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Sample records for adjacent healthy tissues

  1. Evaluation of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 and transforming growth factor-beta2 expression in bladder cancer tissue in comparison with healthy adjacent tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavinezhad, Ali; Yadegarazari, Reza; Mousavi-Bahar, Seyed Habibollah; Poorolajal, Jalal; Jafari, Mohammad; Amirzargar, Mohammad Ali; Effatpanah, Hosein

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The fifth most common cancer is allocated to bladder cancer (BC) worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of BC invasion and metastasis to identify target therapeutic strategies will improve disease survival. So the aim of this study was to measure expression rate of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) and transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2) mRNA in tissue samples of patients with BC and its healthy adjacent tissue samples and their association with muscle invasion, size and grade of the tumor. Materials and Methods Tissue samples were collected from 35 newly diagnosed untreated patients with BC from 2013 to 2014. Total RNA was extracted from about 50-mg tissue samples using TRIzol reagent. TAKARA SYBR Premix EX Tag II was applied to determine the rate of mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To obtain final validation, PCR product of ZEB1 and TGF-β2 were sequenced. STATA 11 software was used to analyze the data. Results The expression level of ZEB1 in tumor samples was significantly more than of in healthy adjacent tissue samples. Up-regulation of TGF-β2 showed a strong association with muscle invasion (p=0.017). There was also demonstrated a relationship between over expression of ZEB1 with the tumor size (p=0.050). Conclusions It looks ZEB1 and TGF-β2 had a role in BC patients. In this study ZEB1 expression was higher in BC tissues than that of in healthy control tissues. There was demonstrated a markedly association between overexpression of TGF-β2 and muscle invasion. Therefore, they are supposed to be candidate as potential biomarkers for early detection and progression of BC. PMID:28261684

  2. Gene promoter methylation in colorectal cancer and healthy adjacent mucosa specimens

    PubMed Central

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migheli, Francesca; Lopomo, Angela; Failli, Alessandra; Legitimo, Annalisa; Consolini, Rita; Fontanini, Gabriella; Sensi, Elisa; Servadio, Adele; Seccia, Massimo; Zocco, Giuseppe; Chiarugi, Massimo; Spisni, Roberto; Migliore, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the promoter methylation levels of the APC, MGMT, hMLH1, RASSF1A and CDKN2A genes in 107 colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and 80 healthy adjacent tissues. We searched for correlation with both physical and pathological features, polymorphisms of folate metabolism pathway genes (MTHFR, MTRR, MTR, RFC1, TYMS, and DNMT3B), and data on circulating folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine, which were available in a subgroup of the CRC patients. An increased number of methylated samples were found in CRC respect to adjacent healthy tissues, with the exception of APC, which was also frequently methylated in healthy colonic mucosa. Statistically significant associations were found between RASSF1A promoter methylation and tumor stage, and between hMLH1 promoter methylation and tumor location. Increasing age positively correlated with both hMLH1 and MGMT methylation levels in CRC tissues, and with APC methylation levels in the adjacent healthy mucosa. Concerning gender, females showed higher hMLH1 promoter methylation levels with respect to males. In CRC samples, the MTR 2756AG genotype correlated with higher methylation levels of RASSF1A, and the TYMS 1494 6bp ins/del polymorphism correlated with the methylation levels of both APC and hMLH1. In adjacent healthy tissues, MTR 2756AG and TYMS 1494 6bp del/del genotypes correlated with APC and MGMT promoter methylation, respectively. Low folate levels were associated with hMLH1 hypermethylation. Present results support the hypothesis that DNA methylation in CRC depends from both physiological and environmental factors, with one-carbon metabolism largely involved in this process. PMID:24500500

  3. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  4. EXPRESSION MECHANISM AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF NOB1 IN GASTRIC CANCER TISSUE AND ADJACENT NORMAL TISSUE.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W-P; Liu, X; Yang, Y; Liu, Y-F

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effect and relationship of NOB1 in the development of gastric cancer, based on an analysis of NOB1expression in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent tissue. Thirty gastric cancer tissue samples taken during surgery with complete pathological data and their related adjacent normal tissue were examined in this study. NOB1 protein expression in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Real-time PCR was used to detect NOB1 mRNA expression, which provided a basis on which to explore the clinical pathological characteristics for patients with gastric cancer. Results show that NOB1 protein in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue were diffusely expressed both in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The positive expression rate in gastric cancer tissue was 73%, higher than that in adjacent normal tissue (47%). Both the reference NAPDH and NOB1 amplification are reflected in the amplification curve in standard S-shape and the unimodal solubility curve which was not altered by non-specific amplification and primer dimer. NOB1 mRNA relative expression in cancer tissue was 4.899∓1.412. NOB1 expression had no direct relationship with the patients’ age, gender, tumor differentiation or infiltration degree, lymphatic metastasis, distant metastasis nor pTNM periodization, but was directly related to the size of the tumor. All the findings in this paper suggest that NOB1 can be one of the focuses for diagnosing and treating gastric cancer and that its protein expression is likely to increase with the growth of tumor, thus playing a great role in the incidence and development of gastric cancer.

  5. Tissue microenvironments within functional cortical subdivisions adjacent to focal stroke.

    PubMed

    Katsman, Diana; Zheng, Jian; Spinelli, Kateri; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2003-09-01

    Stroke produces a region of complete cell death and areas of partial damage, injury, and gliosis. The spatial relationship of these regions of damage to the infarct core and within spared neuronal circuits has not been identified. A model of cortical stroke was developed within functional subsets of the somatosensory cortex. Infarct size, regions of apoptosis, oxidative DNA damage, heat shock protein induction, and subtypes of reactive gliosis were precisely mapped with the somatosensory body map, quantified, and interrelated. Three tissue microenvironments were recognized: zones of partial ischemic damage, heat shock protein induction, and distributed gliosis. These three zones involved progressively more distant cortical regions, each larger than the infarct core. The zone of partial ischemic damage represents an overlap region of apoptotic cell death, oxidative DNA damage, loss of synaptic connections, and local reactive gliosis. The zone of distributed gliosis occupies distinct functional areas of the somatosensory cortex. The tissue reorganization induced by stroke is much larger than the stroke site itself. Adjacent tissue microenvironments are sites of distinct reactive cellular signaling and may serve as a link between the processes of acute cell death and delayed neuronal plasticity after focal stroke.

  6. Effects of radiotherapy on uveal melanomas and adjacent tissues

    PubMed Central

    Groenewald, C; Konstantinidis, L; Damato, B

    2013-01-01

    Most uveal melanomas are treated with radiotherapy. An adequate understanding of the effects of radiation on the tumour and the healthy ocular tissues is necessary. Ionizing radiation damages cell membranes, organelles, and DNA. Irradiated cells are lysed or undergo apoptosis, necrosis, and senescence. These effects occur in tumour cells and vascular endothelial cells, resulting in tumour shrinkage, ischaemia, infarction, exudation, and fibrosis, which can cause exudative maculopathy, serous retinal detachment, rubeosis, and neovascular glaucoma (ie, ‘toxic tumour syndrome'). Such abnormalities must be distinguished from collateral damage to healthy ocular tissues that receive high doses of radiation, and these include radiation-induced retinopathy, optic neuropathy, choroidopathy, cataract, and scleral necrosis. Radiation retinopathy can be treated effectively with photodynamic therapy, anti-angiogenic agents, and intravitreal steroid injections. In some patients, optic neuropathy may improve with intravitreal steroids or anti-angiogenic agents. Neovascular glaucoma resolves with intra-cameral bevacizumab. Exudative retinal detachment can regress with intra-vitreal steroid injections. Cataract is treated in the usual manner. Scleral necrosis, if severe, may require grafting, possibly using a lamellar flap from the same eye. Depending on the bulk of the residual toxic tumour, treatment can consist of intra-vitreal steroids and/or anti-angiogenic agents, transpupillary thermotherapy or photodynamic therapy to the tumour, or surgical removal of the tumour by endo- or exo-resection. Measures aimed at preventing collateral damage include eccentric placement of ruthenium plaques or iodine seeds and delivery of a notched proton beam. The decision to treat a uveal melanoma with radiotherapy requires the ability to manage iatrogenic side effects and complications. PMID:23196647

  7. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  8. Gene promoter methylation in colorectal cancer and healthy adjacent mucosa specimens: correlation with physiological and pathological characteristics, and with biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migheli, Francesca; Lopomo, Angela; Failli, Alessandra; Legitimo, Annalisa; Consolini, Rita; Fontanini, Gabriella; Sensi, Elisa; Servadio, Adele; Seccia, Massimo; Zocco, Giuseppe; Chiarugi, Massimo; Spisni, Roberto; Migliore, Lucia

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the promoter methylation levels of the APC, MGMT, hMLH1, RASSF1A and CDKN2A genes in 107 colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and 80 healthy adjacent tissues. We searched for correlation with both physical and pathological features, polymorphisms of folate metabolism pathway genes (MTHFR, MTRR, MTR, RFC1, TYMS, and DNMT3B), and data on circulating folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine, which were available in a subgroup of the CRC patients. An increased number of methylated samples were found in CRC respect to adjacent healthy tissues, with the exception of APC, which was also frequently methylated in healthy colonic mucosa. Statistically significant associations were found between RASSF1A promoter methylation and tumor stage, and between hMLH1 promoter methylation and tumor location. Increasing age positively correlated with both hMLH1 and MGMT methylation levels in CRC tissues, and with APC methylation levels in the adjacent healthy mucosa. Concerning gender, females showed higher hMLH1 promoter methylation levels with respect to males. In CRC samples, the MTR 2756AG genotype correlated with higher methylation levels of RASSF1A, and the TYMS 1494 6bp ins/del polymorphism correlated with the methylation levels of both APC and hMLH1. In adjacent healthy tissues, MTR 2756AG and TYMS 1494 6bp del/del genotypes correlated with APC and MGMT promoter methylation, respectively. Low folate levels were associated with hMLH1 hypermethylation. Present results support the hypothesis that DNA methylation in CRC depends from both physiological and environmental factors, with one-carbon metabolism largely involved in this process.

  9. Coexisiting adenoma and granuloma involving the right inferior parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mayank; Kandasamy, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory lesions, particularly granulomas, involving adenoma of the parathyroid gland are rare. Ectopic thymic tissue is commonly associated with the thyroid and/or parathyroid gland due to their close embryonic relationship. We report a rare case of coexisting adenoma and granuloma of the parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue. PMID:24957592

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Jiajia; Zhang, Yunfeng; Zhang, Xiujun; Hu, Fen

    2015-05-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    XUAN, JIAJIA; ZHANG, YUNFENG; ZHANG, XIUJUN; HU, FEN

    2015-01-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26137243

  12. Expression Quantitative Trait loci (QTL) in tumor adjacent normal breast tissue and breast tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Zárate, Alejandro; Harshfield, Benjamin J; Hu, Rong; Knoblauch, Nick; Beck, Andrew H; Hankinson, Susan E; Carey, Vincent; Tamimi, Rulla M; Hunter, David J; Quackenbush, John; Hazra, Aditi

    2017-01-01

    We investigate 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in meta-analytic studies of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer, the majority of which are located in intergenic or intronic regions. To explore regulatory impacts of these variants we conducted expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analyses on tissue samples from 376 invasive postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) diagnosed from 1990-2004. Expression analysis was conducted on all formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples (and on 264 adjacent normal samples) using the Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array. Significance and ranking of associations between tumor receptor status and expression variation was preserved between NHS FFPE and TCGA fresh-frozen sample sets (Spearman r = 0.85, p<10^-10 for 17 of the 21 Oncotype DX recurrence signature genes). At an FDR threshold of 10%, we identified 27 trans-eQTLs associated with expression variation in 217 distinct genes. SNP-gene associations can be explored using an open-source interactive browser distributed in a Bioconductor package. Using a new a procedure for testing hypotheses relating SNP content to expression patterns in gene sets, defined as molecular function pathways, we find that loci on 6q14 and 6q25 affect various gene sets and molecular pathways (FDR < 10%). Although the ultimate biological interpretation of the GWAS-identified variants remains to be uncovered, this study validates the utility of expression analysis of this FFPE expression set for more detailed integrative analyses.

  13. Expression Quantitative Trait loci (QTL) in tumor adjacent normal breast tissue and breast tumor tissue

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz-Zárate, Alejandro; Harshfield, Benjamin J.; Hu, Rong; Knoblauch, Nick; Beck, Andrew H.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Carey, Vincent; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Hunter, David J.; Quackenbush, John; Hazra, Aditi

    2017-01-01

    We investigate 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in meta-analytic studies of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer, the majority of which are located in intergenic or intronic regions. To explore regulatory impacts of these variants we conducted expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analyses on tissue samples from 376 invasive postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) diagnosed from 1990–2004. Expression analysis was conducted on all formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples (and on 264 adjacent normal samples) using the Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array. Significance and ranking of associations between tumor receptor status and expression variation was preserved between NHS FFPE and TCGA fresh-frozen sample sets (Spearman r = 0.85, p<10^-10 for 17 of the 21 Oncotype DX recurrence signature genes). At an FDR threshold of 10%, we identified 27 trans-eQTLs associated with expression variation in 217 distinct genes. SNP-gene associations can be explored using an open-source interactive browser distributed in a Bioconductor package. Using a new a procedure for testing hypotheses relating SNP content to expression patterns in gene sets, defined as molecular function pathways, we find that loci on 6q14 and 6q25 affect various gene sets and molecular pathways (FDR < 10%). Although the ultimate biological interpretation of the GWAS-identified variants remains to be uncovered, this study validates the utility of expression analysis of this FFPE expression set for more detailed integrative analyses. PMID:28152060

  14. Screening of the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G H; Wang, S T; Yao, M Z; Cai, J H; Chen, C Y; Yang, Z X; Hong, L; Yang, S Y

    2014-04-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and methods of screening the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR3) were subcutaneously implanted for a tumor source and ovarian orthotopic transplantation. The cancer tissue, proximal paraneoplastic tissue, middle paraneoplastic tissue, remote paraneoplastic tissue, and normal ovarian tissue were removed. CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We obtained 35 paraneoplastic residual ovarian tissues with normal biopsies from 40 cases of an orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinoma model (87.5%). CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was lower in proximal paraneoplastic tissue than in cancer tissue (P < 0.05) and higher than in middle and remote paraneoplastic tissue (P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the expression of these genes in middle and proximal paraneoplastic tissue as well as among residual normal ovarian tissues with different severity (P > 0.05). In ovarian tissues of 20 normal nude mice, the expression of CK- 7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was negative. Overall, the expression levels of CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, TIMP-2, and other molecular markers showed a decreasing trend in the non-cancer tissue direction. The expression levels can be used as standards to screen residual normal ovarian tissue. We can obtain relatively safe normal ovarian tissues adjacent to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  15. Enamel matrix derivative (emdogain) or subepithelial connective tissue graft for the treatment of adjacent multiple gingival recessions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Eylem Ayhan; Parlar, Ates

    2013-01-01

    One treatment approach for achieving healing by regeneration is the application of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) during periodontal surgery. The aim of this randomized clinical study was to compare the efficacy of EMD with a connective tissue graft (CTG) for the treatment of adjacent Miller Class l and II multiple gingival recessions. Twelve systemically healthy subjects with at least two Miller Class I or II multiple gingival recession defects affecting adjacent teeth on both sides of the mouth were enrolled. The surgical protocol was performed for both groups. The 56 recession defects were evaluated for recession depth (RD), recession width (RW), percentage of root coverage (PRC), height of keratinized tissue (HKT), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). All measurements were repeated at 6 and 12 months. The mean PRC at the final evaluation was 89% ± 17% for the coronally advanced flap (CAF) + EMD group and 93% ± 17% for the CAF + CTG group. Both treatments resulted in statistically significant decreases in RD and RW and increases in HKT at 6 and 12 months. There was also a significant CAL gain for both groups. PD remained shallow over time. The results demonstrated that both procedures were successful in treating Miller Class I and II multiple gingival recessions; however, the greater results of the CAF + CTG group did not reach a statistically significant level.

  16. Spatiotemporal morphometry of adjacent tissue layers with application to the study of sulcal formation

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A.; Kim, Kio; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A.; Barkovich, A. James; Studholme, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The process of brain growth involves the expansion of tissue at different rates at different points within the brain. As the layers within the developing brain evolve they can thicken or increase in area as the brain surface begins to fold. In this work we propose a new spatiotemporal formulation of tensor based volume morphometry that is derived in relation to tissue boundaries. This allows the study of the directional properties of tissue growth by separately characterizing the changes in area and thickness of the adjacent layers. The approach uses temporally weighted, local regression across a population of anatomies with different ages to model changes in components of the growth radial and tangential to the boundary between tissue layers. The formulation is applied to the study of sulcal formation from in-utero MR imaging of human fetal brain anatomy. Results show that the method detects differential growth of tissue layers adjacent to the cortical surface, particularly at sulcal locations, as early as 22 gestational weeks. PMID:21995063

  17. Expression of albumin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 in tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shi-Min; Tan, Wei-Min; Deng, Wei-Xiong; Zhuang, Si-Min; Luo, Jian-Wei

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression of albumin (ALB), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Twenty-four HCC patients with cirrhosis who underwent hepatectomy were studied. ALB mRNA, IGF-1 mRNA, and IGFBP-3 mRNA in liver tissues (including tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues) were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Liver Ki67 immunohistochemistry staining was studied. At the same time, 12 patients with cholelithiasis or liver angioma who underwent operation were segregated as normal control. RESULTS: In HCC patients with cirrhosis, hepatic ALB mRNA, IGF-1 mRNA, and IGFBP-3 mRNA of tumor tissues or adjacent non-tumor tissues were lower than the normal liver tissues, while in tumor tissues, hepatic ALB mRNA and IGFBP-3 mRNA were lower, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA was higher than in adjacent non-tumor tissues. Liver Ki67 labeling index (Ki67 LI) in tumor tissues or adjacent non-tumor tissues were higher than that in the normal liver tissues, while in tumor tissues it was higher than that in adjacent non-tumor tissues. CONCLUSION: Imbalance of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 may play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor development of liver cirrhosis patients. PMID:16015705

  18. CRLX101 nanoparticles localize in human tumors and not in adjacent, nonneoplastic tissue after intravenous dosing

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew J.; Wiley, Devin T.; Zuckerman, Jonathan E.; Webster, Paul; Chao, Joseph; Lin, James; Yen, Yun; Davis, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle-based therapeutics are being used to treat patients with solid tumors. Whereas nanoparticles have been shown to preferentially accumulate in solid tumors of animal models, there is little evidence to prove that intact nanoparticles localize to solid tumors of humans when systemically administered. Here, tumor and adjacent, nonneoplastic tissue biopsies are obtained through endoscopic capture from patients with gastric, gastroesophageal, or esophageal cancer who are administered the nanoparticle CRLX101. Both the pre- and postdosing tissue samples adjacent to tumors show no definitive evidence of either the nanoparticle or its drug payload (camptothecin, CPT) contained within the nanoparticle. Similar results are obtained from the predosing tumor samples. However, in nine of nine patients that were evaluated, CPT is detected in the tumor tissue collected 24–48 h after CRLX101 administration. For five of these patients, evidence of the intact deposition of CRLX101 nanoparticles in the tumor tissue is obtained. Indications of CPT pharmacodynamics from tumor biomarkers such as carbonic anhydrase IX and topoisomerase I by immunohistochemistry show clear evidence of biological activity from the delivered CPT in the posttreatment tumors. PMID:27001839

  19. Histopathological effects of intraoperative radiotherapy on pancreas and adjacent tissues: a postmortem analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, H.J.; Restrepo, C.; Kinsella, T.J.; Sindelar, W.F.

    1988-02-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) has been utilized in the treatment of resectable and unresectable pancreatic carcinoma at the National Cancer Institute. Detailed autopsy analyses of the radiation effects on the pancreas and adjacent tissues were performed on 13 patients dying at various times following therapy. IORT can induce a progressive retroperitoneal fibrosis and fibrosis of the porta hepatis in patients with resectable pancreatic carcinoma. In unresectable pancreatic carcinoma, the major expression of intraoperative irradiation with external beam irradiation is a progressive fibrosis of the pancreas with vascular sclerosis, nerve degeneration, atrophy of acinar cells, and atypical changes in the ducts of the pancreas, as well as degenerative changes of the pancreatic tumor.

  20. Early Growth Response1and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression is Altered in Tumor Adjacent Prostate Tissue and Indicates Field Cancerization

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anna C.; Trujillo, Kristina A.; Phillips, Genevieve K.; Fleet, Trisha M.; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Severns, Virginia; Shah, Satyan K.; Davis, Michael S.; Smith, Anthony Y.; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Fischer, Edgar G.; Bisoffi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Field cancerization denotes the occurrence of molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. In prostate cancer, identification of field cancerization has several potential clinical applications. However, prostate field cancerization remains ill defined. Our previous work has shown up-regulated mRNA of the transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) in tissues adjacent to prostate cancer. METHODS Immunofluorescence data were analyzed quantitatively by spectral imaging and linear unmixing to determine the protein expression levels of EGR-1 and FAS in human cancerous, histologically normal adjacent, and disease-free prostate tissues. RESULTS EGR-1 expression was elevated in both structurally intact tumor adjacent (1.6× on average) and in tumor (3.0× on average) tissues compared to disease-free tissues. In addition, the ratio of cytoplasmic versus nuclear EGR-1 expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent and tumor tissues. Similarly, FAS expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent (2.7× on average) and in tumor (2.5× on average) compared to disease-free tissues. CONCLUSIONS EGR-1 and FAS expression is similarly deregulated in tumor and structurally intact adjacent prostate tissues and defines field cancerization. In cases with high suspicion of prostate cancer but negative biopsy, identification of field cancerization could help clinicians target areas for repeat biopsy. Field cancerization at surgical margins on prostatectomy specimen should also be looked at as a predictor of cancer recurrence. EGR-1 and FAS could also serve as molecular targets for chemoprevention. PMID:22127986

  1. Towards a biomimetism of abdominal healthy and aneurysmal arterial tissues.

    PubMed

    Bailly, L; Geindreau, C; Orgéas, L; Deplano, V

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a new hyperelastic and anisotropic material mimicking histological and mechanical features of healthy and aneurysmal arterial tissues. The material is constituted by rhombic periodic lattices of hyperelastic fibres embedded into a soft elastomer membrane. To fit bi-axial experimental data obtained from the literature, with normal or pathologic human abdominal aortic tissues, the microstructure of the periodic lattices (fibre length, angle between fibres) together with the mechanical behaviour of the fibres (fibre tension-elongation curve) were optimised by using theoretical results arising from a multi-scale homogenisation process. It is shown that (i) a material constituted by only one periodic lattice of fibres is clearly not sufficient to describe all the experimental data set, (ii) a quantitative agreement between measurements and theoretical predictions is obtained by using a material with two fibre lattices, (iii) the optimised microstructures and mechanical properties of the fibrous lattices are strongly different for the abdominal healthy and aneurysmal arterial tissues, (iv) the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of the optimised material is described by only five parameters and (v) the optimal angles between fibres in the case of the healthy aorta are consistent with histological data. Several technical solutions of fibres can be considered as relevant candidates: this is illustrated in the particular cases of straight and wavy fibres.

  2. Tookad-mediated photodynamic effects on the prostate and its adjacent tissues: in vivo study in canine models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Luck, David; Beckers, Jill; Blanc, Dominique; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad (pd-bacteriopheophorbide), was investigated as an alternative treatment modality for prostate cancer. Tookad photodynamic effects on the prostate and its adjacent tissues were evaluated in canine models. Interstitial prostate PDT was performed by irradiating individual lobes with a diode laser (763 nm) and 1-cm cylindrical diffuser fibers at various light doses to activate the IV administered photosensitizer Tookad (1 - 2 mg/kg). The sensitivity of the adjacent tissues to Tookad-PDT was determined by superficially irradiating the surfaces of the bladder, colon, abdominal muscle and pelvic plexus with a microlens fiber at various drug/light doses. PDT effect on the prostatic urethra was evaluated by transurethral irradiation. The prostate and adjacent tissues were harvested one-week after the treatment and subjected to histopathologic examination. At one-week post interstitial prostate PDT, the animals recovered well with little or no urethral complications. PDT induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis. The bladder, colon, abdominal muscle and pelvic plexus, appeared to also be sensitive to Tookad-PDT at light dose levels greater than 40 Jcm2. Urethral mucosa appeared less sensitive to Tookad-PDT. In conclusion, Tookad-mediated PDT demonstrates very strong vascular effects and can provide an effective alternative for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Protection of the adjacent tissues should be taken into consideration in the total prostate ablation process due to their sensitivity to the Tookad-mediated PDT.

  3. Remodelling of periodontal tissues adjacent to sites treated according to the principles of guided tissue regeneration (GTR).

    PubMed

    Brägger, U; Hämmerle, C H; Mombelli, A; Bürgin, W; Lang, N P

    1992-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the remodelling of alveolar bone adjacent to periodontal sites following therapy according to the principles of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) using computer-assisted densitometric image analysis (CADIA), and to compare the radiographic results to traditional clinical parameters. As required for digital subtraction analyses, periodically reproducible radiographs were obtained using a modification of the Rinn System and individual acrylic bite blocks for periodical identical radiographs. Ideally, a digital subtraction image from a site where absolutely no change in density had occurred would show a perfect cancellation of the structures. An average grey level value of 128 (the middle of the digitizer grey level range set by software) would show up at each pixel. Areas with grey levels < 128 in the subtraction image would indicate loss in density and grey levels > 128 would indicate increase in density. Within the subtraction images, areas were defined using the cursor to draw "regions of interest" (ROI) projected on the bony defect exposed to GTR covering the crestal bone as well as the region of potential "bonefill". The mean, median, the standard deviation and range of the grey levels of pixels within a particular ROI were calculated. Similarly sized ROI were drawn in bone areas not exposed to the GTR procedure serving as controls. The differences in the mean grey levels of all pixels within a particular ROI between the baseline, 3 and 12 months images were calculated for documentation of gain or loss in density. From 14 patients, standardized radiographs were available from baseline, 3 months and 12 months postsurgically, depicting one infraosseous defect before and after treatment according to the principles of GTR. The densitometric changes observed in these defects were compared to the clinically assessed changes measured at the site with the deepest baseline pocket depth. A mean clinical attachment gain of 2.36 mm

  4. A Thermal Monitoring Sheet with Low Influence from Adjacent Waterbolus for Tissue Surface Thermometry during Clinical Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, K.; Maccarini, P.F.; Stauffer, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a complete thermal analysis of a novel conformal surface thermometer design with directional sensitivity for real time temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatments of large superficial cancer. The thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) discussed in this paper consists of a two-dimensional array of fiberoptic sensors embedded between two layers of flexible, low loss and thermally conductive printed circuit board (PCB) film. Heat transfer across all interfaces from the tissue surface through multiple layers of insulating dielectrics surrounding the small buried temperature sensor and into an adjacent temperature regulated water coupling bolus was studied using 3D thermal simulation software. Theoretical analyses were carried out to identify the most effective differential TMS probe configuration possible with commercially available flexible PCB materials, and to compare their thermal responses with omni-directional probes commonly used in clinical hyperthermia. A TMS sensor design that employs 0.0508m Kapton MTB® and 0.2032 mm Kapton HN® flexible polyimide films is proposed for tissue surface thermometry with low influence from the adjacent waterbolus. Comparison of the thermal simulations with clinical probes indicate the new differential TMS probe design to outperform in terms of both transient response and steady state accuracy in selectively reading the tissue surface temperature, while decreasing the overall thermal barrier of the probe between the coupling waterbolus and tissue surface. PMID:18838365

  5. Near-infrared optical coefficients of tumors and adjacent normal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufer, Jan G.

    2001-06-01

    The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of tumours of the human breast, liver and kidney and their normal surrounding tissue have been measured in vitro for the near-infrared wavelengths between 600 and 1000 nm as well as 1064 nm. The Monte Carlo inversion technique (Simpson et al) was used to determine the optical coefficients of tissue samples from measurements of the diffuse transmittance and reflectance. The measurements of the diffusely transmitted and reflected intensities were performed using a single integrating sphere 'comparison' method. Four post-mortem samples of both liver adenocarcinoma and normal liver tissue were obtained from one subject and four samples of both tumour and normal kidney tissue were obtained from another subject. Four samples of both breast tumour and normal tissue were obtained from two patients. The scattering coefficient of tumours was found in each case to be significantly higher than that of nondiseased tissue. The absorption coefficient of tumours was generally much smaller than those of normal tissue. The scattering coefficient of tumours was 20% to 200% higher depending on the type of cancer and the wavelength, while the absorption coefficient of tumours was as much as twenty times smaller compared to normal tissue.

  6. Quantitative Assessment of First Annular Pulley and Adjacent Tissues Using High-Frequency Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Hsun; Yang, Tai-Hua; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Su, Fong-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Due to a lack of appropriate image resolution, most ultrasound scanners are unable to sensitively discern the pulley tissues. To extensively investigate the properties of the A1 pulley system and the surrounding tissues for assessing trigger finger, a 30 MHz ultrasound system was implemented to perform in vitro experiments using the hypodermis, A1 pulley, and superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) dissected from cadavers. Ultrasound signals were acquired from both the transverse and sagittal planes of each tissue sample. The quantitative ultrasonic parameters, including sound speed, attenuation coefficient, integrated backscatter (IB) and Nakagami parameter (m), were subsequently estimated to characterize the tissue properties. The results demonstrated that the acquired ultrasound images have high resolution and are able to sufficiently differentiate the variations of tissue textures. Moreover, the attenuation slope of the hypodermis is larger than those of the A1 pulley and SDFT. The IB of A1 pulley is about the same as that of the hypodermis, and is very different from SDFT. The m parameter of the A1 pulley is also very different from those of hypodermis and SDFT. This study demonstrated that high-frequency ultrasound images in conjunction with ultrasonic parameters are capable of characterizing the A1 pulley system and surrounding tissues. PMID:28067854

  7. Markers of fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition demonstrate field cancerization in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Kristina A.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Mai, Minh; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Vo, Phung; Butler, Kimberly S.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a field of genetically altered but histologically normal tissue extends 1 cm or more from the margins of human breast tumors. The extent, composition and biological significance of this field are only partially understood, but the molecular alterations in affected cells could provide mechanisms for limitless replicative capacity, genomic instability and a microenvironment that supports tumor initiation and progression. We demonstrate by microarray, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry a signature of differential gene expression that discriminates between patient-matched, tumor-adjacent histologically normal breast tissues located 1 cm and 5 cm from the margins of breast adenocarcinomas (TAHN-1 and TAHN-5, respectively). The signature includes genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Myofibroblasts, which are mediators of wound healing and fibrosis, and intra-lobular fibroblasts expressing MMP2, SPARC, TGF-β3, which are inducers of EMT, were both prevalent in TAHN-1 tissues, sparse in TAHN-5 tissues, and absent in normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty. Accordingly, EMT markers S100A4 and vimentin were elevated in both luminal and myoepithelial cells, and EMT markers α-smooth muscle actin and SNAIL were elevated in luminal epithelial cells of TAHN-1 tissues. These results identify cellular processes that are differentially activated between TAHN-1 and TAHN-5 breast tissues, implicate myofibroblasts as likely mediators of these processes, provide evidence that EMT is occurring in histologically normal tissues within the affected field and identify candidate biomarkers to investigate whether or how field cancerization contributes to the development of primary or recurrent breast tumors. PMID:21105047

  8. Discriminating healthy from tumor and necrosis tissue in rat brain tissue samples by Raman spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Amharref, Nadia; Beljebbar, Abdelilah; Dukic, Sylvain; Venteo, Lydie; Schneider, Laurence; Pluot, Michel; Manfait, Michel

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate molecular changes associated with glioma tissues by Raman microspectroscopy in order to develop its use in clinical practice. Spectroscopic markers obtained from C6 glioma tissues were compared to conventional histological and histochemical techniques. Cholesterol and phospholipid contents were highest in corpus callosum and decreased gradually towards the cortex surface as well as in the tumor. Two different necrotic areas have been identified: a fully necrotic zone characterized by the presence of plasma proteins and a peri-necrotic area with a high lipid content. This result was confirmed by Nile Red staining. Additionally, one structure was detected in the periphery of the tumor. Invisible with histopathological hematoxylin and eosin staining, it was revealed by immunohistochemical Ki-67 and MT1-MMP staining used to visualize the proliferative and invasive activities of glioma, respectively. Hierarchical cluster analysis on the only cluster averaged spectra showed a clear distinction between normal, tumoral, necrotic and edematous tissues. Raman microspectroscopy can discriminate between healthy and tumoral brain tissue and yield spectroscopic markers associated with the proliferative and invasive properties of glioblastoma. Development of in vivo Raman spectroscopy could thus accurately define tumor margins, identify tumor remnants, and help in the development of novel therapies for glioblastoma.

  9. Clinical evaluation of expanded mesh connective tissue graft in the treatment for multiple adjacent gingival recessions in the esthetic zone

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, M.; Shivakumar, B.; Meenapriya, B.; Anitha, V.; Ashwath, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple approaches have been used to replace lost, damaged or diseased gingival tissues. The connective tissue graft (CTG) procedure is the golden standard method for root coverage. Although multiple sites often need grafting, the palatal mucosa supplies only a limited area of grafting material. To overcome this limitation, expanded mesh graft provides a method whereby a graft can be stretched to cover a large area. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and the predictability of expanded mesh CTG (e-MCTG) in the treatment of adjacent multiple gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients aged 20–50 years contributed to 55 sites, each site falling into at least three adjacent Miller's Class 1 or Class 2 gingival recession. The CTG obtained from the palatal mucosa was expanded to cover the recipient bed, which was 1.5 times larger than the graft. Clinical measurements were recorded at baseline and 3 months, 12 months postoperatively. Results: A mean coverage of 1.96 mm ± 0.66 mm and 2.22 mm ± 0.68 mm was obtained at the end of 3rd and 12th month, respectively. Twelve months after surgery a statistically significant increase in CAL (2.2 mm ± 0.68 mm, P < 0.001) and increasing WKT (1.75 ± 0.78, P < 0.001) were obtained. In 80% of the treated sites, 100% root coverage was achieved (mean 93.5%). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that multiple adjacent recessions were treated by using e-MCTG technique can be applied and highly predictable root coverage can be achieved. PMID:26321829

  10. B-LINK: A hemicentin, plakin and integrin-dependent adhesion system that links tissues by connecting adjacent basement membranes

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Meghan A.; Keeley, Daniel P.; Hagedorn, Elliott J.; McClatchey, Shelly T. H.; Chi, Qiuyi; Hall, David H.; Sherwood, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Basement membrane (BM), a sheet-like form of extracellular matrix, surrounds most tissues. During organogenesis specific adhesions between adjoining tissues frequently occur, however their molecular basis is unclear. Using live-cell imaging and electron microscopy we identify an adhesion system that connects the uterine and gonadal tissues through their juxtaposed BMs at the site of anchor cell (AC) invasion in C. elegans. We find that the extracellular matrix component hemicentin (HIM-4), found between BMs, forms punctate accumulations under the AC and controls BM linkage to promote rapid invasion. Through targeted screening we identify the integrin-binding cytolinker plakin (VAB-10A) and integrin (INA-1/PAT-3) as key BM-BM linkage regulators: VAB-10A localizes to the AC-BM interface and tethers hemicentin to the AC while integrin promotes hemicentin punctae formation. Together, plakin, integrin and hemicentin are founding components of a cell-directed adhesion system, which we name a B-LINK (Basement membrane-LINKage), that connects adjacent tissues through adjoining BMs. PMID:25443298

  11. Comparative proteome analysis of human esophageal cancer and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yazdian–Robati, Rezvan; Ahmadi, Homa; Riahi, Maryam Matbou; Lari, Parisa; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; Rashedinia, Marzieh; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Ranking as the sixth commonest cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) represents one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. One of the main reasons for the low survival of patients with esophageal cancer is its late diagnosis. Materials and Methods: We used proteomics approach to analyze ESCC tissues with the aim of a better understanding of the malignant mechanism and searching candidate protein biomarkers for early diagnosis of esophageal cancer. The differential protein expression between cancerous and normal esophageal tissues was investigated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Then proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) and MASCOT web based search engine. Results: We reported 4 differentially expressed proteins involved in the pathological process of esophageal cancer, such as annexinA1 (ANXA1), peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2), transgelin (TAGLN) andactin-aortic smooth muscle (ACTA2). Conclusion: In this report we have introduced new potential biomarker (ACTA2). Moreover, our data confirmed some already known markers for EC in our region. PMID:28392898

  12. Breast Field Cancerization: Isolation and Comparison of Telomerase-Expressing Cells in Tumor and Tumor Adjacent, Histologically Normal Breast Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Kristina A.; Hines, William C.; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K.

    2011-01-01

    Telomerase stabilizes chromosomes by maintaining telomere length, immortalizes mammalian cells, and is expressed in more than 90% of human tumors. However, the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is not restricted to tumor cells. We have previously shown that a subpopulation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in tumor-adjacent, histologically normal (TAHN) breast tissues expresses hTERT mRNA at levels comparable with levels in breast tumors. In the current study, we first validated a reporter for measuring levels of hTERT promoter activity in early-passage HMECs and then used this reporter to compare hTERT promoter activity in HMECs derived from tumor and paired TAHN tissues 1, 3, and 5 cm from the tumor (TAHN-1, TAHN-3, and TAHN-5, respectively). Cell sorting, quantitative real-time PCR, and microarray analyses showed that the 10% of HMECs with the highest hTERT promoter activity in both tumor and TAHN-1 tissues contain more than 95% of hTERT mRNA and overexpress many genes involved in cell cycle and mitosis. The percentage of HMECs within this subpopulation showing high hTERT promoter activity was significantly reduced or absent in TAHN-3 and TAHN-5 tissues. We conclude that the field of normal tissue proximal to the breast tumors contains a population of HMECs similar in hTERT expression levels and in gene expression to the HMECs within the tumor mass and that this population is significantly reduced in tissues more distal to the tumor. PMID:21775421

  13. Monte Carlo assessment of computed tomography dose to tissue adjacent to the scanned volume.

    PubMed

    Boone, J M; Cooper, V N; Nemzek, W R; McGahan, J P; Seibert, J A

    2000-10-01

    The assessment of the radiation dose to internal organs or to an embryo or fetus is required on occasion for risk assessment or for comparing imaging studies. Limited resources hinder the ability to accurately assess the radiation dose received to locations outside the tissue volume actually scanned during computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this study was to assess peripheral doses and provide tabular data for dose evaluation. Validated Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used to compute the dose distribution along the length of water-equivalent cylindrical phantoms, 16 and 32 cm in diameter. For further validation, comparisons between physically measured and Monte Carlo-derived air kerma profiles were performed and showed excellent (1% to 2%) agreement. Polyenergetic x-ray spectra at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp with beam shaping filters were studied. Using 10(8) simulated photons input to the cylinders perpendicular to their long axis, line spread functions (LSF) of the dose distribution were determined at three depths in the cylinders (center, mid-depth, and surface). The LSF data were then used with appropriate mathematics to compute dose distributions along the long axis of the cylinder. The dose distributions resulting from helical (pitch = 1.0) scans and axial scans were approximately equivalent. Beyond about 3 cm from the edge of the CT scanned tissue volume, the fall-off of radiation dose was exponential. A series of tables normalized at 100 milliampere seconds (mAs) were produced which allow the straight-forward assessment of dose within and peripheral to the CT scanned volume. The tables should be useful for medical physicists and radiologists in the estimation of dose to sites beyond the edge of the CT scanned volume.

  14. Immunohistochemical Expression of p16 and p21 in Pituitary Tissue Adjacent to Pituitary Adenoma versus Pituitary Tissue Obtained at Autopsy: Is There a Difference?

    PubMed

    Manojlovic Gacic, Emilija; Skender-Gazibara, Milica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Dundjerovic, Dusko; Boricic, Novica; Raicevic, Savo; Popovic, Vera

    2015-05-01

    Normal pituitary tissue is frequently used for comparison with protein expression in tumor tissue, being obtained either at surgery or at autopsy. p16 and p21 proteins are cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, belonging to INK4 and Cip/Kip family, respectively. Their expression is increased in response to DNA damage or other cellular stressors, resulting in the activation of cell cycle checkpoints. They also play important roles in cellular senescence. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in p16 and p21 immunohistochemical expression in normal pituitary tissue adjacent to pituitary adenoma obtained during neurosurgical procedure with pituitary tissue obtained at autopsy, from patients who died from non-endocrinological diseases. Our results show significant difference in p16 nuclear and p21 cytoplasmic immunohistochemical expression between two types of normal pituitary tissues. One of the reasons for this difference could be the age of subjects because those who underwent autopsy for a non-endocrinological disease were significantly older than subjects who underwent neurosurgery for a pituitary adenoma. Our finding that differences are probably not influenced by postmortem changes is supported by no significant correlation between postmortem interval and immunohistochemical p16 and p21 expression. The influence of the presence of a pituitary adenoma could not be evaluated in these specimens.

  15. Study of the response of osteogenic sarcoma and adjacent normal tissues to radiation. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitan-Yanguas, M.

    1981-05-01

    An analysis is made of the surgical specimens of 18 patients with hystologically-proven osteosarcoma who were treated with radiation as the first treatment, and submitted 6 months later to amputation (2 patients had only a second biopsy). Plotting of dose and treatment time against persistence or sterilization of the tumor shows that there is an intermediate zone that extends from 3200 to 5000 rad in 10 days to 8000 to 10,000 rad in 60 to 70 days, inside which the tumor may or may not be destroyed. All cases located above this zone were sterilized; and all those under it showed persistence of viable tumor cells. A similar correlation is made in 47 irradiated patients of the secondary reactions of normal skin and soft tissues surrounding the tumor. An intermediate zone also exists above which all reactions were severe, in some cases reaching necrosis; below this zone, all reactions were mild. When treatment time was longer than 45 days, reactions were only moderate.

  16. Lead in tissues of woodchucks fed crown vetch growing adjacent to a highway

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.W.; Ridgely, S.L.; Blue, J.T.; Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Woodchucks (Marmota monax) were fed crown vetch (Coronilla varia) growing along a major highway that was harvested in 1979, before unleaded gas was widely used, and again in 1985. Crown vetch, harvested 300 m from the nearest road, was fed as the control. The crops were fed as 50% dry weight of the diet for 58 d. The concentrations of lead in the control, 1979 crop, and 1985 crop were, respectively, 0.74, 50.65, and 6.78 ppm dry weight. The average +/- SE) concentrations (ppm, dry weight) of lead found in the tissues of the control, 1979, and 1985 dietary-treatment animals were, respectively, kidney, 0.36 +/- 0.05, 5.78 +/- 0.72, and 0.79 +/- 0.09; liver, 0.09 +/- 0.01, 4.71 +/- 0.17, and 0.46 +/- 0.06; muscle, 0.07 +/- 0.01, 0.14 +/- 0.02, and 0.07 +/- 0.00; blood, 0.09 +/- 0.02, 2.17 +/- 0.13, and 0.31 +/- 0.05; and bone, 1.27 +/- 0.25, 47.52 +/- 7.05, and 3.71 +/- 0.65. No significant differences (p greater than 0.05) between dietary treatments were found in the general hematological analyses of the woodchucks. The ecological significance of these findings is discussed.

  17. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Panis, C.; Victorino, V. J.; Herrera, A. C. S. A.; Cecchini, A. L.; Simão, A. N. C.; Tomita, L. Y.; Cecchini, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide. PMID:26697139

  18. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma.

    PubMed

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Cecchini, A L; Simão, A N C; Tomita, L Y; Cecchini, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide.

  19. Improved Characterization of Healthy and Malignant Tissue by NMR Line-Shape Relaxation Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Peemoeller, H.; Shenoy, R.K.; Pintar, M.M.; Kydon, D.W.; Inch, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    We performed a relaxation-line-shape correlation NMR experiment on muscle, liver, kidney, and spleen tissues of healthy mice and of mouse tumor tissue. In each tissue studied, five spin groups were resolved and characterized by their relaxation parameters. We report a previously uncharacterized semi-solid spin group and discuss briefly the value of this method for the identification of malignant tissues. PMID:7104438

  20. Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in the Urinary Bladder: Comparison Between Cancerous, Adjacent Non-cancerous and Normal Cadaveric Tissue.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, Mahmoud; Elsobky, Emad; Shalaby, Mahmoud M; Abd-Elhameed, Mohamed; Abdel-Rahim, Mona; Ali-El-Dein, Bedeir

    2016-12-01

    The role of heavy metals and trace elements (HMTE) in the development of some cancers has been previously reported. Bladder carcinoma is a frequent malignancy of the urinary tract. The most common risk factors for bladder cancer are exposure to industrial carcinogens, cigarette smoking, gender, and possibly diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate HTME concentrations in the cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissues and compare them with those of normal cadaveric bladder. This prospective study included 102 paired samples of full-thickness cancer and adjacent non-cancerous bladder tissues of radical cystectomy (RC) specimens that were histologically proven as invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We used 17 matched controls of non-malignant bladder tissue samples from cadavers. All samples were processed and evaluated for the concentration of 22 HMTE by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Outcome analysis was made by the Mann-Whitney U, chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. When compared with cadaveric control or cancerous, the adjacent non-cancerous tissue had higher levels of six elements (arsenic, lead, selenium, strontium, zinc, and aluminum), and when compared with the control alone, it had a higher concentration of calcium, cadmium, chromium, potassium, magnesium, and nickel. The cancerous tissue had a higher concentration of cadmium, lead, chromium, calcium, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, nickel, selenium, strontium, and zinc than cadaveric control. Boron level was higher in cadaveric control than cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissue. Cadmium level was higher in cancerous tissue with node-positive than node-negative cases. The high concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and zinc, in the cancerous together with arsenic in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues of RC specimens suggest a pathogenic role of these elements in BC. However, further work-up is needed to support this

  1. Expression of TAK1/TAB1 expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues and their clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiang; Li, Qiang; He, Jin-Tao; Liu, Guang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and its activation ligand, TAK1-binding protein 1 (TAB1), in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and adjacent normal tissues and to analyze the relevance between TAK1 and TAB1 protein expression and the pathological features of NSCLC patients. Surgical resection NSCLC specimens were collected from 74 patients undergoing surgery in our hospital from September 2003 to July 2008; tumor-adjacent normal tissue specimens were collected as controls. All cases were pathologically confirmed after surgery, and pathological data were complete for all patients. The expression of TAK1/TAB1 proteins in NSCLC and adjacent cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemical analysis. The correlation between TAK1/TAB1 protein expression and the clinicopathological features and outcome of NSCLC was assessed. The positive expression ratio of TAK1 in NSCLC tissue was 63.5%, which was significantly higher than that in tumor-adjacent normal tissue (31.1%). The positive expression ratio of TAB1 in NSCLC tissue was 51.4%, which was significantly higher than that in tumor-adjacent normal tissue (24.3%). Further analysis showed that positive protein expression of TAK1 and TAB1 was unrelated to patient gender, age, tumor size, degree of differentiation, and history of smoking (P>0.05) but was significantly related to clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). Additionally, the expression of TAK1 as well as TAB1 was negatively related to NSCLC patient prognosis, and patients with positive protein expression had a significantly lower 5-year survival rate than those with negative protein expression (P<0.05). TAK1/TAB1 expression in NSCLC tissue is significantly increased and closely associated with patient clinical prognosis. These two proteins are likely to become new therapeutic targets for the treatment of NSCLC.

