Science.gov

Sample records for adjacent land areas

  1. Comparison of some quality properties of soils around land-mined areas and adjacent agricultural fields.

    PubMed

    Ozturkmen, Ali Rıza; Kavdir, Yasemin

    2012-03-01

    When agricultural lands are no longer used for agriculture and allowed to recover its natural vegetation, soil organic carbon can accumulate in the soil. Measurements of soil organic carbon and aggregate stability changes under various forms of land use are needed for the development of sustainable systems. Therefore, comparison of soil samples taken from both agricultural and nearby area close to land-mined fields where no agricultural practices have been done since 1956 can be a good approach to evaluate the effects of tillage and agriculture on soil quality. The objective of this study was to compare tillage, cropping and no tillage effects on some soil-quality parameters. Four different locations along the Turkey-Syria border were selected to determine effects of tillage and cropping on soil quality. Each location was evaluated separately because of different soil type and treatments. Comparisons were made between non-tilled and non-cropped fallow since 1956 and adjacent restricted lands that were tilled about every 2 years but not planted (T) or adjacent lands tilled and planted with wheat and lentil (P). Three samples were taken from the depths of 0-20 and 20-40 cm each site. Soil organic carbon (SOC), pH ,electrical conductivity, water soluble Ca(++), Mg(++), CO₃⁻² and HCO₃⁻, extractable potassium (K(+)) and sodium (Na(+)), soil texture, ammonium (NH₄⁺-N) and nitrate (NO(3)-N), extractable phosphorous and soil aggregate stability were determined. While the SOC contents of continuous tillage without cropping and continuous tillage and cropping were 2.2 and 11.6 g kg(-1), respectively, it was 30 g kg(-1) in non-tilled and non-planted site. Tillage of soil without the input of any plant material resulted in loss of carbon from the soil in all sites. Soil extractable NO(3)-N contents of non-tilled and non-cropped sites were greatest among all treatments. Agricultural practices increased phosphorus and potassium contents in the soil profile. P(2)O(5

  2. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated {sup 137}Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the

  3. Evidence that local land use practices influence regional climate, vegetation, and stream flow patterns in adjacent natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Baron, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    We present evidence that land use practices in the plains of Colorado influence regional climate and vegetation in adjacent natural areas in the Rocky Mountains in predictable ways. Mesoscale climate model simulations using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) projected that modifications to natural vegetation in the plains, primarily due to agriculture and urbanization, could produce lower summer temperatures in the mountains. We corroborate the RAMS simulations with three independent sets of data: (i) climate records from 16 weather stations, which showed significant trends of decreasing July temperatures in recent decades; (ii) the distribution of seedlings of five dominant conifer species in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, which suggested that cooler, wetter conditions occurred over roughly the same time period; and (iii) increased stream flow, normalized for changes in precipitation, during the summer months in four river basins, which also indicates cooler summer temperatures and lower transpiration at landscape scales. Combined, the mesoscale atmospheric/land-surface model, short-term in regional temperatures, forest distribution changes, and hydrology data indicate that the effects of land use practices on regional climate may overshadow larger-scale temperature changes commonly associated with observed increases in CO2 and other greenhouse gases.

  4. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  5. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  6. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  7. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  8. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  9. Vegetation Evaluation and Recommendations: Dredge Material Placement Areas and Adjacent Lands, Kaskaskia River Navigation Project, New Athens to Fayetteville.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-03

    288 pp. Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1972. The illustrated flora of Illinois: Grasses : Bromus to Paspalum . Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale...in less satur- ated areas are Desmodium paniculatum (panicled tick trefoil), Geum canadense (white avens), Paspalum fluitans (swamp bead grass ...tall fescue), Bromus inermis (smooth brome), and Tridens flavus (purple-top) are the most abundant and important grasses in the old fields. Major

  10. Groundwater and surface-water resources in the Bureau of Land Management Moab Master Leasing Plan area and adjacent areas, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, and Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Shope, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Canyon Country District Office is preparing a leasing plan known as the Moab Master Leasing Plan (Moab MLP) for oil, gas, and potash mineral rights in an area encompassing 946,469 acres in southeastern Utah. The BLM has identified water resources as being potentially affected by oil, gas, and potash development and has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare a summary of existing water-resources information for the Moab MLP area. This report includes a summary and synthesis of previous and ongoing investigations conducted in the Moab MLP and adjacent areas in Utah and Colorado from the early 1930s through the late 2000s.Eight principal aquifers and six confining units were identified within the study area. Permeability is a function of both the primary permeability from interstitial pore connectivity and secondary permeability created by karst features or faults and fractures. Vertical hydraulic connection generally is restricted to strongly folded and fractured zones, which are concentrated along steeply dipping monoclines and in narrow regions encompassing igneous and salt intrusive masses. Several studies have identified both an upper and lower aquifer system separated by the Pennsylvanian age Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation evaporite, which is considered a confining unit and is present throughout large parts of the study area.Surface-water resources of the study area are dominated by the Colorado River. Several perennial and ephemeral or intermittent tributaries join the Colorado River as it flows from northeast to southwest across the study area. An annual spring snowmelt and runoff event dominates the hydrology of streams draining mountainous parts of the study area, and most perennial streams in the study area are snowmelt-dominated. A bimodal distribution is observed in hydrographs from some sites with a late-spring snowmelt-runoff peak followed by smaller peaks of shorter duration during the late summer

  11. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  12. Impact of adjacent land use on coastal wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Jurasinski, Gerald; Peticzka, Robert; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-15

    Coastal wetlands link terrestrial with marine ecosystems and are influenced from both land and sea. Therefore, they are ecotones with strong biogeochemical gradients. We analyzed sediment characteristics including macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Ni) of two coastal wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis at the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain, a lagoon system at the Southern Baltic Sea, to identify the impact of adjacent land use and to distinguish between influences from land or sea. In the wetland directly adjacent to cropland (study site Dabitz) heavy metal concentrations were significantly elevated. Fertilizer application led to heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of the adjacent wetland zones. In contrast, at the other study site (Michaelsdorf), where the hinterland has been used as pasture, heavy metal concentrations were low. While the amount of macronutrients was also influenced by vegetation characteristics (e.g. carbon) or water chemistry (e.g. sulfate), the accumulation of heavy metals is regarded as purely anthropogenic influence. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on the sediment data showed that the wetland fringes of the two study sites are not distinguishable, neither in their macronutrient status nor in their concentrations of heavy metals, whereas the interior zones exhibit large differences in terms of heavy metal concentrations. This suggests that seaside influences are minor compared to influences from land. Altogether, heavy metal concentrations were still below national precautionary and action values. However, if we regard the macronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the wetland fringes as the natural background values, an accumulation of trace elements from agricultural production in the hinterland is apparent. Thus, coastal wetlands bordering croplands may function as effective pollutant buffers today, but the future development has to be monitored closely to avoid

  13. Near-Surface Geologic Units Exposed Along Ares Vallis and in Adjacent Areas: A Potential Source of Sediment at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1997-01-01

    A sequence of layers, bright and dark, is exposed on the walls of canyons, impact craters and mesas throughout the Ares Vallis region, Chryse Planitia, and Xanthe Terra, Mars. Four layers can be seen: two pairs of alternating dark and bright albedo. The upper dark layer forms the top surface of many walls and mesas. The upper dark-bright pair was stripped as a unit from many streamlined mesas and from the walls of Ares Valles, leaving a bench at the top of the lower dark layer, approximately 250 m below the highland surface on streamlined islands and on the walls of Ares Vallis itself. Along Ares Vallis, the scarp between the highlands surface and this bench is commonly angular in plan view (not smoothly curving), suggesting that erosion of the upper dark-bright pair of layers controlled by planes of weakness, like fractures or joints. These near-surface layers in the Ares Vallis area have similar thicknesses, colors, and resistances to erosion to layers exposed near the tops of walls in Valles Marineris (Treiman et al.) and may represent the same pedogenic hardpan units. From this correlation, and from analogies with hardpans on Earth, the light-color layers may be cemented by calcite or gypsum. The dark layers are likely cemented by an iron-bearing mineral. Mars Pathfinder instruments should permit recognition and useful analyses of hardpan fragments, provided that clean uncoated surfaces are accessible. Even in hardpan-cemented materials, it should be possible to determine the broad types of lithologies in the Martian highlands. However, detailed geochemical modeling of highland rocks and soils may be compromised by the presence of hardpan cement minerals.

  14. MOUNT HOOD WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area of the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area of the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248 degree F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in these areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  15. Mount Hood Wilderness and adjacent areas, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Oregon, was conducted in 1980. Geochemical data indicate two areas of substantiated mineral-resource potential containing weak epithermal mineralization: an area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain, where vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits occur and an area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain, where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has propylitic alteration associated with mineralization of copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc in discontinuous veins. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F) hot-water systems in the wilderness is probable in three areas. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA), which is considered to have probable geothermal-resource potential, and two parts of the wilderness have been included in geothermal lease areas.

  16. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon input to urban wetlands in relation to adjacent land use.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, K L; Dickhut, R M

    2006-11-01

    The relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wetland surface sediments and adjacent land use was assessed in the Elizabeth River, VA, an urbanized sub-estuary of the Chesapeake Bay. Significant differences (p<0.05) in surface sediment PAH concentration between sites indicated adjacent land use had a substantial influence on PAH concentration in wetland sediments. Wetlands adjacent to parking lots and petroleum industrial sites exhibited the highest PAH concentrations of all wetlands examined. Overall, commercial land uses had the highest PAH concentrations and automotive sources dominated (52-69%) PAH input to wetland surface sediments irrespective of adjacent land use.

  17. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  20. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands

    PubMed Central

    Matalin, Andrey V.; Chikatunov, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided. PMID:27110198

  1. Hydrogeochemical studies of historical mining areas in the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas, northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The study area comprises the Humboldt River Basin and adjacent areas, with emphasis on mining areas relatively close to the Humboldt River. The basin comprises about 16,840 mi2 or 10,800,000 acres. The mineral resources of the Humboldt Basin have been investigated by many scientists over the past 100 years, but only recently has our knowledge of regional geology and mine geology been applied to the understanding and evaluation of mining effects on water and environmental quality. The investigations reported here apply some of the techniques and perspectives developed in the Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative (AMLI) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a program of integrated geological-hydrological-biological-chemical studies underway in the Upper Animas River watershed in Colorado and the Boulder River watershed in, Montana. The goal of my studies of sites and districts is to determine the character of mining-related contamination that is actively or potentially a threat to water quality and to estimate the potential for natural attenuation of that contamination. These geology-based studies and recommendations differ in matters of emphasis and data collection from the biology-based assessments that are the cornerstone of environmental regulations.

  2. Trends in Developed Land Cover Adjacent to Habitat for Threatened Salmon in Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Krista K.; Ford, Michael J.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Fresh, Kurt L.; Pess, George R.; Kennedy, Robert E.; Rowse, Melinda L.; Sheer, Mindi

    2015-01-01

    For widely distributed species at risk, such as Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), habitat monitoring is both essential and challenging. Only recently have widespread monitoring programs been implemented for salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest. Remote sensing data, such as Landsat images, are therefore a useful way to evaluate trends prior to the advent of species-specific habitat monitoring programs. We used annual (1986-2008) land cover maps created from Landsat images via automated algorithms (LandTrendr) to evaluate trends in developed (50-100% impervious) land cover in areas adjacent to five types of habitat utilized by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Puget Sound region of Washington State, U.S.A. For the region as a whole, we found significant increases in developed land cover adjacent to each of the habitat types evaluated (nearshore, estuary, mainstem channel, tributary channel, and floodplain), but the increases were small (<1% total increase from 1986 to 2008). For each habitat type, the increasing trend changed during the time series. In nearshore, mainstem, and floodplain areas, the rate of increase in developed land cover slowed in the latter portion of the time series, while the opposite occurred in estuary and tributary areas. Watersheds that were already highly developed in 1986 tended to have higher rates of development than initially less developed watersheds. Overall, our results suggest that developed land cover in areas adjacent to Puget Sound salmon habitat has increased only slightly since 1986 and that the rate of change has slowed near some key habitat types, although this has occurred within the context of a degraded baseline condition. PMID:25923327

  3. Cultural Resources Inventory of Lands Adjacent to Lake Winnibigoshish,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    to be replaced by a [- Pinus banksiana (jack pine) dominated forest (probably an eastern immigrant) I C (McAndrews, personal communication). This...Winnibigoshish area, Ilying between these two regions, but close to the eastern edge of the oak- savannah penetration, may offer data on the interaction between...is primarily a lakeshore oriented culture, and shows affinities (though very dilute) with the Havanna Hopewellian cultures of Illinois, eastern Iowa

  4. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  5. Seep and stream nitrogen dynamics in two adjacent mixed land use watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many headwater catchments, stream flow originates from surface seeps and springs. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of seeps on nitrogen (N) dynamics within the stream and at the outlet of two adjacent mixed land use watersheds. Nitrogen concentrations in stream water wer...

  6. Seep and stream nitrogen dynamics in two adjacent mixed land use watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many headwater catchments, streamflow originates from surface seeps and springs. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of seeps on nitrogen (N) dynamics within the stream and at the outlet of two adjacent mixed land use watersheds. Nitrogen concentrations in stream water were...

  7. Water resources of the Waccasassa River Basin and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, G.F.; Snell, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This map report was prepared in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District which, with the Waccasassa River Basin Board, had jurisdiction over waters within the Waccasassa River basin, the coastal areas adjacent to the basin, and other adjacent areas outside the basin. New water management district boundaries, effective January 1977, place most of the Waccasassa River basin in the Suwannee River Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide water information for consideration in land-use and water development which is accelerating, especially in the northeastern part of the study area. It is based largely on existing data in the relatively undeveloped area. Of the total area included in the topographic drainage basin for the Waccasassa River about 72 percent is in Levy County, 18 percent in Alachua County, 9 percent in Gilchrist County, and 1 percent in Marion County. The elongated north-south drainage basin is approximately 50 mi in length, averages 13 mi in width, and lies between the Suwannee River, the St. Johns River, and the Withlacoochee River basins. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  9. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  10. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  11. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  12. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  13. Regional Jurassic geologic framework of Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent Federal waters area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    To date, numerous Jurassic hydrocarbon fields and pools have been discovered in the Cotton Valley Group, Haynesville Formation, Smackover Formation and Norphlet Formation in the tri-state area of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida, and in Alabama State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters area. Petroleum traps are basement highs, salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines and extensional faults associated with salt movement. Reservoirs include continental and marine sandstones, limestones and dolostones. Hydrocarbon types are oil, condensate and natural gas. The onshore stratigraphic and structural information can be used to establish a regional geologic framework for the Jurassic for the State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters areas. Evaluation of the geologic information along with the hydrocarbon data from the tri-state area indicates that at least three Jurassic hydrocarbon trends (oil, oil and gas condensate, and deep natural gas) can be identified onshore. These onshore hydrocarbon trends can be projected into the Mobile area in the Central Gulf of Mexico and into the Pensacola, Destin Dome and Apalachicola areas in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial reserves of natural gas are expected to be present in Alabama State waters and the northern portion of the Mobile area. Significant accumulations of oil and gas condensate may be encountered in the Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola areas. ?? 1989.

  14. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  15. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  16. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  17. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  18. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  19. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  20. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  1. Landsat-faciliated vegetation classification of the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Shasby, M.B.; Bailey, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    A Landsat-based vegetation map was prepared for Kenai National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent lands, 2 million and 2.5 million acres respectively. The refuge lies within the middle boreal sub zone of south central Alaska. Seven major classes and sixteen subclasses were recognized: forest (closed needleleaf, needleleaf woodland, mixed); deciduous scrub (lowland and montane, subalpine); dwarf scrub (dwarf shrub tundra, lichen tundra, dwarf shrub and lichen tundra, dwarf shrub peatland, string bog/wetlands); herbaceous (graminoid meadows and marshes); scarcely vegetated areas ; water (clear, moderately turbid, highly turbid); and glaciers. The methodology employed a cluster-block technique. Sample areas were described based on a combination of helicopter-ground survey, aerial photo interpretation, and digital Landsat data. Major steps in the Landsat analysis involved: preprocessing (geometric connection), spectral class labeling of sample areas, derivation of statistical parameters for spectral classes, preliminary classification of the entree study area using a maximum-likelihood algorithm, and final classification through ancillary information such as digital elevation data. The vegetation map (scale 1:250,000) was a pioneering effort since there were no intermediate-sclae maps of the area. Representative of distinctive regional patterns, the map was suitable for use in comprehensive conservation planning and wildlife management.

  2. Chill-Bar Assembly For Cooling Areas Adjacent To Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David S.; Mcferrin, David C.; Coby, J. Ben, Jr.; Gangl, Kenneth J.; Dawson, Sidney G.

    1996-01-01

    Assembly of custom-shaped water-cooled chill bars developed for use during repair process in which cracks and pinholes in rocket-engine combustion chamber welded closed. Held in required relative geometric relationships by rigid framework, chill bars pressed against surface of chamber to conduct heat away from areas surrounding welds, preventing damage caused by overheating of areas not meant to be welded. Design features beneficial in other welding applications; for example, manufacture and repair of pressure vessels, chemical-processing vessels, and complexly shaped laboratory vacuum vessels.

  3. 47 CFR 101.1421 - Coordination of adjacent area MVDDS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and architecture of their systems, in order to ensure that no harmful interference occurs between...) Cooperate fully and in good faith to resolve interference and transmission problems that are present on adjacent and co-channel operations in adjacent areas. (b) Harmful interference to public safety...

  4. 47 CFR 101.1421 - Coordination of adjacent area MVDDS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and architecture of their systems, in order to ensure that no harmful interference occurs between...) Cooperate fully and in good faith to resolve interference and transmission problems that are present on adjacent and co-channel operations in adjacent areas. (b) Harmful interference to public safety...

  5. 47 CFR 101.1421 - Coordination of adjacent area MVDDS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and architecture of their systems, in order to ensure that no harmful interference occurs between...) Cooperate fully and in good faith to resolve interference and transmission problems that are present on adjacent and co-channel operations in adjacent areas. (b) Harmful interference to public safety...

  6. Water resources of Okaloosa County and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trapp, Henry; Pascale, C.A.; Foster, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Okaloosa County, in the northwest Florida panhandle, uses the Floridan aquifer for water supply, although it also has abundant surface water and ground water in the surficial sand-and-gravel aquifer. Water levels have declined locally more than 90 feet in the upper limestone of the Floridan aquifer. The Floridan aquifer is overlain by the Pensacola clay confining bed, and the Bucatunna Clay subdivides it into two limestone units. Water in the upper limestone is generally of good quality. The lower limestone probably contains saline water. Average daily stream discharge is about 2,500 million gallons. Stream discharge does not diminish excessively during droughts, owing to high base runoff. Water levels in the Floridan aquifer will decline as long as pumping increases in the present areas of withdrawal. The decline could be alleviated by redistribution of pumping, artificial recharge, and the use of the sand-and-gravel aquifer or streams. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Regional tectonics of Myanmar (Burma) and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.R.; Russell, O.R.; Staskowski, R.J.; Loyd, S.P.; Tabbutt, V.M. ); Dolan, Stein, A. )

    1990-05-01

    Analysis of 38 contiguous Landsat Multispectral Scanner scenes acquired over Myanmar (Burma) reveals numerous large-scale features associated with margins of the Burman plate, previously unidentified northeast-southwest-trending discontinuities, important extensions of previously mapped fault trends, and numerous structural features that appear favorable for petroleum exploration. A mosaic of these scenes at 1:1,000,000 scale shows a large number of tectonic elements and their spatial relationships. Within the area of investigation are portions of the Indian, Burman, Lhasa, and Shan-Thai plates, and perhaps other, smaller plates. The Himalayan front and Indo-Burman Ranges manifest effects of current and recently past plate movement. The complexity of the kinematic history accounts for the diversity of structural features in the area. The last major event in this long and violent saga, which began in middle Miocene (approximately 11 Ma) time and continues to the present, is the recent change from a collisional to a right-lateral strike-slip transform margin between the Indian and Burman plates. The complexity of the structures visible is the product of multiple plate collisions, rotation of the Indian plate and parts of the Asian plate, and long-continued convergence that changed velocity and direction tbrough time. The most obvious evidence of this complexity, which is immediately apparent on geologic maps or the Landsat mosaic of the region, is the almost right-angle relationship of the folds of the Indo-Burman Ranges and the frontal thrusts and suture zones of the Himalaya. These two sets of compressive features imply maximum compressive stress axes that lie at right angles to each other. The implications are either that the orientation of the stress field changes rapidly over a short distance or that the stress field has changed through time. Both occurrences seem to be true.

  8. Assessing Landslide Risk Areas Using Statistical Models and Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. G.; Lee, D. K.; Park, C.; Ahn, Y.; Sung, S.; Park, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, damages due to landslides have increased in Republic of Korea. Extreme weathers like typhoon, heavy rainfall related to climate change are the main factor of the damages. Especially, Inje-gun, Gangwon-do had severe landslide damages in 2006 and 2007. In Inje-gun, 91% areas are forest, therefore, many land covers related to human activities were adjacent to forest land. Thus, establishment of adaptation plans to landslides was urgently needed. Landslide risk assessment can serve as a good information to policy makers. The objective of this study was assessing landslide risk areas to support establishment of adaptation plans to reduce landslide damages. Statistical distribution models (SDMs) were used to evaluate probability of landslide occurrence. Various SDMs were used to make landslide probability maps considering uncertainty of SDMs. The types of land cover were classified into 5 grades considering vulnerable level to landslide. The landslide probability maps were overlaid with land cover map to calculate landslide risk. As a result of overlay analysis, landslide risk areas were derived. Especially agricultural areas and transportation areas showed high risk and large areas in the risk map. In conclusion, policy makers in Inje-gun must consider the landslide risk map to establish adaptation plans effectively.

  9. Statistical summaries of streamflow in Montana and adjacent areas, water years 1900 through 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    In response to the need to have more current information about streamflow characteristics in Montana, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, and Bureau of Land Management, conducted a study to analyze streamflow data. Updated statistical summaries of streamflow characteristics are presented for 286 streamflow-gaging sites in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record for water years 1900 through 2002. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high flow, the magnitude and probability of low flow for three seasons (March-June, July-October, and November-February), flow duration of the daily mean discharge, and the monthly and annual mean discharges. For streamflow-gaging stations where 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin is affected by dams or other large-scale human modification, streamflow is considered regulated. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for sites with sufficient data.

  10. Hydrogeology of the Coconino Plateau and adjacent areas, Coconino and Yavapai Counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Donald J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Monroe, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Two large, regional ground-water flow systems occur in the Coconino Plateau and adjacent areas: the C aquifer and the Redwall-Muav aquifer. The C aquifer occurs mainly in the eastern and southern parts of the 10,300-square-mile Coconino Plateau study area, and the Redwall-Muav aquifer underlies the entire study area. The C aquifer is a water-table aquifer for most of its occurrence with depths to water that range from a few hundred feet to more than 1,500 feet. In the western part of the Coconino Plateau study area, the C aquifer is dry except for small localized perched water-bearing zones decoupled from the C aquifer to the east. The Redwall-Muav aquifer underlies the C aquifer and ranges from at least 3,000 feet below land surface in the western part of the Coconino Plateau study area to more than 3,200 feet below land surface in the eastern part of the study area. The Redwall-Muav aquifer is a confined aquifer for most of its occurrence with hydraulic heads of several hundred to more than 500 feet above the top of the aquifer in the western part of the study area and more than 2,000 feet above the top of the aquifer in the eastern part of the study area near Flagstaff. In the eastern and northeast parts of the area, the C aquifer and the Redwall-Muav aquifer are in partial hydraulic connection through faults and other fractures. The water discharging from the two aquifers on the Coconino Plateau study area is generally of good quality for most intended uses. Water from sites in the lower Little Colorado River Canyon had high concentrations of most trace elements relative to other springs, rivers, and streams in the study area. Concentrations of barium, arsenic, uranium, and lead, and gross alpha radioactivity were greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels for drinking water at some sites. Ground water discharging to most springs, streams, and wells on the Coconino Plateau and in adjacent areas is a calcium magnesium

  11. Volcanic hazards of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.

    1994-12-01

    Potential volcanic hazards are assessed, and hazard zone maps are developed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent areas. The basis of the hazards assessment and mapping is the past volcanic history of the INEL region, and the apparent similarity of INEL volcanism with equivalent, well-studied phenomena in other regions of active volcanism, particularly Hawaii and Iceland. The most significant hazards to INEL facilities are associated with basaltic volcanism, chiefly lava flows, which move slowly and mainly threaten property by inundation or burning. Related hazards are volcanic gases and tephra, and ground disturbance associated with the ascent of magma under the volcanic zones. Several volcanic zones are identified in the INEL area. These zones contain most of the volcanic vents and fissures of the region and are inferred to be the most probable sites of future INEL volcanism. Volcanic-recurrence estimates are given for each of the volcanic zones based on geochronology of the lavas, together with the results of field and petrographic investigations concerning the cogenetic relationships of INEL volcanic deposits and associated magma intrusion. Annual probabilities of basaltic volcanism within the INEL volcanic zones range from 6.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per year (average 16,000-year interval between eruptions) for the axial volcanic zone near the southern INEL boundary and the Arco volcanic-rift zone near the western INEL boundary, to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per year (average 100,000-year interval between eruptions) for the Howe-East Butte volcanic rift zone, a geologically old and poorly defined feature of the central portion of INEL. Three volcanic hazard zone maps are developed for the INEL area: lava flow hazard zones, a tephra (volcanic ash) and gas hazard zone, and a ground-deformation hazard zone. The maps are useful in land-use planning, site selection, and safety analysis.

  12. Summary geochemical maps, Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area, Mono and Tuolumne counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Hill, R.H.; Sutley, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Hoover Wilderness and the adjacent Hoover Extension (East), Hoover Extension (West), and Cherry Creek A Roadless Areas (the adjacent study area) encompass approximately 153,900 acres (241 mi2; 623 km2) in the Inyo, Stanislaus, and Toiyabe Naitonal Forests, Mono and Tuolumne Counties, Calif. These two areas lie along and mostly east of the crest of the Sierra Nevada, along the north and east sides of Yosemite National Park. Elevations vary from a high of 12,446 ft (3,793 m) on the crest of the Sierra Nevada to a low of about 6,500 ft (1,981 m) near the Bridgeport Ranger Station. Access to the Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area is by U.S. Highway 395, California State Highways 108 (Sonora Pass) and 120 (Tioga Pass), and by other paved and graded roads that lead off of these U.S. and State highways.

  13. 33 CFR 334.880 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Commander, Naval Base, San Diego, Calif. (3) The regulations in this section shall be enforced by the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval....880 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma. (a) The area. That...

  14. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Carpena, R.; Ritter, A.; Li, Y. C.

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO 3-, N-NH 4+, P-PO 43-, Total P, F -and Cl -) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH 4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F -and Cl - are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying

  15. Impacts of adjacent land use and isolation on marsh bird communities.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lyndsay A; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    Over the next half century the human population is expected to grow rapidly, resulting in the conversion of rural areas into cities. Wetlands in these regions are therefore under threat, even though they have important ecosystem services and functions. Many obligate marsh-nesting birds in North America have shown declines over the past 40 years, and it is important to evaluate marsh bird community response to increased urbanization. We surveyed 20 coastal marshes in southern Ontario, Canada, and found that obligate marsh-nesting birds preferred rural over urban wetlands, generalist marsh-nesting birds showed no preference, while synanthropic species showed a trend towards increased richness and abundance in urban marshes. The Index of Marsh Bird Community Integrity (IMBCI) was calculated for each wetland and we found significantly higher scores in rural compared to urban wetlands. The presence of a forested buffer surrounding the marsh was not an important factor in predicting the distribution of generalists, obligates, synanthropic species, or the IMBCI. More isolated marshes had a lower species richness of obligate marsh-nesters and a lower IMBCI than less isolated marshes. Based on our results, we recommend that urban land use is not the dominant land use within 1000 m from any wetland, as it negatively affects the abundance and richness of obligate marsh-nesters, and the overall integrity of the avian community. We also recommend that all existing wetlands be conserved to mitigate against isolation effects and to preserve biodiversity.

  16. Impacts of Adjacent Land Use and Isolation on Marsh Bird Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Lyndsay A.; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    Over the next half century the human population is expected to grow rapidly, resulting in the conversion of rural areas into cities. Wetlands in these regions are therefore under threat, even though they have important ecosystem services and functions. Many obligate marsh-nesting birds in North America have shown declines over the past 40 years, and it is important to evaluate marsh bird community response to increased urbanization. We surveyed 20 coastal marshes in southern Ontario, Canada, and found that obligate marsh-nesting birds preferred rural over urban wetlands, generalist marsh-nesting birds showed no preference, while synanthropic species showed a trend towards increased richness and abundance in urban marshes. The Index of Marsh Bird Community Integrity (IMBCI) was calculated for each wetland and we found significantly higher scores in rural compared to urban wetlands. The presence of a forested buffer surrounding the marsh was not an important factor in predicting the distribution of generalists, obligates, synanthropic species, or the IMBCI. More isolated marshes had a lower species richness of obligate marsh-nesters and a lower IMBCI than less isolated marshes. Based on our results, we recommend that urban land use is not the dominant land use within 1000 m from any wetland, as it negatively affects the abundance and richness of obligate marsh-nesters, and the overall integrity of the avian community. We also recommend that all existing wetlands be conserved to mitigate against isolation effects and to preserve biodiversity.

  17. Some features of soil organic matter in parks and adjacent residential areas of Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokof'eva, T. V.; Rozanova, M. S.; Poputnikov, V. O.

    2013-03-01

    The humus-accumulative horizons of soils from two natural-historical parks of Moscow and the adjacent residential areas were studied. An increase in the concentration of organic matter was observed in the soils of the residential areas. A tendency toward the formation of fulvate humus typical for southern taiga soils persisted in the low-carbonate nongleyed humus-accumulative horizons. At the same time, the transformation rate, character, and content of organic matter in the urban soils were strongly affected by the contamination, calcareous invasion, and remediation of the soils and sediments.

  18. Assessment of water resources in lead-zinc mined areas in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, Timothy B.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate water-resources problems related to abandoned lead and zinc mines in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas in Missouri and Oklahoma. Past mining activities have caused changes in the hydrogeology of the area. Lead and zinc mining has caused discontinuities and perforations in the confining shale west of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the western area), which have created artificial ground-water recharge and discharge areas. Recharge to the shallow aquifer (rocks of Mississippian age) through collapses, shafts, and drill holes in the shale has caused the formation of a ground-water 'mound' in the vicinity of the Picher Field in Kansas and Oklahoma. Discharge of mine-contaminated ground water to Tar Creek occurs in Oklahoma from drill holes and shafts where the potentiometric surface of the shallow aquifer is above the land surface. Mining of ore in the shallow aquifer has resulted in extensive fracturing and removal of material, which has created highly transmissive zones and voids and increased ground-water storage properties of the aquifer. In the area east of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact (referred to as the eastern area), fractured rock and tailings on the land surface increased the amount of water available for infiltration to the shallow aquifer; in the western area, tailings on the impermeable shale created artificial, perched aquifer systems that slowly drain to surface streams. Pumping of the deep aquifer (rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age) by towns and industries, which developed as a result of the mining industry, has resulted in a potential for downward movement of water from the shallow aquifer. The potential is greatest in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Because of the large volume of water that may be transported from the shallow to the deep aquifer, open drill holes or casings present the greatest contamination hazard to water supplies in the deep aquifer. Mining

  19. Survey of roadside alien plants in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and adjacent residential areas 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bio, Keali'i F.; Pratt, Linda W.; Jacobi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    The sides of all paved roads of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) were surveyed on foot in 2001 to 2005, and the roadside presence of 240 target invasive and potentially invasive alien plant species was recorded in mile-long increments. Buffer zones 5–10 miles (8–16 km) long along Highway 11 on either side of the Kīlauea and Kahuku Units of the park, as well as Wright Road that passed by the disjunct `Ōla`a Tract Unit, were included in the survey. Highway 11 is the primary road through the park and a major island thoroughfare. Three residential subdivisions adjacent to the park were similarly surveyed in 0.5–1 mile (0.8–1.6 km) intervals in 2003, and data were analyzed separately. Two roads to the east and northeast were also surveyed, but data from these disjunct areas were analyzed separately from park roads. In total, 174 of the target alien species were observed along HAVO roads and buffers, exclusive of residential areas, and the mean number of target aliens per mile surveyed was 20.6. Highway 11 and its buffer zones had the highest mean number of target alien plants per mile (26.7) of all park roads, and the Mauna Loa Strip Road had the lowest mean (11.7). Segments of Highway 11 adjacent to HAVO and Wright Road next to `Ōla`a Tract had mean numbers of target alien per mile (24–47) higher than those of any internal road. Alien plant frequencies were summarized for each road in HAVO. Fifteen new records of vascular plants for HAVO were observed and collected along park roads. An additional 28 alien plant species not known from HAVO were observed along the buffer segments of Highway 11 adjacent to the park. Within the adjacent residential subdivisions, 65 target alien plant species were sighted along roadsides. At least 15 potentially invasive species not currently found within HAVO were observed along residential roads, and several other species found there have been previously eliminated from the park or controlled to remnant populations

  20. Summary of ground-water data, Post Headquarters and adjacent areas, White Sands Missile Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, T.E.

    1973-01-01

    Geohydrologic data have been obtained from more than 100 wells and test holes that have been drilled in the Post Headquarters and adjacent areas of White Sands Missile Range. Observation-well data show that, in general, a continuous decline of the water table has occurred in the vicinity of the well field since production began in 1949. Approximately 40,000 acre-feet of water has been produced from the aquifer to date (1972). A series of maps are presented which show the changes that have occurred in the well field as the result of development.

  1. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  2. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  3. Investigation on Reflection of Tectonic Pattern in ASG EUPOS Data in the Sudetes and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczerbowski, Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    The GNSS data evaluated from on observation of ASG EUPOS stations in the Sudety Mts. and in adjacent areas is analyzed by the author in the scope of disturbances in daily solutions that can be induced by tectonics stress. The daily position changes derived from GNSS data demonstrate the long or short term trends, which are affected by offsets of different nature. Author presents an analysis based on frequency of parameter - displacement vector azimuth. The aim of the analysis is to show statistical significance of observed small values of temporal displacements, which values are not normally distributed. There are "outliers" of the normal distribution of displacement azimuths, which values show a certain reproducibility, which corresponds to orientations of tectonic lines. That suggests small, short time movements along boundaries of horsts and grabens - a crustal-extension structure of the area. However derived results (values of displacements) are less than a limitation error, temporal distributions of coordinates are not random as usually data errors. So in author's opinion the spatial-temporal evolution of horizontal displacements of ASG EUPOS stations in the Sudety Mts. and in adjacent areas are determined by expressions of underlying geological structures.

  4. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in neighborhoods adjacent to a commercial airport: a land use regression modeling study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is growing concern in communities surrounding airports regarding the contribution of various emission sources (such as aircraft and ground support equipment) to nearby ambient concentrations. We used extensive monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in neighborhoods surrounding T.F. Green Airport in Warwick, RI, and land-use regression (LUR) modeling techniques to determine the impact of proximity to the airport and local traffic on these concentrations. Methods Palmes diffusion tube samplers were deployed along the airport's fence line and within surrounding neighborhoods for one to two weeks. In total, 644 measurements were collected over three sampling campaigns (October 2007, March 2008 and June 2008) and each sampling location was geocoded. GIS-based variables were created as proxies for local traffic and airport activity. A forward stepwise regression methodology was employed to create general linear models (GLMs) of NO2 variability near the airport. The effect of local meteorology on associations with GIS-based variables was also explored. Results Higher concentrations of NO2 were seen near the airport terminal, entrance roads to the terminal, and near major roads, with qualitatively consistent spatial patterns between seasons. In our final multivariate model (R2 = 0.32), the local influences of highways and arterial/collector roads were statistically significant, as were local traffic density and distance to the airport terminal (all p < 0.001). Local meteorology did not significantly affect associations with principal GIS variables, and the regression model structure was robust to various model-building approaches. Conclusion Our study has shown that there are clear local variations in NO2 in the neighborhoods that surround an urban airport, which are spatially consistent across seasons. LUR modeling demonstrated a strong influence of local traffic, except the smallest roads that predominate in residential areas, as well as proximity to the

  5. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1301 - Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern Washington-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1301 Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters in Northwestern... northwestern Washington waters under the jurisdiction of the Captain of the Port, Puget Sound: Puget...

  9. Spatial analysis of land use and shallow groundwater vulnerability in the watershed adjacent to Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMotte, A.E.; Greene, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial relations between land use and groundwater quality in the watershed adjacent to Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia, USA were analyzed by the use of two spatial models. One model used a logit analysis and the other was based on geostatistics. The models were developed and compared on the basis of existing concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen in samples from 529 domestic wells. The models were applied to produce spatial probability maps that show areas in the watershed where concentrations of nitrate in groundwater are likely to exceed a predetermined management threshold value. Maps of the watershed generated by logistic regression and probability kriging analysis showing where the probability of nitrate concentrations would exceed 3 mg/L (>0.50) compared favorably. Logistic regression was less dependent on the spatial distribution of sampled wells, and identified an additional high probability area within the watershed that was missed by probability kriging. The spatial probability maps could be used to determine the natural or anthropogenic factors that best explain the occurrence and distribution of elevated concentrations of nitrate (or other constituents) in shallow groundwater. This information can be used by local land-use planners, ecologists, and managers to protect water supplies and identify land-use planning solutions and monitoring programs in vulnerable areas. ?? 2006 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Floristic study of Ghasemloo (Shohada) Valley Forest reserve and adjacent area.

    PubMed

    Malekmohammadi, L; Mahmoudzadeh, A; Hassanzadeh, A

    2007-05-15

    In this survey flora of protected region of Ghasemloo valley Forest reserve and adjacent areas has been studied. The study area includes about 577 ha and is located at south of Urmia. The method which used for plant collection is the same as regional floristic studies. Collected plants were recognized and determined as families, genera and species by using of indispensable references. Alphabetical list of taxa in this region was provided on the base of families, genera and species. The life form of plant species was determined by using of Raunckier's method and chorotype of plant species was determined by indispensable references. In this research 50 family, 165 genera and 204 species were identified. The largest plant family is Compositae with 21 genera and 26 species and the largest genera is Astragalus from Papilionaceae family with 6 species. The main biological forms respectively are: Therophytes and hemichryptophytes. The most extended chorotype with 61.28% is related to Irano-Turanian.

  11. Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Voegtly, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

  12. Assessment of water resources in lead-zinc mined areas in Cherokee County, Kansas, and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, T.B.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate water-resource problems related to abandoned lead and zinc mines in Cherokee County, and adjacent areas in Oklahoma and Missouri. Discontinuities and perforations, which were produced by mining in the confining shale west of the Pennsylvanian-Mississippian geologic contact, have created artificial groundwater recharge and discharge areas. Abandoned wells and drill holes present the greatest contamination hazard to water supplies in the deep aquifer. There is a potential for downward movement from the shallow to the deep aquifer throughout the study area, with greatest potential in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Principal effects of abandoned mines on groundwater quality are lowered pH and increased concentrations of sulfate and trace metals of water in the mines. No conclusive evidence of lateral migration of contaminated mine water from the mines into the water-supply wells adjacent to the mines was found. Analyses of water from the deep aquifer did not indicate trace-metal contamination. The effects of abandoned mines on streamwater quality are most severe in Short Creek and Tar Creek. Increased concentrations of zinc and manganese were observed in the Spring River below Short Creek Kansas. (USGS)

  13. Factors regulating benthic food chains in tropical river deltas and adjacent shelf areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, D. M.; Robertson, A. I.

    1995-09-01

    Benthic food chains of the Amazon (Brazil) and Fly (Papua New Guinea) river deltas and adjacent shelves are compared. Abundance patterns of the major trophic groups (bacteria, meiofauna, and macroinfauna) are similar between regions, with very low densities, or the absence of benthos, within and near the deltas. For muds in the more quiescent areas, benthic abundance and productivity are highest, commonly coinciding with maximum pelagic primary production. Episodes of physical disturbance, erratic food supply, and dilution of river-derived, particulate organic matter foster the development of opportunistic benthic communities of variable diversity and low biomass, dominated by bacteria. These pioneering assemblages are the main food of penaeid shrimp, which dominate the demersal trawl fisheries of both fluvial-dominated regions.

