff, must be carefully evaluated to predict under what conditions high groundwater concentrations of tritium might occur.

  17. Recommendations for Tritium Science and Technology Research and Development in Support of the Tritium Readiness Campaign, TTP-7-084

    SciTech Connect

    Senor, David J.

    2013-10-30

    Between 2006 and 2012 the Tritium Readiness Campaign Development and Testing Program produced significant advances in the understanding of in-reactor TPBAR performance. Incorporating these data into existing TPBAR performance models has improved permeation predictions, and the discrepancy between predicted and observed tritium permeation in the WBN1 coolant has been decreased by about 30%. However, important differences between predicted and observed permeation still remain, and there are significant knowledge gaps that hinder the ability to reliably predict other aspects of TPBAR performance such as tritium distribution, component integrity, and performance margins. Based on recommendations from recent Tritium Readiness Campaign workshops and reviews coupled with technical and programmatic priorities, high-priority activities were identified to address knowledge gaps in the near- (3-5 year), middle- (5-10 year), and long-term (10+ year) time horizons. It is important to note that there are many aspects to a well-integrated research and development program. The intent is not to focus exclusively on one aspect or another, but to approach the program in a holistic fashion. Thus, in addition to small-scale tritium science studies, ex-reactor tritium technology experiments such as TMED, and large-scale in-reactor tritium technology experiments such as TMIST, a well-rounded research and development program must also include continued analysis of WBN1 performance data and post-irradiation examination of TPBARs and lead use assemblies to evaluate model improvements and compare separate-effects and integral component behavior.

  18. Study on the Tritium Behaviors in the VHTR System. Part 1: Development of Tritium Analysis Code for VHTR and Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Eung Soo Kim; Chang Ho Oh; Mike Patterson

    2010-07-01

    A tritium permeation analyses code (TPAC) has been developed in Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by using MATLAB SIMULINK package for analysis of tritium behaviors in the VHTRs integrated with hydrogen production and process heat application systems. The modeling is based on the mass balance of tritium containing species and hydrogen (i.e., HT, H2, HTO, HTSO4, and TI) coupled with a variety of tritium source, sink, and permeation models. The code includes (1) tritium sources from ternary fission and neutron reactions with 6Li, 7Li 10B, 3He, (2) tritium purification system, (3) leakage of tritium with coolant, (4) permeation through pipes, vessels, and heat exchangers, (4) electrolyzer for high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), and (5) isotope exchange for SI process. Verification of the code has been performed by comparisons with the analytical solutions, the experimental data, and the benchmark code results based on the Peach Bottom reactor design. The results showed that all the governing equations are well implemented into the code and correctly solved. This paper summarizes all the background, the theory, the code structures, and some verification results related to the TPAC code development in Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  19. Determinations for Four Different Situations Involving Contiguous and Adjacent Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. Tritium activities in Canada supporting CANDU{sup R} nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. M.

    2008-07-15

    An overview of the various Canadian tritium research and operational activities supporting the development, refurbishment and operation of CANDU{sup R} nuclear power reactors is presented. These activities encompass tritium health and safety, tritium in the environment, tritium interaction with materials, and tritium processing, and relate to both supporting R and D advances as well as operational best practices. The collective results of these activities contribute to our goals of improving worker and public safety, and operational efficiency. (authors)

  1. Measured and modelled tritium concentrations in freshwater Barnes mussels (Elliptio complanata) exposed to an abrupt increase in ambient tritium levels.

    PubMed

    Yankovich, T L; Kim, S B; Baumgärtner, F; Galeriu, D; Melintescu, A; Miyamoto, K; Saito, M; Siclet, F; Davis, P

    2011-01-01

    To improve understanding of environmental tritium behaviour, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) included a Tritium and C-14 Working Group (WG) in its EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program. One scenario considered by the WG involved the prediction of time-dependent tritium concentrations in freshwater mussels that were subjected to an abrupt increase in ambient tritium levels. The experimental data used in the scenario were obtained from a study in which freshwater Barnes mussels (Elliptio complanata) were transplanted from an area with background tritium concentrations to a small Canadian Shield lake that contains elevated tritium. The mussels were then sampled over 88 days, and concentrations of free-water tritium (HTO) and organically-bound tritium (OBT) were measured in the soft tissues to follow the build-up of tritium in the mussels over time. The HTO concentration in the mussels reached steady state with the concentration in lake water within one or two hours. Most models predicted a longer time (up to a few days) to equilibrium. All models under-predicted the OBT concentration in the mussels one hour after transplantation, but over-predicted the rate of OBT formation over the next 24h. Subsequent dynamics were not well modelled, although all participants predicted OBT concentrations that were within a factor of three of the observation at the end of the study period. The concentration at the final time point was over-predicted by all but one of the models. The relatively low observed concentration at this time was likely due to the loss of OBT by mussels during reproduction.