  2. Comparing the micro-vascular structure of cancerous and healthy tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Bert; Lang, Sabrina; Beckmann, Felix; Dominietto, Marco; Rudin, Markus; Zanette, Irene; Weitkamp, Timm; Rack, Alexander; Hieber, Simone Elke

    2012-10-01

    Basic research is required to develop more powerful approaches to prevent, diagnose, and above all to treat cancer, although the clever combination of surgery, chemical, pharmacological, and radiation therapies is well established. Our research activity concentrates on the quantification of the three-dimensional micro-morphology of vessel trees formed in cancerous and healthy tissues of a mouse model post mortem. While in several cases it is possible to extract the vessel tree from corrosion casts, phase contrast imaging modalities are needed for cancerous tissues with a significant amount of damaged vessel walls. Differences between cancerous and healthy tissues could be identified. The sum-of-angle metrics is found to be constant for vessel segments in cancerous and healthy tissues with lengths between 12 and 220 μm and corresponds to (0.62 +/- 0.10) rad/μm.

  3. Comparison of Gene Expression Profile Between Tumor Tissue and Adjacent Non-tumor Tissue in Patients with Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST).

    PubMed

    Kou, Youwei; Zhao, Ying; Bao, Chenhui; Wang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are defined as spindle cell and/or epithelioid tumors originated from interstitial Cajal cells or precursors in the digestive tract. This study was conducted to identify genes differing in expression between the gastric tumors and the adjacent non-cancerous mucosas in patients with primary gastric GIST. The gene expression profile was determined by using oligonucleotide-based DNA microarrays and further validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis was performed to predict signaling pathways involved in gastric GIST. Our data showed that the expression levels of 957 genes (RAB39B, member RAS oncogene family; VCAN, versican; etc.) were higher and that of 526 genes (CXCL14, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 14; MTUS1, microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1; etc.) were lower in the gastric tumor tissues as compared with normal gastric tissues. Results from KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were enriched into 16 signaling transduction pathways, including Hedeghog and Wnt signaling pathways. Our study may provide basis for identification of novel biomarkers associated with primary gastric GIST pathogenesis and for exploration of underlying mechanisms involved in this gastric sarcoma.

  4. Uptake and distribution of fluorescently labeled cobalamin in neoplastic and healthy breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Michelle J.; McGreevy, James M.; Holden, Joseph A.; West, Frederick G.; Grissom, Charles B.

    2000-05-01

    Fluorescent analogs of cobalamin (vitamin B12) have been developed as diagnostic markers of cancer cells. These compounds are recognized by transcobalamin, a cobalamin transport protein, with high affinity, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. The cellular sequestration and gross distribution of fluorescent cobalamin bioconjugates in breast tissue is being examined by epifluorescence microscopy. The distribution of each compound is being evaluated in proliferative and non-proliferative tissue, i.e. normal tissue and breast carcinoma. The results of preliminary studies suggest that fluorescent analogs of cobalamin may be a useful tool in therapeutic breast operations to define tumor margins and to distinguish neoplastic breast tissue from healthy breast tissue.

  5. Prostate Field Cancerization: Deregulated Expression of Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and Platelet Derived Growth Factor A (PDGF-A) in Tumor Adjacent Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anna C.; Shoshan, Dor S.; Fischer, Edgar G.; Trujillo, Kristina A.; Bisoffi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Prostate field cancerization denotes molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Such alterations include deregulated protein expression, as we have previously shown for the key transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS). Here we add the two secreted factors macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) to the growing list of protein markers of prostate field cancerization. Expression of MIC-1 and PDGF-A was measured quantitatively by immunofluorescence and comprehensively analyzed using two methods of signal capture and several groupings of data generated in human cancerous (n = 25), histologically normal adjacent (n = 22), and disease-free (n = 6) prostate tissues. A total of 208 digitized images were analyzed. MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in tumor tissues were elevated 7.1x to 23.4x and 1.7x to 3.7x compared to disease-free tissues, respectively (p<0.0001 to p = 0.08 and p<0.01 to p = 0.23, respectively). In support of field cancerization, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in adjacent tissues were elevated 7.4x to 38.4x and 1.4x to 2.7x, respectively (p<0.0001 to p<0.05 and p<0.05 to p = 0.51, respectively). Also, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression were similar in tumor and adjacent tissues (0.3x to 1.0x; p<0.001 to p = 0.98 for MIC-1; 0.9x to 2.6x; p<0.01 to p = 1.00 for PDGF-A). All analyses indicated a high level of inter- and intra-tissue heterogeneity across all types of tissues (mean coefficient of variation of 86.0%). Our data shows that MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression is elevated in both prostate tumors and structurally intact adjacent tissues when compared to disease-free specimens, defining field cancerization. These secreted factors could promote tumorigenesis in histologically normal tissues and lead to tumor multifocality. Among several clinical applications, they could also be exploited as indicators of disease in false negative

  6. Prostate field cancerization: deregulated expression of macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) in tumor adjacent tissue.

    PubMed

    Jones, Anna C; Antillon, Kresta S; Jenkins, Shannon M; Janos, Sara N; Overton, Heidi N; Shoshan, Dor S; Fischer, Edgar G; Trujillo, Kristina A; Bisoffi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Prostate field cancerization denotes molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Such alterations include deregulated protein expression, as we have previously shown for the key transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS). Here we add the two secreted factors macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) to the growing list of protein markers of prostate field cancerization. Expression of MIC-1 and PDGF-A was measured quantitatively by immunofluorescence and comprehensively analyzed using two methods of signal capture and several groupings of data generated in human cancerous (n = 25), histologically normal adjacent (n = 22), and disease-free (n = 6) prostate tissues. A total of 208 digitized images were analyzed. MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in tumor tissues were elevated 7.1x to 23.4x and 1.7x to 3.7x compared to disease-free tissues, respectively (p<0.0001 to p = 0.08 and p<0.01 to p = 0.23, respectively). In support of field cancerization, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in adjacent tissues were elevated 7.4x to 38.4x and 1.4x to 2.7x, respectively (p<0.0001 to p<0.05 and p<0.05 to p = 0.51, respectively). Also, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression were similar in tumor and adjacent tissues (0.3x to 1.0x; p<0.001 to p = 0.98 for MIC-1; 0.9x to 2.6x; p<0.01 to p = 1.00 for PDGF-A). All analyses indicated a high level of inter- and intra-tissue heterogeneity across all types of tissues (mean coefficient of variation of 86.0%). Our data shows that MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression is elevated in both prostate tumors and structurally intact adjacent tissues when compared to disease-free specimens, defining field cancerization. These secreted factors could promote tumorigenesis in histologically normal tissues and lead to tumor multifocality. Among several clinical applications, they could also be exploited as indicators of disease in false negative

  7. The expression patterns of tight junction protein claudin-1, -3, and -4 in human gastric neoplasms and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiming; Yang, Xingwang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there is growing evidence that tight junction proteins are often abnormally regulated in human tumors. The function of tight junction proteins in the maintenance of normal epithelial physiology has been well discussed, but their role in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer is less well defined. To explore the expression distinction of the tight junction proteins claudin-1, -3, and -4 expression in the gastric cancer, the expression of claudin-1, -3, and -4 in 92 gastric cancer tissues and the non-neoplastic tissues adjacent to the tumors were examined by immunohistochemistry. Compared with adjacent non-neoplastic tissues, the expression of claudin-1 was down regulated. However, the expression of claudin-3 and claudin-4 were up-regulated in gastric cancer tissue. In addition, the expression of claudin-3 is correlated with claudin-4 expression in gastric cancer. Our present study reveals that claudin-1, -3, and -4 protein expression altered between human gastric cancers and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. PMID:25755790

  8. Identification of reliable reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in oral squamous cell carcinomas compared to adjacent normal tissues in the F344 rat model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xinjian; McCormick, David L

    2016-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) induced in F344 rats by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) demonstrate considerable phenotypic similarity to human oral cancers and the model has been widely used for carcinogenesis and chemoprevention studies. Molecular characterization of this model needs reliable reference genes (RGs) to avoid false- positive and -negative results for proper interpretation of gene expression data between tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Microarray analysis of 11 pairs of OSCC and site-matched phenotypically normal oral tissues from 4-NQO-treated rats identified 10 stably expressed genes in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p>0.5, CV<15%) that could serve as potential RGs in this model. The commonly used 27 RGs in the rat were also analyzed based on microarray data and most of them were found unsuitable for RGs in this model. Traditional RGs such as ACTB and GAPDH were significantly altered in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p<0.01, n=11); however, the Hsp90ab1 was ranked as the best RG candidate and the combination of Hsp90ab1 and HPRT1 was identified by NormFinder to be a superior reference for gene normalization among the commonly used RGs. This result was also validated by RT-PCR based on the selected top RG candidate pool. These data suggest that there are no common RGs suitable for different models and RG(s) should be identified before gene expression analysis. We successfully identified Hsp90ab1 as a stable RG in 4-NQO-induced OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues in F344 rats. The combination of two stably expressed genes may be a better option for gene normalization in tissue samples.

  9. Immunohistochemical quantification of the cobalamin transport protein, cell surface receptor and Ki-67 in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors and in adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Sysel, Annette M.; Valli, Victor E.; Bauer, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have an obligate need for cobalamin (vitamin B12) to enable DNA synthesis necessary for cellular replication. This study quantified the immunohistochemical expression of the cobalamin transport protein (transcobalamin II; TCII), cell surface receptor (transcobalamin II-R; TCII-R) and proliferation protein (Ki-67) in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors, and compared these results to expression in corresponding adjacent normal tissues. All malignant tumor tissues stained positively for TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 proteins; expression varied both within and between tumor types. Expression of TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 was significantly higher in malignant tumor tissues than in corresponding adjacent normal tissues in both species. There was a strong correlation between TCII and TCII-R expression, and a modest correlation between TCII-R and Ki-67 expression in both species; a modest association between TCII and Ki-67 expression was present in canine tissues only. These results demonstrate a quantifiable, synchronous up-regulation of TCII and TCII-R expression by proliferating canine and feline malignant tumors. The potential to utilize these proteins as biomarkers to identify neoplastic tissues, streamline therapeutic options, evaluate response to anti-tumor therapy and monitor for recurrent disease has important implications in the advancement of cancer management for both human and companion animal patients. PMID:25633912

  10. Quantitative assessment of optical properties in healthy cartilage and repair tissue by optical coherence tomography and histology (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Sanne M. A.; Cernohorsky, Paul; de Bruin, Daniel M.; van der Pol, Edwin; Savci-Heijink, Cemile D.; Strackee, Simon D.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2016-02-01

    Quantification of the OCT signal is an important step toward clinical implementation of a diagnostic tool in cartilage imaging. Discrimination of structural cartilage differences in patients with osteoarthritis is critical, yet challenging. This study assesses the variation in the optical attenuation coefficient (μOCT) between healthy cartilage, repair tissue, bone and layers within repair tissue in a controlled setting. OCT and histology was used to assess goat talus articular surfaces in which central osteochondral defects were created. Exact matches of OCT and histology were selected for research. μOCT measurements were taken from healthy cartilage, repair tissue and bone. Measured μOCT in healthy cartilage was higher compared to both repair tissue and bone tissue. Two possible mechanisms for the difference in attenuation were investigated. We studied morphological parameters in terms of nucleus count, nucleus size and inter-nucleus distance. Collagen content in healthy cartilage and repair tissue was assessed using polarization microscopy. Quantitative analysis of the nuclei did not demonstrate a difference in nucleus size and count between healthy cartilage and repair tissue. In healthy cartilage, cells were spaced farther apart and had a lower variation in local nuclear density compared to repair tissue. Polarization microscopy suggested higher collagen content in healthy cartilage compared to repair tissue. μOCT measurements can distinguish between healthy cartilage, repair tissue and bone. Results suggest that cartilage OCT attenuation measurements could be of great impact in clinical diagnostics of osteoarthritis.

  11. A simple optical fibre probe for differentiation between healthy and tumorous tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartner, Erik P.; Henderson, Matthew R.; Purdey, Malcolm; Monro, Tanya M.; Gill, P. Grantley; Callen, David F.

    2016-11-01

    Incomplete removal of malignant tumours continues to be a significant issue in cancer surgery. It increases the risk of local recurrence and impaired survival, and results in the need for additional surgery with associated attendant costs and morbidity. While pathological methods exist to determine tissue type during surgery, these methods can compromise post-operative pathology, have a lag of minutes to hours before the surgeon receives the results of the tissue analysis and are restricted to excised tissue. In this work we report the development of an optical fibre probe which could find use as an aid for margin detection during surgery. A fluorophore doped polymer coating is deposited on the tip of an optical fibre, which can then be used to record the pH by monitoring the emission spectra from the embedded indicator. The pH values of unknown tissue are measured and compared to healthy tissue, allowing for discrimination between healthy and cancerous tissue. The probe developed here shows strong potential for use during surgery, as the probe design can be readily adapted to a low-cost portable configuration which could find use in the operating theatre. Use of this probe in surgery either on excised or in-vivo tissue has the potential to improve success rates for complete removal of cancers.

  12. Multidimensional visualization of healthy and sensitized rabbit knee tissues by means of confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudys, Romualdas; Bagdonas, Saulius; Kirdaitė, Gailutė; Papečkienė, Jurga; Rotomskis, Ričardas

    2015-05-01

    This study combines several fluorescence detection methods to distinguish structural features of the synovium and cartilage tissues and to visualize the localization of endogenous porphyrins in the sensitized tissues. Specimens of synovium and cartilage tissues obtained from rabbits with antigen-induced monoarthritis after intra-articular 5-aminolevulinic acid methyl ester injection and those from healthy rabbits were investigated ex vivo by means of fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence intensity, and lifetime microscopy. The presence of endogenous porphyrins was confirmed with the fluorescence spectra measured on sliced sensitized specimens. Application of the lifetime-gating method on fast fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy images, allowed separate visualization of tissue structures possessing different average lifetimes. The presence of the structures has been validated by histopathological imaging based on conventional rapid hematoxylin-eosin staining of the specimens. The fluorescence lifetime of endogenous protoporphyrin IX has been assessed and employed for visualization of sensitized tissues.

  13. Glucagon-like peptide-1 elicits vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Asmar, Ali; Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens J; Hartmann, Bolette; Sorensen, Charlotte M; Bülow, Jens

    2017-02-01

    In healthy subjects, we recently demonstrated that during acute administration of GLP-1, cardiac output increased significantly, whereas renal blood flow remained constant. We therefore hypothesize that GLP-1 induces vasodilation in other organs, for example, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and/or splanchnic tissues. Nine healthy men were examined twice in random order during a 2-hour infusion of either GLP-1 (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or saline. Cardiac output was continuously estimated noninvasively concomitantly with measurement of intra-arterial blood pressure. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured by the (133)Xenon clearance technique. Leg and splanchnic blood flow were measured by Fick's Principle, using indocyanine green as indicator. In the GLP-1 study, cardiac output increased significantly together with a significant increase in arterial pulse pressure and heart rate compared with the saline study. Subcutaneous, abdominal ATBF and leg blood flow increased significantly during the GLP-1 infusion compared with saline, whereas splanchnic blood flow response did not differ between the studies. We conclude that in healthy subjects, GLP-1 increases cardiac output acutely due to a GLP-1-induced vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle together with an increase in cardiac work.

  14. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Dordevic, Aimee L; Pendergast, Felicity J; Morgan, Han; Villas-Boas, Silas; Caldow, Marissa K; Larsen, Amy E; Sinclair, Andrew J; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-07-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD)); body mass index (BMI) 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water), carbohydrate (maltodextrin) or lipid (dairy-cream). Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h), as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03) and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001) decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  15. Comparison of microRNA profiles of human periodontal diseased and healthy gingival tissues

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu-feng; Shu, Rong; Jiang, Shao-yun; Liu, Da-li; Zhang, Xiu-li

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to play an important role in regulation of the immuno-inflammatory response; however, the function of miRNAs in periodontal inflammation has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to explore the properties of miRNAs in periodontal inflammation by comparing miRNA profiles of inflamed and healthy gingival tissues. Gingival tissues were obtained from 10 periodontitis patients and 10 healthy subjects. After RNA extraction, miRNA profiles were analyzed by microarray, and expression levels of selected miRNAs were confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Analyses using two computational methods, Targetscan and MicroRNA.org, were combined to identify common targets of these miRNAs. Finally, the individual miRNA expression levels of three toll-like receptor (TLR)-related miRNAs from inflamed and healthy gingival tissues were evaluated by RT-PCR. Ninety-one miRNAs were found to be upregulated and thirty-four downregulated over two-fold in inflamed gingival tissue compared with those in healthy gingival tissue. Twelve selected inflammatory-related miRNAs, hsa-miR-126*, hsa-miR-20a, hsa-miR-142-3p, hsa-miR-19a, hsa-let-7f, hsa-miR-203, hsa-miR-17, hsa-miR-223, hsa-miR-146b, hsa-miR-146a, hsa-miR-155, and hsa-miR-205 showed comparable expression levels by microarray and real-time quantitative RT-PCR analyses. In addition, the putative inflammation targets of these miRNAs were predicted, and three that were tested (hsa-miRNA-146a, hsa-miRNA-146b, and hsa-miRNA-155), showed significant differences between inflamed and healthy gingiva. This remarkable difference in miRNA profiles between periodontal diseased and healthy gingiva implicates a probable close relationship between miRNAs and periodontal inflammation. The data also suggest that the regulation of TLRs in periodontal inflammation may involve miRNA pathways. PMID:21789961

  16. Tissue distribution comparison between healthy and fatty liver rats after oral administration of hawthorn leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jingjing; Qu, Jianguo; Zhang, Wenjie; Lu, Dongrui; Gao, Yucong; Ying, Xixiang; Kang, Tingguo

    2014-05-01

    Hawthorn leaves, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, have been widely used for treating cardiovascular and fatty liver diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic basis treating fatty liver disease by comparing the tissue distribution of six compounds of hawthorn leaf extract (HLE) in fatty liver rats and healthy rats after oral administration at first day, half month and one month, separately. Therefore, a sensitive and specific HPLC method with internal standard was developed and validated to determine chlorogenic acid, vitexin-4''-O-glucoside, vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin and hyperoside in the tissues including heart, liver, spleen, kidney, stomach and intestine. The results indicated that the six compounds in HLE presented some bioactivity in treating rat fatty liver as the concentrations of the six compounds varied significantly in inter- and intragroup comparisons (healthy and/or fatty liver group).

  17. Multivariate analysis of the scattering profiles of healthy and pathological human breast tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conceição, A. L. C.; Antoniassi, M.; Cunha, D. M.; Ribeiro-Silva, A.; Poletti, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    Scattering profiles of 106 healthy and pathological human breast samples were obtained using the angular dispersive X-ray scattering technique (AD-XRD) and synchrotron radiation covering the momentum transfer interval of 0.7 nm -1≤ q(=4 π sin( θ/2)/ λ)≤70.5 nm -1. Multivariate analysis in the form of discriminant analysis was applied over the whole scattering profile curve of each sample in order to build a model for breast tissue classification. The classification results were validated and compared with histological sample classification obtained by microscopy analysis. Finally, the model allows classifying correctly 91.5% of the samples and presented values of 98.5%, 89.7% and 0.90 for sensitivity, specificity and Cohen's κ, respectively, in correctly differentiating between healthy and pathological tissues.

  18. Inter-Tissue Gene Co-Expression Networks between Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kogelman, Lisette J. A.; Fu, Jingyuan; Franke, Lude; Greve, Jan Willem; Hofker, Marten; Rensen, Sander S.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with severe co-morbidities such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. However, studies have shown that 10–25 percent of the severely obese individuals are metabolically healthy. To date, the identification of genetic factors underlying the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) state is limited. Systems genetics approaches have led to the identification of genes and pathways in complex diseases. Here, we have used such approaches across tissues to detect genes and pathways involved in obesity-induced disease development. Methods Expression data of 60 severely obese individuals was accessible, of which 28 individuals were MHO and 32 were metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). A whole genome expression profile of four tissues was available: liver, muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue. Using insulin-related genes, we used the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) method to build within- and inter-tissue gene networks. We identified genes that were differentially connected between MHO and MUO individuals, which were further investigated by homing in on the modules they were active in. To identify potentially causal genes, we integrated genomic and transcriptomic data using an eQTL mapping approach. Results Both IL-6 and IL1B were identified as highly differentially co-expressed genes across tissues between MHO and MUO individuals, showing their potential role in obesity-induced disease development. WGCNA showed that those genes were clustering together within tissues, and further analysis showed different co-expression patterns between MHO and MUO subnetworks. A potential causal role for metabolic differences under similar obesity state was detected for PTPRE, IL-6R and SLC6A5. Conclusions We used a novel integrative approach by integration of co-expression networks across tissues to elucidate genetic factors related to obesity-induced metabolic disease development. The identified

  19. Segmentation of tumor and edema along with healthy tissues of brain using wavelets and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Demirhan, Ayşe; Toru, Mustafa; Guler, Inan

    2015-07-01

    Robust brain magnetic resonance (MR) segmentation algorithms are critical to analyze tissues and diagnose tumor and edema in a quantitative way. In this study, we present a new tissue segmentation algorithm that segments brain MR images into tumor, edema, white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The detection of the healthy tissues is performed simultaneously with the diseased tissues because examining the change caused by the spread of tumor and edema on healthy tissues is very important for treatment planning. We used T1, T2, and FLAIR MR images of 20 subjects suffering from glial tumor. We developed an algorithm for stripping the skull before the segmentation process. The segmentation is performed using self-organizing map (SOM) that is trained with unsupervised learning algorithm and fine-tuned with learning vector quantization (LVQ). Unlike other studies, we developed an algorithm for clustering the SOM instead of using an additional network. Input feature vector is constructed with the features obtained from stationary wavelet transform (SWT) coefficients. The results showed that average dice similarity indexes are 91% for WM, 87% for GM, 96% for CSF, 61% for tumor, and 77% for edema.

  20. Noninvasive estimation of tissue edema in healthy volunteers and in patients suffering from heart failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Yuri I.; Mikhailov, Valery M.; Kudutkina, Marina I.

    2004-06-01

    Capillaries play a critical role in cardiovascular function as the point of exchange of nutrients and waste products between tissues and circulation. A common problem for healthy volunteers examined during isolation, and for the patients suffering from heart failure is a quantitative estimation tissue oedema. Until now, objective assessment body fluids retention in tissues did not exist. Optical imaging of living capillaries is a challenging and medically important scientific problem. Goal of the investigation was to study dynamic of microcriculation parameters including tissue oedema in healthy volunteers during extended isolation and relative hypokinesia as a model of mission to the International Space Station. The other aim was to study dynamic of microcirculation parameters including tissue oedema in patients suffering from heart failure under treatment. Healthy volunteers and patients. We studied four healthy male subjects at the age of 41, 37, 40, and 48 before the experiment (June 1999), and during the 240-d isolation period starting from July3, 1999. Unique hermetic chambers with artidicial environmental parameters allowed performing this study with maximum similarity to real conditions in the International Space Station (ISS). With the regularity of 3 times a week at the same time, each subject recorded three video episodes with the total length of one-minute using the optical computerized capillaroscope for noninvasive measurement of the capillary diameters sizes, capillary blood velocity as well as the size of the perivascular zone. All this parameters of microcirculation determined during three weeks in 15 patients (10 male, 5 female, aged 62,2+/-8,8) suffering from heart failure under Furosemid 40 mg 2 times a week, as diuretic. Results. About 1500 episodes recorded on laser disks and analyzed during this experiment. Every subject had wave-like variations of capillary blood velocity within the minute, week, and month ranges. It was found that the

  1. Tissue bioavailability of anthocyanins from whole tart cherry in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Seymour, E Mitchell; Wolforth, Janet; McNish, Robert; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2015-03-15

    Our aim was to confirm and identify the presence of tart cherry anthocyanins in several target tissues of healthy rats. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was employed for detection and characterisation of anthocyanin metabolites. It was shown that four native anthocyanins, namely cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside 5-β-D-glucoside, and peonidin 3-rutinoside were differentially distributed among targeted tissues of rats. Bladder and kidney contained more total anthocyanins than all other tissues analysed. It was also revealed that the bioavailability pattern of these native anthocyanins among tissues is varied. The highest concentration of individual anthocyanin cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside (2339 picograms/gram of tissue) was detected in bladder, followed by cyanidin 3-rutinoside 5-β-d-glucoside (916 picograms/gram) in the liver of rats. Although the diverse distribution of tart cherry anthocyanins in different rat tissues still requires further explanation, it may provide an evidentiary link between tissue bioavailability and health-enhancing properties of anthocyanins at target sites.

  2. A compartment model of VEGF distribution in blood, healthy and diseased tissues

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Marianne O; Wu, Florence TH; Mac Gabhann, Feilim; Popel, Aleksander S

    2008-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is a process by which new capillaries are formed from pre-existing blood vessels in physiological (e.g., exercise, wound healing) or pathological (e.g., ischemic limb as in peripheral arterial disease, cancer) contexts. This neovascular mechanism is mediated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of cytokines. Although VEGF is often targeted in anti-angiogenic therapies, there is little knowledge about how its concentration may vary between tissues and the vascular system. A compartment model is constructed to study the VEGF distribution in the tissue (including matrix-bound, cell surface receptor-bound and free VEGF isoforms) and in the blood. We analyze the sensitivity of this distribution to the secretion rate, clearance rate and vascular permeability of VEGF. Results We find that, in a physiological context, VEGF concentration varies approximately linearly with the VEGF secretion rate. VEGF concentration in blood but not in tissue is dependent on the vascular permeability of healthy tissue. Model simulations suggest that relative VEGF increases are similar in blood and tissue during exercise and return to baseline within several hours. In a pathological context (tumor), we find that blood VEGF concentration is relatively insensitive to increased vascular permeability in tumors, to the secretion rate of VEGF by tumors and to the clearance. However, it is sensitive to the vascular permeability in the healthy tissue. Finally, the VEGF distribution profile in healthy tissue reveals that about half of the VEGF is complexed with the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 and the co-receptor Neuropilin-1. In diseased tissues, this binding can be reduced to 15% while VEGF bound to the extracellular matrix and basement membranes increases. Conclusion The results are of importance for physiological conditions (e.g., exercise) and pathological conditions (e.g., peripheral arterial disease, coronary artery disease, cancer). This

  3. Pesticide residues in adipose tissue from hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) living in and adjacent to the Luangwa River in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Flåøyen, A; Polder, A; Mwase, M; Almli, B; Musonda, M M

    2005-06-01

    The concentration of organochlorines (OCs) such as organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in adipose tissue collected from 14 male hippopotami at Mfuwe in the southern part of the Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The samples contained low levels of OCs, and the concentrations of OCs were comparable to or lower than reported for wild herbivores studied in other parts of the world.

  4. Gene expression in normal-appearing tissue adjacent to prostate cancers are predictive of clinical outcome: evidence for a biologically meaningful field effect

    PubMed Central

    Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Maddala, Tara; Falzarano, Sara Moscovita; Cherbavaz, Diana B.; Zhang, Nan; Knezevic, Dejan; Febbo, Phillip G.; Lee, Mark; Lawrence, Hugh Jeffrey; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated gene expression in histologically normal-appearing tissue (NT) adjacent to prostate tumor in radical prostatectomy specimens, assessing for biological significance based on prediction of clinical recurrence (cR - metastatic disease or local recurrence). Results A total of 410 evaluable patients had paired tumor and NT. Fortysix genes, representing diverse biological pathways (androgen signaling, stromal response, stress response, cellular organization, proliferation, cell adhesion, and chromatin remodeling) were associated with cR in NT (FDR < 20%), of which 39 concordantly predicted cR in tumor (FDR < 20%). Overall GPS and its stromal response and androgen-signaling gene group components also significantly predicted time to cR in NT (RM-corrected HR/20 units = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01-1.56; P = 0.024). Experimental Design Expression of 732 genes was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) separately in tumor and adjacent NT specimens from 127 patients with and 374 without cR following radical prostatectomy for T1/T2 prostate cancer. A 17-gene expression signature (Genomic Prostate Score [GPS]), previously validated to predict aggressive prostate cancer when measured in tumor tissue, was also assessed using pre-specified genes and algorithms. Analysis used Cox proportional hazards models, Storey's false discovery rate (FDR) control, and regression to the mean (RM) correction. Conclusions Gene expression profiles, including GPS, from NT adjacent to tumor can predict prostate cancer outcome. These findings suggest that there is a biologically significant field effect in primary prostate cancer that is a marker for aggressive disease. PMID:27121323

  5. Metal content of biopsies adjacent to dental cast alloys.

    PubMed

    Garhammer, Pauline; Schmalz, G; Hiller, K-A; Reitinger, T

    2003-06-01

    Single case reports indicate that components of dental alloys accumulate in the adjacent soft tissue of the oral cavity. However, data on a wider range of dental alloys and patient groups are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the metal content of oral tissues adjacent to dental alloys showing persisting signs of inflammation or other discoloration (affected sites) and of healthy control sites with no adjacent metal restoration in 28 patients. The composition of the adjacent alloys was analyzed and compared to the alloy components in the affected sites. Tissue analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Alloy analysis was performed with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. In the affected sites, the metals Ag, Au, Cu, and Pd prevailed compared to control sites, reflecting the frequency distribution of single metals in the adjacent alloys. In most cases (84%), at least one of the analyzed metals was a component of the alloy and also detected in the tissue. Metal components from almost all dental cast alloys can be detected in adjacent tissue.

  6. A reverse genetics cell-based evaluation of genes linked to healthy human tissue age

    PubMed Central

    Crossland, Hannah; Atherton, Philip J.; Strömberg, Anna; Gustafsson, Thomas; Timmons, James A.

    2017-01-01

    We recently developed a binary (i.e., young vs. old) classifier using human muscle RNA profiles that accurately distinguished the age of multiple tissue types. Pathway analysis did not reveal regulators of these 150 genes, so we used reverse genetics and pharmacologic methods to explore regulation of gene expression. Using small interfering RNA, well-studied age-related factors (i.e., rapamycin, resveratrol, TNF-α, and staurosporine), quantitative real-time PCR and clustering analysis, we studied gene–gene interactions in human skeletal muscle and renal epithelial cells. Individual knockdown of 10 different age genes yielded a consistent pattern of gene expression in muscle and renal cells, similar to in vivo. Potential epigenetic interactions included HIST1H3E knockdown, leading to decreased PHF19 and PCDH9, and increased ICAM5 in muscle and renal cells, while ICAM5 knockdown reduced HIST1H3E expression. Resveratrol, staurosporine, and TNF-α significantly regulated the in vivo aging genes, while only rapamycin perturbed the healthy-age gene expression signature in a manner consistent with in vivo. In vitro coordination of gene expression for this in vivo tissue age signature indicates a degree of direct coordination, and the observed link with mTOR activity suggests a direct link between a robust biomarker of healthy neuromuscular age and a major axis of life span in model systems.—Crossland, H., Atherton, P. J., Strömberg, A., Gustafsson, T., Timmons, J. A. A reverse genetics cell-based evaluation of genes linked to healthy human tissue age. PMID:27698205

  7. Expression of transforming growth factor-β2in vitreous body and adjacent tissues during prenatal development of human eye.

    PubMed

    Sukhikh, G T; Panova, I G; Smirnova, Yu A; Milyushina, L A; Firsova, N V; Markitantova, Yu V; Poltavtseva, R A; Zinov'eva, R D

    2010-12-01

    Expression of transforming growth factor-β2 was detected by PCR in the vitreous body, lens, retina, and ciliary-iris complex of human eye at early stages of fetal development. Immunochemical assay of the corresponding protein in eye tissues revealed a correlation between the localization of transforming growth factor-β2 and the development of intraocular hyaloid vascular network, its regression, formation of the vitreous body, and development of definite retinal vessels.

  8. Metal debris concentrations in soft tissues adjacent to loosened femoral stems is higher in uncemented than cemented implants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are still many questions related to aseptic femoral stem loosening. Systemic and local immune responses to the implanted “foreign body” is one of the reasons for loosening. The purpose of the study was to measure metal ion concentration (Ti, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Al) around loosened femoral stems and compare their levels around uncemented and cemented implants. Methods This paper reports 50 hips operated for isolated stem loosening, in 50 patients at the mean age of 57 years (from 21 to 87). There were 25 cemented (Co,Cr29,Mo,Ni) and 25 uncemented (Ti, Al) stems. The mean follow-up from primary hip replacement to revision was 10.1 years (from 0.5 to 17). During the procedure, scar tissue around the stem was taken for analysis of metal ions. Results The concentrations of titanium and aluminium in soft tissues around uncemented loosened stems were higher than cemented ones (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). However, no statistically significant differences were observed between both types of stems in terms of ions of the metal of which cemented implants had been made of (Co, Cr, Mo, Ni). Conclusions In soft tissue around a loosened stem, the concentrations of metal ions from implants are much higher in case of uncemented stems than of cemented ones. Metal ions from vitalium femoral heads were found around uncemented stems in similar values to cemented streams. PMID:25098913

  9. Quantitative analysis of the reconstruction errors of the currently popular algorithm of magnetic resonance electrical property tomography at the interfaces of adjacent tissues.

    PubMed

    Duan, Song; Xu, Chao; Deng, Guanhua; Wang, Jiajia; Liu, Feng; Xin, Sherman Xuegang

    2016-06-01

    This work quantitatively analyzed the reconstruction errors (REs) of electrical property (EP) images using a currently popular algorithm of magnetic resonance electrical property tomography (MREPT), which occurred along the tissue interfaces. Transmitted magnetic fields B1+ were acquired at 3 T using a birdcage coil loaded with a phantom consisting of various adjacent tissues. Homogeneous Helmholtz was employed to calculate the EP maps by Laplacian computation of central differences. The maps of absolute REs (aREs) and relative REs (rREs) were calculated. The maximum and mean rREs, in addition to rRE distributions at the interfaces, were presented. Reconstructed EP maps showed various REs along different interface boundaries. Among all the investigated tissue interfaces, the kidney-fat interface presented the maximum mean rREs for both conductivity and relative permittivity. The minimum mean rRE of conductivity was observed at the spleen-muscle interface, and the minimum mean rRE of relative permittivity was detected along the lung-heart interface. The mean rREs ranged from 0.3986 to 36.11 for conductivity and 0.2218 to 11.96 for relative permittivity. Overall, this research indicates that different REs occur at various tissue boundaries, as shown by the currently popular algorithm of MREPT. Thus, REs should be considered when applying MREPT to reconstruct the EP distributions inside the human body. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Laboratory and in vivo transport characterization of hollow fiber membranes and adjacent scar tissue that forms following their implantation in the central nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, Michael John

    Hollow fiber membrane (HFM) cell encapsulation devices use a semipermeable membrane to physically immunoisolate transplanted secretory cells from host tissues and high molecular weight solutes. Advantages inherent to macroencapsulation technology have led to extensive research towards their utilization for treating a wide range of disorders including a number of neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes. Although feasibility studies have already established the therapeutic potential of macroencapsulation technology, a common observation among these and later studies is diminishing therapeutic efficacy over a span of a few weeks following implantation of devices. Progress towards fulfilling the therapeutic potential of this technology initially recognized by investigators has potentially been hampered by inadequate diffusive transport characterization of membranes employed in studies. In addition, the potential effects of host tissue responses following central nervous system (CNS) implantation of these devices is completely unknown. To address these issues a membrane characterization instrument capable of efficiently characterizing the diffusive and convective transport properties of individual HFM segments, such as they are used in devices, was developed. The instrument was then employed to study the effects of ethanol exposure, a common sterilization method, on PAN-PVC membranes commonly used in CNS implantation macro encapsulation device studies. Lastly, the solute diffusivity properties of tissue that forms adjacent to the membranes of brain implanted transcranial access devices were investigated. Coinciding with this investigation was the development of a novel technique for examining the solute diffusivity properties in the extracellular spaces of CNS tissue.

  11. Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Claus; Johansson, Johannes; Weigel, Udo M.; Halperin, Irene; Hanzu, Felicia A.; Durduran, Turgut

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo optical and hemodynamic properties of the healthy (n = 22) and pathological (n = 2) human thyroid tissue were measured non-invasively using a custom time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) system. Medical ultrasound was used to guide the placement of the hand-held hybrid optical probe. TRS measured the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μa, μs′) at three wavelengths (690, 785 and 830 nm) to derive total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and oxygen saturation (StO2). DCS measured the microvascular blood flow index (BFI). Their dependencies on physiological and clinical parameters and positions along the thyroid were investigated and compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle. The THC in the thyroid ranged from 131.9 μM to 144.8 μM, showing a 25–44% increase compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle tissue. The blood flow was significantly higher in the thyroid (BFIthyroid = 16.0 × 10-9 cm2/s) compared to the muscle (BFImuscle = 7.8 × 10-9 cm2/s), while StO2 showed a small (StO2, muscle = 63.8% to StO2, thyroid = 68.4%), yet significant difference. Two case studies with thyroid nodules underwent the same measurement protocol prior to thyroidectomy. Their THC and BFI reached values around 226.5 μM and 62.8 × 10-9 cm2/s respectively showing a clear contrast to the nodule-free thyroid tissue as well as the general population. The initial characterization of the healthy and pathologic human thyroid tissue lays the ground work for the future investigation on the use of diffuse optics in thyroid cancer screening. PMID:26815533

  12. Healthy and tumoral tissue resistivity in wild-type and sparc-/- animal models.

    PubMed

    Meroni, D; Mauri, G; Bovio, D; Bianchi, A M; Chiodoni, C; Colombo, M P; Meroni, E; Aliverti, A

    2016-12-01

    Despite the technological improvement of radiologic, endoscopic and nuclear imaging, the accuracy of diagnostic procedures for tumors can be limited whenever a mass-forming lesion is identified. This is true also because bioptical sampling cannot be properly guided into the lesions so as to puncture neoplastic tissue and to avoid necrotic areas. Under these circumstances, invasive and expensive procedures are still required to obtain diagnosis which is mandatory to plan the most appropriate therapeutic strategy. In order to test if electrical impedance spectroscopy may be helpful in providing further evidence for cancer detection, resistivity measurements were taken on 22 mice, 11 wild-type and 11 sparc-/- (knock out for the protein SPARC: secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine), bearing mammary carcinomas, by placing a needle-probe into tumor, peritumoral and contralateral healthy fat areas. Tumor resistivity was significantly lower than both peritumoral fat and contralateral fat tissues. Resistivity in sparc-/- mice was lower than wild-type animals. A significant frequency dependence of resistivity was present in tissues analyzed. We conclude that accurate measurements of resistivity may allow to discriminate between tissues with different pathological and/or structural characteristics. Therefore, resistivity measurements could be considered for in vivo detection and differential diagnosis of tumor masses.

  13. Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael F. G.; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Wallenburg, Marika A.; Li, Shu-Hong; Weisel, Richard D.; Wilson, Brian C.; Li, Ren-Ke; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2010-07-01

    Myocardial infarction leads to structural remodeling of the myocardium, in particular to the loss of cardiomyocytes due to necrosis and an increase in collagen with scar formation. Stem cell regenerative treatments have been shown to alter this remodeling process, resulting in improved cardiac function. As healthy myocardial tissue is highly fibrous and anisotropic, it exhibits optical linear birefringence due to the different refractive indices parallel and perpendicular to the fibers. Accordingly, changes in myocardial structure associated with infarction and treatment-induced remodeling will alter the anisotropy exhibited by the tissue. Polarization-based linear birefringence is measured on the myocardium of adult rat hearts after myocardial infarction and compared with hearts that had received mesenchymal stem cell treatment. Both point measurement and imaging data show a decrease in birefringence in the region of infarction, with a partial rebound back toward the healthy values following regenerative treatment with stem cells. These results demonstrate the ability of optical polarimetry to characterize the micro-organizational state of the myocardium via its measured anisotropy, and the potential of this approach for monitoring regenerative treatments of myocardial infarction.

  14. Dielectric characterization of healthy and malignant colon tissues in the 0.5-18 GHz frequency band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornes-Leal, A.; Garcia-Pardo, C.; Frasson, M.; Pons Beltrán, V.; Cardona, N.

    2016-10-01

    Several reports over the last few decades have shown that the dielectric properties of healthy and malignant tissues of the same body organ usually show different values. However, no intensive dielectric studies of human colon tissue have been performed, despite colon cancer’s being one of the most common types of cancer in the world. In order to provide information regarding this matter, a dielectric characterization of healthy and malignant colon tissues is presented. Measurements are performed on ex vivo surgery samples obtained from 20 patients, using an open-ended coaxial probe in the 0.5-18 GHz frequency band. Results show that the dielectric constant of colon cancerous tissue is 8.8% higher than that of healthy tissues (p  =  0.002). Besides, conductivity is about 10.6% higher, but in this case measurements do not have statistical significance (p  =  0.038). Performing an analysis per patient, the differences in dielectric constant between healthy and malignant tissues appear systematically. Particularized results for specific frequencies (500 MHz, 900 MHz, 2.45 GHz, 5 GHz, 8.5 GHz and 15 GHz) are also reported. The findings have potential application in early-stage cancer detection and diagnosis, and can be useful in developing new tools for hyperthermia treatments as well as creating electromagnetic models of healthy and cancerous tissues.

  15. RT97- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity in lumbar intervertebral discs and adjacent tissue from the rat.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, P W; Petts, P; Hamilton, A

    1992-01-01

    The innervation of rat intervertebral disc and adjacent ligamentous tissue has been investigated using 2 antibodies, RT97 and anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide. Immunoreactivity to the peptide was found in many fibres throughout the long ligaments around the intervertebral discs and in the periosteum, especially associated with vascular channels entering the vertebral bodies. Few of the immunoreactive fibres entered the annular lamellae of the disc tissue. Most of those which terminated did so as fine fibres which lay close to, or in, the interlamellar spaces of the outer annulus fibrosus. Calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity was also found in more complex endings in the longitudinal ligaments and rarely within the annulus fibrosus. RT97-immunoreactivity was also present in the complex endings and associated fibres. Conversely, RT97-immunoreactivity was apparent only in a few fine filamentous fibre endings. This suggested that the majority of fine filamentous, or free, nerve endings were of an unmyelinated sensory origin. Alternatively, those endings of a more complex nature, which were RT97-immunoreactive, were of a myelinated sensory origin. No immunoreactivity to either antibody was seen in the inner annular or nuclear tissue. It was therefore concluded that the sensory innervation of the rat intervertebral disc has both myelinated and unmyelinated components, the latter being more extensive. Both types of innervation appear to be restricted to the outermost rings of the annulus fibrosus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1452470

  16. Dynamic soft tissue mobilisation increases hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, D; Deacon, S; Das, S; Jain, A; Riddell, D; Hall, T; Briffa, K; Vicenzino, B.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dynamic soft tissue mobilisation (STM) on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. Methods: Forty five males volunteered to participate in a randomised, controlled single blind design study. Volunteers were randomised to either control, classic STM, or dynamic STM intervention. The control group was positioned prone for 5 min. The classic STM group received standard STM techniques performed in a neutral prone position for 5 min. The dynamic STM group received all elements of classic STM followed by distal to proximal longitudinal strokes performed during passive, active, and eccentric loading of the hamstring. Only specific areas of tissue tightness were treated during the dynamic phase. Hamstring flexibility was quantified as hip flexion angle (HFA) which was the difference between the total range of straight leg raise and the range of pelvic rotation. Pre- and post-testing was conducted for the subjects in each group. A one-way ANCOVA followed by pairwise post-hoc comparisons was used to determine whether change in HFA differed between groups. The α level was set at 0.05. Results: Increase in hamstring flexibility was significantly greater in the dynamic STM group than either the control or classic STM groups with mean (standard deviation) increase in degrees in the HFA measures of 4.7 (4.8), –0.04 (4.8), and 1.3 (3.8), respectively. Conclusions: Dynamic soft tissue mobilisation (STM) significantly increased hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. PMID:16118294

  17. Global endometrial transcriptomic profiling: transient immune activation precedes tissue proliferation and repair in healthy beef cows

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All cows experience bacterial contamination and tissue injury in the uterus postpartum, instigating a local inflammatory immune response. However mechanisms that control inflammation and achieve a physiologically functioning endometrium, while avoiding disease in the postpartum cow are not succinctly defined. This study aimed to identify novel candidate genes indicative of inflammation resolution during involution in healthy beef cows. Previous histological analysis of the endometrium revealed elevated inflammation 15 days postpartum (DPP) which was significantly decreased by 30 DPP. The current study generated a genome-wide transcriptomic profile of endometrial biopsies from these cows at both time points using mRNA-Seq. The pathway analysis tool GoSeq identified KEGG pathways enriched by significantly differentially expressed genes at both time points. Novel candidate genes associated with inflammatory resolution were subsequently validated in additional postpartum animals using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results mRNA-Seq revealed 1,107 significantly differentially expressed genes, 73 of which were increased 15 DPP and 1,034 were increased 30 DPP. Early postpartum, enriched immune pathways (adjusted P < 0.1) included the T cell receptor signalling pathway, graft-versus-host disease and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathways. However 30 DPP, where the majority of genes were differentially expressed, the enrichment (adjusted P < 0.1) of tissue repair and proliferative activity pathways was observed. Nineteen candidate genes selected from mRNA-Seq results, were independently assessed by qRT-PCR in additional postpartum cows (5 animals) at both time points. SAA1/2, GATA2, IGF1, SHC2, and SERPINA14 genes were significantly elevated 30 DPP and are functionally associated with tissue repair and the restoration of uterine homeostasis postpartum. Conclusions The results of this study reveal an early activation of the immune

  18. Hypothermia and rewarming induce gene expression and multiplication of cells in healthy rat prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Kaija, Helena; Pakanen, Lasse; Kortelainen, Marja-Leena; Porvari, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer has been extensively studied, but cellular stress responses in healthy prostate tissue are rarely investigated. Hypothermia is known to cause alterations in mRNA and protein expressions and stability. The aim of this study was to use normal rat prostate as a model in order to find out consequences of cold exposure and rewarming on the expressions of genes which are either members or functionally/structurally related to erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene B (ErbB) signaling pathway. Relative mRNA expressions of amphiregulin (AMR), cyclin D1 (CyD1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21), transmembrane form of the prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP), thrombomodulin (TM) and heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) in rat ventral prostate were quantified in mild (2 or 4.5 h at room temperature) and severe (2 or 4.5 h at +10°C) hypothermia and in rewarming after cold exposure (2 h at +10°C followed by 2 h at room temperature or 3 h at +28°C). AMR protein level, apoptotic Bcl-2 associated X protein to B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bax/Bcl-2) mRNA ratio and proliferative index Ki-67 were determined. 4.5-h mild hypothermia, 2-h severe hypothermia and rewarming increased expression of all these genes. Elevated proliferation index Ki-67 could be seen in 2-h severe hypothermia, and the proliferation index had its highest value in longer rewarming with totally recovered normal body temperature. Pro-apoptotic tendency could be seen in 2-h mild hypothermia while anti-apoptosis was predominant in 4.5-h mild hypothermia and in shorter rewarming with only partly recovered body temperature. Hypothermia and following rewarming promote the proliferation of cells in healthy rat prostate tissue possibly via ErbB signaling pathway.