  14. Selected ground-water information for the Pasco basin and adjacent areas, Washington, 1986-1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drost, B.W.; Schurr, K.M.; Lum, W. E.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the United States Department of Energy, conducted a study of the Pasco basin and adjacent areas, Washington, in support of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project at the Hanford site, Washington. The purpose of the study was to develop a data set that would help define the groundwater-flow system of the Pasco Basin. This report contains the basic data, without interpretation, that were collected from the start of the project in February 1986 through January 1989. Information presented is from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, State of Washington Department of Ecology , US Army Corps of Engineers, Kennewick Irrigation District, and the Survey, and consists of well location and construction data, records of water levels in the wells, and aquifer designations for each well. The aquifer designation represents the geohydrologic unit to which the well is reported to be open. (USGS)

  15. Study of Local Seismic Events in Lithuania and Adjacent Areas Using Data from the PASSEQ Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janutyte, Ilma; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Motuza, Gediminas

    2013-05-01

    The territory of Lithuania and adjacent areas of the East European Craton have always been considered a region of low seismicity. Two recent earthquakes with magnitudes of more than 5 in the Kaliningrad District (Russian Federation) on 21 September 2004 motivated re-evaluation of the seismic hazard in Lithuania and adjacent territories. A new opportunity to study seismicity in the region is provided by the PASSEQ (Pasive Seismic Experiment) project that aimed to study the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure around the Trans-European Suture Zone. Twenty-six seismic stations of the PASSEQ temporary seismic array were installed in the territory of Lithuania. The stations recorded a number of local and regional seismic events originating from Lithuania and adjacent areas. This data can be used to answer the question of whether there exist seismically active tectonic zones in Lithuania that could be potentially hazardous for critical industrial facilities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to find any natural tectonic seismic events in Lithuania and to obtain more general view of seismicity in the region. In order to do this, we make a manual review of the continuous data recorded by the PASSEQ seismic stations in Lithuania. From the good quality data, we select and relocate 45 local seismic events using the well-known LocSAT and VELEST location algortithms. In order to discriminate between possible natural events, underwater explosions and on-shore blasts, we analyse spatial distribution of epicenters and temporal distribution of origin times and perform both visual analysis of waveforms and spectral analysis of recordings. We show that the relocated seismic events can be grouped into five clusters (groups) according to their epicenter coordinates and origin and that several seismic events might be of tectonic origin. We also show that several events from the off-shore region in the Baltic Sea (at the coasts of the Kaliningrad District of the Russian Federation) are

  16. Cultural Resources Inventory of Lands Adjacent to Big Sandy Lake. Volume 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-18

    and I the economic base destroyed. Finally, lands within the reservation were alienated through issuance of fee titles and the subsequent sale of...only the skull and one scapula; the skull was facing south. The burial was I. found in the corner of the sand-bank at the southwest end of the boat ramp...Radiocarbon Dates III," in Radiocarbon, 9:530-544. Bleed, Peter, "The Archeology of Petaga Point; The Preceramic 1969 Component," Minnesota Prehistoric

  17. Land degradation analysis based on the land use changes and land degradation evaluation in the Huan Beijing area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xudong; Wang, Jing; Xie, Junqi; He, Ting; Lian, Gang; Lv, Chunyan

    2005-10-01

    Using remote sensing data of TM and ETM+ in 1992 and 2002, land degradation based on land use changes, especially sand changes were analyzed and land degradation status in 2002 was evaluated in the Huan Beijing Area. The area of sand in 2002 is 6669.6 km2, increased 716.2 km2 compared to that in 1991, and most of the newly-produced sand came from grassland. Land degradation status in 2002 was evaluated by the combination of vegetation, soil and topography information and the region was divided by 1km ×1km cell as the evaluation unit by the application of the GIS. The indicators of land degradation evaluation included soil organic, soil depth, vegetation cover (NDVI) and slope. Land degradation index (DI) was computed, considering the contribution of different indicators to land degradation. The land degradation status was divided into four types according to DI, no-degradation (DI > = 55), slight degradation (50 = < DI < 55), moderate degradation (40 = < DI < 50) and severe degradation (DI < 40). The results showed that the area of degraded land is 132900 km2, which occupied the percent 58.2 of the whole Huan Beijing Area and the proportion of slightly-degraded land to degraded land is about 0.47. The political county taken as an evaluation unit, the partition of land degradation in this area was also analyzed based on land degradation area proportion and degree. Six types of land degradation partition were got.

  18. Potential interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality and adjacent land cover in amphibian habitats in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, William A.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Anderson, Chauncey; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Chestnut, Tara E.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality, and adjacent land cover, we collected samples of water, sediment, and frog tissue from 21 sites in 7 States in the United States (US) representing a variety of amphibian habitats. All samples were analyzed for > 90 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and water and frogs were screened for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using molecular methods. Pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected frequently in frog breeding habitats (water and sediment) as well as in frog tissue. Fungicides occurred more frequently in water, sediment, and tissue than was expected based upon their limited use relative to herbicides or insecticides. Pesticide occurrence in water or sediment was not a strong predictor of occurrence in tissue, but pesticide concentrations in tissue were correlated positively to agricultural and urban land, and negatively to forested land in 2-km buffers around the sites. Bd was detected in water at 45% of sites, and on 34% of swabbed frogs. Bd detections in water were not associated with differences in land use around sites, but sites with detections had colder water. Frogs that tested positive for Bd were associated with sites that had higher total fungicide concentrations in water and sediment, but lower insecticide concentrations in sediments relative to frogs that were Bd negative. Bd concentrations on frog swabs were positively correlated to dissolved organic carbon, and total nitrogen and phosphorus, and negatively correlated to pH and water temperature.Data were collected from a range of locations and amphibian habitats and represent some of the first field-collected information aimed at understanding the interactions between pesticides, land use, and amphibian disease. These interactions are of particular interest to conservation efforts as many amphibians live in altered habitats and may depend on wetlands embedded in these landscapes to

  19. Late glacial and early Holocene Landscapes in northern New England and adjacent areas of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. B.; Jacobson, G. L.

    1985-05-01

    The landscapes of northern New England and adjacent areas of Canada changed greatly between 14,000 and 9000 yr B.P.: deglaciation occurred, sea levels and shorelines shifted, and a vegetational transition from tundra to closed forest took place. Data from 51 14C-dated sites from a range of elevations were used to map ice and sea positions, physiognomic vegetational zones, and the spread of individual tree taxa in the region. A continuum of tundra-woodland-forest passed northeastward and northward without major hesitation or reversal. An increased rate of progression from 11,000 to 10,000 yr B.P. suggests a more rapid warming than in the prior 2000-3000 yr. Elevational gradients controlled the patterns of deglaciation and vegetational change. The earliest spread of tree taxa was via the lowlands of southern Vermont and New Hampshire, and along a coastal corridor in Maine. Only after 12,000 yr B.P. did the taxa spread northward through the rest of the area. Different tree species entered the southern part of the area at different times and continued their spread at different rates. The approximate order of arrival follows: poplars (13,000-12,000 yr B.P. in the south), spruces, paper birch, and jack pine, followed by balsam fir and larch, and possibly ironwood, ash, and elm, and somewhat later by oak, maple, white pine, and finally hemlock (10,000-9000 yr B.P. in the south).

  20. Field guide to geologic excursions in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, William R.; Lund, William R.

    2002-01-01

    This field guide contains road logs for field trips planned in conjunction with the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the Geological Society of America held at Southern Utah University in Cedar City, Utah. There are a total of eight field trips, covering various locations and topics in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada. In addition, the field guide contains a road log for a set of Geological Engineering Field Camp Exercises run annually by the University of Missouri at Rolla in and around Cedar City. Two of the field trips address structural aspects of the geology in southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona; two trips deal with ground water in the region; and along with the Field Camp Exercises, one trip, to the Grand Staircase, is designed specifically for educators. The remaining trips examine the volcanology and mineral resources of a large area in and around the Tusher Mountains in Utah; marine and brackish water strata in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument; and the Pine Valley Mountains, which are cored by what may be the largest known laccolith in the world. The "Three Corners" area of Utah, Arizona, and Nevada is home to truly world-class geology, and I am confident that all of the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting attendees will find a field trip suited to their interests.

  1. Mine and prospect map of the Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon Instant Study Area and adjacent wilderness areas, Coconino County, Arizona, and Kane County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon Instant Study Area and adjacent wilderness areas are mostly in Coconino County Ariz., but extend into Kane County, Utah. The area studied in this report encompasses about 560 mi2 (1,450 km2). The study area includes the established Paria Canyon Primitive and Vermilion Cliffs Natural Areas between U.S. Highways 89 and 89A.

  2. Flood hazards in the Seattle-Tacoma urban complex and adjacent areas, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxworthy, B.L.; Nassar, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    Floods are natural hazards that have complicated man's land-use planning for as long as we have had a history. Although flood hzards are a continuing danger, the year-to-year threat cannot be accurately predicted. Also, on any one stream, the time since the last destructive flood might be so long that most people now living near the stream have not experienced such a flood. Because of the unpredictability and common infrequency of disastrous flooding, or out of ignorance about the danger, or perhaps because of an urge to gamble, man tends to focus his attention on only the advantages of the flood-prone areas, rather than the risk due to the occasional major flood. The purposes of this report are to: (1) briefly describe flood hazards in this region, including some that may be unique to the Puget Sound basin, (2) indicate the parts of the area for which flood-hazard data are available, and (3) list the main sources of hydrologic information that is useful for flood-hazard analysis in conjuction with long-range planning. This map-type report is one of a series being prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey to present basic environmental information and interpretations to assist land-use planning in the Puget Sound region.

  3. Ground-water resources of southern Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater resources in southern Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas were studied to determine their potential for development as an alternative to the Mississippi River as a water-supply source for Jefferson Parish. Eight major aquifers consisting of thick sand units that underlie the study area are, in descending order: (1) shallow, (2) upper Ponchatoula, (3) lower Ponchatoula, (4) Abita, (5) Covington, (6) Tchefuncta, (7) Hammond, and (8) Amite. A fault zone, referred to as the Baton Rouge fault, crosses southern Tangipahoa Parish. Analyses of geophysical logs indicated that the deep aquifers south of the fault zone had been displaced from 350 to 400 feet, and that the deeper aquifers were not in hydraulic connection with the flow system north of the fault. The groundwater resources of southeastern Louisiana are immense and the quality of groundwater in Tangipahoa Parish is suitable for most uses. The quality of water in these aquifers generally meets the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's standards for public supply. The hydrologic system underlying Tangipahoa Parish and adjacent areas in 1990 supplied about 19 Mgal/d of water that was suitable for public supply. However, substantial increases in pumping from the aquifer system would result in renewed water-level declines throughout the hydrologic system until a new equilibrium is established. A test we11 in southern Tangipahoa Parish, penetrated all eight aquifers. Total thickness of freshwater sand beds penetrated by the 3003-ft test hole was more than 1900 ft. Resistivity values from an electric log of the test typically averaged 200 ohm-meters, which indicates that the water has low dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations. An analysis of the Abita aquifer at Ruddock in St. John the Baptist Parish, for two of three hypothetical well fields, indicated that for a hypothetical we11 field with a pumping rate of 112 Mgal/d, the freshwater/saltwater interface could arrive at the outer perimeter we11 in

  4. Ground-water hydrology of Pahvant Valley and adjacent areas, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1990-01-01

    The primary ground-water reservoir in Pahvant Valley and adjacent areas is in the unconsolidated basin fill and interbedded basalt. Recharge in 1959 was estimated to be about 70,000 acre-feet per year and was mostly by seepage from streams, canals, and unconsumed irrigation water and by infiltration of precipitation. Discharge in 1959 was estimated to be about 109,000 acre-feet and was mostly from springs, evapotranspiration, and wells.Water-level declines of more than 50 feet occurred in some areas between 1953 and 1980 because of less-than-normal precipitation and extensive pumping for irrigation. Water levels recovered most of these declines between 1983 and 1986 because of reduced withdrawals and record quantities of precipitation.The quality of ground water in the area west of Kanosh has deteriorated since large ground-water withdrawals began in about 1953. The cause of the deterioration probably is movement of poor quality water into the area from the southwest and possibly the west during periods of large ground-water withdrawals and recycling of irrigation water. The quality of water from some wells has improved since 1983, due to increased recharge and decreased withdrawals for irrigation.Water-level declines of m:>re than 80 feet in some parts of Pahvant Valley are projected if ground-water withdrawals continue for 20 years at the 1977 rate of about 96,000 acre-feet. Rises of as much as 58 feet and declines of as much as 47 feet are projected with withdrawals of 48,000 acre-feet per year for 20 years. The elimination of recharge from the Central Utah Canal is projected to cause water-level declines of up to 8 feet near the canal.

  5. Footprint methods to separate N2O emission rates from adjacent paddock areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sandipan; McMillan, Andrew M. S.; Sturman, Andrew P.; Harvey, Mike J.; Laubach, Johannes

    2015-03-01

    Using micrometeorological techniques to measure greenhouse gas emissions from differently treated adjacent plots is a promising avenue to verify the effect of mitigation strategies at the field scale. In pursuing such an approach, it is crucial to accurately characterize the source area of the fluxes measured at each sampling point. Hence, a comprehensive footprint analysis method is required so that emission rates can be obtained for a specific field within a biochemically heterogeneous area. In this study, a footprint analysis method is developed to estimate the emission for an experiment where the flux of N2O is measured from several control and treated plots. The emission rate of an individual plot is estimated using an inverse footprint fraction approach where the footprint fractions are obtained from an analytical footprint model. A numerical solution for obtaining the background flux for such a multiplot measurement system is also provided. Results of the footprint analysis method are assessed, first, by comparing footprint fractions obtained from both an analytical footprint model and a "forward" simulation of a backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLs) model; and second, by comparing the emission rates of a control plot obtained from the footprint analysis method and from the "backward" simulation of the bLs model. It is found that the analytical footprint fractions compare well with the values obtained from the bLs model (correlation coefficient of 0.58 and 0.66 within p value <0.001). An average of 4.3 % of the measured fluxes is found to be contributed by sources outside the measured area and, excluding this outside area contribution to the measured flux, footprint corrected emission rates within the defined domain are found to increase by 2.1 to 5.8 % of the measured flux. Also, the proposed method of emission rate estimation is found to work well under a wide range of atmospheric stability.

  6. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Las Vegas Strip and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr

    2009-02-01

    As proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of the Las Vegas Strip and adjacent areas on December 29, 2008. This survey was one of the bi-annual surveys carried in support of the city of Las Vegas Police Department (LVPD) before significant events on the Las Vegas Strip: e.g., the annual New Year’s Eve and July Fourth celebrations. The AMS operation and appropriate law enforcement agencies selected this area as an appropriate urban location to exercise AMS capability for mapping environmental radiation and searching for man-made radioactive sources. The surveys covered approximately 11 square miles. Each survey required a 2.5-hour-long flight, performed at an altitude of 300 ft above ground level (AGL) at a line spacing of 600 ft. Water line and test line flights are conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to determine the non-terrestrial background contributed by aircraft, radon, and cosmic activity, and to determine the altitude-dependent air mass correction. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2" x 4" x 16" sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Gamma energy spectral data were collected second-by-second over the survey area. This spectral data allows the system to distinguish between natural terrestrial background contributions and man-made radioisotope contributions. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific man-made radioactive isotopes. Data geo-locations were determined with a Real-Time Differential Global Positioning System (RDGPS).

  7. Climate change in the four corners and adjacent regions: Implications for environmental restoration and land-use planning

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document contains the workshop proceedings on Climate Change in the Four Corners and Adjacent Regions: Implications for Environmental Restoration and Land-Use Planning which took place September 12-14, 1994 in Grand Junction, Colorado. The workshop addressed three ways we can use paleoenvironmental data to gain a better understanding of climate change and its effects. (1) To serve as a retrospective baseline for interpreting past and projecting future climate-induced environmental change, (2) To differentiate the influences of climate and humans on past environmental change, and (3) To improve ecosystem management and restoration practices in the future. The papers presented at this workshop contained information on the following subjects: Paleoclimatic data from the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, climate change and past cultures, and ecological resources and environmental restoration. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

    2007-06-01

    Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects.

  9. A method for testing land resource area concepts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land Resource Units (LRUs) are defined by the National Soil Survey Handbook as aggregations of soil map units and subunits of Major Land Resource Areas (MLRAs). In the USDA NRCS Land Resource Hierarchy, LRUs are defined as the level between MLRAs and STATSGO and are mapped at 1:1 million scale. They...

  10. Hydrology and snowmelt simulation of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas, Summit County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Lynette E.; Mason, James L.; Susong, David D.

    1998-01-01

    Increasing residential and commercial development is placing increased demands on the ground- and surface-water resources of Snyderville Basin, Park City, and adjacent areas in the southwestern corner of Summit County, Utah. Data collected during 1993-95 were used to assess the quantity and quality of the water resources in the study area.Ground water within the study area is present in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated valley fill. The complex geology makes it difficult to determine the degree of hydraulic connection between different blocks of consolidated rocks. Increased ground-water withdrawal during 1983- 95 generally has not affected ground-water levels. Ground-water withdrawal in some areas, however, caused seasonal fluctuations and a decline in ground-water levels from 1994 to 1995, despite greater-than-normal recharge in the spring of 1995.Ground water generally has a dissolved-solids concentration that ranges from 200 to 600 mg/L. Higher sulfate concentrations in water from wells and springs near Park City and in McLeod Creek and East Canyon Creek than in other parts of the study area are the result of mixing with water that discharges from the Spiro Tunnel. The presence of chloride in water from wells and springs near Park City and in streams and wells near Interstate Highway 80 is probably caused by the dissolution of applied road salt. Chlorofluorocarbon analyses indicate that even though water levels rise within a few weeks of snowmelt, the water took 15 to 40 years to move from areas of recharge to areas of discharge.Water budgets for the entire study area and for six subbasins were developed to better understand the hydrologic system. Ground-water recharge from precipitation made up about 80 percent of the ground-water recharge in the study area. Ground-water discharge to streams made up about 40 percent of the surface water in the study area and ground-water discharge to springs and mine tunnels made up about 25 percent. Increasing use of

  11. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  12. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  13. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  14. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  15. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey...

  16. Geochemistry and hydrology of thermal springs in the Idaho Batholith and adjacent areas, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of nature of thermal springs in the Idaho batholith and adjacent areas suggest a relation between structural controls and deeply circulating hot-water systems. Springs issuing from granitic rocks are associated mostly with major regional fault structures. Springs issuing from other rocks probably are related to local faulting. Individual spring flows and water temperatures are variable and range from less than 1 gallon per minute to 2,710 gallons per minute and from 20.5 degrees to 94.0 degrees Celsius. Annual spring discharge is at least 27,000 acre-feet; heat discharges convectively is estimated to be 5.0 x 107 calories per second. Thermal springs discharge relatively dilute water; dissolved solids range from 103 to 839 milligrams per liter. The chemical quality of the water suggests deep circulation of meteoric water. Estimated reservoir temperatures are generally less than 100 degrees Celsius, but temperatures for several springs exceed 150 degrees Celsius. Stable-isotope data suggest that most of the thermal water is not derived from current precipitation. Carbon-14 values indicate that thermal waters are old; apparent residence times range from 9,000 to more than 40,000 years.

  17. Geologic map of Colorado National Monument and adjacent areas, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.; Hood, William C.; Cole, Rex D.; Livaccari, Richard F.; Johnson, James B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Colorado National Monument Quadrangle and adjacent areas, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of and data for the stratigraphy, structure, geologic hazards in the area from the Colorado River in Grand Valley onto the Uncompahgre Plateau. The plateau drops abruptly along northwest-trending structures toward the northeast 800 m to the Redlands area and the Colorado River in Grand Valley. In addition to common alluvial and colluvial deposits, surficial deposits include Holocene and late Pleistocene charcoal-bearing valley-fill deposits, late to middle Pleistocene river-gravel terrace deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene younger, intermediate, and old fan-alluvium deposits, late to middle Pleistocene local gravel deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene rock-fall deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene young and old landslide deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene sheetwash deposits and eolian deposits, and Holocene Cienga-type deposits. Only the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale is exposed in the map area near the Colorado River. The Upper and Lower? Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation form resistant dipslopes in the Grand Valley and a prominent ridge on the plateau. Less resistant strata of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation consisting of the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members form slopes on the plateau and low areas below the mountain front of the plateau. The Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation nomenclature replaces the previously used Summerville Formation. Because an upper part of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Formation is not obviously correlated with strata found elsewhere, it is therefore not formally named; however, the lower rounded cliff former Slickrock Member is clearly present. The Lower Jurassic silica-cemented Kayenta Formation forms the cap rock for the Lower

  18. Potential future land use threats to California's protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Tamara Sue; Sleeter, Benjamin Michael; Davis, Adam Wilkinson

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressures from land use coupled with future changes in climate will present unique challenges for California’s protected areas. We assessed the potential for future land use conversion on land surrounding existing protected areas in California’s twelve ecoregions, utilizing annual, spatially explicit (250 m) scenario projections of land use for 2006–2100 based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios to examine future changes in development, agriculture, and logging. We calculated a conversion threat index (CTI) for each unprotected pixel, combining land use conversion potential with proximity to protected area boundaries, in order to identify ecoregions and protected areas at greatest potential risk of proximal land conversion. Our results indicate that California’s Coast Range ecoregion had the highest CTI with competition for extractive logging placing the greatest demand on land in close proximity to existing protected areas. For more permanent land use conversions into agriculture and developed uses, our CTI results indicate that protected areas in the Central California Valley and Oak Woodlands are most vulnerable. Overall, the Eastern Cascades, Central California Valley, and Oak Woodlands ecoregions had the lowest areal percent of protected lands and highest conversion threat values. With limited resources and time, rapid, landscape-level analysis of potential land use threats can help quickly identify areas with higher conversion probability of future land use and potential changes to both habitat and potential ecosystem reserves. Given the broad range of future uncertainties, LULC projections are a useful tool allowing land managers to visualize alternative landscape futures, improve planning, and optimize management practices.

  19. Contrasts Between Precipitation over Mediterranean Sea and Adjacent Continental Areas Based on Decadal Scale Satellite Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    Most knowledge concerning the last century's climatology and climate dynamics of precipitation over the Mediterranean Sea basin is based on observations taken from rain gauges surrounding the sea itself. In turn, most of the observations come from Southern Europe, with many fewer measurements taken from widely scattered sites situated over North Africa, the Middle East, and the Balkans. This aspect of research on the Mediterranean Sea basin is apparent in a recent compilation of studies presented in book form concerning climate variability of the Mediterranean region [Lionello, P., P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, and R. Boscolo (eds.), 2006: Mediterranean Climate Variability. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 9 chapters.] In light of this missing link to over-water observations, this study (in conjunction with four companion studies by Z. Haddad, A. Mugnai, T. Nakazawa, and G. Stephens) will contrast the nature of precipitation variability directly over the Mediterranean Sea to precipitation variability over the surrounding land areas based on three decades of satellite-based precipitation estimates which have stood up well to validation scrutiny. The satellite observations are drawn from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) dataset extending back to 1979 and the TRMM Merged Algorithm 3b42 dataset extending back to 1998. Both datasets are mostly produced from microwave measurements, excepting the period from 1979 to mid-1987 when only infrared satellite measurements were available for the GPCP estimates. The purpose of this study is to emphasize how the salient properties of precipitation variability over land and sea across a hierarchy of space and time scales, and the salient differences in these properties, might be used in guiding short-term climate models to better predictions of future climate states under different regional temperature-change scenarios.

  20. Water resources of the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys and adjacent areas, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Clyde A.; White, Robert R.; Orr, Brennon R.; Roybal, R. Gary

    1981-01-01

    valleys in the adjacent upland areas. Ground water moves southeastward beneath the West Mesa area, converging with ground-water flow in the southern end of the Mesilla Valley. Good hydraulic connection exists between sediments of the West Mesa and Mesilla Valley areas. Ground water in the southern end of the Jornada del Muerto moves generally to the northwest, converges with south-flowing ground water near Point of Rocks, and moves westward into Rincon Valley sediments near Rincon. A small amount of ground water flows westward from the southern end of the Jornada del Muerto across a subsurface igneous body into the Mesilla Valley. Ground-water discharge occurs throughout the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys as drain flow to the river and evapotranspiration. Dissolved-solids concentrations in the water in the flood-plain alluvium of the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys are generally greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter. A freshwater zone, with dissolved-solids concentrations less than 1,000 milligrams per liter, underlies this thin, slightly saline zone beneath much of the Mesilla Valley. This freshwater zone, occurring in the Santa Fe Group, is surrounded by saline water. Within the study area, major dissolved ions in ground water include sodium, calcium, bicarbonate, and sulfate. The Rio Grande is a gainlng stream in the northern parts of the Rincon and Mesilla Valleys and a losing stream in the southern part of the Mesilla Valley. Gains and losses result from a close interconnection with ground-water flow systems. Large surface-water irrigation allotments increase ground-water recharge. Increased recharge raises ground-water levels and improves shallow ground-water quality adjacent to these recharge areas. Shallow ground-water discharges to drains, which flow into the Rio Grande. Dissolved-solids concentrations in the Rio Grande increase by as much as 60 percent between Caballo Reservoir and the southern end of the study area.

  1. Heat flow distribution and thermal structure of the Philippine Sea Plate and its adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Chen, C.; Liang, Q.; Sun, S.

    2013-12-01

    Research on the present geothermal state is an important way to understand the lithospheric geodynamics. We studied the heat flow (HF) distribution and the geothermal structure of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and its adjacent area (100°E~155°E, 5°S~45°N) surrounded by the East China Sea, South China Sea and the West Pacific Ocean, which is aimed to provide thermal constraints for the dynamic mechanism and tectonic evolution of the PSP. Based on the observed seafloor HF data of the study area with the latest release of CRUST1.0 crustal layered model, the lithospheric geotherm was calculated using 1D steady-state heat conduction equation. However, the obtained numerous geotherms derived from the extrapolation through heat conduction equation strongly depended on the accuracy of the measured HF data, which is limited, unevenly distributed and easily affected by local factors. Therefore, as a meaningful comparison, the temperature distributions at 25 km and 50 km depth inferred from the upper mantle shear wave velocities structure (S2.9EA) are inverted. The HF distribution shows relatively high values in Ryuku Trench and nearby Izu-Boning Trench, where the crust thicken and the mantle uplift obviously as typical transition zones. The Mariana Trench located in the east (southeast) part and the Philippine Trench in the southwest both are with low HF, which is also illustrated in the upper mantle gravity map after temperature correction. The Central Basin Ridge is with unquestionable high HF, being perpendicular to which the value decreasing. The calculated temperature maps (at depth of 25 km and 50 km) by the two methods both present that the temperature in PSP is higher than that in the Western Pacific Ocean and the west Philippine Basin is lower than the east one, which consists well with the crust age. The west half parts both of the Philippine Basin and Parece Vela Basin show low temperature, but high value in Ryuku Trench, Nankai Through, Shikoku Basin, Amami

  2. Induced seismicity caused by hydraulic fracturing in deep geothermal wells in Germany and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plenefisch, Thomas; Brückner, Lisa; Ceranna, Lars; Gestermann, Nicolai; Houben, Georg; Tischner, Torsten; Wegler, Ulrich; Wellbrink, Matthias; Bönnemann, Christian; Bertram, Andreas; Kirschbaum, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the BGR has worked out a study on the potential environmental impact caused by hydraulic fracturing or chemical stimulations in deep geothermal reservoirs in Germany and adjacent areas. The investigations and analyses are based on existing studies and information provided by operators. The two environmental impacts being essentially considered in the report are induced seismicity and possible contamination of the groundwater reservoirs which serve for drinking water supply. Altogether, in this study, information on 30 hydraulic frac operations and 26 chemical stimulations including information from neighboring countries were compiled and analyzed. Out of the hydraulic stimulations two thirds were carried out as waterfracs and one third as fracturing with proppants. Parameters used in the study to characterize the induced seismicity are maximum magnitude, number of seismic events, size of the seismically active volume, and the relation of this volume to fault zones and the cap rock, as well as, finally, the impacts at the Earth's surface. The response of the subsurface to hydraulic fracturing is variable: There are some activities, which cause perceptible seismic events, others, where no perceptible but instrumentally detected events occurred, and moreover activities without even any instrumentally detected events. A classification of seismic hazard with respect to tectonic region, geology, or depth of the layer is still difficult, since the number of hydraulic fracturing measures in deep geothermal wells is small making a statistically sound analysis impossible. However, there are some indications, that hydraulic fracturing in granite in tectonically active regions like the Upper Rhine Graben results in comparatively stronger, perceptible seismicity compared to hydraulic fracturing in the sedimentary rocks of the North German basin. The maximum magnitudes of induced earthquakes caused by hydraulic fracturing of deep geothermal wells in Germany are

  3. Anatomy of the Visual Word form Area: Adjacent Cortical Circuits and Long-Range White Matter Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeatman, Jason D.; Rauschecker, Andreas M.; Wandell, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Circuitry in ventral occipital-temporal cortex is essential for seeing words. We analyze the circuitry within a specific ventral-occipital region, the visual word form area (VWFA). The VWFA is immediately adjacent to the retinotopically organized VO-1 and VO-2 visual field maps and lies medial and inferior to visual field maps within motion…

  4. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sufficiently detailed geologic, hydrologic, land use, soils, and vegetation data and analysis to demonstrate... flood irrigation, streamflow, water quality, soils, and topography; or (C) Subirrigation of the lands in... premining land use is undeveloped rangeland which is not significant to farming; (ii) Any farming on...

  5. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sufficiently detailed geologic, hydrologic, land use, soils, and vegetation data and analysis to demonstrate... flood irrigation, streamflow, water quality, soils, and topography; or (C) Subirrigation of the lands in... premining land use is undeveloped rangeland which is not significant to farming; (ii) Any farming on...

  6. Conodont and Radiolarian Data from the De Long Mountains Quadrangle and Adjacent Areas, Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.; Blome, Charles D.; Young, Lorne E.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report presents biostratigraphic data from 289 collections at 189 localities in the De Long Mountains, Misheguk Mountain, and Noatak quadrangles (fig. 1); most of these data have never been previously published. The collections were made during studies of the Red Dog massive sulfide deposit in 1998?2004 and in support of regional mapping projects in 1979, 1981, 1983, and 1997?98. The collections?mostly conodonts and some radiolarians?tightly constrain the age of many stratigraphic units of Devonian through Triassic age exposed within the study area, and provide additional data on the depositional environments and thermal history of these rocks. The data are presented in a series of tables, organized by fossil type, stratigraphic unit, and location. Tables 1?12 contain conodont data, mostly from the De Long Mountains quadrangle. All of these collections were initially examined, or were reevaluated, from 1997 through 2004, and complete faunal lists are given for all samples. Table 13 lists ages and conodont color alteration indices (CAIs) of 27 collections from 24 localities in the Noatak quadrangle; updated faunal lists were not prepared for these samples. Radiolarian data?all from the De Long Mountains quadrangle?are given in table 14; these collections were analyzed between 1998 and 2003. Collection localities are shown in four maps (sheets 1, 2). Map 1 (sheet 1) shows all outcrop samples from the De Long Mountains and western Misheguk Mountain quadrangle (locs. 1-121). Maps 2?4 (sheets 1, 2) show all drill hole sample localities; samples come from the Su-Lik deposit and in and around the Anarraaq deposit (map 2, locs. 122?135), in and adjacent to the Red Dog deposits (Paalaaq, Aqqaluk, Main, and Qanaiyaq) (map 3, locs. 136?158), and from drill holes along the Port Road in the Noatak quadrangle (map 4, locs. 159?160). Map 4 (sheet 2) also shows all outcrop samples from the Noatak quadrangle (locs. 161?189). The text summarizes the lithofacies

  7. The study of the undiscovered mineral resources of the Tongass National Forest and adjacent lands, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, D.A.; Drew, L.J.; Ludington, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The quantitative probabilistic assessment of the undiscovered mineral resources of the 17.1-million-acre Tongass National Forest (the largest in the United States) and its adjacent lands is a nonaggregated, mineral-resource-tract-oriented assessment designed for land-planning purposes. As such, it includes the renewed use of gross-in-place values (GIPV's) in dollars of the estimated amounts of metal contained in the undiscovered resources as a measure for land-use planning. Southeastern Alaska is geologically complex and contains a wide variety of known mineral deposits, some of which have produced important amounts of metals during the past 100 years. Regional geological, economic geological, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral exploration history information for the region was integrated to define 124 tracts likely to contain undiscovered mineral resources. Some tracts were judged to contain more than one type of mineral deposit. Each type of deposit may contain one or more metallic elements of economic interest. For tracts where information was sufficient, the minimum number of as-yet-undiscovered deposits of each type was estimated at probability levels of 0.95, 0.90, 0.50, 0.10, and 0.05. The undiscovered mineral resources of the individual tracts were estimated using the U.S. Geological Survey's MARK3 mineral-resource endowment simulator; those estimates were used to calculate GIPV's for the individual tracts. Those GIPV's were aggregated to estimate the value of the undiscovered mineral resources of southeastern Alaska. The aggregated GIPV of the estimates is $40.9 billion. Analysis of this study indicates that (1) there is only a crude positive correlation between the size of individual tracts and their mean GIPV's: and (2) the number of mineral-deposit types in a tract does not dominate the GIPV's of the tracts, but the inferred presence of synorogenic-synvolcanic nickel-copper, porphyry copper skarn-related, iron skarn, and porphyry copper

  8. Groundwater storage changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas revealed from GRACE satellite gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Longwei; Wang, Hansheng; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick; Jia, Lulu; Jiang, Liming; Shen, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Understanding groundwater storage (GWS) changes is vital to the utilization and control of water resources in the Tibetan Plateau. However, well level observations are rare in this big area, and reliable hydrology models including GWS are not available. We use hydro-geodesy to quantitate GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and surroundings from 2003 to 2009 using a combined analysis of satellite gravity and satellite altimetry data, hydrology models as well as a model of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Release-5 GRACE gravity data are jointly used in a mascon fitting method to estimate the terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes during the period, from which the hydrology contributions and the GIA effects are effectively deducted to give the estimates of GWS changes for 12 selected regions of interest. The hydrology contributions are carefully calculated from glaciers and lakes by ICESat-1 satellite altimetry data, permafrost degradation by an Active-Layer Depth (ALD) model, soil moisture and snow water equivalent by multiple hydrology models, and the GIA effects are calculated with the new ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model. Taking into account the measurement errors and the variability of the models, the uncertainties are rigorously estimated for the TWS changes, the hydrology contributions (including GWS changes) and the GIA effect. For the first time, we show explicitly separated GWS changes in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas except for those to the south of the Himalayas. We find increasing trend rates for eight basins: + 2.46 ± 2.24 Gt/yr for the Jinsha River basin, + 1.77 ± 2.09 Gt/yr for the Nujiang-Lancangjiang Rivers Source Region, + 1.86 ± 1.69 Gt/yr for the Yangtze River Source Region, + 1.14 ± 1.39 Gt/yr for the Yellow River Source Region, + 1.52 ± 0.95 Gt/yr for the Qaidam basin, + 1.66 ± 1.52 Gt/yr for the central Qiangtang Nature Reserve, + 5.37 ± 2.17 Gt/yr for the Upper Indus basin and + 2.77 ± 0.99 Gt/yr for the Aksu River basin. All these

  9. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.; Knochenmus, Lari A.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 301(e) of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004; PL108-424) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins are the subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas are the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  10. Water Resources of the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah - Draft Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Alan H.; Bright, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary of Major Findings This report summarizes results of a water-resources study for White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in east-central Nevada and western Utah. The Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system (BARCAS) study was initiated in December 2004 through Federal legislation (Section 131 of the Lincoln County Conservation, Recreation, and Development Act of 2004) directing the Secretary of the Interior to complete a water-resources study through the U.S. Geological Survey, Desert Research Institute, and State of Utah. The study was designed as a regional water-resource assessment, with particular emphasis on summarizing the hydrogeologic framework and hydrologic processes that influence ground-water resources. The study area includes 13 hydrographic areas that cover most of White Pine County; in this report however, results for the northern and central parts of Little Smoky Valley were combined and presented as one hydrographic area. Hydrographic areas are the basic geographic units used by the State of Nevada and Utah and local agencies for water-resource planning and management, and are commonly defined on the basis of surface-water drainage areas. Hydrographic areas were further divided into subbasins that are separated by areas where bedrock is at or near the land surface. Subbasins represent subdivisions used in this study for estimating recharge, discharge, and water budget. Hydrographic areas represent the subdivision used for reporting summed and tabulated subbasin estimates.

  11. Spatial patterns of cadmium and lead deposition on and adjacent to National Park Service lands in the vicinity of Red Dog Mine, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hasselbach, L; Ver Hoef, J M.; Ford, Jesse; Neitlich, P; Crecelius, Eric A.; Berryman, Shanti D.; Wolk, B; Boehle, T

    2005-04-26

    Heavy metal escapement associated with ore trucks is known to affect the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road corridor in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, northwest Alaska. Tissue concentrations in Hylocomium splendens moss (n = 226) were used to determine the extent and pattern of airborne heavy metal deposition on Monument lands. A stratified grid-based sample design was used with more intensive sampling near mining-related activities. Spatial predictions using geostatistical models were employed to produce maps of depositional patterns, and to estimate the geographic area affected above various thresholds. Spatial regression analyses indicated that heavy metal deposition decreased with the log of distance from the DMTS haul road and the DMTS port site. Analysis of subsurface soil demonstrated that observed patterns of heavy metal deposition reflected in moss tissue concentrations were not attributable to local subsurface lithology. Based on comparisons with regional background data from arctic Alaska, deposition of airborne heavy metals related to mining activities appears to affect the northern half of the Monument. The affected area extends northward (beyond Monument boundaries) through the Kisimilot/Iyikrok hills (north of the Wulik River), and possibly beyond. South of the DMTS haul road, airborne deposition appears to be constrained by the Tahinichok Mountains. Moss tissue concentrations were highest immediately adjacent to the DMTS haul road (Cd > 24 mg/kg dw; Pb > 900 mg/kg dw). The influence of the mine site was not studied.

  12. Water resources of the Tulalip Indian Reservation and adjacent area, Snohomish County, Washington, 2001-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frans, Lonna M.; Kresch, David L.

    2004-01-01

    ), which are also a principal aquifer of the plateau. The undifferentiated-sediments aquifer is present throughout the entire study area, but is not well defined because few wells penetrate it. Ground water flows radially outward from the center of the Plateau in the Vashon advance outwash aquifer. Water levels fluctuate seasonally in all hydrogeologic units in response to changes in precipitation over the course of the year. However, water levels do not appear to have changed significantly over the long term. There was no statistically significant change between water levels measured in 72 wells in the early 1990s and 2001. Additionally, when a rank sum test was used to compare monthly water levels measured in 18 wells for this study with monthly water levels from the 1970s and 1980s, water levels increased in some wells, decreased in some, and did not change significantly in others. Ground water in the study area is recharged from precipitation that percolates down from the land surface. Average annual recharge, estimated using the chloride-mass-balance method, was 10.4 inches per year. Current streamflow conditions on the Reservation were defined by four continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations operated from April 2001 through March 2003 and monthly measurements of discharge at 12 periodic-measurement sites. Two continuous-record gaging stations (12157250 and 12158040) near the mouths of Mission and Tulalip Creeks, respectively, also were operated during water years 1975-77. Correlations of streamflow for Mission and Tulalip Creeks with the long-term record of streamflow at Mercer Creek (station 12120000) indicate no significant change in streamflow between the mid-1970s and 2001?03 in Mission and Tulalip Creeks. However, comparisons between the percentage of change in precipitation at the Everett precipitation station and percentages of change in streamflow at the Mercer, Mission, and Tulalip Creek gaging stations from the mid-1970s through 2001

  13. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sufficiently detailed geologic, hydrologic, land use, soils, and vegetation data and analysis to demonstrate... flood irrigation, streamflow, water quality, soils, and topography; or (C) Subirrigation of the lands in..., rate and frequency of rainfall and runoff, surface roughness, slope and vegetative cover,...

  14. Reclamation by tubewell drainage in Rechna Doab and adjacent areas, Punjab region, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malmberg, Glenn T.

    1975-01-01

    a few miles west of the City of Lahore was selected for the pilot project. The first Salinity Control and Reclamation Project (SCARP-l) was completed in 1962. Within the project area about 2,000 wells were drilled as deep as 350 feet and equipped with turbine pumps having a capacity of up to 5 cubic feet per second each and a combined operating capacity of about 3.5 million acre-feet per year. To July 1968 pumping from project wells and from private and other governmental agency wells supplied about 12 million acre-feet of water. This pumping more than doubled the available irrigation supply and lowered the water table to a depth of 10 feet or more below most of the project area. As a result, approximately 66 percent of the 400,000 acres of land damaged by waterlogging and accumulation of excessive salt was wholly or partially reclaimed. The cropping intensity was increased from about 77 percent in 1962 to 101 percent in July 1968, and the annual value of crops increased 186 percent over 1962. Annual water budgets for the first 6 years of project operation indicate that pumping caused a decrease in annual ground-water outflow from the project area from about 57,000 acre-feet to 32,000 acre-feet, caused an increase in annual ground-water inflow to the project area from 35,0'00 acre-feet to 52,000 acre-feet, and depleted about 1.71 million acre-.feet of groundwater storage. Net annual recharge to the ground-water reservoir during this same period ranged from a high of slightly more than 2 million acre-feet in 1964 to a low of about 1 million acre-feet in 1965. The budgets suggest that perhaps as much as half the net canal' inflow to the project area is lost through leakage. This leakage is the principal source of recharge to the ground-water reservoir. Pumping has caused widespread changes in the chemical quality of ground water by chanelling the rate and direction of flow, inducing infiltration from canals, and mixing of indigenous waters of dif

  15. Records of selected wells and lithologic logs of test holes, Hendry County and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, John E.; Causaras, Carmen R.; O'Donnell, T. H.