  2. Cryogenic tritium-hydrogen-deuterium and deuterium-tritium layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meezan, N. B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Döppner, T.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A. E.; Ross, J. S.; Thomas, C. A.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Izumi, N.; Kyrala, G. A.; Moody, J. D.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Rygg, J. R.; Sepke, S. M.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P. J.; Biener, J.; Bionta, R. M.; Bond, E. J.; Caggiano, J. A.; Eckart, M. J.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G. P.; Hamza, A. V.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hoover, D. E.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; Kroll, J. J.; McNaney, J. M.; Nikroo, A.; Sayre, D. B.; Stadermann, M.; Wild, C.; Yoxall, B. E.; Landen, O. L.; Hsing, W. W.; Edwards, M. J.

    2015-06-01

    High Density Carbon (or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a deuterium-tritium (DT) layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightly oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 × 1015 neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.

  3. Cryogenic tritium-hydrogen-deuterium and deuterium-tritium layer implosions with high density carbon ablators in near-vacuum hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Meezan, N. B. Hopkins, L. F. Berzak; Pape, S. Le; Divol, L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Döppner, T.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Milovich, J. L.; Pak, A. E.; Ross, J. S.; Thomas, C. A.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; and others

    2015-06-15

    High Density Carbon (or diamond) is a promising ablator material for use in near-vacuum hohlraums, as its high density allows for ignition designs with laser pulse durations of <10 ns. A series of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments in 2013 on the National Ignition Facility [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] culminated in a deuterium-tritium (DT) layered implosion driven by a 6.8 ns, 2-shock laser pulse. This paper describes these experiments and comparisons with ICF design code simulations. Backlit radiography of a tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) layered capsule demonstrated an ablator implosion velocity of 385 km/s with a slightly oblate hot spot shape. Other diagnostics suggested an asymmetric compressed fuel layer. A streak camera-based hot spot self-emission diagnostic (SPIDER) showed a double-peaked history of the capsule self-emission. Simulations suggest that this is a signature of low quality hot spot formation. Changes to the laser pulse and pointing for a subsequent DT implosion resulted in a higher temperature, prolate hot spot and a thermonuclear yield of 1.8 × 10{sup 15} neutrons, 40% of the 1D simulated yield.

  4. Progress report on the accelerator production of tritium materials irradiation program

    SciTech Connect

    Maloy, S.A.; Sommer, W.F.; Brown, R.D.; Roberts, J.E.

    1997-05-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project is developing an accelerator and a spoliation neutron source capable of producing tritium through neutron capture on He-3. A high atomic weight target is used to produce neutrons that are then multiplied and moderated in a blanket prior to capture. Materials used in the target and blanket region of an APT facility will be subjected to several different and mixed particle radiation environments; high energy protons (1-2 GeV), protons in the 20 MeV range, high energy neutrons, and low energy neutrons, depending on position in the target and blanket. Flux levels exceed 10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2}s in some areas. The APT project is sponsoring an irradiation damage effects program that will generate the first data-base for materials exposed to high energy particles typical of spallation neutron sources. The program includes a number of candidate materials in small specimen and model component form and uses the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) at the 800 MeV, Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator.

  5. Development and testing of a prototype modular tritium and carbon-14 gas environmental monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, H.; Dean, J.; Perrie, L.; Sephton, J.; Parisot, M.

    2015-03-15

    Increasing quantities of radioactive waste are being placed into storage facilities. Many of the waste products contain organic materials which may undergo degradation leading to the release of tritium and carbon-14 species into waste containers and potentially into the environment. Monitoring for radioactive gas releases are required for environmental regulatory compliance and for radiation protection of facility workers. Research is currently being undertaken at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) as part of a European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) project MetroRWM to adapt and automate existing environmental sampling techniques for tritium and carbon-14 species. An innovative modular system is being developed which will lead to the introduction of an on-site small scale system capable of gas collection, liquid scintillation sample preparation and measurement. This paper outlines the evaluation of a liquid scintillation system that has been performed to date using active solutions of spiked trapping medium of similar activity concentrations to those anticipated in a waste repository. This system will operate using pre-set conditions for quench and luminescence derived from these and subsequent trials, unlike most other counters for which corrections for these phenomena are applied post measurement. (authors)

  6. Scientific and engineering services for the LANCE/ER accelerator production of tritium (APT) project

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-05

    The APT project office is conducting a preconceptual design study for an accelerator driven concept to produce tritium. The facility will require new technology in many areas, since the scale of this accelerator is significantly larger then any in operation to date. The facility is composed of four subsystems: accelerator, target & blanket, balance of plant, and tritium purification system (TPS). New physics realms will be entered in order for the concept to be feasible; for example, extremely high energy levels of the entering protons that induce (multiplicative) spallation of the neutrons from the high Z target will occur. These are complex and require advance codes (MCNP) to predict the physics interactions and as well as deleterious material effects in the surrounding structures. Other issues include component cooling and complex thermal-hydraulics effects within the blanket and the beam {open_quotes}window.{close_quotes} In order to support a DOE mandated fast ROD schedule, Los Alamos APT staff will be provided with senior, engineering technical support staff with direct APT technology experience and whom are {open_quotes}on site{close_quotes}. This report contains resumes of the staff.