  19. Contributions of adipose tissue architectural and tensile properties toward defining healthy and unhealthy obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lackey, Denise E.; Burk, David H.; Ali, Mohamed R.; Mostaedi, Rouzbeh; Smith, William H.; Park, Jiyoung; Scherer, Philipp E.; Seay, Shundra A.; McCoin, Colin S.; Bonaldo, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in the maintenance of white adipose tissue (WAT) architecture and function, and proper ECM remodeling is critical to support WAT malleability to accomodate changes in energy storage needs. Obesity and adipocyte hypertrophy place a strain on the ECM remodeling machinery, which may promote disordered ECM and altered tissue integrity and could promote proinflammatory and cell stress signals. To explore these questions, new methods were developed to quantify omental and subcutaneous WAT tensile strength and WAT collagen content by three-dimensional confocal imaging, using collagen VI knockout mice as a methods validation tool. These methods, combined with comprehensive measurement of WAT ECM proteolytic enzymes, transcript, and blood analyte analyses, were used to identify unique pathophenotypes of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese women, using multivariate statistical modeling and univariate comparisons with weight-matched healthy obese individuals. In addition to the expected differences in inflammation and glycemic control, approximately 20 ECM-related factors, including omental tensile strength, collagen, and enzyme transcripts, helped discriminate metabolically compromised obesity. This is consistent with the hypothesis that WAT ECM physiology is intimately linked to metabolic health in obese humans, and the studies provide new tools to explore this relationship. PMID:24302007

  20. Design and implementation of coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging of cancerous and healthy breast tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanan, Manu N.; Greenberg, Joel A.; Samei, Ehsan; Kapadia, Anuj J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. A scatter imaging technique for the differentiation of cancerous and healthy breast tissue in a heterogeneous sample is introduced in this work. Such a technique has potential utility in intraoperative margin assessment during lumpectomy procedures. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of the imaging method for tumor classification using Monte Carlo simulations and physical experiments. The coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging technique was used to reconstruct three-dimensional (3-D) images of breast tissue samples acquired through a single-position snapshot acquisition, without rotation as is required in coherent scatter computed tomography. We perform a quantitative assessment of the accuracy of the cancerous voxel classification using Monte Carlo simulations of the imaging system; describe our experimental implementation of coded aperture scatter imaging; show the reconstructed images of the breast tissue samples; and present segmentations of the 3-D images in order to identify the cancerous and healthy tissue in the samples. From the Monte Carlo simulations, we find that coded aperture scatter imaging is able to reconstruct images of the samples and identify the distribution of cancerous and healthy tissues (i.e., fibroglandular, adipose, or a mix of the two) inside them with a cancerous voxel identification sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 92.4%, 91.9%, and 92.0%, respectively. From the experimental results, we find that the technique is able to identify cancerous and healthy tissue samples and reconstruct differential coherent scatter cross sections that are highly correlated with those measured by other groups using x-ray diffraction. Coded aperture scatter imaging has the potential to provide scatter images that automatically differentiate cancerous and healthy tissue inside samples within a time on the order of a minute per slice. PMID:26962543

  1. Design and implementation of coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging of cancerous and healthy breast tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Manu N; Greenberg, Joel A; Samei, Ehsan; Kapadia, Anuj J

    2016-01-01

    A scatter imaging technique for the differentiation of cancerous and healthy breast tissue in a heterogeneous sample is introduced in this work. Such a technique has potential utility in intraoperative margin assessment during lumpectomy procedures. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of the imaging method for tumor classification using Monte Carlo simulations and physical experiments. The coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging technique was used to reconstruct three-dimensional (3-D) images of breast tissue samples acquired through a single-position snapshot acquisition, without rotation as is required in coherent scatter computed tomography. We perform a quantitative assessment of the accuracy of the cancerous voxel classification using Monte Carlo simulations of the imaging system; describe our experimental implementation of coded aperture scatter imaging; show the reconstructed images of the breast tissue samples; and present segmentations of the 3-D images in order to identify the cancerous and healthy tissue in the samples. From the Monte Carlo simulations, we find that coded aperture scatter imaging is able to reconstruct images of the samples and identify the distribution of cancerous and healthy tissues (i.e., fibroglandular, adipose, or a mix of the two) inside them with a cancerous voxel identification sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 92.4%, 91.9%, and 92.0%, respectively. From the experimental results, we find that the technique is able to identify cancerous and healthy tissue samples and reconstruct differential coherent scatter cross sections that are highly correlated with those measured by other groups using x-ray diffraction. Coded aperture scatter imaging has the potential to provide scatter images that automatically differentiate cancerous and healthy tissue inside samples within a time on the order of a minute per slice.

  2. MRI Brain Images Healthy and Pathological Tissues Classification with the Aid of Improved Particle Swarm Optimization and Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Sheejakumari, V.; Sankara Gomathi, B.

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over other diagnostic imaging modalities are its higher spatial resolution and its better discrimination of soft tissue. In the previous tissues classification method, the healthy and pathological tissues are classified from the MRI brain images using HGANN. But the method lacks sensitivity and accuracy measures. The classification method is inadequate in its performance in terms of these two parameters. So, to avoid these drawbacks, a new classification method is proposed in this paper. Here, new tissues classification method is proposed with improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) technique to classify the healthy and pathological tissues from the given MRI images. Our proposed classification method includes the same four stages, namely, tissue segmentation, feature extraction, heuristic feature selection, and tissue classification. The method is implemented and the results are analyzed in terms of various statistical performance measures. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed classification method in classifying the tissues and the achieved improvement in sensitivity and accuracy measures. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by comparing it with the other segmentation methods. PMID:25977706

  3. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue deoxygenation during exercise in type 1 diabetes patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Juha E; Koponen, Anne S; Pullinen, Katri; Hägglund, Harriet; Aho, Jyrki M; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Tikkanen, Heikki O

    2012-05-31

    We used near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate whether leg and arm skeletal muscle and cerebral deoxygenation differ during incremental cycling exercise in men with type 1 diabetes (T1D, n=10, mean±SD age 33±7 years) and healthy control men (matched by age, anthrometry, and self-reported physical activity, CON, n=10, 32±7 years) to seek an explanation for lower aerobic capacity (˙VO2peak) often reported in T1D. T1D had lower ˙VO2peak (35±4mlkg(-1)min(-1) vs. 43±8mlkg(-1)min(-1), P<0.01) and peak work rate (219±33W vs. 290±44W, P<0.001) than CON. Leg muscle deoxygenation (↑ [deoxyhemoglobin]; ↓ tissue saturation index) was greater in T1D than CON at a given absolute submaximal work rate, but not at peak exercise, while arm muscle and cerebral deoxygenation were similar. Thus, in T1D compared with CON, faster leg muscle deoxygenation suggests limited circulatory ability to increase O(2) delivery as a plausible explanation for lower ˙VO2peak and earlier fatigue in T1D.

  4. RASSF1A promoter methylation in high-grade serous ovarian cancer: A direct comparison study in primary tumors, adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues and paired circulating tumor DNA.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Lydia; Chebouti, Issam; Pavlakis, Kitty; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Lianidou, Evi S

    2017-02-10

    The RASSF1A promoter is frequently methylated in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). We examined RASSF1A promoter methylation in primary tumors, adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues and corresponding circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) samples of patients with HGSC, using a real-time methylation specific PCR (real-time MSP) and a methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis (MS-HRMA) assay for the detection and semi-quantitative estimation of methylation, respectively. Two groups of primary HGSC tumor FFPE samples were recruited (Group A n=67 and Group B n=61), along with matched adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues (n=58) and corresponding plasma samples (n=59) for group B. Using both assays, RASSF1A promoter was found highly methylated in primary tumors of both groups, and at lower percentages in the adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues. Interestingly, RASSF1A promoter methylation was also observed in ctDNA by real-time MSP. Overall survival (OS) was significantly associated with RASSF1A promoter methylation in primary tumor samples using MS-HRMA (P=0.023). Our results clearly indicate that RASSF1A promoter is methylated in adjacent tissue surrounding the tumor in HGSC patients. We report for the first time that RASSF1A promoter methylation provides significant prognostic information in HGSC patients.

  5. Trace elements in human cancerous and healthy tissues from the same individual: A comparative study by TXRF and EDXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, T.; von Bohlen, A.; Carvalho, M. L.; Becker, M.

    2006-11-01

    In this work we studied the elemental distribution of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, I and Pb in normal and cancerous tissues of the same individual along several contiguous thin sections (up to 10 μm thick) of each tissue. Samples of healthy and carcinoma tissues, of colon, breast and uterus on a total of 7 citizens from German population, were analysed directly by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The tissues were also analysed by normal energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). An additional application was performed by studying, by the same processes, 10 carcinoma samples of 10 Portuguese citizens from: rectum, sigmoid, thyroid, kidney, larynx and lung, in order to find out a similar correlation pattern in the studied elements in carcinoma tissues. As major conclusion of this work a similar pattern for almost all the analysed tissues were obtained for all the studied samples: increased or constant levels of P, S, K, Ca, Fe and Cu, and decreased levels of Zn and Br were found in carcinoma tissues, when compared with the corresponding healthy ones. Some exceptions were found in some samples for a few numbers of elements. When comparing the results obtained for both techniques, the patterns were the same, however not always the results did coincide. This can be explained by considering that the analysed samples were not exactly the same and the differences can be explained by inhomogeneities.

  6. Skin and soft tissue concentrations of tedizolid (formerly torezolid), a novel oxazolidinone, following a single oral dose in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Sahre, Martina; Sabarinath, Sreedharan; Grant, Maria; Seubert, Christoph; DeAnda, Carisa; Prokocimer, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of antimicrobial drugs have long been used to correlate exposure with effect, yet one cannot always assume that unbound plasma and tissue concentrations are similar. Knowledge about unbound tissue concentrations is important in the development of antimicrobial drugs, since most infections are localised in tissues. Therefore, a clinical microdialysis study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of tedizolid (TR-700), the active moiety of the antimicrobial prodrug tedizolid phosphate (TR-701), into interstitial fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues following a single oral 600 mg dose of tedizolid phosphate in fasting conditions. Twelve healthy adult subjects were enrolled. Two microdialysis probes were implanted into the thigh of each subject, one into the vastus medialis muscle and one into subcutaneous adipose tissue. Probes were calibrated using retrodialysis. Dialysate samples were collected every 20 min for 12 h following a single oral dose of 600 mg tedizolid phosphate, and blood samples were drawn over 24 h. Unbound tedizolid levels in plasma were similar to those in muscle and adipose tissue. The ratios of unbound (free) AUC in tissues over unbound AUC in plasma (fAUCtissue/fAUCplasma) were 1.1 ± 0.2 and 1.2 ± 0.2 for adipose and muscle tissue, respectively. The median half-life was 8.1, 9.2 and 9.6 h for plasma, adipose tissue and muscle tissue, respectively. Mean protein binding was 87.2 ± 1.8%. The study drug was very well tolerated. The results of this study show that tedizolid distributes well into ISF of adipose and muscle tissues. Unbound levels of tedizolid in plasma, adipose tissue and muscle tissue were well correlated. Free plasma levels are indicative of unbound levels in the ISF of muscle and adipose tissues. PMID:22584101

  7. Alendronate treatment alters bone tissues at multiple structural levels in healthy canine cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Claire; Bale, Hrishikesh; Gludovatz, Bernd; Wat, Amy; Tang, Simon Y; Wang, Mingyue; Busse, Björn; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Schaible, Eric; Allen, Matthew R; Burr, David B; Ritchie, Robert O

    2015-12-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used to treat osteoporosis, but have been associated with atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) in the long term, which raises a critical health problem for the aging population. Several clinical studies have suggested that the occurrence of AFFs may be related to the bisphosphonate-induced changes of bone turnover, but large discrepancies in the results of these studies indicate that the salient mechanisms responsible for any loss in fracture resistance are still unclear. Here the role of bisphosphonates is examined in terms of the potential deterioration in fracture resistance resulting from both intrinsic (plasticity) and extrinsic (shielding) toughening mechanisms, which operate over a wide range of length-scales. Specifically, we compare the mechanical properties of two groups of humeri from healthy beagles, one control group comprising eight females (oral doses of saline vehicle, 1 mL/kg/day, 3 years) and one treated group comprising nine females (oral doses of alendronate used to treat osteoporosis, 0.2mg/kg/day, 3 years). Our data demonstrate treatment-specific reorganization of bone tissue identified at multiple length-scales mainly through advanced synchrotron x-ray experiments. We confirm that bisphosphonate treatments can increase non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking at molecular scales, which critically restricts plasticity associated with fibrillar sliding, and hence intrinsic toughening, at nanoscales. We also observe changes in the intracortical architecture of treated bone at microscales, with partial filling of the Haversian canals and reduction of osteon number. We hypothesize that the reduced plasticity associated with BP treatments may induce an increase in microcrack accumulation and growth under cyclic daily loadings, and potentially increase the susceptibility of cortical bone to atypical (fatigue-like) fractures.

  8. Comparison of breast cancer to healthy control tissue discovers novel markers with potential for prognosis and early detection.

    PubMed

    Schummer, Michèl; Green, Ann; Beatty, J David; Karlan, Beth Y; Karlan, Scott; Gross, Jenny; Thornton, Sean; McIntosh, Martin; Urban, Nicole

    2010-02-09

    This study was initiated to identify biomarkers with potential value for the early detection of poor-outcome breast cancer. Two sets of well-characterized tissues were utilized: one from breast cancer patients with favorable vs. poor outcome and the other from healthy women undergoing reduction mammaplasty. Over 46 differentially expressed genes were identified from a large list of potential targets by a) mining publicly available expression data (identifying 134 genes for quantitative PCR) and b) utilizing a commercial PCR array. Three genes show elevated expression in cancers with poor outcome and low expression in all other tissues, warranting further investigation as potential blood markers for early detection of cancers with poor outcome. Twelve genes showed lower expression in cancers with poor outcome than in cancers with favorable outcome but no differential expression between aggressive cancers and most healthy controls. These genes are more likely to be useful as prognostic tissue markers than as serum markers for early detection of aggressive disease. As a secondary finding was that, when histologically normal breast tissue was removed from a distant site in a breast with cancer, 7 of 38 specimens displayed a cancer-like expression profile, while the remaining 31 were genetically similar to the reduction mammaplasty control group. This finding suggests that some regions of ipsilateral histologically 'normal' breast tissue are predisposed to becoming malignant and that normal-appearing tissue with malignant signature might warrant treatment to prevent new primary tumors.

  9. Improved classification and visualization of healthy and pathological hard dental tissues by modeling specular reflections in NIR hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-03-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and technology, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of modern society. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals, commonly known as white spots, which are difficult to diagnose. Near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for early detection of demineralization which can classify healthy and pathological dental tissues. However, due to non-ideal illumination of the tooth surface the hyperspectral images can exhibit specular reflections, in particular around the edges and the ridges of the teeth. These reflections significantly affect the performance of automated classification and visualization methods. Cross polarized imaging setup can effectively remove the specular reflections, however is due to the complexity and other imaging setup limitations not always possible. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on modeling the specular reflections of hard dental tissues, which significantly improves the classification accuracy in the presence of specular reflections. The method was evaluated on five extracted human teeth with corresponding gold standard for 6 different healthy and pathological hard dental tissues including enamel, dentin, calculus, dentin caries, enamel caries and demineralized regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for multivariate local modeling of healthy and pathological dental tissues. The classification was performed by employing multiple discriminant analysis. Based on the obtained results we believe the proposed method can be considered as an effective alternative to the complex cross polarized imaging setups.

  10. Sparing Healthy Tissue and Increasing Tumor Dose Using Bayesian Modeling of Geometric Uncertainties for Planning Target Volume Personalization

    SciTech Connect

    Herschtal, Alan; Te Marvelde, Luc; Mengersen, Kerrie; Foroudi, Farshad; Eade, Thomas; Pham, Daniel; Caine, Hannah; Kron, Tomas

    2015-06-01

    Objective: To develop a mathematical tool that can update a patient's planning target volume (PTV) partway through a course of radiation therapy to more precisely target the tumor for the remainder of treatment and reduce dose to surrounding healthy tissue. Methods and Materials: Daily on-board imaging was used to collect large datasets of displacements for patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy for solid tumors. Bayesian statistical modeling of these geometric uncertainties was used to optimally trade off between displacement data collected from previously treated patients and the progressively accumulating data from a patient currently partway through treatment, to optimally predict future displacements for that patient. These predictions were used to update the PTV position and margin width for the remainder of treatment, such that the clinical target volume (CTV) was more precisely targeted. Results: Software simulation of dose to CTV and normal tissue for 2 real prostate displacement datasets consisting of 146 and 290 patients treated with a minimum of 30 fractions each showed that re-evaluating the PTV position and margin width after 8 treatment fractions reduced healthy tissue dose by 19% and 17%, respectively, while maintaining CTV dose. Conclusion: Incorporating patient-specific displacement patterns from early in a course of treatment allows PTV adaptation for the remainder of treatment. This substantially reduces the dose to healthy tissues and thus can reduce radiation therapy–induced toxicities, improving patient outcomes.

  11. CHANGES IN TOOTH HARD TISSUE MINERALI-ZATION AND BLOOD RHEOLOGY IN HEALTHY ADOLESCENTS AND THOSE WITH THYROID DYSFUNCTION.

    PubMed

    Beriashvili, S; Nikolaishvili, M; Mantskava, M; Momtsemlidze, N; Franchuk, K

    2016-11-01

    Thyroid dysfunction causes spreading and development of caries in the teeth and changes in periodontal tissues. In addition, it causes changes in peripheral blood flow and mineralization, local transcapillary metabolism causes changes in blood rheology. There are only few works in this direction and, therefore, the purpose of our research was to find out how the mineralization and the rheological properties of blood are changed in lesion of periodontal tissue on a background of thyroid dysfunction. Accordingly, the stomatological study was conducted in 75 adolescents aged 12-18 years by the standard method, recommended by the World Health Organization. According to the study, 45 patients out of them suffered from thyroid dysfunction, in particular from hypothyroidism. The comparator group consisted of 30 children of the same age without endocrine abnormalities. By the gained results it is noted that in spite of different type lesions due to dental caries, the caries incidence and intensiveness is higher in children with hypothyroidism as compared to healthy children. Decrease in saliva excretion rate and increase in oral fluid viscosity was found in children with thyroid and endocrine diseases as compared to healthy children. In children with endocrine disorders concurrent increase in calcium content (1,43±0,08 mmol/l) and decrease in inorganic phosphate concentrations (4,54±0,15 mmol/l) is reliably established. In children with thyroid disfunction and while periodontal tissue pathology, rheological features are disordered more dramatically than in healthy children. Therefore, it can be said that the changes in the adolescents' thyroid function is one of the reasons for formation of periodontal tissue diseases.Therefore, at detecting even the first signs of the periodontal tissue diseases, it is desirable in adolescents to assess the thyroid functional condition, since it will be the precondition for effective treatment and management of dental disease, in

  12. Angiotensin II Levels in Gingival Tissues from Healthy Individuals, Patients with Nifedipine Induced Gingival Overgrowth and Non Responders on Nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Anitha; Balaji, Thodur Madapusi

    2015-01-01

    Context The Renin Angiotensin system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Drug Induced Gingival Overgrowth (DIGO), a fibrotic condition, caused by Phenytoin, Nifedipine and Cyclosporine. Aim This study quantified Angiotensin II levels in gingival tissue samples obtained from healthy individuals, patients on Nifedipine manifesting/not manifesting drug induced gingival overgrowth. Materials and Methods Gingival tissue samples were obtained from healthy individuals (n=24), patients on nifidipine manifesting gingival overgrowth (n= 18) and patients on nifidipine not manifesting gingival overgrowth (n=8). Angiotensin II levels were estimated in the samples using a commercially available ELISA kit. Results Angiotensin II levels were significantly elevated in patients on Nifedipine manifesting gingival overgrowth compared to the other 2 groups (p<0.01). Conclusion The results of the study give an insight into the role played by Angiotensin II in the pathogenesis of drug induced gingival overgrowth. PMID:26436057

  13. Tadalafil reduces visceral adipose tissue accumulation by promoting preadipocytes differentiation towards a metabolically healthy phenotype: Studies in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Maneschi, Elena; Cellai, Ilaria; Aversa, Antonio; Mello, Tommaso; Filippi, Sandra; Comeglio, Paolo; Bani, Daniele; Guasti, Daniele; Sarchielli, Erica; Salvatore, Giulia; Morelli, Annamaria; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Corcetto, Francesca; Corno, Chiara; Francomano, Davide; Galli, Andrea; Vannelli, Gabriella Barbara; Lenzi, Andrea; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario; Vignozzi, Linda

    2016-03-15

    Development of metabolically healthy adipocytes within dysfunctional adipose tissue may represent an attractive way to counteract metabolic syndrome (MetS). In an experimental animal model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS, in vivo, long- and short-term tadalafil treatments were able to reduce visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation and hypertriglyceridemia, and to induce the expression in VAT of the brown fat-specific marker, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). VAT preadipocytes (PAD), isolated from the tadalafil-treated HFD rabbits, showed: i) a multilocular morphology; ii) an increased expression of brown fat-specific genes (such as UCP1 and CIDEA); iii) improved mitochondrial structure and dynamic and reduced superoxide production; iv) improved insulin sensitivity. Similar effects were obtained after in vitro tadalafil treatment in HFD rPAD. In conclusion, tadalafil counteracted HFD-associated VAT alterations, by restoring insulin-sensitivity and prompting preadipocytes differentiation towards a metabolically healthy phenotype.

  14. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells are Readily Recoverable from Lung Tissue, but not the Alveolar Space, in Healthy Humans.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, K A; Yerkovich, S T; Chen, T; McQualter, J L; Hopkins, P M-A; Wells, C A; Chambers, D C

    2016-10-01

    Stromal support is critical for lung homeostasis and the maintenance of an effective epithelial barrier. Despite this, previous studies have found a positive association between the number of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) isolated from the alveolar compartment and human lung diseases associated with epithelial dysfunction. We hypothesised that bronchoalveolar lavage derived MSCs (BAL-MSCs) are dysfunctional and distinct from resident lung tissue MSCs (LT-MSCs). In this study, we comprehensively interrogated the phenotype and transcriptome of human BAL-MSCs and LT-MSCs. We found that MSCs were rarely recoverable from the alveolar space in healthy humans, but could be readily isolated from lung transplant recipients by bronchoalveolar lavage. BAL-MSCs exhibited a CD90(Hi) , CD73(Hi) , CD45(Neg) , CD105(Lo) immunophenotype and were bipotent, lacking adipogenic potential. In contrast, MSCs were readily recoverable from healthy human lung tissue and were CD90(Hi or Lo) , CD73(Hi) , CD45(Neg) , CD105(Int) and had full tri-lineage potential. Transcriptional profiling of the two populations confirmed their status as bona fide MSCs and revealed a high degree of similarity between each other and the archetypal bone-marrow MSC. 105 genes were differentially expressed; 76 of which were increased in BAL-MSCs including genes involved in fibroblast activation, extracellular matrix deposition and tissue remodelling. Finally, we found the fibroblast markers collagen 1A1 and α-smooth muscle actin were increased in BAL-MSCs. Our data suggests that in healthy humans, lung MSCs reside within the tissue, but in disease can differentiate to acquire a profibrotic phenotype and migrate from their in-tissue niche into the alveolar space. Stem Cells 2016;34:2548-2558.

  15. Tissue Damage Markers after a Spinal Manipulation in Healthy Subjects: A Preliminary Report of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Achalandabaso, A.; Plaza-Manzano, G.; Lomas-Vega, R.; Martínez-Amat, A.; Camacho, M. V.; Gassó, M.; Hita-Contreras, F.; Molina, F.

    2014-01-01

    Spinal manipulation (SM) is a manual therapy technique frequently applied to treat musculoskeletal disorders because of its analgesic effects. It is defined by a manual procedure involving a directed impulse to move a joint past its physiologic range of movement (ROM). In this sense, to exceed the physiologic ROM of a joint could trigger tissue damage, which might represent an adverse effect associated with spinal manipulation. The present work tries to explore the presence of tissue damage associated with SM through the damage markers analysis. Thirty healthy subjects recruited at the University of Jaén were submitted to a placebo SM (control group; n = 10), a single lower cervical manipulation (cervical group; n = 10), and a thoracic manipulation (n = 10). Before the intervention, blood samples were extracted and centrifuged to obtain plasma and serum. The procedure was repeated right after the intervention and two hours after the intervention. Tissue damage markers creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), troponin-I, myoglobin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and aldolase were determined in samples. Statistical analysis was performed through a 3 × 3 mixed-model ANOVA. Neither cervical manipulation nor thoracic manipulation did produce significant changes in the CPK, LDH, CRP, troponin-I, myoglobin, NSE, or aldolase blood levels. Our data suggest that the mechanical strain produced by SM seems to be innocuous to the joints and surrounding tissues in healthy subjects. PMID:25609853

  16. Trace elements in human cancerous and healthy tissues: A comparative study by EDXRF, TXRF, synchrotron radiation and PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, M. L.; Magalhães, T.; Becker, M.; von Bohlen, A.

    2007-09-01

    It is known that trace elements play an important role in a number of biological processes. These include the activation or inhibition of enzymatic reactions, competition between elements and metal proteins for binding positions and modifications in the permeability of cellular membranes. These elements may also influence carcinogenic processes, thus the knowledge of trace element concentrations in healthy and neoplastic tissues might help in diagnostic and in the etiology and development of cancer. This work intends to give an overview of the achieved results in the analysis of several healthy and neoplastic human tissues, using multi-elemental techniques. The described measurements were carried out by means of synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission (SRIXE), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). A brief description of each method is given and the analytical results discussed and compared. There is a good agreement between the results obtained with the several techniques for the same tissue. However, the behavior of the elements is not always the same for the several analyzed tissues.

  17. Tissue damage markers after a spinal manipulation in healthy subjects: a preliminary report of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Achalandabaso, A; Plaza-Manzano, G; Lomas-Vega, R; Martínez-Amat, A; Camacho, M V; Gassó, M; Hita-Contreras, F; Molina, F

    2014-01-01

    Spinal manipulation (SM) is a manual therapy technique frequently applied to treat musculoskeletal disorders because of its analgesic effects. It is defined by a manual procedure involving a directed impulse to move a joint past its physiologic range of movement (ROM). In this sense, to exceed the physiologic ROM of a joint could trigger tissue damage, which might represent an adverse effect associated with spinal manipulation. The present work tries to explore the presence of tissue damage associated with SM through the damage markers analysis. Thirty healthy subjects recruited at the University of Jaén were submitted to a placebo SM (control group; n = 10), a single lower cervical manipulation (cervical group; n = 10), and a thoracic manipulation (n = 10). Before the intervention, blood samples were extracted and centrifuged to obtain plasma and serum. The procedure was repeated right after the intervention and two hours after the intervention. Tissue damage markers creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), troponin-I, myoglobin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and aldolase were determined in samples. Statistical analysis was performed through a 3 × 3 mixed-model ANOVA. Neither cervical manipulation nor thoracic manipulation did produce significant changes in the CPK, LDH, CRP, troponin-I, myoglobin, NSE, or aldolase blood levels. Our data suggest that the mechanical strain produced by SM seems to be innocuous to the joints and surrounding tissues in healthy subjects.

  18. Associations of physical activity and inactivity with body tissue composition among healthy Polish women and women after mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, U; Demuth, A; Skrzypczak, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between physical activity and body composition among healthy women and women who have had mastectomy. This is in order to establish whether physical activity of women after breast cancer treatment improves composition and distribution of body mass components to a degree which will allow to achieve the body composition of healthy women. Research material consists of anthropometric measurements (body height, weight) of women and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) of body composition (using Akern - BIA 101 composition analyzer). Intensity of activity was assessed using the Physical Activity International Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 76 healthy women (active 44.74%, inactive 55.26%) and 70 females after mastectomy (54.29% and 45.71%, respectively). Mean chronological age of women after mastectomy was 53.40 years, SD=7.55, and of the healthy ones 52.38 years SD=11.01). A significant difference in body composition was noted among active and inactive women after mastectomy; namely the active females had lower weight (by approximately 12 kg), body mass index (BMI), level of fat mass (by approximately 8%) and (by approximately 5%) total body water. The active healthy women had 6% less fat mass, almost 4% more body water and 6% more fat free mass. Programmed physical activity undertaken by women after mastectomy is recommended and produces good results in the form of reduction of excessive body fat tissue. Through physical activity these women are able to achieve the same level of fat mass as healthy women.

  19. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ross, J.P.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Terrell, S.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Schoeb, T.R.; Perceval, H.F.; Hinterkopf, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B"1) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  20. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Honeyfield, Dale C; Ross, J Perran; Carbonneau, Dwayne A; Terrell, Scott P; Woodward, Allan R; Schoeb, Trenton R; Perceval, H Franklin; Hinterkopf, Joy P

    2008-04-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B(1)) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities.

  1. Left ventricular radial colour and longitudinal pulsed-wave tissue Doppler echocardiography in 39 healthy domestic pet rabbits.

    PubMed

    Casamian-Sorrosal, Domingo; Saunders, Richard; Browne, William; Elliot, Sarah; Fonfara, Sonja

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports radial colour and longitudinal mitral annulus pulsed-wave tissue Doppler findings in a large cohort of healthy, adult pet rabbits. Thirty-nine rabbits (22 Dwarf Lops, 14 French Lops and three Alaskans) underwent conscious echocardiography. The median age of the rabbits was 22 months and the median weight was 2.8 kg (Dwarf Lop 2.4 kg/French Lop 6.0 kg). Adequate radial colour and longitudinal pulsed-wave tissue Doppler traces were obtained in 100% and 85% of cases, respectively. Most systolic tissue Doppler parameters were significantly higher in French Lops than in Dwarf Lops. Separation of mitral inflow diastolic waves was present in 40% of cases using conventional spectral Doppler and in >60% of cases using pulsed-wave tissue Doppler which could be beneficial when evaluating diastolic function in rabbits. This study can be used as a reference for normal echocardiographic tissue Doppler values for adult rabbits undergoing conscious echocardiography in clinical practice.

  2. Racial differences in genome-wide methylation profiling and gene expression in breast tissues from healthy women.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Ae; Brasky, Theodore M; Marian, Catalin; Weng, Daniel Y; Taslim, Cenny; Dumitrescu, Ramona G; Llanos, Adana A; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is more common in European Americans (EAs) than in African Americans (AAs) but mortality from breast cancer is higher among AAs. While there are racial differences in DNA methylation and gene expression in breast tumors, little is known whether such racial differences exist in breast tissues of healthy women. Genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression profiling was performed in histologically normal breast tissues of healthy women. Linear regression models were used to identify differentially-methylated CpG sites (CpGs) between EAs (n = 61) and AAs (n = 22). Correlations for methylation and expression were assessed. Biological functions of the differentially-methylated genes were assigned using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Among 485 differentially-methylated CpGs by race, 203 were hypermethylated in EAs, and 282 were hypermethylated in AAs. Promoter-related differentially-methylated CpGs were more frequently hypermethylated in EAs (52%) than AAs (27%) while gene body and intergenic CpGs were more frequently hypermethylated in AAs. The differentially-methylated CpGs were enriched for cancer-associated genes with roles in cell death and survival, cellular development, and cell-to-cell signaling. In a separate analysis for correlation in EAs and AAs, different patterns of correlation were found between EAs and AAs. The correlated genes showed different biological networks between EAs and AAs; networks were connected by Ubiquitin C. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive genome-wide study to identify differences in methylation and gene expression between EAs and AAs in breast tissues from healthy women. These findings may provide further insights regarding the contribution of epigenetic differences to racial disparities in breast cancer.

  3. Racial differences in genome-wide methylation profiling and gene expression in breast tissues from healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-Ae; Brasky, Theodore M; Marian, Catalin; Weng, Daniel Y; Taslim, Cenny; Dumitrescu, Ramona G; Llanos, Adana A; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is more common in European Americans (EAs) than in African Americans (AAs) but mortality from breast cancer is higher among AAs. While there are racial differences in DNA methylation and gene expression in breast tumors, little is known whether such racial differences exist in breast tissues of healthy women. Genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression profiling was performed in histologically normal breast tissues of healthy women. Linear regression models were used to identify differentially-methylated CpG sites (CpGs) between EAs (n = 61) and AAs (n = 22). Correlations for methylation and expression were assessed. Biological functions of the differentially-methylated genes were assigned using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Among 485 differentially-methylated CpGs by race, 203 were hypermethylated in EAs, and 282 were hypermethylated in AAs. Promoter-related differentially-methylated CpGs were more frequently hypermethylated in EAs (52%) than AAs (27%) while gene body and intergenic CpGs were more frequently hypermethylated in AAs. The differentially-methylated CpGs were enriched for cancer-associated genes with roles in cell death and survival, cellular development, and cell-to-cell signaling. In a separate analysis for correlation in EAs and AAs, different patterns of correlation were found between EAs and AAs. The correlated genes showed different biological networks between EAs and AAs; networks were connected by Ubiquitin C. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive genome-wide study to identify differences in methylation and gene expression between EAs and AAs in breast tissues from healthy women. These findings may provide further insights regarding the contribution of epigenetic differences to racial disparities in breast cancer. PMID:26680018

  4. Exploring the origins of echo-time-dependent quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) measurements in healthy tissue and cerebral microbleeds.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew J; Wang, Nian; Decker, Kyle S; Wei, Hongjiang; Zhu, Wen-Zhen; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is increasingly used to measure variation in tissue composition both in the brain and in other areas of the body in a range of disease pathologies. Although QSM measurements were originally believed to be independent of the echo time (TE) used in the gradient-recalled echo (GRE) acquisition from which they are derived; recent literature (Sood et al., 2016) has shown that these measurements can be highly TE-dependent in a number of brain regions. In this work we systematically investigate possible causes of this effect through analysis of apparent frequency and QSM measurements derived from data acquired at multiple TEs in vivo in healthy brain regions and in cerebral microbleeds (CMBs); QSM data acquired in a gadolinium-doped phantom; and in QSM data derived from idealized simulated phase data. Apparent frequency measurements in the optic radiations (OR) and central corpus callosum (CC) were compared to those predicted by a 3-pool white matter model, however the model failed to fully explain contrasting frequency profiles measured in the OR and CC. Our results show that TE-dependent QSM measurements can be caused by a failure of phase unwrapping algorithms in and around strong susceptibility sources such as CMBs; however, in healthy brain regions this behavior appears to result from intrinsic non-linear phase evolution in the MR signal. From these results we conclude that care must be taken when deriving frequency and QSM measurements in strong susceptibility sources due to the inherent limitations in phase unwrapping; and that while signal compartmentalization due to tissue microstructure and content is a plausible cause of TE-dependent frequency and QSM measurements in healthy brain regions, better sampling of the MR signal and more complex models of tissue are needed to fully exploit this relationship.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Healthy and Tumoral Human Bone Tissues by Spectrometric and Calorimetric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta-Romero, A.; Peña-Rico, M. A.; Heredia, A.; Lozano, L. F.; Ruvalcaba, J. L.; Bucio, L.; Belío-Reyes, I. A.; Mondragón-Galicia, G.

    2002-08-01

    Hyaline collagen can be present in bone tissue in such a manner that no fibroblast cells are able to be seen. Hystologicaly, hyaline collagen is difficult to distinguish from osteoid. The osteoid in the mineralization process (the accumulating hydroxyapatite carbonate, HAP, crystals) is made by the osteoblasts, and its looking is much like hyaline collagen. There are illnesses that could be useful to distinguish microscopically between hyaline collagen and osteoid. From the scope of the mineralization process, here we present the physical and chemical features that characterize hyaline collagen and osteoid employing differential scanning calorimetry, low vacuum scanning electron microscopy, FT Infrared spectroscopy and chemical analysis by Proton induced X-ray emission, PIXE. The results show that hyaline collagen has more thermal stability than osteoid tissue. The last could be explained considering the presence of nanometric apatite crystallites (acting as fracture centres) in the osteoid tissue having those apatite crystallites the effect in turn of diminish the thermal stability.

  6. Diversity of Duodenal and Rectal Microbiota in Biopsy Tissues and Luminal Contents in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Li, Gangping; Yang, Min; Zhou, Kan; Zhang, Lei; Tian, Lugao; Lv, Shangze; Jin, Yu; Qian, Wei; Xiong, Hanhua; Lin, Rong; Fu, Yu; Hou, Xiaohua

    2015-07-01

    The diverse microbial communities that colonize distinct segments of the gastrointestinal tract are intimately related to aspects of physiology and the pathology of human health. However, most recent studies have focused on the rectal or fecal microbiota, and the microbial signature of the duodenum is poorly studied. In this study, we compared the microbiota in duodenal and rectal samples to illustrate the characteristic microbial signatures of the duodenum in healthy adults. Nine healthy volunteers donated biopsies and luminal contents from the duodenum and rectum. To determine the composition and diversity of the microbiota, 454- pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA was performed and multiple bioinformatics analyses were applied. The α-diversity and phylogenetic diversity of the microbiota in the duodenal samples were higher than those of the rectal samples. There was higher biodiversity among the microbiota isolated from rectal biopsies than feces. Proteobacteria were more highly represented in the duodenum than in the rectum, both in the biopsies and in the luminal contents from the healthy volunteers (38.7% versus 12.5%, 33.2% versus 5.0%, respectively). Acinetobacter and Prevotella were dominant in the duodenum, whereas Bacteroides and Prevotella were dominant in the rectum. Additionally, the percentage of OTUs shared in biopsy groups was far higher than in the luminal group (43.0% versus 26.8%) and a greater number of genera was shared among the biopsies than the luminal contents. Duodenal samples demonstrated greater biological diversity and possessed a unique microbial signature compared with the rectum. The mucosa-associated microbiota was more relatively conserved than luminal samples.

  7. Contributions of adipose tissue architectural and tensile properties toward defining healthy and unhealthy obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in maintenance of white adipose tissue (WAT) architecture and function, and proper ECM remodeling is critical to support WAT malleability to accomodate changes in energy storage needs. Obesity and adipocyte hypertrophy places a strain on the EC...

  8. Tissue concentration of intrauterine and intravenously administered amoxicillin in the isolated hemoperfused bovine uterus model and in healthy cows.

    PubMed

    Braun, Michael; Zerbe, Holm; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    The tissue distribution of amoxicillin in the bovine uterus in dependence of the administration route was examined using the in vitro model of the isolated hemoperfused bovine uterus. Four hours after intrauterine instillation or onset of perfusion with amoxicillin ("systemic" treatment), respectively, samples of the uterine tissue were taken from different locations of the organ. The tissue concentration of amoxicillin in the single layers of the uterine wall was determined via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. To compare the results with data achieved in vivo, healthy cows were treated post partum intrauterinely or systemically, respectively, and the concentration of amoxicillin was determined in endometrial biopsies. In vitro intrauterine instillation resulted in significantly higher levels of amoxicillin in the inner layers of the uterine wall compared to systemic treatment, whereas the drug is distributed more homogenously through all layers in the systemically treated organs. In the in vivo experiments the tissue concentration of amoxicillin is significantly lower after intrauterine instillation compared to the in vitro data. In contrast, the endometrial concentrations in the uteri perfused with amoxicillin in vitro are comparable to those measured in endometrium of systemically treated cows. The MIC for gram positive and negative bacteria was exceeded in the uterine wall of all organs in vitro and in vivo after intrauterine treatment. In systemic treated cows the MIC for gram negative bacteria was exceeded in two of three cases, but never in the hemoperfused uteri. The data indicate that combined systemic and intrauterine treatment results in the best distribution of sufficient antibiotic concentrations in the uterine tissue. The isolated hemoperfused bovine uterus is shown to be suitable as an in vitro model for pharmacokinetic examinations, especially with regard to detailed information on the tissue distribution of drugs.

  9. Liver Progenitors Isolated from Adult Healthy Mouse Liver Efficiently Differentiate to Functional Hepatocytes In Vitro and Repopulate Liver Tissue.

    PubMed

    Tanimizu, Naoki; Ichinohe, Norihisa; Ishii, Masayuki; Kino, Junichi; Mizuguchi, Toru; Hirata, Koichi; Mitaka, Toshihiro

    2016-12-01

    It has been proposed that tissue stem cells supply multiple epithelial cells in mature tissues and organs. However, it is unclear whether tissue stem cells generally contribute to cellular turnover in normal healthy organs. Here, we show that liver progenitors distinct from bipotent liver stem/progenitor cells (LPCs) persistently exist in mouse livers and potentially contribute to tissue maintenance. We found that, in addition to LPCs isolated as EpCAM(+) cells, liver progenitors were enriched in CD45(-) TER119(-) CD31(-) EpCAM(-) ICAM-1(+) fraction isolated from late-fetal and postnatal livers. ICAM-1(+) liver progenitors were abundant by 4 weeks (4W) after birth. Although their number decreased with age, ICAM-1(+) liver progenitors existed in livers beyond that stage. We established liver progenitor clones derived from ICAM-1(+) cells between 1 and 20W and found that those clones efficiently differentiated into mature hepatocytes (MHs), which secreted albumin, eliminated ammonium ion, stored glycogen, and showed cytochrome P450 activity. Even after long-term culture, those clones kept potential to differentiate to MHs. When ICAM-1(+) clones were transplanted into nude mice after retrorsine treatment and 70% partial hepatectomy, donor cells were incorporated into liver plates and expressed hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, and carbamoylphosphate synthetase I. Moreover, after short-term treatment with oncostatin M, ICAM-1(+) clones could efficiently repopulate the recipient liver tissues. Our results indicate that liver progenitors that can efficiently differentiate to MHs exist in normal adult livers. Those liver progenitors could be an important source of new MHs for tissue maintenance and repair in vivo, and for regenerative medicine ex vivo. Stem Cells 2016;34:2889-2901.

  10. Three-dimensional hard tissue palatal size and shape: a 10-year longitudinal evaluation in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Sforza, Chiarella; Dellavia, Claudia; Colombo, Anna; Ferrari, Raffaella P

    2002-01-01

    A 10-year longitudinal evaluation of the morphology (size and shape) of hard tissue palate was performed in 6 female and 6 male healthy adults (mean age at the second evaluation was 33 years, SD = 2.2). All subjects had a complete permanent dentition, including the second molars, and were free from respiratory problems. Palatal landmarks were digitized with a computerized 3D instrument, and their coordinates were used to derive a mathematical model of palatal form. Palatal shape (size-independent) was assessed by a fourth-grade polynomial in the sagittal and frontal plane projections. Palatal dimensions in the frontal and sagittal planes were computed and compared between the 2 evaluations by paired Student t tests. A great variability was observed, and no significant modifications in size were found (P > .05 for all variables). No variations in shape were observed. Sex had no significant effect for any variable (Student t for independent samples, P > .05). This study showed that in healthy subjects, hard tissue palatal morphology does not seem to change between the third and the fourth decades of life.

  11. Influence of enrofloxacin traces in drinking water to doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetics in healthy and infected by Mycoplasma gallisepticum broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Posyniak, Andrzej; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Sell, Bartosz; Gajda, Anna; Sawicka, Anna; Olszewska-Tomczyk, Monika; Bladek, Tomasz; Tomczyk, Grzegorz; Zmudzki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Most of antibiotics, administrated in the treatment of poultry diseases are dissolved in drinking water, and it can lead to water supply systems contamination, especially when the regular cleaning is not using. This situation can lead to unconscious administration of low doses of antibiotics to untreated animals. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of the exposure of enrofloxacin traces (500 μg l(-1)) to doxycycline pharmacokinetics in healthy and experimentally Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected broiler chickens., Two experimental groups, received of enrofloxacin in water and all groups, received 20 mg kg(-1) bw of doxycycline. The compounds concentrations in muscles and livers were determined by LC-MS/MS. The maximum drug tissue concentration (Cmax) of doxycycline was highest in liver obtained from infected chickens which, received enrofloxacin traces (ENR + DC/MG). It was about 40% higher than in healthy chickens from group I which received only doxycycline. It was found that the concentration-time curve AUC(0-t) values in group ENR + DC/MG were almost 75% higher than in the group (DC) and 35% higher than in group (ENR + DC) which also received enrofloxacin traces. The constant exposure of broiler chickens on enrofloxacin traces as well as infection, may significantly influenced on doxycycline tissue pharmacokinetic profile.

  12. Quantification of differences in the effective atomic numbers of healthy and cancerous tissues: A discussion in the context of diagnostics and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, M. L.

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: There are a range of genetic and nongenetic factors influencing the elemental composition of different human tissues. The elemental composition of cancerous tissues frequently differs from healthy tissue of the same organ, particularly in high-Z trace element concentrations. For this reason, one could suggest that this may be exploited in diagnostics and perhaps even influence dosimetry. Methods: In this work, for the first time, effective atomic numbers are computed for common cancerous and healthy tissues using a robust, energy-dependent approach between 10 keV and 100 MeV. These are then quantitatively compared within the context of diagnostics and dosimetry. Results: Differences between effective atomic numbers of healthy and diseased tissues are found to be typically less than 10%. Fibrotic tissues and calcifications of the breast exhibit substantial (tens to hundreds of percent) differences to healthy tissue. Expectedly, differences are most pronounced in the photoelectric regime and consequently most relevant for kV imaging/therapy and radionuclides with prominent low-energy peaks. Cancerous tissue of the testes and stomach have lower effective atomic numbers than corresponding healthy tissues, while diseased tissues of the other organ sites typically have higher values. Conclusions: As dose calculation approaches improve in accuracy, there may be an argument for the explicit inclusion of pathologies. This is more the case for breast, penile, prostate, nasopharyngeal, and stomach cancer, less so for testicular and kidney cancer. The calculated data suggest dual-energy computed tomography could potentially improve lesion identification in the aforementioned organs (with the exception of testicular cancer), with most import in breast imaging. Ultimately, however, the differences are very small. It is likely that the assumption of a generic 'tissue ramp' in planning will be sufficient for the foreseeable future, and that the Z differences do not

  13. Potential of using cerium oxide nanoparticles for protecting healthy tissue during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI)

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zi; Mainali, Madan Kumar; Sinha, Neeharika; Strack, Guinevere; Altundal, Yucel; Hao, Yao; Winningham, Thomas Andrew; Sajo, Erno; Celli, Jonathan; Ngwa, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) as radical scavengers during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) to protect normal tissue. We hypothesize that CONPs can be slowly released from the routinely used APBI balloon applicators—via a degradable coating—and protect the normal tissue on the border of the lumpectomy cavity over the duration of APBI. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we analytically calculated the initial concentration of CONPs required to protect normal breast tissue from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the time required for the particles to diffuse to various distances from the lumpectomy wall. Given that cerium has a high atomic number, we took into account the possible inadvertent dose enhancement that could occur due to the photoelectric interactions with radiotherapy photons. To protect against a typical MammoSite treatment fraction of 3.4 Gy, 5 ng-g−1 of CONPs is required to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Using 2 nm sized NPs, with an initial concentration of 1 mg-g−1, we found that 2–10 days of diffusion is required to obtain desired concentrations of CONPs in regions 1–2 cm away from the lumpectomy wall. The resultant dose enhancement factor (DEF) is less than 1.01 under such conditions. Our results predict that CONPs can be employed for radioprotection during APBI using a new design in which balloon applicators are coated with the NPs for sustained/controlled in-situ release from within the lumpectomy cavity. PMID:27053452

  14. Potential of using cerium oxide nanoparticles for protecting healthy tissue during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI).