    1983-01-01

    To provide water-resource information for Hendry County, Florida , geologic test holes were drilled in the surficial aquifer, and an extensive inventory was compiled of wells in the surficial aquifer and deep artesian aquifers. This report provides: (1) records for 788 selected wells and test holes including location , construction, water use, water level, chloride concentration, specific conductance, temperature, yield, hydrogen sulfide, and iron-staining problems; and (2) lithologic logs for 26 test holes ranging in depth from 90 to 650 feet. A few inventoried wells and two test holes are in adjacent parts of Collier or Glades Counties. (USGS)

  16. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation

  17. Ground Water in Kilauea Volcano and Adjacent Areas of Mauna Loa Volcano, Island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.

    1993-01-01

    About 1,000 million gallons of water per day moves toward or into ground-water bodies of Kilauea Volcano from the lavas of Mauna Loa Volcano. This movement continues only to the northern boundaries of the east and southwest rift zones of Kilauea, where a substantial quantity of ground water is deflected downslope to other ground-water bodies or to the ocean. In the western part of Kilauea, the kaoiki fault system, which parallels the southwest rift zone, may be the main barrier to ground-water movement. The diversion of the ground water is manifested in the western part of Kilauea by the presence of large springs at the shore end of the Kaoiki fault system, and in the eastern part by the apparently large flow of unheated basal ground water north of the east rift zone. Thus, recharge to ground water in the rift zones of Kilauea and to the areas to the south of the rift zones may be largely by local rainfall. Recharge from rainfall for all of Kilauea is about 1,250 million gallons per day. Beneath the upper slopes of the Kilauea rift zones, ground-water levels are 2,000 feet or more above mean sea level, or more than 1,000 feet below land surface. Ground-water levels are at these high altitudes because numerous and closely spaced dikes at depth in the upper slopes impound the ground water. In the lower slopes, because the number of dikes decreases toward the surface, the presence of a sufficient number of dikes capable of impounding ground water at altitudes substantially above sea level is unlikely. In surrounding basal ground-water reservoirs, fresh basal ground water floats on seawater and, through a transition zone of mixed freshwater and seawater, discharges into the sea. The hydraulic conductivity of the dike-free lavas ranges from about 3,000 to about 7,000 feet per day. The conductivity in the upper slopes of the rift ranges from about 5 to 30 feet per day and that of the lower slopes of the east rift zone was calculated at about 7,000 feet per day. The

  18. Radiolarian paleo-oceanographic studies of Humboldt basin and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.O.

    1986-04-01

    Miocene-Pliocene samples from land-based sections along an east-west transect of the Humboldt basin were analyzed for microfossil content. The microfossil populations reflect the gradual infilling and shoaling of the basin. Radiolarian fauna indicate that initial deposition occurred in a basin open to deep marine waters. The shelfal characteristics of the radiolarian populations increase through time in a west-east direction. Fauna appear to be sourced from cooler waters of the North Pacific and deep Central Pacific.

  19. Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek and Adjacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Revision,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    AD-A142 517 ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY OF DDT CONTAMINATION OF HUNTSVILLE SP..(U) WATER AND AIR RESEARCH INC GAINESVILLE FL d H...DDT Con- tamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek and Adjacent Lands and Waters , Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama a. i irk ut iPOR...Pruitt and J. C. Nichols 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER)» DACW01-79-C-0224 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS Water and Air Research

  20. Anatomy of the visual word form area: adjacent cortical circuits and long-range white matter connections.

    PubMed

    Yeatman, Jason D; Rauschecker, Andreas M; Wandell, Brian A

    2013-05-01

    Circuitry in ventral occipital-temporal cortex is essential for seeing words. We analyze the circuitry within a specific ventral-occipital region, the visual word form area (VWFA). The VWFA is immediately adjacent to the retinotopically organized VO-1 and VO-2 visual field maps and lies medial and inferior to visual field maps within motion selective human cortex. Three distinct white matter fascicles pass within close proximity to the VWFA: (1) the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, (2) the inferior frontal occipital fasciculus, and (3) the vertical occipital fasciculus. The vertical occipital fasciculus terminates in or adjacent to the functionally defined VWFA voxels in every individual. The vertical occipital fasciculus projects dorsally to language and reading related cortex. The combination of functional responses from cortex and anatomical measures in the white matter provides an overview of how the written word is encoded and communicated along the ventral occipital-temporal circuitry for seeing words.

  1. Depositional history and seismic stratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Molenaar, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Lower Cretaceous rocks, which are widespread throughout the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) and adjacent areas north of the Brooks Range, make up the major part of the thick sedimentary fill of the Colville basin. Much seismic and well information obtained since 1974 has aided considerably in understanding these rocks. These data include about 20,000 km of seismic lines, covering much of the NPRA with a grid spacing of 10-20 km, and 28 exploratory wells that bring the total to more than 50 wells in and adjacent to the NPRA. The purpose of this chapter is to interpret the depositional history of Lower Cretaceous rocks in the NPRA and adjacent areas on the basis of the latest seismic and well data and well data and on information from outcrops in the southern part of the Colville basin. The basin geometry and depositional history described in earlier reports are repeated here in the context of the overall Lower Cretaceous depositional history. Well data (including paleontology) and seismic data are used almost exclusively to interpret relations in the northern foothills and coastal plain areas. Surface data and some well data are used in the southern parts of the northern foothills, and surface data are used exclusively to interpret the depositional history in the southern foothills and Brooks Range. The quality of seismic data is fair to good in most of the coastal plain, where the structure is simple. In the northern foothills, tracing seismic reflections is more difficult, especially in the shallower part of the section because of structural complications in the thrust-faulted anticlines. The quality of seismic data across the structurally complex southern foothills area is inadequate to correlate stratigraphic units of the outcrop area of the southern foothills with subsurface units to the north.

  2. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sufficiently detailed geologic, hydrologic, land use, soils, and vegetation data and analysis to demonstrate... additional data collection and analysis or other supporting documents, maps, and illustrations in order to... available data, may require additional data collection and analysis in order to make the determination,...

  3. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sufficiently detailed geologic, hydrologic, land use, soils, and vegetation data and analysis to demonstrate... additional data collection and analysis or other supporting documents, maps, and illustrations in order to... available data, may require additional data collection and analysis in order to make the determination,...

  4. Cetacean biomass densities near submarine canyons compared to adjacent shelf/slope areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, Robert D.; Winn, Howard E.

    1987-02-01

    Estimated cetacean biomass densities in areas of the northeastern U.S. continental shelf edge encompassing major submarine canyons were compared to those in neighboring shelf/slope areas. It was hypothesized that biomass-densities would prove to be higher in the canyon areas: however, the analysis demonstrated significantly lower total cetacean biomass in the canyon areas. When species were analyzed individually, only spotted dolphins ( Stenella spp.) showed a significant difference, with higher densities near the canyons. The canyons are apparently not more important as a cetacean habitat than the shelf break region generally.

  5. Favorable areas for prospecting adjacent to the Roberts Mountains thrust in southern Lander County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John Harris; McKee, Edwin H.

    1968-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping by the U.S. Geological Survey of more than 2,500 square miles of a relatively little-studied part of central Nevada has outlined four areas favorable for the discovery of metallic mineral deposits. In these areas, lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks crop out below the Roberts Mountains thrust, a widespread fault in central and north-central Nevada. These areas have a stratigraphic and structural setting similar to that of the areas where large, open-pit gold deposits have been discovered recently at Carlin and Cortez in north-central Nevada.

  6. Cadmium in the Coastal Upwelling Area Adjacent to the California Mexico Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segovia-Zavala, J. A.; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, F.; Alvarez-Borrego, S.

    1998-04-01

    Cadmium concentrations ([Cd]) were measured in samples from the water column of the coastal upwelling zone adjacent to the California - Mexico border. Temperature and nutrient distributions showed an intense upwelling event during our sampling. Lowest [Cd] were found at locations offshore (50 km) (0·03-0·058 nM), whereas the maximum concentrations were found inshore (0·14-0·166 nM). Both nutrients and [Cd] were enriched in coastal waters. Our inshore [Cd] values are about 25% of those reported for waters off central California. This is possibly due to the intrusion of oligotrophic waters from the eastern edge of the North Pacific Central Gyre to the Southern California Bight. Multivariate analysis indicates that high [Cd]s were associated with high phytoplankton biomass, nutrients and low temperature. Our data present no evidence of a [Cd] gradient due to the San Diego and Tijuana sewage discharges, which indicates that they maintain a very local effect.

  7. Trace element fingerprinting of cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells can reveal harvesting location in adjacent areas

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo, Fernando; Génio, Luciana; Costa Leal, Miguel; Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Determining seafood geographic origin is critical for controlling its quality and safeguarding the interest of consumers. Here, we use trace element fingerprinting (TEF) of bivalve shells to discriminate the geographic origin of specimens. Barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) were quantified in cockle shells (Cerastoderma edule) captured with two fishing methods (by hand and by hand-raking) and from five adjacent fishing locations within an estuarine system (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Results suggest no differences in TEF of cockle shells captured by hand or by hand-raking, thus confirming that metal rakes do not act as a potential source of metal contamination that could somehow bias TEF results. In contrast, significant differences were recorded among locations for all trace elements analysed. A Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP) revealed that 92% of the samples could be successfully classified according to their fishing location using TEF. We show that TEF can be an accurate, fast and reliable method to determine the geographic origin of bivalves, even among locations separated less than 1 km apart within the same estuarine system. Nonetheless, follow up studies are needed to determine if TEF can reliably discriminate between bivalves originating from different ecosystems. PMID:26149418

  8. Trace element fingerprinting of cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells can reveal harvesting location in adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Fernando; Génio, Luciana; Costa Leal, Miguel; Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-07-07

    Determining seafood geographic origin is critical for controlling its quality and safeguarding the interest of consumers. Here, we use trace element fingerprinting (TEF) of bivalve shells to discriminate the geographic origin of specimens. Barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) were quantified in cockle shells (Cerastoderma edule) captured with two fishing methods (by hand and by hand-raking) and from five adjacent fishing locations within an estuarine system (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Results suggest no differences in TEF of cockle shells captured by hand or by hand-raking, thus confirming that metal rakes do not act as a potential source of metal contamination that could somehow bias TEF results. In contrast, significant differences were recorded among locations for all trace elements analysed. A Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP) revealed that 92% of the samples could be successfully classified according to their fishing location using TEF. We show that TEF can be an accurate, fast and reliable method to determine the geographic origin of bivalves, even among locations separated less than 1 km apart within the same estuarine system. Nonetheless, follow up studies are needed to determine if TEF can reliably discriminate between bivalves originating from different ecosystems.

  9. Spatial patterns of cadmium and lead deposition on and adjacent to National Park Service lands in the vicinity of Red Dog Mine, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hasselbach, L; Ver Hoef, J M; Ford, J; Neitlich, P; Crecelius, E; Berryman, S; Wolk, B; Bohle, T

    2005-09-15

    Heavy metal escapement associated with ore trucks is known to occur along the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road corridor in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, northwest Alaska. Heavy metal concentrations in Hylocomium splendens moss (n = 226) were used in geostatistical models to predict the extent and pattern of atmospheric deposition of Cd and Pb on Monument lands. A stratified grid-based sample design was used with more intensive sampling near mine-related activity areas. Spatial predictions were used to produce maps of concentration patterns, and to estimate the total area in 10 moss concentration categories. Heavy metal levels in moss were highest immediately adjacent to the DMTS haul road (Cd > 24 mg/kg dw; Pb > 900 mg/kg dw). Spatial regression analyses indicated that heavy metal deposition decreased with the log of distance from the DMTS haul road and the DMTS port site. Analysis of subsurface soil suggested that observed patterns of heavy metal deposition reflected in moss were not attributable to subsurface lithology at the sample points. Further, moss Pb concentrations throughout the northern half of the study area were high relative to concentrations previously reported from other Arctic Alaska sites. Collectively, these findings indicate the presence of mine-related heavy metal deposition throughout the northern portion of Cape Krusenstern National Monument. Geospatial analyses suggest that the Pb depositional area extends 25 km north of the haul road to the Kisimilot/Iyikrok hills, and possibly beyond. More study is needed to determine whether higher moss heavy metal concentrations in the northernmost portion of the study area reflect deposition from mining-related activities, weathering from mineralized Pb/Zn outcrops in the broader region, or a combination of the two. South of the DMTS haul road, airborne deposition appears to be constrained by the Tahinichok Mountains. Heavy metal levels continue to diminish south of

  10. Larviciding offshore islands reduces adulticidal treatment of populated areas adjacent to national wildlife refuges.

    PubMed

    Hribar, Lawrence J; Fussell, Edsel M; Leal, Andrea L

    2011-12-01

    The Florida Keys Mosquito Control District has conducted larvicide missions on uninhabited offshore islands of the Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge and the National Key Deer Refuge since 2003. The objective of these missions is to reduce the need to apply adulticides on nearby populated islands where private lands are interspersed with refuge lands that support a diverse assemblage of native butterflies and insect-pollinated plants on Big Pine Key, No Name Key, Little Torch Key, Middle Torch Key, and Big Torch Key (the Torch Keys). More than 800 visits were made to refuge islands by Florida Keys Mosquito Control District personnel; 334 aerial larvicide missions were flown. From 2003 to 2010, a marked reduction in adult mosquito numbers was seen on Big Pine Key, and to a lesser extent on No Name Key. Seasonal distribution of mosquitoes was not different, however. Number of aerial adulticide missions flown on Big Pine Key, No Name Key, and the Torch Keys was 2, 1, and 2 in 2003; 9, 10, and 7 in 2004; 4, 4, and 2 in 2005; 6, 6, and 7 in 2006; 1, 0, and 0 in 2007; 3, 2, and 4 in 2008; 4, 3, and 4 in 2009; and 1, 1, and 3 in 2010, respectively. This is a dramatic reduction from prior years; from 1998 to 2002, 57 aerial adulticide missions were flown on Big Pine Key, 45 missions were flown on No Name Key, and 38 on the Torch Keys. Larviciding is an important component of an integrated approach to mosquito management that seeks to reduce environmental impacts on the national wildlife refuges.

  11. Regional prospectivity of Mesozoic and Tertiary in the eastern Adriatic and adjacent area

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.; Dolan, P.; Lunn, G. )

    1988-08-01

    Post-Hercynian deposits in the eastern Adriatic and the adjacent external zones of the Dinarides and Albanian Hellenides may be subdivided into four facies groups. (1) Permian-Lower Triassic clastics and carbonates with some evaporites, (2) Middle Triassic-lower Tertiary carbonate platform facies with associated continental margin deeper marine sequences, (3) Upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary flysch, and (4) middle Tertiary molasse and postorogenic Neogene sediments. The Permian to lower Tertiary section was deposited during the complex Alpine cycle, while the upper Tertiary section is the product of post-Alpine deposition. This depositional history during markedly different tectonic regimes creates two groups of petroleum plays in the eastern Adriatic: (1) Alpine cycle plays in the Permian to lower Tertiary in the thrust-faulted and folded foreland of Adria and (2) post-Alpine plays in upper Tertiary postorogenic or late synorogenic basins. Around the Adriatic, the post-Alpine plays have so far proved the most successful. Major production occurs in the onshore Po basin and its extension beneath the Adriatic. Some of this production is from deep Alpine-cycle reservoirs, but the bulk is from the upper Tertiary-Quaternary. Similar horizons produce onshore and offshore the central-southern Adriatic coast of Italy. Major Tertiary production also occurs to the northeast in the Pannonian basin of Yugoslavia and Hungary from Miocene and younger sequences. Onshore Albania produces significant quantities of hydrocarbons; although data are scarce, much of this production is presumably from upper Tertiary molasse or lower Tertiary flysch.

  12. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA.... Within 100 feet of the wharves, piers or shore. (b) The regulations. No persons and no vessels or...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1060 - Oakland Outer Harbor adjacent to the Oakland Army Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA.... Within 100 feet of the wharves, piers or shore. (b) The regulations. No persons and no vessels or...

  14. Impact of Land Reclamation on the Coastal Areas in Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burak, Selmin; Kucukakca, Emrah

    2015-04-01

    Istanbul lies on both sides of the Bosphorus, the Golden Horn and the Marmara Sea which is an inland sea. The city is a large metropolis having more than 15 million of population that has been subjected to heavy and unplanned urbanization due to natural growth and immigration from the Eastern regions of Turkey, in particular. This resulted in loss of green areas and gave rise to land reclamation on the coastal areas of the Marmara Sea in order to provide ring roads along the seaside and substitute the lost green areas by newly generated recreational areas. Therefore heavy land reclamation on the coastal areas of the Marmara Sea has been the major environmental concern related to the damage caused to the coastal ecosystems during the last decade. The reclaimed land on the Northern shoreline of the Marmara Sea has reached 80% as of 2014. As widely known, coastal areas are the main housbandary and spawning areas for coastal ecosystems and pelagic species. Due to inappropriate reclamation processes, significant decrease in coastal ecosystems and species has been reported in several studies, Istanbul is no exception. Coastal zones are complex systems exhibiting specific environmental and socio-economic particularities. In recent years, many organizations, governments and policy-makers have pointed out the urgent need to develop global, regional, national and local strategies to ensure the protection and sustainable use of coastal zones. A long-term sustainable development of coastal areas cannot be achieved without the preservation of natural resources on which the development relies. The dilemma is to ensure the sustainable development of natural resources which is not the case as reported in several studies. Continuous exposure of the Istanbul coastal areas to uncontrolled, unplanned and inappropriate reclamation methods from past to present and recently experienced enhanced reclamation has been a major concern that is expressed by the scientific society. However

  15. Geology of the Cape Mendocino, Eureka, Garberville, and Southwestern Part of the Hayfork 30 x 60 Minute Quadrangles and Adjacent Offshore Area, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Ellen, S.D.; Blake, M.C.; Jayko, Angela S.; Irwin, W.P.; Aalto, K.R.; Carver, G.A.; Clarke, S.H.; Barnes, J.B.; Cecil, J.D.; Cyr, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction These geologic maps and accompanying structure sections depict the geology and structure of much of northwestern California and the adjacent continental margin. The map area includes the Mendocino triple junction, which is the juncture of the North American continental plate with two plates of the Pacific ocean basin. The map area also encompasses major geographic and geologic provinces of northwestern California. The maps incorporate much previously unpublished geologic mapping done between 1980 and 1995, as well as published mapping done between about 1950 and 1978. To construct structure sections to mid-crustal depths, we integrate the surface geology with interpretations of crustal structure based on seismicity, gravity and aeromagnetic data, offshore structure, and seismic reflection and refraction data. In addition to describing major geologic and structural features of northwestern California, the geologic maps have the potential to address a number of societally relevant issues, including hazards from earthquakes, landslides, and floods and problems related to timber harvest, wildlife habitat, and changing land use. All of these topics will continue to be of interest in the region, as changing land uses and population density interact with natural conditions. In these interactions, it is critical that the policies and practices affecting man and the environment integrate an adequate understanding of the geology. This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (ceghmf.ps, ceghmf.pdf, ceghmf.txt), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The

  16. Determining Crustal Structure beneath the New Madrid Seismic Zone and Adjacent Areas: Application of a Reverberation-removal Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) and some of the adjacent areas are covered by a low-velocity sedimentary sequence, giving rise to strong reverberations in the P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) and making it difficult to reliably determine crustal thickness and Poisson's ratio using the conventional H-k stacking technique. Here we apply a newly developed technique (Yu et al., 2015; doi: 10.1002/2014JB011610) to effectively remove or reduce the reverberations from the sedimentary layer to obtain more reliable results. Stacking of a total of 38528 radial RFs recorded by 343 stations in the study area shows systematic spatial variations in crustal thickness (H), Vp/Vs ratio and amplitude (R; relative to the direction P) of the converted Moho phases. Our results indicate that the upper Mississippi Embayment (ME), a broad southwest-plunging trough with the thickest sedimentary layer in the study area, is characterized by a thin crustal thickness (~32 km), while adjacent areas have relatively thicker crust (>40 km). This area also possesses relatively large Vp/Vs (>1.85) values, suggesting possible intrusion of mantle-derived mafic rocks. Most part of the Ozark Uplift is characterized by relatively small Vp/Vs (<1.79) values which indicate an overall felsic crust. In contrast to the NMSZ which is part of the Reelfoot rift, the southern Illinois Basin, which is an intracontinental sag basin, is characterized by a crust of about 45 km which is a few km thicker than the surrounding areas, and a normal Vp/Vs, suggesting sharp differences in crustal structure between rift and sag basins.

  17. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Microwave Scanning Beam Landing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Microwave Scanning Beam Landing Ground Stations, 1,500' to the south of the north end of Runway 17/35; 1,500' to the west of the east end of Runway 23/05; and 1,500' southwest of the northeast end of Runway 20/02., White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  18. Indigenous lands, protected areas, and slowing climate change.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Taylor H; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; da Fonseca, Gustavo A B; Nepstad, Daniel; Pfaff, Alexander; Petsonk, Annie; Anderson, Anthony; Boucher, Doug; Cattaneo, Andrea; Conte, Marc; Creighton, Ken; Linden, Lawrence; Maretti, Claudio; Moutinho, Paulo; Ullman, Roger; Victurine, Ray

    2010-03-16

    Recent climate talks in Copenhagen reaffirmed the crucial role of reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD). Creating and strengthening indigenous lands and other protected areas represents an effective, practical, and immediate REDD strategy that addresses both biodiversity and climate crises at once.

  19. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, September 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    A September 1978 potentiometric-surface map depicts the annual high water-level period of the Floridan aquifer in the Southwest Florida Management District. Potentiometric levels increased 10 to 25 feet between May 1978 and September 1978, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk and Manatee Counties. These areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest fluctuations in water-levels between the low and high water-level periods. Water-level rises in coastal, northern and southern areas of the Water Management District ranged from 0 to 10 feet. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Potentiometric surface of Floridan aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, September 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, P.D.; Mills, L.R.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    A potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual high water-level period. Potentiometric levels increased 15 to 30 feet between May 1977 and September 1977 in the citrus and farming sections of southeastern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, and southwestern Polk Counties. These areas are widely affected by pumpage for irrigation and have the greatest range in water-level fluctuations between the low and high water-level periods. Water-level rises in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District ranged from 0 to 15 feet. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower Rio…

  2. Evapotranspiration and runoff from large land areas: Land surface hydrology for atmospheric general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, Eric F.

    1993-01-01

    A land surface hydrology parameterization for use in atmospheric GCM's is presented. The parameterization incorporates subgrid scale variability in topography, soils, soil moisture and precipitation. The framework of the model is the statistical distribution of a topography-soils index, which controls the local water balance fluxes, and is therefore taken to represent the large land area. Spatially variable water balance fluxes are integrated with respect to the topography-soils index to yield our large topography-soils distribution, and interval responses are weighted by the probability of occurrence of the interval. Grid square averaged land surface fluxes result. The model functions independently as a macroscale water balance model. Runoff ratio and evapotranspiration efficiency parameterizations are derived and are shown to depend on the spatial variability of the above mentioned properties and processes, as well as the dynamics of land surface-atmosphere interactions.

  3. Geology of the area adjacent to the Free Enterprise uranium-silver Mine, Boulder District, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, W.A.; Gude, A.J.

    1952-01-01

    Uranium minerals.occur in pods associated with cryptocrystalline silica, silver minerals, and scattered sulfide mineral grains in a hydrothermal vein that cuts quartz monzonite and alaskite at the Free Enterprise mine, 2 miles west of Boulder, Mont. The Free Enterprise vein is one of many silicified reef-like structures in this area, most of which trend about N. 60° E. The cryptocrystalline silica zones of the area are lenticular and are bordered by an altered zone where quartz monzonite is the wall rock. No alteration was noticed where alaskite is adjacent to silica zones. No uranium minerals were observed at the surface, but radioactivity anomalies were noted at 57 outcrops. Underground mining has shown that leaching by downward percolating waters has removed most of the uranium from the near-surface part of the Free Enterprise vein and probably has enriched slightly, parts of the vein and the adjacent wall rock from the bottom of the leached zone to the ground-water level. It is possible that other veins that show low to moderate radioactivity at the surface may contain significant concentrations of uranium minerals at relatively shallow depth. The quartz monzonite appears to be a more favorable host rock for the cryptocrystalline silica and associated uranium minerals than the alaskite. The alaskite occurs as vertical_dikes plug-like masses, and as irregularly shaped, gently dipping masses that are believed to have been intruded into open fractures formed during the cooling of the quartz monzonite.

  4. Benthic meiofaunal composition and community structure in the Sethukuda mangrove area and adjacent open sea, East coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilagavathi, Balasubramanaian; Das, Bandana; Saravanakumar, Ayyappan; Raja, Kuzhanthaivel

    2011-06-01

    The ecological aspects of meiofaunal communities in the Muthupettai mangrove forest, East coast of India, has not been investigated in the last two decades. Surface water temperature ranged from 23.5 °C to 31.8 °C. Salinity varied from 24 to 34 ppt, while water pH fluctuated from 7.4 to 8.3. Dissolved oxygen concentration ranged from 3.86 to 5.33 mg/l. Meiofauna analysis in this study identified a total of 106 species from the mangrove and adjacent open sea area of Sethukuda. Among these, 56 species of foraminiferans, 20 species of nematodes, 7 species of harpacticoid copepods, 4 species of ostrocodes, and 2 species of rotifers were identified. Furthermore, a single species was identified from the following groups: ciliophora, cnidaria, gnathostomulida, insecta, propulida, bryozoa and polychaete larvae. Meiofaunal density varied between 12029 to 23493 individuals 10 cm/m2. The diversity index ranged from 3.515 to 3.680, species richness index varied from 6.384 to 8.497, and evenness index varied from 0.839 to 0876 in the mangrove area and adjacent open sea.

  5. Spatial distribution and controlling factors of sedimentary bodies in Jiaozhou Bay and Adjacent Sea Areas, Qingdao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Heping; Li, Guangxue; Li, Shuanglin; Li, Shaoquan; Li, Chun

    2011-06-01

    The distributions of thickness of unconsolidated Quaternary sedimentary layers in Jiaozhou Bay and Qingdao offshore area were studied by using 1079-km high-resolution shallow seismic profiles and drilling core data, and the factors controlling the Quaternary evolution were discussed. The results show that such thickness distributions resulted from the coactions of geologic structures and marine hydrodynamic conditions since the Holocene. The geologic structures controlled the slope deposit, proluvial and fluvial fillings since the late Pleistocene. Holocene marine hydrodynamics eroded away sediments at the bay mouth, and tides carried these eroded materials to the sides of the bay mouth and released them there, forming channel-ridge-alternating geomorphic features. During transgressive processes, the sea level rose rapidly, and insufficient sediment supply and tidal actions yielded the relict sediments in the east of Qingdao offshore area.

  6. Potentiometric surface of Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, May 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1979-01-01

    A May 1979 potentiometric-surface map depicts the annual low water-level period. Potentiometric levels declined 4 to 21 feet between September 1978 and May 1979, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk, northwestern DeSoto, and Manatee Counties. Water levels in these areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest range in fluctuations. Water-level declines ranged from 0 to 6 feet in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District. Generally potentiometric levels were higher than previous May levels due to heavy rains in April and May. In parts of Hillsborough, Pasco, and Pinellas Counties, May 1979 potentiometric levels were 18 feet higher than those of September 1978. (USGS)

  7. Variability of community interaction networks in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montano-Moctezuma, G.; Li, H.W.; Rossignol, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Regional and small-scale local oceanographic conditions can lead to high variability in community structure even among similar habitats. Communities with identical species composition can depict distinct networks due to different levels of disturbance as well as physical and biological processes. In this study we reconstruct community networks in four different areas off the Oregon Coast by matching simulated communities with observed dynamics. We compared reserves with harvested areas. Simulations suggested that different community networks, but with the same species composition, can represent each study site. Differences were found in predator-prey interactions as well as non-predatory interactions between community members. In addition, each site can be represented as a set of models, creating alternative stages among sites. The set of alternative models that characterize each study area depicts a sequence of functional responses where each specific model or interaction structure creates different species composition patterns. Different management practices, either in the past or of the present, may lead to alternative communities. Our findings suggest that management strategies should be analyzed at a community level that considers the possible consequences of shifting from one community scenario to another. This analysis provides a novel conceptual framework to assess the consequences of different management options for ecological communities. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A reconnaissance of hydrogeologic conditions in Lehigh Acres and adjacent areas of Lee County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boggess, Durward Hoye; Missimer, T.M.

    1975-01-01

    Lehigh Acres, a residential community with a population of about 13,500 and comprising an area of about 94 square miles (243 square kilometres) in the eastern part of Lee County, has been under development since 1954. Prior to development the area was poorly drained. By 1974, more than 150 miles (241 kilometres) of drainageways had been constructed to drain the area. The water-bearing formations underlying Lehigh Acres include the water-table, sandstone, lower Hawthorn, and Suwannee aquifers. The water-table aquifer is usually not more than 30 feet (9 metres) thick; it contains water of relatively good quality, except for iron and color. Water levels in this aquifer probably have been affected by construction of drainage canals. The sandstone aquifer, used extensively throughout the area as a source of water supply usually contains water of good quality although the water is hard and in places may contain concentrations of dissolved solids and iron which exceed the recommended limits of the U.S. Public Health Service and the State of Florida for drinking water. The lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers, usually encountered at depths between 440 and 850 feet (135 and 262 metres), contains water with relatively high concentrations of sodium, sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids. Three streams, the Orange River, Hickey Creek, and Bedman Creek and the canals connected to them, provide drainage of the area. Except for the Orange River, where the water is of good chemical quality, little is known of the water quality. Similarly, little information is available on stream discharge except for the Orange River where the average annual discharge was 41.1 cubic feet per second (11.6 cubic metres per second) between 1935-46. Most lakes and ponds in Lehigh Acres are hydraulically connected to the water-table aquifer such that factors which affect one also affect the other. Theoretical drawdown curves indicate that the drainage canals may affect ground-water levels to a

  9. Spatio-temporal distributions of chlorofluorocarbons and methyl iodide in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent marine area.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Da; Yang, Gui-Peng; He, Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Temporal and spatial distribution patterns of volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs), such as dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113), and methyl iodide (CH3I), in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and its adjacent marine area were measured during two cruises from 21 February to 10 March 2014 and from 10 to 21 July 2014. VHOC concentrations showed seasonal variation with higher values during winter. VHOC distributions evidently decreased along the freshwater plume from the river mouth to the open sea and from inshore to offshore regions. VHOC distributions were obviously influenced by the Changjiang runoff, anthropogenic inputs, and biological release of phytoplankton. The study area was a net sink for CFC-12 and CFC-11, but a net source for atmospheric CH3I during the study periods.

  10. Geology of the Stroudsburg quadrangle and Adjacent areas, Pennsylvania--New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epstein, Jack Burton

    1971-01-01

    The Stroudsburg area is within the Valley and Ridge and Great Valley physiographic provinces, Northampton and Monroe Counties, Pennsylvania, and Warren County, New Jersey. The northeast-trending subparallel valleys and ridges resulted from erosion of folded heterogeneous sedimentary rocks. These are Middle Ordovician to Middle Devonian in age and are more than 17,000 feet thick. Deposition of a thick flysch sequence (Martinsburg Formation of Ordovician age) accompanied onset of Taconic orogenesis. It was followed by deposition of a thick molasse sequence of Silurian and Early Devonian age (continental and marginal-marine clastics--Shawangunk Formation and Bloomsburg Red Beds--overlain by predominantly marginal-marine and subtidal limestone, dolomite, shale, and sandstone--Poxono Island Formation through Oriskany Group). Basin deepening and gradual shallowing occurred during Esopus through Mahantango deposition, heralding the Acadian clastic wedge exposed north of the Stroudsburg area. Interpretation of sedimentary structures and regional stratigraphic relations suggest that the Silurian and Devonian rocks were deposited in the following environments: A1luviated coastal plain (meandering and braided streams), tidal flats (supratidal and intertidal), barrier zone, and neritic zone (upper and lower). The rock stratigraphic units have been grouped into four lithotectonic units, each having a different style of deformation. Folds produced in these rocks are disharmonic, and it is believed that each rock sequence is set off from units above and below by decollements, or zones of detachment. Movement was northwest into the Appalachian basin, primarily by gravitational sliding. The contact between the Shawangunk Formation of Silurian age and Martinsburg Formation of Ordovician age, is one zone of detachment as well as an angular unconformity. Deformational effects of the Middle to Late Ordovician Taconic orogeny are elusive, but it appears that the folds and most minor

  11. Land area change in coastal Louisiana from 1932 to 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Couvillion, Brady R.; Barras, John A.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Sleavin, William; Fischer, Michelle; Beck, Holly; Trahan, Nadine; Griffin, Brad; Heckman, David

    2011-01-01

    Coastal Louisiana wetlands make up the seventh largest delta on Earth, contain about 37 percent of the estuarine herbaceous marshes in the conterminous United States, and support the largest commercial fishery in the lower 48 States. These wetlands are in peril because Louisiana currently undergoes about 90 percent of the total coastal wetland loss in the continental United States. Documenting and understanding the occurrence and rates of wetland loss are necessary for effective planning, protection, and restoration activities. The analyses of landscape change presented in this report use historical surveys, aerial data, and satellite data to track landscape changes. Summary data are presented for 1932-2010; trend data are presented for 1985-2010. These later data were calculated separately because of concerns over the comparability of the 1932 and 1956 datasets (which are based on survey and aerial data, respectively) with the later datasets (which are all based on satellite imagery). These analyses show that coastal Louisiana has undergone a net change in land area of about -1,883 square miles (mi2) from 1932 to 2010. This net change in land area amounts to a decrease of about 25 percent of the 1932 land area. Persistent losses account for 95 percent of this land area decrease; the remainder are areas that have converted to water but have not yet exhibited the persistence necessary to be classified as \\"loss.\\" Trend analyses from 1985 to 2010 show a wetland loss rate of 16.57 mi2 per year. If this loss were to occur at a constant rate, it would equate to Louisiana losing an area the size of one football field per hour. The use of 17 datasets plus the application of consistent change criteria in this study provide opportunities to better understand the timing and causal mechanisms of wetland loss that are critical for forecasting landscape changes in the future.

  12. Isostatic gravity map of the Point Sur 30 x 60 quadrangle and adjacent areas, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, J.T.; Morin, R.L.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2011-01-01

    This isostatic residual gravity map is part of a regional effort to investigate the tectonics and water resources of the central Coast Range. This map serves as a basis for modeling the shape of basins and for determining the location and geometry of faults in the area. Local spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field (after removing variations caused by instrument drift, earth-tides, latitude, elevation, terrain, and deep crustal structure), as expressed by the isostatic anomaly, reflect the distribution of densities in the mid- to upper crust, which in turn can be related to rock type. Steep gradients in the isostatic gravity field often indicate lithologic or structural boundaries. Gravity highs reflect the Mesozoic granitic and Franciscan Complex basement rocks that comprise both the northwest-trending Santa Lucia and Gabilan Ranges, whereas gravity lows in Salinas Valley and the offshore basins reflect the thick accumulations of low-density alluvial and marine sediment. Gravity lows also occur where there are thick deposits of low-density Monterey Formation in the hills southeast of Arroyo Seco (>2 km, Marion, 1986). Within the map area, isostatic residual gravity values range from approximately -60 mGal offshore in the northern part of the Sur basin to approximately 22 mGal in the Santa Lucia Range.

  13. Emergency ground-water supplies in the Seattle-Tacoma urban complex and adjacent areas, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxworthy, B.L.

    1972-01-01

    Urban areas that are supplied from surface-water sources are especially vulnerable to major disruption of their water supplies. Such disruption could result from natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, or landslides or from such other causes as dam failures fallout of radioactive material or other toxic substance from the atmosphere or other toxic substances from the atmosphere or direct introduction (either accidental or deliberate) of any substance that would render the water unfit for use. Prolonged disruption of public water supplies not only causes personal hardships but also endangers health and safety unless suitable alternative emergency supplies can be provided. The degree of hardship and danger generally increases in direct relation to the population density. Ground water because it occurs beneath protective soil and rock materials is less subject to sudden major contamination than are surface-water bodies. For this reason and also because of its widespread availability in the Puget Sound region ground water is especially desireable as a sources of emergency supplies for drinking or other uses requiring water of good quality. In much of the area existing wells would be suitable as safe sources of emergency supplies.

  14. Hydrogeology of Valley-Fill Aquifers and Adjacent Areas in Eastern Chemung County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-10-19

    Water-resource potential is greatest within saturated sand and gravel in the Chemung River valley (nearly 1 mile wide), especially where induced infiltration of additional water from the Chemung River is possible. The second most favorable area is the Newtown Creek valley at the confluence of Newtown Creek with North Branch Newtown Creek east of Horseheads, N.Y. Extensive sand and gravel deposits within the Breesport, N.Y., area are largely unsaturated but may have greater saturation along the east side of Jackson Creek immediately north of Breesport. Till deposits confine sand and gravel along Newtown Creek at Erin, N.Y., and along much of the upper reach of North Branch Newtown Creek; this confining unit may limit recharge and potential well yield. The north-south oriented valleys of Baldwin and Wynkoop Creeks end at notched divides that imply input of glacial meltwater and limited sediment from outside of the present watersheds. These two valleys are relatively narrow but contain variably sorted sand and gravel, which, in places, may be capable of supplying modest-size community water systems.

  15. Gravity and Magnetic Investigations of the Mojave National Preserve and Adjacent Areas, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Biehler, S.; Negrini, R.; Mickus, K.; Miller, D.M.; Miller, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Gravity and aeromagnetic data provide the underpinnings of a hydrogeologic framework for the Mojave National Preserve by estimating the thickness of Cenozoic deposits and locating inferred structural features that influence groundwater flow. An inversion of gravity data indicates that thin (<1 km) basin deposits cover much of the Preserve, except for Ivanpah Valley and the Woods Mountains volcanic center. Localized areas of Cenozoic deposits thicker than 500 m are predicted beneath parts of Lanfair Valley, Fenner Valley, near Kelso, Soda Lake, and southeast of Baker. Along the southern margin of the Mojave National Preserve, basins greater than 1 km deep are located between the Clipper and Marble Mountains, between the Marble and Bristol Mountains, and south of the Bristol Mountains near Amboy. Both density and magnetization boundaries defined by horizontal-gradient analyses coincide locally with Cenozoic faults and can be used to extend these faults beneath cover. Magnetization boundaries also highlight the structural grain within the crystalline rocks and may serve as a proxy for fracturing, an important source of permeability within the generally impermeable basement rocks, thus mapping potential groundwater pathways through and along the mountain ranges in the study area.

  16. Surface-water features in Osceola County and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, G.H.; Frazee, James M.

    1979-01-01

    The western two-thirds of Osceola County, Fla., drains southward by way of the Kissimmee River and its tributaries; the eastern one-third drains eastward to the St. Johns River or to marshy areas that make up part of the headwaters of the St. Johns River. About 15 percent of the county is covered by several hundred lakes whose surface areas range in size from a few to several thousand acres. Much of the natural drainage has been altered by canalization or regulated by control structures. Under natural conditions streamflow is seasonal, usually high in September or October and low in May or June, in phase with the rainy season. Control structures are used to maintain lake levels within a relatively small range in stage, producing greater seasonal variations in river flow than before regulation. Dissolved-solids concentration of much of the surface water is less than 240 mg/l, in some, much less. The water typically is of calcium bicarbonate type. Color is fairly high, in water draining from swamps, where the pickup of humic acids is significant. (Kosco-USGS)

  17. Configuration of the top of the Floridan aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buono, A.; Rutledge, A.T.

    1978-01-01

    This map depicts the approximate top of the rock that composes the Floridan aquifer. The contours represent the elevation of the top of the Floridan aquifer to mean sea level. Rock units recognized to be part of the Floridan aquifer are limestone and dolomite ranging from middle Eocene to early Miocene. They are Lake City Limestone, Avon Park Limestone, Ocala Limestone, Suwannee Limestone, and Tampa Limestone. In this report, the top of the Floridan aquifer is a limestone defined as the first consistent rock of early Miocene age or older below which occur no clay confining beds. Although the Hawthorn formation of middle Miocene is considered part of the Floridan aquifer when it is in direct hydrologic contact with lower lying rock units, it is not considered here because of a lack of detailed delineation of areas where contact exists. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Methods for delineating flood-prone areas in the Great Basin of Nevada and adjacent states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkham, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Great Basin is a region of about 210,000 square miles having no surface drainage to the ocean; it includes most of Nevada and parts of Utah, California, Oregon, Idaho, and Wyoming. The area is characterized by many parallel mountain ranges and valleys trending north-south. Stream channels usually are well defined and steep within the mountains, but on reaching the alluvial fan at the canyon mouth, they may diverge into numerous distributary channels, be discontinuous near the apex of the fan, or be deeply entrenched in the alluvial deposits. Larger rivers normally have well-defined channels to or across the valley floors, but all terminate at lakes or playas. Major floods occur in most parts of the Great Basin and result from snowmelt, frontal-storm rainfall, and localized convective rainfall. Snowmelt floods typically occur during April-June. Floods resulting from frontal rain and frontal rain on snow generally occur during November-March. Floods resulting from convective-type rainfall during localized thunderstorms occur most commonly during the summer months. Methods for delineating flood-prone areas are grouped into five general categories: Detailed, historical, analytical, physiographic, and reconnaissance. The detailed and historical methods are comprehensive methods; the analytical and physiographic are intermediate; and the reconnaissance method is only approximate. Other than the reconnaissance method, each method requires determination of a T-year discharge (the peak rate of flow during a flood with long-term average recurrence interval of T years) and T-year profile and the development of a flood-boundary map. The procedure is different, however, for each method. Appraisal of the applicability of each method included consideration of its technical soundness, limitations and uncertainties, ease of use, and costs in time and money. Of the five methods, the detailed method is probably the most accurate, though most expensive. It is applicable to

  19. Hydrology of the LC Holding coal-lease tract and adjacent areas, southwestern Utah, and potential effects of coal mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordy, G.E.; Seiler, R.L.; Stolp, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Land Management recognized a need for baseline hydrologic data and an understanding of the hydrologic system in the L.C. Holding coal-lease tract in order to determine the potential effects of mining on the water resources of the area. The potential impacts of mining on the hydrology of the area are of concern because Zion National Park is less than 3 miles from the westernmost part of the lease tract. Much of the water that passes through the Park either originates in the lease tract or traverses it. Runoff from melting snowpacks and summer thundershowers contributes most of the flow to perennial streams in the area. Base flow is sustained by spring discharge and diffuse seepage. Regional groundwater movement is southward. Most of the geologic formations in the study area contain aquifers. The water table of the regional aquifer is about 870 ft deep in the Navajo Sandstone. Groundwater issuing from the Navajo Sandstone on the east side of Zion Canyon has specific conductance values several times larger than groundwater from the west side, indicating recharge to the Navajo from the overlying strata, which contain water of larger specific conductance. Potential effects of mining in the area include: (1) increased dissolved-solids concen- trations and decreased pH values in both surface and groundwater; (2) dewatering of aquifers, causing a decrease or cessation of flow to some springs; and (3) land subsidence and associated subsidence fractures.