  7. Development of Tritium Permeation Analysis Code and Tritium Transport in a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Coupled with Hydrogen Production System

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim; Mike Patterson

    2010-06-01

    Abstract – A tritium permeation analyses code (TPAC) was developed by Idaho National Laboratory for the purpose of analyzing tritium distributions in very high temperature reactor (VHTR) systems, including integrated hydrogen production systems. A MATLAB SIMULINK software package was used in developing the code. The TPAC is based on the mass balance equations of tritium-containing species and various forms of hydrogen coupled with a variety of tritium sources, sinks, and permeation models. In the TPAC, ternary fission and neutron reactions with 6Li, 7Li 10B, and 3He were taken into considerations as tritium sources. Purification and leakage models were implemented as main tritium sinks. Permeation of tritium and H2 through pipes, vessels, and heat exchangers were considered as main tritium transport paths. In addition, electroyzer and isotope exchange models were developed for analyzing hydrogen production systems, including high temperature electrolysis and sulfur-iodine processes.

  8. Tritium pellet injector design for tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Baylor, L.R.; Bryan, W.E.; Combs, S.K.; Easterly, C.E.; Lunsford, R.V.; Milora, S.L.; Schuresko, D.D.; White, J.A.; Williamson, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    A tritium pellet injector (TPI) system has been designed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Q approx. 1 phase of operation. The injector gun utilizes a radial design with eight independent barrels and a common extruder to minimize tritium inventory. The injection line contains guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations and fast valves to minimize propellant leakage to the torus. The vacuum system is designed for tritium compatibility. The entire injector system is contained in a glove box for secondary containment protection against tritium release. Failure modes and effects have been analyzed, and structural analysis has been performed for most intense predicted earthquake conditions. Details of the design and operation of this system are presented in this paper.

  9. Tritium permeation losses in HYLIFE-II heat exchanger tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Longhurst, G.R.; Dolan, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Tritium permeation through the intermediate heat exchanger of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion design concept is evaluated for routine operating conditions. The permeation process is modelled using the Lewis analogy combined with surface recombination. It is demonstrated that at very low driving potentials, permeation becomes proportional to the first power of the driving potential. The model predicts that under anticipated conditions the primary cooling loop will pass about 6% of the tritium entering it to the intermediate coolant. Possible approached to reducing tritium permeation are explored. Permeation is limited by turbulent diffusion transport through the molten salt. Hence, surface barriers with impendance factors typical of present technology can do very little to reduce permeation. Low Flibe viscosity is desirable. An efficient tritium removal system operating on the Flibe before it gets to the intermediate heat exchanger is required. Needs for further research are highlighted. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Fixation of tritium in a highly stable polymer form

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, Meyer; Colombo, Peter; Pruzansky, Jacob

    1977-01-01

    A method for the fixation of tritium comprising reacting tritiated water with calcium carbide to produce calcium hydroxide and tritiated acetylene, polymerizing the acetylene, and then incorporating the polymer in a solidifying matrix.

  11. Increasing the performance of tritium analysis by electrolytic enrichment.

    PubMed

    Groning, M; Auer, R; Brummer, D; Jaklitsch, M; Sambandam, C; Tanweer, A; Tatzber, H

    2009-06-01

    Several improvements are described for the existing tritium enrichment system at the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Agency for processing natural water samples. The improvements include a simple method for pretreatment of electrolytic cells to ensure a high tritium separation factor, an improved design of the exhaust system for explosive gases, and a vacuum distillation line for faster initial preparation of water samples for electrolytic enrichment and for tritium analysis. Achievements included the reduction of variation of individual enrichment parameters of all cells to less than 1% and an improvement of 50% of the stability of the background mean. It resulted in an improved detection limit of less than 0.4 TU (at 2s), important for application of tritium measurements in the future at low concentration levels, and resulted in measurement precisions of+/-0.2 TU and+/-0.15 TU for liquid scintillation counting and for gas proportional counting, respectively.

  12. Plasma Fueling, Pumping, and Tritium Handling Considerations for FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Gentile, C.A.; Gouge, M.J.; Nelson, B.E.

    1999-11-13

    Tritium pellet injection will be utilized on the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) for efficient tritium fueling and to optimize the density profile for high fusion power. Conventional pneumatic pellet injectors, coupled with a guidetube system to launch pellets into the plasma from the high, field side, low field side, and vertically, will be provided for fueling along with gas puffing for plasma edge density control. About 0.1 g of tritium must be injected during each 10-s pulse. The tritium and deuterium will be exhausted into the divertor. The double null divertor will have 16 cryogenic pumps located near the divertor chamber to provide the required high pumping speed of 200 torr-L/s.