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zi; Mainali, Madan Kumar; Sinha, Neeharika; Strack, Guinevere; Altundal, Yucel; Hao, Yao; Winningham, Thomas Andrew; Sajo, Erno; Celli, Jonathan; Ngwa, Wilfred

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) as radical scavengers during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) to protect normal tissue. We hypothesize that CONPs can be slowly released from the routinely used APBI balloon applicators-via a degradable coating-and protect the normal tissue on the border of the lumpectomy cavity over the duration of APBI. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we analytically calculated the initial concentration of CONPs required to protect normal breast tissue from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the time required for the particles to diffuse to various distances from the lumpectomy wall. Given that cerium has a high atomic number, we took into account the possible inadvertent dose enhancement that could occur due to the photoelectric interactions with radiotherapy photons. To protect against a typical MammoSite treatment fraction of 3.4Gy, 5ng·g(-1) of CONPs is required to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Using 2nm sized NPs, with an initial concentration of 1mg·g(-1), we found that 2-10days of diffusion is required to obtain desired concentrations of CONPs in regions 1-2cm away from the lumpectomy wall. The resultant dose enhancement factor (DEF) is less than 1.01 under such conditions. Our results predict that CONPs can be employed for radioprotection during APBI using a new design in which balloon applicators are coated with the NPs for sustained/controlled in-situ release from within the lumpectomy cavity.

  15. In Vivo Tissue Pharmacokinetics of Carbon-11-Labeled Clozapine in Healthy Volunteers: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, HS; Kim, E; Moon, BS; Lim, NH; Lee, BC; Kim, SE

    2015-01-01

    We investigated clozapine (CLZ) tissue pharmacokinetics in vivo by using carbon-11-labeled CLZ (11C-CLZ) and positron emission tomography (PET). Eight healthy volunteers underwent 11C-CLZ studies wherein computed tomography image acquisition was followed by PET scans (whole-body, four; brain, four). After bolus intravenous 11C-CLZ injection, PET images were acquired at various timepoints for 2–3 hours. Tissue 11C-CLZ signals were plotted over time, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. High 11C-CLZ radioactivity was detected in the liver and brain, implying CLZ hepatic metabolism and efficient blood–brain barrier penetration. The urinary and hepatobiliary tracts were involved in 11C-CLZ excretion. Moderate to high radioactivity was observed in the dopaminergic and serotonergic receptor-rich brain regions, indicating CLZ binding to multiple receptor types. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the determination of 11C-CLZ tissue pharmacokinetics in humans. PET using radiolabeled drugs can provide valuable information that could complement plasma pharmacokinetic data. PMID:26225256

  16. Study on trace elements behaviour in cancerous and healthy tissues of colon, breast and stomach: Total reflection X-ray fluorescence applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, T.; Carvalho, M. L.; Von Bohlen, A.; Becker, M.

    2010-06-01

    In this work Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyse healthy and cancerous tissues of the same individual along several contiguous thin sections of each tissue. Thirty two samples (16 pairs) of breast tissue, 30 samples (15 pairs) of intestine tissue and 10 samples (5 pairs) of stomach tissue were analysed. The samples were obtained in Civil Hospitals of Germany (Dortmund) and Portugal (Lisbon). The elemental distribution of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in these samples was studied. Descriptive statistics based on bar graphics and hypotheses tests and also an automatic classification based on hierarchical grouping analysis was used for the several analysed tissues. It was shown that the behaviour of the elements is tissue dependent. Some elements, like P and K exhibit the same behaviour in all the analysed tissue types. They have increased concentrations in all cancerous tissues. Unlike, other elements like Br show completely different behaviour depending on the tissue: similar concentration in healthy and cancerous stomach, decreased levels in colon cancerous tissues and enhanced concentrations in breast was observed. Moreover cancer tissues present decreased Se concentrations on colon and increased on breast.

  17. Characterization of immune cell populations in oral mucosal tissue of healthy adult cats.

    PubMed

    Harley, R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Day, M J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the leucocyte subsets present in the oral mucosa of healthy cats. Immunohistochemical labelling and computer-assisted morphometric analysis was used to identify expression of MHC class II, CD3, CD79a, IgG, IgM, IgA, and leucocyte antigen L1 (L1) by cells in sections from 19 cats, and expression of CD4 and CD8 by cells in sections from 17 cats. Mast cells were detected by toluidine blue staining. In the epithelial compartment, CD3(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes were detected, and CD8(+) cells were more common than CD4(+) cells. MHC class II labelling revealed intraepithelial and subepithelial cells with a characteristic dendritic morphology. In some sections these dendritic cells were closely associated with subepithelial clusters of CD3(+) T cells containing both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells. In the lamina propria and submucosal compartments, the cells most commonly identified were mast cells. CD3(+) T-lymphocytes were also observed, and CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were detected in similar numbers. L1(+) and CD79(+) cells were detected least frequently. The few plasma cells present were generally found to be either IgG(+) or IgA(+). Within the stroma surrounding the salivary glands, CD79a(+) and IgA(+) cells predominated. Slight epithelial labelling for L1 was seen in some sections. The normal feline oral mucosa clearly contains a range of immune cell populations.

  18. Mapping of healthy oral mucosal tissue using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: ratiometric-based total hemoglobin comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Razan; Hamadah, Omar; Bachir, Wesam

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to clinically evaluate the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) ratiometric method for differentiation of normal oral mucosal tissues with different histological natures and vascularizations in the oral cavity. Twenty-one healthy patients aged 20-44 years were diagnosed as healthy and probed with a portable DRS system. Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded in vivo in the range (450-650 nm). In this study, the following three oral mucosal tissues were considered: masticatory mucosa, lining mucosa, and specialized mucosa. Spectral features based on spectral intensity ratios were determined at five specific wavelengths (512, 540, 558, 575, and 620 nm). Total hemoglobin based on spectral ratios for the three anatomical regions have also been evaluated. The three studied groups representing different anatomical regions in the oral cavity were compared using analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the mean of diffuse spectral ratios between the groups (P < 0.05). Post hoc test detected significant difference between masticatory mucosa group and lining mucosa group (P < 0.05) and between masticatory mucosa group and specialized mucosa group (P = 0.000, at ratio 558/620 and P = 0.000, at ratio 575/620). Significant difference was also found between the lining mucosa group and specialized mucosa group (P = 0.000, at ratio 512/558 and P = 0.000, at ratio 512/575). It has also been shown that spectral ratios at wavelengths 558, 575, and 620 nm reveal the greatest difference among the main oral sites in terms of total hemoglobin content. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy might be used for creating a DRS databank of normal oral mucosal tissue with specific spectral ratios featuring the total hemoglobin concentrations. That would further enhance the discrimination of oral tissue for examining the histological nature of oral mucosa

  19. Monochromatic Minibeams Radiotherapy: From Healthy Tissue-Sparing Effect Studies Toward First Experimental Glioma Bearing Rats Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Deman, Pierre; Vautrin, Mathias; Edouard, Magali; Stupar, Vasile; Bobyk, Laure; Farion, Regine; Elleaume, Helene; Remy, Chantal; Barbier, Emmanuel L.; Esteve, Francois; Adam, Jean-Francois

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate high-dose single fraction delivered with monochromatic X-rays minibeams for the radiotherapy of primary brain tumors in rats. Methods and Materials: Two groups of healthy rats were irradiated with one anteroposterior minibeam incidence (four minibeams, 123 Gy prescribed dose at 1 cm depth in the brain) or two interleaved incidences (54 Gy prescribed dose in a 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 Multiplication-Sign 4.8 mm{sup 3} volume centered in the right hemisphere), respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up was performed over 1 year. T2-weighted (T2w) images, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and blood vessel permeability maps were acquired. F98 tumor bearing rats were also irradiated with interleaved minibeams to achieve a homogeneous dose of 54 Gy delivered to an 8 Multiplication-Sign 8 Multiplication-Sign 7.8 mm{sup 3} volume centered on the tumor. Anatomic and functional MRI follow-up was performed every 10 days after irradiation. T2w images, ADC, and perfusion maps were acquired. Results: All healthy rats were euthanized 1 year after irradiation without any clinical alteration visible by simple examination. T2w and ADC measurements remain stable for the single incidence irradiation group. Localized Gd-DOTA permeability, however, was observed 9 months after irradiation for the interleaved incidences group. The survival time of irradiated glioma bearing rats was significantly longer than that of untreated animals (49 {+-} 12.5 days versus 23.3 {+-} 2 days, p < 0.001). The tumoral cerebral blood flow and blood volume tend to decrease after irradiation. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the sparing effect of minibeams on healthy tissue. The increased life span achieved for irradiated glioma bearing rats was similar to the one obtained with other radiotherapy techniques. This experimental tumor therapy study shows the feasibility of using X-ray minibeams with high doses in brain tumor radiotherapy.

  20. Age-related decrease in cold-activated brown adipose tissue and accumulation of body fat in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Aita, Sayuri; Matsushita, Mami; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Kameya, Toshimitsu; Kawai, Yuko; Miyagawa, Masao; Tsujisaki, Masayuki; Saito, Masayuki

    2011-09-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) can be identified by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) combined with X-ray computed tomography (CT) in adult humans. The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between BAT and adiposity in healthy adult humans, particularly to test the idea that decreased BAT activity may be associated with body fat accumulation with age. One hundred and sixty-two healthy volunteers aged 20-73 years (103 males and 59 females) underwent FDG-PET/CT after 2-h cold exposure at 19 °C with light clothing. Cold-activated BAT was detected in 41% of the subjects (BAT-positive). Compared with the BAT-negative group, the BAT-positive group was younger (P < 0.01) and showed a lower BMI (P < 0.01), body fat content (P < 0.01), and abdominal fat (P < 0.01). The incidence of cold-activated BAT decreased with age (P < 0.01), being more than 50% in the twenties, but less than 10% in the fifties and sixties. The adiposity-related parameters showed some sex differences, but increased with age in the BAT-negative group (P < 0.01), while they remained unchanged from the twenties to forties in the BAT-positive group, in both sexes. These results suggest that decreased BAT activity may be associated with accumulation of body fat with age.

  1. Epigenetic clustering of lung adenocarcinomas based on DNA methylation profiles in adjacent lung tissue: Its correlation with smoking history and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takashi; Arai, Eri; Kohno, Takashi; Takahashi, Yoriko; Miyata, Sayaka; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Soejima, Kenzo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Kanai, Yae

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations during lung carcinogenesis. Infinium assay was performed using 139 paired samples of non-cancerous lung tissue (N) and tumorous tissue (T) from a learning cohort of patients with lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs). Fifty paired N and T samples from a validation cohort were also analyzed. DNA methylation alterations on 1,928 probes occurred in N samples relative to normal lung tissue from patients without primary lung tumors, and were inherited by, or strengthened in, T samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using DNA methylation levels in N samples on all 26,447 probes subclustered patients into Cluster I (n = 32), Cluster II (n = 35) and Cluster III (n = 72). LADCs in Cluster I developed from the inflammatory background in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in heavy smokers and were locally invasive. Most patients in Cluster II were non-smokers and had a favorable outcome. LADCs in Cluster III developed in light smokers were most aggressive (frequently showing lymphatic and blood vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis and an advanced pathological stage), and had a poor outcome. DNA methylation levels of hallmark genes for each cluster, such as IRX2, HOXD8, SPARCL1, RGS5 and EI24, were again correlated with clinicopathological characteristics in the validation cohort. DNA methylation profiles reflecting carcinogenetic factors such as smoking and COPD appear to be established in non-cancerous lung tissue from patients with LADCs and may determine the aggressiveness of tumors developing in individual patients, and thus patient outcome.

  2. Lack of association between overload and peri-implant tissue loss in healthy conditions.

    PubMed

    Afrashtehfar, Kelvin I; Afrashtehfar, Cyrus Dm

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesPubMed, Ovid, EMBASE and LILACS were searched up to December 2011. In addition, the reference lists of the selected review papers were further hand searched. Language was limited to studies published only in English.Study selectionHuman and animal randomised clinical trials (RCT), systematic reviews of RCTs, non-randomised trials, case series that reported on the clinical, radiographic, and/or histological outcomes of dental/oral implants exposed to excessive load were considered eligible for inclusion.Data extraction and synthesisIdentified studies were evaluated by one non-blinded reviewer according to the selection criteria. When doubt arose co-authors assisted until consensus was reached. The data extracted from the clinical studies included study design, patients/implants/prostheses/loading time/follow-up time, type of intervention/methods, outcome, and, specific to animal studies, the animal model, intention to overload (ie yes or no), load mode, type of loading (ie dynamic or static), and microbial control if any. The heterogeneity among studies did not allow data to be combined.ResultsThe search strategy in addition to hand searching retrieved 726 potentially eligible studies after de-duplication. After screening the 41 full-text relevant studies and applying the selection criteria assessment, only three non-randomised split-mouth animal studies and one systematic review of animal experimental data were considered for inclusion. The non-randomised studies could not reveal any relationship between increased leverage on dental implants and marginal loss. The systematic review suggested that supra-occlusal contacts on uninflamed peri-implant bone tissue did not cause catabolism, whereas supra-occlusal contacts combined with inflammation significantly increased the plaque-induced catabolism.ConclusionsThe effect of implant overload on bone/implant loss in clinically well-integrated implants is poorly reported and provides little unbiased evidence to

  3. Variance of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) concentrations in activated, concentrated platelets from healthy male donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of autologous blood concentrates, such as activated, concentrated platelets, in orthopaedic clinical applications has had mixed results. Research on this topic has focused on growth factors and cytokines, with little directed towards matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are involved in post-wound tissue remodeling. Methods In this study, the authors measured the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13), in activated platelets derived from blood of healthy, male volunteers (n = 92), 19 to 60 years old. The levels of the natural inhibitors of these proteases, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 were also assessed. Results Notably, there was no significant change in concentration with age in four of six targets tested. However, TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 demonstrated a statistically significant increase in concentration for subjects older than 30 years of age compared to those 30 years and younger (P = 0.04 and P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusion TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 are global inhibitors of MMPs, including MMP-2 (Gelatinase A). MMP-2 targets native collagens, gelatin and elastin to remodel the extracellular matrix during wound healing. A decreased availability of pharmacologically active MMP-2 may diminish the effectiveness of the use of activated, concentrated platelets from older patients, and may also contribute to longer healing times in this population. PMID:24766991

  4. Ageing and chronic intermittent hypoxia mimicking sleep apnea do not modify local brain tissue stiffness in healthy mice.

    PubMed

    Jorba, Ignasi; Menal, Maria José; Torres, Marta; Gozal, David; Piñol-Ripoll, Gerard; Colell, Anna; Montserrat, Josep M; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon; Almendros, Isaac

    2017-03-06

    Recent evidence suggests that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may increase the risk of Alzheimer´s disease (AD), with the latter promoting alterations in brain tissue stiffness, a feature of ageing. Here, we assessed the effects of age and intermittent hypoxia (IH) on brain tissue stiffness in a mouse model of OSA. Two-month-old and 18-month-old mice (N=10 each) were subjected to IH (20% O2 40s - 6% O2 20s) for 8 weeks (6h/day). Corresponding control groups for each age were kept under normoxic conditions in room air (RA). After sacrifice, the brain was excised and 200-micron coronal slices were cut with a vibratome. Local stiffness of the cortex and hippocampus were assessed in brain slices placed in an Atomic Force Microscope. For both brain regions, the Young's modulus (E) in each animal was computed as the average values from 9 force-indentation curves. Cortex E mean (±SE) values were 442±122Pa (RA) and 455±120 (IH) for young mice and 433±44 (RA) and 405±101 (IH) for old mice. Hippocampal E values were 376±62 (RA) and 474±94 (IH) for young mice and 486±93 (RA) and 521±210 (IH) for old mice. For both cortex and hippocampus, 2-way ANOVA indicated no statistically significant effects of age or challenge (IH vs. RA) on E values. Thus, neither chronic IH mimicking OSA nor ageing up to late middle age appear to modify local brain tissue stiffness in otherwise healthy mice.

  5. Mapping transitions between healthy and pathological lesions in human breast tissues by diffraction enhanced imaging computed tomography (DEI-CT) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conceição, A. L. C.; Antoniassi, M.; Geraldelli, W.; Poletti, M. E.

    2014-02-01

    In this work we have combined the DEI-CT and SAXS technique to study the transition between healthy and pathological breast tissues, which include benign and malignant lesions. The ability of DEI-CT to enhance the contrast between soft tissues was used to localize the tumor region in the sample. Then, the tumor region and its surroundings were scanned by SAXS in order to map the changes promoted by the neoplasias at nano-level.It was clearly observed that pathological tissues present distinguishable SAXS scattering profiles from those of normal tissue. These differences are mainly related to changes in arrangement and diameter of collagen fibrils, evaluated by the higher order of reflection peaks of these fibrils. Differences related to the peak intensities and the total scattered intensity were found by comparing the healthy and pathological regions. The 2nd order of collagen reflection arises only in the healthy region neighboring the benign lesion. A broader peak at q=0.16 nm-1 seems to characterize the malignant lesions. Finally, based on this information, the transition between healthy and pathological human breast tissues was mapped which allowed to get insights into the changes promoted by tumors during growth and progression.

  6. A new method of infrared thermography for quantification of brown adipose tissue activation in healthy adults (TACTICAL): a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Ang, Qi Yan; Goh, Hui Jen; Cao, Yanpeng; Li, Yiqun; Chan, Siew-Pang; Swain, Judith L; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing

    2017-05-01

    The ability to alter the amount and activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in human adults is a potential strategy to manage obesity and related metabolic disorders associated with food, drug, and environmental stimuli with BAT activating/recruiting capacity. Infrared thermography (IRT) provides a non-invasive and inexpensive alternative to the current methods (e.g. (18)F-FDG PET) used to assess BAT. We have quantified BAT activation in the cervical-supraclavicular (C-SCV) region using IRT video imaging and a novel image computational algorithm by studying C-SCV heat production in healthy young men after cold stimulation and the ingestion of capsinoids in a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Subjects were divided into low-BAT and high-BAT groups based on changes in IR emissions in the C-SCV region induced by cold. The high-BAT group showed significant increases in energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and heat output in the C-SCV region post-capsinoid ingestion compared to post-placebo ingestion, but the low-BAT group did not. Based on these results, we conclude that IRT is a promising tool for quantifying BAT activity.

  7. Promoter methylation patterns of ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 in human cancer cell lines, multidrug-resistant cell models and tumor, tumor-adjacent and tumor-distant tissues from breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Spitzwieser, Melanie; Pirker, Christine; Koblmüller, Bettina; Pfeiler, Georg; Hacker, Stefan; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 in tumor tissues is considered a major cause of limited efficacy of anticancer drugs. Gene expression of ABC transporters is regulated by multiple mechanisms, including changes in the DNA methylation status. Most of the studies published so far only report promoter methylation levels for either ABCB1 or ABCG2, and data on the methylation status for ABCC1 are scarce. Thus, we determined the promoter methylation patterns of ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 in 19 human cancer cell lines. In order to contribute to the elucidation of the role of DNA methylation changes in acquisition of a multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype, we also analyzed the promoter methylation patterns in drug-resistant sublines of the cancer cell lines GLC-4, SW1573, KB-3-1 and HL-60. In addition, we investigated if aberrant promoter methylation levels of ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 occur in tumor and tumor-surrounding tissues from breast cancer patients. Our data indicates that hypomethylation of the ABCC1 promoter is not cancer type-specific but occurs in cancer cell lines of different origins. Promoter methylation was found to be an important mechanism in gene regulation of ABCB1 in parental cancer cell lines and their drug-resistant sublines. Overexpression of ABCC1 in MDR cell models turned out to be mediated by gene amplification, not by changes in the promoter methylation status of ABCC1. In contrast to the promoters of ABCC1 and ABCG2, the promoter of ABCB1 was significantly higher methylated in tumor tissues than in tumor-adjacent and tumor-distant tissues from breast cancer patients. PMID:27689338

  8. Histogram-based characterization of healthy and ischemic brain tissues using multiparametric MR imaging including apparent diffusion coefficient maps and relaxometry.

    PubMed

    Bernarding, J; Braun, J; Hohmann, J; Mansmann, U; Hoehn-Berlage, M; Stapf, C; Wolf, K J; Tolxdorff, T

    2000-01-01

    Decreased, renormalized, or increased values of the calculated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) are observed in stroke models. A quantitative description of corresponding tissue states using ADC values may be extended to include true relaxation times. A histogram-based segmentation is well suited for characterizing tissues according to specific parameter combinations irrespective of the heterogeneity found for human healthy and ischemic brain tissues. In a new approach, navigated diffusion-weighted images and ADC maps were incorporated into voxel-based parameter sets of relaxation times (T1, T2), and T1- or T2-weighted images, followed by a supervised histogram-based analysis. Healthy tissues were segmented by incorporating T1 relaxation into the data set, ischemic regions by combining T2- or diffusion-weighted images with ADC maps. Mean values of healthy and pathologic tissues were determined, spatial distributions of the parameter vectors were visualized using color-encoded overlays. One to six days after stroke, ischemic regions exhibited reduced relative mean ADC values.

  9. Analyses of the Temporal Dynamics of Fungal Communities Colonizing the Healthy Wood Tissues of Esca Leaf-Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Vines

    PubMed Central

    Bruez, Emilie; Vallance, Jessica; Gerbore, Jonathan; Lecomte, Pascal; Da Costa, Jean-Pierre; Guerin-Dubrana, Lucia; Rey, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Esca, a Grapevine Trunk Disease (GTD), is of major concern for viticulture worldwide. Our study compares the fungal communities that inhabit the wood tissues of vines that expressed or not foliar esca-symptoms. The trunk and rootstock tissues were apparently healthy, whether the 10 year-old plants were symptomatic or not. The only difference was in the cordon, which contained white rot, a typical form of esca, in 79% of symptomatic plants. Observations over a period of one year using a fingerprint method, Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP), and the ITS-DNA sequencing of cultivable fungi, showed that shifts occurred in the fungal communities colonizing the healthy wood tissues. However, whatever the sampling time, spring, summer, autumn or winter, the fungi colonizing the healthy tissues of asymptomatic or symptomatic plants were not significantly different. Forty-eight genera were isolated, with species of Hypocreaceae and Botryosphaeriaceae being the most abundant species. Diverse fungal assemblages, made up of potentially plant-pathogenic and -protective fungi, colonized these non-necrotic tissues. Some fungi, possibly involved in GTD, inhabited the non-necrotic wood of young plants, but no increase in necrosis areas was observed over the one-year period. PMID:24788412

  10. Analyses of the temporal dynamics of fungal communities colonizing the healthy wood tissues of esca leaf-symptomatic and asymptomatic vines.

    PubMed

    Bruez, Emilie; Vallance, Jessica; Gerbore, Jonathan; Lecomte, Pascal; Da Costa, Jean-Pierre; Guerin-Dubrana, Lucia; Rey, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Esca, a Grapevine Trunk Disease (GTD), is of major concern for viticulture worldwide. Our study compares the fungal communities that inhabit the wood tissues of vines that expressed or not foliar esca-symptoms. The trunk and rootstock tissues were apparently healthy, whether the 10 year-old plants were symptomatic or not. The only difference was in the cordon, which contained white rot, a typical form of esca, in 79% of symptomatic plants. Observations over a period of one year using a fingerprint method, Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP), and the ITS-DNA sequencing of cultivable fungi, showed that shifts occurred in the fungal communities colonizing the healthy wood tissues. However, whatever the sampling time, spring, summer, autumn or winter, the fungi colonizing the healthy tissues of asymptomatic or symptomatic plants were not significantly different. Forty-eight genera were isolated, with species of Hypocreaceae and Botryosphaeriaceae being the most abundant species. Diverse fungal assemblages, made up of potentially plant-pathogenic and -protective fungi, colonized these non-necrotic tissues. Some fungi, possibly involved in GTD, inhabited the non-necrotic wood of young plants, but no increase in necrosis areas was observed over the one-year period.

  11. The influence of sex, body mass and body mass index on plantar soft-tissue stiffness in healthy people in their 60s.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Jee Chin; Lee, Dong Yeon; Lee, Taeyong

    2016-09-06

    Foot abnormality has become a public health concern. Early detection of pathological soft tissue is therefore an important preventive measure, especially in older people who generally have a higher risk of foot pathology. However, the interpretation of plantar tissue stiffness data - whether to normalize the data or to separate the data on the basis of sex- remains questionable. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of sex and physical attributes such as body mass (BM) and body mass index (BMI) on plantar soft-tissue stiffness, and to evaluate whether it is necessary to isolate the differences in sex, BM and BMI in the data analysis. One hundred healthy subjects in their 60s were recruited for the experiment. Localized force response was obtained underneath the second metatarsal head (MTH) pad at three different dorsiflexion angles of 0°, 20°, 40° and the hallux and heel at 0°. No significant relationship was found between the independent variables and plantar stiffness. From the experimental results, it can be deduced that BM and BMI are weakly associated with plantar tissue stiffness, and that there is no significant difference in stiffness between male and female participants. No difference was found between left and right foot measurements. This suggests that normalizing of plantar tissue stiffness by BM and BMI is not necessary in healthy people in their 60s. The data can be pooled and treated equally regardless of sex.

  12. Cell and tissue distribution of synthetic oligonucleotides in healthy and tumor-bearing nude mice. An autoradiographic, immunohistological, and direct fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed Central

    Plenat, F.; Klein-Monhoven, N.; Marie, B.; Vignaud, J. M.; Duprez, A.

    1995-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides have the ability to inhibit individual gene expression in the potential treatment of cancer and viral diseases. However, the way parenterally administered oligonucleotides distribute themselves into healthy tissues or tumors is poorly understood. In this study, the cell and tissue distribution of two modified or unmodified phosphodiester pentadeca-beta-oligonucleotides intravenously administered to healthy or tumor-bearing nude mice was assessed by autoradiography as well as by direct fluorescence and immunoenzymatic histological methods. Resistance of oligonucleotides to degradation by nuclease activity was previously studied in vitro. Using these methods we were able to show the following: 1) within minutes, oligonucleotides permeate all cells and tissues with the exceptions of erythrocytes and intervertebral discs; 2) cell and tissue distribution does not depend on the sequence of the given oligonucleotide; 3) concentration of oligonucleotides is higher within the connective tissue cells than in the interstitial matrix; 4) after uptake, oligomers partition throughout all of the cellular compartments, including at the highest intracellular concentrations in the nuclei; 5) oligonucleotides penetrate easily the tumor cell compartments, oligonucleotide diffusion being unimpeded by the extracellular matrix. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7604874

  13. Using Fractal Geometry and Universal Growth Curves as Diagnostics for Comparing Tumor Vasculature and Metabolic Rate With Healthy Tissue and for Predicting Responses to Drug Therapies.

    PubMed

    Savage, Van M; Herman, Alexander B; West, Geoffrey B; Leu, Kevin

    2013-06-01

    Healthy vasculature exhibits a hierarchical branching structure in which, on average, vessel radius and length change systematically with branching order. In contrast, tumor vasculature exhibits less hierarchy and more variability in its branching patterns. Although differences in vasculature have been highlighted in the literature, there has been very little quantification of these differences. Fractal analysis is a natural tool for comparing tumor and healthy vasculature, especially because it has already been used extensively to model healthy tissue. In this paper, we provide a fractal analysis of existing vascular data, and we present a new mathematical framework for predicting tumor growth trajectories by coupling: (1) the fractal geometric properties of tumor vascular networks, (2) metabolic properties of tumor cells and host vascular systems, and (3) spatial gradients in resources and metabolic states within the tumor. First, we provide a new analysis for how the mean and variation of scaling exponents for ratios of vessel radii and lengths in tumors differ from healthy tissue. Next, we use these characteristic exponents to predict metabolic rates for tumors. Finally, by combining this analysis with general growth equations based on energetics, we derive universal growth curves that enable us to compare tumor and ontogenetic growth. We also extend these growth equations to include necrotic, quiescent, and proliferative cell states and to predict novel growth dynamics that arise when tumors are treated with drugs. Taken together, this mathematical framework will help to anticipate and understand growth trajectories across tumor types and drug treatments.

  14. Use of macroporous gelatine spheres as a biodegradable scaffold for guided tissue regeneration of healthy dermis in humans: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Huss, Fredrik R M; Nyman, Erika; Bolin, Johanna S C; Kratz, Gunnar

    2010-05-01

    If a biodegradable scaffold is applied, the dermis can be regenerated by guided tissue regeneration. Scaffolds can stimulate in-growth of cells from the surroundings that migrate into them and start to produce autologous extracellular matrix as the scaffold is degraded. Several materials are available, but most of them are in the form of sheets and need to be laid on an open wound surface. A number of injectable fillers have been developed to correct soft-tissue defects. However, none of these has been used for guided tissue regeneration. We present a new technique that could possibly be used to correct dermal defects by using macroporous gelatine spheres as a biodegradable scaffold for guided tissue regeneration. In eight healthy volunteers, intradermal injections of macroporous gelatine spheres were compared with injections of saline and hyaluronic acid (Restylane). Full-thickness skin biopsy specimens of the implants and surrounding tissue were removed 2, 8, 12 and 26 weeks after injection, and the (immuno)histological results were analysed. The Restylane merely occupied space. It shattered the dermal tissue and compressed collagen fibres and cells at the interface between the implant and the dermis. No regeneration of tissue was found with this material at any time. The macroporous gelatine spheres were populated with fibroblasts already after 2 weeks. After 8 weeks the spheres were completely populated by fibroblasts producing dermal tissue. After 12 and 26 weeks, the gelatine spheres had been more or less completely resorbed and replaced by vascularised neodermis. There were no signs of capsular formation, rejection or adverse events in any subject. Further in vivo studies in humans are needed to evaluate the effect of the macroporous spheres fully as a matrix for guided tissue regeneration with and without cellular pre-seeding. However, the results of this study indicate the possibility of using macroporous gelatine spheres as an injectable, three

  15. PIXE analysis of elements in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qixin; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Lingnuo; Xu, Yongling; Ye, Simao

    1990-04-01

    The elemental regional distributions in 20 resected human stomach tissues were obtained using PIXE analysis. The samples were pathologically divided into four types: normal, adjacent mucosa A, adjacent mucosa B and cancer. The targets for PIXE analysis were prepared by wet digestion with a pressure bomb system. P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se were measured and statistically analysed. We found significantly higher concentrations of P, K, Cu, Zn and a higher ratio of Cu compared to Zn in cancer tissue as compared with normal tissue, but statistically no significant difference between adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue was found.

  16. Pyrosequencing of the bacteria associated with Platygyra carnosus corals with skeletal growth anomalies reveals differences in bacterial community composition in apparently healthy and diseased tissues.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jenny C Y; Chan, Yuki; Tun, Hein M; Leung, Frederick C C; Shin, Paul K S; Chiu, Jill M Y

    2015-01-01

    Corals are rapidly declining globally due to coral diseases. Skeletal growth anomalies (SGA) or "coral tumors" are a group of coral diseases that affect coral reefs worldwide, including Hong Kong waters in the Indo-Pacific region. To better understand how bacterial communities may vary in corals with SGA, for the first time, we examined the bacterial composition associated with the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues of SGA-affected Platgyra carnosus using 16S ribosomal rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria as the main phyla in both the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues. A significant difference in the bacterial community composition was observed between the two conditions at the OTU level. Diseased tissues were associated with higher abundances of Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes, and a lower abundance of Spirochaetes. Several OTUs belonging to Rhodobacteraceae, Rhizobiales, Gammaproteobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroidetes (CFB) were strongly associated with the diseased tissues. These groups of bacteria may contain potential pathogens involved with the development of SGA or opportunistic secondary or tertiary colonizers that proliferated upon the health-compromised coral host. We suggest that these bacterial groups to be further studied based on inoculation experiments and testing of Koch's postulates in efforts to understand the etiology and progression of SGA.

  17. Pyrosequencing of the bacteria associated with Platygyra carnosus corals with skeletal growth anomalies reveals differences in bacterial community composition in apparently healthy and diseased tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Jenny C. Y.; Chan, Yuki; Tun, Hein M.; Leung, Frederick C. C.; Shin, Paul K. S.; Chiu, Jill M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Corals are rapidly declining globally due to coral diseases. Skeletal growth anomalies (SGA) or “coral tumors” are a group of coral diseases that affect coral reefs worldwide, including Hong Kong waters in the Indo-Pacific region. To better understand how bacterial communities may vary in corals with SGA, for the first time, we examined the bacterial composition associated with the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues of SGA-affected Platgyra carnosus using 16S ribosomal rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria as the main phyla in both the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues. A significant difference in the bacterial community composition was observed between the two conditions at the OTU level. Diseased tissues were associated with higher abundances of Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes, and a lower abundance of Spirochaetes. Several OTUs belonging to Rhodobacteraceae, Rhizobiales, Gammaproteobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroidetes (CFB) were strongly associated with the diseased tissues. These groups of bacteria may contain potential pathogens involved with the development of SGA or opportunistic secondary or tertiary colonizers that proliferated upon the health-compromised coral host. We suggest that these bacterial groups to be further studied based on inoculation experiments and testing of Koch's postulates in efforts to understand the etiology and progression of SGA. PMID:26539174

  18. Oxygen Mapping within Healthy and Acutely Infarcted Brain Tissue in Humans Using the NMR Relaxation of Lipids: A Proof-Of-Concept Translational Study.

    PubMed

    Colliez, Florence; Safronova, Marta M; Magat, Julie; Joudiou, Nicolas; Peeters, André P; Jordan, Bénédicte F; Gallez, Bernard; Duprez, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    The clinical applicability of brain oxygenation mapping using the MOBILE (Mapping of Oxygen By Imaging Lipids relaxation Enhancement) magnetic resonance (MR) technique was assessed in the clinical setting of normal brain and of acute cerebral ischemia as a founding proof-of-concept translational study. Changes in the oxygenation level within healthy brain tissue can be detected by analyzing the spin-lattice proton relaxation ('Global T1' combining water and lipid protons) because of the paramagnetic properties of molecular oxygen. It was hypothesized that selective measurement of the relaxation of the lipid protons ('Lipids T1') would result in enhanced sensitivity of pO2 mapping because of higher solubility of oxygen in lipids than in water, and this was demonstrated in pre-clinical models using the MOBILE technique. In the present study, 12 healthy volunteers and eight patients with acute (48-72 hours) brain infarction were examined with the same clinical 3T MR system. Both Lipids R1 (R1 = 1/T1) and Global R1 were significantly different in the infarcted area and the contralateral unaffected brain tissue, with a higher statistical significance for Lipids R1 (median difference: 0.408 s-1; p<0.0001) than for Global R1 (median difference: 0.154 s-1; p = 0.027). Both Lipids R1 and Global R1 values in the unaffected contralateral brain tissue of stroke patients were not significantly different from the R1 values calculated in the brain tissue of healthy volunteers. The main limitations of the present prototypic version of the MOBILE sequence are the long acquisition time (4 min), hampering robustness of data in uncooperative patients, and a 2 mm slice thickness precluding accurate measurements in small infarcts because of partial volume averaging effects.

  19. New application of a subcellular fractionation method to kidney and testis for the determination of conjugated linoleic acid in selected cell organelles of healthy and cancerous human tissues.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Kristina; Blaudszun, Jörg; Brunken, Claus; Höpker, Wilhelm-Wolfgang; Tauber, Roland; Steinhart, Hans

    2005-03-01

    To clarify the mechanism of the anticarcinogenic effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), its intracellular distribution needs to be determined. Subcellular fractionation using centrifugation techniques is a method that is frequently used for isolation of cell organelles from different tissues. But as the size and density of the organelles differ, the method needs to be optimised for every type of tissue. The novelty of this study is the application of a subcellular fractionation method to human healthy and cancerous renal and testicular tissue. Separation of total tissue homogenate into nuclei, cytosol, and a mixture of mitochondria and plasma membranes was achieved by differential centrifugation. As mitochondria and plasma membranes seemed to be too similar in size and weight to be separated by differential centrifugation, discontinuous density-gradient centrifugation was carried out successfully. The purity of the subcellular fractions was checked by measuring the activity of marker enzymes. All fractions were highly enriched in their corresponding marker enzyme. However, the nuclear fractions of kidney and renal cell carcinoma were slightly contaminated with mitochondria and plasma membrane fractions of all tissues with lysosomes. The fraction designated the cytosolic fraction contained not only cytosol, but also microsomes and lysosomes. The CLA contents of the subcellular fractions were in the range 0.13-0.37% of total fatty acids and were lowest in the plasma membrane fractions of all types of tissue studied. C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 c9, C18:2 n-6, and C20:4 n-6 were found to be the major fatty acids in all the subcellular fractions studied. However, marked variations in fatty acid content between subcellular fractions and between types of tissue were detectable. Because of these differences between tissues, no general statement on characteristic fatty acid profiles of single subcellular fractions is possible.

  20. Lack of an association of depression with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue and serum phospholipids in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Mamalakis, George; Kiriakakis, Michael; Tsibinos, George; Jansen, Eugene; Cremers, Hans; Strien, Carlo; Hatzis, Christos; Moschandreas, Joanna; Linardakis, Manolis; Kromhout, Daan; Kafatos, Anthony

    2008-03-01

    Studies have shown that depression relates to biomarkers of both short-term and long-term polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. However, it is not known which of these two biomarkers is more closely related to depression. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of depression with both adipose tissue and serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids and to assess the importance of each of these two biomarkers in relating to depression. This is a cross-sectional study of healthy adults from the island of Crete. Subjects were examined by the Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic of the University of Crete. Subjects were 394 healthy adults (175 males, 219 females) aged 18-60. The sample consisted of farmers from a number of rural communities of Crete. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography in adipose tissue and serum phospholipids. Information about depression was obtained through the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSRDS). Adipose tissue alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (C18:3n-3) was inversely correlated to BDI (r=-0.17, p<0.02). Multiple linear regression analysis taking into account the possible confounding effect of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking and educational level did not confirm this association. The other polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue were not related to depression. Serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids did not correlate with depression. This study did not show that the polyunsaturated fatty acids in the adipose tissue are better predictors of depression than those in serum phospholipids.

  1. CAF-like state in primary skin fibroblasts with constitutional BRCA1 epimutation sheds new light on tumor suppressor deficiency-related changes in healthy tissue

    PubMed Central

    Etzold, Anna; Galetzka, Danuta; Weis, Eva; Bartsch, Oliver; Haaf, Thomas; Spix, Claudia; Itzel, Timo; Schweiger, Susann; Strand, Dennis; Strand, Susanne; Zechner, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Constitutive epimutations of tumor suppressor genes are increasingly considered as cancer predisposing factors equally to sequence mutations. In light of the emerging role of the microenvironment for cancer predisposition, initiation, and progression, we aimed to characterize the consequences of a BRCA1 epimutation in cells of mesenchymal origin. We performed a comprehensive molecular and cellular comparison of primary dermal fibroblasts taken from a monozygous twin pair discordant for recurrent cancers and BRCA1 epimutation, whose exceptional clinical case we previously reported in this journal. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified differential expression of extracellular matrix-related genes and pro-tumorigenic growth factors, such as collagens and CXC chemokines. Moreover, genes known to be key markers of so called cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), such as ACTA2, FAP, PDPN, and TNC, were upregulated in fibroblasts of the affected twin (BRCA1mosMe) in comparison to those of the healthy twin (BRCA1wt). Further analyses detected CAF-typical cellular features, including an elevated growth rate, enhanced migration, altered actin architecture and increased production of ketone bodies in BRCA1mosMe fibroblasts compared to BRCA1wt fibroblasts. In addition, conditioned medium of BRCA1mosMe fibroblasts was more potent than conditioned medium of BRCA1wt fibroblasts to promote cell proliferation in an epithelial and a cancer cell line. Our data demonstrate, that a CAF-like state is not an exclusive feature of tumor-associated tissue but also exists in healthy tissue with tumor suppressor deficiency. The naturally occurring phenomenon of twin fibroblasts differing in their BRCA1 methylation status revealed to be a unique powerful tool for exploring tumor suppressor deficiency-related changes in healthy tissue, reinforcing their significance for cancer predisposition. PMID:26949839

  2. Prospective Study Validating Inter- and Intraobserver Variability of Tissue Compliance Meter in Breast Tissue of Healthy Volunteers: Potential Implications for Patients With Radiation-Induced Fibrosis of the Breast

    SciTech Connect

    Wernicke, A. Gabriella; Parashar, Bhupesh; Kulidzhanov, Fridon; Riley, Lillian; Christos, Paul J.; Fischer, Andrew; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K.S. Clifford

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: Accurate detection of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is crucial in management of breast cancer survivors. Tissue compliance meter (TCM) has been validated in musculature. We validate TCM in healthy breast tissue with respect to interobserver and intraobserver variability before applying it in RIF. Methods and Materials: Three medical professionals obtained three consecutive TCM measurements in each of the four quadrants of the right and left breasts of 40 women with no breast disease or surgical intervention. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) assessed interobserver variability. The paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were used to assess intraobserver variability within each rater. Results: The median age was 45 years (range, 24-68 years). The median bra size was 35C (range, 32A-40DD). Of the participants, 27 were white (67%), 4 black (10%), 5 Asian (13%), and 4 Hispanic (10%). ICCs indicated excellent interrater reliability (low interobserver variability) among the three raters, by breast and quadrant (all ICC {>=}0.99). The paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient both indicated low intraobserver variability within each rater (right vs. left breast), stratified by quadrant (all r{>=} 0.94, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The interobserver and intraobserver variability is small using TCM in healthy mammary tissue. We are now embarking on a prospective study using TCM in women with breast cancer at risk of developing RIF that may guide early detection, timely therapeutic intervention, and assessment of success of therapy for RIF.

  3. Determinants and Regression Equations for the Calculation of z Scores of Left Ventricular Tissue Doppler Longitudinal Indexes in a Healthy Italian Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Fibbi, Veronica; Ballo, Piercarlo; Favilli, Silvia; Spaziani, Gaia; Calabri, Giovanni B; Pollini, Iva; Zuppiroli, Alfredo; Chiappa, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Aim. We investigated the predictors of tissue Doppler left ventricular (LV) longitudinal indexes in a healthy Italian pediatric population and established normative data and regression equations for the calculation of z scores. Methods and Results. A total of 369 healthy subjects aged 1-17 years (age of 6.4 ± 1.1 years, 49.1% female) underwent echocardiography. LV peak longitudinal velocity at systole (s (')), early diastole (e (')), and late diastole (a (')) was determined by tissue Doppler. The ratio of peak early diastolic LV filling velocity to e (') was calculated. Age was the only independent determinant of s (') (β = 0.491, p < 0.0001) and the strongest determinant of e (') (β = 0.334, p < 0.0001) and E/e (') (β = -0.369, p < 0.0001). Heart rate was the main determinant of a (') (β = 0.265, p < 0.0001). Male gender showed no effects except for a weak association with lateral s ('), suggesting no need of gender-specific reference ranges. Age-specific reference ranges, regression equations, and scatterplots for the calculation of z scores were determined for each index. Conclusion. In a pediatric Italian population, age was the strongest determinant of LV longitudinal dynamics. The availability of age-specific normality data for the calculation of z scores may allow for correctly detecting LV dysfunction in pediatric pathological populations.

  4. Determinants and Regression Equations for the Calculation of z Scores of Left Ventricular Tissue Doppler Longitudinal Indexes in a Healthy Italian Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Fibbi, Veronica; Ballo, Piercarlo; Spaziani, Gaia; Calabri, Giovanni B.; Pollini, Iva; Zuppiroli, Alfredo; Chiappa, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Aim. We investigated the predictors of tissue Doppler left ventricular (LV) longitudinal indexes in a healthy Italian pediatric population and established normative data and regression equations for the calculation of z scores. Methods and Results. A total of 369 healthy subjects aged 1–17 years (age of 6.4 ± 1.1 years, 49.1% female) underwent echocardiography. LV peak longitudinal velocity at systole (s'), early diastole (e'), and late diastole (a') was determined by tissue Doppler. The ratio of peak early diastolic LV filling velocity to e' was calculated. Age was the only independent determinant of s' (β = 0.491, p < 0.0001) and the strongest determinant of e' (β = 0.334, p < 0.0001) and E/e' (β = −0.369, p < 0.0001). Heart rate was the main determinant of a' (β = 0.265, p < 0.0001). Male gender showed no effects except for a weak association with lateral s', suggesting no need of gender-specific reference ranges. Age-specific reference ranges, regression equations, and scatterplots for the calculation of z scores were determined for each index. Conclusion. In a pediatric Italian population, age was the strongest determinant of LV longitudinal dynamics. The availability of age-specific normality data for the calculation of z scores may allow for correctly detecting LV dysfunction in pediatric pathological populations. PMID:26759729

  5. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  6. Tissue modification with feedback: the smart scalpel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebern, Elizabeth L.; Brenan, Colin J. H.; Anderson, R. Rox; Hunter, Ian W.

    1998-10-01

    While feedback control is widespread throughout many engineering fields, there are almost no examples of surgical instruments that utilize a real-time detection and intervention strategy. This concept of closed loop feedback can be applied to the development of autonomous or semi- autonomous minimally invasive robotic surgical systems for efficient excision or modification of diseased tissue. Spatially localized regions of the tissue are first probed to distinguish pathological from healthy tissue based on differences in histochemical and morphological properties. Energy is directed to only the diseased tissue, minimizing collateral damage by leaving the adjacent healthy tissue intact. Continuous monitoring determines treatment effectiveness and, if needed, enables real-time treatment modifications to produce optimal therapeutic outcomes. The present embodiment of this general concept is a microsurgical instrument we call the Smart Scalpel, designed to treat skin angiodysplasias such as port wine stains. Other potential Smart Scalpel applications include psoriasis treatment and early skin cancer detection and intervention.

  7. Abdominal adipose tissue compartments vary with ethnicity in Asian neonates: Growing Up in Singapore Toward Healthy Outcomes birth cohort study1,2

    PubMed Central

    Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Godfrey, Keith M; Shuter, Borys; Kapur, Jeevesh; Rajadurai, Victor S; Agarwal, Pratibha; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Niduvaje, Krishnamoorthy; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Aris, Izzuddin Bin Mohd; Soh, Shu-E; Yap, Fabian; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kramer, Michael S; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Lee, Yung-Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background A susceptibility to metabolic diseases is associated with abdominal adipose tissue distribution and varies between ethnic groups. The distribution of abdominal adipose tissue at birth may give insights into whether ethnicity-associated variations in metabolic risk originate partly in utero. Objective We assessed the influence of ethnicity on abdominal adipose tissue compartments in Asian neonates in the Growing Up in Singapore Toward Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort. Design MRI was performed at ≤2 wk after birth in 333 neonates born at ≥34 wk of gestation and with birth weights ≥2000 g. Abdominal superficial subcutaneous tissue (sSAT), deep subcutaneous tissue (dSAT), and internal adipose tissue (IAT) compartment volumes (absolute and as a percentage of the total abdominal volume) were quantified. Results In multivariate analyses that were controlled for sex, age, and parity, the absolute and percentage of dSAT and the percentage of sSAT (but not absolute sSAT) were greater, whereas absolute IAT (but not the percentage of IAT) was lower, in Indian neonates than in Chinese neonates. Compared with Chinese neonates, Malay neonates had greater percentages of sSAT and dSAT but similar percentages of IAT. Marginal structural model analyses largely confirmed the results on the basis of volume percentages with controlled direct effects of ethnicity on abdominal adipose tissue; dSAT was significantly greater (1.45 mL; 95% CI: 0.49, 2.41 mL, P = 0.003) in non-Chinese (Indian or Malay) neonates than in Chinese neonates. However, ethnic differences in sSAT and IAT were NS [3.06 mL (95% CI: −0.27, 6.39 mL; P = 0.0712) for sSAT and −1.30 mL (95% CI: −2.64, 0.04 mL; P = 0.057) for IAT in non-Chinese compared with Chinese neonates, respectively]. Conclusions Indian and Malay neonates have a greater dSAT volume than do Chinese neonates. This finding supports the notion that in utero influences may contribute to higher cardiometabolic risk observed in

  8. Tissue factor and Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 in hyperglycaemia-hyperinsulinaemia. Effects in healthy subjects, and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anamika; Boden, Guenther; Rao, A Koneti

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients have an increased incidence of cardiovascular events. Blood tissue factor-procoagulant activity (TF-PCA), the initiating mechanism for blood coagulation, is elevated in DM. We have shown that hyperglycaemia (HG), hyperinsulinaemia (HI) and combined HG+HI (induced using 24-hour infusion clamps) increases TF-PCA in healthy and type 2 DM (T2DM) subjects, but not in type 1 DM (T1DM) subjects. The mechanisms for this are unknown. DM patients have elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ligand. We postulated that TLR4 plays a role in modulating TF levels. We studied the effect of HG+HI on TLR4 and TF-PCA in vivo during 24-hour HG+HI infusion clamps in healthy subjects, and T1DM and T2DM subjects, and in vitro in blood. In vivo, in healthy subjects, 24-hour HG + HI infusion increased TLR4 six-fold, which correlated with TF-PCA (r= 0.91, p<0.0001). T2DM patients showed smaller increases in both. In T1DM subjects, TLR4 declined (50%, p<0.05) and correlated with TF-PCA (r=0.55; p<0.05). In vitro, HG (200 mg/dl added glucose) and HI (1-100 nM added insulin) increased TF-PCA in healthy subjects (~2-fold, 2-4 hours). Insulin inhibited by ~30% LPS-induced increase in TF-PCA and high glucose reversed it. TLR4 levels paralleled TF-PCA (r=0.71, p<0.0001); HG and HI increased TLR4 and insulin inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 increase. This is first evidence that even in healthy subjects, HG of short duration increases TLR4 and TF-PCA, key players in inflammation and thrombosis. TLR4-TF interplay is strikingly different in non-diabetic, T1DM and T2DM subjects.