  20. Intensification of constructed wetlands for land area reduction: a review.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Huma; Masih, Ilyas

    2017-03-11

    The large land area requirement of constructed wetlands (CWs) is a major limitation of its application especially in densely populated and mountainous areas. This review paper provides insights on different strategies applied for the reduction of land area including stack design and intensification of CWs with different aeration methods. The impacts of different aeration methods on the performance and land area reduction were extensively and critically evaluated for nine wetland systems under three aeration strategies such as tidal flow (TF), effluent recirculation (ER), and artificial aeration (AA) applied on three types of CWs including vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW), horizontal flow constructed wetland (HFCW), and hybrid constructed wetland (HCW). The area reduction and pollutant removal efficiency showed substantial variation among different types of CWs and aeration strategies. The ER-VFCW designated the smallest footprint of 1.1 ± 0.5 m(2) PE(-1) (population equivalent) followed by TF-VFCW with the footprint of 2.1 ± 1.8 m(2) PE(-1), and the large footprint was of AA-HFCW (7.8 ± 4.7 m(2) PE(-1)). When footprint and removal efficiency both are the major indicators for the selection of wetland type, the best options for practical application could be TF-VFCW, ER-HCW, and AA-HCW. The data and results outlined in this review could be instructive for futures studies and practical applications of CWs for wastewater treatment, especially in land-limited regions.

  1. Paleoenvironments and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation of southwestern Alabama and adjacent coastal water area

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1984-09-01

    Upper Jurassic Norphlet sediments in southwestern Alabama and the adjacent coastal water area accumulated under arid climatic conditions. The Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States extended into southwestern Alabama, providing a barrier for air and water circulation during Norphlet deposition. Norphlet paleogeography was dominated by a broad desert plain rimmed to the north and east by the Appalachians and to the south by a developing shallow sea. Initiation of Norphlet sedimentation was a result of erosion of the southern Appalachians. Norphlet conglomerates were deposited in coalescing alluvial fans in proximity to an Appalachian source. The conglomeratic sandstones grade downdip into red-bed lithofacies that accumulated in distal portions of alluvial fan and wadi systems. Quartzose sandstones (Denkman Member) were deposited as dune and interdune sediments on a broad desert plain. The source of the sand was the updip and adjacent alluvial fan, plain, and wadi deposits. A marine transgression was initiated late in Denkman deposition, resulting in the reworking of previously deposited Norphlet sediments. Norphlet hydrocarbon potential in southwestern and offshore Alabama is excellent with four oil and gas fields already established. Petroleum traps discovered to date are primarily structural traps involving salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines, and extensional fault traps associated with salt movement. Reservoir rocks consist of quartzose sandstones, which are principally eolian in origin. Smackover algal carbonate mudstones were probably the source for the Norphlet hydrocarbons.

  2. Using GIS to develop socio-economic profiles of areas adjacent to DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.C.; Saraswatula, S.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the research addressed in this paper is to identify and analyze the offsite effects of DOE activities at the Savannah River Site. The paper presents the socio-economic conditions of the areas surrounding the site in order to evaluate the possible effects of DOE activities. The study employed a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate spatial relationships between otherwise unrelated factors. Socio-economic data used in the study are publicly available and were obtained mainly from the Bureau of the Census. The Department of Energy (DOE), currently dealing with the environmental management of a large number of sites throughout the United States, must consider the effects of its activities on surrounding populations and ensure compliance with the various federal regulations, such as the executive order on environmental justice. Environmental justice is the process of studying and achieving equal distribution of the effects of environmental pollution on populations across social and economic lines. An executive order signed by the President has directed federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to make achieving environmental justice a part of the agency`s mission by identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations.

  3. Hydrologic sections through Lee County and adjacent areas of Hendry and Collier counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boggess, Durward H.; Missimer, T.M.; O'Donnell, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The freshwater underlying Lee, western Hendry, and northern Collier Counties occurs within the marine terrace sands, the Fort Thompson, Caloosahatchee, Tamiami, and Hawthorn Formations. These are, respectively, the water-table aquifer, an aquifer in the Tamiami Formation, and an aquifer in the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation. These aquifers are separated by clay, marl, and marly limestone. Wells tapping the water-table aquifer are commonly less than 50 feet deep, with yields ranging from 5 to 500 gallons per minute. The water quality in the aquifer is usually good, except for iron, which generally exceeds 1 milligram per liter, and color, which ranges from 30 to 600 Platinum-Cobalt units. Wells tapping the Tamiami aquifer range in depth from about 60 to 300 feet; most are less than 100 feet deep. Yields range from 20 to 500 gallons per minute. The water quality in the Tamiami aquifer is good, except where affected by leakage from deep artesian wells. Wells tapping the upper Hawthorn aquifer range in depth from about 100 to 300 feet. Yields range from 10 to 500 gallons per minute. The water quality from the upper Hawthorn aquifer is good, except in areas where upward leakage from the deep artesian aquifer has occurred. (USGS)

  4. High resolution regional crustal models from irregularly distributed data: Application to Asia and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolk, Ward; Kaban, Mikhail; Beekman, Fred; Tesauro, Magdala; Mooney, Walter D.; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2013-08-01

    We propose a new methodology to obtain crustal models in areas where data is sparse and data spreading is heterogeneous. This new method involves both interpolating the depth to the Moho discontinuity between observations and estimating a velocity-depth curve for the crust at each interpolation location. The Moho observations are interpolated using a remove-compute-restore technique, used in for instance geodesy. Observations are corrected first for Airy type isostasy. The residual observations show less variation than the original observations, making interpolation more reliable. After interpolation, the applied correction is restored to the solution, leading to the final estimate of Moho depth. The crustal velocities have been estimated by fitting a velocity-depth curve through available data at each interpolation location. Uncertainty of the model is assessed, both for the Moho and the velocity model. The method has been applied successfully to Asia. The resulting crustal model is provided in digital form and can be used in various geophysical applications, for instance in assessing rheological properties and strength profiles of the lithosphere, the correcting gravity for the crustal effects, seismic tomography and geothermal modelling.

  5. Shear Wave Splitting Beneath the New Madrid Seismic Zone and Adjacent Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moidaki, M.; Liu, K. H.; Gao, S. S.; Hogan, J. P.; Abdelsalam, M. G.

    2007-12-01

    Teleseismic shear-wave splitting parameters are determined at 15 permanent and portable broadband stations within and around the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) in order to map the direction and strength of mantle fabrics and to explore the origin of seismic anisotropy. Both the splitting times and fast polarization directions of the fast shear-wave show significant spatial variations. The observed splitting times range from 0.7 to 1.7s with a mean value of 1.0s which is the same as the global average. The resulting fast directions range from 34 to 118 degrees from north with a mean of 65 degrees which is consistent with the motion direction of the North American plate in a hot-spot frame. Fast directions with ray-piercing points in the NMSZ are oblique to the rift axis. In the vicinity of the Ozarks Plateau, the split times range from 0.7s to 1.1s with a mean of 0.9s. The observed fast directions show a striking clockwise rotating pattern in which these change systematically from nearly N-S in the St. Francois Mountains to approximately NE-SW further north to be concordant to that of North American Craton. The area with anomalous fast directions has recently been suggested to be a downward asthenospheric flow as a result of the sinking of the Farallon slab in the lower mantle (Forte et al 2007). The observed anisotropy will be discussed in relation to the lower mantle flow, and the recently-proposed two-layer model of Marone and Romanowicz (2007).

  6. Survey of Lava Tubes in the Former Puna Forest Reserve and on Adjacent State of Hawaii Lands

    SciTech Connect

    McEldowney, H.; Stone, F.D.

    1991-10-01

    . The first was to establish whether or not the lava tubes continued into the land now held by Campbell Estate or the Geothermal Sub-Zone. The second was to assess the extent to which any lava tube systems found contained archaeological remains or burials and, if so, to evaluate their general significance. The third was to define, if possible, any patterns in the distribution of the lava tube systems or the archaeological remains within them. Such patterns can allow general predictions to be made about which areas are most likely to have similar tube systems with significant archaeological sites. This is of particular importance in this region where large portions of the former Forest Reserve and the Geothermal Sub-Zone have not been inspected, and conducting extensive surveys is extremely difficult because of dense vegetation, hazardous conditions and poor ground visibility. One of the authors (Stone) has a background in Hawaiian lava tube biology, so we were able to include a preliminary survey of the invertebrate fauna found in these underground ecosystems.

  7. Evaluation of Effecting Parameters on Optimum Arrangement of Urban Land Uses and Assessment of Their Compatibility Using Adjacency Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaezi, S.; Mesgari, M. S.; Kaviary, F.

    2015-12-01

    Todays, stability of human life is threatened by a set of parameters. So sustainable urban development theory is introduced after the stability theory to protect the urban environment. In recent years, sustainable urban development gains a lot of attraction by different sciences and totally becomes a final target for urban development planners and managers to use resources properly and to establish a balanced relationship among human, community, and nature. Proper distribution of services for decreasing spatial inequalities, promoting the quality of living environment, and approaching an urban stability requires an analytical understanding of the present situation. Understanding the present situation is the first step for making a decision and planning effectively. This paper evaluates effective parameters affecting proper arrangement of land-uses using a descriptive-analytical method, to develop a conceptual framework for understanding of the present situation of urban land-uses, based on the assessment of their compatibility. This study considers not only the local parameters, but also spatial parameters are included in this study. The results indicate that land-uses in the zone considered here are not distributed properly. Considering mentioned parameters and distributing service land-uses effectively cause the better use of these land-uses.

  8. Assessments of aquifer sensitivity on Navajo Nation and adjacent lands and ground-water vulnerability to pesticide contamination on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project, Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requested that the Navajo Nation conduct an assessment of aquifer sensitivity on Navajo Nation lands and an assessment of ground-water vulnerability to pesticide contamination on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. Navajo Nation lands include about 17,000 square miles in northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southeastern Utah. The Navajo Indian Irrigation Project in northwestern New Mexico is the largest area of agriculture on the Navajo Nation. The Navajo Indian Irrigation Project began operation in 1976; presently (2001) about 62,000 acres are available for irrigated agriculture. Numerous pesticides have been used on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project during its operation. Aquifer sensitivity is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as 'The relative ease with which a contaminant [pesticide] applied on or near a land surface can migrate to the aquifer of interest. Aquifer sensitivity is a function of the intrinsic characteristics of the geologic material in question, any underlying saturated materials, and the overlying unsaturated zone. Sensitivity is not dependent on agronomic practices or pesticide characteristics.' Ground-water vulnerability is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as 'The relative ease with which a contaminant [pesticide] applied on or near a land surface can migrate to the aquifer of interest under a given set of agronomic management practices, pesticide characteristics, and aquifer sensitivity conditions.' The results of the aquifer sensitivity assessment on Navajo Nation and adjacent lands indicated relative sensitivity within the boundaries of the study area. About 22 percent of the study area was not an area of recharge to bedrock aquifers or an area of unconsolidated deposits and was thus assessed to have an insignificant potential for contamination. About 72 percent of the Navajo Nation study area was assessed to be in the categories of most potential

  9. Seasonal trends in environmental tritium concentrations in a small forest adjacent to a radioactive waste storage area

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Hikaru ); Garten, C.T. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Tritium (HTO) concentrations were studied for an entire year in a floodplain forest adjacent to a low-level radioactive solid waste storage area (SWSA No. 5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Tritium in soil was the principal source of HTO to the deciduous forest. Evaporation from the surface soil along with transpiration from trees leaves both contributed to HTO in the forest atmosphere. During the growing season, transpiration was the principal contributor of HTO to the forest atmosphere, while during the dormant season, the main source of atmospheric HTO was evaporation from the surface soil. Seasonal changes and the characteristics of vegetation will influence the relative importance of evaporation and transpiration as sources of atmospheric HTO near the ground in temperate deciduous forests. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Seasonal trends in environmental tritium concentrations in a small forest adjacent to a radioactive waste storage area

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, H. ); Garten, C.T. Jr. . Environmental Sciences Div.)

    1992-03-01

    Tritium (HTO) concentrations were studied for an entire year in a floodplain forest adjacent to a low-level radioactive solid waste storage areas (SWSA No. 5) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Tritium in soil was the principal source of HTO to the deciduous forest. Evaporation from the surface soil along with transpiration from tree leaves both contributed to HTO in the forest atmosphere. During the growing season, transpiration was the principal contributor of HTO to the forest atmosphere, while during he dormant season, the main source of atmospheric HTO was evaporation from the surface soil. This paper discovers seasonal changes and the characteristics of vegetation which will influence the relative importance of evaporation and transpiration as sources of atmospheric HTO near the ground in temperate deciduous forests.

  11. A GIS-based methodology to quantitatively define an Adjacent Protected Area in a shallow karst cavity: the case of Altamira cave.

    PubMed

    Elez, J; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Garcia-Anton, E; Benavente, D; Cañaveras, J C; Sanchez-Moral, S

    2013-03-30

    Different types of land use are usually present in the areas adjacent to many shallow karst cavities. Over time, the increasing amount of potentially harmful matter and energy, of mainly anthropic origin or influence, that reaches the interior of a shallow karst cavity can modify the hypogeal ecosystem and increase the risk of damage to the Palaeolithic rock art often preserved within the cavity. This study proposes a new Protected Area status based on the geological processes that control these matter and energy fluxes into the Altamira cave karst system. Analysis of the geological characteristics of the shallow karst system shows that direct and lateral infiltration, internal water circulation, ventilation, gas exchange and transmission of vibrations are the processes that control these matter and energy fluxes into the cave. This study applies a comprehensive methodological approach based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to establish the area of influence of each transfer process. The stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the interior of the cave were determined using 3D Laser Scanning topography combined with classical field work, data gathering, cartography and a porosity-permeability analysis of host rock samples. As a result, it was possible to determine the hydrogeological behavior of the cave. In addition, by mapping and modeling the surface parameters it was possible to identify the main features restricting hydrological behavior and hence direct and lateral infiltration into the cave. These surface parameters included the shape of the drainage network and a geomorphological and structural characterization via digital terrain models. Geological and geomorphological maps and models integrated into the GIS environment defined the areas involved in gas exchange and ventilation processes. Likewise, areas that could potentially transmit vibrations directly into the cave were identified. This study shows that it is possible to define a

  12. 76 FR 44602 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Roads and Trails on Public Lands Adjacent to Big Willow Creek in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Willow Creek in Payette County, ID AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Temporary Closure. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Big Willow closure to motorized vehicle use is...\\1/4\\NW\\1/4\\ north and west of Big Willow Road. T. 8 N., R. 3 W., Sec. 1, lots 1, 3, 4,...

  13. Land subsidence caused by ground water withdrawal in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Johnson, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    At least eight urban areas in the world have encountered significant economic impact from land subsidence caused by pumping of ground water from unconsolidated sediment. The areas, most of which are coastal, include Bangkok, Houston, Mexico City, Osaka, San Jose, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Venice. Flooding related to decreased ground elevation is the principal adverse effect of the subsidence. Lesser effects include regional tilting, well-casing failures, "rising" buildings, and ground failure or rupture. Subsidence of most of these urban areas began before the phenomenon was discovered and understood. Thus, the subsidence problems were unanticipated. Methods to arrest subsidence typically have included control of ground water pumping and development of surface water to offset the reductions of ground water pumping. Ground water recharge has also been practiced. Areas threatened by flooding have been protected by extensive networks of dikes and sea walls, locks, and pumping stations to remove storm runoff. ?? 1985 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  14. Shadow Areas Robust Matching Among Image Sequence in Planetary Landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruoyan, Wei; Xiaogang, Ruan; Naigong, Yu; Xiaoqing, Zhu; Jia, Lin

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an approach for robust matching shadow areas in autonomous visual navigation and planetary landing is proposed. The approach begins with detecting shadow areas, which are extracted by Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (MSER). Then, an affine normalization algorithm is applied to normalize the areas. Thirdly, a descriptor called Multiple Angles-SIFT (MA-SIFT) that coming from SIFT is proposed, the descriptor can extract more features of an area. Finally, for eliminating the influence of outliers, a method of improved RANSAC based on Skinner Operation Condition is proposed to extract inliers. At last, series of experiments are conducted to test the performance of the approach this paper proposed, the results show that the approach can maintain the matching accuracy at a high level even the differences among the images are obvious with no attitude measurements supplied.

  15. Shadow Areas Robust Matching Among Image Sequence in Planetary Landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruoyan, Wei; Xiaogang, Ruan; Naigong, Yu; Xiaoqing, Zhu; Jia, Lin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an approach for robust matching shadow areas in autonomous visual navigation and planetary landing is proposed. The approach begins with detecting shadow areas, which are extracted by Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (MSER). Then, an affine normalization algorithm is applied to normalize the areas. Thirdly, a descriptor called Multiple Angles-SIFT (MA-SIFT) that coming from SIFT is proposed, the descriptor can extract more features of an area. Finally, for eliminating the influence of outliers, a method of improved RANSAC based on Skinner Operation Condition is proposed to extract inliers. At last, series of experiments are conducted to test the performance of the approach this paper proposed, the results show that the approach can maintain the matching accuracy at a high level even the differences among the images are obvious with no attitude measurements supplied.

  16. Uranium deposits at Shinarump Mesa and some adjacent areas in the Temple Mountain district, Emery County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyant, Donald G.

    1953-01-01

    Deposits of uraniferous hydrocarbons are associated with carnotite in the Shinarump conglomerate of Triassic age at Shinarump Mesa and adjacent areas of the Temple Mountain district in the San Rafael Swell of Emery County, Utah. The irregular ore bodies of carnotite-bearing sandstone are genetically related to lenticular uraniferous ore bodies containing disseminated asphaltitic and humic hydrocarbon in permeable sandstones and were localized indirectly by sedimentary controls. Nearly non-uraniferous bitumen commonly permeates the sandstones in the Shinarump conglomerate and the underlying Moekopi formation in the area. The ore deposits at Temple Mountain have been altered locally by hydrothermal solutions, and in other deposits throughout the area carnotite has been transported by ground and surface water. Uraniferous asphaltite is thought to be the non-volatile residue of an original weakly uraniferous crude oil that migrated into the San Rafael anticline; the ore metals concentrated in the asphaltite as the oil was devolatilized and polymerized. Carnotite is thought to have formed from the asphaltite by ground water leaching. It is concluded that additional study of the genesis of the asphaltitic uranium ores in the San Rafael Swell, of the processes by which the hydrocarbons interact and are modified (such as heat, polymerization, and hydrogenation under the influence of alpha-ray bombardment), of petroleum source beds, and of volcanic intrusive rocks of Tertiary age are of fundamental importance in the continuing study of the uranium deposits on the Colorado Plateau.

  17. Reducing biosolids disposal costs using land application in forested areas

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    Switching biosolids land application from a reclamation site to a forested site significantly reduced the cost of biosolids disposal at the Savannah River Site. Previous beneficial reuse programs focused on reclamation of existing borrow pits. While extremely beneficial, this program became very costly due to the regulatory requirements for groundwater monitoring, soil monitoring and frequent biosolids analyses. A new program was developed to reuse biosolids in forested areas where the biosolids could be used as a soil conditioner and fertilizer to enhance timber yield. The forested land application site was designed so that groundwater monitoring and soil monitoring could be eliminated while biosolids monitoring and site maintenance were minimized. Monitoring costs alone were reduced by 80%. Capital costs for site preparation were also significantly reduced since there was no longer a need for expensive groundwater monitoring wells.

  18. Paleostress adjacent to the Alpine Fault of New Zealand - Fault, vein, and styolite data from the Doctors Dome area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, Andrew; Wise, Donald U.

    1992-11-01

    Doctors Dome, 75 km north of Christchurch, New Zealand, is an early Pleistocene to Recent structure being deformed along the southeast edge of the Pacific-Australian plate boundary. Paleostress in the area has been determined in basement rocks of the Mesozoic meta-graywacke Torlesse Supergroup which lies unconformably beneath Cretaceous and younger cover rocks. Inversion of basement fault data for the area indicates a general northwest compression with two peaks, one WNW-ESE parallel to the shortening suggested by the older vein system and the other parallel to southeast-northwest stylolite columns in the cover rocks. This direction is approximately parallel to regional indicators of contemporary deformation in and adjacent to the Alpine Fault Zone and suggests that the stress field affecting these rocks has not changed significantly since the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene. Like the San Andreas system, this compression is at a high angle to the strike of the zone as a whole, but is compatible with the direction of plate convergence and motion of the major faults. Between the overlappig ends of the Alpine Fault and the Hikurangi Subduction Zone the Alpine Fault may become subhorizontal at middle-lower crustal levels, partially decoupling the crust from underlying structures, and thus allowing oblique motion to be transferred directly onto the fault from the subduction complex, while aiding the change from subduction to continental collision.

  19. Roads in northern hardwood forests affect adjacent plant communities and soil chemistry in proportion to the maintained roadside area.

    PubMed

    Neher, Deborah A; Asmussen, David; Lovell, Sarah Taylor

    2013-04-01

    The spatial extent of the transported materials from three road types was studied in forest soil and vegetative communities in Vermont. Hypotheses were two-fold: 1) soil chemical concentrations above background environment would reflect traffic volume and road type (highway>2-lane paved>gravel), and 2) plant communities close to the road and near roads with greater traffic will be disturbance-tolerant and adept at colonization. Soil samples were gathered from 12 randomly identified transects for each of three road types classified as "highway," "two-lane paved," and "gravel." Using GIS mapping, transects were constructed perpendicular to the road, and samples were gathered at the shoulder, ditch, backslope, 10 m from the edge of the forest, and 50 m from road center. Sample locations were analyzed for a suite of soil elements and parameters, as well as percent area coverage by plant species. The main effects from roads depended on the construction modifications required for a roadway (i.e., vegetation clearing and topography modification). The cleared area defined the type of plant community and the distance that road pollutants travel. Secondarily, road presence affected soil chemistry. Metal concentrations (e.g., Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) correlated positively with road type. Proximity to all road types made the soils more alkaline (pH 7.7) relative to the acidic soil of the adjacent native forest (pH 5.6). Roadside microtopography had marked effects on the composition of plant communities based on the direction of water flow. Ditch areas supported wetland plant species, greater soil moisture and sulfur content, while plant communities closer to the road were characteristic of drier upland zones. The area beyond the edge of the forest did not appear to be affected chemically or physically by any of the road types, possibly due to the dense vegetation that typically develops outside of the managed right-of-way.

  20. Re-Entry Simulation and Landing Area for YES2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calzada, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    The REST simulator includes many parameters: a) Inertial <-> Fix to Earth reference system; b) Geodetic <-> Geocentric coordinates; c) Rotational velocity of the Atmosphere; d) Effect of the rotation of the Earth; e) Bulge effect of the Earth; f) Spherical harmonic expansion for the Earth s gravitational potential, J2 (zonal); g) Heat flux, temperature in the wall; h) Drag coefficient for different regimes; i) Flow regime status; j) Density model NRLMSISE-00; k) Wind model HWM-93; l) G2S atmospheric model with the latest meteorological conditions and m) Landing area (Monte Carlo Simulations)

  1. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.9 Major land resource area soil... soil survey production. Major land resource area soil survey offices (MO) provide the...

  2. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.9 Major land resource area soil... soil survey production. Major land resource area soil survey offices (MO) provide the...

  3. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.9 Major land resource area soil... soil survey production. Major land resource area soil survey offices (MO) provide the...

  4. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.9 Major land resource area soil... soil survey production. Major land resource area soil survey offices (MO) provide the...

  5. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.9 Major land resource area soil... soil survey production. Major land resource area soil survey offices (MO) provide the...

  6. Molecular characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria community in surface sediments from the adjacent area of Changjiang Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; He, Hui; Yu, Zhigang

    2016-02-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which obtain energy from dissimilatory sulfate reduction, play a vital role in the carbon and sulfur cycles. The dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr), catalyzing the last step in the sulfate reduction pathway, has been found in all known SRB that have been tested so far. In this study, the diversity of SRB was investigated in the surface sediments from the adjacent area of Changjiang Estuary by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit gene ( dsrB). Based on dsrB clone libraries constructed in this study, diversified SRB were found, represented by 173 unique OTUs. Certain cloned sequences were associated with Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and a large fraction (60%) of novel sequences that have deeply branched groups in the dsrB tree, indicating that novel SRB inhabit the surface sediments. In addition, correlations of the SRB assemblages with environmental factors were analyzed by the linear model-based redundancy analysis (RDA). The result revealed that temperature, salinity and the content of TOC were most closely correlated with the SRB communities. More information on SRB community was obtained by applying the utility of UniFrac to published dsrB gene sequences from this study and other 9 different kinds of marine environments. The results demonstrated that there were highly similar SRB genotypes in the marine and estuarine sediments, and that geographic positions and environmental factors influenced the SRB community distribution.

  7. Low flows and temperatures of streams in the Seattle-Tacoma urban complex and adjacent areas, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hidaka, F.T.

    1972-01-01

    Data on the minimum flows of streams and water temperature are necessary for the proper planning and development of the water resources of urban Seattle-Tacoma and adjacent areas. The data on low flows are needed for such purposes as (1) designing and operating municipal and industrial water-supply systems; (2) classifying streams as to their potential for waste disposal; (3) defining the amount of water available for irrigation, for maintaining streamflow as required by law or agreement, and for fish propagation; and (4) designing water-storage facilities. Data on stream temperatures are important to many water users because of the many biological, chemical, and physical properties of water that are dependent on temperature. Agricultural and domestic users as well as municipal, industrial and fishery agencies are concerned with water temperatures. In this report, low-flow data are accompanied by information on seasonal variations in water temperatures at sites selected as representing regional stream-temperature patterns. Because low flows and high water temperatures commonly occur together, they may impose constraints on various uses of the region's streams. The following discussion deals first with low-flow trends in the region, then with stream temperatures, and finally with some of the resulting constraints.

  8. Distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae in submarine canyons and adjacent continental slope areas in Toyama Bay, Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjo, Nobuaki; Katayama, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    The horizontal and vertical distribution of Pasiphaea japonica larvae, which included larval stages and postlarval or later stages, were investigated in Toyama Bay located in central Japan. The horizontal distributions in the inner part of the bay were investigated by oblique hauls from 10 m above the sea-bottom to the surface using a Remodeled NORPAC net (LNP net) in May, August, November 2005, January, March, April, July, September, December 2006, March-September, November-December 2007, and January-March 2008. The vertical distributions were investigated by concurrent horizontal hauls at the depths of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 m using a Motoda net (MTD net) in January, March, April, July, September, and December 2006. Mean density of larvae was higher in submarine canyons which dissect the continental shelf and run to the mouth of river, than adjacent continental slope areas. Larvae densely aggregated in the canyon head. Vertical distribution of the larval stages concentrated in the depth range of 100-150 m in both daytime and nighttime, and larvae in the postlarval or later stages showed diel vertical distribution over a wider depth range than larval stages. Our results indicate the possibility of a larval aggregation in energy-rich habitats, and indicated two important roles of submarine canyons, which were larval retention and high food supply.

  9. Ecogenomic responses of benthic communities under multiple stressors along the marine and adjacent riverine areas of northern Bohai Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuwei; Hong, Seongjin; Kim, Seonjin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yang, Jianghua; Giesy, John P; Wang, Tieyu; Lu, Yonglong; Yu, Hongxia; Khim, Jong Seong

    2017-04-01

    Benthic communities in the aquatic ecosystem are influenced by both natural and anthropogenic stressors. To understand the ecogenomic responses of sediment communities to the multiple stressors of polluted environments, the bacteria, protistan and metazoan communities in sediments from marine and adjacent riverine areas of North Bohai Sea were characterized by environmental DNA meta-systematics, and their associations with environmental variables were assessed by multiple statistical approaches. The bacterial communities were dominated by Firmicutes (mean 22.4%), Proteobacteria (mean 21.6%) and Actinobacteria (mean 21.5%). The protistan communities were dominated by Ochrophyta (33.7%), Cercozoa (18.9%) and Ciliophora (17.9%). Arthropoda (71.1%) dominated the metazoan communities in sediments. The structures of communities in sediments were shaped by both natural variables (spatial variability and/or salinity (presented as Na and Ca)) and anthropogenic contaminants, including DDTs, PAHs or metals (Cu, Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni and Zn). Particularly, the correlation network of multiple communities was modulated by the concentrations of Na and DDTs at the family level. Overall, environmental DNA meta-systematics can provide a powerful tool for biomonitoring, sediment quality assessment, and key stressors identification.

  10. Additions and corrections to the bibliography of geologic studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Besalt) and adjacent Areas, in Idaho, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Strowd, W.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is an update to Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 78-6, Bibliography of Geological Studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt Group) and adjacent areas in Idaho (also known as Rockwell Hanford Operations' contractor report RHO-BWI-C-44). To keep the original document current, this additions and corrections report was prepared for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project of Rockwell Hanford Operations. This update is supplementary; therefore, references cited in the original document have not been included here. What is included are materials that have become available since the original publication and pertinent literature that had originally been overlooked. Accompany this updated bubliography are index maps that show locations of geologic studies and geochemical petrographic, remanent paleomagnetic, and radiometric age-dated sites within the Columbia River Basalt Group field within Idaho; also identified are archeological sites, test wells, mines, quarries, and other types of excavations. References on the index maps are keyed to the bibliography and cover the Spokane, Pullman, Hamilton, Grangeville, Elk City, Baker, Boise, and Jordan Valley Army Map Service two-degree quadrangles.

  11. Analysis and simulation of ground-water flow in Lake Wales Ridge and adjacent areas of central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, Dann K.

    1996-01-01

    The Lake Wales Ridge is an uplands recharge area in central Florida that contains many sinkhole lakes. Below-normal rainfall and increased pumping of ground water have resulted in declines both in ground-water levels and in the water levels of many of the ridge lakes. A digital flow model was developed for a 3,526 square-mile area to help understand the current (1990) ground-water flow system and its response to future ground-water withdrawals. The ground-water flow system in the Lake Wales Ridge and adjacent area of central Florida consists of a sequence of sedimentary aquifers and confining units. The uppermost water-bearing unit of the study area is the surficial aquifer. This aquifer is generally unconfined and is composed primarily of clastic deposits. The surficial aquifer is underlain by the confined intermediate aquifer and confining units which consists of up to three water-bearing units composed of interbedded clastics and carbonate rocks. The lowermost unit of the ground- water flow system, the confined Upper Floridan aquifer, consists of a thick, hydraulically connected sequence of carbonate rocks. The Upper Floridan aquifer is about 1,200 to 1,400 feet thick and is the primary source for ground-water withdrawals in the study area. The generalized ground-water flow system of the Lake Wales Ridge is that water moves downward from the surficial aquifer to the intermediate aquifer and the Upper Floridan aquifer in the central area, primarily under the ridges, with minor amounts of water flow under the flatlands. The water flows laterally away fromn the central area, downgradient to discharge areas to the west, east, and south, and locally along valleys of major streams. Upward leakage occurs along valleys of major streams. The model was initially calibrated to the steady-state conditions representing September 1989. The resulting calibrated hydrologic parameters were then tested by simulating transient conditions for the period October 1989 through 1990. A

  12. Structural model of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuemei; Teng, Jiwen; Sun, Ruomei; Romanelli, Fabio; Zhang, Zhongjie; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2014-11-01

    The deep structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system, as imaged from geophysical data, of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the highest on the Earth, provides important clues in understanding its orogenic processes. Here we reconstruct the main features of the structure of the crust and upper mantle from surface wave tomography in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its adjacent areas, in order to understand the modality of the convergence and collision process between the Indian and Eurasian plates. Based on Rayleigh waves dispersion theory, we collected long period and broad-band seismic data from the global and regional seismic networks surrounding the study area (20°N-50°N, 70°E-110°E). After applying instrument response calibration and filtering, group velocities of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves are measured using the frequency-time analysis (FTAN). Combining the published dispersion data, a 2-D surface-wave tomography method is applied to calculate the lateral variations of group velocity distribution at different periods, in the range from 8 s to 150 s. The Hedgehog non-linear inversion method is performed to obtain shear wave velocity (Vs) versus depth models of the crust and upper mantle for 181 cells, with size 2° × 2°. In order to identify the cellular representative models, we applied the local smoothness optimization method (LSO). Fairly detailed structural models of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system have been defined. The Vs models demonstrate the lateral variation of the thickness of the metasomatic lid between the south and north of the Bangong-Nujiang Suture (BNS) and the west and east of Tibet. The variation in thickness of the metasomatic lid may suggest that the leading edge of the subducting Indian slab reaches up to BNS.

  13. Distribution of 222Rn concentration in an inhabited area adjacent to the Aja granitic heights of Hail Province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman; Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Abulfaraj, Waleed Hussain; Qutub, Maher Mohammad Taher

    2015-01-01

    Radon-222 has been measured in groundwater, dwellings, and atmosphere of an inhabited area adjacent to the granitic Aja heights of Hail province, Saudi Arabia. The measurements were carried out in the field using a RAD7 instrument. Twenty-eight water samples, collected from drilled wells scattered in the region, were analyzed. Radon-222 concentration ranged from 2.5-95 kBq m(-3) with an average value of about 30.3 kBq m(-3). The higher values were found in wells drawing water from granitic aquifers. Indoor 222Rn was measured in 20 dwellings of rural areas in Hail city and other towns. Concentrations ranged from 12-125.6 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 54.6 Bq m(-3). Outdoor air 222Rn was measured at 16 sites, with values ranging from 6.2-13.3 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 10.5 Bq m(-3). The estimated average effective dose due to inhalation of 222Rn released from water was 0.08 mSv y(-1). The estimated average annual effective dose due to indoor 222Rn was 1.35 mSv, which lies below the effective dose range (3-10 mSv) given as the recommended action level. Based on the average dose rate values, the excess lifetime cancer risk values were estimated as 69.8 × 10(-4) due to indoor radon and 13.4 × 10(-4) due to outdoor radon.

  14. Estuarine phytoplankton dynamics and shift of limiting factors: A study in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary and adjacent area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhuo-Yi; Ng, Wai-Man; Liu, Su-Mei; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Jay-Chung; Wu, Ying

    2009-09-01

    Environmental factors in estuaries are highly variable in terms of both spatial and temporal dimensions and hence phytoplankton biomass, as well as community structure, is dynamic. Two cruises were carried out in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary and adjacent area in spring and summer. The result of CHEMTAX calculation suggests that in spring diatoms and chlorophytes contribute equally to phytoplankton biomass, while phytoplankton community structure is mainly composed of diatoms in summer. We encountered blooms in summer with chlorophyll a (CHL a) over 10 μg l -1 off the Changjiang Estuary and they were mainly caused by diatoms (>90%). Based on the HPLC analysis of samples collected, phytoplankton pigments mainly concentrated beyond the front between 122.5°E and 123°E where nutrients and turbidity were best balanced. Euphotic depth ( Zeu, calculated from Secchi disk depth) to surface mixed layer depth ( Zmix) ratio (i.e. Zeu/ Zmix) were comparable in spring (average value 1.2) and the ratio increased to 5.2 in summer. Variation of the ratio indicates an apparent shift of light and physical conditions from spring to summer. Correspondingly, CHL a was positively related to Zeu/ Zmix ratio ( r2 = 0.83) in spring, indicating the light limitation over the whole investigation area. On the other hand, the relationship of CHL a and Zeu/ Zmix ratio became unclear when Zeu/ Zmix ratio >3 in summer. This is probably due to the combination of both light limitation before the front and nutrient limitation beyond the front. In addition, evidence was found that light condition can impact the diagnostic pigments in the Changjiang Estuary.

  15. Distribution and enantiomeric profiles of organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments from the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea and adjacent Arctic areas.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meiqing; Fu, Jie; Xue, Bin; Zhou, Shanshan; Zhang, Lina; Li, An

    2017-03-01

    The spatial distribution, compositional profiles, and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and chlordanes (CHLs), in the surface sediments in the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea and adjacent areas were investigated. The total concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and CHLs varied from 0.64 to 3.17 ng/g dw, 0.19-0.65 ng/g dw, and 0.03-0.16 ng/g dw, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea for most pollutants except for trans-CHL, ΣCHLs (sum of trans- and cis-chlordane) and p,p'-DDD. Concentration ratios (e.g., α-HCH/γ-HCH, o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT) indicated that the contamination in the studied areas may result from inputs from multiple sources (e.g., historical usage of technical HCHs as well as new input of dicofol). Chiral analysis showed great variation in the enantioselective degradation of OCPs, resulting in excess of (+)-enantiomer for α-HCH in thirty of the 32 detectable samples, preferential depletion of (-)-enantiomer for o,p'-DDT in nineteen of the 35 detectable samples, and nonracemic in most samples for trans- and cis-chlordane. The ecological risks of the individual OCPs as well as the mixture were assessed based on the calculation of toxic units (TUs), and the results showed the predominance of DDT and γ-HCH in the mixture toxicity of the sediment. Overall, the TUs of OCPs in sediments from both the Bering and Chukchi Seas are less than one, indicating low ecological risk potential.

  16. Present and Reference Concentrations and Yields of Suspended Sediment in Streams in the Great Lakes Region and Adjacent Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    In-stream suspended sediment and siltation and downstream sedimentation are common problems in surface waters throughout the United States. The most effective way to improve surface waters impaired by sediments is to reduce the contributions from human activities rather than try to reduce loadings from natural sources. Total suspended sediment/solids (TSS) concentration data were obtained from 964 streams in the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River Basins from 1951 to 2002. These data were used to estimate median concentrations, loads, yields, and volumetrically (flow) weighted (VW) concentrations where streamflow data were available. SPAtial Regression-Tree Analysis (SPARTA) was applied to land-use-adjusted (residualized) TSS data and environmental-characteristic data to determine the natural factors that best described the distribution of median and VW TSS concentrations and yields and to delineate zones with similar natural factors affecting TSS, enabling reference or natural concentrations and yields to be estimated. Soil properties (clay and organic-matter content, erodibility, and permeability), basin slope, and land use (percentage of agriculture) were the factors most strongly related to the distribution of median and VW TSS concentrations. TSS yields were most strongly related to amount of precipitation and the resulting runoff, and secondarily to the factors related to high TSS concentrations. Reference median TSS concentrations ranged from 5 to 26 milligrams per liter (mg/L), reference median annual VW TSS concentrations ranged from 10 to 168 mg/L, and reference TSS yields ranged from about 980 to 90,000 kilograms per square kilometer per year. Independent streams (streams with no overlapping drainage areas) with TSS data were ranked by how much their water quality exceeded reference concentrations and yields. Most streams exceeding reference conditions were in the central part of the study area, where agricultural activities

  17. Geology, hydrogeology, and potential of intrinsic bioremediation at the National Park Service Dockside II site and adjacent areas, Charleston, South Carolina, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, B.G.; Petkewich, M.D.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    A long history of industrial and commercial use of the National Park Service property and adjacent properties located in downtown Charleston, South Carolina, has caused extensive contamination of the shallow subsurface soils and water-table aquifer. The National Park Service property is located adjacent to a former manufactured-gas plant site, which is the major source of the contamination. Contamination of this shallow water-table aquifer is of concern because shallow ground water discharges to the Cooper River and contains contaminants, which may affect adjacent wildlife or human populations. The geology of the National Park Service property above the Ashley Formation of the Cooper Group consists of two Quaternary lithostratigraphic marine units, the Wando Formation and Holocene deposits, overlain by artificial fill. The Wando Formation overlies the Ashley Formation, a sandy calcareous clay, and consists of soft, organic clay overlain by gray sand. The Holocene deposits are composed of clayey to silty sand and soft organic-rich clay. The artificial fill, which was placed at the site to create dry land where salt marsh existed previously, is composed of sand, silt, and various scrap materials. The shallow hydrogeology of the National Park Service property overlying the Ashley Formation can be subdivided into two sandy aquifers separated by a leaky, black, organic-rich clay. The unconfined upper surficial aquifer is primarily artificial fill. The lower surficial aquifer consists of the Wando sand unit and is confined by the leaky organic-rich clay. Aquifer tests performed on the wells screened in these aquifers resulted in hydraulic conductivities from 0.1 to 10 feet per day for the upper surficial aquifer, and 16 feet per day for the lower surficial aquifer. Vertical hydraulic gradients at the site are typically low. A downward gradient from the upper surficial aquifer to the lower surficial aquifer occurs throughout most of the year. A brick-lined storm

  18. [Difference of Karst Carbon Sink Under Different Land Use and Land Cover Areas in Dry Season].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui-yi; Liang, Zuo-bing; Wang, Zun-bo; Yu, Zheng-liang; Jiang, Ze-li

    2015-05-01

    In order to identify the distinction of soil CO2 consumed by carbonate rock dissolution, Baishuwan spring, Lanhuagou spring and Hougou spring were selected as objects to monitor the hydrochemistry from November 2013 to May 2014. The results showed that the highest HCO3- concentration was observed in Baishuwan spring which is covered by pine forest, while the lowest HCO3- concentration was observed in Hougou spring which is mainly covered by cultivated land. In Baishuwan spring, HCO3- was mainly derived from carbonic acid dissolving carbonate rock and the molar ratio between Ca(2+) + Mg2+ and HCO3- was close to 0. 5; while the molar ratio between Ca(2+) + Mg2+ and HCO3- exceeded 0.5 because the carbonate rock in Lanhuagou spring and Hougou spring was mainly dissolved by nitric acid and sulfuric acid. Because of the input of litter and the fact that gas-permeability of soil was limited in Baishuwan spring catchment, most of soil CO2 was dissolved in infiltrated water and reacted with bedrock. However, in Lanhuagou spring catchment and Hougou spring catchment, porous soil made soil CO2 easier to return to the atmosphere in the form of soil respiration. Therefore, in order to accurately estimate karst carbon sink, it was required to clarify the distinction of CO2 consumption by carbonate rock dissolution under different land use and land cover areas.