  13. Tritium removal from tritiated water by organic functionalized SBA-15

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, A.; Kato, Y.; Akai, R.; Torikai, Y.; Matsuyama, M.

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium from tritiated water is important for reducing tritium emissions to the environment and for recycling tritium. Meso-porous silicas (SBA-15) were modified by -COOH, -SO{sub 3}H and -NH{sub 2} groups and their tritium adsorption ability from tritiated water under solid-liquid sorption was investigated. The adsorption abilities and separation factor of organic functionalized SBAs were comparable to those of bare SBA. The desorption of water from bare SBA and -COOH functionalized SBA were studied by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy using D{sub 2}O as a probe molecule. An interaction was observed for D{sub 2}O with -COOH group where the hydrogen bonds became weaker than D{sub 2}O with bare SBA. (authors)

  14. Zeolite membrane cascade for tritium extraction and recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Borisevich, O.; Demange, D.; Lefebvre, X.; Kind, M.

    2015-03-15

    Membrane separation by zeolite membranes has been proposed as a pre-concentration stage for the tritium extraction from the purge helium of the breeding blanket combined with a final recovery by the catalytic membrane reactor PERMCAT. This fully continuous operation improves the tritium management in fusion machines, minimizing the tritium inventory. For the first time, the permeation measurements for H{sub 2} - He mixtures through a MFI-alumina hollow fibre membrane has been measured for different compositions (0.1 - 20% H{sub 2}) and temperatures. Such a highly permeable membrane, although it shows a limited selectivity, appears attractive for tritium recovery in the blanket. This will imply its operation in a membrane cascade, for which simulation work is ongoing. Mathematically the process is modeled using mass balance equations that can be transformed into the matrix form and solved iteratively assuming a permeate concentration on the first step of iteration, until the separation requirements are fulfilled.

  15. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L.

    2015-03-15

    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10{sup 4} Bq/ml - 5*10{sup 8} Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10{sup -14} A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R{sup 2} = 0.998.

  16. Evaluation of a tritium runway-lighting system. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, E.S.

    1992-04-01

    A tritium powered runway lighting system was installed and evaluated at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center. The purpose of this evaluation was to determine if the tritium runway lighting system would safely support Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 135 commercial operations, during nighttime visual flight rules (VFR) conditions at remote airports. Subject pilots having flight experience levels appropriate for pilots conducting FAR Part 135 air taxi operations were afforded the opportunity of flight testing the system. Results of the evaluation indicate that the tritium runway lighting system does not meet all of the minimum criteria necessary for FAA approval and, therefore, would not guarantee an acceptable level of safety. Tritium Runway Lighting System, Remote Airports.

  17. Assessment of tritium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Bauer, L.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report is the first revision to a series of reports on radionuclides inn the SRS environment. Tritium was chosen as the first radionuclide in the series because the calculations used to assess the dose to the offsite population from SRS releases indicate that the dose due to tritium, through of small consequence, is one of the most important the radionuclides. This was recognized early in the site operation, and extensive measurements of tritium in the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water exist due to the effort of the Environmental Monitoring Section. In addition, research into the transport and fate of tritium in the environment has been supported at the SRS by both the local Department of Energy (DOE) Office and DOE`s Office of Health and Environmental Research.

  18. Rapid assessment of soil and groundwater tritium by vegetation sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    A rapid and relatively inexpensive technique for defining the extent of groundwater contamination by tritium has been investigated. The technique uses existing vegetation to sample the groundwater. Water taken up by deep rooted trees is collected by enclosing tree branches in clear plastic bags. Water evaporated from the leaves condenses on the inner surface of the bag. The water is removed from the bag with a syringe. The bags can be sampled many times. Tritium in the water is detected by liquid scintillation counting. The water collected in the bags has no color and counts as well as distilled water reference samples. The technique was used in an area of known tritium contamination and proved to be useful in defining the extent of tritium contamination.

  19. Project 8: Towards cyclotron radiation emission spectroscopy on tritium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fertl, Martin; Project 8 Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Project 8 aims to determine the neutrino mass by making a precise measurement of the beta decay of molecular tritium (Q = 18.6 keV) using the recently demonstrated the technique of cyclotron radiation emission spectroscopy (CRES). We report on results for calibration measurements performed with Kr-83m in a gas cell that fulfills the stringent requirements for a measurement using tritium: cryogenic operation, safe tritium handling, a non-magnetic design, and a good microwave guide performance. The phased program that allows Project 8 to probe the neutrino mass range accessible using molecular tritium is described. Major financial support by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics to the University of Washington under Award Number DE-FG02-97ER41020 is acknowledged

  20. Synthesis of tritium-labeled vitamin A and its analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, S.W.; Bubb, J.E.