  9. Impact of Physical Inactivity on Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Metabolism in Healthy Young Male Offspring of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette Paulli; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric; Dela, Flemming; Vaag, Allan; Meldgaard, Jens Bruun; Christensen, Karl Bang; Stallknecht, Bente

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Physical inactivity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and may be more detrimental in first-degree relative (FDR) subjects, unmasking underlying defects of metabolism. Using a positive family history of type 2 diabetes as a marker of increased genetic risk, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of physical inactivity on adipose tissue (AT) metabolism in FDR subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 13 FDR and 20 control (CON) subjects participated in the study. All were studied before and after 10 days of bed rest using the glucose clamp technique combined with measurements of glucose uptake, lipolysis, and lactate release from subcutaneous abdominal (SCAAT) and femoral (SCFAT) adipose tissue by the microdialysis technique. Additionally, mRNA expression of lipases was determined in biopsies from SCAAT. RESULTS Before bed rest, the FDR subjects revealed significantly increased glucose uptake in SCAAT. Furthermore, mRNA expression of lipases was significantly decreased in the SCAAT of FDR subjects. Bed rest significantly decreased lipolysis and tended to increase glucose uptake in the SCFAT of both CON and FDR subjects. In response to bed rest, SCAAT glucose uptake significantly increased in CON subjects but not in FDR subjects. CONCLUSIONS FDR subjects exhibit an abnormal AT metabolism including increased glucose uptake prior to bed rest. However, the differences between FDR and CON subjects in AT metabolism were attenuated during bed rest due to relatively more adverse changes in CON subjects compared with FDR subjects. Physical inactivity per se is not more deleterious in FDR subjects as compared with CON subjects with respect to derangements in AT metabolism. PMID:20823100

  10. Identification of genes related to agarwood formation: transcriptome analysis of healthy and wounded tissues of Aquilaria sinensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Agarwood is an expensive resinous heartwood derived from Aquilaria plants that is widely used in traditional medicines, incense and perfume. Only wounded trees can produce agarwood, and the huge demand for the agarwood products has led all Aquilaria spp. being endangered and listed in the Appendix II of the CITES (http://www.cites.org). The major components of agarwood are sesquiterpenes and phenylethyl chromones. Owing to a lack of genomic information, the molecular basis of wound-induced sesquiterpenes biosynthesis and agarwood formation remains unknown. Results To identify the primary genes that maybe related to agarwood formation, we sequenced 2 cDNA libraries generated from healthy and wounded A. sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. A total of 89,137 unigenes with an average length of 678.65 bp were obtained, and they were annotated in detail at bioinformatics levels. Of those associated with agarwood formation, 30 putatively encoded enzymes in the sesquiterpene biosynthesis pathway, and a handful of transcription factors and protein kinases were related to wound signal transduction. Three full-length cDNAs of sesquiterpene synthases (ASS1-3) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and enzyme assays revealed that they are active enzymes, with the major products being δ-guaiene. A methyl jasmonate (MJ) induction experiment revealed that the expression of ASS was significantly induced by MJ, and the production of sesquiterpenes was elevated accordingly. The expression of some transcription factors and protein kinases, especially MYB4, WRKY4, MPKK2 and MAPK2, was also induced by MJ and coordinated with ASS expression, suggesting they maybe positive regulators of ASS. Conclusions This study provides extensive transcriptome information for Aquilaria spp. and valuable clues for elucidating the mechanism of wound-induced agarwood sesquiterpenes biosynthesis and their regulation. PMID:23565705

  11. NMR-based metabolic profiling in healthy individuals overfed different types of fat: links to changes in liver fat accumulation and lean tissue mass

    PubMed Central

    Elmsjö, A; Rosqvist, F; Engskog, M K R; Haglöf, J; Kullberg, J; Iggman, D; Johansson, L; Ahlström, H; Arvidsson, T; Risérus, U; Pettersson, C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overeating different dietary fatty acids influence the amount of liver fat stored during weight gain, however, the mechanisms responsible are unclear. We aimed to identify non-lipid metabolites that may differentiate between saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) overfeeding using a non-targeted metabolomic approach. We also investigated the possible relationships between plasma metabolites and body fat accumulation. Methods: In a randomized study (LIPOGAIN study), n=39 healthy individuals were overfed with muffins containing SFA or PUFA. Plasma samples were precipitated with cold acetonitrile and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Pattern recognition techniques were used to overview the data, identify variables contributing to group classification and to correlate metabolites with fat accumulation. Results: We previously reported that SFA causes a greater accumulation of liver fat, visceral fat and total body fat, whereas lean tissue levels increases less compared with PUFA, despite comparable weight gain. In this study, lactate and acetate were identified as important contributors to group classification between SFA and PUFA (P<0.05). Furthermore, the fat depots (total body fat, visceral adipose tissue and liver fat) and lean tissue correlated (P(corr)>0.5) all with two or more metabolites (for example, branched amino acids, alanine, acetate and lactate). The metabolite composition differed in a manner that may indicate higher insulin sensitivity after a diet with PUFA compared with SFA, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies. Conclusion: A non-lipid metabolic profiling approach only identified a few metabolites that differentiated between SFA and PUFA overfeeding. Whether these metabolite changes are involved in depot-specific fat storage and increased lean tissue mass during overeating needs further investigation. PMID:26479316

  12. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from skin and soft tissue infections samples and healthy carriers in the Central Slovenia region.

    PubMed

    Svent-Kucina, Natasa; Pirs, Mateja; Kofol, Romina; Blagus, Rok; Smrke, Dragica Maja; Bilban, Marjan; Seme, Katja

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is among the most important human pathogens. It is associated with different infections and is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). The aim of our study was to compare S. aureus isolates associated with SSTIs with isolates obtained from healthy carriers in the Central Slovenia region in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility, genetic diversity by clonal complex (CC)/sequence type, spa type, and by toxin gene profiling. In total, 274 S. aureus isolates were collected prospectively by culturing wound samples from 461 SSTI patients and nasal samples from 451 healthy carriers. We have demonstrated high heterogeneity in terms of CCs and spa type in both groups of isolates. The main clone among SSTI strains was Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl) positive CC121, whereas the main clone among carrier strains was CC45 carrying a large range of toxin genes. The main spa type in both groups was t091. Pvl was more frequently present in SSTI strains (31.2% SSTI vs 3.6% carrier strains) and staphylococcal enterotoxin C was more frequently present in carrier strains (1.6% SSTI vs 17.0% carrier strains). We have also demonstrated that methicillin-resistant S. aureus was a rare cause (2.8%) of SSTIs in our region.

  13. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression in the epithelium and stroma of normal colon in healthy individuals in an aspirin intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sushma S; Makar, Karen W; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yingye; Yang, Peiying; Levy, Lisa; Rudolph, Rebecca Y; Lampe, Paul D; Yan, Min; Markowitz, Sanford D; Bigler, Jeannette; Lampe, Johanna W; Potter, John D

    2015-12-01

    Regular aspirin use reduces colon adenoma and carcinoma incidence. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are involved in aspirin metabolism and clearance, and variant alleles in UGT1A6 have been shown to alter salicylic acid metabolism and risk of colon neoplasia. In a randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial of 44 healthy men and women, homozygous for UGT1A6*1 or UGT1A6*2, we explored differences between global epithelial and stromal expression, using Affymetrix U133 + 2.0 microarrays and tested effects of 60-day aspirin supplementation (325 mg/d) on epithelial and stromal gene expression and colon prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. We conducted a comprehensive study of differential gene expression between normal human colonic epithelium and stroma from healthy individuals. Although no statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed in response to aspirin or UGT1A6 genotype, we have identified the genes uniquely and reproducibly expressed in each tissue type and have analyzed the biologic processes they represent. Here we describe in detail how the data, deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) - accession number GSE71571 - was generated including the basic analysis as contained in the manuscript published in BMC Medical Genetics with the PMID 25927723 (Thomas et al., 2015 [9]).

  14. Michigan: Healthy Homes-Healthy Business Project (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Healthy Homes-Healthy Business project is a recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement. The communities of focus for this CARE level II project are the adjacent neighborhoods of Southwest Detroit and South Dearborn.

  15. Comparison of T1 relaxation times in adipose tissue of severely obese patients and healthy lean subjects measured by 1.5 T MRI.

    PubMed

    Garnov, Nikita; Linder, Nicolas; Schaudinn, Alexander; Blüher, Matthias; Karlas, Thomas; Schütz, Tatjana; Dietrich, Arne; Kahn, Thomas; Busse, Harald

    2014-09-01

    Subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) differ in composition, endocrine function and localization in the body. VAT is considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease, and other obesity-related disorders. It has been shown that the amount, distribution, and (cellular) composition of adipose tissue (AT) correlate well with metabolic conditions. In this study, T1 relaxation times of AT were measured in severely obese subjects and compared with those of healthy lean controls. Here, we tested the hypothesis that T1 relaxation times of AT differ between lean and obese individuals, but also between VAT and SAT as well as superficial (sSAT) and deep SAT (dSAT) in the same individual. Twenty severely obese subjects (BMI 41.4 ± 4.8 kg/m(2) ) and ten healthy lean controls matched for age (BMI 21.5 ± 1.9 kg/m(2) ) underwent MRI at 1.5 T using a single-shot fast spin-echo sequence (short-tau inversion recovery) at six different inversion times (TI range 100-1000 ms). T1 relaxation times were computed for all subjects by fitting the TI -dependent MR signal intensities of user-defined regions of interest in both SAT and VAT to a model function. T1 times in sSAT and dSAT were only measured in obese patients. For both obese patients and controls, the T1 times of SAT (275 ± 14 and 301 ± 12 ms) were significantly (p < 0.01) shorter than the respective values in VAT (294 ± 20 and 360 ± 35 ms). Obese subjects also showed significant (p < 0.01) T1 differences between sSAT (268 ± 11 ms) and dSAT (281 ± 19 ms). More important, T1 differences in both SAT and VAT were highly significant (p < 0.001) between obese patients and healthy subjects. The results of our pilot study suggest that T1 relaxation times differ between severely obese patients and lean controls, and may potentially provide an additional means for the non-invasive assessment of AT

  16. Brown adipose tissue is involved in diet-induced thermogenesis and whole-body fat utilization in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Hibi, M; Oishi, S; Matsushita, M; Yoneshiro, T; Yamaguchi, T; Usui, C; Yasunaga, K; Katsuragi, Y; Kubota, K; Tanaka, S; Saito, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential therapeutic target against obesity and diabetes through thermogenesis and substrate disposal with cold exposure. The role of BAT in energy metabolism under thermoneutral conditions, however, remains controversial. We assessed the contribution of BAT to energy expenditure (EE), particularly diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and substrate utilization in human adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, BAT activity was evaluated in 21 men using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) after cold exposure (19 °C). The subjects were divided into BAT-positive (n=13) and BAT-negative (n=8) groups according to the 18F-FDG-PET/CT findings. Twenty-four hour EE, DIT and respiratory quotient were measured using a whole-room indirect calorimeter at 27 °C. Results: Body composition, blood metabolites and 24-h EE did not differ between groups. DIT (%), calculated as DIT divided by total energy intake, however, was significantly higher in the BAT-positive group (BAT-positive: 9.7±2.5%, BAT-negative: 6.5±4.0%, P=0.03). The 24-h respiratory quotient was significantly lower (P=0.03) in the BAT-positive group (0.861±0.027) than in the BAT-negative group (0.889±0.024). Conclusion: DIT and fat utilization were higher in BAT-positive subjects compared to BAT-negative subjects, suggesting that BAT has a physiologic role in energy metabolism. PMID:27430878

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation with EPA and/or α-lipoic acid on adipose tissue transcriptomic profile of healthy overweight/obese women following a hypocaloric diet.

    PubMed

    Huerta, Ana E; Prieto-Hontoria, Pedro L; Fernández-Galilea, Marta; Escoté, Xavier; Martínez, J Alfredo; Moreno-Aliaga, María J

    2017-01-02

    In obesity, the increment of adiposity levels disrupts the whole body homeostasis, promoting an over production of oxidants and inflammatory mediators. The current study aimed to characterize the transcriptomic changes promoted by supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 1.3 g/day), α-lipoic acid (0.3 g/day), or both (EPA + α-lipoic acid, 1.3 g/day + 0.3 g/day) in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from overweight/obese healthy women, who followed a hypocaloric diet (30% of total energy expenditure) during ten weeks, by using a microarray approach. At the end of the intervention, a total of 33,297 genes were analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip arrays. EPA promoted changes in extracellular matrix remodeling gene expression, besides a rise of genes associated with either chemotaxis or wound repair. α-Lipoic acid decreased expression of genes related with cell adhesion and inflammation. Furthermore, α-lipoic acid, especially in combination with EPA, upregulated the expression of genes associated with lipid catabolism while downregulated genes involved in lipids storage. Together, all these data suggest that some of the metabolic effects of EPA and α-lipoic acid could be related to their regulatory actions on adipose tissue metabolism. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):117-131, 2017.

  18. Top-Down and Bottom-Up Identification of Proteins by Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry of Healthy and Diseased Human Liver Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarsby, Joscelyn; Martin, Nicholas J.; Lalor, Patricia F.; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J.

    2014-09-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA MS) has the potential to become a useful tool in the spatially-resolved profiling of proteins in substrates. Here, the approach has been applied to the analysis of thin tissue sections from human liver. The aim was to determine whether LESA MS was a suitable approach for the detection of protein biomarkers of nonalcoholic liver disease (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH), with a view to the eventual development of LESA MS for imaging NASH pathology. Two approaches were considered. In the first, endogenous proteins were extracted from liver tissue sections by LESA, subjected to automated trypsin digestion, and the resulting peptide mixture was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (bottom-up approach). In the second (top-down approach), endogenous proteins were extracted by LESA, and analyzed intact. Selected protein ions were subjected to collision-induced dissociation (CID) and/or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry. The bottom-up approach resulted in the identification of over 500 proteins; however identification of key protein biomarkers, liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1), and its variant (Thr→Ala, position 94), was unreliable and irreproducible. Top-down LESA MS analysis of healthy and diseased liver tissue revealed peaks corresponding to multiple (~15-25) proteins. MS/MS of four of these proteins identified them as FABP1, its variant, α-hemoglobin, and 10 kDa heat shock protein. The reliable identification of FABP1 and its variant by top-down LESA MS suggests that the approach may be suitable for imaging NASH pathology in sections from liver biopsies.

  19. Associations between pQCT-based fat and muscle area and density and DXA-based total and leg soft tissue mass in healthy women and men

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Thiebaud, Robert S; Chen, Zhaojing; Karabulut, Murat; Kim, So Jung; Bemben, Debra A

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) can be used for muscle and fat area and density assessments. These may independently influence muscle and fat mass measurements from Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Objective To determine associations between pQCT-derived soft tissue density and area measures and DXA-derived soft tissue mass. Methods Linear regression models were developed based on BMI and calf fat and muscle cross-sectional area (FCSA and MCSA) and density measured by pQCT in healthy women (n=76) and men (n=82) aged 20–59 years. Independent variables for these models were leg and total bone-free lean mass (BFLM) and fat mass (FM) measured by DXA. Results Sex differences (p<0.01) were found in both muscle (Mean±SE: Women: 78.6±0.4; Men: 79.9 ± 0.2 mg/cm3) and fat (Women: 0.8±0.4 Men: 9.1±0.6 mg/cm3) density. BMI, fat density, and age (R2=0.86, p<0.01) best accounted for the variability in total FM. FCSA, BMI, and fat density explained the variance in leg FM (R2=0.87, p<0.01). MCSA and muscle density explained the variance in total (R2=0.65, p<0.01) and leg BFLM (R2=0.70, p<0.01). Conclusion Calf muscle and fat area and density independently predict lean and fat tissue mass. PMID:25524966

  20. Healthy Living, Healthy Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Emergencies How to Jump Start a Car Battery Safely Electronic Screens and Your Eyes Nutrition and ... External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision Problems in the U.S. Healthy ...

  1. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  2. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-01: Potential of Using Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles (CONP) for Protecting Healthy Tissue During Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI)

    SciTech Connect

    Mainali, M; Cifter, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using targeted cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONP) during APBI to protect healthy cells. Methods: In one approach, CONP are assumed to be incorporated in a micrometer-thick polymer film on the surface of routinely used mammosite balloon applicators for sustained in-situ release of the CONP. In case two, CONPs are administered directly into the lumpectomy cavity. The concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} produced by ionizing radiation was estimated from previously published work using short range linear extrapolation. The assessment of CONPs concentration required to absorb corresponding H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to protect healthy tissue was calculated. Fick’s Second law of diffusion was employed to determine the initial concentration of CONP needed to achieve the minimum concentration for radioprotection at distance 1 cm and 2 cm from the lumpectomy cavity during APBI. The study was carried out for different nanoparticle sizes. Results: The initial concentration of CONPs required to get desired radioprotection concentration at 1 cm and 2 cm after 7 days was found to be 0.4089 mg per Kg and 59.7605 g per Kg respectively for 2 nm size nanoparticles. Using concentrations of 5 mg per kg of CONP that have been shown to be used to confer radioprotection (for about 7.97 Gy) in experiments it was observed that 4.5631, 8.5286, 10.9247, 22.0408, 43.6796 and 65.5618 number of days are required to achieve radioprotection at 1 cm for CONP of sizes 2 nm, 3.8 nm, 5 nm, 10 nm, 20 nm, 30 nm, respectively. Conclusion: Our preliminary results show that smaller size (2 nm and 3.8 nm) CONP would be suitable as radio protectant during APBI because they took a reasonable number of days, i.e. less than 10 days to reach tissues of 1 cm or 2 cm thickness.

  3. Evaluation of photodynamically induced damage to healthy eye tissues of rabbits using the second-generation photosensitizers bacteriochlorin a and mTHPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuitmaker, Hans J.; Barthen, Ed; Keunen, Jan E.; Ms Wolff-Rouendaal, Didi

    1999-02-01

    Immediate illumination after sensitizer administration is currently often applied in PDT-trials in ophthalmology. The extent of possible damage to healthy ocular tissue after i.v. administration of the photosensitizers bacteriochlorin a (BCA) or mesa (tetrahydroxyphenyl) chlorin (mTHPC) and subsequent illumination with light of the appropriate wavelength and dose was assessed in rabbit eyes. Both hydrophobic drugs were formulated in 30% polyethylene glycol, 20% ethanol and 50% water to obtain an iv injectable suspension. Rabbits destined for BCA-PDT received a single dose of 10 mg/kg.bw. Rabbits destined for mTHPC-PDT received a dose of 0.3 mg/kg.bw. BCA- treated animals were illuminated immediately and 1, 2 and three hours after administration of the dye with an experimental Philips laser diode (760 nm, c.w., 100 mW/cm2, 100 J). To illuminate the eyes of the mTHPC- treated animals a Krypton laser was used (648 nm, c.w., 100 mW/cm2, 20 J). Illumination of these animals was performed immediately, 24, 48 and 72 hours after administration of the dye. BCA or mTHPC without illumination or illumination without administration of a sensitizing dye did not affect normal ocular tissues as judged by histology. Illumination of the entire eye of BCA-treated animals, immediately after administration of the dye caused a lesion in the macula area with a diameter of 3 mm. At the lesion side the photoreceptors were destroyed, ganglion cells were swollen and the sclera was affected. No skin photosensitivity was observed at anytime. Skin photosensitivity was observed in animals treated with mTHPC. Illumination caused swollen eyelids in all animals except when performed immediately after dye administration.

  4. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  5. Sex-related and tissue-specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy: assessment in a large longitudinal cohort of healthy elderly

    PubMed Central

    Duriez, Quentin; Crivello, Fabrice; Mazoyer, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy in a large cohort of healthy elderly participants (65–80 years). MRI was used for measuring whole brain (WB), gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and hippocampus (HIP) volumes at study entry time (baseline, N = 1451), and the annualized rates of variation of these volumes using a 4-year follow-up MRI in a subpart of the cohort (N = 1111). Effects of smoking status (never, former, or current smoker) at study entry and of lifetime tobacco consumption on these brain phenotypes were studied using sex-stratified AN(C)OVAs, including other health parameters as covariates. At baseline, male current smokers had lower GM, while female current smokers had lower WM. In addition, female former smokers exhibited reduced baseline HIP, the reduction being correlated with lifetime tobacco consumption. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that current smokers, whether men or women, had larger annualized rates of HIP atrophy, as compared to either non or former smokers, independent of their lifetime consumption of tobacco. There was no effect of smoking on the annualized rate of WM loss. In all cases, measured sizes of these tobacco-smoking effects were of the same order of magnitude than those of age, and larger than effect sizes of any other covariate. These results demonstrate that tobacco smoking is a major factor of brain aging, with sex- and tissue specific effects, notably on the HIP annualized rate of atrophy after the age of 65. PMID:25404916

  6. Infrared microspectroscopy identifies biomolecular changes associated with chronic oxidative stress in mammary epithelium and stroma of breast tissues from healthy young women

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Imran I; Shearer, Debra A; Fogarty, Simon W; Fullwood, Nigel J; Quaroni, Luca; Martin, Francis L; Weisz, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the decades-long latent stages of breast carcinogenesis have been limited to when hyperplastic lesions are already present. Investigations of earlier stages of breast cancer (BC) latency have been stymied by the lack of fiducial biomarkers needed to identify where in histologically normal tissues progression toward a BC might be taking place. Recent evidence suggests that a marker of chronic oxidative stress (OxS), protein adducts of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE), can meet this need. Specifically: (1) 4HNE immunopositive (4HNE+) mammary epithelial (ME) cells were found to be prevalent in normal (reduction mammoplasty) tissues of most women (including many teenagers) studied, representative of those living in the United States’ high risk-posing environment and: (2) marked (>1.5-fold) differences were identified between tissues of healthy young women with many vs. few 4HNE+ ME cells in the relative levels of transcripts for 42 of the 84 OxS-associated genes represented in SABioscience Oxidative-Stress/Oxidative-Defense PCR array. Herein we used synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy to identify molecular changes associated with 4HNE adducts in basal and luminal ME cells in terminal ductal units (TDLU), which are the cells of origin of BC, and associated intralobular and interlobular stroma, known contributors to carcinogenesis. Multivariate analysis-derived wavenumbers differentiated 4HNE+ and 4HNE− cells in each of the anatomical compartments. Specifically, principal component and linear discriminant analyses of mid-infrared spectra obtained from these cells revealed unambiguous, statistically highly significant differences in the “biochemical fingerprint” of 4HNE+ vs. 4HNE− luminal and basal ME cells, as well as between associated intralobular and interlobular stroma. These findings demonstrate further SR-FTIR microspectroscopy’s ability to identify molecular changes associated with altered

  7. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  8. Staying Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 > Staying Healthy Font: What is Alpha-1? Emphysema Alpha-1 Symptoms Diagnosing Alpha-1 Current Treatments ... Healthy What can people with Alpha-1-related emphysema do to stay as healthy as possible? First ...

  9. Relationships among folate, alcohol consumption, gene variants in one-carbon metabolism and p16 INK4a methylation and expression in healthy breast tissues

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Adana A.; Dumitrescu, Ramona G.; Brasky, Theodore M.; Liu, Zhenhua; Mason, Joel B.; Marian, Catalin; Makambi, Kepher H.; Spear, Scott L.; Kallakury, Bhaskar V.S.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Shields, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    p16 INK4a is a tumor suppressor gene, frequently hypermethylated in breast cancer; this epigenetic silencing of p16 INK4a occurs early in carcinogenesis. The risk factors and functional consequences of p16 INK4a methylation are unknown. Alcohol consumption, a breast cancer risk factor, impedes folate metabolism and may thereby alter gene methylation since folate plays a pivotal role in DNA methylation. In a cross-sectional study of 138 women with no history of breast cancer who underwent reduction mammoplasty, we studied breast cancer risk factors, plasma and breast folate concentrations, variation in one-carbon metabolism genes, p16 INK4a promoter methylation and P16 protein expression. Logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). p16 INK4a methylation was negatively correlated with P16 expression (r = −0.28; P = 0.002). Alcohol consumption was associated with lower breast folate (P = 0.03), higher p16 INK4a promoter methylation (P = 0.007) and less P16 expression (P = 0.002). Higher breast folate concentrations were associated with lower p16 INK4a promoter methylation (P = 0.06). Genetic variation in MTRR (rs1801394) and MTHFD1 (rs1950902) was associated with higher p16 INK4a promoter methylation (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.11–6.42 and OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.12–6.66, respectively), whereas variation in TYMS (rs502396) was associated with less P16 protein expression (OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05–0.99). Given that this is the first study to indicate that alcohol consumption, breast folate and variation in one-carbon metabolism genes are associated with p16 INK4a promoter methylation and P16 protein expression in healthy tissues; these findings require replication. PMID:25344837

  10. CD56(bright)perforin(low) noncytotoxic human NK cells are abundant in both healthy and neoplastic solid tissues and recirculate to secondary lymphoid organs via afferent lymph.

    PubMed

    Carrega, Paolo; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Di Carlo, Emma; Morandi, Barbara; Paul, Petra; Rizzello, Valeria; Cipollone, Giuseppe; Navarra, Giuseppe; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo; Ferlazzo, Guido

    2014-04-15

    As limited information is available regarding the distribution and trafficking of NK cells among solid organs, we have analyzed a wide array of tissues derived from different human compartments. NK cells were widely distributed in most solid tissues, although their amount varied significantly depending on the tissue/organ analyzed. Interestingly, the distribution appeared to be subset specific, as some tissues were preferentially populated by CD56(bright)perforin(low) NK cells, with others by the CD56(dim)perforin(high) cytotoxic counterpart. Nevertheless, most tissues were highly enriched in CD56(bright)perforin(low) cells, and the distribution of NK subsets appeared in accordance with tissue gene expression of chemotactic factors, for which receptors are differently represented in the two subsets. Remarkably, chemokine expression pattern of tissues was modified after neoplastic transformation. As a result, although the total amount of NK cells infiltrating the tissues did not significantly change upon malignant transformation, the relative proportion of NK subsets infiltrating the tissues was different, with a trend toward a tumor-infiltrating NK population enriched in noncytotoxic cells. Besides solid tissues, CD56(bright)perforin(low) NK cells were also detected in seroma fluids, which represents an accrual of human afferent lymph, indicating that they may leave peripheral solid tissues and recirculate to secondary lymphoid organs via lymphatic vessels. Our results provide a comprehensive mapping of NK cells in human tissues, demonstrating that discrete NK subsets populate and recirculate through most human tissues and that organ-specific chemokine expression patterns might affect their distribution. In this context, chemokine switch upon neoplastic transformation might represent a novel mechanism of tumor immune escape.

  11. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  12. Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Under Control Nutrition Guide for Toddlers Healthy Food Shopping What Should Preschoolers Drink? Healthy Drinks for Kids ... to Eating Right Learning About Calories Smart Supermarket Shopping Go, Slow, and Whoa! A Quick Guide to ...

  13. Application of SPECT/CT imaging system and radiochemical analysis for investigation of blood kinetics and tissue distribution of radiolabeled plumbagin in healthy and Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Sumsakul, W; Karbwang, J; Na-Bangchang, K

    2016-02-01

    Plumbagin is a derivative of napthoquinone which is isolated from the roots of plants in several families. These compound exhibits a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities including antimalarial, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities. The aim of the study was to investigate blood kinetics and tissue distribution of plumbagin in healthy and Plasmodium berghei-infected mice using Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) and radiochemical analysis by gamma counter. Plumbagin was labeled with (99m)technetium and the reducing agent stannous chloride dihydrate (50 μg/ml) at pH 6.5. Blood kinetics and tissue distribution of the radiolabeled plumbagin were investigated in healthy and P. berghei-infected mice (2 males and 2 females for each experimental group). In vitro and in vivo stability of plumbagin complex suggested satisfactory stability profiles of (99m)Tc-plumbagin complex in plasma and normal saline (92.21-95.47%) within 24 h. Significant difference in blood kinetics parameters (Cmax, AUC, t1/2, MRT, Vd, and CL) were observed between P. berghei-infected and healthy mice. The labeled complex distributed to all organs of both healthy and infected mice but with high intensity in liver, followed by lung, stomach, large intestine and kidney. Accumulation in spleen was markedly noticeable in the infected mice. Plumbagin-labeled complex was rapidly cleared from blood and major routes of excretion were hepatobiliary and pulmonary routes. In P. berghei-infected mice, t1/2 was significantly decreased, while Vd and CL were increased compared with healthy mice. Result suggests that malaria disease state influenced the pharmacokinetics and disposition of plumbagin. SPECT/CT imaging with radiolabeled (99m)Tc is a viable non-invasive technique that can be applied for investigation of kinetics and biodistribution of plumbagin in animal models.

  14. Pyrosequencing reveals the microbial communities in the Red Sea sponge Carteriospongia foliascens and their impressive shifts in abnormal tissues.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Yong; Lee, On On; Tian, Ren-Mao; Wong, Yue Him; Bougouffa, Salim; Batang, Zenon; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Lafi, Feras F; Bajic, Vladimir B; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Abnormality and disease in sponges have been widely reported, yet how sponge-associated microbes respond correspondingly remains inconclusive. Here, individuals of the sponge Carteriospongia foliascens under abnormal status were collected from the Rabigh Bay along the Red Sea coast. Microbial communities in both healthy and abnormal sponge tissues and adjacent seawater were compared to check the influences of these abnormalities on sponge-associated microbes. In healthy tissues, we revealed low microbial diversity with less than 100 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample. Cyanobacteria, affiliated mainly with the sponge-specific species "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum," were the dominant bacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Intraspecies dynamics of microbial communities in healthy tissues were observed among sponge individuals, and potential anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were found. In comparison with healthy tissues and the adjacent seawater, abnormal tissues showed dramatic increase in microbial diversity and decrease in the abundance of sponge-specific microbial clusters. The dominated cyanobacterial species Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum decreased and shifted to unspecific cyanobacterial clades. OTUs that showed high similarity to sequences derived from diseased corals, such as Leptolyngbya sp., were found to be abundant in abnormal tissues. Heterotrophic Planctomycetes were also specifically enriched in abnormal tissues. Overall, we revealed the microbial communities of the cyanobacteria-rich sponge, C. foliascens, and their impressive shifts under abnormality.

  15. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  16. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  17. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  18. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  19. Increased oxidative DNA damage seen in renal biopsies adjacent stones in patients with nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Kittikowit, Wipawee; Waiwijit, Uraiwan; Boonla, Chanchai; Ruangvejvorachai, Preecha; Pimratana, Chaowat; Predanon, Chagkrapan; Ratchanon, Supoj; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana

    2014-10-01

    Urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, is significantly higher in nephrolithiasis patients than in healthy individuals, indicating that these patients have higher degree of oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated 8-OHdG expression in renal biopsies of patients with nephrolithiasis and in renal tubular cells (HK-2 cells) exposed to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). We performed immunohistochemical staining for 8-OHdG in renal biopsies adjacent stones obtained from 28 patients with nephrolithiasis. Controls were noncancerous renal tissues from nephrectomies of patients with renal cancer. 8-OHdG was overexpressed in the nucleus of renal tubular cells in patients with nephrolithiasis compared with controls. Only one nephrolithiasis biopsy was negative for 8-OHdG, whereas in 19 cases 8-OHdG was highly expressed. The level of expression of 8-OHdG among patients with calcium oxalate (mostly mixed with calcium phosphate) and uric acid stones was not significantly different. Increased leukocyte infiltration was observed in renal tissues from patients with nephrolithiasis. Exposure of HK-2 cells to COM caused increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and nuclear expression of 8-OHdG. To our knowledge, this is the first report of increased 8-OHdG expression in renal tubular cells of patients with nephrolithiasis. In vitro, COM crystals were capable of inducing oxidative damage of DNA in the proximal renal tubular cells.

  20. Lack of tissue accumulation of grape seed flavanols after daily long-term administration in healthy and cafeteria-diet obese rats.

    PubMed

    Margalef, Maria; Pons, Zara; Iglesias-Carres, Lisard; Bravo, Francisca Isabel; Muguerza, Begoña; Arola-Arnal, Anna

    2015-11-18

    After ingestion flavanols are metabolized by phase-II enzymes and the microbiota and are distributed throughout the body depending on several factors. Herein we aim to evaluate whether flavanols are tissue-accumulated after the long-term administration of a grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) in rats and to study if compounds present in tissues differ in a cafeteria-diet obesity state. For that, plasma, liver, mesenteric white adipose tissue (MWAT), brain, and aorta flavanol metabolites from standard chow-diet-fed (ST) and cafeteria-diet-fed (CAF) rats were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) 21 h after the last 12-week-daily GSPE (100 mg/kg) dosage. Results showed that long-term GSPE intake did not trigger a flavanol tissue accumulation, indicating a clearance of products at each daily dosage. Therefore, results suggest that polyphenol benefits in a disease state would be due to a daily pulsatile effect. Moreover, obesity induced by diet also influences the metabolism and bioavailability of flavanols in rats.

  1. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be a Scientist Coloring Science Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU ...

  2. Healthy Schools

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Nutrition Environment Physical Activity Obesity Prevention Chronic Conditions Data & Statistics State Programs Professional Development & Training Tools & Resources Multimedia INFOGRAPHICS Parents for Healthy ...

  3. Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... it comes to weight loss, there's no lack of fad diets promising fast results. But such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail ...

  4. Healthy Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sexual experience is safe, healthy, and enjoyable. Sexual health is a vital part of a person’s total well-being. Of course, sex is essential for reproduction, but it can also build intimacy in relationships ...

  5. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking ... have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Who Performs Eye Exams? An eye care professional is either an ...

  6. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  7. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  8. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  9. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  10. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  11. Knockout of Vasohibin-1 Gene in Mice Results in Healthy Longevity with Reduced Expression of Insulin Receptor, Insulin Receptor Substrate 1, and Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 in Their White Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Eichi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Tetsuya; Katagiri, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Vasohibin-1 (Vash1), originally isolated as an endothelium-derived angiogenesis inhibitor, has a characteristic of promoting stress tolerance in endothelial cells (ECs). We therefore speculated that the lack of the vash1 gene would result in a short lifespan. However, to our surprise, vash1−/− mice lived significantly longer with a milder senescence phenotype than wild-type (WT) mice. We sought the cause of this healthy longevity and found that vash1−/− mice exhibited mild insulin resistance along with reduced expression of the insulin receptor (insr), insulin receptor substrate 1 (irs-1), and insulin receptor substrate 2 (irs-2) in their white adipose tissue (WAT) but not in their liver or skeletal muscle. The expression of vash1 dominated in the WAT among those 3 organs. Importantly, vash1−/− mice did not develop diabetes even when fed a high-fat diet. These results indicate that the expression of vash1 was required for the normal insulin sensitivity of the WAT and that the target molecules for this activity were insr, irs1, and irs2. The lack of vash1 caused mild insulin resistance without the outbreak of overt diabetes and might contribute to healthy longevity. PMID:28367331

  12. Healthy Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Offers ten suggestions for schools and universities to help maintain a healthy indoor environment: proper flooring, sanitary washrooms, consistent maintenance, indoor air quality, preventing mold, daylighting, good acoustics, avoiding volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ergonomic furniture, and well-maintained roofs. (EV)

  13. The Effect of Insulin Infusion on the Metabolites in Cerebral Tissues Assessed With Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Young Healthy Subjects With High and Low Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Karczewska-Kupczewska, Monika; Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Nikołajuk, Agnieszka; Stefanowicz, Magdalena; Matulewicz, Natalia; Otziomek, Elżbieta; Górska, Maria; Strączkowski, Marek; Kowalska, Irina

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin may play important roles in brain metabolism. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of the central nervous system gives information on neuronal viability, cellular energy, and membrane status. To elucidate the specific role of insulin action in the brain, we estimated neurometabolites with 1H-MRS and assessed their regulation by insulin infusion and their relationship with insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied 16 healthy young men. 1H-MRS was performed at baseline and after 240 min of euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Voxels were positioned in the left frontal lobe, left temporal lobe, and left thalamus. The ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds (Cho), myo-inositol, and glutamate/glutamine/γ-aminobutyric acid complex (Glx) to creatine (Cr) and nonsuppressed water signal were determined. The participants were divided into subgroups of high (high IS) and low (low IS) insulin sensitivity. RESULTS Baseline neurometabolic substrates were not different between the groups. Insulin infusion resulted in an increase in frontal NAA/Cr and NAA/H2O and frontal and temporal Glx/Cr and Glx/H2O and a decrease in frontal Cho/Cr and temporal Cho/H2O and myo-inositol/H2O (all P < 0.05, except temporal Glx/H2O, P = 0.054, NS) in the high-IS, but not in the low-IS, group. Insulin sensitivity correlated positively with frontal NAA/Cr and NAA/H2O and temporal Glx/H2O and negatively with temporal myo-inositol/Cr and myo-inositol/H2O assessed during the second 1H-MRS (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Insulin might influence cerebral metabolites, and this action is impaired in subjects with low whole-body insulin sensitivity. Thus, our results provide a potential link between insulin resistance and altered metabolism of the central nervous system. PMID:23596182

  14. Dietary supplementation with Bifidobacterium lactis NCC2818 from weaning reduces local immunoglobulin production in lymphoid-associated tissues but increases systemic antibodies in healthy neonates.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Marie C; Patel, Dilip V; Fowler, Jenni; Duncker, Swantje; Zuercher, Adrian W; Mercenier, Annick; Bailey, Mick

    2013-10-01

    Weaning is associated with a major shift in the microbial community of the intestine, and this instability may make it more acquiescent than the adult microbiota to long-term changes. Modulation achieved through dietary interventions may have potentially beneficial effects on the developing immune system, which is driven primarily by the microbiota. The specific aim of the present study was to determine whether immune development could be modified by dietary supplementation with the human probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis NCC2818 in a tractable model of weaning in infants. Piglets were reared by their mothers before being weaned onto a solid diet supplemented with B. lactis NCC2818, while sibling controls did not receive supplementation. Probiotic supplementation resulted in a reduction in IgA (P<0·0005) and IgM (P<0·009) production by mucosal tissues but had no effect on IgG production (P>0·05). Probiotic-supplemented pigs had more mast cells than unsupplemented littermates (P<0·0001), although numbers in both groups were low. In addition, the supplemented piglets made stronger serum IgG responses to fed and injected antigens (P<0·05). The present findings are consistent with B. lactis NCC2818 reducing intestinal permeability induced by weaning, and suggest that the piglet is a valuable intermediate between rodent models and human infants. The results also strongly suggest that measures of the effect of probiotic supplementation on the immune system need to be interpreted carefully as proxy measures of health benefit. However, they are useful in developing an understanding of the mechanism of action of probiotic strains, an important factor in predicting favourable health outcomes of nutritional intervention.

  15. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  16. Community Structure and Functional Gene Profile of Bacteria on Healthy and Diseased Thalli of the Red Seaweed Delisea pulchra

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Neil; Steinberg, Peter; Rusch, Doug; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Thomas, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Disease is increasingly viewed as a major factor in the ecology of marine communities and its impact appears to be increasing with environmental change, such as global warming. The temperate macroalga Delisea pulchra bleaches in Southeast Australia during warm summer periods, a phenomenon which previous studies have indicated is caused by a temperature induced bacterial disease. In order to better understand the ecology of this disease, the bacterial communities associated with threes type of samples was investigated using 16S rRNA gene and environmental shotgun sequencing: 1) unbleached (healthy) D. pulchra 2) bleached parts of D. pulchra and 3) apparently healthy tissue adjacent to bleached regions. Phylogenetic differences between healthy and bleached communities mainly reflected relative changes in the taxa Colwelliaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Thalassomonas and Parvularcula. Comparative metagenomics showed clear difference in the communities of healthy and diseased D. pulchra as reflected by changes in functions associated with transcriptional regulation, cation/multidrug efflux and non-ribosomal peptide synthesis. Importantly, the phylogenetic and functional composition of apparently healthy tissue adjacent to bleached sections of the thalli indicated that changes in the microbial communities already occur in the absence of visible tissue damage. This shift in unbleached sections might be due to the decrease in furanones, algal metabolites which are antagonists of bacterial quorum sensing. This study reveals the complex shift in the community composition associated with bleaching of Delisea pulchra and together with previous studies is consistent with a model in which elevated temperatures reduce levels of chemical defenses in stressed thalli, leading to colonization or proliferation by opportunistic pathogens or scavengers. PMID:23226544

  17. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  18. Coexistence Analysis of Adjacent Long Term Evolution (LTE) Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Olama, Mohammed M

    2013-01-01

    As the licensing and deployment of Long term evolution (LTE) systems are ramping up, the study of coexistence of LTE systems is an essential topic in civil and military applications. In this paper, we present a coexistence study of adjacent LTE systems aiming at evaluating the effect of inter-system interference on system capacity and performance as a function of some of the most common mitigation techniques: frequency guard band, base station (BS) antenna coupling loss, and user equipment (UE) antenna spacing. A system model is constructed for two collocated macro LTE networks. The developed model takes into consideration the RF propagation environment, power control scheme, and adjacent channel interference. Coexistence studies are performed for a different combination of time/frequency division duplex (TDD/FDD) systems under three different guard-bands of 0MHz, 5MHz, and 10MHz. Numerical results are presented to advice the minimum frequency guard band, BS coupling loss, and UE antenna isolation required for a healthy system operation.

  19. Characterization of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells in critical wounds

    PubMed Central

    Tilstam, Pathricia V.; Springenberg-Jung, Katrin; Boecker, Arne Hendrick; Schmitz, Corinna; Heinrichs, Daniel; Hwang, Soo Seok; Stromps, Jan Philipp; Ganse, Bergita; Kopp, Ruedger; Knobe, Matthias; Bernhagen, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous adipose tissue is a rich source of adipose tissue macrophages and adipose-derived stem cells which both play a key role in wound repair. While macrophages can be divided into the classically-activated M1 and the alternatively-activated M2 phenotype, ASCs are characterized by the expression of specific stem cell markers. Methods In the present study, we have investigated the expression of common macrophage polarization and stem cell markers in acutely inflamed adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue adjacent to acutely inflamed wounds of 20 patients and 20 healthy subjects were harvested and underwent qPCR and flow cytometry analysis. Results Expression levels of the M1-specific markers CD80, iNOS, and IL-1b were significantly elevated in inflammatory adipose tissue when compared to healthy adipose tissue, whereas the M2-specific markers CD163 and TGF-β were decreased. By flow cytometry, a significant shift of adipose tissue macrophage populations towards the M1 phenotype was confirmed. Furthermore, a decrease in the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD29, CD34, and CD105 was observed whereas CD73 and CD90 remained unchanged. Discussion This is the first report describing the predominance of M1 adipose tissue macrophages and the reduction of stem cell marker expression in acutely inflamed, non-healing wounds. PMID:28070458

  20. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  1. Effect of pulsed and continuous therapeutic ultrasound on healthy skeletal muscle in rats

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Bélgica; Navarrete, Javiera; Farfán, Emilio; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound therapy is used to treat injuries in joints, nerves and tendons. Part of the radiation generated is absorbed by nearby undamaged tissues, such as muscles. The aim was to evaluate histomorphological changes in the healthy gastrocnemius muscle in rats irradiated with continuous ultrasound (CUS) and pulsed ultrasound (PUS). Healthy adult rats were used, separated into two groups: CUS and PUS. Both were irradiated in the gastrocnemius muscle for 10 days: the CUS group in continuous mode (3 MHz, 1.0 W/cm2, 1 min/session) and the PUS group in pulsed mode (3 MHz, 1.0 W/cm2, 100 Hz, 50% duty cycle, 1 min/session). The contralateral muscles were used as a control. Their histological characteristics were analyzed, and the area and perimeter of the muscle fibers were measured. The connective tissue showed no histological changes. The area of muscle fibers of the irradiated groups was significantly greater (CUS 1325.2±182.1 μm2, p=0.0278 and PUS 1019.4±125.3 μm2, p=0.0398) than the control, and the CUS area was greater than the PUS (p=0.0383). The perimeter of muscle fibers showed significant differences between the irradiated groups (CUS 148±11.12 μm, p=0.0178 and PUS 129.3±8.83 μm, p=0.0236) compared to the control, as well as differences between CUS and PUS (p=0.0319). The application of ultrasound on healthy muscle produces hypertrophy of the muscle fibers, greater when continuous mode is used. It is advisable to apply pulsed, focused ultrasound therapies with sound heads sufficient for the tissue or zone to be treated, thereby reducing the risk of altering the adjacent healthy tissue. PMID:24551303

  2. 'Browning' the cardiac and peri-vascular adipose tissues to modulate cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Aldiss, Peter; Davies, Graeme; Woods, Rachel; Budge, Helen; Sacks, Harold S; Symonds, Michael E

    2017-02-01

    Excess visceral adiposity, in particular that located adjacent to the heart and coronary arteries is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. In the pathophysiological state, dysfunctional adipose tissue secretes an array of factors modulating vascular function and driving atherogenesis. Conversely, brown and beige adipose tissues utilise glucose and lipids to generate heat and are associated with improved cardiometabolic health. The cardiac and thoracic perivascular adipose tissues are now understood to be composed of brown adipose tissue in the healthy state and undergo a brown-to-white transition i.e. during obesity which may be a driving factor of cardiovascular disease. In this review we discuss the risks of excess cardiac and vascular adiposity and potential mechanisms by which restoring the brown phenotype i.e. "re-browning" could potentially be achieved in clinically relevant populations.