  19. A TRMM Rainfall Estimation Method Applicable to Land Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R.; Weinman, J.; Dalu, G.

    1999-01-01

    Methods developed to estimate rain rate on a footprint scale over land with the satellite-borne multispectral dual-polarization Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/1) radiometer have met with limited success. Variability of surface emissivity on land and beam filling are commonly cited as the weaknesses of these methods. On the contrary, we contend a more significant reason for this lack of success is that the information content of spectral and polarization measurements of the SSM/I is limited. because of significant redundancy. As a result, the complex nature and vertical distribution C, of frozen and melting ice particles of different densities, sizes, and shapes cannot resolved satisfactorily. Extinction in the microwave region due to these complex particles can mask the extinction due to rain drops. Because of these reasons, theoretical models that attempt to retrieve rain rate do not succeed on a footprint scale. To illustrate the weakness of these models, as an example we can consider the brightness temperature measurement made by the radiometer in the 85 GHz channel (T85). Models indicate that T85 should be inversely related to the rain rate, because of scattering. However, rain rate derived from 15-minute rain gauges on land indicate that this is not true in a majority of footprints. This is also supported by the ship-borne radar observations of rain in the Tropical Oceans and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA-COARE) region over the ocean. Based on these observations. we infer that theoretical models that attempt to retrieve rain rate do not succeed on a footprint scale. We do not follow the above path of rain retrieval on a footprint scale. Instead, we depend on the limited ability of the microwave radiometer to detect the presence of rain. This capability is useful to determine the rain area in a mesoscale region. We find in a given rain event that this rain area is closely related to the mesoscale-average rain rate

  20. Land-use classification map of the greater Denver area, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, L.B.

    1975-01-01

    The Greater Denver area, in the Front Range Urban Corridor of Colorado, is an area of rapid population growth and expanding land development. At present no overall land-use policy exists for this area, although man individuals and groups are concerned about environmental, economic, and social stresses caused by population pressures. A well-structured land-use policy for the entire Front Range Urban Corridor, in which compatible land uses are taken into account, could lead to overall improvements in land values. A land classification map is the first step toward implementing such a policy.

  1. Hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent and adjacent areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborn, Noël I.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Seger, Christian H.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrogeology, distribution, and volume of saline water in 22 aquifers in the southern midcontinent of the United States were evaluated to provide information about saline groundwater resources that may be used to reduce dependency on freshwater resources. Those aquifers underlie six States in the southern midcontinent—Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas—and adjacent areas including all or parts of Alabama, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Mexico, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Wyoming and some offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico. Saline waters of the aquifers were evaluated by defining salinity zones; digitizing data, primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey; and computing the volume of saline water in storage. The distribution of saline groundwater in the southern midcontinent is substantially affected by the hydrogeology and groundwater-flow systems of the aquifers. Many of the aquifers in the southern midcontinent are underlain by one or more aquifers, resulting in vertically stacked aquifers containing groundwaters of varying salinity. Saline groundwater is affected by past and present hydrogeologic conditions. Spatial variation of groundwater salinity in the southern midcontinent is controlled primarily by locations of recharge and discharge areas, groundwater-flow paths and residence time, mixing of freshwater and saline water, and interactions with aquifer rocks and sediments. The volume calculations made for the evaluated aquifers in the southern midcontinent indicate that about 39,900 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of saline water is in storage. About 21,600 million acre-ft of the water in storage is slightly to moderately saline (1,000–10,000 milligrams per liter [mg/L] dissolved solids), and about 18,300 million acre-ft is very saline (10,000–35,000 mg/L dissolved solids). The largest volumes of saline water are in the coastal lowlands (about

  2. Changes in concentrations of a TCE plume in near- stream zones of a DNAPL contaminated area adjacent to a stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Hyun, Y.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    A field investigation of a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume originating at an industrial complex and its discharges to a stream nearby showed that apparent plume attenuation occurred in the near-stream zone of a DNAPL contaminated area adjacent to a stream prior to discharging to the stream. The concentrations of TCE and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) in groundwater, hyporheic water, stream water and streambed, and hydrogeology were characterized using mini-piezometers, monitoring wells, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys, and soil coring. In the near stream zones temporal and spatial TCE plume concentration changes and mass fluxes were investigated along the flowpath of groundwater discharging to the stream. It is evident that observed concentrations of contaminants (TCE and cis-DCE) were reduced in the near-stream zone, resulting that TCE and cis-DCE were not detected in the streambed and stream water. Ground GPR surveys done in the near stream zone found that wire and water treatment pipe conduits were buried under the ground next to the stream, which could lead groundwater flow field distortion in this zone. At streambed, the GPR survey and soil coring indicated the presence of low permeable zones consisting of rotten material deposits at the top of 0.3 m ~ 0.8 m underlain by silty sands. These hydrogeological features can also attribute to no detection of contaminants in the streambed and stream water because low permeable zone is an obstacle to effective interactions between groundwater and stream water. More investigations will be carried out for comprehensive understanding of hydrological and biogeochemical processes associated with TCE plume attenuation in near stream zones and streambed in the site.

  3. Land-use legacies from dry farming in the Park Valley area of Box Elder County

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Last fall in this newsletter, we reported on the initiation of a study on the land-use legacies of dry farming in the Park Valley area. Land-use legacies are the long lasting impacts of historic land uses; such as, cultivation for dry farming. The Park Valley area and Box Elder County experienced ...

  4. Environmental data package for ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area Four, the adjacent intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the liquid waste pilot pit area

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Shoun, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Remedial Action Program has determined through its review of past environmental studies that Solid Waste Storage Area Four (SWSA-4) continually releases radioactivity to White Oak Creek and therefore requires application of the site stabilization and remedial actions outlined under the 3004u provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under these provisions, a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) forms the basis for determining the extent of actions. This report assembles available historical and environmental data relative to the SWSA-4 waste area grouping (WAG), which includes the 9.3-ha SWSA-4 site, the adjacent abandoned intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the experimental pilot pit area. The rationale for grouping these three waste management units into the SWSA-4 WAG is the fact that they each lie in the same hydrologic unit and share a common tributary to White Oak Creek. The results of this compilation demonstrate that although a considerable number of studies have been carried out in SWSA-4, needs such as installation of water quality wells and continued monitoring and reporting of hydrologic data still exist. These needs will become even more critical as the RI/FS process proceeds and remedial measures for the site are considered. Fewer studies have been carried out to characterize the extent of contamination at the waste transfer line and the pilot pit area. Alternatives for characterizing and stabilizing these two minor components of the SWSA-4 WAG are presented; however, extensive remedial actions do not appear to be warranted.

  5. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a) Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of No Mans Land—(1) The area. The waters surrounding No Mans Land within an...

  6. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process.

  7. 75 FR 41886 - Public Land Order No. 7744; Withdrawal of National Forest System Land for Inyan Kara Area; WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... States mining laws for a period of 20 years on behalf of the United States Forest Service to protect the...-775-6257. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The United States Forest Service will manage the land to protect... made of National Forest System land, to protect the Inyan Kara area of the Black Hills National...

  8. Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Assessment of injury to harbor seals in Prince William Sound, Alaska, and adjacent areas following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study number 5. Restoration study number 73. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The goal of the project was to determine whether the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) had a measurable impact on harbor seals, Phocavitulina richardsi, in Prince William Sound (PWS) and adjacent areas. During the EVOS, harbor seals were exposed to oil both in the water and on land. The study was designed to investigate and quantify, as possible, the effects of oil and the disturbance associated with cleanup on distribution, abundance, and health of harbor seals in the affected area.

  9. Root distribution of Pinus pinaster, P. radiata, Eucalyptus globulus and E. kochii and associated soil chemistry in agricultural land adjacent to tree lines.

    PubMed

    Sudmeyer, R A; Speijers, J; Nicholas, B D

    2004-12-01

    We quantified the extent and distribution of roots of four commonly planted tree species (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus radiata D. Don, P. pinaster Aiton and E. kochii Maiden & Blakely subsp. plenissima C.A. Gardner) in agricultural land adjacent to tree lines, and examined the effect of soil type and root pruning on root morphology. Root distribution in soil adjacent to tree lines was mapped by a trench profile method at 13 sites on the south coast of Western Australia. Soil samples were collected to determine water content and fertility. The lateral extent of tree roots ranged from 10 m for E. kochii to 44 m for P. pinaster. This equated to between 1.5 and 2.5 times tree height (H) for E. globulus and Pinus spp. to 4H for E. kochii. Root density declined logarithmically with distance from the trees and was greatest for P. pinaster and least for E. globulus (P < 0.001). The rate of decrease in root density with distance from the trees was greatest for the Pinus spp. and least for E. kochii (P < 0.05). Root density was generally greatest in the top 0.5 m of the soil profile and decreased with increasing depth. This decrease was relatively gradual in the deep sands, but abrupt in clay subsoil. Root dry mass in the sandy top soil beyond 0.5H ranged between 1.0 and 55.5 Mg km(treeline) (-1) for 6-year-old E. kochii and 50-year-old P. pinaster, respectively. Soil water content generally increased with distance from the trees (P < 0.001). There was no evidence of reduced soil fertility in the top 1.4 m of the soil profile adjacent to the trees. Two to four years after trees had been root pruned, both the lateral extent and vertical distribution of roots were similar for pruned and unpruned trees. The density of roots < 2 mm in diameter was greater for root-pruned trees than for unpruned trees (P < 0.05). We conclude that the study species can compete with agricultural crops based on the lateral extent of their roots and the occurrence of greatest root density

  10. Overview of mine drainage geochemistry at historical mines, Humboldt River basin and adjacent mining areas, Nevada. Chapter E.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2004-01-01

    Reconnaissance hydrogeochemical studies of the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas of northern Nevada have identified local sources of acidic waters generated by historical mine workings and mine waste. The mine-related acidic waters are rare and generally flow less than a kilometer before being neutralized by natural processes. Where waters have a pH of less than about 3, particularly in the presence of sulfide minerals, the waters take on high to extremely high concentrations of many potentially toxic metals. The processes that create these acidic, metal-rich waters in Nevada are the same as for other parts of the world, but the scale of transport and the fate of metals are much more localized because of the ubiquitous presence of caliche soils. Acid mine drainage is rare in historical mining districts of northern Nevada, and the volume of drainage rarely exceeds about 20 gpm. My findings are in close agreement with those of Price and others (1995) who estimated that less than 0.05 percent of inactive and abandoned mines in Nevada are likely to be a concern for acid mine drainage. Most historical mining districts have no draining mines. Only in two districts (Hilltop and National) does water affected by mining flow into streams of significant size and length (more than 8 km). Water quality in even the worst cases is naturally attenuated to meet water-quality standards within about 1 km of the source. Only a few historical mines release acidic water with elevated metal concentrations to small streams that reach the Humboldt River, and these contaminants and are not detectable in the Humboldt. These reconnaissance studies offer encouraging evidence that abandoned mines in Nevada create only minimal and local water-quality problems. Natural attenuation processes are sufficient to compensate for these relatively small sources of contamination. These results may provide useful analogs for future mining in the Humboldt River basin, but attention must be given to

  11. Remote sensing study of land use and sedimentation in the Ross Barnett Reservoir, Jackson, Mississippi area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mealor, W. T., Jr.; Pinson, T. W.; Wertz, D. L.; Hoskin, C. M.; Williams, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    This multi-year study is aimed at focusing on the recognition of sediment and other affluents in a selected area of the Ross Barnett Reservoir. The principle objectives are the determination of land use types, effect of land use on erosion, and the correlation of sediment with land use in the area. The I2S multi-band imagery was employed in conjunction with ground truth data for both water and land use studies. The selected test site contains approximately forty square miles including forest, open land, and water in addition to residential and recreational areas.

  12. Human-carnivore coexistence on communal land bordering the greater Kruger area, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lagendijk, D D Georgette; Gusset, Markus

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential for coexistence between rural people (living adjacent to a protected area) and predators (from the same area) ranging onto communal land. Ninety members of local communities bordering Manyeleti Game Reserve, which is contiguous with Kruger National Park, South Africa were interviewed. Respondents expressed diverging attitudes toward predators, which were more favorable among participants with higher education. Negative views were particularly due to fear of human and livestock losses, especially to lions, Panthera leo. Lions were thought to be the most abundant predator both within and outside the reserve. Lions were also the best known predator and were most often held responsible for killing livestock. Despite these livestock losses and a lack of conservation education, most participants voiced favorable opinions about large carnivore conservation, as predators were considered an integral part of the respondents' natural heritage. Thanks to this cultural tolerance and also because of a largely accepted management policy regarding predator control, large carnivores and people can coexist in the vicinity of Kruger National Park.

  13. Human Carnivore Coexistence on Communal Land Bordering the Greater Kruger Area, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagendijk, D. D. Georgette; Gusset, Markus

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential for coexistence between rural people (living adjacent to a protected area) and predators (from the same area) ranging onto communal land. Ninety members of local communities bordering Manyeleti Game Reserve, which is contiguous with Kruger National Park, South Africa were interviewed. Respondents expressed diverging attitudes toward predators, which were more favorable among participants with higher education. Negative views were particularly due to fear of human and livestock losses, especially to lions, Panthera leo. Lions were thought to be the most abundant predator both within and outside the reserve. Lions were also the best known predator and were most often held responsible for killing livestock. Despite these livestock losses and a lack of conservation education, most participants voiced favorable opinions about large carnivore conservation, as predators were considered an integral part of the respondents’ natural heritage. Thanks to this cultural tolerance and also because of a largely accepted management policy regarding predator control, large carnivores and people can coexist in the vicinity of Kruger National Park.

  14. Helicopter electromagnetic survey of the Model Land Area, Southeastern Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitterman, David V.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Prinos, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a helicopter electromagnetic survey flown over the Model Land Area in southeastern Miami-Dade County, Florida, to map saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer. The survey, which is located south and east of Florida City, Florida, covers an area of 115 square kilometers with a flight-line spacing of 400 meters. A five-frequency, horizontal, coplanar bird with frequencies ranging from 400 to 100,000 Hertz was used. The data were interpreted using differential resistivity analysis and inversion to produce cross sections and resistivity depth-slice maps. The depth of investigation is as deep as 100 meters in freshwater-saturated portions of the Biscayne aquifer and the depth diminishes to about 50 meters in areas that are intruded by saltwater. The results compare favorably with ground-based, time-domain electromagnetic soundings and induction logs from observation wells in the area. The base of a high-resistivity, freshwater-saturated zone mapped in the northern 2 kilometers of the survey area corresponds quite well with the base of the surficial aquifer that has been determined by drilling. In general, saltwater in the survey area extends 9 to 12 kilometers inland from the coast; however, there is a long nose of saltwater centered along the Card Sound Road Canal that extends 15 kilometers inland. The cause of this preferential intrusion is likely due to uncontrolled surface flow along the canal and subsequent leakage of saltwater into the aquifer. Saltwater also extends farther inland in the area between U.S. Highway 1 and Card Sound Road than it does to the west of this area. Until 1944, a railroad grade occupied the current location of U.S. Highway 1. Borrow ditches associated with the railroad grade connected to Barnes Sound and allowed saltwater to flow during droughts and storm surges to within a few kilometers of Florida City. Relicts of this saltwater that settled to the bottom of the Biscayne aquifer can be seen in the helicopter

  15. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TC<1, suggesting a synergic/antagonist effect to occur among metals and plants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in

  16. Effects of brush management on the hydrologic budget and water quality in and adjacent to Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, 2001-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Edwards Region Grazing Lands Conservation Initiative, the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, the San Antonio River Authority, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, Texas Parks and Wildlife, the Guadalupe Blanco River Authority, and the San Antonio Water System, evaluated the hydrologic effects of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) removal as a brush management conservation practice in and adjacent to the Honey Creek State Natural Area in Comal County, Tex. By removing the ashe juniper and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area as a brush management conservation practice, the hydrology in the watershed might change. Using a simplified mass balance approach of the hydrologic cycle, the incoming rainfall was distributed to surface water runoff, evapotranspiration, or groundwater recharge. After hydrologic data were collected in adjacent watersheds for 3 years, brush management occurred on the treatment watershed while the reference watershed was left in its original condition. Hydrologic data were collected for another 6 years. Hydrologic data include rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and water quality. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured but potential groundwater recharge was calculated using a simplified mass balance approach. The resulting hydrologic datasets were examined for differences between the watersheds and between pre- and post-treatment periods to assess the effects of brush management. The streamflow to rainfall relation (expressed as event unit runoff to event rainfall relation) did not change between the watersheds during pre- and post-treatment periods. The daily evapotranspiration rates at the reference watershed and treatment watershed sites exhibited a seasonal cycle during the pre- and post-treatment periods, with intra- and interannual variability. Statistical analyses indicate the mean

  17. Analysis of Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS at an Urban Area, Tirupati, India

    PubMed Central

    Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003. PMID:23781152

  18. A TRMM Rainfall Estimation Method Applicable to Land Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Oki, R.; Weinman, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizing multi-spectral, dual-polarization Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) radiometer measurements, we have developed in this study a method to retrieve average rain rate, R(sub f(sub R)), in a mesoscale grid box of 2deg x 3deg over land. The key parameter of this method is the fractional rain area, f(sub R), in that grid box, which is determined with the help of a threshold on the 85 GHz scattering depression 0 deduced from the SSM/I data. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of this method, nine-months of R(sub f(sub R))are retrieved from SSM/I data over three grid boxes in the Northeastern United States. These retrievals are then compared with the corresponding ground-truth-average rain rate, R(sub g), deduced from 15-minute rain gauges. Based on nine months of rain rate retrievals over three grid boxes, we find that R(sub f(sub R)can explain about 64 % of the variance contained in R(sub g). A similar evaluation of the grid-box-average rain rates R(sub GSCAT) and R(sub SRL), given by the NASA/GSCAT and NOAA/SRL rain retrieval algorithms, is performed. This evaluation reveals that R(sub GSCAT) and R(sub SRL) can explain only about 42 % of the variance contained in R(sub g). In our method, a threshold on the 85 GHz scattering depression is used primarily to determine the fractional rain area in a mesoscale grid box. Quantitative information pertaining to the 85 GHz scattering depression in the grid box is disregarded. In the NASA/GSCAT and NOAA/SRL methods on the other hand, this quantitative information is included. Based on the performance of all three methods, we infer that the magnitude of the scattering depression is a poor indicator of rain rate. Furthermore, from maps based on the observations made by SSM/I on land and ocean we find that there is a significant redundancy in the information content of the SSM/I multi-spectral observations. This leads us to infer that observations of SSM/I at 19 and 37 GHz add only marginal information to that

  19. Analytical solutions to trade-offs between size of protected areas and land-use intensity.

    PubMed

    Butsic, Van; Radeloff, Volker C; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Pidgeon, Anna M

    2012-10-01

    Land-use change is affecting Earth's capacity to support both wild species and a growing human population. The question is how best to manage landscapes for both species conservation and economic output. If large areas are protected to conserve species richness, then the unprotected areas must be used more intensively. Likewise, low-intensity use leaves less area protected but may allow wild species to persist in areas that are used for market purposes. This dilemma is present in policy debates on agriculture, housing, and forestry. Our goal was to develop a theoretical model to evaluate which land-use strategy maximizes economic output while maintaining species richness. Our theoretical model extends previous analytical models by allowing land-use intensity on unprotected land to influence species richness in protected areas. We devised general models in which species richness (with modified species-area curves) and economic output (a Cobb-Douglas production function) are a function of land-use intensity and the proportion of land protected. Economic output increased as land-use intensity and extent increased, and species richness responded to increased intensity either negatively or following the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. We solved the model analytically to identify the combination of land-use intensity and protected area that provided the maximum amount of economic output, given a target level of species richness. The land-use strategy that maximized economic output while maintaining species richness depended jointly on the response of species richness to land-use intensity and protection and the effect of land use outside protected areas on species richness within protected areas. Regardless of the land-use strategy, species richness tended to respond to changing land-use intensity and extent in a highly nonlinear fashion.

  20. Radioecology of Vertebrate Animals in the Area Adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Site in 1986-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfan, E. B.; Gashchak, S. P.; Makliuk, Y. A.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    A widespread environmental contamination of the areas adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) site attracted a great deal of publicity to the biological consequences of the ChNPP catastrophe. However, only a few studies focused on a detailed analysis of radioactive contamination of the local wild fauna and most of them were published in Eastern European languages, making them poorly accessible for Western scientists. In addition, evaluation of this information appears difficult due to significant differences in raw data acquisition and analysis methodologies and final data presentation formats. Using an integrated approach to assessment of all available information, the International Radioecology Laboratory scientists showed that the ChNPP accident had increased the average values of the animals 137Cs and 90Sr contamination by a factor of thousands, followed by its decrease by a factor of tens, primarily resulting from a decrease in the biological accessibility of the radionuclides. However, this trend depended on many factors. Plant and bottom feeding fish species were the first to reach the maximum contamination levels. No data are available on other vertebrates, but it can be assumed that the same trend was true for all plant feeding animals and animals searching for food on the soil surface. The most significant decrease of the average values occurred during the first 3-5 years after the accident and it was the most pronounced for elks and plant and plankton feeding fish. Their diet included elements “alienated” from the major radionuclide inventory; for example, upper soil layers and bottom deposits where the fallout that had originally precipitated on plants, water and soils gradually migrated. Further radionuclide penetration into deeper layers of soils and its bonding with their mineral components intensified decontamination of the fauna. It took a while for the contamination of predatory fish and mammals (wolves) to reach the maximum

  1. Assessment of the fresh-and brackish-water resources underlying Dunedin and adjacent areas on northern Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, L.A.; Swenson, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The city of Dunedin is enhancing their potable ground-water resources through desalination of brackish ground water. An assessment of the fresh- and brackish-water resources in the Upper Floridan aquifer was needed to estimate the changes that may result from brackish-water development. The complex hydrogeologic framework underlying Dunedin and adjacent areas of northern Pinellas County is conceptualized as a multilayered sequence of permeable zones and confining and semiconfining units. The permeable zones contain vertically spaced, discrete, water-producing zones with differing water quality. Water levels, water-level responses, and water quality are highly variable among the different permeable zones. The Upper Floridan aquifer is best characterized as a local flow system in most of northern Pinellas County. Pumping from the Dunedin well field is probably not influencing water levels in the aquifer outside Dunedin, but has resulted in localized depressions in the potentiometric surface surrounding production-well clusters. The complex geologic layering combined with the effects of production-well distribution probably contribute to the spatial and temporal variability in chloride concentrations in the Dunedin well field. Chloride concentrations in ground water underlying the Dunedin well field vary both vertically and laterally. In general, water-quality rapidly changes below depths of 400 feet below sea level. Additionally, randomly distributed water-producing zones with higher chloride concentrations may occur at shallow, discrete intervals above 400 feet. A relation between chloride concentration and distance from St. Joseph Sound is not apparent; however, a possible relation exists between chloride concentration and production-well density. Chloride-concentration data from production wells show a consistently increasing pattern that has accelerated since the late 1980's. Chloride-concentration data from 15 observation wells show increasing trends for 6 wells

  2. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: allocations of assessed areas to Federal lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buursink, Marc L.; Cahan, Steven M.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Following the geologic basin-scale assessment of technically accessible carbon dioxide storage resources in onshore areas and State waters of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that an area of about 130 million acres (or about 200,000 square miles) of Federal lands overlies these storage resources. Consequently, about 18 percent of the assessed area associated with storage resources is allocated to Federal land management. Assessed areas are allocated to four other general land-ownership categories as follows: State lands about 4.5 percent, Tribal lands about 2.4 percent, private and other lands about 72 percent, and offshore areas about 2.6 percent.

  3. Depositional and diagenetic history and petroleum geology of the Jurassic Norphlet Formation of the Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent federal waters area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kugler, R.L.; Mink, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of deep (>20,000 ft) gas reservoirs in eolian sandstone of the Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation in Mobile Bay and offshore Alabama in the late 1970s represents one of the most significant hydrocarbon discoveries in the nation during the past several decades. Estimated original proved gas from Norphlet reservoirs in the Alabama coastal waters and adjacent federal waters is 7.462 trillion ft3 (Tcf) (75% recovery factor). Fifteen fields have been established in the offshore Alabama area. Norphlet sediment was deposited in an arid environment in alluvial fans, alluvial plains, and wadis in updip areas. In downdip areas, the Norphlet was deposited in a broad desert plain, with erg development in some areas. Marine transgression, near the end of Norphlet deposition, resulted in reworking of the upper part of the Norphlet Formation. Norphlet reservoir sandstone is arkose and subarkose, consisting of a simple assemblage of three minerals, quartz, albite, and K-feldspar. The present framework grain assemblage of the Norphlet is dominantly diagenetic, owing to albitization and dissolution of feldspar. Despite the simple framework composition, the diagenetic character of the Norphlet is complex. Important authigenic minerals include carbonate phases (calcite, dolomite, Fe-dolomite, and breunnerite), feldspar (albite and K-feldspar), evaporite minerals (anhydrite and halite), clay minerals (illite and chlorite), quartz, and pyrobitumen. The abundance and distribution of these minerals varies significantly between onshore and offshore regions of Norphlet production. The lack of sufficient internal sources of components for authigenic minerals, combined with unusual chemical compositions of chloride (Mg-rich), breunnerite, and some minor authigenic minerals, suggests that Louann-derived fluids influenced Norphlet diagenesis. In offshore Alabama reservoirs, porosity is dominantly modified primary porosity. Preservation of porosity in deep Norphlet reservoirs is due

  4. Exploring Land use and Land cover change in the mining areas of Wa East District, Ghana using Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basommi, Prosper Laari; Guan, Qingfeng; Cheng, Dandan

    2015-11-01

    Satellite imagery has been widely used to monitor the extent of environmental change in both mine and post mine areas. This study uses Remote sensing and Geographical Information System techniques for the assessment of land use/land cover dynamics of mine related areas in Wa East District of Ghana. Landsat satellite imageries of three different time periods, i.e., 1991, 2000 and 2014 were used to quantify the land use/cover changes in the area. Supervised Classification using Maximum Likelihood Technique in ERDAS was utilized. The images were categorized into five different classes: Open Savannah, Closed Savannah, Bare Areas, Settlement and Water. Image differencing method of change detection was used to investigate the changes. Normalized Differential Vegetative Index valueswere used to correlate the state of healthy vegetation. The image differencing showed a positive correlation to the changes in the Land use and Land cover classes. NDVI values reduced from 0.48 to 0.11. The land use change matrix also showed conversion of savannah areas into bare ground and settlement. Open and close savannah reduced from 50.80% to 36.5% and 27.80% to 22.67% respectively whiles bare land and settlement increased. Overall accuracy of classified 2014 image and kappa statistics was 83.20% and 0.761 respectively. The study revealed the declining nature of the vegetation and the significance of using satellite imagery. A higher resolution satellite Imagery is however needed to satisfactorily delineate mine areas from other bare areas in such Savannah zones.

  5. Applicability of land use models for the Houston area test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersburg, R. K.; Bradford, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    Descriptions of land use models are presented which were considered for their applicability to the Houston Area Test Site. These models are representative both of the prevailing theories of land use dynamics and of basic approaches to simulation. The models considered are: a model of metropolis, land use simulation model, emperic land use forecasting model, a probabilistic model for residential growth, and the regional environmental management allocation process. Sources of environmental/resource information are listed.

  6. Monitoring The Land Accretion Development at Coastal Area of Blanakan, Subang Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi; Meriana, Ginna; Somantri, Lili

    2016-11-01

    A land accretion is formed by deposition in estuaries. Recently, a land development in Subang coastal area has raised an increase. Beside its potential, coastal areas are also threatened with damage including abrasion, accretion, loss of mangrove forests, and sea water intrusion. One of the coastal areas that have been arising in very extensive land is Blanakan coastal in Subang Regency. This study aims to monitor the development of a land accretion that have been arise during the period of 1990 to 2015 and also to examine the use of a land accretion and analyze the impact of a land accretion to the social and economic conditions in the Blanakan Coastal Areas. The method used in this research was descriptive quantitative method. In this research, The Landsat imageries were overlaid came from 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2015 to determine the development of a land accretion. Based on the results of Landsat imagery overlaid over the period 1990-2015. Overall, during the period 1990-2015, accreted land formed was an area of 782.9 hectares and abrasion area of 73.3 hectares with changes in the most far reaching 1580.3 m. The use of land accretion in the Blanakan Coastal mostly used for a fishpond with a key commodity is Milkfish and Bago shrimps. The impact of land accretion to the social and economic conditions was reflected through the five indicators such as livelihoods, income, education, health, and ownership of assets.

  7. Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1983-01-01

    The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

  8. 14 CFR 161.11 - Identification of land uses in airport noise study area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. 161.11 Section 161.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 161.11 Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. For...

  9. 33 CFR 334.530 - Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The area. The waters of Canaveral Harbor within a line circumscribing the water approaches to the Navy... from the area during specified periods. (2) The area will be closed when a red square flag (bravo), and depending on the status of the hazardous operation, either an amber or red beacon, steady burning...

  10. 33 CFR 334.530 - Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The area. The waters of Canaveral Harbor within a line circumscribing the water approaches to the Navy... from the area during specified periods. (2) The area will be closed when a red square flag (bravo), and depending on the status of the hazardous operation, either an amber or red beacon, steady burning...

  11. 33 CFR 334.530 - Canaveral Harbor adjacent to the Navy pier at Port Canaveral, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) The area. The waters of Canaveral Harbor within a line circumscribing the water approaches to the Navy... from the area during specified periods. (2) The area will be closed when a red square flag (bravo), and depending on the status of the hazardous operation, either an amber or red beacon, steady burning...

  12. The Impact of the Parcel-Level Land Architecture on Land Surface Temperature in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, X.; Ouyang, Y.; Turner, B. L., II; Harlan, S.; Brazel, A.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and characteristics of the urban land system has received increasing attention in urban heat island research, especially for desert cities. The relationship between the land composition and LST has been widely studied. Such researches generally employ medium or coarser spatial resolution remotely sensed data and primarily focuses on the effects of one land cover type on the LST. In this study, we explore the effects of land system architecture - composition and configuration of different land-cover classes - on LST in the central Arizona-Phoenix metropolitan area at a fine-scale resolution, focused on the composition and configuration of single family residential parcels. A 1 m resolution land-cover map is used to calculate landscape metrics at the parcel level, and 6.8 m resolution data from the MODIS/ASTER are employed to retrieve LST. We introduce the socio-economic factors at neighborhood level as explanatory variables to help control for potential neighborhood effects. Multiple linear regression models examine the effects of landscape configuration on LST at the parcel scale, controlling for the effects of landscape composition and neighborhood characteristics. Results show that the configuration of parcels affects LST, revealing significant variable relationships between that architecture and LST at nighttime and daytime, and the role of the neighborhood effects on the outcomes.

  13. Land-use threats and protected areas: a scenario-based, landscape level approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Tamara S.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sleeter, Rachel R.; Soulard, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic land use will likely present a greater challenge to biodiversity than climate change this century in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Even if species are equipped with the adaptive capacity to migrate in the face of a changing climate, they will likely encounter a human-dominated landscape as a major dispersal obstacle. Our goal was to identify, at the ecoregion-level, protected areas in close proximity to lands with a higher likelihood of future land-use conversion. Using a state-and-transition simulation model, we modeled spatially explicit (1 km2) land use from 2000 to 2100 under seven alternative land-use and emission scenarios for ecoregions in the Pacific Northwest. We analyzed scenario-based land-use conversion threats from logging, agriculture, and development near existing protected areas. A conversion threat index (CTI) was created to identify ecoregions with highest projected land-use conversion potential within closest proximity to existing protected areas. Our analysis indicated nearly 22% of land area in the Coast Range, over 16% of land area in the Puget Lowland, and nearly 11% of the Cascades had very high CTI values. Broader regional-scale land-use change is projected to impact nearly 40% of the Coast Range, 30% of the Puget Lowland, and 24% of the Cascades (i.e., two highest CTI classes). A landscape level, scenario-based approach to modeling future land use helps identify ecoregions with existing protected areas at greater risk from regional land-use threats and can help prioritize future conservation efforts.

  14. 77 FR 39446 - Draft Parachute Landing Area Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... FAA policies and standards concerning access to federally obligated airports for parachute landing..., PLA size and location, and recommended markings. The FAA proposes to use these standards; along with...,'' which address hazards, PLA size and location, and recommended markings. These standards are designed...

  15. Food web structure of the coastal area adjacent to the Tagus estuary revealed by stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of energy sources, pathways and trophic linkages among organisms is crucial for the understanding of food web dynamics. Stable isotopes were used to identify the trophic level of food web components and track the incorporation of organic matter of different origins in the coastal ecosystem adjacent to the Tagus estuary. It was shown that the river Tagus is a major source of organic carbon to this system. Also, the wide difference in δ 13C among the primary consumers allowed the identification of the pelagic and the benthic energy pathways. The maximum trophic level observed was 2.4 for Sepia officinalis. This value is indicative of a short food web. It was concluded that the diet of the upper trophic level species relies directly on the lower food web levels to a considerable extent, instead of relying mostly on intermediate trophic level species. Moreover, the δ 15N values of primary consumers were very close to that of particulate organic matter, probably due to poorly known processes occurring at the basis of the food web. This lowers the trophic length of the whole food web. Reliance on benthic affinity prey was high for all upper trophic level secondary consumers.

  16. 33 CFR 334.85 - New York Harbor, adjacent to the Stapleton Naval Station, Staten Island, New York; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND..., New York; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of New York Harbor beginning at a point on shore....5″ N, longitude 074°03′46″ W; thence southwesterly to the shore line at latitude 40°37′24.5″...

  17. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  18. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  19. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  20. 78 FR 47004 - Change in Dates of Seasonal Closure of Public Land in the Bald Ridge Area, Park County, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Change in Dates of Seasonal Closure of Public Land in the Bald Ridge Area, Park County, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given to change the dates of the seasonal closure of public land in the Bald Ridge Area that was...

  1. 43 CFR 6305.10 - How will BLM allow access to State and private land within wilderness areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... improvements BLM determines are necessary to protect wilderness resources from degradation. (f) If you own land... private land within wilderness areas? 6305.10 Section 6305.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS AREAS Access to State and Private Lands Or...

  2. Hydrogeology of the Ramapo River-Woodbury Creek valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Orange County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Valley-fill aquifers are modest resources within the area, as indicated by the common practice of completing supply wells in the underlying bedrock rather than the overlying glacial deposits. Groundwater turbidity problems curtail use of the resource. However, additional groundwater resources have been identified by test drilling, and there are remaining untested areas. New groundwater supplies that stress localized aquifer areas will alter the groundwater flow system. Considerations include potential water-quality degradation from nearby land use(s) and, where withdrawals induce infiltration of surface-water, balancing withdrawals with flow requirements for downstream users or for maintenance of stream ecological health.

  3. 14 CFR 161.11 - Identification of land uses in airport noise study area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of land uses in airport..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS NOTICE AND APPROVAL OF AIRPORT NOISE AND ACCESS RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 161.11 Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. For...

  4. Liquefaction-fluidization induced land subsidence: impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on reclaimed land around Tokyo bay area, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, A.; Furuno, K.; Kusuda, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kazaoka, O.

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused major liquefaction-induced, ground deformation of the reclaimed land surrounding Tokyo Bay. In this area, liquefaction was visibly manifest by sand boils, ejection of sandy water, land subsidence and floating underground tanks. The level measurements show a correspondence between the degree of liquefaction-fluidization and the amount of subsidence. The strata most susceptible to liquefaction are hydraulically emplaced dredged fill and artificial strata on thick uncompacted Holocene deposits. On the other hand, the phenomena of seismic isolation coursed by liquefaction had saved the single-family houses from collapse.

  5. Animation of Panorama of Phoenix Landing Area Looking Southeast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This is an animation of panoramic images taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 15 (June 9, 2008), the 15th Martian day after landing. The panorama looks to the southeast and shows rocks casting shadows, polygons on the surface and as the image looks to the horizon, Phoenix's backshell gleams in the distance.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Current and future land use around a nationwide protected area network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Radeloff, Volker C.; Lewis, David J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our “restricted-urban-growth” scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S.

  7. Current and future land use around a nationwide protected area network.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Christopher M; Martinuzzi, Sebastian; Plantinga, Andrew J; Radeloff, Volker C; Lewis, David J; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Heglund, Patricia J; Pidgeon, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change around protected areas can reduce their effective size and limit their ability to conserve biodiversity because land-use change alters ecological processes and the ability of organisms to move freely among protected areas. The goal of our analysis was to inform conservation planning efforts for a nationwide network of protected lands by predicting future land use change. We evaluated the relative effect of three economic policy scenarios on land use surrounding the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wildlife Refuges. We predicted changes for three land-use classes (forest/range, crop/pasture, and urban) by 2051. Our results showed an increase in forest/range lands (by 1.9% to 4.7% depending on the scenario), a decrease in crop/pasture between 15.2% and 23.1%, and a substantial increase in urban land use between 28.5% and 57.0%. The magnitude of land-use change differed strongly among different USFWS administrative regions, with the most change in the Upper Midwestern US (approximately 30%), and the Southeastern and Northeastern US (25%), and the rest of the U.S. between 15 and 20%. Among our scenarios, changes in land use were similar, with the exception of our "restricted-urban-growth" scenario, which resulted in noticeably different rates of change. This demonstrates that it will likely be difficult to influence land-use change patterns with national policies and that understanding regional land-use dynamics is critical for effective management and planning of protected lands throughout the U.S.

  8. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Pseudotsuga (Pinaceae): insights into the floristic relationship between Taiwan and its adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Xin; Yang, Zu-Yu; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2010-06-01

    Climatic oscillations and geological events play major roles in shaping species diversity and the distribution of plants. The mechanisms underlying the high level of plant species diversity in eastern Asia are hotly debated. In this study, five cpDNA regions, two mtDNA fragments and one nuclear gene (LEAFY) were employed to investigate species diversification and the historical biogeography of Pseudotsuga (Pinaceae), a genus with a typical eastern Asia and western North America disjunct distribution. Both the nuclear LEAFY gene and cpDNA phylogenies strongly suggest that eastern Asian and North American species are monophyletic, respectively. Within the eastern Asia clade, the cpDNA tree placed P. japonica as sister to the rest of the Asian species, but the LEAFY gene tree showed a sister relationship between P. japonica-P. sinensis-P. gaussenii and P. brevifolia-P. forrestii. Molecular dating indicated that the Asian species last shared a common ancestor 20.26+/-5.84 mya and the species diversification of Pseudotsuga was correlated with the Tertiary climatic and tectonic changes. These results, together with the fossil evidence, suggest that Pseudotsuga might have originated from North America and then migrated to eastern Asia by the Bering land bridge during the early Miocene. The Taiwanese species P. wilsoniana harbored two divergent types of LEAFY sequences, which implies that this species might have originated by hybridization between P. brevifolia or its ancestor and the ancestor of P. japonica-P. sinensis-P. gaussenii. Our study also suggests that Taiwan is closely related to both southwest and east China in flora.