    1985-11-01

    Metabolic and pharmacologic studies of Vitamin A and its analogs related to the prevention of lung cancer and other epithelial cancers required tritium-labeled Vitamin A analogs and ..beta..-carotene at high specific activity. Syntheses of some of the isomers were therefore developed in the laboratory, as described in the paper. The advantages of the scheme shown are that : 1. Tritiums are introduced into the molecule by catalytic hydrogenation, thus affording high specific activity. 2. It uses an allylic rearrangement of tritiated vinyl-..beta..-ionol to C/sub 15/-phosphonium salt, which is condensed with C/sub 5/-nitrile to give C/sub 20/-skeleton of retinonitrile. 3. It permits the development of milder methods to convert tritium-labeled retinaldehyde, as a common intermediate, to the other retinoids (i.e., retinoic acid, retinol, and retinyl acetate). Furthermore, tritium-labeled all-trans-..beta..-carotene, an important carotenoid, has been obtained from the retinaldehyde.

  1. Tritium in waters of international importance in 1981-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.V.; Blinov, V.A.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Il'in, L.I.; Tishkov, V.P.

    1988-03-01

    A study has been carried out on the radiation situation with respect to tritium in the drainage basin of the Baltic Sea and in the Soviet section of the Danube in the period of 1981-1984. Pollution of the Baltic during this period turned out to be quite constant and coincident with the tritium level of the preceding five years. Concentrations increased slightly in the Gulf of Riga and in a number of rivers flowing into the Baltic (Daugava, Pirita, etc.). In the same period the tritium contamination of Danube water was 2-3 times greater that of the Baltic. The tritium content of the Baltic was calculated: its average value in the period 1981-1984 was 1.56 x 10/sup 17/ Bq.

  2. Tritium distributions in an isopycnic model of the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yanli; Richards, Kelvin J.

    1996-05-01

    An ocean general circulation model with an isopycnic coordinate in the vertical is used to simulate the North Atlantic circulation. Tritium and helium are injected into the model after an initial spin-up phase to assist our understanding of the model response and to validate the model itself by comparing the model data with available tracer observations. In this paper, the distribution of tritium is presented and compared with observations in 1972 (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) and 1981 (Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO)). The vertical penetration of tritium in the model compares well with observations, reflecting the ventilation patterns in the subtropical and subpolar gyres and the deep overflows from the Greenland and Norwegian basin through the Denmark Strait and across the Iceland-Faeroes rise. However, the distributions of tritium on various isopycnic layers do show discrepancies with observations, and the magnitude of tritium concentration is too high in the model. It is found that the model produces a pronounced maximum tritium concentration in the interior of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre in 1972, which is not observed. The presence of this maximum suggests that the ratio of diffusion to advection timescales (the Péclet number) is too high in the model. A simple two-dimensional advection-diffusion model is used to explore the relationships between the distributions of tritium and the timescales of advection and diffusion processes. These experiments suggest an upper bound on the Péclet number. A further experiment using the Atlantic isopycnic model with a decreased Péclet number shows some improvement to the distribution of tritium on the isopycnic layers. Comparisons of tritium-helium age in 1981 between the model results and TTO data show that the model has a too rapid circulation. The lack of mixing by eddies in the model is also believed to be partially responsible for the discrepancies between the modeled tritium distributions and the

  3. Study of Traces of Tritium at the World Trade Center

    SciTech Connect

    Semkow, T M; Hafner, S R; Parekh, P P; Wozniak, G J; Haines, D K; Husain, L; Rabun, R L; Williams, P G

    2002-10-01

    Traces of tritiated water (HTO) were detected at the World Trade Center (WTC) ground zero after the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. A water sample from the WTC sewer, collected on 9/13/01, contained 0.164 {+-} 0.074 (2 {sigma}) nCi/L of HTO. A split water sample, collected on 9/21/01 from the basement of WTC Building 6, contained 3.53 {+-} 0.17 and 2.83 {+-} 0.15 nCi/L, respectively. These results are well below the levels of concern to human exposure. Several water and vegetation samples were analyzed from sites outside ground zero, located in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and the Kensico and Croton Reservoirs. No HTO above the background was found in those samples. Tritium radioluminescent (RL) devices were investigated as possible sources of the traces of tritium at ground zero. It was determined that the two Boeing 767 aircraft that hit the Twin Towers contained a combined 34 Ci of tritium at the time of impact in their emergency exit signs. There is also evidence that many weapons from law enforcement were present and destroyed at WTC. Such weaponry contains by design tritium sights. The fate and removal of tritium from ground zero were investigated, taking into consideration tritium chemistry and water flow originating from the fire fighting, rain, as well as leaks from the Hudson River and broken mains. A box model was developed to describe the above scenario. The model is consistent with instantaneous oxidation of the airplane tritium in the jet-fuel explosion, deposition of a small fraction of HTO at ground zero, and water-flow controlled removal of HTO from the debris. The model also suggests that tritium from the weapons would be released and oxidized to HTO at a much slower rate in the lingering fires at ground zero.