  3. Atrophy of hippocampal subfields and adjacent extrahippocampal structures in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Franciotti, Raffaella; Bubbico, Giovanna; Thomas, Astrid; Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The hippocampus and adjacent extrahippocampal structures are organized in distinct and specialized regions which process heterogeneous functions, including memory, and visuospatial functions. Specific alterations of the different hippocampal subfields and adjacent extrahippocampal structures could differently contribute to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Based on visual symptoms which characterize DLB patients, the hippocampal subfields and the adjacent extrahippocampal structures which are mainly involved in the visual functions could be impaired in DLB and preserved in AD. To test this hypothesis, we performed structural magnetic resonance imaging on 19 DLB, 15 AD, and 19 age-matched healthy controls. FreeSurfer's pipelines were used to perform parcellation of hippocampus and adjacent extrahippocampal structures and to assess the structural changes within each region. The cornu ammonis and subiculum were bilaterally damaged in AD and preserved in DLB. The perirhinal cortex and parahippocampus were damaged in DLB but not in AD. Our findings demonstrate that the hippocampal subfields and adjacent extrahippocampal structures were differently altered in AD and DLB. Particularly, DLB patients showed a more focused alteration of the extrahippocampal structures linked to visual functions.

  4. Adjacent-level arthroplasty following cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Deshpande V; Hari, Akshay; Krishna, Murali; Konar, Subhas; Sharma, Ankit

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Adjacent-level disc degeneration following cervical fusion has been well reported. This condition poses a major treatment dilemma when it becomes symptomatic. The potential application of cervical arthroplasty to preserve motion in the affected segment is not well documented, with few studies in the literature. The authors present their initial experience of analyzing clinical and radiological results in such patients who were treated with arthroplasty for new or persistent arm and/or neck symptoms related to neural compression due to adjacent-segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). METHODS During a 5-year period, 11 patients who had undergone ACDF anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and subsequently developed recurrent neck or arm pain related to adjacent-level cervical disc disease were treated with cervical arthroplasty at the authors' institution. A total of 15 devices were implanted (range of treated levels per patient: 1-3). Clinical evaluation was performed both before and after surgery, using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Radiological outcomes were analyzed using pre- and postoperative flexion/extension lateral radiographs measuring Cobb angle (overall C2-7 sagittal alignment), functional spinal unit (FSU) angle, and range of motion (ROM). RESULTS There were no major perioperative complications or device-related failures. Statistically significant results, obtained in all cases, were reflected by an improvement in VAS scores for neck/arm pain and NDI scores for neck pain. Radiologically, statistically significant increases in the overall lordosis (as measured by Cobb angle) and ROM at the treated disc level were observed. Three patients were lost to follow-up within the first year after arthroplasty. In the remaining 8 cases, the duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 3 years. None of these 8 patients required surgery for the same vertebral level during the follow

  5. Healthy Places for Healthy People 2016 Application

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Application form for the 2016 round of Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance to help communities work with health care partners to revitalize downtowns and neighborhoods while helping residents live healthier lives.

  6. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... for steady, modest loss. Seek emotional support from family and friends. Expect setbacks; forgive yourself. Make physical ...

  7. Quantification of pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in colonic carcinoma and normal adjacent colonic mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Bohe, H; Bohe, M; Jönsson, P; Lindström, C; Ohlsson, K

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To measure the content of immunoreactive human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (irPSTI) in colonic carcinoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa. METHODS: From a stable hybridoma cell line producing monoclonal antibodies specific for human PSTI, a specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human PSTI was developed. In a precipitation assay system these antibodies bound human PSTI in a dose-dependent manner. The specimens were obtained from resectional surgery. RESULTS: The content of irPSTI was 19.9 micrograms/g protein (0.55 micrograms/g tissue wet weight) in colonic carcinoma. In adjacent normal colonic mucosa 43.6 micrograms/g protein (1.12 micrograms/g tissue wet weight) was shown. CONCLUSIONS: The enzymatic degradation of surrounding tissue necessary for tumour cell invasion could be facilitated by this relative deficit of the inhibitor in infiltrative carcinoma. PMID:1479031

  8. Defining Economic Success as It Pertains to Native American Owned Businesses Located on/or Adjacent to North Dakota Reservations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Barbara Elise

    2013-01-01

    Successful economic development is essential in building and sustaining a healthy community. The purpose of this study was to identify indicators of successful economic development as it pertained to Native American owned businesses located on/or adjacent to North Dakota reservations. More specifically this study sought to explore specific…

  9. Autofluorescence of seborrheic keratosis (warts) and of tissue surrounding malignant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Wolfgang; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard; Bohle, Rainer M.; Dreyer, Thomas

    1997-12-01

    Autofluorescence measurements on human tissue have revealed a decrease in intensity in malignant tumors and an increase in the healthy region adjacent to the tumor. This latter event might serve as a protective wall against the invasive tumor cells. The composition of this wall is still unknown. Antioxidants such as NADH might be involved. In the case of seborrheic keratosis (wart), the intensity is increased in the pigmented spots. Care must be taken, therefore, when warts are attached to malignant tumors. The resulting value is, then, not indicative for the condition of the system.

  10. How Does Physical Activity Help Build Healthy Bones?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How does physical activity help build healthy bones? Skip sharing on social ... Page Content ​​Bones are living tissue. Weight-bearing physical activity causes new bone tissue to form, and this ...

  11. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  12. Healthy food trends -- quinoa

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy food trends - goosefoot; Healthy snacks - quinoa; Weight loss - quinoa; Healthy diet - quinoa; Wellness - quinoa ... Quinoa is rich in protein . It has almost twice the amount of protein found in oats, and ...

  13. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients ... 16, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...

  14. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Having a Healthy Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Teens > Having a Healthy Pregnancy A ... or she can help you to get treatment. Pregnancy Discomforts Pregnancy can cause some uncomfortable side effects. ...

  15. Healthy Vision Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI for Kids > Healthy Vision Tips All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Healthy Vision Tips Healthy vision starts with you! Use these ...

  16. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  17. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  18. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  19. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  20. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  5. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  6. The Microbiota of Breast Tissue and Its Association with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Urbaniak, Camilla; Gloor, Gregory B.; Brackstone, Muriel; Scott, Leslie; Tangney, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the United States, 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime. Along with genetics, the environment contributes to disease development, but what these exact environmental factors are remains unknown. We have previously shown that breast tissue is not sterile but contains a diverse population of bacteria. We thus believe that the host's local microbiome could be modulating the risk of breast cancer development. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we show that bacterial profiles differ between normal adjacent tissue from women with breast cancer and tissue from healthy controls. Women with breast cancer had higher relative abundances of Bacillus, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus. Escherichia coli (a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family) and Staphylococcus epidermidis, isolated from breast cancer patients, were shown to induce DNA double-stranded breaks in HeLa cells using the histone-2AX (H2AX) phosphorylation (γ-H2AX) assay. We also found that microbial profiles are similar between normal adjacent tissue and tissue sampled directly from the tumor. This study raises important questions as to what role the breast microbiome plays in disease development or progression and how we can manipulate this for possible therapeutics or prevention. IMPORTANCE This study shows that different bacterial profiles in breast tissue exist between healthy women and those with breast cancer. Higher relative abundances of bacteria that had the ability to cause DNA damage in vitro were detected in breast cancer patients, as was a decrease in some lactic acid bacteria, known for their beneficial health effects, including anticarcinogenic properties. This study raises important questions as to the role of the mammary microbiome in modulating the risk of breast cancer development. PMID:27342554

  7. Characterization of multiphoton photoacoustic spectroscopy for subsurface brain tissue diagnosis and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Sudhir; Cullum, Brian M.

    2016-04-01

    The development and demonstration of a multiphoton photoacoustic imaging technique capable of providing high spatial resolution chemical images of subsurface tissue components as deep as 1.4 cm below the tissue surface is described. By combining multiphoton excitation in the diagnostic window (650 to 1100 nm), with ultrasonic detection of nonradiative relaxation events, it is possible to rapidly reconstruct three-dimensional, chemical specific, images of samples underneath overlying structures as well as chemical species of the same material. Demonstration of this technique for subsurface tissue differentiation is shown, with the ability to distinguish between grade III astrocytoma tissue and adjacent healthy tissue in blind studies. By employing photoacoustic signal detection, the high nonradiative relaxation rates of most biological tissue components (>90%) and the minimal signal attenuation of the resulting ultrasound compensate for excitation efficiency losses associated with two-photon absorption. Furthermore, the two-photon absorption process results in a highly localized excitation volume (ca., 60 μm). Characterization of the probing depth, spatial resolution, and ability to image through overlying structures is also demonstrated in this paper using tissue phantoms with well-characterized optical scattering properties, mimicking those of tissues.

  8. Stem cells and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Goodell, Margaret A; Rando, Thomas A

    2015-12-04

    Research into stem cells and aging aims to understand how stem cells maintain tissue health, what mechanisms ultimately lead to decline in stem cell function with age, and how the regenerative capacity of somatic stem cells can be enhanced to promote healthy aging. Here, we explore the effects of aging on stem cells in different tissues. Recent research has focused on the ways that genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and the extrinsic environmental milieu influence stem cell functionality over time. We describe each of these three factors, the ways in which they interact, and how these interactions decrease stem cell health over time. We are optimistic that a better understanding of these changes will uncover potential strategies to enhance stem cell function and increase tissue resiliency into old age.

  9. Does Metabolically Healthy Obesity Exist?

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Cornejo-Pareja, Isabel; Tinahones, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and other metabolic diseases have been deeply studied. However, there are clinical inconsistencies, exceptions to the paradigm of “more fat means more metabolic disease”, and the subjects in this condition are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO).They have long-standing obesity and morbid obesity but can be considered healthy despite their high degree of obesity. We describe the variable definitions of MHO, the underlying mechanisms that can explain the existence of this phenotype caused by greater adipose tissue inflammation or the different capacity for adipose tissue expansion and functionality apart from other unknown mechanisms. We analyze whether these subjects improve after an intervention (traditional lifestyle recommendations or bariatric surgery) or if they stay healthy as the years pass. MHO is common among the obese population and constitutes a unique subset of characteristics that reduce metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors despite the presence of excessive fat mass. The protective factors that grant a healthier profile to individuals with MHO are being elucidated. PMID:27258304

  10. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... habitat loss from warmer water temperatures associated with climate change already has been observed in the southern ... altered water flow and availability, invasive species and climate change. Healthy Watersheds EPA Awards Healthy Watersheds Consortium ...

  11. Healthy Environments for Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... OUTSIDE, THEY NEED CARE AND AFFECTION IN A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT! ...AT SCHOOL... 2 ...AT HOME... ...EVEN IN THEIR ... CAN WE DO? HOW CAN WE GUARANTEE A HEALTHY FUTURE FOR ... PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT, ESPECIALLY RIVERS AND FORESTS, WE CAN IMPROVE THE ...

  12. Healthy Eating and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ...

  13. Live Healthy, Live Longer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  14. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-03-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy 30 October-1 November, 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  15. Bellagio report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-02-05

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  16. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    PubMed Central

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.; Bourne, Peter G.; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security. PMID:23385371

  17. [Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People].

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-11-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  18. Microglial activation in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Schuitemaker, Alie; van der Doef, Thalia F; Boellaard, Ronald; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Yaqub, Maqsood; Windhorst, Albert D; Barkhof, Frederik; Jonker, Cees; Kloet, Reina W; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Scheltens, Philip; van Berckel, Bart N M

    2012-06-01

    Healthy brain aging is characterized by neuronal loss and decline of cognitive function. Neuronal loss is closely associated with microglial activation and postmortem studies have indeed suggested that activated microglia may be present in the aging brain. Microglial activation can be quantified in vivo using (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 and positron emission tomography. The purpose of this study was to measure specific binding of (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 in healthy subjects over a wide age range. Thirty-five healthy subjects (age range 19-79 years) were included. In all subjects 60-minute dynamic (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 scans were acquired. Specific binding of (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 was calculated using receptor parametric mapping in combination with supervised cluster analysis to extract the reference tissue input function. Increased binding of (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 with aging was found in frontal lobe, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, medial inferior temporal lobe, insula, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, thalamus, parietal and occipital lobes, and cerebellum. This indicates that activated microglia appear in several cortical and subcortical areas during healthy aging, suggesting widespread neuronal loss.

  19. An essential role of Ffar2 (Gpr43) in dietary fibre-mediated promotion of healthy composition of gut microbiota and suppression of intestinal carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sivaprakasam, S; Gurav, A; Paschall, A V; Coe, G L; Chaudhary, K; Cai, Y; Kolhe, R; Martin, P; Browning, D; Huang, L; Shi, H; Sifuentes, H; Vijay-Kumar, M; Thompson, S A; Munn, D H; Mellor, A; McGaha, T L; Shiao, P; Cutler, C W; Liu, K; Ganapathy, V; Li, H; Singh, N

    2016-01-01

    Composition of the gut microbiota has profound effects on intestinal carcinogenesis. Diet and host genetics play critical roles in shaping the composition of gut microbiota. Whether diet and host genes interact with each other to bring specific changes in gut microbiota that affect intestinal carcinogenesis is unknown. Ability of dietary fibre to specifically increase beneficial gut microbiota at the expense of pathogenic bacteria in vivo via unknown mechanism is an important process that suppresses intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2 or GPR43) is a receptor for short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate and butyrate), metabolites of dietary fibre fermentation by gut microbiota. Here, we show FFAR2 is down modulated in human colon cancers than matched adjacent healthy tissue. Consistent with this, Ffar2−/− mice are hypersusceptible to development of intestinal carcinogenesis. Dietary fibre suppressed colon carcinogenesis in an Ffar2-dependent manner. Ffar2 played an essential role in dietary fibre-mediated promotion of beneficial gut microbiota, Bifidobacterium species (spp) and suppression of Helicobacter hepaticus and Prevotellaceae. Moreover, numbers of Bifidobacterium is reduced, whereas those of Prevotellaceae are increased in human colon cancers than matched adjacent normal tissue. Administration of Bifidobacterium mitigated intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis in Ffar2−/− mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that interplay between dietary fibre and Ffar2 play a key role in promoting healthy composition of gut microbiota that stimulates intestinal health. PMID:27348268

  20. The cytology of the dental follicle and adjacent alveolar bone during tooth eruption in the dog.

    PubMed

    Marks, S C; Cahill, D R; Wise, G E

    1983-11-01

    Previous studies from our laboratories have shown that premolar eruption in dogs depends upon the presence of the dental follicle and is independent of root or crown growth or attachment to the oral epithelium. The present study is an analysis of the cellular composition of the dental follicle and the cellular investment of the adjacent walls of the bony crypt before and during eruption of the third and fourth mandibular permanent premolars in young beagle dogs. Four premolar follicles and their adjacent bony crypts were examined at 2-week intervals over 12 weeks before and during eruption of these teeth. Tissues were removed, fixed, processed, and oriented so that each follicle and the adjacent crypt wall could be reproducibly examined in vertical and horizontal planes. Mononuclear cells with abundant cytoplasm, euchromatic nuclei, and prominent nucleoli were present in juxtavascular location in the coronal part of the dental follicle; and these cells increased in number immediately preceding and during tooth eruption in parallel with an increase in osteoclasts on the adjacent crypt wall. These data are interpreted to mean that the coronal part of the dental follicle may coordinate the alveolar bone resorption required for tooth eruption by attracting and directing to the crypt wall a population of mononuclear cells, which either become osteoclasts and/or direct osteoclastic activity during tooth eruption.

  1. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  2. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. A Study of the Pronunciation of Words Containing Adjacent Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Ivo P.

    To determine the usefulness of the commonly taught phonics rule, "only pronounce the first vowel in words that contain adjacent vowels" (the VV rule, with the first "v" pronounced with the long vowel sound), two new studies applied it to words with adjacent vowels in several lists and dictionaries. The first study analyzed words containing…

  4. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  5. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  6. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  10. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  11. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  13. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  14. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  16. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects.

  17. [Healthy Cities projects].

    PubMed

    Takano, Takehito

    2002-05-01

    This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research.

  18. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research A Healthy Mouth For Your Baby Healthy teeth are important—even ... fact sheet can help you keep your baby’s mouth healthy and give him a healthy start! 1. ...

  19. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  20. Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight line. View to east. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Guard Tower, Florida Street at Aircraft Shelters Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  1. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  2. 10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  3. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  4. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  5. 1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  6. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  7. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung; Kim, Seok Won

    2016-06-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature.

  9. 15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 5 and portion of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  10. 7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 1 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  11. 8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 2 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  12. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with soundproof walls and pedestal flooring - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  14. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  15. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  16. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  18. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  1. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  2. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example is located between Buildings 26 and 27. Facing northeast - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  5. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  6. 72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing engine house where water from furnaces was allowed to cool. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Healthy Birth Practices Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2014-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education describes this special issue where distiguished authors provide updated evidence-based reviews of the Lamaze International Six Healthy Birth Practices that promote, support, and protect natural, safe, and healthy birth. This issue is dedicated to Elisabeth Bing on the occasion of her 100th birthday.

  8. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content New research shows that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for mothers and babies We’ve heard the ...

  9. Promoting Healthy Dietary Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A.

    This chapter reviews the research on promoting healthy dietary behaviors in all youth, not just those who exhibit problems such as obesity or eating disorders. The first section of this chapter presents a rationale for addressing healthy dietary behavior with children and adolescents, on the basis of the impact of these behaviors on short- and…

  10. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  11. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  12. Healthy Homes Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Lyon, Melinda; Russ, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Extension is focusing on healthy homes programming. Extension educators are not qualified to diagnose consumers' medical problems as they relate to housing. We cannot give medical advice. Instead, we can help educate consumers about home conditions that may affect their well-being. Extension educators need appropriate healthy homes tools to…

  13. The Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities national program.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Sarah L; Bussel, Jamie B

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation announced a bold and unprecedented commitment of $500 million to reverse the epidemic of childhood obesity by 2015, especially in communities at greatest risk based on income, race, ethnicity, and geographic location. To support this work, the foundation launched an array of complementary initiatives aimed at building the evidence base, testing advocacy approaches, and supporting on-the-ground action to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic. Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC), a 5-year $33.4 million national program, was one of the foundation's earliest such investments. Building on previous successes, HKHC was designed to address the policies, systems, and environments that make it easier for low-income children and their families to engage in physical activity and play and to access healthy food in their communities. As part of its strategy, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded 50 multidisciplinary partnerships across the country, with a special focus on 15 southern states where health disparities were most significant. The selection of Active Living By Design to lead the HKHC National Program Office and Transtria, LLC, to lead the evaluation leveraged these organizations' experience in addressing the systemic issues that contribute to physical inactivity and unhealthy eating, using a broader healthy community lens. Key elements of HKHC included funding, ongoing technical assistance and consultation, a peer learning network, and participatory evaluation. The successes of the HKHC grant program are well documented in this journal as well as through case studies and case reports, spotlights, leadership profiles, and other products available at www.healthykidshealthycommunities.org and http://www.transtria.com/hkhc.php.

  14. The pQCT 'Bone Strength Indices' (BSIs, SSI). Relative mechanical impact and diagnostic value of the indicators of bone tissue and design quality employed in their calculation in healthy men and pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cointry, G R; Ferretti, J L; Reina, P S; Nocciolino, L M; Rittweger, J; Capozza, R F

    2014-03-01

    The pQCT-assessed Bone Strength Indices (BSI's, SSI) depend on the product of a 'quality' indicator, the cortical vBMD (vCtD), and a 'design' indicator, one of the cross-sectional moments of inertia or related variables (MIs) in long bones. As the MIs vary naturally much more than the vCtD and represent different properties, it could be that the variation of the indices might not reflect the relative mechanical impact of the variation of their determinant factors in different individuals or circumstances. To understand this problem, we determined the vCtD and MI's in tibia scans of 232 healthy men and pre- and post-MP women, expressed in SD of the means calculated for each group, and analyzed the independent influence of 1 SD unit of variation of each factor on that of the indices by multiple correlations. Results showed: 1. that the independent influence of the MIs on the indices was generally larger than that of the vCtD, and 2. that in post-MP women the influence of the vCtD was larger than it was in the other groups. This confirms the view that inter-individual variation of vCtD is comparatively small, and that mechanical competence of human bone is mostly determined by 'design' factors.

  15. Lumbar Facet Joint Motion in Patients with Degenerative Disc Disease at Affected and Adjacent Levels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weishi; Wang, Shaobai; Xia, Qun; Passias, Peter; Kozanek, Michal; Wood, Kirkham; Li, Guoan

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Objective To evaluate the effect of lumbar degenerative disc diseases (DDDs) on motion of the facet joints during functional weight-bearing activities. Summary of Background Data It has been suggested that DDD adversely affects the biomechanical behavior of the facet joints. Altered facet joint motion, in turn, has been thought to associate with various types of lumbar spine pathology including facet degeneration, neural impingement, and DDD progression. However, to date, no data have been reported on the motion patterns of the lumbar facet joint in DDD patients. Methods Ten symptomatic patients of DDD at L4–S1 were studied. Each participant underwent magnetic resonance images to obtain three-dimensional models of the lumbar vertebrae (L2–S1) and dual fluoroscopic imaging during three characteristic trunk motions: left-right torsion, left-right bending, and flexion-extension. In vivo positions of the vertebrae were reproduced by matching the three-dimensional models of the vertebrae to their outlines on the fluoroscopic images. The kinematics of the facet joints and the ranges of motion (ROMs) were compared with a group of healthy participants reported in a previous study. Results In facet joints of the DDD patients, there was no predominant axis of rotation and no difference in ROMs was found between the different levels. During left-right torsion, the ROMs were similar between the DDD patients and the healthy participants. During left-right bending, the rotation around mediolateral axis at L4–L5, in the DDD patients, was significantly larger than that of the healthy participants. During flexion-extension, the rotations around anterioposterior axis at L4–L5 and around craniocaudal axis at the adjacent level (L3–L4), in the DDD patients, were also significantly larger, whereas the rotation around mediolateral axis at both L2–L3 and L3–L4 levels in the DDD patients were significantly smaller than those of the

  16. Biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Thein Aung; Wang, Zhuo; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Yoshikawa, Takamasa; Inaba, Tadashi; Kasai, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    Various biomechanical investigations have attempted to clarify the aetiology of adjacent segment disease (ASD). However, no biomechanical study has examined in detail the deformation behaviour of the adjacent segments when both pure torque and an angular displacement load are applied to the vertebrae along multiple segments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments. Ten cadaveric lumbar spines (L2-L5) of boars were used. Control and fusion models were prepared by disc damage and pedicle screw fixation of each specimen, and then, bending and rotation tests were performed using a six-axis material tester. In the biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, the range of motion (ROM) of the cranial and caudal adjacent segments in antero-posterior flexion and lateral bending was increased by about 20 % (p < 0.05), and the maximal torque in the fusion model was about threefold (p < 0.05) that in the control model. And in axial rotation, the ROM of cranial and caudal adjacent segments was increased by about 100 % (p < 0.001), and the maximal torque was about sixfold (p < 0.01) that in the control model. The ROM of adjacent segments was significantly increased after pedicle screw fixation as assessed by biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, but not in those regulated by torque. We present the results of biomechanical tests regulated by torque and angular displacement and show that the maximum torque of the fusion model was larger than that of the control model in the biomechanical test regulated by an angular displacement load, suggesting that mechanical stress on the segments adjacent to the fused segment is large. We think that ASD arises after spinal fusion surgery as a mechanism to compensate for the ROM lost due to excessive fusion by pedicle screw fixation, so that a large torque may be applied to adjacent segments within a physiologically

  17. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my muscles more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles ... If you have been inactive, “start low and go slow” by gradually increasing how often and how ...

  18. Healthy Bones Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my bones more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Reprinted from The Surgeon General’s Report on ... women who don’t smoke, and they often go through menopause earlier. Smokers also may absorb less ...

  19. Thalassemia: Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe anemia and possible organ damage from iron overload, respectively. Healthy Choices for People Living with Thalassemia ... Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Related Information UDC System About Us File Formats Help: How ...

  20. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Who ... undercooked meat and fish processed meats, such as hot dogs and deli meats soft, unpasteurized cheeses, such ...

  1. Healthy Dining Hall Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... with healthy foods will help fuel both your body and your mind. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  2. Healthy Living after Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Healthy Living After Stroke Nutrition Good nutrition is one way to reduce ... look to maintain health and wellness. Subscribe to Stroke Connection Get quarterly digital issues plus our monthly ...

  3. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... habitat loss from warmer water temperatures associated with climate change already has been observed in the southern Appalachians ( ... altered water flow and availability, invasive species, and climate change. Top of Page How is a Healthy Watershed ...

  4. Healthy Eating for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... whole grains, fruits, vegetables, healthy fats, low-fat dairy and lean protein. But women also have special ... Three servings of low-fat or fat-free dairy products including low-fat or fat-free milk, ...

  5. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

  6. Healthy grocery shopping

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000336.htm Healthy grocery shopping To use the sharing features on this page, ... a conscious decision about eating that food. Smart Shopping Avoid buying snack foods in bulk and shopping ...

  7. Protein Profiling Gastric Cancer and Neighboring Control Tissues Using High-Content Antibody Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Sill, Martin; Schröder, Christoph; Shen, Ying; Marzoq, Aseel; Komel, Radovan; Hoheisel, Jörg D.; Nienhüser, Henrik; Schmidt, Thomas; Kastelic, Damjana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, protein profiling was performed on gastric cancer tissue samples in order to identify proteins that could be utilized for an effective diagnosis of this highly heterogeneous disease and as targets for therapeutic approaches. To this end, 16 pairs of postoperative gastric adenocarcinomas and adjacent non-cancerous control tissues were analyzed on microarrays that contain 813 antibodies targeting 724 proteins. Only 17 proteins were found to be differentially regulated, with much fewer molecules than the numbers usually identified in studies comparing tumor to healthy control tissues. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9), interleukin-10 (IL‐10) and mucin 6 (MUC6) exhibited the most profound variations. For an evaluation of the proteins’ capacity for discriminating gastric cancer, a Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis was performed, yielding an accuracy (area under the curve) value of 89.2% for distinguishing tumor from non-tumorous tissue. For confirmation, immunohistological analyses were done on tissue slices prepared from another cohort of patients with gastric cancer. The utility of the 17 marker proteins, and particularly the four molecules with the highest specificity for gastric adenocarcinoma, is discussed for them to act as candidates for diagnosis, even in serum, and targets for therapeutic approaches. PMID:27600085

  8. GH/IGF-I axis and matrix adaptation of the musculotendinous tissue to exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Heinemeier, K M; Mackey, A L; Doessing, S; Hansen, M; Bayer, M L; Nielsen, R H; Herchenhan, A; Malmgaard-Clausen, N M; Kjaer, M

    2012-08-01

    Exercise is not only associated with adaptive responses within skeletal muscle fibers but also with induction of collagen synthesis both in muscle and adjacent connective tissue. Additionally, exercise and training leads to activation of the systemic growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis (GH/IGF-I), as well as increased local IGF-I expression. Studies in humans with pathologically high levels of GH/IGF-I, and in healthy humans who receive either weeks of GH administration or acute injection of IGF-I into connective tissue, demonstrate increased expression and synthesis of collagen in muscle and tendon. These observations support a stimulatory effect of GH/IGF-I on the connective tissue in muscle and tendon, which appears far more potent than the effect on contractile proteins of skeletal muscle. However, GH/IGF-I may play an additional role in skeletal muscle by regulation of stem cells (satellite cells), as increased satellite cell numbers are found in human muscle with increased GH/IGF-I levels, despite no change in myofibrillar protein synthesis. Although advanced age is associated with both a reduction in the GH/IGF-I axis activity, and in skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) as well as in tendon connective tissue, there is no direct proof linking age-related changes in the musculotendinous tissue to an impaired GH/IGF-I axis.

  9. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-10-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  10. High prevalence of preinvasive lesions adjacent to BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Arun, Banu; Vogel, Kristen J; Lopez, Adriana; Hernandez, Mike; Atchley, Deann; Broglio, Kristine R; Amos, Christopher I; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kuerer, Henry; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Albarracin, Constance T

    2009-02-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase a woman's lifetime risk of developing breast cancer by 43% to 84%. It was originally postulated that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers develop more rapidly than sporadic cancers and may lack preinvasive lesions. More recent studies have found preinvasive lesions in prophylactic mastectomy specimens from mutation carriers; however, there is little information on the presence of preinvasive lesions in tissue adjacent to breast cancers. Our aim is to investigate the role of preinvasive lesions in BRCA-associated breast carcinogenesis. We retrospectively compared BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and sporadic breast cancers for the prevalence of preinvasive lesions [ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lobular carcinoma in situ, and atypical lobular hyperplasia] in tissue adjacent to invasive breast cancers. Pathology was reviewed for 73 BRCA1/2-associated tumors from patients with breast cancer. We selected 146 patients with mutation-negative breast cancer as age-matched controls. Among the BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers, 59% had at least one associated preinvasive lesion compared with 75% of controls. Preinvasive lesions were more prevalent in BRCA2 mutation carriers than in BRCA1 mutation carriers (70% versus 52%, respectively). The most common preinvasive lesion in both groups was DCIS; 56% of BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and 71% of the sporadic breast cancers had adjacent intraductal disease, respectively. Preinvasive lesions, most notably DCIS, are common in BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers. These findings suggest that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers progress through the same intermediate steps as sporadic breast cancers, and that DCIS should be considered as a part of the BRCA1/2 tumor spectrum.

  11. High Prevalence of Pre-invasive Lesions Adjacent to BRCA1/2-Associated Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Banu; Vogel, Kristen J.; Lopez, Adriana; Hernandez, Mike; Atchley, Deann; Broglio, Kristine R.; Amos, Christopher I.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kuerer, Henry; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Albarracin, Constance T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase a woman's lifetime risk of developing breast cancer to 43%-84%. It was originally postulated that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers develop more rapidly than sporadic cancers and may lack pre-invasive lesions. More recent studies have found pre-invasive lesions in prophylactic mastectomy specimens from mutation carriers; however, there is little information on the presence of pre-invasive lesions in tissue adjacent to breast cancers. Our aim is to investigate the role of pre-invasive lesions in BRCA-associated breast carcinogenesis. Methods We retrospectively compared BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and sporadic breast cancers for the prevalence of pre-invasive lesions (ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS], lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS], and atypical lobular hyperplasia [ALH]) in tissue adjacent to invasive breast cancers. Results Pathology was reviewed for 73 BRCA1/2-associated tumors from breast cancer patients. We selected 146 mutation-negative breast cancer patients as age-matched controls. Of BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers, 59% had at least one associated pre-invasive lesion compared with 75% of controls. Pre-invasive lesions were more prevalent in BRCA2 mutation carriers than in BRCA1 mutation carriers (70% vs. 52%, respectively). The most common pre-invasive lesion in both groups was DCIS; 56% of BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and 71% of the sporadic breast cancers had adjacent intraductal disease, respectively. Conclusions Pre-invasive lesions, most notably DCIS, are common in BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers. These findings suggest that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers progress through the same intermediate steps as sporadic breast cancers, and that DCIS should be considered as a part of the BRCA1/2 tumor spectrum. PMID:19174581

  12. Trends in trace organic and metal concentrations in the Pechora and Kara Seas and adjacent rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.M.; Champ, M.A.; Wade, T.L.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Chambers, L.; Davis, T.

    1995-12-31

    Trace organic (pesticides, PCBs, PAHs and dioxin/furan) and trace metal concentrations have been measured in surficial sediment and tissue (i.e., clam, fish liver and flesh) samples from the Pechora and Kara Seas and their adjacent rivers -- Pechora, Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Total PAH, PCB and total DDT and chlordane concentrations ranged in surficial sediments from n.d. to 810 ppb, n.d.--8.7 ppb, n.d.--1.2 ppb, and n.d.--1.2 ppb, respectively, in a suite of 40 samples from the Kara Sea and its adjacent rivers. The highest concentrations of many of the trace organic and metal contaminants were found in the lower part of the Yenisey River below the salt wedge. Some trace metals (As for example) were elevated in the Pechora River dispositional plume region. Dioxin ranged from 1.36 to 413 ppt in a subset of 20 sediment samples. Higher trace organic contaminant concentrations compared to sediments were found in tissue samples from the region, especially fish liver samples. Concentrations as high as 1,114 ppb total PAHs, 89 ppb chlordane, 1,011 ppb for total DDT and 663 ppb PCBs were found in some fish liver samples. Dioxin concentrations in tissue samples ranged from 11.7 to 61 ppt. Concentrations of many trace organic and metal contaminants in these Russian marginal seas are influenced by inputs from these large Arctic rivers. Many organic contaminant concentrations in sediments are low, however detecting these compounds in tissue show they are bioavailable.

  13. Healthy Sperm: Improving Your Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Getting pregnant Healthy sperm aren't always a given. Understand how lifestyle factors can affect your ... as a laptop, might enhance sperm quality. Adopting healthy lifestyle practices to promote your fertility — and avoiding things ...

  14. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index of Water-Related Topics Featured Partners Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global WASH Other Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related ...

  15. Pathogenesis of the discal cysts communicating with an adjacent herniated disc. Histological and ultrastructual studies of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shigeru; Takeno, Kenichi; Uchida, Kenzo; Yayama, Takafumi; Nakajima, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Guerrero, Alexander; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2010-03-01

    Discal cyst of the lumbar spine is a very rare cause of back pain and sciatica. We report two cases of discal cysts communicating with an adjacent herniated disc. From CT and MRI findings, they were diagnosed as having a discal cyst in the epidural space, which compressed the nerve root. After an adequate surgical field was obtained with a microscope and a Casper retractor, the discal cyst could be excised and satisfactory decompression of the adjacent nerve root was obtained. From histological and electron microscopic study, the presence of residual herniated tissues was confirmed in the cyst wall. Macrophages played an important role in the absorption of herniated tissue and the formation of the discal cyst. Hemorrhage in the cyst wall will make the serous hemorrhagic fluid-filled cystic structure in the absorbed spaces of the prolapsed disc. In this study, we confirmed that the discal cyst could have developed from the absorption process of a disc herniation.

  16. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-05-10

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation packages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on tile US Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama.

  17. Management of adjacent segment disease after cervical spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Hilibrand, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) was described after long-term follow-up of patients treated with cervical fusion. The term describes new-onset radiculopathy or myelopathy referable to a motion segment adjacent to previous arthrodesis and often attributed to alterations in the biomechanical environment after fusion. Evidence suggests that ASD affects between 2% and 3% of patients per year. Although prevention of ASD was one major impetus behind the development of motion-sparing surgery, the literature does not yet clearly distinguish a difference in the rate of ASD between fusion and disk replacement. Surgical techniques during index surgery may reduce the rate of ASD.

  18. Tools for Healthy Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Fleischhacker, Sheila; Byrd, Randi R.; Ramachandran, Gowri; Vu, Maihan; Ries, Amy; Bell, Ronny A.; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing recognition that policymakers can promote access to healthy, affordable foods within neighborhoods, schools, childcare centers, and workplaces. Despite the disproportionate risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes among American Indian children and adults, comparatively little attention has been focused on the opportunities tribal policymakers have to implement policies or resolutions to promote access to healthy, affordable foods. This paper presents an approach for integrating formative research into an action-oriented strategy of developing and disseminating tribally led environmental and policy strategies to promote access to and consumption of healthy, affordable foods. This paper explains how the American Indian Healthy Eating Project evolved through five phases and discusses each phase’s essential steps involved, outcomes derived, and lessons learned. Using community-based participatory research and informed by the Social Cognitve Theory and ecologic frameworks, the American Indian Healthy Eating Project was started in fall 2008 and has evolved through five phases: (1) starting the conversation; (2) conducting multidisciplinary formative research; (3) strengthening partnerships and tailoring policy options; (4) disseminating community-generated ideas; and (5) accelerating action while fostering sustainability. Collectively, these phases helped develop and disseminate Tools for Healthy Tribes—a toolkit used to raise awareness among participating tribal policymakers of their opportunities to improve access to healthy, affordable foods. Formal and informal strategies can engage tribal leaders in the development of culturally appropriate and tribe-specific sustainable strategies to improve such access, as well as empower tribal leaders to leverage their authority toward raising a healthier generation of American Indian children. PMID:22898161

  19. Enhanced Phase Synchronization of Blood Flow Oscillations between Heated and Adjacent Non-heated Sacral Skin

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fuyuan; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2012-01-01

    The study of skin microcirculation may be used to assess risk for pressure ulcers. It is observed that local heating not only causes an increase in blood flow of the heated skin but also in the adjacent non-heated skin. The underlying physiological mechanism of this indirect vasodilation of the non-heated skin remains unclear. We hypothesized that blood flow oscillations (BFO) in the adjacent non-heated skin area synchronize with BFO in the heated skin, thus inducing a vasodilatory response. We investigated BFO in the heated and adjacent non-heated skin (12.1±1.2 cm distance) on the sacrum in 12 healthy participants. The ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) was used to decompose blood flow signals into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), and the IMFs with power spectra over the frequency range of 0.0095–0.02 Hz, 0.02–0.05 Hz, and 0.05–0.15 Hz were chosen as the characteristic components corresponding to metabolic, neurogenic, and myogenic regulations, respectively. Then, the instantaneous phase of the characteristic components was calculated using the Hilbert transform. From the time series of phase difference between a pair of characteristic components, the epochs of phase synchronization were detected. The results showed that myogenic and neurogenic BFO exhibit self-phase synchronization during the slower vasodilation of the heated skin. In the non-heated skin, the degree of synchronization of BFO is associated with the changes in blood flow. PMID:22936012

  20. Cortical Gray and Adjacent White Matter Demonstrate Synchronous Maturation in Very Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Smyser, Tara A; Smyser, Christopher D; Rogers, Cynthia E; Gillespie, Sarah K; Inder, Terrie E; Neil, Jeffrey J

    2016-08-01

    Spatial and functional gradients of development have been described for the maturation of cerebral gray and white matter using histological and radiological approaches. We evaluated these patterns in very preterm (VPT) infants using diffusion tensor imaging. Data were obtained from 3 groups: 1) 22 VPT infants without white matter injury (WMI), of whom all had serial MRI studies during the neonatal period, 2) 19 VPT infants with WMI, of whom 3 had serial MRI studies and 3) 12 healthy, term-born infants. Regions of interest were placed in the cortical gray and adjacent white matter in primary motor, primary visual, visual association, and prefrontal regions. From the MRI data at term-equivalent postmenstrual age, differences in mean diffusivity were found in all areas between VPT infants with WMI and the other 2 groups. In contrast, minimal differences in fractional anisotropy were found between the 3 groups. These findings suggest that cortical maturation is delayed in VPT infants with WMI when compared with term control infants and VPT infants without WMI. From the serial MRI data from VPT infants, synchronous development between gray and white matter was evident in all areas and all groups, with maturation in primary motor and sensory regions preceding that of association areas. This finding highlights the regionally varying but locally synchronous nature of the development of cortical gray matter and its adjacent white matter.

  1. Healthy human gut phageome

    PubMed Central

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20–50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health. PMID:27573828

  2. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  4. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  5. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Hult, Erin L.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Price, Phillip N.

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  6. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, WALL ON LEFT DIVIDING CLOTH ROOM ADDED LATER (PROBABLY C. 1970s). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  8. 11. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site, including Pier No. 4. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  9. 12. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site, including Pier No. 4. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  10. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  11. 47 CFR 73.810 - Third adjacent channel interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.810 Third adjacent channel... power FM, FM translator or FM booster station to such affected station and to the Commission. (ii) A full power FM, FM translator or FM booster station shall review all complaints it receives,...

  12. 47 CFR 73.810 - Third adjacent channel interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.810 Third adjacent channel... power FM, FM translator or FM booster station to such affected station and to the Commission. (ii) A full power FM, FM translator or FM booster station shall review all complaints it receives,...

  13. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  14. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 3. View of side of house facing north from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of side of house facing north from adjacent property. Original wood siding and trim is visible. Note: later addition to rear of house is shown in right side of photograph. - 322 South Fifteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  19. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  20. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  1. MTR COOLING TOWER. BASIN IS ADJACENT TO PUMP HOUSE. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR COOLING TOWER. BASIN IS ADJACENT TO PUMP HOUSE. CAMERA FACES SOUTHEAST TOWARD NORTH SIDE OF PUMP HOUSE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2690. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. 1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN BUILDING (BASSIN'S RESTAURANT) (HABS No. DC-357), 501-511 14TH STREET (THE LOCKER ROOM) HABS No. DC-356) ON CORNER, AND MUNSEY BUILDING (HABS No. DC-358) - William J. Stone Building, 1345 E Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  4. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. Tissue macerating instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baehr, E. F.; Burnett, J. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A surgical tissue macerating and removal tool is described which has a rotating rod with a cutting member at one end and which disposed in a tube which is then contained in an extension of the tool handle. A frusto-conical member extends into the extension at the cutter member end of the rotating rod with its small end engaging the tube. The portion of the frusto-conical member outside of the extension forms a tissue engaging member and may be cut-off at an angle to the axis of the rod to form a tissue engaging edge. Apertures are provided in the extension adjacent the frusto-concial member so that treatment fluid supplied in the annular space between the tube and the extension may flow to the operative site. An aperture is provided in the frustoconical member between the extension and the tube so that fluid may also flow into the tube where it mixes with macerated tissue being directed through an aperture in the tube to a passageway which may have suction applied to help remove macerated material.

  6. Healthy Schools Network, 2011 Yearbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the 2011 Yearbook of the Healthy Schools Network. This yearbook contains: (1) Tough Time To Be a Child: Parents and Taxpayers Should Be Enraged; (2) National Coalition For Healthier Schools: Healthy Schools 2015--Sustaining Momentum In Tough Times; (3) Healthy Schools Heroes Award Program; (4) National Healthy Schools Day…

  7. Keeping Kids Healthy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Sharon; And Others

    This pamphlet offers a collection of items relating to child health in the day care setting. Included is an overview of a collaborative project to develop a comprehensive set of national standards for health, nutrition, safety, and sanitation in child care programs. Contents of the project's resource kit, "Keeping Kids Healthy and Parents at…

  8. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cooking spray for this cooking method. Using herbs and spices Creating meals with herbs, spices and other natural flavorings is one of ... salt or fat. Healthy flavor boosts include: Fresh herbs. Choose herbs that look bright and aren't ...

  9. Healthy Air Outdoors

    MedlinePlus

    ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to threaten the lives and health of ... sources such as fires and dust contribute to air pollution. Learn more Fighting for Healthy Air The American ...

  10. Healthy People 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Catherine M.

    2001-01-01

    Major Healthy People (HP) 2000 goals closely tied to prevention were not met nationally: physical activity did not improve; evidence that it actually decreased; obesity did not decrease but instead increased in all groups, actually doubling in children; and incidence of type 2 diabetes did not decrease, but instead evidence showed that it increased in all age groups.

  11. Surgical treatment of complex axis fractures with adjacent segment instability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xia, Tian; Dong, Shuanghai; Zhao, Qinghua; Tian, Jiwei

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates the clinical and radiographic characteristics of complex axis fractures with adjacent segment instability and describes the outcome of surgical treatment. Twenty-one patients (14 male, seven female; mean age=34 years) with complex axis fractures and adjacent segment instability who were treated between August 2003 and June 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment selection was based on fracture type and stability of the upper cervical segments. All patients were immobilized with a hard collar for three months after surgery. The mean follow-up period was 12 months (range=6-36 months). No intraoperative surgery-related complications were observed and fusion was achieved in all patients. The outcome was excellent for 17 patients, good for two patients, fair for one patient, and poor for one patient. The upper cervical segments that can become unstable due to complex axis fractures include the atlantoaxial and C2-3 joints. Recommended surgical treatments produce good results.

  12. On the Circulation Manifold for Two Adjacent Lifting Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zannetti, Luca; Iollo, Angelo

    1998-01-01

    The circulation functional relative to two adjacent lifting sections is studied for two cases. In the first case we consider two adjacent circles. The circulation is computed as a function of the displacement of the secondary circle along the axis joining the two centers and of the angle of attack of the secondary circle, The gradient of such functional is computed by deriving a set of elliptic functions with respect both to their argument and to their Period. In the second case studied, we considered a wing-flap configuration. The circulation is computed by some implicit mappings, whose differentials with respect to the variation of the geometrical configuration in the physical space are found by divided differences. Configurations giving rise to local maxima and minima in the circulation manifold are presented.

  13. Osmium complex binding to mismatched methylcytosine: effect of adjacent bases.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Akiko; Tainaka, Kazuki; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of osmium complex formation at 5-methylcytosine in mismatched DNA duplexes. Osmium complexation was not observed in fully matched duplexes, whereas the complexation site and efficiency in mismatched duplexes depended on the 5'-neighboring base of the 5-methylcytosine. In particular, when the base adjacent to the 5' side of the mismatched base pair was thymine, a unique side reaction was observed. However, the mismatched base pairs did not influence the selectivity of osmium complexation with methylated DNA.

  14. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  15. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Four-body central configurations with adjacent equal masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yiyang; Li, Bingyu; Zhang, Shiqing

    2017-04-01

    For any convex non-collinear central configuration of the planar Newtonian 4-body problem with adjacent equal masses m1 =m2 ≠m3 =m4, with equal lengths for the two diagonals, we prove it must possess a symmetry and must be an isosceles trapezoid; furthermore, which is also an isosceles trapezoid when the length between m1 and m4 equals the length between m2 and m3.

  17. Processing multiple non-adjacent dependencies: evidence from sequence learning.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Meinou H; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Geukes, Sebastian; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Christiansen, Morten H

    2012-07-19

    Processing non-adjacent dependencies is considered to be one of the hallmarks of human language. Assuming that sequence-learning tasks provide a useful way to tap natural-language-processing mechanisms, we cross-modally combined serial reaction time and artificial-grammar learning paradigms to investigate the processing of multiple nested (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(3)B(2)B(1)) and crossed dependencies (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(1)B(2)B(3)), containing either three or two dependencies. Both reaction times and prediction errors highlighted problems with processing the middle dependency in nested structures (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(3)_B(1)), reminiscent of the 'missing-verb effect' observed in English and French, but not with crossed structures (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(1)_B(3)). Prior linguistic experience did not play a major role: native speakers of German and Dutch-which permit nested and crossed dependencies, respectively-showed a similar pattern of results for sequences with three dependencies. As for sequences with two dependencies, reaction times and prediction errors were similar for both nested and crossed dependencies. The results suggest that constraints on the processing of multiple non-adjacent dependencies are determined by the specific ordering of the non-adjacent dependencies (i.e. nested or crossed), as well as the number of non-adjacent dependencies to be resolved (i.e. two or three). Furthermore, these constraints may not be specific to language but instead derive from limitations on structured sequence learning.

  18. 38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER. THIS UNIT GENERATED A MAGNETIC PULSE WHICH WAS TRANSMITTED TO THE COLLECTION PLATES IN THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. THESE PERIODIC PULSES VIBRATE THE PLATES AND CAUSE PRECIPITATED ARTICLES OF SMOKE AND FLY ASH TO FALL TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  19. Predicting Agenesis of the Mandibular Second Premolar from Adjacent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of agenesis of the mandibular second premolar (P2) enhances management of the dental arch in the growing child. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship in the development of the mandibular first molar (M1) and first premolar (P1) at early stages of P2 (second premolar). Specifically, we ask if the likelihood of P2 agenesis can be predicted from adjacent developing teeth. We selected archived dental panoramic radiographs with P2 at crown formation stages (N = 212) and calculated the likelihood of P2 at initial mineralisation stage ‘Ci’ given the tooth stage of adjacent teeth. Our results show that the probability of observing mandibular P2 at initial mineralisation stage ‘Ci’ decreased as both the adjacent P1 and M1 matured. The modal stage at P2 ‘Ci’ was P1 ‘Coc’ (cusp outline complete) and M1 ‘Crc’ (crown complete). Initial mineralisation of P2 was observed up to P1 ‘Crc’ and M1 stage ‘R½’ (root half). The chance of observing P2 at least ‘Coc’ (coalescence of cusps) was considerably greater prior to these threshold stages compared to later stages of P1 and M1. These findings suggest that P2 is highly unlikely to develop if P1 is beyond ‘Crc’ and M1 is beyond ‘R½’. PMID:26673218

  20. Adjacent Segment Disease in the Cervical and Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Tobert, Daniel G; Antoci, Valentin; Patel, Shaun P; Saadat, Ehsan; Bono, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is disappointing long-term outcome for both the patient and clinician. In contrast to adjacent segment degeneration, which is a common radiographic finding, ASD is less common. The incidence of ASD in both the cervical and lumbar spine is between 2% and 4% per year, and ASD is a significant contributor to reoperation rates after spinal arthrodesis. The etiology of ASD is multifactorial, stemming from existing spondylosis at adjacent levels, predisposed risk to degenerative changes, and altered biomechanical forces near a previous fusion site. Numerous studies have sought to identify both patient and surgical risk factors for ASD, but a consistent, sole predictor has yet to be found. Spinal arthroplasty techniques seek to preserve physiological biomechanics, thereby minimizing the risk of ASD, and long-term clinical outcome studies will help quantify its efficacy. Treatment strategies for ASD are initially nonoperative, provided a progressive neurological deficit is not present. The spine surgeon is afforded many surgical strategies once operative treatment is elected. The goal of this manuscript is to consider the etiologies of ASD, review its manifestations, and offer an approach to treatment.