  9. Do parks work? Impact of protected areas on land cover clearing.

    PubMed

    Nagendra, Harini

    2008-07-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of protected areas on land-cover clearing, using a metadata analysis of information on 49 locations from 22 countries. Protected areas had significantly lower rates of clearing in comparison to their surroundings. In addition, protected areas had also significantly lowered rates of clearing within their boundary following initiation of protection. Thus, protected areas do appear to be effective at limiting overall land-cover clearing. There was some variation in the rates of clearing across regions, where most protected areas from North America and Europe showed positive rates of land-cover change, while protected areas from Asia had the highest rates of land-cover clearing. While most protected areas from North America and Europe involved a relatively smaller number of actors, a greater number of actors and drivers of clearing was implicated in protected areas from Asia, Africa, and Latin America, indicating the increased difficulties faced by park management in these regions. In contrast, country income levels and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources category of protection did not appear to impact the likelihood of land-cover clearing in protected areas.

  10. Subsurface-controlled geological maps for the Y-12 plant and adjacent areas of Bear Creek Valley

    SciTech Connect

    King, H.L.; Haase, C.S.

    1987-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley in the vicinity of the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant is underlain by Middle to Late Cambrian strata of the Conasauga Group. The group consists of interbedded limestones, shales, mudstones, and siltstones, and it can be divided into six discrete formations. Bear Creek Valley is bordered on the north by Pine Ridge, which is underlain by sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Rome Formation, and on the south by Chestnut Ridge, which is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group. Subsurface-controlled geological maps illustrating stratigraphic data and formational contacts for the formations within the Conasauga Group have been prepared for the Y-12 Plant vicinity and selected areas in Bear Creek Valley westward from the plant. The maps are consistent with all available surface and subsurface data for areas where sufficient data exist to make map construction feasible. 13 refs.

  11. Spatio-temporal distribution and environmental risk of sedimentary heavy metals in the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Jian; Qiu, Jiandong; Zhang, Xilin; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Jinqing

    2016-12-01

    Twenty-five surface sediments and one sediment core sample were collected from the study area. Grain size, major elements, and heavy metals were determined. The content of fine-grained sediments (silt and clay), as well as the concentrations of major elements and heavy metals, showed seaward decreasing trends, with high content in the coastal areas of the East China Sea (ECS) and south west of Jeju Island. Low enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values were found, indicating that the ecological risk of heavy metals was low. The EF values obtained from the high-resolution sedimentary records of heavy metals in the Yangtze River Estuary could be divided into Stage 1 (1950s to the late 1970s) and Stage 2 (late 1970s to the current sampling day), which coincided with economic development of the Yangtze River Basin, implementation of environmental protection, and impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam.

  12. Large networks of artificial radar reflectors to monitor land subsidence in natural lowlying coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, Luigi; Strozzi, Tazio; Teatini, Pietro

    2014-05-01

    intensity of the surrounding area; (ii) the network must be established resembling a sort of levelling benchmark network, i.e. with the TCRs placed keeping to a value of about 1.0-1.5 km the maximum distance between the TCRs or between an 'artificial' and the adjacent 'natural' reflectors to reliably resolve the radar phase ambiguities in the presence of atmospheric artifacts. Moreover, our experiment provided new information in order to improve the knowledge of the regional and local processes acting in the Venice Lagoon. We found that the northern basin of the lagoon is subsiding at a rate of about 3-4 mm/yr, while the central and the southern lagoon regions are more stable. At the local scale, i.e., the scale of the single salt marshes, significant differences have been detected depending, for example, on the nature and the architecture of Holocene deposits (Tosi et al., 2009). Acknowledgments. This work was supported by Magistrato alle Acque di Venezia-Venice Water Authority (VWA) and Consorzio Venezia Nuova (CVN) through the INLET Project and partially developed within the RITMARE Flagship Project (CNR-MIUR), Action 2 (SP3-WP1). TERRASAR-X data courtesy COA0612, © DLR. References. Teatini, P., Tosi, L., Strozzi, T., Carbognin, L., Cecconi, G., Rosselli, R., & Libardo, S. (2012). Resolving land subsidence within the venice lagoon by persistent scatterer SAR interferometry. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 40-41, 72-79, doi: 10.1016/j.pce.2010.01.002. Strozzi, T., Teatini, P., Tosi, L., Wegmüller, U., & Werner, C. (2013). Land subsidence of natural transitional environments by satellite radar interferometry on artificial reflectors. Journal of Geophysical Research F: Earth Surface, 118(2), 1177-1191, doi: 10.1002/jgrf.2008. Tosi, L., Rizzetto, F., Zecchin, M., Brancolini, G., & Baradello, L. (2009). Morphostratigraphic framework of the venice lagoon (italy) by very shallow water VHRS surveys: Evidence of radical changes triggered by human-induced river diversions

  13. Structure and tectonic evolution of the Tornquist Zone and adjacent sedimentary basins in Scania and the southern Baltic Sea area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlström, M.; Thomas, S. A.; Deeks, N.; Sivhed, U.

    1997-04-01

    Southernmost Sweden, Bornholm and the surrounding Baltic Sea region are located on a large-scale releasing bend in the dextral strike-slip system of the Tornquist Zone, with its resulting pull-apart basins. The well constrained geology of Scania and Bornholm has been combined with detailed on- and offshore borehole data and three proprietary marine seismic surveys. This in conjunction with supplementary BABEL deep seismic reflection findings allows a combined 3D interpretation of sediment/structure interactions. As a result, a regional interpretation has emerged which gives a new understanding of the interplay between structural movement on a complex strike-slip fault system (Tornquist Zone) and its intrazonal depressions (Vomb Trough and Colonus Shale Trough) as well as the sedimentation history of associated areas of sediment accumulation (Rønne and Arnager Grabens, Höllviken Halfgraben, Hanö Bay Basin and Skurup Platform). Detailed sequential litho- and seismo-stratigraphic descriptions have been possible by combination of the various data sets. This resulted in the clarification or recognition of previously unknown structural limits to sub-basins and highs in the study area. A 3D chronological (4D) model for the development of the region is proposed. This model takes into account the long-lived structural history combining elements of strike-slip, extension and inversion tectonics. The deep-seated faulting controlling these structures is integrated with the deep structure as revealed by the BABEL line in this area.

  14. Creating Protected Areas on Public Lands: Is There Room for Additional Conservation?

    PubMed

    Arriagada, Rodrigo A; Echeverria, Cristian M; Moya, Danisa E

    2016-01-01

    Most evaluations of the effectiveness of PAs have relied on indirect estimates based on comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Such methods can be biased when protection is not randomly assigned. We add to the growing literature on the impact of PAs by answering the following research questions: What is the impact of Chilean PAs on deforestation which occurred between 1986 and 2011? How do estimates of the impact of PAs vary when using only public land as control units? We show that the characteristics of the areas in which protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. To satisfactorily estimate the effects of PAs, we use matching methods to define adequate control groups, but not as in previous research. We construct control groups using separately non-protected private areas and non-protected public lands. We find that PAs avoid deforestation when using unprotected private lands as valid controls, however results show no impact when the control group is based only on unprotected public land. Different land management regimes, and higher levels of enforcement inside public lands may reduce the opportunity to add additional conservation benefits when the national systems for PAs are based on the protection of previously unprotected public lands. Given that not all PAs are established to avoid deforestation, results also admit the potential for future studies to include other outcomes including forest degradation (not just deforestation), biodiversity, wildlife, primary forests (not forests in general), among others.

  15. Creating Protected Areas on Public Lands: Is There Room for Additional Conservation?

    PubMed Central

    Arriagada, Rodrigo A.; Echeverria, Cristian M.; Moya, Danisa E.

    2016-01-01

    Most evaluations of the effectiveness of PAs have relied on indirect estimates based on comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Such methods can be biased when protection is not randomly assigned. We add to the growing literature on the impact of PAs by answering the following research questions: What is the impact of Chilean PAs on deforestation which occurred between 1986 and 2011? How do estimates of the impact of PAs vary when using only public land as control units? We show that the characteristics of the areas in which protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. To satisfactorily estimate the effects of PAs, we use matching methods to define adequate control groups, but not as in previous research. We construct control groups using separately non-protected private areas and non-protected public lands. We find that PAs avoid deforestation when using unprotected private lands as valid controls, however results show no impact when the control group is based only on unprotected public land. Different land management regimes, and higher levels of enforcement inside public lands may reduce the opportunity to add additional conservation benefits when the national systems for PAs are based on the protection of previously unprotected public lands. Given that not all PAs are established to avoid deforestation, results also admit the potential for future studies to include other outcomes including forest degradation (not just deforestation), biodiversity, wildlife, primary forests (not forests in general), among others. PMID:26848856

  16. Artificial neural network modeling of the water quality index using land use areas as predictors.

    PubMed

    Gazzaz, Nabeel M; Yusoff, Mohd Kamil; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Juahir, Hafizan; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the design of an artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict the water quality index (WQI) using land use areas as predictors. Ten-year records of land use statistics and water quality data for Kinta River (Malaysia) were employed in the modeling process. The most accurate WQI predictions were obtained with the network architecture 7-23-1; the back propagation training algorithm; and a learning rate of 0.02. The WQI forecasts of this model had significant (p < 0.01), positive, very high correlation (ρs = 0.882) with the measured WQI values. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the relative importance of the land use classes to WQI predictions followed the order: mining > rubber > forest > logging > urban areas > agriculture > oil palm. These findings show that the ANNs are highly reliable means of relating water quality to land use, thus integrating land use development with river water quality management.

  17. Ground-Water Hydrographs and 5-Year Ground-Water-Level Changes, 1984-93, for Selected Areas In and Adjacent to New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkins, D.W.; Garcia, Benjamin M.

    1995-01-01

    A cooperative observation-well monitoring program was begun in New Mexico in 1925 between the U.S. Geological Survey and the New Mexico State Engineer Office. The majority of the wells are located in New Mexico; however, a few are in Texas east of Curry and Roosevelt County, New Mexico, and in Colorado along the Rio Grande. The program presently includes 22 wells equipped with continuous water-level recorders and 34 monitoring areas in which selected wells are measured periodically, usually every 5 years, to record changes in ground-water levels. These monitoring areas are those where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation, municipal, or industrial purposes. Water-level data and water-level changes computed from these data are used to determine areas of ground-water-level rises and declines. This information is necessary for management of ground-water resources in New Mexico. Included in this report are hydrographs of ground-water levels obtained from 22 wells equipped with continuous water-level recorders and maps of ground-water-level changes computed for a 5-year period in each of 34 monitoring areas. Well locations and ground-water-level data for a 5-year period are listed in tables for each monitoring area. Where available, plots of annual precipitation data for climatological stations within or adjacent to each monitoring area are included.

  18. An investigation of MAGSAT and complementary data emphasizing precambrian shields and adjacent areas of West Africa and South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, D. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Accomplishments with regard to the mapping and analysis of MAGSAT data for the investigation of correlations between the magnetic field characteristics of South American and African shields are reported. Significant results in the interpretation of the global total-field anomalies and the anomaly patterns of Africa and South America are discussed. The central position of the Brazilian shield tends to form a negative total-field anomaly, consistent with findings for shields in equatorial Africa. Sedimentary sequences in the Amazon basin and in the Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paolo areas exhibit positive anomalies, also consistent with equatorial Africa. Results for the Caribbean Sea and Guyana regions are also described.

  19. Molecular diversity and distribution pattern of ciliates in sediments from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and adjacent sea areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-10-01

    In comparison with the macrobenthos and prokaryotes, patterns of diversity and distribution of microbial eukaryotes in deep-sea hydrothermal vents are poorly known. The widely used high-throughput sequencing of 18S rDNA has revealed a high diversity of microeukaryotes yielded from both living organisms and buried DNA in marine sediments. More recently, cDNA surveys have been utilized to uncover the diversity of active organisms. However, both methods have never been used to evaluate the diversity of ciliates in hydrothermal vents. By using high-throughput DNA and cDNA sequencing of 18S rDNA, we evaluated the molecular diversity of ciliates, a representative group of microbial eukaryotes, from the sediments of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and compared it with that of an adjacent deep-sea area about 15 km away and that of an offshore area of the Yellow Sea about 500 km away. The results of DNA sequencing showed that Spirotrichea and Oligohymenophorea were the most diverse and abundant groups in all the three habitats. The proportion of sequences of Oligohymenophorea was the highest in the hydrothermal vents whereas Spirotrichea was the most diverse group at all three habitats. Plagiopyleans were found only in the hydrothermal vents but with low diversity and abundance. By contrast, the cDNA sequencing showed that Plagiopylea was the most diverse and most abundant group in the hydrothermal vents, followed by Spirotrichea in terms of diversity and Oligohymenophorea in terms of relative abundance. A novel group of ciliates, distinctly separate from the 12 known classes, was detected in the hydrothermal vents, indicating undescribed, possibly highly divergent ciliates may inhabit this environment. Statistical analyses showed that: (i) the three habitats differed significantly from one another in terms of diversity of both the rare and the total ciliate taxa, and; (ii) the adjacent deep sea was more similar to the offshore area than to the

  20. Mapping Land Use/Land Cover in the Ambos Nogales Study Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Ambos Nogales watershed, which surrounds the twin cities of Nogales, Arizona, United States and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, has a history of problems related to flooding. This paper describes the process of creating a high-resolution, binational land-cover dataset to be used in modeling the Ambos Nogales watershed. The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool will be used to model the Ambos Nogales watershed to identify focal points for planning efforts and to anticipate ramifications of implementing detention reservoirs at certain watershed planes.

  1. GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery for parts of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paskevich, Valerie F.; Wong, Florence L.; O'Malley, John J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Gutmacher, Christina E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a Proclamation establishing the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the United States extending its territory 200 nautical miles from the coasts of the United States, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, and other U.S. territories and possessions. The charter of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) places the primary responsibility for mapping the territories of the United States within the USGS. Upon declaration of the EEZ, the territory of the United States was enlarged by more than 13 million square kilometers, all of which are under water. The USGS EEZ-SCAN program to systematically map the EEZ began in 1984 and continued through 1991. This digital publication contains all the GLORIA sidescan imagery of the deep-water (greater than 200 meters) portion of the EEZ mapped during those 8 years of data collection. For each EEZ area, we describe the data collection surveys and provide downloads of the GLORIA data and metadata.

  2. The tectonic evolution of the Songpan-Garzê (North Tibet) and adjacent areas from Proterozoic to Present: A synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Françoise; Jolivet, Marc; Malavieille, Jacques

    2010-09-01

    The Triassic orogeny in North Tibet results from interactions between the South China, North China and Qiangtang (North Tibet) blocks during the closure of the Paleotethys ocean. It is mainly composed, from west to east, by the Bayan Har, Songpan-Garzê, and Yidun (or Litang-Batang) terranes. We focus here on the Triassic Songpan-Garzê fold belt and the actual eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau which is one of the key areas for understanding the tectonic evolution of the Asian continent and the Tibetan Plateau. At least three major deformation phases are recognized in eastern Tibet and south-east of the South China block: a Neoproterozoic phase (1-0.75 Ga) correlated to the assembly and break-up of the Rodinia Continent, a Late Triassic compression event and finally a Tertiary deformation related to the India-Asia collision. The tectonic and geodynamic history of this part of Asia is very complex and often vigorously debated. For example the Triassic compression event in Tibet is usually associated to the Indosinian Orogeny originally defined in Vietnam but this is probably an oversimplification. Our purpose is to review the various models proposed in the literature and to synthesize the tectonic and geodynamic history of this area. We show that the Songpan-Garzê fold belt is not a typical collisional belt: the triangular shape of the closing oceanic basin as well as the huge volume of accreted sediments did not allow a complete continent-continent collision. Finally, the tectonic inheritance plays a major role in the evolution of the eastern margin of Tibet as most of the major Tertiary tectonic structures in the Longmen Shan are reactivated Paleozoic and Mesozoic faults.

  3. Size-dependent resistance of protected areas to land-use change.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, Luigi; Falcucci, Alessandra; Boitani, Luigi

    2008-06-07

    One of the major threats facing protected areas (PAs) is land-use change and habitat loss. We assessed the impact of land-use change on PAs. The majority of parks have been effective at protecting the ecosystems within their borders, even in areas with significant land-use pressures. More in particular, the capacity of PAs to slow down habitat degradation and to favour habitat restoration is clearly related to their size, with smaller areas that on average follow the dominant land-use change pattern into which they are embedded. Our results suggest that small parks are not going to be viable in the long term if they are considered as islands surrounded by a 'human-dominated ocean'. However, small PAs are, in many cases, the only option available, implying that we need to devote much more attention to the non-protected matrix in which PAs must survive.

  4. Spatial Correlation between Land Subsidence and Flooding in Urban Areas of Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Andreas, Heri; Gumilar, Irwan; Jaap Brinkman, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Land subsidence is a silent hazard affecting three large urban areas in Indonesia, namely Jakarta, Bandung and Semarang. Geodetic based results from Levelling, GPS and InSAR measurement methods, show that land subsidence rates in all three cities generally have spatial and temporal variations, and their magnitude is in average about 5-10 cm/year and can reach up to about 20 cm/year at certain locations and times. In general, the impacts of land subsidence in urban areas can be seen in the forms of cracking of permanent constructions and roads, changes in river canal and drain flow systems, wider expansion of coastal and/or inland flooding areas, and malfunction of drainage system. Several areas along the coast of Jakarta and Semarang already have experienced tidal flooding during high tide periods. These coastal flooding usually occurs in the areas with relatively large subsidence rates. Subsidence in the areas along the rivers which are flowing throughout Jakarta, Semarang and Bandung will also worsen the impacts of riverine flooding. In Bandung, the study shows that 21 % of the total riverine flooded area coincides with area affected by subsidence. The changes in river canal and drain flow systems and malfunction of drainage system due to land subsidence will also aggravate the flooding. Land subsidence will have direct and indirect affects with the flooding in urban areas, both in coastal or inland areas of the cities. This paper analyzes and discusses the characteristics of spatial correlation between land subsidence and flooding phenomena in urban areas of Jakarta, Semarang and Bandung.

  5. Land Area Change in Coastal Louisiana: A Multidecadal Perspective (from 1956 to 2006)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barras, John A.; Bernier, Julie C.; Morton, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) analyzed changes in the configuration of land and water in coastal Louisiana by using a sequential series of 14 data sets summarizing land and water areas from 1956 to 2006. The purpose of this study is to provide a spatially and temporally consistent source of quantitative information on land area across coastal Louisiana, broken into three physiographic provinces (the term 'coastal Louisiana' is used to present data on the collective area). The land-water data sets used in this study are interpreted through spatial analysis and by linear regression analysis. The spatial depictions of land area change reveal a complex and interwoven mosaic of loss and gain patterns caused by natural and human-induced processes operating at varied temporal and spatial scales, resulting in fluctuating contributions to coastal loss. The linear regression analysis provides a robust estimate of recent change trends by comparing land area over time for all data sets from 1985 to 2004 and from 1985 to 2006 by physiographic province across coastal Louisiana. The 1956 to 2006 map showing multidecadal changes, along with the linear regressions of land area change presented in this study, provide a comprehensive and concise presentation of historical trends and rates of land area change in coastal Louisiana. Taking a broad historical view provides an in-depth understanding of land area changes over time. For example, one observation provided by our historical review is that the majority of the widespread, nontransitory land gains depicted on the map over the past 50 years, with the exception of the progradation of the Atchafafalaya River and Wax Lake deltas, are primarily related to sediment placement and landward migration of barrier islands. Another point revealed by our historical approach is that recent land losses caused by hurricanes sometimes commingled with or exacerbated older losses formed during the 1956 to 1978 period. Furthermore, our analyses

  6. Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana. Land Loss and Marsh Creation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    Blacktip shark Silver perch Tiger shark Sand seatrout Lemon shark Spotted seatrout Atlantic sharpnose shark Spot Scalloped hammerhead Southern kingfish...list of common estuarine and marine fishes and shellfishes of commercial or recreational importance in the study area. Species Bull shark Sheepshead

  7. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater-treatment plant discharges during base flow, which elevated specific conductance and nutrient concentrations, combined sewer overflows, and nonpoint sources likely contributed to water-quality impairment and lower aquatic-life status at the Blue River Basin sites. Releases from upstream reservoirs to the Little Blue River likely decreased specific conductance, suspended-sediment, and dissolved constituent concentrations and may have benefitted water quality and aquatic life of main-stem sites. Chloride concentrations in base-flow samples, attributable to winter road salt application, had the highest correlation with the SUII (Spearman’s ρ equals 0.87), were negatively correlated with the SCI (Spearman’s ρ equals -0.53) and several pollution sensitive Ephemeroptera plus Plecoptera plus Trichoptera abundance and percent richness metrics, and were positively correlated with pollution tolerant Oligochaeta abundance and percent richness metrics. Study results show that the easily calculated SUII and the selected modeled multimetric indices are effective for comparing urban basins and for evaluation of water quality in the Kansas City metropolitan area.

  8. Seismic structure beneath the Gulf of Aqaba and adjacent areas based on the tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khrepy, Sami; Koulakov, Ivan; Al-Arifi, Nassir; Petrunin, Alexey G.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first 3-D model of seismic P and S velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Gulf of Aqaba and surrounding areas based on the results of passive travel time tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed based on travel time data from ˜ 9000 regional earthquakes provided by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN), and this was complemented with data from the International Seismological Centre (ISC). The resulting P and S velocity patterns were generally consistent with each other at all depths. Beneath the northern part of the Red Sea, we observed a strong high-velocity anomaly with abrupt limits that coincide with the coastal lines. This finding may indicate the oceanic nature of the crust in the Red Sea, and it does not support the concept of gradual stretching of the continental crust. According to our results, in the middle and lower crust, the seismic anomalies beneath the Gulf of Aqaba seem to delineate a sinistral shift (˜ 100 km) in the opposite flanks of the fault zone, which is consistent with other estimates of the left-lateral displacement in the southern part of the Dead Sea Transform fault. However, no displacement structures were visible in the uppermost lithospheric mantle.

  9. Contrasting Phylogeography of Sandy vs. Rocky Supralittoral Isopods in the Megadiverse and Geologically Dynamic Gulf of California and Adjacent Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Luis A.; Lee, Eun Jung; Mateos, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    patterns. Identification of divergent lineages of Tylos in the study area is important for conservation, as some populations are threatened by human activities. PMID:23844103

  10. Tectonic evolution of the Songpan Garzê and adjacent areas (NE Tibet) from Triassic to Present : a synthesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, F.; Jolivet, M.; Malavieille, J.

    2009-04-01

    The 12th May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in the Longmen Shan occurred on a large thrust fault largely inherited from an Indosinian structure itself probably controlled by an older structural heritage of the South China block continental margin. Within the whole northeast Tibet region, such a structural inheritance has had a major impact on the Tertiary deformation. It appears of primary importance to assess the pre-Tertiary tectonic evolution of the main blocks involved to understand the actual deformation in the eastern edge of Tibet. Over the past decades, the Proterozoic to Cenozoic tectonic, metamorphic and geochronologic history of the Longmen Shan and Songpan Garzê area have been largely studied. We present a synthesis of the tectonic evolution of the Songpan Garzê fold and thrust belt from Triassic to present. The Songpan-Garzê belt was formed during closure of a wide oceanic basin filled with a thick (5 to 15 km) sequence of Triassic flyschoid sediments [10]. Closure of the basin due to Triassic subduction involved strong shortening, intense folding and faulting of the Triassic series. A large-scale décollement, that presently outcrops along the eastern boundary of the belt (Danba area), allowed the growth of a wide and thick accretionary wedge [9]. It develops in the Paleozoic and Triassic series and separates the accretionary prism from an autochthonous crystalline basement [5, 12, 6] which shares many similarities with the basement of the Yangtze Craton (0.7-0.9 Ga). To the north and northwest, below the thickened Triassic series of the belt, the composition (oceanic or continental) of the basement remains unknown. During the Indosinian orogeny the emplacement of orogenic granites (220 - 150 Ma) was associated to crustal thickening [12, 13, 17, 15]. The isotopic composition of granitoids shows that their magma source were predominantly derived from melting of the proterozoic basement with varying degrees of sedimentary material and negligible mantle

  11. Filtering fens: mechanisms explaining phosphorus-limited hotspots of biodiversity in wetlands adjacent to heavily fertilized areas.

    PubMed

    Cusell, Casper; Kooijman, Annemieke; Fernandez, Filippo; van Wirdum, Geert; Geurts, Jeroen J M; van Loon, E Emiel; Kalbitz, Karsten; Lamers, Leon P M

    2014-05-15

    vegetation requires larger areas, as long as eutrophication has not been seriously tackled.

  12. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Clahan, K.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Allen, J.R.; Deino, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10-8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8-2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ?? 0.06 and 9.13 ?? 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the RodgersCreek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek-Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and was

  13. Detecting land-use/land-cover change in rural-urban fringe areas using extended change-vector analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chunyang; Wei, Anni; Shi, Peijun; Zhang, Qiaofeng; Zhao, Yuanyuan

    2011-08-01

    Detecting land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes in rural-urban fringe areas (RUFAs) timely and accurately using satellite imagery is essential for land-use planning and management in China. Although traditional spectral-based change-vector analysis (CVA) can effectively detect LULC change in many cases, it encounters difficulties in RUFAs because of deficiencies in the spectral information of satellite images. To detect LULC changes in RUFAs effectively, this paper proposes an extended CVA approach that incorporates textural change information into the traditional spectral-based CVA. The extended CVA was applied to three different pilot RUFAs in China with different remotely sensed data, including Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) images. The results demonstrated the improvement of the extended CVA compared to the traditional spectral-based CVA with the overall accuracy increased between 4.66% and 8.00% and the kappa coefficient increased between 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. The advantage of the extended CVA lies in its integration of both spectral and textural change information to detect LULC changes, allowing for effective discrimination of LULC changes that are spectrally similar but texturally different in RUFAs. The extended CVA has great potential to be widely used for LULC-change detection in RUFAs, which are often heterogeneous and fragmental in nature, with rich textural information.

  14. [Spatiotemporal patterns and driving forces of land use change in industrial relocation area: a case study of old industrial area in Tiexi of Shenyang, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Ling; Bing, Long-Fei; Xi, Feng-Ming; Wu, Rui; Geng, Yong

    2013-07-01

    Based on the QuickBird remote sensing images and with the support of GIS, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of land use change and its driving forces in old industrial area of Tiexi, Shenyang City of Liaoning Province in 2000-2010. During the study period, the industrial and mining warehouse land pattern had the greatest change, evolving from the historical pattern of residential land in the south and of industrial land in the north into residential land as the dominant land use pattern. In the last decade, the residential land area increased by 9%, mainly transferred from the industrial and mining warehouse land located in the north of Jianshe Road, while the industrial and mining warehouse land area decreased by 20%. The land areas for the commercial service and for the administrative and public services were increased by 1.3% and 3.1%, respectively. The land area for construction had a greater change, with an overall change rate being 76.9%. The land use change rate in 2000-2005 was greater than that in 2005-2010. National development strategies and policies, regional development planning, administrative reform, and industrial upgrading were the main driving forces of the land use change in old industrial area of Tiexi.

  15. Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system along a 32-mile reach of the Susquehanna River valley and adjacent areas was evaluated in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York. The surficial geology, inferred ice-marginal positions, and distribution of stratified-drift aquifers were mapped from existing data. Ice-marginal positions, which represent pauses in the retreat of glacial ice from the region, favored the accumulation of coarse-grained deposits whereas more steady or rapid ice retreat between these positions favored deposition of fine-grained lacustrine deposits with limited coarse-grained deposits at depth. Unconfined aquifers with thick saturated coarse-grained deposits are the most favorable settings for water-resource development, and three several-mile-long sections of valley were identified (mostly in Broome County) as potentially favorable: (1) the southernmost valley section, which extends from the New York–Pennsylvania border to about 1 mile north of South Windsor, (2) the valley section that rounds the west side of the umlaufberg (an isolated bedrock hill within a valley) north of Windsor, and (3) the east–west valley section at the Broome County–Chenango County border from Nineveh to East of Bettsburg (including the lower reach of the Cornell Brook valley). Fine-grained lacustrine deposits form extensive confining units between the unconfined areas, and the water-resource potential of confined aquifers is largely untested. Recharge, or replenishment, of these aquifers is dependent not only on infiltration of precipitation directly on unconfined aquifers, but perhaps more so from precipitation that falls in adjacent upland areas. Surface runoff and shallow groundwater from the valley walls flow downslope and recharge valley aquifers. Tributary streams that drain upland areas lose flow as they enter main valleys on permeable alluvial fans. This infiltrating water also recharges valley aquifers. Current (2012) use of

  16. Characterization of surface-water resources in the Great Basin National Park area and their susceptibility to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys, White Pine County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Peggy E.; Beck, David A.; Prudic, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Eight drainage basins and one spring within the Great Basin National Park area were monitored continually from October 2002 to September 2004 to quantify stream discharge and assess the natural variability in flow. Mean annual discharge for the stream drainages ranged from 0 cubic feet per second at Decathon Canyon to 9.08 cubic feet per second at Baker Creek. Seasonal variability in streamflow generally was uniform throughout the network. Minimum and maximum mean monthly discharges occurred in February and June, respectively, at all but one of the perennial streamflow sites. Synoptic-discharge, specific-conductance, and water- and air-temperature measurements were collected during the spring, summer, and autumn of 2003 along selected reaches of Strawberry, Shingle, Lehman, Baker, and Snake Creeks, and Big Wash to determine areas where surface-water resources would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys. Comparison of streamflow and water-property data to the geology along each stream indicated areas where surface-water resources likely or potentially would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals. These areas consist of reaches where streams (1) are in contact with permeable rocks or sediments, or (2) receive water from either spring discharge or ground-water inflow.

  17. Relationship between characteristics of gravity and magnetic anomalies and the earthquakes in the Longmenshan range and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jisheng; Gao, Rui; Zeng, Lingsen; Li, Qiusheng; Guan, Ye; He, Rizheng; Wang, Haiyan; Lu, Zhanwu

    2010-08-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and aftershocks occurred along the northeast-trending Longmenshan fault zone in the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau. The Tibetan plateau has the strongest negative Bouguer gravity anomaly zone in China and is surrounded by the great gravity horizontal gradient belt. The horizontal gradient belt of the observed gravity anomaly in the Longmenshan area is a part of this giant gravity gradient belt. The Longmenshan fault zone is located to the east of this belt. The horizontal gradient belt of the residual gravity anomaly, obtained by removing large effects of sedimentary basin and variations in the crustal thickness, well matches the Longmenshan fault zone. But this belt is located to the east of the horizontal gradient belt of the observed gravity anomalies. The deviation of the two horizontal gradient belts increases from the southwest to the northeast with a maximum of about 40-50 km. A significant difference in density exists in the lower crust and the uppermost mantle between the Songpan-Ganzê block and the Sichuan basin block. The Songpan-Ganzê block is less dense than the Sichuan basin block in the lower crust as well as in the uppermost mantle. The boundary between the two blocks is located to the west of the Wenchuan-Maoxian, Yinxiu-Beichuan, and Anxian-Guanxian faults approximately. The fault plane crosses the lower crust and uppermost mantle. The rigid Sichuan basin block acts as a resistant for the pushing from the Songpan-Ganzê block. Far-field effects of the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates, might lead to thrust of some brittle layers in the upper crust along the detachment, in the middle crust of the Songpan-Ganzê block. When movement on a large and deep crustal mega-thrust occurs, earthquakes strike the Longmen Shan margin of the Tibetan Plateau. In the Guanxian-Beichuan segment in the southern Longmenshan fault zone, push from the Songpan-Ganzê block is perpendicular to the density boundary

  18. Defended territories of an aggressive damselfish contain lower juvenile coral density than adjacent non-defended areas on Kenyan lagoon patch reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, T. A. C.; Cowburn, B.; Sluka, R. D.

    2015-03-01

    Jewel damselfish, Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus, aggressively defend small territories on coral reefs in which they cultivate lawns of edible macroalgae. Pairwise frequency counts showed that juvenile coral density was lower inside damselfish territories than that in adjacent non-defended areas on lagoon patch reefs in Kenya. These differences in coral density decreased as coral size increased. Direct farming effects of the damselfish and indirect inhibitory effects from higher algal densities inside territories are both thought to be potentially responsible for the results attained herein. Damselfish territories can occupy a large proportion of a coral reef; territorial behaviour in fish may have greater impacts on reef structure, in particular the resilience and growth rate of juvenile corals, than previously appreciated.

  19. Wastewater Land Application Permit LA-000141 Renewal Information for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    On July 25, 1994, the State of ldaho Division of Environmental Quality issued a Wastewater Land Application Permit, #LA-000141-01, for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The permit expires August 7, 1999. This report is being submitted with the renewal application and specifically addresses; Wastewater flow; Wastewater characteristics; Impacts to vegetation in irrigation area; Impacts to soil in irrigation area; Evaluation of groundwater monitoring wells for Wastewater Land Application Permit purposes; Summary of trends observed during the 5-year reporting period; and Projection of changes and new processes.

  20. 14 CFR 161.11 - Identification of land uses in airport noise study area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... noise study area. 161.11 Section 161.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS NOTICE AND APPROVAL OF AIRPORT NOISE AND ACCESS RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 161.11 Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. For...

  1. 14 CFR 161.11 - Identification of land uses in airport noise study area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... noise study area. 161.11 Section 161.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS NOTICE AND APPROVAL OF AIRPORT NOISE AND ACCESS RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 161.11 Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. For...

  2. 14 CFR 161.11 - Identification of land uses in airport noise study area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... noise study area. 161.11 Section 161.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS NOTICE AND APPROVAL OF AIRPORT NOISE AND ACCESS RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 161.11 Identification of land uses in airport noise study area. For...

  3. Artificial neural network estimation of soil erosion and nutrient concentrations in runoff from land application areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transport of sediment and nutrients from land application areas is an environmental concern. New methods are needed for estimating soil and nutrient concentrations of runoff from cropland areas on which manure is applied. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) trained with a Backpropagation (BP) algor...

  4. Land use analysis of US urban areas using high-resolution imagery from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The S-190B imagery from Skylab 3 permitted the detection of higher levels of land use detail than any satellite imagery previously evaluated using manual interpretation techniques. Resolution approaches that of 1:100,000 scale infrared aircraft photography, especially regarding urban areas. Nonurban areas are less distinct.

  5. 43 CFR 6305.10 - How will BLM allow access to State and private land within wilderness areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... State and private land within wilderness areas? (a) If you own land completely surrounded by wilderness... existed on the date Congress designated the area surrounding the inholding as wilderness, and (2) BLM... least impact on wilderness character. (b) If you own land completely surrounded by wilderness, and...

  6. 43 CFR 6305.10 - How will BLM allow access to State and private land within wilderness areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... least impact on wilderness character. (b) If you own land completely surrounded by wilderness, and no... State and private land within wilderness areas? (a) If you own land completely surrounded by wilderness... existed on the date Congress designated the area surrounding the inholding as wilderness, and (2)...

  7. 43 CFR 6305.10 - How will BLM allow access to State and private land within wilderness areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... least impact on wilderness character. (b) If you own land completely surrounded by wilderness, and no... State and private land within wilderness areas? (a) If you own land completely surrounded by wilderness... existed on the date Congress designated the area surrounding the inholding as wilderness, and (2)...

  8. Factors of land abandonment in mountainous Mediterranean areas: the case of Montenegrin settlements.

    PubMed

    Kerckhof, Annelies; Spalevic, Velibor; Van Eetvelde, Veerle; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Land use changes have been investigated in the surroundings of 14 rural Montenegrin settlements in order to get specific information about trends in land abandonment since around 1950. Permanently, seasonally and less inhabited settlements with different geographic conditions were studied. This was done by interviewing local inhabitants, which enabled a holistic approach to reveal the underlying processes of land abandonment. According to the observed patterns of land use change, the study sites can be categorized into intensified, urbanized, extensified, overgrown and forested cases. The category of extensified settlements is characterized by a highly reduced agricultural management intensity, resulting in an increase in grasslands and fruit trees at the expense of cropland. This land use change is mainly related to emigrating and aging inhabitants, having less livestock. Such extensive land use is found in both permanently inhabited and abandoned villages. Only some studied settlements became largely overgrown by bushes and forest. The steep average slope gradients and a large distance to the nearest city are explanatory factors of such land abandonment. Land use intensification takes place in low-lying areas located nearby towns.

  9. Spatio-temporal distribution and sources of Pb identified by stable isotopic ratios in sediments from the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Jian; Hu, Limin; Liu, Ming; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Xilin; Fan, Dejiang

    2017-02-15

    To understand the spatio-temporal distribution and sources of Pb in the sediments of the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent areas, 25 surface sediments and 1 sediment core were collected from the study areas. The concentrations of Al and Pb of these sediments exhibit a decreasing trend from the nearshore towards the offshore, with higher concentrations in the coastal areas of the East China Sea (ECS) and southwest of Jeju Island. According to the stable isotopic ratios of Pb, in combination with the elemental ratios and clay mineral data, it is inferred that sedimentary Pb in the surface sediments of the coastal areas of the ECS may come primarily from the Yangtze River, while the Pb southwest of Jeju Island is probably derived from both the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers. The particulate Pb derived from the Yangtze River was possibly dispersed along two paths: the path southward along the coastline of the ECS and the path eastward associated with the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW), which crosses the shelf of the ECS towards the area southeast of Jeju Island. Although the Yangtze River Basin witnessed rapid economic development during the period from the late 1970s to the middle 1990s, the influence of human activity on Pb concentration remained weak in the Yangtze River Estuary. Since the early 2000s, however, sedimentary Pb has been significantly increasing in the coastal mud areas of the ECS due to the increasing influence of human activity, such as the increase in atmospheric emission of anthropogenic Pb in China, construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), and the construction of smaller dams in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Coal combustion and the smelting of non-ferrous metals are possible anthropogenic sources for the sedimentary Pb in the Yangtze River Estuary.

  10. Effects of brush management on the hydrologic budget and water quality in and adjacent to Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, 2001--10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Woody vegetation, including ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei), has encroached on some areas in central Texas that were historically oak grassland savannah. Encroachment of woody vegetation is generally attributed to overgrazing and fire suppression. Removing the ashe juniper and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area as a brush management conservation practice (hereinafter referred to as "brush management") might change the hydrology in the watershed. These hydrologic changes might include changes to surface-water runoff, evapotranspiration, or groundwater recharge. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Federal, State, and local partners, examined the hydrologic effects of brush management in two adjacent watersheds in Comal County, Tex. Hydrologic data were collected in the watersheds for 3-4 years (pre-treatment) depending on the type of data, after which brush management occurred on one watershed (treatment watershed) and the other was left in its original condition (reference watershed). Hydrologic data were collected in the study area for another 6 years (post-treatment). These hydrologic data included rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and water quality. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured, but potential groundwater recharge was calculated by using a simplified mass balance approach. This fact sheet summarizes highlights of the study from the USGS Scientific Investigations Report on which it is based.

  11. Differences in the ectoparasite fauna between micromammals captured in natural and adjacent residential areas are better explained by sex and season than by type of habitat.

    PubMed

    Cevidanes, Aitor; Proboste, Tatiana; Chirife, Andrea D; Millán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    We compared the ectoparasite fauna in 608 micromammals (chiefly 472 wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus, 63 Algerian mice Mus spretus, and 51 greater white-toothed shrews Crocidura russula) captured in natural and adjacent residential areas in spring and autumn during three consecutive years in four areas in periurban Barcelona (NE Spain). We found little support for an association of urbanization with differences in infestation by ectoparasites. Prevalence of Rhipicephalus sp. tick in wood mice and shrews was significantly higher in residential than in natural habitats, and the opposite was found for the flea Ctenophtalmus andorrensis catalanensis in shrews. Marked differences in the prevalence of the flea Leptopsylla taschenbergi amitina in wood mice between seasons were observed in natural but not in residential habitats, probably due to enhanced flea survival probabilities in the latter. However, as a rule, males were more frequently and heavily infested than females, and the prevalence was higher in autumn than in spring. Our results suggest that the ectoparasite fauna of periurban micromammals is shaped more by other factors than by habitat modification. People living in residential areas are at risk of contact with the arthropods borne by non-commensal micromammals and the pathogens transmitted by them.

  12. Subsurface geology and porosity distribution, Madison Limestone and underlying formations, Powder River basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James A.