  4. Distribution of tritium in precipitation and surface water in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Patrick A.; Visser, Ate; Moran, Jean E.; Esser, Brad K.

    2016-03-01

    The tritium concentration in the surface hydrosphere throughout California was characterized to examine the reasons for spatial variability and to enhance the applicability of tritium in hydrological investigations. Eighteen precipitation samples were analyzed and 148 samples were collected from surface waters across California in the Summer and Fall of 2013, with repeat samples from some locations collected in Winter and Spring of 2014 to examine seasonal variation. The concentration of tritium in present day precipitation varied from 4.0 pCi/L near the California coast to 17.8 pCi/L in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Concentrations in precipitation increase in spring due to the 'Spring Leak' phenomenon. The average coastal concentration (6.3 ± 1.2 pCi/L) in precipitation matches estimated pre-nuclear levels. Surface water samples show a trend of increasing tritium with inland distance. Superimposed on that trend, elevated tritium concentrations are found in the San Francisco Bay area compared to other coastal areas, resulting from municipal water imported from inland mountain sources and local anthropogenic sources. Tritium concentrations in most surface waters decreased between Summer/Fall 2013 and Winter/Spring 2014 likely due to an increased groundwater signal as a result of drought conditions in 2014. A relationship between tritium and electrical conductivity in surface water was found to be indicative of water provenance and anthropogenic influences such as agricultural runoff. Despite low initial concentrations in precipitation, tritium continues to be a valuable tracer in a post nuclear bomb pulse world.

  5. Long Term Tritium Trapping in TFTR and JET

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile; K.M. Young; J.P. Coad; J.T. Hogan; R.-D. Penzhorn; and N. Bekris

    2001-07-24

    Tritium retention in TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] and JET [Joint European Torus] shows striking similarities and contrasts. In TFTR, 5 g of tritium were injected into circular plasmas over a 3.5 year period, mostly by neutral-beam injection. In JET, 35 g were injected into divertor plasmas over a 6 month campaign, mostly by gas puffing. In TFTR, the bumper limiter provided a large source of eroded carbon and a major part of tritium was co-deposited on the limiter and vessel wall. Only a small area of the co-deposit flaked off. In JET, the wall is a net erosion area, and co-deposition occurs principally in shadowed parts of the inner divertor, with heavy flaking. In both machines, the initial tritium retention, after a change from deuterium [D] to tritium [T] gas puffing, is high and is due to isotope exchange with deuterium on plasma-facing surfaces (dynamic inventory). The contribution of co-deposition is lower but cumulative, and is revealed by including periods of D fueling that reversed the T/D isotope exchange. Ion beam analysis of flakes from TFTR showed an atomic D/C ratio of 0.13 on the plasma facing surface, 0.25 on the back surface and 0.11 in the bulk. Data from a JET divertor tile showed a larger D/C ratio with 46% C, 30% D, 20% H and 4% O. Deuterium, tritium, and beryllium profiles have been measured and show a thin less than 50 micron co-deposited layer. Flakes retrieved from the JET vacuum vessel exhibited a high tritium release rate of 2e10 Bq/month/g. BBQ modeling of the effect of lithium on retention in TFTR showed overlapping lithium and tritium implantation and a 1.3x increase in local T retention.

  6. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  7. Tritium release behavior of ceramic breeder candidates for fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, H.; Okuno, K.; O'hira, S.

    1988-07-01

    The overall HTO(g) release rates of neutron-irradiated Li 2O, γ-LiAlO 2, Li 2SiO 3, Li 2ZrO 3. and Li 8ZrO 6 crystals were controlled by the diffusion of tritium in the crystals, while solid-surface reactions competed in the release process. The order of tritium diffusivity in these crystals was D(Li 8ZrO 6) > D(Li 2O) > D(Li 2ZrO 3) > D(Li 2SiO 3) > D(γ-LiAlO 2) . In Li 2O crystals irradiated with thermal and 14-MeV neutrons the T - state of tritium was found to exist together with the most abundant T + species (OT -), but no T - species was found in unirradiated crystals in which tritium had been dissolved under thermal equilibrium conditions. Although the thermal release behavior of tritium dissolved in Li 2O crystals resembled that in neutron-irradiated ones, the diffusivity of T + ions in the unirradiated crystal was lower than that in the irradiated crystal. The solubility of tritium gas (HT) in Li 2O crystals obeyed the Sieverts' law.

  8. Progress in tritium retention and release modeling for ceramic breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Raffray, A.R.; Federici, G.; Billone, M.C.; Tanaka, S.