  1. Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsson, Dan; Malm, Torleif

    2008-09-01

    A significant expansion of offshore wind power is expected in the near future, with thousands of turbines in coastal waters, and various aspects of how this may influence the coastal ecology including disturbance effects from noise, shadows, electromagnetic fields, and changed hydrological conditions are accordingly of concern. Further, wind power plants constitute habitats for a number of organisms, and may locally alter assemblage composition and biomass of invertebrates, algae and fish. In this study, fouling assemblages on offshore wind turbines were compared to adjacent hard substrate. Influences of the structures on the seabed were also investigated. The turbines differed significantly from adjacent boulders in terms of assemblage composition of epibiota and motile invertebrates. Species number and Shannon-Wiener diversity were, also, significantly lower on the wind power plants. It was also indicated that the turbines might have affected assemblages of invertebrates and algae on adjacent boulders. Off shore wind power plant offer atypical substrates for fouling assemblages in terms of orientation, depth range, structure, and surface texture. Some potential ecological implications of the addition of these non-natural habitats for coastal ecology are discussed.

  2. Perceptual processing of adjacent and nonadjacent tactile nontargets.

    PubMed

    Evans, P M; Craig, J C; Rinker, M A

    1992-11-01

    Previous research has shown that subjects appear unable to restrict processing to a single finger and ignore a stimulus presented to an adjacent finger. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that, at least for moving stimuli, an adjacent nontarget is fully processed to the level of incipient response activation. The present study replicated and expanded upon these original findings. The results of Experiment 1 showed that an equally large response-competition effect occurred when the nontarget was presented to adjacent and nonadjacent fingers (on the same hand). The results of Experiment 2 showed that the effects observed in Experiment 1 (and in previous studies) were also obtained with stationary stimuli. Although small, there was some indication in the results of Experiment 2 that interference may dissipate more rapidly with distance with stationary stimuli. An additional finding was that interference effects were observed in both experiments with temporal separations between the target and nontarget of up to 100 msec. In Experiment 3, target and nontarget stimuli were presented to opposite hands. Although reduced, interference was still evident with target and nontarget stimuli presented to opposite hands. Varying the physical distance between hands did not produce any change in the amount of interference. The results suggest that the focus of attention on the skin extends nearly undiminished across the fingers of one hand and is not dependent upon the physical distance between sites of stimulation.

  3. Using BRDFs for accurate albedo calculations and adjacency effect corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the authors discuss two uses of BRDFs in remote sensing: (1) in determining the clear sky top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo, (2) in quantifying the effect of the BRDF on the adjacency point-spread function and on atmospheric corrections. The TOA spectral albedo is an important parameter retrieved by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR). Its accuracy depends mainly on how well one can model the surface BRDF for many different situations. The authors present results from an algorithm which matches several semi-empirical functions to the nine MISR measured BRFs that are then numerically integrated to yield the clear sky TOA spectral albedo in four spectral channels. They show that absolute accuracies in the albedo of better than 1% are possible for the visible and better than 2% in the near infrared channels. Using a simplified extensive radiosity model, the authors show that the shape of the adjacency point-spread function (PSF) depends on the underlying surface BRDFs. The adjacency point-spread function at a given offset (x,y) from the center pixel is given by the integral of transmission-weighted products of BRDF and scattering phase function along the line of sight.

  4. Paying for healthy rivers.

    PubMed

    Pigram, J J J

    2002-01-01

    Concerted efforts are being made at state and federal levels to restore Australia's rivers and waterways to a healthy condition. Yet, there is little consensus on what constitutes a "healthy river" and even less on how to achieve this, or how far to go towards restoration. Some advocate removal of storages and weirs along rivers to revert to some natural state. Others, particularly water users, question the trade-offs involved in leaving more water in the rivers and how the costs of restoration are to be met. At present it seems that the major share of the costs is borne by irrigators, with the wider community essentially enjoying a "free-ride". This situation is justified on the basis of the impactor pays principle whereby water diversions, primarily for irrigation, are held to have contributed most to degradation of the river systems. The altemative-beneficiary pays principle--is of more relevance where demands are made on resource users to mitigate environmental impacts or bring about environmental improvements, eg. healthy rivers, where the beneficiaries are the wider public and the general community. Many resource users are voluntarily undertaking action on private land to conserve biodiversity and achieve sustainability. In these circumstances, the cost-sharing principle should apply, with governments, interest groups and the community contributing to the investment required to attain the desired resource condition objectives.

  5. Healthy Aging in China.

    PubMed

    Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-12-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution-,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence.

  6. Healthy Aging in China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution—,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence. PMID:25621202

  7. Tissue healing response following hyperthermic vapor ablation in the porcine longissimus muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, John T.; Grisez, Brian T.; Famoso, Justin; Hoey, Michael; Dixon, Chris; Coad, James E.

    2015-03-01

    As the use of hyperthermic ablation technologies has increased, so too has the need to understand their effects on tissue and their healing responses. This study was designed to characterize tissue injury and healing following hyperthermic vapor ablation in the in vivo porcine longissimus muscle model. The individual ablations were performed using the NxThera Vapor Delivery System (NxThera Inc., Minneapolis, MN). To assess the vapor ablation's evolution, the swine were euthanized post-treatment on Day 0, Day 3, Day 7, Day 14, Day 28, Day 45 and Day 90. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride viability staining (TTC staining) was used to macroscopically assess the extent of each vapor ablation within the tissue. The ablation associated healing responses were then histologically evaluated for acute inflammation, chronic inflammation, foreign body reaction and fibrosis. Two zones of tissue injury were initially identified in the ablations: 1) a central zone of complete coagulative necrosis and 2) an outer "transition zone" of viable and non-viable cells. The ablations initially increased in size from Day 0 to Day 7 and then progressively decreased in size though Day 45. The initial Day 3 healing changes originated in the transition zone with minimal acute and chronic inflammation. As time progressed, granulation tissue began to form by Day 7 and peaked around Day 14. Collagen formation, deposition and remodeling began in the adjacent healthy tissue by Day 28, replaced the ablation site by Day 45 and reorganized by Day 90. In conclusion, this vapor ablation technology provided a non-desiccating form of hyperthermic ablation that resulted in coagulative necrosis without a central thermally/heat-fixed tissue component, followed a classical wound healing pathway, and healed with minimal associated inflammation.

  8. Empowering a healthy practice environment.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Jodi; Ruffin, Tasha

    2015-03-01

    This article provides frontline nurses a tool kit so they can advocate a healthy practice environment. The healthy nurse, healthy work hours, job satisfaction, adequate sleep, power naps at work, and balancing family/work are discussed. The overweight nurse, nurse fatigue, compassion fatigue, shift work sleep disorder, and role strain are discussed as barriers to a healthy practice environment. Case reports with analysis and recommendations are discussed to overcome these barriers. Resources are presented for frontline nurses to develop a tool kit for transforming their environment to a healthy practice environment and to empower them to become healthy nurses.

  9. Comparison of Methylmercury Ecology in Adjacent Coastal Plain Rivers in South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, P. M.; Journey, C. A.; Chapelle, F. H.; Lowery, M. A.; Conrads, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Fish-tissue mercury concentrations (approximately 2 micrograms per gram) in the Edisto River basin of South Carolina are among the highest recorded in the United States. Substantially lower mercury concentrations (approximately 0.2 microgram per gram) are reported in fish from the adjacent Congaree River sub-basin and the Congaree National Park. Concentrations of total mercury were statistically higher in sediments from the Congaree River compared with those in sediments from the Edisto River. No statistically significant differences were observed in concentrations of methylmercury or in the range of net methylation potentials in sediments collected from various Edisto and Congaree hydrologic settings. In both systems, net methylation potentials were an order of magnitude or more lower in stream-channel sediments than in wetland sediments. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that differences in fish-tissue mercury between the Edisto and Congaree basins reflect fundamental differences in the potential for each system to methylate mercury. The marked differences in net methylation potential observed between the wetland and in-stream settings suggested an alternative hypothesis: differences in the efficiency of methylmercury transport from zones of production (wetlands) to points of entry into the food chain (channels) contribute to the observed differences in fish-tissue mercury concen¬trations between the two river systems. An assessment of the flood hydrodynamics of these two rivers is consistent with the alternative hypothesis.

  10. Tissue types (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). ...

  11. Recovery After Stroke: Healthy Eating

    MedlinePlus

    Recovery After Stroke: Healthy Eating Eating well after stroke is key to your recovery. Choosing healthy foods can help you keep up ... get the nutrition you need for your stroke recovery.  Eat your biggest meal early in the day ...

  12. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed ...

  13. Radiation Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    MedlinePlus

    ... the impact on healthy tissue. In some centers, proton beam radiation is an option. This uses streams of protons instead of x-ray beams to treat the ... be a better treatment for soft tissue sarcoma. Proton beam therapy is not widely available. Intraoperative radiation ...

  14. Correlative analyses of isolated upper lumbar disc herniation and adjacent wedge-shaped vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia-Xin; Yang, Si-Dong; Wang, Bao-Lin; Yang, Da-Long; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Shen, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Upper lumbar disc herniation (ULDH) is easy to be misdiagnosed due to its special anatomical and atypical clinical features. Few studies have identified the relationship between ULDH and adjacent wedge-shaped vertebrae (WSV). Hypothesis: WSV may have some indicative relations withULDH. Patients and methods: Between January 2003 and October 2013, 47 patients (27 males and 20 females; mean age, 41.2 years) with single-level ULDH (as study group) and 47 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers (as control group) were studied by radiograph. The two groups were compared with respect to age, sexual proportion, body mass index (BMI), kyphotic angle, and the proportion of WSV. Also, correlative analyses were conducted in the study group to investigate the relation between the kyphotic angle of target vertebrae and other factors including age, BMI, Cobb angle, JOA score and bone mineral density (BMD). Results: The average kyphotic angle in the study group was 11° (4°-22°), while the average kyphotic angle in the control group was 2° (0°-7°). Obviously, the mean kyphotic angle in the study group was statistically larger than that in the control group (t=13.797, P<0.001). The proportion of WSV in the study group was significantly larger than that in the control group (x2=36.380, P<0.0001). The correlations between kyphotic angles and other items (i.e., age, BMI, BMD, Cobb angle and JOA score) in the study group and the control group were low or uncorrelated. Conclusions: WSV are indicatively associated with adjacent ULDH. Thus, ULDH should be alerted when WSV are first found in radiograph and accompanied by clinical symptoms. PMID:25785106

  15. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  16. Promoting healthy sleep.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-03-09

    Nurses are accustomed to helping others with their sleep problems and dealing with issues such as pain that may delay or interrupt sleep. However, they may be less familiar with what constitutes a healthy night's sleep. This article examines what is known about the process and purpose of sleep, and examines the ways in which factors that promote wakefulness and sleep combine to help establish a normal circadian rhythm. Theories relating to the function of sleep are discussed and research is considered that suggests that sleep deficit may lead to metabolic risks, including heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and several types of cancer.

  17. Impact of adjacent land use on coastal wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Jurasinski, Gerald; Peticzka, Robert; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-15

    Coastal wetlands link terrestrial with marine ecosystems and are influenced from both land and sea. Therefore, they are ecotones with strong biogeochemical gradients. We analyzed sediment characteristics including macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Ni) of two coastal wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis at the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain, a lagoon system at the Southern Baltic Sea, to identify the impact of adjacent land use and to distinguish between influences from land or sea. In the wetland directly adjacent to cropland (study site Dabitz) heavy metal concentrations were significantly elevated. Fertilizer application led to heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of the adjacent wetland zones. In contrast, at the other study site (Michaelsdorf), where the hinterland has been used as pasture, heavy metal concentrations were low. While the amount of macronutrients was also influenced by vegetation characteristics (e.g. carbon) or water chemistry (e.g. sulfate), the accumulation of heavy metals is regarded as purely anthropogenic influence. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on the sediment data showed that the wetland fringes of the two study sites are not distinguishable, neither in their macronutrient status nor in their concentrations of heavy metals, whereas the interior zones exhibit large differences in terms of heavy metal concentrations. This suggests that seaside influences are minor compared to influences from land. Altogether, heavy metal concentrations were still below national precautionary and action values. However, if we regard the macronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the wetland fringes as the natural background values, an accumulation of trace elements from agricultural production in the hinterland is apparent. Thus, coastal wetlands bordering croplands may function as effective pollutant buffers today, but the future development has to be monitored closely to avoid

  18. Adjacent segment disease and C-ADR: promises fulfilled?

    PubMed Central

    Riew, K Daniel; Schenk-Kisser, Jeannette M.; Skelly, Andrea C.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Clinical question: Do the rates and timing of adjacent segment disease (ASD) differ between cervical total disc arthroplasty (C-ADR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in patients treated for cervical degenerative disc disease? Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed and bibliographies of key articles was done to identify studies with long-term follow-up for symptomatic and/or radiographic ASD comparing C-ADR with fusion for degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine. The focus was on studies with longer follow-up (48–60 months) of primary US Food and Drug Administration trials of Prestige ST, Prodisc-C, and Bryan devices as available. Trials of other discs with a minimum of 24 months follow-up were considered for inclusion. Studies evaluating lordosis/angle changes at adjacent segments and case series were excluded. Results: From 14 citations identified, four reports from three randomized controlled trials and four nonrandomized studies are summarized. Risk differences between C-ADR and ACF for symptomatic ASD were 1.5%–2.3% and were not significant across RCT reports. Time to development of ASD did not significantly differ between treatments. Rates of radiographic ASD were variable. No meaningful comparison of ASD rates based on disc design was possible. No statistical differences in adjacent segment range of motion were noted between treatment groups. Conclusion: Our analysis reveals that, to date, there is no evidence that arthroplasty decreases ASD compared with ACDF; the promise of arthroplasty decreasing ASD has not been fulfilled. PMID:23236312

  19. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  20. Stereoselective Organocatalytic Synthesis of Oxindoles with Adjacent Tetrasubstituted Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Engl, Oliver D; Fritz, Sven P; Wennemers, Helma

    2015-07-06

    Oxindoles with adjacent tetrasubstituted stereocenters were obtained in high yields and stereoselectivities by organocatalyzed conjugate addition reactions of monothiomalonates (MTMs) to isatin-derived N-Cbz ketimines. The method requires only a low catalyst loading (2 mol %) and proceeds under mild reaction conditions. Both enantiomers are accessible in good yields and excellent stereoselectivities by using either Takemoto's catalyst or a cinchona alkaloid derivative. The synthetic methodology allowed establishment of a straightforward route to derivatives of the gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist AG-041R.

  1. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  2. Astronaut Charles Duke stands at rock adjacent to 'House Rock'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Apollo 16 lunar module pilot, stands at a rock adjacent (south) to the huge 'House Rock' (barely out of view at right edge). Note shadow at extreme right center where the two moon-exploring crewmen of the mission sampled what they referred to as the 'eastwest split of House Rock' or the open space between this rock and 'House Rock'. Duke has a sample bag in his hand, and a lunar surface rake leans against the large boulder.

  3. Empires and percolation: stochastic merging of adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldous, D. J.; Ong, J. R.; Zhou, W.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a stochastic model in which adjacent planar regions A, B merge stochastically at some rate λ(A, B) and observe analogies with the well-studied topics of mean-field coagulation and of bond percolation. Do infinite regions appear in finite time? We give a simple condition on λ for this hegemony property to hold, and another simple condition for it to not hold, but there is a large gap between these conditions, which includes the case λ(A, B) ≡ 1. For this case, a non-rigorous analytic argument and simulations suggest hegemony.

  4. Body composition analysis for healthy Italian vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Siani, V; Mohamed, E I; Maiolo, C; Di Daniele, N; Ratiu, A; Leonardi, A; De Lorenzo, A

    2003-10-01

    The elementary nutritional needs of vegetarians are totally, or in great part, supplied by vegetarian food; thus the body composition of vegetarians could differ from that of omnivorous persons. The objective of the present study was to compare healthy Italian vegetarians to healthy omnivorous individuals in terms of body composition, determined using dual X-ray absorptiometry. The study population consisted of 20 vegetarians [mean age (+/-SD), 34.78+/-15.07 years; mean BMI, 22.41+/-2.15 kg/m(2)] and 10 omnivorous persons matched for age and BMI. We found no significant differences between the two groups in terms of fat mass, lean body mass, soft tissue, bone mineral content, or bone mineral density. These findings suggest that the vegetarian diet does not induce negative alterations in body composition.

  5. Recent progress in tissue optical clearing

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dan; Larin, Kirill V; Luo, Qingming; Tuchin, Valery V

    2013-01-01

    Tissue optical clearing technique provides a prospective solution for the application of advanced optical methods in life sciences. This paper gives a review of recent developments in tissue optical clearing techniques. The physical, molecular and physiological mechanisms of tissue optical clearing are overviewed and discussed. Various methods for enhancing penetration of optical-clearing agents into tissue, such as physical methods, chemical-penetration enhancers and combination of physical and chemical methods are introduced. Combining the tissue optical clearing technique with advanced microscopy image or labeling technique, applications for 3D microstructure of whole tissues such as brain and central nervous system with unprecedented resolution are demonstrated. Moreover, the difference in diffusion and/or clearing ability of selected agents in healthy versus pathological tissues can provide a highly sensitive indicator of the tissue health/pathology condition. Finally, recent advances in optical clearing of soft or hard tissue for in vivo imaging and phototherapy are introduced. PMID:24348874

  6. Recent progress in tissue optical clearing.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Larin, Kirill V; Luo, Qingming; Tuchin, Valery V

    2013-09-01

    Tissue optical clearing technique provides a prospective solution for the application of advanced optical methods in life sciences. This paper gives a review of recent developments in tissue optical clearing techniques. The physical, molecular and physiological mechanisms of tissue optical clearing are overviewed and discussed. Various methods for enhancing penetration of optical-clearing agents into tissue, such as physical methods, chemical-penetration enhancers and combination of physical and chemical methods are introduced. Combining the tissue optical clearing technique with advanced microscopy image or labeling technique, applications for 3D microstructure of whole tissues such as brain and central nervous system with unprecedented resolution are demonstrated. Moreover, the difference in diffusion and/or clearing ability of selected agents in healthy versus pathological tissues can provide a highly sensitive indicator of the tissue health/pathology condition. Finally, recent advances in optical clearing of soft or hard tissue for in vivo imaging and phototherapy are introduced. [Formula: see text].

  7. Thick Prelaminar Tissue Decreases Lamina Cribrosa Visibility

    PubMed Central

    Lucy, Katie A.; Wang, Bo; Schuman, Joel S.; Bilonick, Richard A.; Ling, Yun; Kagemann, Larry; Sigal, Ian A.; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Liu, Jonathan J.; Fujimoto, James G.; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Evaluation of the effect of prelaminar tissue thickness on visualization of the lamina cribrosa (LC) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods The optic nerve head (ONH) region was scanned using OCT. The quality of visible LC microstructure was assessed subjectively using a grading system and objectively by analyzing the signal intensity of each scan's superpixel components. Manual delineations were made separately and in 3-dimensions quantifying prelaminar tissue thickness, analyzable regions of LC microstructure, and regions with a visible anterior LC (ALC) boundary. A linear mixed effect model quantified the association between tissue thickness and LC visualization. Results A total of 17 healthy, 27 glaucoma suspect, and 47 glaucomatous eyes were included. Scans with thicker average prelaminar tissue measurements received worse grading scores (P = 0.007), and superpixels with low signal intensity were associated significantly with regions beneath thick prelaminar tissue (P < 0.05). The average prelaminar tissue thickness in regions of scans where the LC was analyzable (214 μm) was significantly thinner than in regions where the LC was not analyzable (569 μm; P < 0.001). Healthy eyes had significantly thicker average prelaminar tissue measurements than glaucoma or glaucoma suspect eyes (both P < 0.001), and glaucoma suspect eyes had significantly thicker average prelaminar tissue measurements than glaucoma eyes (P = 0.008). Significantly more of the ALC boundary was visible in glaucoma eyes (63% of ONH) than in healthy eyes (41%; P = 0.005). Conclusions Thick prelaminar tissue was associated with impaired visualization of the LC. Healthy subjects generally had thicker prelaminar tissue, which potentially could create a selection bias against healthy eyes when comparing LC structures. PMID:28324116

  8. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  9. Characterization of lipids from human brain tissues by multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tugnoli, V; Tosi, M R; Tinti, A; Trinchero, A; Bottura, G; Fini, G

    2001-01-01

    Multinuclear ((1)H, (13)C, and (31)P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy are applied to the biochemical characterization of the total lipid fraction of healthy and neoplastic human brain tissues. Lipid extracts from normal brains, glioblastomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, oligodendrogliomas, and meningiomas are examined. Moreover, the unknown liquid content of a cyst adjacent to a meningioma is analyzed. Two biopsies from glioblastomas are directly studied by (1)H-NMR without any treatment (ex vivo NMR). The (1)H- and (13)C-NMR analysis allows full characterization of the lipid component of the cerebral tissues. In particular, the presence of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in the extracts of high grade tumors is correlated to the vascular proliferation degree, which is different from normal brain tissue and low grade neoplasms. The (31)P spectra show that phosphatidylcholine is the prominent phospholipid and its relative amount, which is higher in gliomas, is correlated to the low grade of differentiation of tumor cells and an altered membrane turnover. The ex vivo (1)H-NMR data on the glioblastoma samples show the presence of mobile lipids that are correlated to cell necrotic phenomena. Our data allow a direct correlation between biochemical results obtained by NMR and the histopathological factors (vascular and cell proliferations, differentiation, and necrosis) that are prominent in determining brain tumor grading.

  10. Tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As living beings that encounter every kind of traumatic event from paper cut to myocardial infarction, we must possess ways to heal damaged tissues. While some animals are able to regrow complete body parts following injury (such as the earthworm who grows a new head following bisection), humans are sadly incapable of such feats. Our means of recovery following tissue damage consists largely of repair rather than pure regeneration. Thousands of times in our lives, a meticulously scripted but unseen wound healing drama plays, with cells serving as actors, extracellular matrix as the setting and growth factors as the means of communication. This article briefly reviews the cells involved in tissue repair, their signaling and proliferation mechanisms and the function of the extracellular matrix, then presents the actors and script for the three acts of the tissue repair drama. PMID:21220961

  11. Reduced CD300LG mRNA tissue expression, increased intramyocellular lipid content and impaired glucose metabolism in healthy male carriers of Arg82Cys in CD300LG: a novel genometabolic cross-link between CD300LG and common metabolic phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Støy, Julie; Kampmann, Ulla; Mengel, Annette; Magnusson, Nils E; Jessen, Niels; Grarup, Niels; Rungby, Jørgen; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Brandslund, Ivan; Christensen, Cramer; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Møller, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Background CD300LG rs72836561 (c.313C>T, p.Arg82Cys) has in genetic-epidemiological studies been associated with the lipoprotein abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. CD300LG belongs to the CD300-family of membrane-bound molecules which have the ability to recognize and interact with extracellular lipids. We tested whether this specific polymorphism results in abnormal lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and liver and other indices of metabolic dysfunction. Methods 40 healthy men with a mean age of 55 years were characterized metabolically including assessment of insulin sensitivity by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, intrahepatic lipid content (IHLC) and intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL) by MR spectroscopy, and β-cell function by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Changes in insulin signaling and CD300LG mRNA expression were determined by western blotting and quantitative PCR in muscle and adipose tissue. Results Compared with the 20 controls (CC carriers), the 20 CT carriers (polymorphism carriers) had higher IMCL (p=0.045), a reduced fasting forearm glucose uptake (p=0.011), a trend toward lower M-values during the clamp; 6.0 mg/kg/min vs 7.1 (p=0.10), and higher IHLC (p=0.10). CT carriers had lower CD300LG mRNA expression and CD300LG expression in muscle correlated with IMCL (β=−0.35, p=0.046), forearm glucose uptake (β=0.37, p=0.03), and tended to correlate with the M-value (β=0.33, p=0.06), independently of CD300LG genotype. β-cell function was unaffected. Conclusions The CD300LG polymorphism was associated with decreased CD300LG mRNA expression in muscle and adipose tissue, increased IMCL, and abnormalities of glucose metabolism. CD300LG mRNA levels correlated with IMCL and forearm glucose uptake. These findings link a specific CD300LG polymorphism with features of the metabolic syndrome suggesting a role for CD300LG in the regulation of common metabolic traits. Trial registration number NCT01571609. PMID:26336608

  12. Tissue Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, James

    2016-01-01

    Every day, 27,000 trees are used to make bathroom tissue. Americans use an average of 23.6 rolls per person per year, and more than 7 billion rolls of toilet paper are sold yearly in the United States alone. Perhaps the amount of bathroom tissue used can be reduced by changing the dimensions of the paper or the core. This brief article presents…

  13. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  14. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  15. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  16. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  17. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  18. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  19. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  20. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  1. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  2. 38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A MOVABLE TIRE BENDER FOR SHAPING ELI WINDMILL WHEEL RIMS. AT THE CENTER IS A FLOOR-MOUNTED CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER OF THE TYPE USED FOR SMOOTHING ROUGH CASTINGS. ON THE WHEELED WORK STATION IS A SUNNEN BUSHING GRINDER, BEHIND WHICH IS A TRIPOD CHAIN VICE. IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND IS A WOODEN CHEST OF DRAWERS WHICH CONTAINS A 'RAG DRAWER' STILL FILLED WITH CLOTH RAGS PLACED IN THE FACTORY BUILDING AT THE INSISTENCE OF LOUISE (MRS. ARTHUR) KREGEL FOR THE CONVENIENCE AND CLEANLINESS OF WORKERS. IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND IS A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  3. Scolopendromorpha of New Guinea and adjacent islands (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A; Stoev, Pavel E

    2016-08-04

    The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20th century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings. The old and doubtful record of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844 from New Guinea is referred to S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and the species is here excluded from the present day list of New Guinean scolopendromorphs. Cryptops nepalensis Lewis, 1999 is here recorded from New Guinea for the first time. An annotated list and an identification key to the scolopendromorphs of the studied region are presented.

  4. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  5. Reconnaissance geologic map of Kodiak Island and adjacent islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2013-01-01

    Kodiak Island and its adjacent islands, located on the west side of the Gulf of Alaska, contain one of the largest areas of exposure of the flysch and melange of the Chugach terrane of southern Alaska. However, in the past 25 years, only detailed mapping covering small areas in the archipelago has been done. This map and its associated digital files (Wilson and others, 2005) present the best available mapping compiled in an integrated fashion. The map and associated digital files represent part of a systematic effort to release geologic map data for the United States in a uniform manner. The geologic data have been compiled from a wide variety of sources, ranging from state and regional geologic maps to large-scale field mapping. The map data are presented for use at a nominal scale of 1:500,000, although individual datasets (see Wilson and others, 2005) may contain data suitable for use at larger scales.

  6. Adaptation of the dermal collagen structure of human skin and scar tissue in response to stretch: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Pauline D; Schouten, Hennie J; Tigchelaar-Gutter, Wikky; van Marle, Jan; van Noorden, Cornelis J; Middelkoop, Esther; van Zuijlen, Paul P

    2012-01-01

    Surgeons are often faced with large defects that are difficult to close. Stretching adjacent skin can facilitate wound closure. In clinical practice, intraoperative stretching is performed in a cyclical or continuous fashion. However, exact mechanisms of tissue adaptation to stretch remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated collagen and elastin orientation and morphology of stretched and nonstretched healthy skin and scars. Tissue samples were stretched, fixed in stretched-out position, and processed for histology. Objective methods were used to quantify the collagen orientation index (COI), bundle thickness, and bundle spacing. Also sections were analyzed for elastin orientation and quantity. Significantly more parallel aligned collagen bundles were found after cyclical (COI = 0.57) and continuous stretch (COI = 0.57) compared with nonstretched skin (COI = 0.40). Similarly, more parallel aligned elastin was found after stretch. Also, significantly thicker collagen bundles and more bundle spacing were found after stretch. For stretched scars, significantly more parallel aligned collagen was found (COI = 0.61) compared with nonstretched scars (COI = 0.49). In conclusion, both elastin and collagen realign in a parallel fashion in response to stretch. For healthy skin, thicker bundles and more space between the bundles were found. Rapid changes in extension, alignment, and collagen morphology appear to be the underlying mechanisms of adaptation to stretching.

  7. Soil Carbon Storage and Turnover in an Old-Growth Coastal Redwood Forest and Adjacent Prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, K. J.; Torn, M. S.; Mambelli, S.; Dawson, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests store lots of carbon in aboveground tree biomass because redwoods are very long-lived and can grow very large. Redwood is known for its high resistance to decay, a result of high levels of aromatic compounds (tannins) in the tree’s tissues. We tested the hypothesis that because coastal redwoods are highly productive and produce organic matter that is chemically resistant to decay, old-growth redwood forests should store large amounts of stabilized soil carbon. We measured soil C storage to 110 cm depth in an old-growth coastal redwood forest and used physical soil fractionation combined with radiocarbon measurements to determine soil organic matter turnover time. In addition, we measured soil C storage and turnover at an adjacent prairie experiencing the same climate and with soils derived from the same parent material. We found larger soil C stocks to 110 cm at the prairie (350 Mg C ha-1) than the redwood forest (277 Mg C ha-1) even with O-horizons included for the forest. Larger N stocks were also observed at the prairie than the redwood and these differences in stocks were driven by higher C and N concentrations in mineral soils at the prairie. Differences between ecosystems in soil C and N concentrations, C:N ratios, and C and N stocks were observed for the top 50 cm only, suggesting that the influence of the different litter types did not extend to deeper soils. Contrary to what was expected, bulk soil and heavy density-fraction Δ14C values were higher, indicating shorter turnover times, for the redwood forest than the prairie. In summary, we did not observe greater C storage or 14C-based turnover times in old-growth redwood forest compared to adjacent prairie, suggesting chemical recalcitrance of litter inputs does not drive soil C stabilization at these ecosystems.

  8. Optical Characterization of Parathyroid Tissues.

    PubMed

    Brandao, M P; Iwakura, R; Honorato-Sobrinho, A A; Haleplian, K; Ito, A S; de Freitas, L C Conti; Bachmann, L

    2016-07-05

    The parathyroid glands are small and often similar to lymph nodes, fat, and thyroid tissue. These glands are difficult to identify during surgery and a biopsy of the parathyroid for identification can lead to damage of the gland. The use of static and time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and nondestructive method to assist medical evaluation of parathyroid tissues. In this study, we investigated 10 human parathyroid samples by absorbance, fluorescence, excitation, and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Moreover, we compared the results of time-resolved fluorescence measurements with 59 samples of thyroid tissues. The fluorescence lifetimes with emission at 340 nm were 1.09 ± 0.10 and 4.46 ± 0.06 ns for healthy tissue, 1.01 ± 0.25 and 4.39 ± 0.36 ns for benign lesions, and 0.67 ± 0.36 and 3.92 ± 0.72 ns for malignant lesions. The lifetimes for benign and malignant lesions were significantly different, as attested by the analysis of variance with confidence levels higher than 87%. For each class of samples (healthy, benign, and malignant) we perceived statistical differences between the thyroid and parathyroid tissue, independently. After further investigations, fluorescence methods could become a tool to identify normal and pathological parathyroid tissues and distinguish thyroid from parathyroid tissues.

  9. Paucibacterial Microbiome and Resident DNA Virome of the Healthy Conjunctiva

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Thuy; Akileswaran, Lakshmi; Andersen, Dallin; Johnson, Benjamin; Ko, Narae; Shrestha, Angira; Shestopalov, Valery; Lee, Cecilia S.; Lee, Aaron Y.; Van Gelder, Russell N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the ocular surface microbiome of healthy volunteers using a combination of microbial culture and high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques. Methods Conjunctival swab samples from 107 healthy volunteers were analyzed by bacterial culture, 16S rDNA gene deep sequencing (n = 89), and biome representational in silico karyotyping (BRiSK; n = 80). Swab samples of the facial skin (n = 42), buccal mucosa (n = 50), and environmental controls (n = 27) were processed in parallel. 16S rDNA gene quantitative PCR was used to calculate the bacterial load in each site. Bacteria were characterized by site using principal coordinate analysis of metagenomics data. BRiSK data were analyzed for presence of fungi and viruses. Results Corynebacteria, Propionibacteria, and coagulase-negative Staphylococci were the predominant organisms identified by all three techniques. Quantitative 16S PCR demonstrated approximately 0.1 bacterial 16S rDNA/human actin copy on the ocular surface compared with greater than 10 16S rDNA/human actin copy for facial skin or the buccal mucosa. The conjunctival bacterial community structure is distinct compared with the facial skin (R = 0.474, analysis of similarities P = 0.0001), the buccal mucosa (R = 0.893, P = 0.0001), and environmental control samples (R = 0.536, P = 0.0001). 16S metagenomics revealed substantially more bacterial diversity on the ocular surface than other techniques, which appears to be artifactual. BRiSK revealed presence of torque teno virus (TTV) on the healthy ocular surface, which was confirmed by direct PCR to be present in 65% of all conjunctiva samples tested. Conclusions Relative to adjacent skin or other mucosa, healthy ocular surface microbiome is paucibacterial. Its flora are distinct from adjacent skin. Torque teno virus is a frequent constituent of the ocular surface microbiome. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02298881.) PMID:27699405

  10. Healthy Children, Healthy Minds: Creating a Brighter Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebrun, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Children struggle with life today. Being children in the 21st century is both taxing and exciting, and yet trying to cope with all of the technology and media that surrounds them. How do we as adults provide good models? Mindfulness, exercise, focus and attention, and healthy living strategies need to play a role in shaping healthy children.…

  11. Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 200-page activity guide for educators of students in grades six through university level raises the awareness and understanding of water quality issues and their relationship to personal, public and environmental health. "Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" will help educators address science standards through 25…

  12. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

  13. Healthy Weight, Healthy Child | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity Healthy Weight, Healthy Child Past Issues / Spring - Summer ... year. Overall, medical spending on adults attributed to obesity topped about $40 ... weight during childhood costs an estimated $3 billion per year. To ...

  14. Tissue Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, David Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The project began as a e ort to support InLight and Lumidigm. With the sale of the companies to a non-New Mexico entity, the project then focused on supporting a new company Medici Technologies. The Small Business (SB) is attempting to quantify glucose in tissue using a series of short interferometer scans of the nger. Each scan is produced from a novel presentation of the nger to the device. The intent of the project is to identify and, if possible, implement improved methods for classi cation, feature selection, and training to improve the performance of predictive algorithms used for tissue classi cation.

  15. [The healthy life].

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Luz, A; Medeiros, A; Macedo, E

    1997-01-01

    This study is based on a comparison of the habits and opinions of a group of pupils on entering the Damaia Preparatory School (5th and 6th years of education) and of the same group on leaving this School. Its aim is to contribute towards an adequate education for health at school in order to promote healthy living habits. The study was based on the comparison of data obtained from two random samples, chosen from the same group of pupils when entering (n1 = 36 out of a total of 368) and leaving (n2 = 32 out of a total of 164) the above mentioned school. The collection of data was carried out by means of a multiple-choice questionnaire given to a total of 532 pupils. The results demonstrated that the frequencies have changed in the following way: a) bathing has increased; b) tea drinking has decreased; c) the image of the teacher as a smoker has become less frequent; d) the number of pupils who have tried alcoholic beverages has increased; e) mother's smoking habits have increased. The other trends that were found in the study showed that there were no significant changes in either the behaviour or opinions that had been studied.

  16. Ki-67 and PCNA Expression in Canine Mammary Tumors and Adjacent Nonneoplastic Mammary Glands: Prognostic Impact by a Multivariate Survival Analysis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M I; Pires, I; Prada, J; Lobo, L; Queiroga, F L

    2016-11-01

    The assessment of tumor proliferation has been considered a determining prognostic factor in canine mammary tumors (CMTs). However, no studies have assessed the prognostic importance of proliferation in adjacent nonneoplastic mammary glands. We included 64 CMTs (21 benign and 43 malignant) and studied the proliferation index (PI) of Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) together with several clinicopathological characteristics. A positive and statistically significant correlation between the PI of Ki-67 and PCNA in tumors and adjacent nonneoplastic mammary glands was observed in benign and malignant tumors. Tumor size, skin ulceration, histological type, mitotic index, nuclear grade, differentiation grade, histological grade of malignancy, lymph node metastasis, Ki-67, and PCNA expression in tumors and adjacent nonneoplastic mammary glands were statistically associated with overall survival by univariate analysis in malignant cases (n = 43). Histological grade of malignancy and high intratumoral PCNA retained their significance by multivariate analysis arising as independent predictors of overall survival. Interestingly, the PI of Ki-67 and PCNA of adjacent nontumoral mammary glands were associated with clinicopathological features of tumor aggressiveness and shorter overall survival, demonstrating the need to better explore this adjacent non-neoplastic tissue.

  17. Research on the best measurement situation between optical probe and tissue surfaces in non-invasive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xuyao; Liu, Rong; Yu, Hui; Wang, Jiao; Wang, Jun; Xu, Kexin

    2016-11-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy is often used for the non-invasive detection of composition in the human body, such as that of blood glucose and haemoglobin, due to its high penetration depth into tissues. Although it is feasible to position the optical probe precisely, contact situation between probe and human tissues is a difficult problem to determine because of physiological tremor and mechanical performance of bio-soft tissue. Here, we proposed a novel estimation method for the situation between the optical probe and tissue surfaces based on the dynamic auto-correlation matrix of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and radar chart. The diffuse reflectance spectra from the left palm of 4 healthy volunteers were collected while the optical probe gradually approached and pressed bio-tissues with a custom-design controlling device. 2DCOS in the wavelength with lower absorption (1000-1400 nm) was calculated under the perturbation of relative-distance and contact pressure between the optical probe and tissue surface. The synchronous 2DCOS showed that the surface reflection and diffuse reflectance were greatly affected by the contact conditions in 1100 nm, 1220 nm, and 1300 nm. Then the dynamic auto-correlation matrix of 2DCOS was established for the adjacent spectra, and the significant difference wavelengths were used to build radar charts to determine the critical contact situation visually. Results showed that the maximum variations of dynamic auto-correlation matrix appeared at near 1300 nm, and the relative distance between the probe and tissue corresponding to the critical contact state can be easily observed with radar charts with 0.25 mm uncertainty, which was consistent with the self-feeling of each volunteer. So this method can be applied to exactly determine the optimal measurement status for the non-invasive body composition detection in vivo. It is important for the design of human-machine interface and the accuracy improvement of body

  18. Comparative optimism about healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Klusmann, Verena; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated people's perception of their own as compared to their peers' healthy eating and related these perceptions to actual healthy eating, BMI, and subsequent healthy eating behavior. Data were collected within the framework of the longitudinal cohort study Konstanz Life Study (T1: N = 770; T2: N = 510). Our results demonstrated an optimistic bias on the group level. Specifically, people rated their own eating behavior as healthier on average than that of their average peers. This comparative optimism occurred even when actual healthy eating was unfavorable and BMI was high. However, it increased with actual healthy eating behavior. Importantly, optimistic perceptions were positively related to the intention to eat healthily and healthy eating six months later. Hence, the results suggest that an optimistic comparative view of one's own healthy eating is grounded in reality and boosts rather than deters subsequent health behavior. This implies that there might not be a need to reduce optimistic perceptions of healthy eating behavior.

  19. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  20. Healthy School Communities in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; Yessis, Jennifer; Manske, Steve; Gleddie, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Background and context: Healthy school communities aim to optimise student health and educational achievement. Various models, terms and resources have been used to describe healthy school communities. Policy makers and practitioners have reported confusion around many of the key concepts involved because of the varying models and terms.…

  1. Healthy Border 2020 Embassy Launch

    Cancer.gov

    The U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission launched the Healthy Border 2020 at the Mexican Embassy in the United States on June 24, 2015. This new initiative aims to strengthening what was accomplished on the previous plan of action entitled Healthy Border 2010.

  2. Effects of holmium:YAG laser on equine articular cartilage and subchondral bone adjacent to traumatic lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Michael A.; Haugland, L. Mark; Bellamy, Janine; Johnson, Lanny L.; Rohrer, Michael D.; Walls, Robert C.; Bartels, Kenneth E.

    1994-09-01

    The effects of Ho:YAG laser energy on articular cartilage and subchondral bone adjacent to traumatically created cartilage lesions in a continuous weight-bearing model were investigated. The 2.1 micrometers wavelength was delivered in hand-controlled contact and near-contact hard tissue arthroscopic surgery in a saline medium. Bilateral arthroscopy was performed on normal antebrachiocarpal and intercarpal joints of four adult horses. One-hundred twenty traumatic lesions were created on three weight-bearing articular surfaces with a knife, curette, or a motorized burr. Depths of the lesions were partial and full thickness. Configurations of the lesions were lacerations, scrapes, and craters. Left limbs were used as controls. Right limb lesions were treated with various intensities of laser energy. Animals were sacrificed at intervals of 1, 3, and 8 weeks. Gross microscopic anatomy was documented, and tissue sections were subjected to blind review by a pathologist. Mankin grading for cellularity and proteoglycan content was used to qualitatively evaluate cartilage response. Cartilage adjacent to all lesions exposed to laser energy had better cellularity and proteoglycan content than corresponding controls by Mankin grading.

  3. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  4. Varied interactions between proviruses and adjacent host chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, K F; Groudine, M

    1986-01-01

    Retroviruses integrated at unique locations in the host genome can be expressed at different levels. We have analyzed the preintegration sites of three transcriptionally competent avian endogenous proviruses (evs) to determine whether the various levels of provirus expression correlate with their location in active or inactive regions of chromatin. Our results show that in three of four cell types, the chromatin conformation (as defined by relative nuclease sensitivity) of virus preintegration sites correlates with the level of expression of the resident provirus in ev+ cells: two inactive proviruses (ev-1 and ev-2) reside in nuclease-resistant chromatin domains and one active provirus (ev-3) resides in a nuclease-sensitive domain. Nuclear runoff transcription assays reveal that the preintegration sites of the active and inactive viruses are not transcribed. However, in erythrocytes of 15-day-old chicken embryos (15d RBCs), the structure and activity of the ev-3 provirus is independent of the conformation of its preintegration site. In this cell type, the ev-3 preintegration site is organized in a nuclease-resistant conformation, while the ev-3 provirus is in a nuclease-sensitive conformation and is transcribed. In addition, the nuclease sensitivity of host sequences adjacent to ev-3 is altered in ev-3+ 15d RBCs relative to that found in 15d RBCs that lack ev-3. These data suggest that the relationship between preintegration site structure and retrovirus expression is more complex than previously described. Images PMID:3025623

  5. Light scattering by adjacent red blood cells: a mathematical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunoglou, Nikolaos K.; Stamatakos, Georgios; Koutsouris, Dimitrios; Yova-Loukas, Dido M.

    1995-01-01

    Simple approximate scattering theories such as the Rayleigh-Gans theory are not generally applicable to the case of light scattering by red blood cell (RBC) aggregates, including thrombus. This is mainly due to the extremely short distance separating erythrocytes in the aggregates (of the order of 25 nm) as well as to the substantial size of the aggregates. Therefore, in this paper a new mathematical model predicting the electromagnetic field produced by the scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a system of two adjacent RBCs is presented. Each RBC is modeled as a homogeneous dielectric ellipsoid of complex index of refraction surrounded by transparent plasma. The relative position and orientation of the ellipsoids are arbitrary. Scattering is formulated in terms of an integral equation which, however, contains two singular kernels. The singular equation is transformed into a pair of nonsingular integral equations for the Fourier transform of the internal field of each RBC. The latter equations are solved by reducing them by quadrature into a matrix equation. The resulting solutions are used to estimate the scattering amplitude. Convergence aspects concerning the numerical calculation of the matrix elements originating from the interaction between the RBCs are also presented.

  6. Stereotactic radiotherapy using Novalis for craniopharyngioma adjacent to optic pathways.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Chisa; Mori, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Shibamoto, Yuta; Nagai, Aiko; Hayashi, Naoki

    2010-06-01

    Craniopharyngioma has benign histological character. However, because of proximity to optic pathways, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus, it may cause severe and permanent damage to such critical structures and can even be life threatening. Total surgical resection is often difficult. This study aims to evaluate treatment results of Novalis stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for craniopharyngioma adjacent to optic pathways. Ten patients (six men, four women) with craniopharyngioma and median age of 56.5 years (range 10-74 years) were treated by SRT using Novalis from July 2006 through March 2009. Median volume of tumor was 7.9 ml (range 1.1-21 ml). Three-dimensional noncoplanar five- or seven-beam SRT or coplanar five-beam SRT with intensity modulation was performed. Total dose of 30-39 Gy in 10-15 fractions (median 33 Gy) was delivered to the target. Ten patients were followed up for 9-36 months (median 25.5 months). Response rate was 80% (8/10), and control rate was 100%. Improvement of neurological symptoms was observed in five patients. No serious complications due to SRT were found. SRT for craniopharyngioma may be a safe and effective treatment. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine long-term tumor control or late complications.

  7. Congenital stenosis and adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Jason David; Belding, Jon; Schnaser, Erik; Rowan, Andrew; Moffitt, Gable; Weaver, John; Reich, Michael S; Bechtel, Chris; Xie, Ke; Gande, Abhiram; Hohl, Justin; Braly, Brett; Hilibrand, Alan; Kang, James D

    2013-10-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment disease (ASD) after anterior cervical fusion (ACF) is reported in 25% of patients at 10 years postoperatively. Debate continues as to whether this degeneration is due to the natural history of the disk or the changed biomechanics after ACF. This study explored whether congenital stenosis predisposes patients to an increased incidence of ASD after ACF. A retrospective review of 635 patients with myelopathy or radiculopathy was performed; 364 patients had complete records for review. Patients underwent 1- to 5-level ACF (94 one-level, 145 two-level, 79 three-level, 45 four-level, and 1 five-level). Radiographs were evaluated for bony congenital stenosis using validated parameters, and ASD was measured according to Hilibrand's criteria and correlated with symptomatic ASD. Congenital stenosis was found in 21.7% of patients and radiographic ASD in 33.5%, with a significant association between these parameters. However, symptomatic ASD occurred in 11.8% of patients; no association between congenital stenosis and symptomatic ASD or myelopathy and ASD was found. Clinical results demonstrated excellent or good Robinson scores in 86.2% of patients and Odom scores in 87% of patients. Despite mostly excellent to good outcomes, symptomatic ASD is common after ACF. Although congenital stenosis appears to increase the incidence of radiographic ASD, it does not appear to predict symptomatic ASD.