    1978-01-01

    To evaluate the Madison Limestone and associated rocks as potential sources for water supplies in the Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, an understanding of the geologic framework of these units, their lithologic facies patterns, the distribution of porosity zones, and the relation between porosity development and stratigraphic facies is necessary. Regionally the Madison is mainly a fossiliferous limestone. However, in broad areas of the eastern Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains, dolomite is a dominant constituent and in places the Madison is almost entirely dolomite. Within these areas maximum porosity development is found and it seems to be related to the coarser crystalline dolomite facies. The porosity development is associated with tabular and fairly continuous crystalline dolomite beds separated by non-porous limestones. The maximum porosity development in the Bighorn Dolomite, as in the Madison, is directly associated with the occurrence of a more coarsely crystalline sucrosic dolomite facies. Well data indicate, however, that where the Bighorn is present in the deeper parts of the Powder River Basin, it may be dominated by a finer crystalline dolomite facies of low porosity. The 'Winnipeg Sandstone' is a clean, generally well-sorted, medium-grained sandstone. It shows good porosity development in parts of the northern Powder River Basin and northwestern South Dakota. Because the sandstone is silica-cemented and quartzitic in areas of deep burial, good porosity is expected only where it is no deeper than a few thousand feet. The Flathead Sandstone is a predominantly quartzose, slightly feldspathic sandstone, commonly cemented with iron oxide. Like the 'Winnipeg Sandstone,' it too is silica-cemented and quartzitic in many places so that its porosity is poor in areas of deep burial. Illustrations in this report show the thickness, percent dolomite, and porosity-feet for the Bighorn Dolomite and the Madison Limestone and its subdivisions. The

  13. Hydrologic control on water trade in dry land areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, S.

    2009-12-01

    Water resource (and agriculture) in arid/semi arid areas, especially in developing countries, is increasingly under pressure in the face of global change. While expansion of physical infrastructure such as expansion of irrigation or dam structures can help, many (such as International Monetary Fund) have emphasized introduction of other adaptive mechanisms, such as the use of financial instruments, to smooth out fluctuations in water availability (or agricultural income) caused by (even increasing) erraticity in rainfall patterns. One such mechanism is water trade, where a downstream agent makes a payment to an upstream agent for additional natural flow and if the upstream agent agrees she releases additional flow by changing her landuse pattern. However, such a mechanism is fraught with questions ranging from region to region physical and financial viability of trade in water, role of hydrology in its viability, to the challenges of implementing it in developing countries. Answers to such questions are of utmost importance if water trade is to be considered as a serious coping mechanism. This paper delves on the role that hydrology, specifically hydrologic properties, plays in viability of water trade in a region. We consider water management at basin level, each of the agents (here a ‘representative’ water use, for eg. a farmer) occupies a sub-catchment within a basin and hydrology underlying each such agent is represented by a lumped single linear reservoir model. This allows us to consider non-steady state conditions at monthly scale while calculating prices of water trade securities between contiguous agents based on partial equilibrium modeling. A novel result from this innovative approach is that equilibrium pricing of water trade depends on “effective” hydraulic conductivity of the basin as well as erraticity in rainfall. We implement and present the results for basins in Gujarat and Rajasthan, two semi-arid states in western India that are most

  14. Map Analysis and Spatial Statistic: Assessment of Spatial Variability of Agriculture Land Conversion at Urban Fringe Area of Yogyakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilo, Bowo

    2016-11-01

    Urban development has brought various effects, one of which was the marginalization of the agricultural sector. Agricultural land is gradually converted to other type of land uses which considered more profitable. Conversion of agricultural land cannot be avoided but it should be controlled. Early identification on spatial distribution and intensity of agricultural land conversion as well as its related factor is necessary. Objective of the research were (1) to assess the spatial variability of agricultural land conversion, (2) to identify factors that affecting the spatial variability of agricultural land conversion. Research was conducted at urban fringe area of Yogyakarta. Spatial variability of agricultural land conversion was analysed using an index called Relative Conversion Index (RCI). Combined of map analysis and spatial statistical were used to determine the center of agricultural land conversion. Simple regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the conversion of agricultural land. The result shows that intensity of agricultural land conversion in the study area varies spatially as well as temporally. Intensity of agricultural land conversion in the period 1993-2000, involves three categories which are high, moderate and low. In the period of 2000-2007, the intensity of agricultural land conversion involves two categories which are high and low. Spatial variability of agricultural land conversion in the study area has a significant correlation with three factors: population growth, fragmentation of agricultural land and distance of agricultural land to the city

  15. Land use and land cover classification over a large area in Iran based on single date analysis of satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Hossein; Adamowski, Jan; Bonnell, Robert; Sharifi, Forood; Namdar, Mohammad; Ale-Ebrahim, Sasan

    2011-09-01

    Accelerated soil erosion, high sediment yields, floods and debris flow are serious problems in many areas of Iran, and in particular in the Golestan dam watershed, which is the area that was investigated in this study. Accurate land use and land cover (LULC) maps can be effective tools to help soil erosion control efforts. The principal objective of this research was to propose a new protocol for LULC classification for large areas based on readily available ancillary information and analysis of three single date Landsat ETM+ images, and to demonstrate that successful mapping depends on more than just analysis of reflectance values. In this research, it was found that incorporating climatic and topographic conditions helped delineate what was otherwise overlapping information. This study determined that a late summer Landsat ETM+ image yields the best results with an overall accuracy of 95%, while a spring image yields the poorest accuracy (82%). A summer image yields an intermediate accuracy of 92%. In future studies where funding is limited to obtaining one image, late summer images would be most suitable for LULC mapping. The analysis as presented in this paper could also be done with satellite images taken at different times of the season. It may be, particularly for other climatic zones, that there is a better time of season for image acquisition that would present more information.

  16. Land change in the Central Corn Belt Plains Ecoregion and hydrologic consequences in developed areas: 1939-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karstensen, Krista; Shaver, David; Alexander, Randal; Over, Thomas; Soong, David T.

    2013-01-01

    This report emphasizes the importance of a multi-disciplinary understanding of how land use and land cover can affect regional hydrology by collaboratively investigating how increases in developed land area may affect stream discharge by evaluating land-cover change from 1939 to 2000, urban housing density data from 1940 to 2010, and changes in annual peak streamflow from water years 1945 to 2009. The results and methods crosscut two mission areas of the U.S. Geological Survey (Climate and Land Use, Water) and can be used to better assess developed land change and hydrologic consequences, which can be used to better assess future management and mitigation strategies.

  17. Land use changing and land use optimization of Lake Baikal basin on the example of two key areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodyankina, S.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Baikal contains roughly 20% of the world's unfrozen surface fresh water. It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. Today levels of urbanization and economic stress on environmental resources is increasing on the shorts of the lake Baikal. The potential of economic development (industry, local tourism, and mining) of the Severobaykalsky and Sludyansky districts is rather high although they are characterized not only by beneficial features for local economy but also by considerable disadvantages for nature of this world valuable territory. This investigation show human-caused landscape changes during economic development of the two key areas in Baikal water catchment basin during 10 years (point of reference is 2000 year). Key areas are 1) the Baikalo-Patomskoe highland in the north of the Baikal catchment basin (Severobaykalsky district, Republic of Buryatia); 2) Khamar-Daban mountain system in the south of the Baikal catchment basin (Sludyansky districy, Irkutsk region). Since 2000 year land use of the territory has changed. Areas of agriculture were reduced but recreation activity on the bank of the lake was increased. Methods of GIS analysis and local statistic analysis of landscape characteristic were used. Nature, rural and urban areas ratio are estimated. Vegetation and soil condition assessment were made. The essence of this research is in helping to make decisions linked to upcoming problems: situation identification, evaluation and forecasting of the potential landscape condition, optimization of land use, mitigation of impact and mapping of territories and nature resources which have a high ecological value or endangered by industrial impact. For this purpose landscape maps of the territories on the base of the remote sensing information and field investigations were created. They used to calculate potential landscape functions of the territory without taking into account present impact of anthropogenic actions. Land use maps for years

  18. Distribution and source recognition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments of Hsin-ta Harbour and adjacent coastal areas, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, Meng-Der; Lee, Chon-Lin; Yu, Chia-Shun

    2003-08-01

    Thirty-three sediment samples from Hsin-ta Harbour and neighboring coastal areas were analyzed by GC-MS for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of 30 analyzed parental and alkylated PAHs ( summation operator PAH) varied from 98.1 to 3382 ng/g dry weight. MP/P (methylphenanthrenes/phenanthrene) values larger than 2 coincided with very low P/A (phenanthrene/anthracene) values at inner harbour stations, revealing that a significant portion of low molecular weight PAHs are probably from petrogenic pollution sources, specifically, illegal disposal of used motor oil. The 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene/3,6-dimethylphenanthrene (4,6-C(2)D/3,6-C(2)P) ratio is found to be more useful than the MP/P ratio in tracing petrogenic PAHs from the inner harbour area to the adjacent coastal environment. In addition, according to hierarchical cluster analysis, collected sediments cluster in three major groups, Off-shore Group, Near-shore Group and Inner Harbour Group. Three diagnostic ratios, 4,6-C(2)D/3,6-C(2)P, PER/ summation operator PAH (perylene to summation operator PAH) and BaA/CHR (benzo(a)anthracene/chrysene), representing petrogenic, biogenic and pyrogenic origins, are found to be effective in differentiating and characterizing sediments among the groups in this study. Enrichment of pyrogenic and petrogenic PAHs in sediments collected exhibits mixing or dilution, spatially, by biogenic (or natural) PAHs.

  19. Mapping of lithologic and structural units using multispectral imagery. [Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent areas (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronberg, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS imagery covering the Afar-Triangle/Ethiopia and adjacent regions (Ethiopian Plateau, Somali Plateau, and parts of Yemen and Saudi Arabi) was applied to the mapping of lithologic and structural units of the test area at a scale 1:1,000,000. Results of the geological evaluation of the ERTS-1 imagery of the Afar have proven the usefullness of this type of satellite data for regional geological mapping. Evaluation of the ERTS images also resulted in new aspects of the structural setting and tectonic development of the Afar-Triangle, where three large rift systems, the oceanic rifts of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the continental East African rift system, seem to meet each other. Surface structures mapped by ERTS do not indicate that the oceanic rift of the Gulf of Aden (Sheba Ridge) continues into the area of continental crust west of the Gulf of Tadjura. ERTS data show that the Wonji fault belt of the African rift system does not enter or cut through the central Afar. The Aysha-Horst is not a Horst but an autochthonous spur of the Somali Plateau.

  20. Regional risk assessment approaches to land planning for industrial polluted areas in China: the Hulunbeier region case study.

    PubMed

    Li, Daiqing; Zhang, Chen; Pizzol, Lisa; Critto, Andrea; Zhang, Haibo; Lv, Shihai; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    The rapid industrial development and urbanization processes that occurred in China over the past 30years has increased dramatically the consumption of natural resources and raw materials, thus exacerbating the human pressure on environmental ecosystems. In result, large scale environmental pollution of soil, natural waters and urban air were recorded. The development of effective industrial planning to support regional sustainable economy development has become an issue of serious concern for local authorities which need to select safe sites for new industrial settlements (i.e. industrial plants) according to assessment approaches considering cumulative impacts, synergistic pollution effects and risks of accidental releases. In order to support decision makers in the development of efficient and effective regional land-use plans encompassing the identification of suitable areas for new industrial settlements and areas in need of intervention measures, this study provides a spatial regional risk assessment methodology which integrates relative risk assessment (RRA) and socio-economic assessment (SEA) and makes use of spatial analysis (GIS) methodologies and multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. The proposed methodology was applied to the Chinese region of Hulunbeier which is located in eastern Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, adjacent to the Republic of Mongolia. The application results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the identification of the most hazardous and risky industrial settlements, the most vulnerable regional receptors and the regional districts which resulted to be the most relevant for intervention measures since they are characterized by high regional risk and excellent socio-economic development conditions.

  1. Multitemporal analysis of Landsat images to detect land use land cover changes for monitoring soil sealing in the Nola area (Naples, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Giglio, Michaela; Allocca, Maria; Franci, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    Land Use Land Cover Changes (LULCC) data provide objective information to support environmental policy, urban planning purposes and sustainable land development. Understanding of past land use/cover practices and current landscape patterns is critical to assess the effects of LULCC on the Earth system. Within the framework of soil sealing in Italy, the present study aims to assess the LULCC of the Nola area (Naples metropolitan area, Italy), relating to a thirty year period from 1984 to 2015. The urban sprawl affects this area causing the impervious surface increase, the loss in rural areas and landscape fragmentation. Located near Vesuvio volcano and crossed by artificial filled rivers, the study area is subject to landslide, hydraulic and volcanic risks. Landsat time series has been processed by means of the supervised per-pixel classification in order to produce multitemporal Land Use Land Cover maps. Then, post-classification comparison approach has been applied to quantify the changes occurring between 1984 and 2015, also analyzing the intermediate variations in 1999, namely every fifteen years. The results confirm the urban sprawl. The increase of the built-up areas mainly causes the habitat fragmentation and the agricultural land conversion of the Nola area that is already damaged by unauthorized disposal of urban waste. Moreover, considering the local risk maps, it was verified that some of the new urban areas were built over known hazardous sites. In order to limit the soil sealing, urgent measures and sustainable urban planning are required.

  2. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L; Wu, Grace C; Allen, Michael F

    2015-11-03

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km(2) of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km(2) of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in "Compatible" areas. The majority of "Incompatible" USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  3. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Hoffacker, Madison K.; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L.; Wu, Grace C.; Allen, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km2 of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km2 of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in “Compatible” areas. The majority of “Incompatible” USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions. PMID:26483467

  4. Solar Energy Development Impacts on Land-Cover Change and Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Wu, G. C.; Allen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE; i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt [MW]) development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land-cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type (photovoltaic [PV] vs. concentrating solar power [CSP]), area (km2), and capacity (MW) within the global solar hotspot of the state of California (USA). Additionally, we utilized the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility Model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Lastly, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrub- and scrublands, comprising 375 km2 of land-cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km2 of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in compatible areas. The majority of incompatible USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure and all USSE installations average at most seven and five km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  5. Study of land cover classes and retrieval of leaf area index using Landsat 8 OLI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Amit K.; Garg, P. K.; Hari Prasad, K. S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2016-04-01

    Timely and accurate information about land cover is an important and extensively used application of remote sensing data. After successful launch of Landsat 8 is providing a new data source for monitoring land cover, which has the potential to improve the earth surface features characterization. Mapping of Leaf area Index (LAI) in larger area may be impossible when we rely on field measurements. Remote sensing data have been continuing efforts to develop different methods to estimate LAI. In this present study, an attempt has been made to discriminate various land cover features and empirical equation is used for retrieve biophysical parameter (LAI) for satellite NDVI data. Support vector machine classification was performed for Muzaffarnagar district using LANDSAT 8 operational land imager data to separate out major land cover classes (water, fallow, built up, sugarcane, orchard, dense vegetation and other crops). Ground truth data was collected using JUNO GPS which was used in developing the spectral signatures for each classes. The LAI-NDVI existing empirical equation is used to prepare LAI map. It is found that the LAI values in village foloda region maximum LAI pixels in the range 3.10 and above and minimum in the range 1.0 to 1.20. It is also concluded that the LAI values between 1.70 and 3.10 is having most of the sugarcane crop pixels at maximum vegetative growth stage. It shows that the sugarcane crop condition in the study area was very good.

  6. Monitoring of Land degradation in the mining impacted areas of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, T.; Renchin, T.

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays, environmental issue is very important and complicated problem in Mongolia. Mongolia has long suffered from poor mining legislation and almost no regulation of its production . There is a need to undertake analyses of land degradation and land use in Mongolia as an important factor of Environment. Land degradation has been identified as one the priority concerns. Causes of land degradation can be divided into two categories natural and human induced in Mongolia. The second hand level mining contributes to land degradation increased small to large-scale mining, as well as illicit activity resulting in exploitation of the country's mineral resources. In the last decade Mongolia has been developing the mining sector and due to the great number of exploitations the related territories were ecologically damaged. The rivers and lakes are drained, the earth is defiled and all these damages brought the environmental problems. This study aims to monitor land degradation processes in the study area Ongi River Basin of the central region of Mongolia. This area is affected by mining activities and desertification processes. The main reason of drying up Ongiriver and Ulaannuur is definitely changed the Onggi riverbed due to the mining of gold placer deposit and never making technical and biological reclamation. About 60 thousand people and over one million livestock who one living around Onggi river one getting defective of drink water and pasture because of Onggi river and UlaanLake's evaporation. We applied change detection technique and supervised classification using Satellite data. This study contributes to the research which involves policy makers and stakeholders to define and negotiate relevant scenarios in participatory approaches in the local area and to the studies about linking people to pixels. This case study will enable our researchers to plan for the future by making more educated decisions in issues stemming from mining, land degradation, water

  7. Digital geologic map data for the Ozark National Scenic Riverways and adjacent areas along the Current River and Jacks Fork, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weary, David J.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Harrison, Richard W.; Weems, Robert E.

    2016-09-23

    The geology of the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) in southern Missouri has been mapped at 1:24,000 scale. This endeavor was achieved through the combined efforts of U.S. Geological Survey and Missouri Geological Survey individual quadrangle mapping and additional fieldwork by the authors of this report. Geologic data covering the area of the ONSR and a 1-mile (1.6-kilometer) buffer zone surrounding the park, as well as geologic data from a few key adjoining areas, have been compiled into a single, seamless geographic information system database. The intent is to provide base geologic information for natural science research and land management in the park and surrounding areas. The data are served online at ScienceBase (https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/), where they are provided in Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) file geodatabase format, and are accompanied by metadata files. These data can be accessed at: http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7CJ8BKB. Additional detailed geologic information about the ONSR and surrounding areas is available in the separate 1:24,000-scale quadrangle maps and in a 1:100,000-scale map and report on the regional geology.

  8. The evaluation of alternate methodologies for land cover classification in an urbanizing area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smekofski, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The usefulness of LANDSAT in classifying land cover and in identifying and classifying land use change was investigated using an urbanizing area as the study area. The question of what was the best technique for classification was the primary focus of the study. The many computer-assisted techniques available to analyze LANDSAT data were evaluated. Techniques of statistical training (polygons from CRT, unsupervised clustering, polygons from digitizer and binary masks) were tested with minimum distance to the mean, maximum likelihood and canonical analysis with minimum distance to the mean classifiers. The twelve output images were compared to photointerpreted samples, ground verified samples and a current land use data base. Results indicate that for a reconnaissance inventory, the unsupervised training with canonical analysis-minimum distance classifier is the most efficient. If more detailed ground truth and ground verification is available, the polygons from the digitizer training with the canonical analysis minimum distance is more accurate.

  9. The use of a GIS to compare the land areas captured by very basic and complex wellhead protection area models.

    PubMed

    Miller, Chris

    2005-11-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) can be used in public health programs to better understand humans and their interactions with their environment. The Washington State Department of Health (WSDOH) estimates that over 65 percent of its citizens rely on groundwater as a source of drinking water, with some counties approaching 100 percent. In an effort to focus on groundwater protection, the department has recognized the delineation of wellhead protection areas in Whatcom County, Washington, as a proactive method for protecting the land areas around public water supply wells. At present, WSDOH accepts four methods for the delineation of these areas: 1) the calculated-fixed-radius (CFR) method, 2) the analytical method, 3) hydrogeologic mapping, and 4) the numerical flow/transport model. The objective of the study reported here was to utilize a GIS to compare the very basic CFR method with other methods in the following separate pairs for water systems in Whatcom County: CFR versus analytical method, CFR versus hydrogeologic mapping, and CFR versus numerical flow/transport modeling. Analytical, hydrogeologic, and numerical models are generally considered to be superior to the CFR model. The GIS overlay comparisons in the study, however, showed the CFR method having land capture areas that were most similar to those delineated by the more advanced hydrogeologic method and least similar to those delineated by the less advanced analytical method. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year overall comparison averages show that the CFR and hydrogeologic overlays were the most similar in each of the three study comparison areas. Similarly, the analytical method had the least similar overlays in each of the three study areas. This research further clarifies the usefulness of GIS in applying the CFR model around public supply wells for initial wellhead protection measures, especially for smaller water systems with limited funds or for larger systems as an interim protection measure. These

  10. Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matolak, David W.

    2007-01-01

    In this project final report, entitled "Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas," we provide a detailed description and model representation for the wireless channel in the airport surface environment in this band. In this executive summary, we review report contents, describe the achieved objectives and major findings, and highlight significant conclusions and recommendations.

  11. Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF LAND USE IN RIPARIAN AREAS WITHIN THE CONTENTNEA WATERSHED OF NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterization of land use in riparian areas within the Contentnea watershed of North Carolina.

    Wright, C.J.,1 and S.W. Alberty.2 1U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA 30605 USA; 2OAO Corporation, Athens, GA 30605 USA.

    Legislation mandating riparian bu...

  13. LARGE AREA LAND COVER MAPPING THROUGH SCENE-BASED CLASSIFICATION COMPOSITING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, a number of initiatives have been undertaken to create definitive national and global data sets consisting of precision corrected Landsat MSS and TM scenes. One important application of these data is the derivation of large area land cover products spanning ...

  14. 77 FR 60458 - Public Land Order No. 7803; Withdrawal of Public Lands for the Limestone Hills Training Area; MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... public land laws, including the United States mining laws, but not from leasing under the mineral leasing... public land laws, including location and entry under the United States mining laws (30 U.S.C. Ch. 2), but... applicability of those public land laws governing the use of the land under lease, license, or permit,...

  15. An analysis of human-induced land transformations in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento area

    SciTech Connect

    Kirtland, D.; DeCola, L. ); Gaydos, L.; Acevedo, W. ); Clarke, K. . Dept. of Geology and Geography); Bell, C. )

    1994-06-01

    Part of the US Geological Survey's Global Change Research Program involves studying the area from the Pacific Ocean to the Sierra foothills to enhance understanding of the role that human activities play in global change. The study investigates the ways that humans transform the land and the effects that changing the landscape may have on regional and global systems. To accomplish this research, scientists are compiling records of historical transformations in the region's land cover over the last 140 years, developing a simulation model to predict land cover change, and assembling a digital data set to analyze and describe land transformations. The historical data regarding urban growth focus attention on the significant change the region underwent from 1850 to 1990. The historical change is being used to calibrate a prototype cellular automata model, developed to predict changes in urban land cover 100 years into the future. These data aid in documenting and understanding human-induced land transformations from both historical and predictive perspectives. A descriptive analysis of the region is used to investigate the relationships among data characteristic of the region. These data consist of multilayer topography, climate, vegetation, and population data for a 256-km[sup 2] region of central California. A variety of multivariate analysis tools are used to integrate the data in raster format from map contours, interpolated climate observations, satellite observations, and population estimates.

  16. Turbines and terrestrial vertebrates: variation in tortoise survivorship between a wind energy facility and an adjacent undisturbed wildland area in the desert southwest (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Augustine, Benjamin J.; Arundel, Terry; Murphy, Mason O.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David F.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18 year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  17. Comparing maps of mean monthly surface temperature and precipitation for Alaska and adjacent areas of Canada produced by two different methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, James J.; Hufford, Gary L.; Daly, Christopher; Berg, Jared S.; Fleming, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Maps of mean monthly surface temperature and precipitation for Alaska and adjacent areas of Canada, produced by Oregon State University's Spatial Climate Analysis Service (SCAS) and the Alaska Geospatial Data Clearinghouse (AGDC), were analyzed. Because both sets of maps are generally available and in use by the community, there is a need to document differences between the processes and input data sets used by the two groups to produce their respective set of maps and to identify similarities and differences between the two sets of maps and possible reasons for the differences. These differences do not affect the observed large-scale patterns of seasonal and annual variability. Alaska is divided into interior and coastal zones, with consistent but different variability, separated by a transition region. The transition region has high interannual variability but low long-term mean variability. Both data sets support the four major ecosystems and ecosystem transition zone identified in our earlier work. Differences between the two sets of maps do occur, however, on the regional scale; they reflect differences in physiographic domains and in the treatment of these domains by the two groups (AGDC, SCAS). These differences also provide guidance for an improved observational network for Alaska. On the basis of validation with independent in situ data, we conclude that the data set produced by SCAS provides the best spatial coverage of Alaskan long-term mean monthly surface temperature and precipitation currently available. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  18. Natural Parasitism in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in Disturbed Areas Adjacent to Commercial Mango Orchards in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Pablo; Ayala, Amanda; López, Patricia; Cancino, Jorge; Cabrera, Héctor; Cruz, Jassmin; Martinez, Ana Mabel; Figueroa, Isaac; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the natural parasitism in fruit fly populations in disturbed areas adjacent to commercial mango orchards in the states of Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico, we recorded over one year the fruit fly-host associations, fly infestation, and parasitism rates in backyard orchards and patches of native vegetation. We also investigated the relationship between fruit size, level of larval infestation, and percent of parasitism, and attempted to determine the presence of superparasitism. The most recurrent species in trap catches was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), followed by Anastrepha ludens (Loew), in both study zones. The fruit infestation rates were higher in Chiapas than in Veracruz, with A. obliqua again being the most conspicuous species emerging from collected fruits. The diversity of parasitoids species attacking fruit fly larvae was greater in Chiapas, with a predominance of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) in both sites, although the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) was well established in Chiapas. Fruit size was positively correlated with the number of larvae per fruit, but this relationship was not observed in the level of parasitism. The number of oviposition scars was not related to the number of immature parasitoids inside the pupa of D. areolatus emerging from plum fruits. Mass releases of Di. longicaudata seem not to affect the presence or prevalence of the native species. Our findings open new research scenarios on the role and impact of native parasitoid species attacking Anastrepha flies that can contribute to the development of sound strategies for using these species in projects for augmentative biological control.

  19. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R.; Murphy, Mason O.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises ( Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  20. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA).

    PubMed

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E; Ennen, Joshua R; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R; Murphy, Mason O; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V; Price, Steven J

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  1. Assessment of geochemical evolution of groundwater in a mountainous area under agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledesma-Ruiz, Rogelio; Pasten-Zapata, Ernesto; Parra, Roberto; Harter, Thomas; Mahlknecht, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Zona Citricola is an important area to Mexico for its citriculture. Situated in a sub-humid to humid climate adjacent to Sierra Madre Occidental, this mountainouos valley hosts an aquifer system which represents sequences of shales, marls, conglomerates, and alluvial deposits. Groundwater flows from mountainous recharge areas to the basin-fill deposits and provides base flow to supply drinking water to an adjacent metropolitan area. The objective of this study was to characterize groundwater chemistry of this area and to assess the evolution. Correlation and principal component analysis were used to decipher various underlying natural and anthropogenic processes creating distinct water classes: (1) dissolution of evaporates, (2) surface organic waste or wastewater, and (3) silicate weathering and clay formation. Hierarchical cluster analysis was employed for partitioning the water samples into four hydrochemical groups: recharge waters (Ca-HCO3), transition zone waters (Ca-HCO3-SO4 to Ca-SO4-HCO3) and discharge waters (Ca-SO4). Inverse geochemical models of these groups were developed using PHREEQC to elucidate the chemical reactions controlling water chemistry between an initial (recharge) and final water. The main responsible reactions were: (1) dissolution of rock salts, (2) release of soil gas carbon dioxide, (3) dedolomitization,(4) albite weathering reactions with corresponding precipitation of silica and clay minerals, and (5) input from animal/human waste and manure, accompanied by denitrification processes. The hydrochemical groups could be related to lithological formations.

  2. Land use change and its effects on water quality in typical inland lake of arid area in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong; Zhou, Xiaode; Guo, Mengjing; Wei, Wu

    2016-07-01

    Land-use change is very important for determining and assessing the influence of human activity on aquatic environment of rivers and lakes. The present work with Bosten River basin as the subject, analyzes features of dynamic land-use change of the basin from 1993 to 2013, in order to study the influence of land-use pattern change on the basin water quality, according to the land-use/land-cover(LUCC) chart from 2000 to 2013 made by ArcGIS and ENVI. It shows cultivated land, wetland and forestland constitute most of Bosten River basin, taking up over 41.7% of the total; from 1993-2000, LUCC of the basin is relatively small, with an increase of cultivated land, residential-industry land, water wetlands by 15.09%-18.33%,most of which are transformed from forestland, grassland and unused land; from 2000-2013, LUCC of the basin is relatively significant, with a continuing and bigger increase of cultivated land and Residential-industry area, most of which are transformed from water wetlands and unused land. Based on analysis of landuse pattern and water quality index, it can be told that water pollution is positively correlated to cultivated land and residential-industry area and negatively correlated to water and grassland. Also, the influence of land-use pattern change on water quality has been discussed, whose finding can serve as the scientific evidence for land-use optimization and water pollution control.

  3. Estimating Hydrologic Fluxes, Crop Water Use, and Agricultural Land Area in China using Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Tiziana; McLaughlin, Dennis B.; Hoisungwan, Piyatida

    2016-04-01

    Crop production has significantly altered the terrestrial environment by changing land use and by altering the water cycle through both co-opted rainfall and surface water withdrawals. As the world's population continues to grow and individual diets become more resource-intensive, the demand for food - and the land and water necessary to produce it - will continue to increase. High-resolution quantitative data about water availability, water use, and agricultural land use are needed to develop sustainable water and agricultural planning and policies. However, existing data covering large areas with high resolution are susceptible to errors and can be physically inconsistent. China is an example of a large area where food demand is expected to increase and a lack of data clouds the resource management dialogue. Some assert that China will have insufficient land and water resources to feed itself, posing a threat to global food security if they seek to increase food imports. Others believe resources are plentiful. Without quantitative data, it is difficult to discern if these concerns are realistic or overly dramatized. This research presents a quantitative approach using data assimilation techniques to characterize hydrologic fluxes, crop water use (defined as crop evapotranspiration), and agricultural land use at 0.5 by 0.5 degree resolution and applies the methodology in China using data from around the year 2000. The approach uses the principles of water balance and of crop water requirements to assimilate existing data with a least-squares estimation technique, producing new estimates of water and land use variables that are physically consistent while minimizing differences from measured data. We argue that this technique for estimating water fluxes and agricultural land use can provide a useful basis for resource management modeling and policy, both in China and around the world.

  4. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Daliao River estuary and the adjacent area, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Binghui; Wang, Liping; Lei, Kun; Nan, Bingxu

    2016-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination was investigated in concurrently sampled surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment of Daliao River estuary and the adjacent area, China. The total concentrations of PAHs ranged from 71.12 to 4255.43 ng/L in water, from 1969.95 to 11612.21 ng/L in SPM, and from 374.84 to 11588.85 ng/g dry weight (dw) in sediment. Although the 2-3 ring PAHs were main PAH congeners in water and SPM, the 4-6 ring PAHs were also detected and their distribution was site-specific, indicating a very recent PAHs input around the area since they were hydrophobic. The PAHs pollution was identified as mixed combustion and petroleum sources. Based on species sensitivity distribution (SSD), the ecological risk in SPM from 82% stations was found to be higher obviously than that in water. The risk in water was basically ranked as medium, while the risk in SPM was ranked as high. Analysis with sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that negative eco-risk occasionally occurred in about 50% stations, while negative eco-risk frequently occurred in about 3% stations only caused by Phenanthrene(Phe) and Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene(DBA). Here freshwater acute effects data together with saltwater data were used for SSD model. And this method could quickly give the rational risk information, and achieved our objective that compared the spatial difference of risk levels among three compartments. The results confirmed that the use of freshwater acute effects data from the ECOTOX database together with saltwater effects data is acceptable for risk assessment purposes in estuary.

  5. Classification and area estimation of land covers in Kansas using ground-gathered and LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, G. A.; Holko, M. L.; Anderson, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-gathered data and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) digital data from 1981 were analyzed to produce a classification of Kansas land areas into specific types called land covers. The land covers included rangeland, forest, residential, commercial/industrial, and various types of water. The analysis produced two outputs: acreage estimates with measures of precision, and map-type or photo products of the classification which can be overlaid on maps at specific scales. State-level acreage estimates were obtained and substate-level land cover classification overlays and estimates were generated for selected geographical areas. These products were found to be of potential use in managing land and water resources.

  6. On Assessment and Estimation of Potential Losses due to Land Subsidence in Urban Areas of Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Andreas, Heri; Gumilar, Irwan; Sidiq, Teguh P.

    2016-04-01

    Land subsidence is natural-anthropogenic hazard affecting several large urban areas in Indonesia, i.e. Jakarta, Bandung and Semarang. Geodetic based results from various techniques (e.g. Leveling, GPS and InSAR) show that land subsidence rates in all three cities generally have spatial and temporal variations, and their magnitude is in average about 5-10 cm/year. The impacts of subsidence in those cities can be seen in the field in various forms such as cracking of permanent constructions and roads, tilting of houses and buildings, 'sinking' of houses and buildings, changes in river canal and drain flow systems, wider expansion of coastal and/or inland flooding areas, and increased inland sea water intrusion. These impacts can be categorized into infrastructure, environmental, economic, and social impacts. The potential losses due to land subsidence in urban areas are actually quite significant. Related infrastructural, social and environmental costs due to direct and indirect impacts of land subsidence are economically quite significant, and can not be underestimated in sustainable urban development. The planning, development and maintenance costs of building and infrastructures in the affected areas are usually much higher than the normal situation. The collateral impact of coastal subsidence in Jakarta and Semarang, in the form of coastal flooding during high tides is also quite damaging. This repeated coastal flooding in several areas along the coast will deteriorate the structure and function of building and infrastructures, badly influences the quality of the living environment and life (e.g. health and sanitation condition), and also disrupts economic and social activities in the affected areas. As in the case of Bandung, inland subsidence also has a quite significant impact on inland flooding phenomena, since it will theoretically lead to expanded coverage and deeper water depth of flooded (inundated) areas. Since the direct and indirect impacts of

  7. Nonpoint sources of volatile organic compounds in urban areas - Relative importance of land surfaces and air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Bender, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly detected in urban waters across the United States include gasoline-related compounds (e.g. toluene, xylene) and chlorinated compounds (e.g. chloroform, tetrachloroethane [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE]). Statistical analysis of observational data and results of modeling the partitioning of VOCs between air and water suggest that urban land surfaces are the primary nonpoint source of most VOCs. Urban air is a secondary nonpoint source, but could be an important source of the gasoline oxygenate methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE). Surface waters in urban areas would most effectively be protected by controlling land-surface sources.

  8. Comparison Between AQUARIUS and SMOS brightness temperatures for Heterogeneous Land Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benlloch, Amparo; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Tenjo, Carolina; Navarro, Enrique

    2016-07-01

    Intercomparison between Aquarius and SMOS brightness temperatures (TBs) over land surfaces is more challenging than over oceans because land footprints are more heterogeneous. In this work we are comparing Aquarius and SMOS TBs under coherente conditions obtained both by considering similar areas, according to land uses and by stratifying by means of TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index) that accounts for the dynamics of the vegetation instead of assuming static characteristics as in the previous approches. The area of study was chosen in central Spain where we could get a significant number of matches between both instruments. The study period corresponded to 2012-2014. SMOS level-3 data were obtained from the Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS (CATDS) and Aquarius' from the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PODAAC). Land uses were obtained from the Spanish SIOSE facility (Sistema de Informacion de Ocupacion del Suelo en España) that uses a scale of 1:25.000 and polygon geometrical structure layer. SIOSE is based on panchromatic and multispectral 2.5 m resolution SPOT-5 images together with Landsat-5 images and orthophotos from the Spanish Nacional Plan of Aerial Orthophotography (PNOA). TVDI values were obtained from MODIS operational products of land surface temperature and NDVI. SMOS ascending TBs were compared to inner-beam Aquarius descending half-orbit TBs coinciding over the study area at 06:00 h. The Aquarius inner beam has an incidence angle of 28,7º and SMOS data were considered for the 27,5º incidence angle. The SMOS products corresponded to version 2.6x (data before 31st Oct 2013) and version 2.7x (data after 1st Jan 2014). Intersections between both footprints were analysed under conditions of similar areas, land uses and TVDI values. For the latter (land uses/TVDI), a linear combination of SMOS land uses/TVDI was obtained to match the larger Aquarius footprint. A more physical approach is also under way

  9. Post-Landing Orion Crew Survival in Warm Ocean Areas: A Case Study in Iterative Environmental Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rains, George E.; Bue, Grant C.; Pantermuehl, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    The Orion crew module (CM) is being designed to perform survivable land and water landings. There are many issues associated with post-landing crew survival. In general, the most challenging of the realistic Orion landing scenarios from an environmental control standpoint is the off-nominal water landing. Available power and other consumables will be very limited after landing, and it may not be possible to provide full environmental control within the crew cabin for very long after splashdown. Given the bulk and thermal insulation characteristics of the crew-worn pressure suits, landing in a warm tropical ocean area would pose a risk to crew survival from elevated core body temperatures, if for some reason the crewmembers were not able to remove their suits and/or exit the vehicle. This paper summarizes the analyses performed and conclusions reached regarding post-landing crew survival following a water landing, from the standpoint of the crew s core body temperatures.

  10. A comparison of pixel-based and object-based approaches for land use land cover classification in semi-arid areas, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, H. E.; Csaplovics, E.; Elhaja, M. E.

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the comparison between application of pixel-based and object- based approaches in land use land cover classification in semi-arid areas in Sudan. The second aim is to assess the accuracy of classification for each approach. The study was conducted in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan State, which is affected by modifications in conditions and composition of vegetation cover trends. The study used ASTER L1B registered radiance at the sensor image acquired on (19.10.2010). The image was radiometrically corrected by using ENVI-FLAASH software. Subset with an area of (40880) ha was created. The image classification (pixel-based and object-based) and accuracy assessment were conducted. Total number of (47) GCPs were surveyed and used in accuracy assessment using ERDAS 9.1. Image segmentation process was implemented using Definiens eCognition 7.1 software. Segmentation level 4 of scale parameter 25 was selected for classification based on colour and form homogeneity. Land use land cover classes were derived by classification using the nearest neighbor classifier with membership functions (fuzzy logic) for each class. The land use land cover distribution in the area for forest dominated by Acacia Senegal is (20%) and for residential area is (1.50%) for the two methods of classification. While for bare and farm land, grass and bush land and mixed woodland classes are (6.69% and 1.63%), (18.62% and 15.16%) and (53% and 61%) for pixel based and object based methods, respectively. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic of the classification produced by the pixel-based and object-based were (72.92%, and 54.17%) and (0.6259 and 0.3810), respectively. The pixel based approach performed slightly better than the object-based approach in land use land cover classification in the semi-arid land in gum Arabic belt.

  11. Tectonic structure of Dokdo and adjacent area in the northeastern part of the Ulleung Basin of the East Sea using geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C.; Jeong, E.; Park, C.; Kwon, B.; Park, G.; Park, J.

    2008-12-01

    The northeastern part of the Ulleung Basin in the East Sea is composed of volcanic islands (Ulleungdo and Dokdo), seamounts (the Anyongbok Seamount, the Simheungtaek and the Isabu Tablemounts), and a deep pathway (Korea Gap). To understand tectonic structure and geophysical characteristics of Dokdo and adjacent area, We analysed geophysical potential data of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute), KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources), and NORI(National Oceanographic Research Institute of Korea) around the Dokdo volcanic body except Ulleung Do because of empty data of its large island. Also, we eliminate the effect of water and sediments from the free-air gravity data to process 3D Moho depth inversion. 3D tectonic structure modelling of the study area was developed using Moho depth inversion result and sediment thickness data of NGDC(National Geophysical Data Center). The free-air gravity anomalies of the study area generally reflect bathymetric effects. Although the Dokdo seamounts have a similar topographic size, the decrease of free-air anomaly toward Isabu suggest that Isabu is oldest among the seaounts and have high degree of isostatic compensation. High Bouguer anomalies in the central part of the Ulleung Basin gradually decreases toward the Oki Bank. This feature suggests that the crust/mantle boundary is shallow in the central part of the Ulleung Basin. The complex magnetic pattern of Dokdo suggests that it might have erupted several times during its formation. The magnetic anomaly amplitude of Isabu is much smaller than that of Dokdo. Such low magnetic anomalies are attributed to a secondary change caused by the metamorphism or weathering of ferromagnetic minerals of the seamount during a long period of time after its formation. Analytic signals show high anomalous zones over volcanoes. Also, there are high analytic signal values in Korea Gap indicating magmatic intrusion in thick sediments. The power spectrum analysis

  12. Impervious Surface Area Mapping using Landsat Imagery: Applications to Hydrology and Land Use Change Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A.; Goetz, S. J.; Mazzacato, M. E.; Jantz, C.; Wright, R.

    2002-12-01

    Impervious surfaces include rooftops, roads, parking lots and other areas that are impermeable to moisture. As the amount of built environment around urban areas has increased, it has been widely recognized that more impervious surface area (ISA) results in greater volume and intensity of stream flow, which can degrade stream health and require expensive modifications to flood control structures. Other effects include increased urban "heat island" influences and changes in local weather. If impervious areas could be accurately mapped using satellite imagery, it would provide valuable input to many applications, from hydrologic modeling to land use planning. We have developed a method to map subpixel ISA with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery and classification - regression tree algorithms. This approach provides highly accurate (90+ percent) maps of ISA, but also permits estimation of the proportion of each cell occupied by impervious materials (between 0-100 percent). We report on a recently completed a map of ISA for the entire 163,000 km2 Chesapeake Bay watershed, a region of highly altered land cover and rapid land use change. We also report on the mapping of change patterns, indicated by ISA changes between 1986 - 2001, in an 18,000 km2 area centered on Baltimore - Washington, D.C. We review the methods, issues, technical challenges, results, accuracy, and advantages of this approach, and provide an overview of various applications for which the products are currently being used.

  13. Analysis of urban area land cover using SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Digitally processed SEASAT synthetic aperture raar (SAR) imagery of the Denver, Colorado urban area was examined to explore the potential of SAR data for mapping urban land cover and the compatability of SAR derived land cover classes with the United States Geological Survey classification system. The imagery is examined at three different scales to determine the effect of image enlargement on accuracy and level of detail extractable. At each scale the value of employing a simplistic preprocessing smoothing algorithm to improve image interpretation is addressed. A visual interpretation approach and an automated machine/visual approach are employed to evaluate the feasibility of producing a semiautomated land cover classification from SAR data. Confusion matrices of omission and commission errors are employed to define classification accuracies for each interpretation approach and image scale.