    1994-07-11

    Tritium behavior in ceramic breeder blankets is a key design issue for this class of blanket because of its impact on safety and fuel self-sufficiency. Over the past 10-15 years, substantial theoretical and experimental efforts have been dedicated world-wide to develop a better understanding of tritium transport in ceramic breeders. Models that are available today seem to cover reasonably well all the key physical transport and trapping mechanisms. They have allowed for reasonable interpretation and reproduction of experimental data and have helped in pointing out deficiencies in material property data base, in providing guidance for future experiments, and in analyzing blanket tritium behavior. This paper highlights the progress in tritium modeling over the last decade. Key tritium transport mechanisms are briefly described along with the more recent and sophisticated models developed to help understand them. Recent experimental data are highlighted and model calibration and validation discussed. Finally, example applications to blanket cases are shown as illustration of progress in the prediction of ceramic breeder blanket tritium inventory.

  9. A uranium bed with ceramic body for tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Khapov, A.S.; Grishechkin, S.K.; Kiselev, V.G.

    2015-03-15

    It is widely recognized that ceramic coatings provide an attractive solution to lower tritium permeation in structural materials. Alumina based ceramic coatings have the highest permeation reduction factor for hydrogen. For this reason an attempt was made to apply crack-free low porous ceramics as a structural material of a bed body for tritium storage in a setup used for hydrogenating neutron tube targets at VNIIA. The present article introduces the design of the bed. This bed possesses essentially a lower hydrogen permeation factor than traditionally beds with stainless steel body. Bed heating in order to recover hydrogen from the bed is suggested to be implemented by high frequency induction means. Inductive heating allows decreasing the time necessary for tritium release from the bed as well as power consumption. Both of these factors mean less thermal power release into glove box where a setup for tritium handling is installed and thus causes fewer problems with pressure regulations inside the glove box. Inductive heating allows raising tritium sorbent material temperature up to melting point. The latter allows achieving nearly full tritium recovery.

  10. Demonstration of the highest deuterium-tritium areal density using multiple-picket cryogenic designs on OMEGA.

    PubMed

    Goncharov, V N; Sangster, T C; Boehly, T R; Hu, S X; Igumenshchev, I V; Marshall, F J; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Radha, P B; Seka, W; Skupsky, S; Stoeckl, C; Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Petrasso, R D

    2010-04-23

    The performance of triple-picket deuterium-tritium cryogenic target designs on the OMEGA Laser System [T. R. Boehly, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] is reported. These designs facilitate control of shock heating in low-adiabat inertial confinement fusion targets. Areal densities up to 300 mg/cm2 (the highest ever measured in cryogenic deuterium-tritium implosions) are inferred in the experiments with an implosion velocity approximately 3x10(7) cm/s driven at peak laser intensities of 8x10(14) W/cm2. Extension of these designs to ignition on the National Ignition Facility [J. A. Paisner, Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)] is presented.

  11. Relation between the tritium in continuous atmospheric release and the tritium contents of fruits and tubers.

    PubMed

    Korolevych, V Y; Kim, S B

    2013-04-01

    Concentrations of organically bound tritium (OBT) and tissue-free water tritium (TFWT, also referred to as HTO) in fruits and tubers were measured at a garden plot in the vicinity of the source of chronic airborne tritium emissions during the 2008, 2010, and 2011 growing seasons. A continuous record of HTO concentration in the air moisture was reconstructed from the continuous record of Ar-41 ambient gamma radiation, as well as from frequent measurements of air HTO by active samplers at the garden plot and Ar-41 and air HTO monitoring data from the same sector. Performed measurements were used for testing the modified Specific Activity (SA) model based on the assumption that the average air HTO during the pod-filling period provides an appropriate basis for estimating the levels of OBT present in pods, fruits and tubers. It is established that the relationship between the OBT of fruits and tubers and the average air HTO from a 15-20 day wide window centred at the peak of the pod-filling period is consistent throughout the three analysed years, and could be expressed by the fruit or tuber's OBT to air-HTO ratio of 0.93 ± 0.21. For all three years, the concentration of HTO in fruits and tubers was found to be related to levels of HTO in the air, as averaged within a 3-day pre-harvest window. The variability in the ratio of plant HTO to air HTO appears to be three times greater than that for the OBT of the fruits and tubers. It is concluded that the OBT of fruits and tubers adequately follows an empirical relationship based on the average level of air HTO from the pod-filling window, and therefore is clearly in line with the modified SA approach.

  12. Effect of different tritium fractions on some plasma parameters in deuterium-tritium magnetic confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevalli, S. M.; Mohsenpour, T.; Dashtban, N.

    2016-09-01

    Nearly all reactor projects have considered deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion. The cross section of D-T reaction is larger than those of other fusion reactions, thus it is considered to be a more favorable reaction. The mix of fuel can vary. In this work, a comparison between the effects of different mixture of D-T fuel on the plasma parameters is made. A time dependence calculation of the fusion process is performed using the zero-dimensional model based on a coupled set of particle and energy balance equations in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The time evolution of plasma parameters is also analyzed numerically.