  8. The hydraulics of exchange flow between adjacent confined building zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Saleh; Flynn, Morris

    2012-11-01

    Buoyancy-driven flow between two finite zones containing fluid of slightly different density is investigated. The two zones are connected through a common opening that spans the channel width so that a two layer exchange flow develops once it is removed. In the zone that initially contained dense fluid, a buoyant plume of light fluid mixes with the dense fluid leading, over time, to the development of a nontrivial ambient density stratification. Meanwhile, dense fluid flows as a gravity current into the zone that initially contained light fluid. This gravity current reflects from the end wall and propagates back toward the opening in the form of an internal bore. When the bore reaches the opening, the dynamics of the exchange flow (and consequently the source conditions of the buoyant plume) are substantially altered. Such dynamics are modeled by combining elements of gravity current, internal bore, plume and exchange flow theory; model predictions, such as that the density jump across the first front steadily decreases once the exchange flow becomes transient, are corroborated by salt-bath laboratory experiments. Substantially different predictions arise when either or both of the adjacent zones are assumed to be well-mixed so that no vertical gradient of density is allowed.

  9. The Thermomagnetic Instability in Superconducting Films with Adjacent Metal Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestgården, J. I.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dendritic flux avalanches is a frequently encountered consequence of the thermomagnetic instability in type-II superconducting films. The avalanches, which are potentially harmful for superconductor-based devices, can be suppressed by an adjacent normal metal layer, even when the two layers are not in thermal contact. The suppression of the avalanches in this case is due to so-called magnetic braking, caused by eddy currents generated in the metal layer by propagating magnetic flux. We develop a theory of magnetic braking by analyzing coupled electrodynamics and heat flow in a superconductor-normal metal bilayer. The equations are solved by linearization and by numerical simulation of the avalanche dynamics. We find that in an uncoated superconductor, even a uniform thermomagnetic instability can develop into a dendritic flux avalanche. The mechanism is that a small non-uniformity caused by the electromagnetic non-locality induces a flux-flow hot spot at a random position. The hot spot quickly develops into a finger, which at high speeds penetrates into the superconductor, forming a branching structure. Magnetic braking slows the avalanches, and if the normal metal conductivity is sufficiently high, it can suppress the formation of the dendritic structure. During avalanches, the braking by the normal metal layer prevents the temperature from exceeding the transition temperature of the superconductor. Analytical criteria for the instability threshold are developed using the linear stability analysis. The criteria are found to match quantitatively the instability onsets obtained in simulations.

  10. Snow Distribution Patterns in Clearings and Adjacent Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Douglas L.; Swanson, Robert H.

    1986-12-01

    Snow accumulation patterns were determined for clearings and adjacent forest at Marmot Creek experimental watershed and James River, Alberta. At maximum accumulation snow water equivalent (SWE) was greater in clearings than in forest whether clearings were large, as in 8- to 13-ha blocks where SWE averaged 20% more than in the forest, or small as in the ¼ to 6-H (height) diameter circular clearings where SWE was 13-45% greater than in the forest. SWE was 42 to 52% less in north than in south sectors of 2-6 H clearings. These differences increased with clearing size and time since beginning of accumulation period and are caused by snow ablation (melt and evaporation), a function of direct solar radiation reaching the snowpack. In such situations the snow that has accumulated on the ground cannot be considered a measure of the snow that has actually fallen there. For water balances and hydrologic modeling, snow measurements in partially cleared watersheds must be adjusted for temporal and spatial factors specific to the watershed.

  11. The healthy aged

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Marshall; Pike, Andrea; McCrate, Farah; Parsons, Karen; Parsons, Wanda; Pitcher, Heather; Buehler, Sharon; Gadag, Veeresh; Miller, Robert; Sclater, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe a population of cognitively functioning seniors aged 80 years and older who are living independently in the community. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study based on the enrolment cohort of a randomized controlled trial. Setting St John’s, Nfld. Participants A total of 236 cognitively functioning seniors aged 80 years and older living independently in the community. Main outcome measures Demographic characteristics including age, sex, marital status, and education; health status and quality of life measured by the Short Form–36 and the CASP-19 (control, autonomy, self-realization, and pleasure); use of formal and informal community services; satisfaction with family physician care as measured by the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–18; and use of health care resources (family physician visits, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and laboratory and diagnostic imaging tests). Results Overall, 66.5% of those in the group were women and the average age was 85.5 years. A quarter had postsecondary diplomas or degrees; 54.7% were widowed (69.4% of women and 25.3% of men). The cohort scored well in terms of health status and quality of life, with a range of scores on the Short Form–36 from 57.5 to 93.5 out of 100, and a score of 44 out of 57 on the CASP-19; they were satisfied with the care received from family physicians, with scores between 3.8 and 4.3 out of 5 on the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–18; and use of health services was low—70% had no emergency department visits in the previous year and 80% had not used any laboratory or diagnostic services. Conclusion Seniors aged 80 years and older living independently are involved in the social fabric of society. They are generally well educated, slightly more than half are widowed, and two-thirds are female. They score well on scales that measure well-being and quality of life, and they use few health services. They are the healthy aged. Trial registration

  12. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Caroline B.; Fitzgerald, Anthony; Reese, George; Goldin, Robert; Tekkis, Paris; O'Kelly, P. S.; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma; Gibson, Adam P.; Wallace, Vincent P.

    2011-07-01

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  13. Severe muscle trauma triggers heightened and prolonged local musculoskeletal inflammation and impairs adjacent tibia fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Hurtgen, B.J.; Ward, C.L.; Garg, K.; Pollot, B.E.; Goldman, S.M.; McKinley, T.O.; Wenke, J.C.; Corona, B.T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Complicated fracture healing is often associated with the severity of surrounding muscle tissue trauma. Since inflammation is a primary determinant of musculoskeletal health and regeneration, it is plausible that delayed healing and non-unions are partly caused by compounding local inflammation in response to concomitant muscle trauma. Methods and results: To investigate this possibility, a Lewis rat open fracture model [tibia osteotomy with adjacent tibialis anterior (TA) muscle volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury] was interrogated. We observed that VML injury impaired tibia healing, as indicated by diminished mechanical strength and decreased mineralized bone within the fracture callus, as well as continued presence of cartilage instead of woven bone 28 days post-injury. The VML injured muscle presented innate and adaptive immune responses that were atypical of canonical muscle injury healing. Additionally, the VML injury resulted in a perturbation of the inflammatory phase of fracture healing, as indicated by elevations of CD3+ lymphocytes and CD68+ macrophages in the fracture callus at 3 and 14d post-injury, respectively. Conclusions: These data indicate that heightened and sustained innate and adaptive immune responses to traumatized muscle are associated with impaired fracture healing and may be targeted for the prevention of delayed and non-union following musculoskeletal trauma. PMID:27282456

  14. Seismotectonics of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Aggarwal, Y.P.

    1981-06-10

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2< or =m/sub b/< or =5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970--1979) with historical earthquakes (1534--1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada.

  15. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ∼150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (∼1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  16. Progenitor/Stem Cell Markers in Brain Adjacent to Glioblastoma: GD3 Ganglioside and NG2 Proteoglycan Expression.

    PubMed

    Lama, Gina; Mangiola, Annunziato; Proietti, Gabriella; Colabianchi, Anna; Angelucci, Cristiana; D' Alessio, Alessio; De Bonis, Pasquale; Geloso, Maria Concetta; Lauriola, Libero; Binda, Elena; Biamonte, Filippo; Giuffrida, Maria Grazia; Vescovi, Angelo; Sica, Gigliola

    2016-02-01

    Characterization of tissue surrounding glioblastoma (GBM) is a focus for translational research because tumor recurrence invariably occurs in this area. We investigated the expression of the progenitor/stem cell markers GD3 ganglioside and NG2 proteoglycan in GBM, peritumor tissue (brain adjacent to tumor, BAT) and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) isolated from GBM (GCSCs) and BAT (PCSCs). GD3 and NG2 immunohistochemistry was performed in paired GBM and BAT specimens from 40 patients. Double-immunofluorescence was carried out to characterize NG2-positive cells of vessel walls. GD3 and NG2 expression was investigated in GCSCs and PCSCs whose tumorigenicity was also evaluated in Scid/bg mice. GD3 and NG2 expression was higher in tumor tissue than in BAT. NG2 decreased as the distance from tumor margin increased, regardless of the tumor cell presence, whereas GD3 correlated with neoplastic infiltration. In BAT, NG2 was coexpressed with a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) in pericytes and with nestin in the endothelium. Higher levels of NG2 mRNA and protein were found in GCSCs while GD3 synthase was expressed at similar levels in the 2 CSC populations. PCSCs had lower tumorigenicity than GCSCs. These data suggest the possible involvement of GD3 and NG2 in pre/pro-tumorigenic events occurring in the complex microenvironment of the tissue surrounding GBM.

  17. Circulating leptin and adiponectin concentrations in healthy exceptional longevity.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Garatachea, Nuria; Gálvez, Beatriz G; Lucia, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2017-03-01

    People reaching exceptional longevity free of major age-related diseases represent the paradigm of successful aging. Adipose tissue function declines as we age, potentially resulting in changes of circulating adipokines (e.g., leptin and adiponectin). Here, we measured circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin in healthy centenarians (n=81; 100-104 years) and younger elderly controls (n=46; 70-80 years). Centenarians had significant higher serum levels of leptin compared with controls (p<0.001), whereas no significant differences were observed for adiponectin. Further research including also other blood variables will be needed to elucidate whether high leptin levels could serve as a hallmark of healthy exceptional longevity.

  18. Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resour

  19. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... about your BMI. What Factors Contribute To a Healthy Weight? Many factors can contribute to a person’s weight. These factors include environment, family history and genetics, metabolism (the way your ...

  20. Adjacent tooth trauma in complicated mandibular third molar surgery: Risk degree classification and digital surgical simulation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhou-Xi; Yang, Chi; Ge, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of adjacent tooth resistance is essential in wisdom teeth extraction to prevent adjacent tooth trauma, however it lacks adequate attention nowadays. This study aims at suggesting special extraction methods based on adjacent tooth resistance analysis for prevention of adjacent tooth damage. In this study, 136 complicated mandibular third molars extracted using piezosurgery were reviewed and classified based on the adjacent teeth resistances shown in orthopantomogram (OPG) during their mesio-distal rotations: degree I refers to teeth with no adjacent teeth resistance; degree II refers to teeth with resistance released after mesial-half crown sectioning; degree III refers to teeth which still had resistance after mesial-half crown sectioning. With the use of surgical simulations using cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) reconstruction, all teeth in degree I were designed to rotate mesio-distally; 86.36%(38/44) teeth in degree II were designed to rotate mesio-distally after mesio-half crown sectioning; 69.09%(36/55) teeth in degree III were designed to rotate bucco-lingually. All teeth were extracted successfully, and only one adjacent tooth was subluxated due to the incomplete bone removal. Our study suggested that in order to prevent adjacent teeth trauma, complete bone removal is of importance, and impacted teeth with higher adjacent teeth trauma risks should consider bucco-lingual rotations. PMID:27974819

  1. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon input to urban wetlands in relation to adjacent land use.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, K L; Dickhut, R M

    2006-11-01

    The relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wetland surface sediments and adjacent land use was assessed in the Elizabeth River, VA, an urbanized sub-estuary of the Chesapeake Bay. Significant differences (p<0.05) in surface sediment PAH concentration between sites indicated adjacent land use had a substantial influence on PAH concentration in wetland sediments. Wetlands adjacent to parking lots and petroleum industrial sites exhibited the highest PAH concentrations of all wetlands examined. Overall, commercial land uses had the highest PAH concentrations and automotive sources dominated (52-69%) PAH input to wetland surface sediments irrespective of adjacent land use.

  2. Mangroves as a major source of soil carbon storage in adjacent seagrass meadows

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangcheng; Azkab, Muhammad Husni; Chmura, Gail L.; Chen, Shunyang; Sastrosuwondo, Pramudji; Ma, Zhiyuan; Dharmawan, I. Wayan Eka; Yin, Xijie; Chen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests have the potential to export carbon to adjacent ecosystems but whether mangrove-derived organic carbon (OC) would enhance the soil OC storage in seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves is unclear. In this study we examine the potential for the contribution of mangrove OC to seagrass soils on the coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. We found that seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves had significantly higher soil OC concentrations, soil OC with lower δ 13C, and lower bulk density than those at the non-mangrove adjacent meadows. Soil OC storage to 30 cm depth ranged from 3.21 to 6.82 kg C m−2, and was also significantly higher at the mangrove adjacent meadows than those non-adjacent meadows. δ13C analyses revealed that mangrove OC contributed 34 to 83% to soil OC at the mangrove adjacent meadows. The δ13C value of seagrass plants was also different between the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves and those which were not, with lower values measured at the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves. Moreover, we found significant spatial variation in both soil OC concentration and storage, with values decreasing toward sea, and the contribution of mangrove-derived carbon also reduced with distance from the forest. PMID:28186151

  3. Mangroves as a major source of soil carbon storage in adjacent seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangcheng; Azkab, Muhammad Husni; Chmura, Gail L.; Chen, Shunyang; Sastrosuwondo, Pramudji; Ma, Zhiyuan; Dharmawan, I. Wayan Eka; Yin, Xijie; Chen, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Mangrove forests have the potential to export carbon to adjacent ecosystems but whether mangrove-derived organic carbon (OC) would enhance the soil OC storage in seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves is unclear. In this study we examine the potential for the contribution of mangrove OC to seagrass soils on the coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. We found that seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves had significantly higher soil OC concentrations, soil OC with lower δ 13C, and lower bulk density than those at the non-mangrove adjacent meadows. Soil OC storage to 30 cm depth ranged from 3.21 to 6.82 kg C m‑2, and was also significantly higher at the mangrove adjacent meadows than those non-adjacent meadows. δ13C analyses revealed that mangrove OC contributed 34 to 83% to soil OC at the mangrove adjacent meadows. The δ13C value of seagrass plants was also different between the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves and those which were not, with lower values measured at the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves. Moreover, we found significant spatial variation in both soil OC concentration and storage, with values decreasing toward sea, and the contribution of mangrove-derived carbon also reduced with distance from the forest.

  4. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  5. LIF spectroscopy of stained malignant breast tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Fatemeh; Parvin, Parviz; Motlagh, Najme Sadat Hosseini; Abachi, Shahriar

    2017-01-01

    We employ laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy to discriminate between normal and cancerous human breast (in-vitro) tissues. LIF signals are usually enhanced by the exogenous agents such as Rhodamine 6G (Rd6G) and Coumarin 7 (C7). Although we observe fluorescence emissions in both fluorophores, Rd6G–stained tissues give notable spectral red shift in practice. The latter is a function of dye concentration embedded in tissues. We find that such red shifts have a strong dependence on the dye concentration in bare, in stained healthy, and in malignant breast tissues, signifying variations in tubular abundances. In fact, the heterogeneity of cancerous tissues is more prominent mainly due to their notable tubular densities– which can provide numerous micro-cavities to house more dye molecules. We show that this can be used to discriminate between the healthy and unhealthy specimens in different biological scaffolds of ordered (healthy) and disordered (cancerous) tissues. It is demonstrated that the quenching process of fluorophore’ molecules slows down in the neoplastic tumors according to the micro-partitioning, too. PMID:28270964

  6. Seismotectonics of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jih-Ping; Aggarwal, Yash Pal

    1981-06-01

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2 ≤ mb ≤ 5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970-1979) with historical earthquakes (1534-1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada. Highangle reverse or thrust faulting on N to NE trending planes

  7. Rapid development of tissue bank achieved by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Min; Wang, Jian-Ru; Zhang, Nai-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Mo; Ma, Shao-Ying; Yang, Ting; Li, Bao-Xing

    2014-09-01

    Before 1986, the development of tissue banking in China has been slow and relatively uncoordinated. Under the support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Tissue Banking in China experienced rapid development. In this period, China Institute for Radiation Protection tissue bank mastered systematic and modern tissue banking technique by IAEA training course and gradually developed the first regional tissue bank (Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank, SPTB) to provide tissue allograft. Benefit from training course, SPTB promoted the development of tissue transplantation by ways of training, brochure, advertisement and meeting. Tissue allograft transplantation acquired recognition from clinic and supervision and administration from government. Quality system gradually is developing and perfecting. Tissue allograft transplantation and tissue bank are developing rapidly and healthy.

  8. Nanomaterials for Cardiac Myocyte Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Amezcua, Rodolfo; Shirolkar, Ajay; Fraze, Carolyn; Stout, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Since their synthesizing introduction to the research community, nanomaterials have infiltrated almost every corner of science and engineering. Over the last decade, one such field has begun to look at using nanomaterials for beneficial applications in tissue engineering, specifically, cardiac tissue engineering. During a myocardial infarction, part of the cardiac muscle, or myocardium, is deprived of blood. Therefore, the lack of oxygen destroys cardiomyocytes, leaving dead tissue and possibly resulting in the development of arrhythmia, ventricular remodeling, and eventual heart failure. Scarred cardiac muscle results in heart failure for millions of heart attack survivors worldwide. Modern cardiac tissue engineering research has developed nanomaterial applications to combat heart failure, preserve normal heart tissue, and grow healthy myocardium around the infarcted area. This review will discuss the recent progress of nanomaterials for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications through three main nanomaterial approaches: scaffold designs, patches, and injectable materials. PMID:28335261

  9. Biology of Healthy Aging and Longevity.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Juan José; Michan, Shaday

    2016-01-01

    As human life expectancy is prolonged, age-related diseases are thriving. Aging is a complex multifactorial process of molecular and cellular decline that affects tissue function over time, rendering organisms frail and susceptible to disease and death. Over the last decades, a growing body of scientific literature across different biological models, ranging from yeast, worms, flies, and mice to primates, humans and other long-lived animals, has contributed greatly towards identifying conserved biological mechanisms that ward off structural and functional deterioration within living systems. Collectively, these data offer powerful insights into healthy aging and longevity. For example, molecular integrity of the genome, telomere length, epigenetic landscape stability, and protein homeostasis are all features linked to "youthful" states. These molecular hallmarks underlie cellular functions associated with aging like mitochondrial fitness, nutrient sensing, efficient intercellular communication, stem cell renewal, and regenerative capacity in tissues. At present, calorie restriction remains the most robust strategy for extending health and lifespan in most biological models tested. Thus, pathways that mediate the beneficial effects of calorie restriction by integrating metabolic signals to aging processes have received major attention, such as insulin/insulin growth factor-1, sirtuins, mammalian target of rapamycin, and 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Consequently, small-molecule targets of these pathways have emerged in the impetuous search for calorie restriction mimetics, of which resveratrol, metformin, and rapamycin are the most extensively studied. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie age-related deterioration and repair, and how these pathways interconnect, remains a major challenge for uncovering interventions to slow human aging while extending molecular and physiological youthfulness

  10. Collaborating to support Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities partnerships.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Sarah L; Brennan, Laura K; Bors, Philip A; Bussel, Jamie B; Eng, Eugenia; Leonard, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) (http://www.rwjf.org/en.html) launched Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC) in 2008, with a $33.4 million commitment to help reverse the childhood obesity epidemic by 2015. With grant funding and technical assistance, HKHC supported 50 diverse community partnerships focusing on populations at greatest risk for obesity. Active Living By Design served as the national program office, and St. Louis-based Transtria conducted the evaluation. Collaboration fundamentally shaped HKHC's national program design and strategy, the grantee selection process, technical assistance, the HKHC learning network, and evaluation. This article describes the ways in which the concept of collaboration was defined and practiced among the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Active Living By Design, Transtria, and other national partners, and how it shaped the evolving vision for and expectations from HKHC grantees. Collaboration contributed to HKHC grantees' success, helped build the healthy communities movement, and influenced philanthropic practices.

  11. Correlation between Focal Nodular Low Signal Changes in Hoffa's Fat Pad Adjacent to Anterior Femoral Cartilage and Focal Cartilage Defect Underlying This Region and Its Possible Implication

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wuey Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigates the association between focal nodular mass with low signal in Hoffa's fat pad adjacent to anterior femoral cartilage of the knee (FNMHF) and focal cartilage abnormality in this region. Method. The magnetic resonance fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition sequence (MR FIESTA) sagittal and axial images of the B1 and C1 region (described later) of 148 patients were independently evaluated by two reviewers and categorized into four categories: normal, FNMHF with underlying focal cartilage abnormality, FNMHF with normal cartilage, and cartilage abnormality with no FNMHF. Results. There was a significant association (p = 0.00) between FNMHF and immediate adjacent focal cartilage abnormality with high interobserver agreement. The absence of focal nodular lesions next to the anterior femoral cartilage has a very high negative predictive value for chondral injury (97.8%). Synovial biopsy of focal nodular lesion done during arthroscopy revealed some fibrocollagenous tissue and no inflammatory cells. Conclusion. We postulate that the FNMHF adjacent to the cartilage defects is a form of normal healing response to the cartilage damage. One patient with FHMHF and underlying cartilage abnormality was rescanned six months later. In this patient, the FNMHF disappeared and normal cartilage was observed in the adjacent region which may support this theory. PMID:27213085

  12. A new system for cutting brain tissue preserving vessels: water jet cutting.

    PubMed

    Terzis, A J; Nowak, G; Rentzsch, O; Arnold, H; Diebold, J; Baretton, G

    1989-01-01

    The water jet cutting system allows transaction and dissection of biological structures with little bleeding. Structures of higher tissue rigidity remain unchanged while softer tissues are mechanically dissected. In brain tissue, all vessels larger than 20 microns are left intact after the passage of the jet stream with a pressure of up to 5 bar, and therefore vessels can be isolated selectively from the surrounding tissue. Oedema is present adjacent to the cut and no increase of temperature occurs.

  13. Photochemical tissue bonding

    DOEpatents

    Redmond, Robert W [Brookline, MA; Kochevar, Irene E [Charlestown, MA

    2012-01-10

    Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

  14. Diagnose human colonic tissues by terahertz near-field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Ma, Shihua; Wu, Xiumei; Yang, Wenxing; Zhao, Tian

    2015-03-01

    Based on a terahertz (THz) pipe-based near-field imaging system, we demonstrate the capability of THz imaging to diagnose freshly surgically excised human colonic tissues. Through THz near-field scanning the absorbance of the colonic tissues, the acquired images can clearly distinguish cancerous tissues from healthy tissues fast and automatically without pathological hematoxylin and eosin stain diagnosis. A statistical study on 58 specimens (20 healthy tissues and 38 tissues with tumor) from 31 patients (mean age: 59 years; range: 46 to 79 years) shows that the corresponding diagnostic sensitivity and specificity on colonic tissues are both 100%. Due to its capability to perform quantitative analysis, our study indicates the potential of the THz pipe-based near-field imaging for future automation on human tumor pathological examinations.

  15. Avoiding healthy cells extinction in a cancer model.

    PubMed

    López, Álvaro G; Sabuco, Juan; Seoane, Jesús M; Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Sanjuán, Miguel A F

    2014-05-21

    We consider a dynamical model of cancer growth including three interacting cell populations of tumor cells, healthy host cells and immune effector cells. For certain parameter choice, the dynamical system displays chaotic motion and by decreasing the response of the immune system to the tumor cells, a boundary crisis leading to transient chaotic dynamics is observed. This means that the system behaves chaotically for a finite amount of time until the unavoidable extinction of the healthy and immune cell populations occurs. Our main goal here is to apply a control method to avoid extinction. For that purpose, we apply the partial control method, which aims to control transient chaotic dynamics in the presence of external disturbances. As a result, we have succeeded to avoid the uncontrolled growth of tumor cells and the extinction of healthy tissue. The possibility of using this method compared to the frequently used therapies is discussed.

  16. Novel use of polymerase chain reaction to amplify cellular DNA adjacent to an integrated provirus.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, J; Keerikatte, V

    1989-01-01

    We describe a modification of the polymerase chain reaction technique which allows amplification of cellular DNA adjacent to an integrated provirus given sequence information for the provirus only. The modified technique should be generally useful for studies of insertional mutagenesis and other situations in which one wishes to isolate DNA adjacent to a region of known sequence. Images PMID:2704070

  17. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  18. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  19. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  20. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  1. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  2. 47 CFR 101.1421 - Coordination of adjacent area MVDDS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and architecture of their systems, in order to ensure that no harmful interference occurs between...) Cooperate fully and in good faith to resolve interference and transmission problems that are present on adjacent and co-channel operations in adjacent areas. (b) Harmful interference to public safety...

  3. 47 CFR 101.1421 - Coordination of adjacent area MVDDS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and architecture of their systems, in order to ensure that no harmful interference occurs between...) Cooperate fully and in good faith to resolve interference and transmission problems that are present on adjacent and co-channel operations in adjacent areas. (b) Harmful interference to public safety...

  4. 47 CFR 101.1421 - Coordination of adjacent area MVDDS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and architecture of their systems, in order to ensure that no harmful interference occurs between...) Cooperate fully and in good faith to resolve interference and transmission problems that are present on adjacent and co-channel operations in adjacent areas. (b) Harmful interference to public safety...

  5. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    SciTech Connect

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-05-15

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  6. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  7. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  8. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  9. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  10. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  11. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development.

  12. Tissue Photolithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Tissue lithography will enable physicians and researchers to obtain macromolecules with high purity (greater than 90 percent) from desired cells in conventionally processed, clinical tissues by simply annotating the desired cells on a computer screen. After identifying the desired cells, a suitable lithography mask will be generated to protect the contents of the desired cells while allowing destruction of all undesired cells by irradiation with ultraviolet light. The DNA from the protected cells can be used in a number of downstream applications including DNA sequencing. The purity (i.e., macromolecules isolated form specific cell types) of such specimens will greatly enhance the value and information of downstream applications. In this method, the specific cells are isolated on a microscope slide using photolithography, which will be faster, more specific, and less expensive than current methods. It relies on the fact that many biological molecules such as DNA are photosensitive and can be destroyed by ultraviolet irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to protect the contents of desired cells, yet destroy undesired cells. This approach leverages the technologies of the microelectronics industry, which can make features smaller than 1 micrometer with photolithography. A variety of ways has been created to achieve identification of the desired cell, and also to designate the other cells for destruction. This can be accomplished through chrome masks, direct laser writing, and also active masking using dynamic arrays. Image recognition is envisioned as one method for identifying cell nuclei and cell membranes. The pathologist can identify the cells of interest using a microscopic computerized image of the slide, and appropriate custom software. In one of the approaches described in this work, the software converts the selection into a digital mask that can be fed into a direct laser writer, e.g. the Heidelberg DWL66. Such a machine uses a metalized glass plate (with

  13. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  14. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  15. Seismic analysis of adjacent buildings subjected to double pounding considering soil-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farghaly, Ahmed Abdelraheem

    2017-02-01

    A 2D model of two adjacent buildings with different heights (6 and 12 floors) and foundation levels without separation distance under seismic load and considering SSI is investigated. A special arrangement of contact elements (gap elements) each 1 m of the low height building in the contact zone is taken into consideration to fulfill all possible deformation contact modes which take place under seismic load (earthquake). Soil is modeled by 2D shell elements in contact with foundations of the two adjacent buildings. This paper focuses on the study of double pounding that takes place between the two adjacent buildings in some upper points at superstructure in the contact zone and also at foundation level. The forces of double pounding between the two adjacent buildings, which increase by softening of the soil, give a valuable assessment of straining actions of the two adjacent buildings and change the behavior of soil under the foundations and around basement floor.

  16. Seismic analysis of adjacent buildings subjected to double pounding considering soil-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farghaly, Ahmed Abdelraheem

    2017-03-01

    A 2D model of two adjacent buildings with different heights (6 and 12 floors) and foundation levels without separation distance under seismic load and considering SSI is investigated. A special arrangement of contact elements (gap elements) each 1 m of the low height building in the contact zone is taken into consideration to fulfill all possible deformation contact modes which take place under seismic load (earthquake). Soil is modeled by 2D shell elements in contact with foundations of the two adjacent buildings. This paper focuses on the study of double pounding that takes place between the two adjacent buildings in some upper points at superstructure in the contact zone and also at foundation level. The forces of double pounding between the two adjacent buildings, which increase by softening of the soil, give a valuable assessment of straining actions of the two adjacent buildings and change the behavior of soil under the foundations and around basement floor.

  17. Stokes polarimetry imaging of dog prostate tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihoon; Johnston, William K., III; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States in 2009. Radical prostatectomy (complete removal of the prostate) is the most common treatment for prostate cancer, however, differentiating prostate tissue from adjacent bladder, nerves, and muscle is difficult. Improved visualization could improve oncologic outcomes and decrease damage to adjacent nerves and muscle important for preservation of potency and continence. A novel Stokes polarimetry imaging (SPI) system was developed and evaluated using a dog prostate specimen in order to examine the feasibility of the system to differentiate prostate from bladder. The degree of linear polarization (DOLP) image maps from linearly polarized light illumination at different visible wavelengths (475, 510, and 650 nm) were constructed. The SPI system used the polarization property of the prostate tissue. The DOLP images allowed advanced differentiation by distinguishing glandular tissue of prostate from the muscular-stromal tissue in the bladder. The DOLP image at 650 nm effectively differentiated prostate and bladder by strong DOLP in bladder. SPI system has the potential to improve surgical outcomes in open or robotic-assisted laparoscopic removal of the prostate. Further in vivo testing is warranted.

  18. Tissue damage and oxidant/antioxidant balance.

    PubMed

    Kisaoglu, Abdullah; Borekci, Bunyamin; Yapca, O Erkan; Bilen, Habib; Suleyman, Halis

    2013-02-01

    The oxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy tissues is maintained with a predominance of antioxidants. Various factors that can lead to tissue damage disrupt the oxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants. In this study, disruptions of the oxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants were found to be a consequence of the over-consumption of antioxidants. For this reason, antioxidants are considered to be of importance in the prevention and treatment of various types of tissue damage that are aggravated by stress.

  19. In vivo tissue engineering of musculoskeletal tissues.

    PubMed

    McCullen, Seth D; Chow, Andre G Y; Stevens, Molly M

    2011-10-01

    Tissue engineering of musculoskeletal tissues often involves the in vitro manipulation and culture of progenitor cells, growth factors and biomaterial scaffolds. Though in vitro tissue engineering has greatly increased our understanding of cellular behavior and cell-material interactions, this methodology is often unable to recreate tissue with the hierarchical organization and vascularization found within native tissues. Accordingly, investigators have focused on alternative in vivo tissue engineering strategies, whereby the traditional triad (cells, growth factors, scaffolds) or a combination thereof are directly implanted at the damaged tissue site or within ectopic sites capable of supporting neo-tissue formation. In vivo tissue engineering may offer a preferential route for regeneration of musculoskeletal and other tissues with distinct advantages over in vitro methods based on the specific location of endogenous cultivation, recruitment of autologous cells, and patient-specific regenerated tissues.

  20. Protein extraction from solid tissue.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Christer; Nistér, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Maximal extraction and solubilization of protein from diseased or healthy tissue is important to make the whole protein complement available for proteomic analysis. It also helps to maximize reproducibility and to minimize waste. Minimal degradation of the protein amino acid backbone or dephosphorylation is essential to preserve the analytical utility of the extract. Containment of the sample is important to minimize the risk of contamination to and from the sample. The proposed standard protocol for protein extraction and solubilization can result in 98% solubilization of brain tissue, corresponding to about 100 μg protein per mg tissue wet weight, by a frozen disintegration/SDS-based solubilization method: Tissue is crushed in the frozen state in a cryotube by shaking with a sterile steel ball. The crushing is followed by the extraction and solubilization in 2% SDS for 10 min, at 70°C, in a volume corresponding to ten times the tissue wet weight, with shaking. The containment in a cryotube helps to prevent contamination. The treatment with SDS sample buffer can inhibit protease and phosphatase activity. The resulting protein extracts can be used for SDS PAGE, 2-D PAGE, Western blotting, ESI-MS, and ELISA. The proposed standard protocol has the potential to find wide application where protein extraction, solubilization, identification, and quantitation from cryopreserved clinical samples are desirable.

  1. Evaluating Maori community initiatives to promote healthy eating, healthy action.

    PubMed

    Hamerton, Heather; Mercer, Christine; Riini, Denise; McPherson, Brighid; Morrison, Laurie

    2014-03-01

    Māori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand, experience poorer health than non-Māori across a range of health measures. Interventions focused at an individual level have proved largely ineffective; 'bottom-up' approaches where communities determine their own priorities may be more sustainable than 'top-down' approaches where goals are determined by health authorities. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate an innovative health promotion programme aimed at improving Māori health and to discuss the importance of ownership and control of health initiatives by Māori. Evaluators conducted a comprehensive evaluation of a Healthy Eating Healthy Action programme in six small Māori health agencies, gathering information from programme managers and co-ordinators, participants and wider community members about what changes were occurring at individual, family and community levels. Effective interventions built on cultural values and practices and were delivered by Māori with close connections to the community. Changes in nutrition and physical activity made by participants also benefitted their wider families and community. The changes demonstrated subtle but important shifts in thinking about healthy eating and healthy activity that in the longer term could lead to more measurable change towards improved quality of life for people within communities.

  2. Potential interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality and adjacent land cover in amphibian habitats in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, William A.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Anderson, Chauncey; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Chestnut, Tara E.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality, and adjacent land cover, we collected samples of water, sediment, and frog tissue from 21 sites in 7 States in the United States (US) representing a variety of amphibian habitats. All samples were analyzed for > 90 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and water and frogs were screened for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using molecular methods. Pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected frequently in frog breeding habitats (water and sediment) as well as in frog tissue. Fungicides occurred more frequently in water, sediment, and tissue than was expected based upon their limited use relative to herbicides or insecticides. Pesticide occurrence in water or sediment was not a strong predictor of occurrence in tissue, but pesticide concentrations in tissue were correlated positively to agricultural and urban land, and negatively to forested land in 2-km buffers around the sites. Bd was detected in water at 45% of sites, and on 34% of swabbed frogs. Bd detections in water were not associated with differences in land use around sites, but sites with detections had colder water. Frogs that tested positive for Bd were associated with sites that had higher total fungicide concentrations in water and sediment, but lower insecticide concentrations in sediments relative to frogs that were Bd negative. Bd concentrations on frog swabs were positively correlated to dissolved organic carbon, and total nitrogen and phosphorus, and negatively correlated to pH and water temperature.Data were collected from a range of locations and amphibian habitats and represent some of the first field-collected information aimed at understanding the interactions between pesticides, land use, and amphibian disease. These interactions are of particular interest to conservation efforts as many amphibians live in altered habitats and may depend on wetlands embedded in these landscapes to

  3. A Numerical Investigation of the Electric and Thermal Cell Kill Distributions in Electroporation-Based Therapies in Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Paulo A.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Miklavcic, Damijan

    2014-01-01

    surrounding healthy tissue, critical vascular structures, and/or adjacent organs. PMID:25115970

  4. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  5. Energy Innovations for Healthy Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Bogucz, Edward A.

    2016-09-23

    Healthy buildings provide high indoor environmental quality for occupants while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. This project advanced the development and marketability of envisioned healthy, energy-efficient buildings through studies that evaluated the use of emerging technologies in commercial and residential buildings. The project also provided resources required for homebuilders to participate in DOE’s Builders Challenge, concomitant with the goal to reduce energy consumption in homes by at least 30% as a first step toward achieving envisioned widespread availability of net-zero energy homes by 2030. In addition, the project included outreach and education concerning energy efficiency in buildings.

  6. Characterization of rat c-myc and adjacent regions.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, K; Makino, R; Kawamura, H; Arisawa, A; Yoneda, K

    1987-01-01

    Rat genomic regions covering c-myc were cloned from the DNA of both normal liver and two lines of Morris hepatomas, one of which had c-myc amplification. The three restriction maps showed perfect agreement within the overlapping regions. The 7 kb regions, which included the entire normal rat c-myc and the region 2.2 kb upstream, and one from the hepatomas, were sequenced and found to be identical. The coding regions of exons 2 and 3 were highly conserved between rat, mouse and man, but some differences in amino acids were noted. Exon 1 and the non-coding region of exon 3 showed limited homology between the three species. Rat exon 1 contained several nonsense codons in each frame and no ATG codon, indicating there to be no coding capacity in this exon. The 2.2 kb upstream regions and the introns compared showed unusual conservation between the rat and human genes. Some motifs, previously proposed as having a functional role in human c-myc, were also found in equivalent positions of the rat sequence. Nucleas S1 protection mapping revealed the second promoter to be preferentially used in most tissues or in hepatoma cells, and the second poly A addition signal to be the only one functional in all the RNA sources examined. Images PMID:3306601

  7. Multimodal imaging of cutaneous wound tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiwu; Gnyawali, Surya; Huang, Jiwei; Ren, Wenqi; Gordillo, Gayle; Sen, Chandan K.; Xu, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of wound tissue ischemia, perfusion, and inflammation provides critical information for appropriate detection, staging, and treatment of chronic wounds. However, few methods are available for simultaneous assessment of these tissue parameters in a noninvasive and quantitative fashion. We integrated hyperspectral, laser speckle, and thermographic imaging modalities in a single-experimental setup for multimodal assessment of tissue oxygenation, perfusion, and inflammation characteristics. Algorithms were developed for appropriate coregistration between wound images acquired by different imaging modalities at different times. The multimodal wound imaging system was validated in an occlusion experiment, where oxygenation and perfusion maps of a healthy subject's upper extremity were continuously monitored during a postocclusive reactive hyperemia procedure and compared with standard measurements. The system was also tested in a clinical trial where a wound of three millimeters in diameter was introduced on a healthy subject's lower extremity and the healing process was continuously monitored. Our in vivo experiments demonstrated the clinical feasibility of multimodal cutaneous wound imaging.

  8. Assessment of fish health in Ashumet and Johns Ponds adjacent to the Massachusetts Military Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Adams, S.M.; Hinton, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Ashumet and Johns Ponds are located adjacent to the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) on Cape Cod, and lie in or near the paths of several plumes of groundwater contamination flowing from the MMR. This study had the objective of documenting the present status of fish in both ponds in efforts to establish base-line conditions for any future biological monitoring activities and to determine whether evidence exists for current contaminant impacts. This objective was addressed through three complimentary approaches, including the determination of Health Assessment Index (HAI) scores for fish sampled from Ashumet and Johns Ponds and several reference ponds in the area, measurement of various biochemical and physiological indicators in fish tissues and fluids and histopathological examinations of fish organs. For each of the three primary fish species examined in this study, largemouth bass, brown bullhead catfish, and yellow perch, many similarities were noted in the physiological, biochemical and histopathological condition of fish in all the study ponds. However, mean HAIs tended to be slightly higher (indicative of poorer health) in Ashumet and Johns Ponds, due in part to pathologies related to a higher incidence of parasitic infection at these sites. The most striking differences between the ponds were very high prevalences of oral and body surface papillomas in brown bullhead catfish from Johns Pond (59%) and Ashumet Pond (34%). Although pesticides, PCBs, and other chemical contaminants were present in fish from all of ponds, there was no obvious relationship between chemical body burdens and the responses of any of the measured indicator parameters, nor was there any conclusive evidence of current impacts on fish from the contaminant plumes.

  9. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is related to nuclear grade in ductal carcinoma in situ and is increased in its normal adjacent epithelium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shim, Veronica; Gauthier, Mona L.; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Mantei, Kristin; Chew, Karen L.; Moore, Dan H.; Cha, Imok; Tlsty, Thea D.; Esserman, Laura J.

    2003-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is emerging as an important cancer biomarker and is now an experimental target for solid tumor treatment.However, no study has exclusively focused on COX-2 expression in early lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We examined COX-2 expression by immunohistochemistry in 46 cases of women undergoing surgical resection for DCIS. We found that COX-2 expression was detected in 85% of all DCIS specimens, with increased COX-2 staining correlating with higher nuclear grade. Strikingly, COX-2 staining intensity in the normal adjacent epithelium was stronger than in the DCIS lesion itself. Our observations demonstrate that COX-2 is up-regulated in the normal adjacent epithelium and supports the hypothesis that the surrounding epithelial tissue is part of the disease process in DCIS.

  10. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  11. Healthy Post-Play Snacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kid-Friendly Light King Ranch Chicken Casserole Avocado-Green Tea Popsicle How to Cook Healthier at Home Berry Nuts Granola Bars Ants on a Log by Devin Alexander Share this Article Get tips, tools & hacks you can actually use! Join the movement to be Healthy For Good™ By clicking the ...

  12. Healthy Thinking: A Group Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Janet N.; Carty, Laurie

    1994-01-01

    A "Healthy Thinking" group, based on a modified Aaron Beck Cognitive Therapy model, teaches depressed clients to realistically appraise their experiences by monitoring and changing distorted thinking. Clients learn that situational stress activates long held assumptions (negative beliefs) leading to distorted thinking and ultimately…

  13. Review of Healthy, Happy Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Christine M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Jefferson, Gisele

    2011-01-01

    The number of obese children has nearly tripled in the past 30 years. Research has identified a clear connection between parental income, education, ethnicity, and the risk for obesity. Recent research demonstrates that parenting style may also impact the ability to establish healthy eating environments. This article reviews a program, currently…

  14. Essential Ideas for Healthy Childhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents essential ideas from various people on how to cultivate healthy childhood. Amelia Gambetti says that in terms of young children, the element of complexity offers to them the possibility to have an opportunity to learn how to think and to generate ideas. Diane Levin shares how a three-year-old kid taught her that children do…

  15. Methionine requirements in healthy adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate methionine requirements in healthy adolescents, we conducted an experiment in 28 children age 15.6+2.1 years, wt. 57.8+9.7 kg, using the intravenous indicator amino acid oxidation and balance (IV-IAAOB) technique. Children were randomly assigned to 7 different levels of methionine int...

  16. Program Review: Raising Healthy Eaters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Christine M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Benavente, Janet C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight children and adults has been increasing steadily over the past three decades. Behaviors related to diet and nutrition are often established in early childhood. Toddlers most often develop healthy eating habits through parent modeling. Due to the steady increase in obesity in children, there is a clear need for…

  17. Symbiodinium associations with diseased and healthy scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, A. M. S.; Brandt, M. E.; Smith, T. B.; Thornhill, D. J.; Baker, A. C.

    2009-06-01

    Despite recent advances in identifying the causative agents of disease in corals and understanding the impact of epizootics on reef communities, little is known regarding the interactions among diseases, corals, and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts ( Symbiodinium spp.). Since the genotypes of both corals and their resident Symbiodinium contribute to colony-level phenotypes, such as thermotolerance, symbiont genotypes might also contribute to the resistance or susceptibility of coral colonies to disease. To explore this, Symbiodinium were identified using the internal transcribed spacer-2 region of ribosomal DNA from diseased and healthy tissues within individual coral colonies infected with black band disease (BB), dark spot syndrome (DSS), white plague disease (WP), or yellow blotch disease (YB) in the Florida Keys (USA) and the US Virgin Islands. Most of the diseased colonies sampled contained B1, B5a, or C1 (depending on host species), while apparently healthy colonies of the same coral species frequently hosted these types and/or additional symbiont diversity. No potentially “parasitic” Symbiodinium types, uniquely associated with diseased coral tissue, were detected. Within most individual colonies, the same dominant Symbiodinium type was detected in diseased and visually healthy tissues. These data indicate that specific Symbiodinium types are not correlated with the infected tissues of diseased colonies and that DSS and WP onset do not trigger symbiont shuffling within infected tissues. However, few diseased colonies contained clade D symbionts suggesting a negative correlation between hosting Symbiodinium clade D and disease incidence in scleractinian corals. Understanding the influence of Symbiodinium diversity on colony phenotypes may play a critical role in predicting disease resistance and susceptibility in scleractinian corals.

  18. Factors predisposing to adjacent 2 and 3:1 disjunctions: study of 161 human reciprocal translocations.

    PubMed Central

    Jalbert, P; Sele, B

    1979-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations produce imbalances by three types of disjunction which are, in decreasing frequency, adjacent 1, 3:1, and adjacent 2. Adjacent 1 disjunction produces duplication deficiencies of inverse topography to those of adjacent 2. The imbalanced chromosome segments in one of these types are balanced in the other. The disjunction 3:1 produces pure trisomies and monosomies. The following situations predispose to adjacent 2 disjunction: translocations between the long arms of two acrocentric chromosomes or between one of these and that of a No 9 chromosome; centric segments, either short or carrying a heterochromatic zone (9qh); a balanced translocation in the mother. The factors predisposing to the disjunction adjacent 2 operate by selection, or directly on the meiotic configuration. Some of them (shortness of the interstitial segment, shortness of the short arms of translocation chromosomes) act in both these ways. Their influence is probably responsible for the repetitive and exclusive character of this disjunction. The conditions for the occurrence of the 3:1 disjunctions seem less strict than those for adjacent 2, although they should be of the same nature (involvement of acrocentrics or a chromosome 9 in the translocation, maternal origin). Images PMID:395305

  19. Hemispheric asymmetry and somatotopy of afferent inhibition in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Helmich, R C G; Bäumer, T; Siebner, H R; Bloem, B R; Münchau, A

    2005-11-01

    A conditioning electrical stimulus to a digital nerve can inhibit the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in adjacent hand muscles elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) when given 25-50 ms before the TMS pulse. This is referred to as short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI). We studied inter-hemispheric differences (Experiment 1) and within-limb somatotopy (Experiment 2) of SAI in healthy right-handers. In Experiment 1, conditioning electrical pulses were applied to the right or left index finger (D2) and MEPs were recorded from relaxed first dorsal interosseus (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles ipsilateral to the conditioning stimulus. We found that SAI was more pronounced in right hand muscles. In Experiment 2, electrical stimulation was applied to the right D2 and MEPs were recorded from ipsilateral FDI, extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and biceps brachii (BB) muscles. The amount of SAI did not differ between FDI, EDC and BB muscles. These data demonstrate inter-hemispheric differences in the processing of cutaneous input from the hand, with stronger SAI in the dominant left hemisphere. We also found that SAI occurred not only in hand muscles adjacent to electrical digital stimulation, but also in distant hand and forearm and also proximal arm muscles. This suggests that SAI induced by electrical D2 stimulation is not focal and somatotopically specific, but a more widespread inhibitory phenomenon.

  20. Mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Ragnar; Hetlevik, Siri Opsahl; Lilleby, Vibke; Molberg, Øyvind

    2016-02-01

    The concept of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) as a separate connective tissue disease (CTD) has persisted for more than four decades. High titers of antibodies targeting the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U1 snRNP) in peripheral blood are a sine qua non for the diagnosis of MCTD, in addition to distinct clinical features including Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), "puffy hands," arthritis, myositis, pleuritis, pericarditis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). Recently, population-based epidemiology data from Norway estimated the point prevalence of adult-onset MCTD to be 3.8 per 100,000 and the mean annual incidence to be 2.1 per million per year, supporting the notion that MCTD is the least common CTD. Little is known about the etiology of MCTD, but recent genetic studies have confirmed that MCTD is a strongly HLA (​human leukocyte antigen)-linked disease, as the HLA profiles of MCTD differ distinctly from the corresponding profiles of ethnically matched healthy controls and other CTDs. In the first section of this review, we provide an update on the clinical, immunological, and genetic features of MCTD and discuss the relationship between MCTD and the other CTDs. Then we proceed to discuss the recent advances in therapy and our current understanding of prognosis and prognostic factors, especially those that are associated with the more serious pulmonary and cardiovascular complications of the disease. In the final section, we discuss some of the key, unresolved questions related to anti-RNP-associated diseases and indicate how these questions may be approached in future studies.