  13. Tritium trapping states induced by lithium-depletion in Li2TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Oya, Yasuhisa; Okuno, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    Identifications of tritium trapping states in neutron-irradiated Li1.8TiO2.9 (lithium-depleted Li2TiO3) were carried out by the out-of-pile tritium release behavior. Tritium release behaviors for neutron-irradiated Li2TiO3 and tritium gas-exposed TiO2 were also measured for comparison. Among the tritium release spectra for these samples, three tritium release peaks were appeared. By the kinetic analyses of tritium release behaviors, the Arrhenius parameters for three peaks were evaluated. Especially for Li1.8TiO2.9, there were two tritium release peaks, and the peak in lower temperature region was assigned to the tritium release controlled by the diffusion process in Li2TiO3 structure. The other tritium release peak, which was hardly appeared for Li2TiO3, was assigned to the release of tritium trapped as hydroxyl groups in Li1.8TiO2.9, indicating that lithium-depletion would result in the formation of hydroxyl groups in Li2TiO3. Lithium vacancies existed in Li2TiO3 crystal structure would promote the tritium trapping as hydroxyl groups due to the decreased charge repulsion between lithium ions and tritium ion, resulting in the difficulty of recovering tritium from Li2TiO3 effectively.

  14. A novel method for trace tritium transport studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonheure, Georges; Mlynar, Jan; Murari, A.; Giroud, C.; Belo, P.; Bertalot, L.; Popovichev, S.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2009-08-01

    A new method combining a free-form solution for the neutron emissivity and the ratio method (Bonheure et al 2006 Nucl. Fusion 46 725-40) is applied to the investigation of tritium particle transport in JET plasmas. The 2D neutron emissivity is calculated using the minimum Fisher regularization method (MFR) (Anton et al 1996 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 38 1849, Mlynar et al 2003 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 45 169). This method is being developed and studied alongside other methods at JET. The 2D neutron emissivity was significantly improved compared with the first MFR results by constraining the emissivity along the magnetic flux surfaces. 1D profiles suitable for transport analysis are then obtained by subsequent poloidal integration. In methods on which previous JET publications are based (Stork et al 2005 Nucl. Fusion 45 S181, JET Team (prepared by Zastrow) 1999 Nucl. Fusion 39 1891, Zastrow et al 2004 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 46 B255, Adams et al 1993 Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 329 277, Jarvis et al 1997 Fusion Eng. Des. 34-35 59, Jarvis et al 1994 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 36 219), the 14.07 MeV D-T neutron line integrals measurements were simulated and the transport coefficients varied until good fits were obtained. In this novel approach, direct knowledge of tritium concentration or the fuel ratio nT/nD is obtained using all available neutron profile information, e.g both 2.45 MeV D-D neutron profiles and 14.07 MeV D-T neutron profiles (Bonheure et al 2006 Nucl.Fusion 46 725-40). Tritium particle transport coefficients are then determined using a linear regression from the dynamic response of the tritium concentration nT/nD profile. The temporal and spatial evolution of tritium particle concentration was studied for a set of JET discharges with tritium gas puffs from the JET trace tritium experiments. Local tritium transport coefficients were derived from the particle flux equation Γ = -D∇nT + VnT, where D is the particle diffusivity and V the

  15. Key technologies for tritium storage bed development

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.H.; Chang, M.H.; Kang, H.G.; Chung, D.Y.; Oh, Y.H.; Jung, K.J.; Chung, H.; Koo, D.; Sohn, S.H.; Song, K.M.

    2015-03-15

    ITER Storage and Delivery System (SDS) is a complex system involving tens of storage beds. The most important SDS getter bed will be used for the absorption and desorption of hydrogen isotopes in accordance with the fusion fuel cycle scenario. In this paper the current status concerning research/development activities for the optimal approach to the final SDS design is introduced. A thermal analysis is performed and discussed on the aspect of heat losses considering whether the reflector and/or the feed-through is present or not. A thermal hydraulic simulation shows that the presence of 3 or 4 reflectors minimize the heat loss. Another important point is to introduce the real-time gas analysis in the He{sup 3} collection system. In this study 2 independent strength methods based on gas chromatography and quadruple mass spectrometer for one and on a modified self-assaying quadruple mass spectrometer for the second are applied to separate the hydrogen isotopes in helium gas. Another issue is the possibility of using depleted uranium getter material for the storage of hydrogen isotopes, especially of tritium.

  16. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  17. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  18. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  19. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  20. Development of an electrolysis system for tritium enrichment in superficial water samples.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, G; Magnoni, M; Bertino, S; Losana, M C

    2009-12-01

    Tritium present in the environment gradually decreased in the last decades and nowadays it has reached extremely low activity concentrations. The purpose of the present work is the implementation of a tritium enrichment system in water samples using electrolytic techniques and pure nickel and iron electrodes. In the present work a mean tritium enrichment factor of 13.0 +/- 3.2 was obtained. This result should allow to reach a minimum detectable activity of tritium in water samples of about 1 tritium unit (TU) or less. The present enrichment system necessitates further adjustments and improvements, such as a cooling system in order to reduce the tritium losses due to evaporation.