  14. Application of remote sensing technology to land evaluation, planning utilization of land resources, and assessment of wildlife areas in eastern South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A soils map for land evaluation in Potter County (Eastern South Dakota) was developed to demonstrate the use of remote sensing technology in the area of diverse parent materials and topography. General land use and soils maps have also been developed for land planning LANDSAT, RB-57 imagery, and USGS photographs are being evaluated for making soils and land use maps. LANDSAT fulfilled the requirements for general land use and a general soils map. RB-57 imagery supplemented by large scale black and white stereo coverage was required to provide the detail needed for the final soils map for land evaluation. Color infrared prints excelled black and white coverage for this soil mapping effort. An identification and classification key for wetland types in the Lake Dakota Plain was developed for June 1975 using color infrared imagery. Wetland types in the region are now being mapped via remote sensing techniques to provide a current inventory for development of mitigation measures.

  15. How do soil properties and soil carbon stocks change after land abandonment in Mediterranean mountain areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2016-04-01

    Land abandonment and subsequent revegetation processes (due to secondary succession and afforestation practices) are global issues with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Moreover, the effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions, and afforestation practices are increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and are considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. The MED-AFFOREST project aims to gain more insight into the discussion by exploring the following central research questions: (i) what is the impact of land abandonment on soil properties? and (ii) how do soil organic carbon change after land abandonment? The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil properties and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, meadows, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees were analysed. Results showed that changes in soil properties after land abandonment were limited, even if afforestation practices were carried out and no differences were observed between natural succession and afforestation. The results on SOC dynamics showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10 cm), (ii) when all the profile was considered no significant differences were observed between meadows and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) meadows should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration

  16. Researches on the Land-Use Change Detection of Mine Area Based on Tm/etm Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Liling, H.; Min, Y.; Yi, L.

    2013-07-01

    With the economic development and population growth, land use status is changing rapidly in Chinese urban. Since the remote sensing technology can analyze and detect the land use information quickly and accurately, it has been widely applied to obtain the land use/land cover change (LUCC) information today. The land surface destroy occurred in mineral resources exploration will result in a lot of environmental problems in coal mine areas. But there are few research in small and medium-sized cities and coal mine areas. So Peixian is used as the study area in the paper. The Landsat TM/ETM images spanning 3 years and thematic map are adopted to detect the land-use change of the area. In order to improve the classification results, we built an optimized classification model adapting classic SVM method, which was defined "a feature weighted SVM classifier using mixed kernel function". Based on geostatistic and multi-scale statistical knowledge, we calculated the transformation matrix and dynamic index of land-use types, from which we conducted quantitative analysis and the driving force on the mine land-use change of Peixian. Then, we can achieve resource dynamic change detection of four years in Peixian area, analyze the effect of the surface land-use change due to mineral exploration and obtain the causes of land-use change.

  17. Nd isotopic variation of Paleozoic-Mesozoic granitoids from the Da Hinggan Mountains and adjacent areas, NE Asia: Implications for the architecture and growth of continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qidi; Wang, Tao; Guo, Lei; Tong, Ying; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jianjun; Hou, Zengqian

    2017-02-01

    There is a long-standing controversy regarding the tectonic division, composition and structure of the continental crust in the Da Hinggan Mountains and adjacent areas, which are mainly part of the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This paper approaches these issues via neodymium isotopic mapping of Paleozoic-Mesozoic (480 to 100 Ma) granitoids. On the basis of 943 published and 8 new whole-rock Nd isotopic data, the study area can be divided into four Nd isotopic provinces (I, II, III and IV). Province I (the youngest crust, Nd model ages (TDM) = 0.8-0.2 Ga) is a remarkable region of Phanerozoic crustal growth, which may reflect a major zone for closures of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Province II (slightly juvenile crust, TDM = 1.0-0.8 Ga), the largest Nd isotopic province in the southeastern CAOB, is considered to reflect the recycling of the initial crustal material produced during the early stage (Early Neoproterozoic) evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Province III (slightly old crust, TDM = 1.6-1.1 Ga) is characterized by ancient crustal blocks, such as the central Mongolian, Erguna, Dariganga and Hutag Uul-Xilinhot blocks, which represent micro-continents and Precambrian basements in the southeastern CAOB. Several parts of Province III are located along the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC), which is interpreted as a destroyed cratonic margin during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Province IV (the oldest crust, TDM = 2.9-1.6 Ga) mainly occurs within the NCC and reflects its typical Precambrian nature. These mapping results indicate that the boundary between Provinces II and III (the northern margin of the NCC) along the Solonker-Xar Moron Fault can be regarded as the lithospheric boundary between the CAOB and NCC. Provinces I and II account for 20% and 44% of the area of the southeastern CAOB, respectively, and therefore the ratio of continental growth is 64% from the Neoproterozoic to the Mesozoic, which is typical for this part of the

  18. Archaeopedological analysis of land use dynamics in marginal areas in SW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkner, Jessica; Ahlrichs, Jan; Scholten, Thomas; Knopf, Thomas; Kühn, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A common theory to explain human migration is climate change triggering migration and the shift of farming places. Populated areas might have been relocated or extended because of changing resources like a warming climate, soil erosion or a change in demands. But it also has to be taken into account that altered trading relations or changing religious attitudes might have caused migration into and settlement of formerly not used areas. In the case of Southwest Germany it is assumed that people migrated from the favorable Baar (more even areas, soils on loess, lower elevations) to the unfavorable Black Forest and the Swabian Jura with harsher environmental conditions (small valleys, acidic soils, steep slopes, higher elevation). Soils are generally considered as being an important resource related to human activities, especially farming, but also for using wood, water or iron ore. Colluvial deposits as geoarchives reveal the formative impact of humans on their environment: on the development of soil, relief, vegetation, and land use. Land use and therefore settlement history are inscribed in colluvial deposits, which we use as proxies for the kind and intensity of human activities. Especially in marginal areas land use and settlement dynamics are not well investigated. Important questions are how and why did people use the unfavorable land during different times? Which resources were important for different phases of settlement? In this project, soil science methods are used together with archaeological approaches, which is an essential part of archaeopedology. Using colluvial deposits from three study areas it is possible to create pedological and chronological stratigraphies reflecting land use dynamics in favorable and unfavorable areas. First AMS radiocarbon dates from the western Baar in transition to the Black Forest point to human land use with different intensity for 5500 years. Thick lower colluvial layers date back to the third millennium BC. Above

  19. Land planarian assemblages in protected areas of the interior atlantic forest: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D; Brusa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity.

  20. Land Planarian Assemblages in Protected Areas of the Interior Atlantic Forest: Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D.; Brusa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity. PMID:24598934

  1. Groundwater recharge in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam: effect of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Hayashi, Takeshi; Do, An Thuan; Canh, Vu Duc; Nga, Tran Thi Viet; Funabiki, Ayako; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Over-exploited groundwater is expected to remain the predominant source of domestic water in suburban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. In order to evaluate the effect on groundwater recharge, of decreasing surface-water bodies and land-use change caused by urbanization, the relevant groundwater systems and recharge pathways must be characterized in detail. To this end, water levels and water quality were monitored for 3 years regarding groundwater and adjacent surface-water bodies, at two typical suburban sites in Hanoi. Stable isotope (δ18O, δD of water) analysis and hydrochemical analysis showed that the water from both aquifers and aquitards, including the groundwater obtained from both the monitoring wells and the neighboring household tubewells, was largely derived from evaporation-affected surface-water bodies (e.g., ponds, irrigated farmlands) rather than from rivers. The water-level monitoring results suggested distinct local-scale flow systems for both a Holocene unconfined aquifer (HUA) and Pleistocene confined aquifer (PCA). That is, in the case of the HUA, lateral recharge through the aquifer from neighboring ponds and/or irrigated farmlands appeared to be dominant, rather than recharge by vertical rainwater infiltration. In the case of the PCA, recharge by the above-lying HUA, through areas where the aquitard separating the two aquifers was relatively thin or nonexistent, was suggested. As the decrease in the local surface-water bodies will likely reduce the groundwater recharge, maintaining and enhancing this recharge (through preservation of the surface-water bodies) is considered as essential for the sustainable use of groundwater in the area.

  2. Aerosol Retrieval over Urban Area in MODIS Dark Target Land Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, P.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.

    2013-12-01

    Urban air quality in many parts of the globe has reached at dangerous level (5 to 10 times higher than WHO guidelines) as urbanization and industrialization have amplified many folds during the last few decades. More than half of the world's population now lives in urban areas and their number will increase 60% by 2030. Therefore it is very critical to monitor air quality (aerosol or PM) on a daily basis; especially in populated regions (urban areas) around the world. The new version (C6) of MODIS Dark Target Land Aerosol Algorithm (MDT) provides aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals at 10km2 and 3km2 spatial resolutions over dark vegetated regions. Initial validation efforts during DISCOVER-AQ field campaign over Baltimore-DC area shows that MDT overestimates AOD over urban areas, mainly because the bright and complex urban surface is not characterized properly. Accurate estimation of the surface signal within satellite-measured radiance is essential for aerosol retrieval. Surface characterization can be challenging and small error (~0.01) can produce large errors in retrieved AOD (~0.1). In this new approach, we have modified the surface characterization for urban areas, using the urban percentage information from the MODIS Land Product. We used the MODIS land surface spectral reflectance product to redefine the relationship between shortwave-IR and visible wavelengths over urban areas. We derived new surface characterization for urban area and used the DRAGON network measurements, during DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns, to validate the new AOD retrievals both in 10km and 3km spatial resolution. Initial inter-comparison with AERONET data over US shows significant improvement in AOD retrieval over urban areas. This improved AOD retrieval will be an important step toward utilization of satellite based particulate matter estimation for surface air quality monitoring. We also evaluate whether the new 3km product can enable studies of small-scale gradients in aerosol

  3. Natural radionuclides in lichens, mosses and ferns in a thermal power plant and in an adjacent coal mine area in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Galhardi, Juliana Aparecida; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Díaz Francés, Inmaculada; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Marcelli, Marcelo Pinto

    2017-02-01

    The radio-elements (234)U, (235)U, (238)U, (230)Th, (232)Th and (210)Po were characterized in lichens, mosses and ferns species sampled in an adjacent coal mine area at Figueira City, Paraná State, Brazil, due to their importance for the assessment of human exposure related to the natural radioactivity. The coal is geologically associated with a uranium deposit and has been used as a fossil fuel in a thermal power plant in the city. Samples were initially prepared at LABIDRO (Isotopes and Hydrochemistry Laboratory), UNESP, Rio Claro (SP), Brazil. Then, alpha-spectrometry after several radiochemical steps was used at the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratories, University of Seville, Seville, Spain, for measuring the activity concentration of the radionuclides. It was (210)Po the radionuclide that most bio-accumulates in the organisms, reaching the highest levels in mosses. The ferns species were less sensitive as bio-monitor than the mosses and lichens, considering polonium in relation to other radionuclides. Fruticose lichens exhibited lower polonium content than the foliose lichens sampled in the same site. Besides biological features, environmental characteristics also modify the radio-elements absorption by lichens and mosses like the type of vegetation covering these organisms, their substrate, the prevailing wind direction, elevation and climatic conditions. Only (210)Po and (238)U correlated in ferns and in soil and rock materials, being particulate emissions from the coal-fired power plant the most probable U-source in the region. Thus, the biomonitors used were able to detect atmospheric contamination by the radionuclides monitored.

  4. Temporal and spatial variations of abundance of phycocyanin- and phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus in Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Chai, Chao; Wang, Jifang; Zhang, Ling; Cen, Jingyi; Lu, Songhui

    2016-10-01

    Three surveys were carried out in Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal area in May, August, and November, 2013, to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of abundance of phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus (PE-rich SYN) and phycocyanin-rich Synechococcus (PC-rich SYN). The effects of environmental factors on the alternation of the different Synechococcus groups were also elucidated. PE-rich SYN was detected in three surveys, whereas PC-rich SYN was detected in May and August, but not in November. The highest abundances of PE-rich SYN and PC-rich SYN were recorded in August and May, with mean values of 74.17×103 and 189.92×103 cells mL-1, respectively. From May to November, the relative abundance of PE-rich SYN increased, whereas that of PC-rich SYN declined. PE-rich and PC-rich SYN presented similar horizontal distributions with high abundance in the southern estuary in May, and in the western estuary in August. The abundances of PE-rich and PC-rich SYN were high at 27-32°C and salinity of 10-20. PC-rich SYN was not detected at < 24°C, and PC:PE-rich SYN decreased in abundance with salinity increase. When less than 20 mg L-1, suspended particulate matter (SPM) was helpful for Synechococcus growth. PE-rich SYN decreased in abundance when the concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen increased in May and November, and the concentration of phosphate increased in November. However, PC-rich SYN abundance and nutrients showed no correlation. Principal component analysis and regression analysis indicated that PE-rich SYN significantly correlated with the principal components that were affected by environmental factors.

  5. [Spatial distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in the tidal reach and its adjacent sea estuary of Daliaohe area, China ].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Qin, Yan-wen; Ma, Ying-qun; Zhao, Yan-min; Shi, Yao

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the pollution level of heavy metals in the tidal reach and its adjacent sea estuary of Daliaohe area. The contents and spatial distribution of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ph and Zn in surface water, suspended solids and surface sediments were analyzed respectively. The integrated pollution index and geoaccumulation index were used to evaluate the contamination degree of heavy metals in surface water and surface sediments respectively. The results indicated that the contents of heavy metals in surface water was in the order of Pb < Cu < Cd < Cr < As < Zn. The heavy metal contents in surface water increased from river to sea. Compared with the contents of heavy metals in surface water of the typical domestic estuary in China, the overall contents of heavy metals in surface water were at a higher level. The contents of heavy metals in suspended solids was in the order of Cd < Cu < As < Cr

  6. Assessing the Land Subsidence Governance in Ningbo City: By a Close Study of the Building Collapse at the Strictly Protected Land Subsidence Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Ningbo is a coastal city in East China, its land subsidence problem was noticed in the 1960s. However, scientific management was insufficient at that time, so with the fast city development from the 1980s, groundwater was used by a large amount of small factories, and tall buildings were built on the land. It was in 2008, scientists predicted that if without doing anything to prevent the land from subsiding, the city will be covered by the East Sea in 2030. From then on, the local government implied several policies, such as shut down most of the groundwater pumping wells, set up a new authority to enhance the cooperation among different administration departments, and also set up a land subsidence monitoring center for the city. Recently, it is declared that a Stereo regulatory system of land subsidence governance has been achieved. However, in 2012, a 23-years old building in the city center collapsed. According to the City Planning 2009, this building is located just in the strictly protected land subsidence area. The experts, however, think that land subsidence is not the main reason, since there are many illegal changes to the building during the past 23 years. The aim of my research is to assess the land subsidence governance in Ningbo city. I studied the collapsed building, how it was built, what has changed after building, how the environment changed in this area, and how this area became the strictly protected land subsidence area, and what kind of protections have been made. Actually, during the case study I discuss the land subsidence governance design of Ningbo, and to see what practices and lessons we can learn from this case.

  7. Effects of climate and land management change on streamflow in the driftless area of Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Hunt, Randall J.; Anderson, Mary P.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2008-06-01

    SummaryBaseflow and precipitation in the Kickapoo River Watershed, located in the Driftless Area of Wisconsin, exhibit a step increase around 1970, similar to minimum and median flows in many other central and eastern USA streams. Potential effects on streamflow due to climatic and land management changes were evaluated by comparing volumetric changes in the hydrologic budget before and after 1970. Increases in precipitation do not fully account for the increase in baseflow, which appears to be offset by a volumetric decrease in stormflow. This suggests that factors that influence the partitioning of precipitation into overland runoff or infiltration have changed. A transition from relatively more intensive to relatively less intensive agricultural land use is generally associated with higher infiltration rates, and likely influences partitioning of flow. Changes in agricultural land management practices in the Driftless Area, which began in the mid-1930s, do not coincide with the abrupt increase in baseflow around 1970. Instead, the timing of hydrologic change appears to coincide with changes in precipitation, whereas the magnitude of the change in baseflow and stormflow was likely amplified by changes in agricultural land management.

  8. Effects of climate and land management change on streamflow in the driftless area of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juckem, P.F.; Hunt, R.J.; Anderson, M.P.; Robertson, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Baseflow and precipitation in the Kickapoo River Watershed, located in the Driftless Area of Wisconsin, exhibit a step increase around 1970, similar to minimum and median flows in many other central and eastern USA streams. Potential effects on streamflow due to climatic and land management changes were evaluated by comparing volumetric changes in the hydrologic budget before and after 1970. Increases in precipitation do not fully account for the increase in baseflow, which appears to be offset by a volumetric decrease in stormflow. This suggests that factors that influence the partitioning of precipitation into overland runoff or infiltration have changed. A transition from relatively more intensive to relatively less intensive agricultural land use is generally associated with higher infiltration rates, and likely influences partitioning of flow. Changes in agricultural land management practices in the Driftless Area, which began in the mid-1930s, do not coincide with the abrupt increase in baseflow around 1970. Instead, the timing of hydrologic change appears to coincide with changes in precipitation, whereas the magnitude of the change in baseflow and stormflow was likely amplified by changes in agricultural land management. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Land use and soil contamination with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Huan; Qin, Hongyu; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-10-15

    Because soil contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts is increasingly recognized as a major source of infection for humans, in this study, we investigated the spatial pattern of soil contamination with T. gondii oocysts in urban area of northeastern Mainland China. From April 2014 to May 2015, more than 9000 soil samples were collected. Detection of T. gondii oocysts was performed applying real-time quantitative PCR. Sensitivity was improved by analyzing four replicates for each sampling point. T. gondii was detected in 30.3% of all samples. Subsequently, a maximum entropy model was used to evaluate the effect of land use and intrinsic soil properties on the risk of contamination with oocysts. Jackknife analysis revealed that the likelihood for positive results is significantly enhanced in soil originating from foci of human habitation, wood land and grass land. Furthermore, soil temperature and humidity significantly influence the probability of contamination with T. gondii oocysts. Our findings indicate that land use may affect distribution of T. gondii oocysts in urban areas.

  10. Land Area Change and Overview of Major Hurricane Impacts in Coastal Louisiana, 2004-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barras, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed changes in land and water coverage in coastal Louisiana within 2 months of Hurricane Gustav (September 1, 2008) and Hurricane Ike (September 13, 2008) by using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to provide preliminary information on land-water area changes in coastal Louisiana shortly after Hurricanes Ike and Gustav made landfall and (2) to contrast these changes with prior, widespread land area changes caused by Hurricane Katrina (August 29, 2005) and Hurricane Rita (September 24, 2005) 3 years earlier. Hurricane Gustav's physical surge impacts were not as severe as those observed from Hurricane Katrina. The largest observed changes were the reversion of recovery vegetation in Upper Breton Sound to an immediate post-Katrina appearance. Hurricane Ike's surge impacts were similar, although of somewhat lesser magnitude than Hurricane Rita's surge impacts. Major surge-removed marsh occurred in similar locations with similar morphologies from the two westward tracking storms. Although the net reduction in land from 2004 to 2008 (849.5 km2) exceeded that from 1978 to 2004 (743.3 km2), it is likely that the 2004-08 estimate will decrease, given time for the coast to recover from those hurricane seasons. Nevertheless, it is likely that the cumulative loss from these hurricane seasons will remain significant. Estimation of permanent losses cannot be made until several growing seasons have passed and the transitory impacts of the hurricanes are accounted for.

  11. Changes in Extremely Hot Summers over the Global Land Area under Various Warming Targets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Jianbin; Luo, Yong; Yao, Yao; Zhao, Zongci

    2015-01-01

    Summer temperature extremes over the global land area were investigated by comparing 26 models of the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) with observations from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the Climate Research Unit (CRU). Monthly data of the observations and models were averaged for each season, and statistics were calculated for individual models before averaging them to obtain ensemble means. The summers with temperature anomalies (relative to 1951-1980) exceeding 3σ (σ is based on the local internal variability) are defined as "extremely hot". The models well reproduced the statistical characteristics evolution, and partly captured the spatial distributions of historical summer temperature extremes. If the global mean temperature increases 2°C relative to the pre-industrial level, "extremely hot" summers are projected to occur over nearly 40% of the land area (multi-model ensemble mean projection). Summers that exceed 5σ warming are projected to occur over approximately 10% of the global land area, which were rarely observed during the reference period. Scenarios reaching warming levels of 3°C to 5°C were also analyzed. After exceeding the 5°C warming target, "extremely hot" summers are projected to occur throughout the entire global land area, and summers that exceed 5σ warming would become common over 70% of the land area. In addition, the areas affected by "extremely hot" summers are expected to rapidly expand by more than 25%/°C as the global mean temperature increases by up to 3°C before slowing to less than 16%/°C as the temperature continues to increase by more than 3°C. The area that experiences summers with warming of 5σ or more above the warming target of 2°C is likely to maintain rapid expansion of greater than 17%/°C. To reduce the impacts and damage from severely hot summers, the global mean temperature increase should remain low.

  12. Land use and land management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean agricultural areas (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle. Agriculture contributes to carbon sequestration through photosynthesis and the incorporation of carbon into carbohydrates. Soil management is one of the best tools for climate change mitigation. Small increases or decreases in soil carbon content due to changes in land use or management practices, may result in a significant net exchange of carbon between the soil carbon pool and the atmosphere. In the last decades arable crops (AC) have been transformed into olive grove cultivations (OG) or vineyards (V) in Mediterranean areas. A field study was conducted to determine long-term effects of land use change (LUC) (AC by OG and V) on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr) in Mediterranean conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS An unirrigated farm in Montilla-Moriles (Córdoba, Spain) cultivated under conventional tillage (animal power with lightweight reversible plows and non-mineral fertilization or pesticides) was selected for study in 1965. In 1966, the farm was divided into three plots with three different uses (AC, OG and V). The preliminary analyses were realized in 1965 for AC (AC1), and the second analyses were realized in 2011 for AC (AC2 - winter crop rotation with annual wheat and barley, receiving mineral fertilization or pesticides), OG (annual passes with disk harrow and cultivator in the spring, followed by a tine harrow in the summer receiving mineral fertilization and weed control with residual herbicides), and V (with three or five chisel passes a year from early spring to early autumn with mineral fertilization or pesticides.). In all cases (AC1, AC2, OG and V) were collected soil entire profiles. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, bulk density, SOC, TN, C:N ratio, stocks and SRs. The statistical significance of the differences in the variables between land use practices was tested using the

  13. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature for the Quantitative Analysis of Land Cover of Lower Areas of Sindh to Assess the Impacts of Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaisar, Maha

    2016-07-01

    Due to the present land use practices and climate variability, drastic shifts in regional climate and land covers are easily seen and their future reduction and gain are too well predicted. Therefore, there is an increasing need for data on land-cover changes at narrow and broad spatial scales. In this study, a remote sensing-based technique for land-cover-change analysis is applied to the lower Sindh areas for the last decade. Landsat satellite products were analyzed on an alternate yearly basis, from 1990 to 2016. Then Land-cover-change magnitudes were measured and mapped for alternate years. Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the critical elements in the natural phenomena of surface energy and water balance at local and global extent. However, LST was computed by using Landsat thermal bands via brightness temperature and a vegetation index. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was interpreted and maps were achieved. LST reflected NDVI patterns with complexity of vegetation patterns. Along with this, Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) was done for classifying 5 major classes of water, vegetation, urban, marshy lands and barren lands with significant map layouts. Pakistan Meteorological Department provided the climate data in which rainfall, temperature and air temperature are included. Once the LST and OBIA are performed, overlay analysis was done to correlate the results of LST with OBIA and LST with meteorological data to ascertain the changes in land covers due to increasing centigrade of LST. However, satellite derived LST was also correlated with climate data for environmental analysis and to estimate Land Surface Temperature for assessing the inverse impacts of climate variability. This study's results demonstrate the land-cover changes in Lower Areas of Sindh including the Indus Delta mostly involve variations in land-cover conditions due to inter-annual climatic variability and temporary shifts in seasonality. However it is too concluded

  14. Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modeling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, L. C.; Fleskens, L.; Reed, M. S.; de Vente, J.; Zengin, M.

    2014-11-01

    Examples of sustainable land management (SLM) exist throughout the world. In many cases, SLM has largely evolved through local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted on the basis of scientific evidence. This means that SLM technologies are often only adopted across small areas. The DESIRE (DESertIfication mitigation and REmediation of degraded land) project combined local traditional knowledge on SLM with empirical evaluation of SLM technologies. The purpose of this was to evaluate and select options for dissemination in 16 sites across 12 countries. It involved (i) an initial workshop to evaluate stakeholder priorities (reported elsewhere), (ii) field trials/empirical modeling, and then, (iii) further stakeholder evaluation workshops. This paper focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on the scientific monitoring and modeling results from 15 study sites. It analyses workshop outcomes to evaluate how scientific results affected stakeholders' perceptions of local SLM technologies. It also assessed the potential of this participatory approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of empirical measurements and modeling assessments of each technology. Two workshop examples are presented in depth to: (a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and (b) discuss stakeholders' suggestions on how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled. The overall multi-stakeholder participatory approach taken is then evaluated. It is concluded that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be viewed alongside traditional beliefs and both scrutinized with equal rigor; and the knowledge of all kinds of experts must be

  15. Protected area networks and savannah bird biodiversity in the face of climate change and land degradation.

    PubMed

    Beale, Colin M; Baker, Neil E; Brewer, Mark J; Lennon, Jack J

    2013-08-01

    The extent to which climate change might diminish the efficacy of protected areas is one of the most pressing conservation questions. Many projections suggest that climate-driven species distribution shifts will leave protected areas impoverished and species inadequately protected while other evidence suggests that intact ecosystems within protected areas will be resilient to change. Here, we tackle this problem empirically. We show how recent changes in distribution of 139 Tanzanian savannah bird species are linked to climate change, protected area status and land degradation. We provide the first evidence of climate-driven range shifts for an African bird community. Our results suggest that the continued maintenance of existing protected areas is an appropriate conservation response to the challenge of climate and environmental change.

  16. Vertical view of Apollo 16 landing site located Descartes area lunar nearside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A vertical view of the Apollo 16 landing site located in the Descartes area lunar nearside. The overlay indicates the location of the proposed touchdown point for the Apollo 16 Lunar Module. Descartes is located west of the Sea of Nectar and southwest of the Sea of Tranquility. This photograph was taken with a 500mm lens camera from lunar orbit by the Apollo 14 crew.

  17. Look before you build; geologic studies for safer land development in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blair-Tyler, Martha

    1995-01-01

    This Circular provides a general description of the types of geologic hazards that exist throughout the United States. In nontechnical language this book describes how geologic information can be incorporated in the land-use development process and contains useful discussion of several examples from the San Francisco Bay area and elsewhere in the United States of how geologic information is already being used in the development process by some cities and counties.

  18. Wastewater Land Application Permit LA-000141 Renewal Information for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Laboratory, Idaho National

    1999-02-01

    On July 25, 1994, the State ofldaho Division of Environmental Quality (DEQ) issued a Wastewater Land Application Permit (WLAP) for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL, now the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory [INEEL]) Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Treatment Plant (STP). The permit expires August 7, 1999. In addition to the renewal application, this report was prepared to provide the following information as requested by DEQ.

  19. Houston-Galveston Bay area, Texas, from space; a new tool for mapping land subsidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stork, Sylvia V.; Sneed, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful new tool that uses radar signals to measure displacement (subsidence and uplift) of the Earth's crust at an unprecedented level of spatial detail and high degree of measurement resolution.The Houston-Galveston Bay area, possibly more than any other metropolitan area in the United States, has been adversely affected by land subsidence. Extensive subsidence, caused mainly by ground-water pumping but also by oil and gas extraction, has increased the frequency of flooding, caused extensive damage to industrial and transportation infrastructure, motivated major investments in levees, reservoirs, and surfacewater distribution facilities, and caused substantial loss of wetland habitat. Ongoing patterns of subsidence in the Houston area have been carefully monitored using borehole extensometers, Global Positioning System (GPS) and conventional spirit-leveling surveys, and more recently, an emerging technology—Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR)—which enables development of spatially-detailed maps of land-surface displacement over broad areas. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, briefly summarizes the history of subsidence in the area and the local consequences of subsidence and describes the use of InSAR as one of several tools in an integrated subsidence-monitoring program in the area.

  20. Stormwater quality processes for three land-use areas in Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattraw, H.C.; Miller, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Systematic collection and chemical analysis of stormwater runoff samples from three small urban areas in Broward County, Florida, were obtained between 1974 and 1977. Thirty or more runoff-constituent loads were computed for each of the homogeneous land-use areas. The areas sampled were single family residential, highway, and a commercial shopping center. Rainfall , runoff, and nutrient and metal analyses were stored in a data-management system. The data-management system permitted computation of loads, publication of basic-data reports and the interface of environmental and load information with a comprehensive statistical analysis system. Seven regression models relating water quality loads to characteristics of peak discharge, antecedent conditions, season, storm duration and rainfall intensity were constructed for each of the three sites. Total water-quality loads were computed for the collection period by summing loads for individual storms. Loads for unsampled storms were estimated by using regression models and records of storm precipitation. Loadings, pounds per day per acre of hydraulically effective impervious area, were computed for the three land-use types. Total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total residue loadings were highest in the residential area. Chemical oxygen demand and total lead loadings were highest in the commercial area. Loadings of atmospheric fallout on each watershed were estimated by bulk precipitation samples collected at the highway and commercial site. (USGS)

  1. Land Area Changes in Coastal Louisiana After the 2005 Hurricanes: A Series of Three Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barras, John A.

    2006-01-01

    This report includes three posters with analyses of net land area changes in coastal Louisiana after the 2005 hurricanes (Katrina and Rita). The first poster presents a basic analysis of net changes from 2004 to 2005; the second presents net changes within marsh communities from 2004 to 2005; and the third presents net changes from 2004 to 2005 within the historical perspective of change in coastal Louisiana from 1956 to 2004. The purpose of this analysis was to provide preliminary information on land area changes shortly after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and to serve as a regional baseline for monitoring wetland recovery following the 2005 hurricane season. Estimation of permanent losses cannot be made until several growing seasons have passed and the transitory impacts of the hurricanes are minimized, but this preliminary analysis indicates an approximate 217-mi2 (562.03-km2) decrease in land/increase in water across coastal Louisiana. These posters are presented in high-resolution PDF format that is not Section 508 compliant. For ease in accessibility, viewing, and printing, each poster is accompanied by PDF files that contain the corresponding methodology, tables, and figures. Funding for this project was provided by the Louisiana Coastal Area (LCA) Science & Technology Office.

  2. Forest land suitability in a Mediterranean area under climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Anaya-Romero, María; Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; De la Rosa, Diego

    2013-04-01

    As a consequence of the increasing level of atmospheric CO2 and air temperatures, global climate is changing leading to warmer and often drier conditions in many forest ecosystems. The Mediterranean area is particularly vulnerable to climate change as a result of a combination of environmental and human factors. An adequate forest management is associated to improvement of habitat suitability for soil and water quality, climate regulation and other important ecosystem services. The MicroLEIS decision support system (MicroLEIS DSS), through its 12 land evaluation models, is a useful tool to assist decision-makers with specific agro-ecological problems. Among the land evaluation models, Sierra was specifically designed to assess forestry land suitability for restoration of semi-natural habitats in marginal agricultural lands. This model selects up to 22 forest species adapted to Mediterranean conditions based on latitude, longitude, physiographic position, useful depth, texture, drainage, pH, summer and winter temperatures, and precipitation. In this research, Sierra model was applied in 35 benchmark sites representative of the natural regions (NUTS2) of a Mediterranean area (Andalusia, Southern Spain) in current and future climate scenarios for the A1B IPPC SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) and the periods 2040, 2070 and 2100. Data was obtained from SEISnet soil database, CDBm climate database and the future climate change variation values of the State Meteorological Agency. The results showed that Pinus Pinea, Pinus halepensis, Quercus Ilex and Quercus suber are the most suitable forest species in actual and future climate scenarios for the selected marginal lands, according to the tolerance ranges for standard soil and climate variables of the forest species. Various forest species showed a potential aptitude for reforestation in future climate scenarios (i.e. Quercus), whereas others such as Castanea Sativa will not be suitable in the study area in 2070

  3. Impacts of land use change on hydrological components and macroinvertebrate distributions in the Poyang lake area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, Britta; Kuemmerlen, Mathias; Kiesel, Jens; Jähnig, Sonja C.; Fohrer, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    Climate and land use changes affect river ecosystems globally and cause environmental impacts at different spatial and temporal scales. An integrated modelling approach for depicting the effect of environmental changes on aquatic ecosystems was developed and tested. Catchment characteristics, the flow regime and the distribution of aquatic organisms were linked together. The Changjiang river catchment (1717 km²), as part of the Poyang Lake basin in China, was selected as the test area. Measuring and sampling campaigns at 50 locations were carried out for collecting land use, hydrological, hydraulic and biological (macroinvertebrate) data. The water balance of the catchment was modeled with the ecohydrological model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool). The streamflow time series computed with SWAT at each of the 50 sampling points were tranfered to the species distribution model BIOMOD which predicted the occurrence of macroinvertebrates in the stream network based on hydrological, climatic and topographic variables. The SWAT modeling results showed high temporal dynamics where 72% of the annual streamflow occurred during the monsoon season from March to July. Due to various slopes, soil characteristics, land cover and associated land management, a high spatial variability of surface runoff between the subbasins and HRUs was detected. The highest values occurred on agricultural land with cabbage cultivation, the lowest in forest areas. The SWAT model indicates that deforestation scenarios result in higher streamflow, higher surface runoff and altered flow patterns compared with the base model. In contrast, model runs representing afforestation showed opposite trends. The predictions for the stream macroinvertebrate community, arising from the integrated modelling framework were found to be suitable for describing changing environmental conditions. The deforestation scenario reduced macroinvertebrate richness through the increase in agriculture and tea plantations.

  4. Generation of 2D Land Cover Maps for Urban Areas Using Decision Tree Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhle, J.

    2014-09-01

    A 2D land cover map can automatically and efficiently be generated from high-resolution multispectral aerial images. First, a digital surface model is produced and each cell of the elevation model is then supplemented with attributes. A decision tree classification is applied to extract map objects like buildings, roads, grassland, trees, hedges, and walls from such an "intelligent" point cloud. The decision tree is derived from training areas which borders are digitized on top of a false-colour orthoimage. The produced 2D land cover map with six classes is then subsequently refined by using image analysis techniques. The proposed methodology is described step by step. The classification, assessment, and refinement is carried out by the open source software "R"; the generation of the dense and accurate digital surface model by the "Match-T DSM" program of the Trimble Company. A practical example of a 2D land cover map generation is carried out. Images of a multispectral medium-format aerial camera covering an urban area in Switzerland are used. The assessment of the produced land cover map is based on class-wise stratified sampling where reference values of samples are determined by means of stereo-observations of false-colour stereopairs. The stratified statistical assessment of the produced land cover map with six classes and based on 91 points per class reveals a high thematic accuracy for classes "building" (99 %, 95 % CI: 95 %-100 %) and "road and parking lot" (90 %, 95 % CI: 83 %-95 %). Some other accuracy measures (overall accuracy, kappa value) and their 95 % confidence intervals are derived as well. The proposed methodology has a high potential for automation and fast processing and may be applied to other scenes and sensors.

  5. Threatened, Endangered, and at-Risk Species (TER-S) on Dod and Adjacent Lands Symposium and Workshop, Baltimore, MD, 7-9 June 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    State University 1974, M. Sc. Entomology Texas A&M University 1980, Ph. D. Entomology University of California 1985 MEMBERSHIP TO PROFESSIONAL...Dr. Stuart Gage is a Professor of Entomology at Michigan State University. His research and teaching interests are in the areas of Biological...degrees from Michigan State University in Entomology & Systems Ecology. Dr. Rob Maher is an Associate Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at

  6. [Research on monitoring land subsidence in Beijing plain area using PS-InSAR technology].

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhao-Qin; Gong, Hui-Li; Zhang, You-Quan; Lu, Xue-Hui; Wang, Sa; Wang, Rong; Liu, Huan-Huan

    2014-07-01

    In the present paper, the authors use permanent scatterers synthetic aperture radar interferometry (PS-InSAR) technique and 29 acquisitions by Envisat during 2003 to 2009 to monitor and analyze the spatial-temporal distribution and mechanism characterize of land subsidence in Beijing plain area. The results show that subsidence bowls have been bounded together in Beijing plain area, which covers Chaoyang, Changping, Shunyi and Tongzhou area, and the range of subsidence has an eastward trend. The most serious regional subsidence is mainly distributed by the quaternary depression in Beijing plain area. PS-Insar results also show a new subsidence bowl in Pinggu. What's more, the spatial and temporal distribution of deformation is controlled mainly by faults, such as Liangxiang-Shunyi fault, Huangzhuang-Gaoliying fault, and Nankou-Sunhe fault. The subsidence and level of groundwater in study area shows a good correlation, and the subsidence shows seasonal ups trend during November to March and seasonal downs trend during March to June along with changes in groundwater levels. The contribution of land subsidence is also influenced by stress-strain behavior of aquitards. The compaction of aquitards shows an elastic, plastic, viscoelastic pattern.

  7. [Effects of land use type and slope position on soil physical properties in loess tableland area].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Liu, Wen-Zhao; Wang, Qiu-Xian

    2008-06-01

    Soil samples under different land use types and at different slope positions in the Wangdonggou watershed of loess tableland area were collected to determine their particle composition, bulk density (pb), and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), and the effects of land use type and slope position on the soil physical properties were studied in virtue of the variation coefficient and non-parameter tests. The results showed that the physical properties of soil varied in horizontal direction and vertical profile, however at the same slope position or under the same land use type, the pb and particle composition were similar. In horizontal direction, Ks varied strongly, slit content and pb varied weakly, and clay and sand contents varied medially. In vertical profile, soil particles had a continuous distribution, but pb and Ks varied greatly in 0-25 cm layer. With the slope degree descended, soil contained more clay and had a higher pb, and Ks increased. At upper and middle slopes, soil physical properties were similar, and thus, could be merged into one in related researches. There was a significant difference in soil physical properties between grassland and other land use types, which was mainly due to the effects of slope position, but the soil physical properties in farmland and orchard were similar, indicating the important effects of human activities.

  8. Quantifying Land Use Impacts on Biodiversity: Combining Species-Area Models and Vulnerability Indicators.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Abhishek; Verones, Francesca; de Baan, Laura; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2015-08-18

    Habitat degradation and subsequent biodiversity damage often take place far from the place of consumption because of globalization and the increasing level of international trade. Informing consumers and policy makers about the biodiversity impacts "hidden" in the life cycle of imported products is an important step toward achieving sustainable consumption patterns. Spatially explicit methods are needed in life cycle assessment to accurately quantify biodiversity impacts of products and processes. We use the Countryside species-area relationship (SAR) to quantify regional species loss due to land occupation and transformation for five taxa and six land use types in 804 terrestrial ecoregions. Further, we calculate vulnerability scores for each ecoregion based on the fraction of each species' geographic range (endemic richness) hosted by the ecoregion and the IUCN assigned threat level of each species. Vulnerability scores are multiplied with SAR-predicted regional species loss to estimate potential global extinctions per unit of land use. As a case study, we assess the land use biodiversity impacts of 1 kg of bioethanol produced using six different feed stocks in different parts of the world. Results show that the regions with highest biodiversity impacts differed markedly when the vulnerability of species was included.

  9. Land suitability assessment in the catchment area of four Southwestern Atlantic coastal lagoons: multicriteria and optimization modeling.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Gallego, Lorena; Achkar, Marcel; Conde, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, a land suitability assessment was conducted in the basin of four Uruguayan coastal lagoons (Southwestern Atlantic) to analyze the productive development while minimizing eutrophication, biodiversity loss and conflicts among different land uses. Suitable land for agriculture, forest, livestock ranching, tourism and conservation sectors were initially established based on a multi-attribute model developed using a geographic information system. Experts were consulted to determine the requirements for each land use sector and the incompatibilities among land use types. The current and potential conflicts among incompatible land use sectors were analyzed by overlapping land suitability maps. We subsequently applied a multi-objective model where land (pixels) with similar suitability was clustered into "land suitability groups", using a two-phase cluster analysis and the Akaike Information Criterion. Finally, a linear programming optimization procedure was applied to allocate land use sectors into land suitable groups, maximizing total suitability and minimizing interference among sectors. Results indicated that current land use overlapped by 4.7 % with suitable land of other incompatible sectors. However, the suitable land of incompatible sectors overlapped in 20.3 % of the study area, indicating a high potential for the occurrence of future conflict. The highest competition was between agriculture and conservation, followed by forest and agriculture. We explored scenarios where livestock ranching and tourism intensified, and found that interference with conservation and agriculture notably increased. This methodology allowed us to analyze current and potential land use conflicts and to contribute to the strategic planning of the study area.

  10. Development of Land Segmentation, Stream-Reach Network, and Watersheds in Support of Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) Modeling, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, and Adjacent Parts of Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martucci, Sarah K.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Hopkins, Katherine J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Chesapeake Bay Program Office, Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin, Maryland Department of the Environment, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, and the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science are collaborating on the Chesapeake Bay Regional Watershed Model, using Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN to simulate streamflow and concentrations and loads of nutrients and sediment to Chesapeake Bay. The model will be used to provide information for resource managers. In order to establish a framework for model simulation, digital spatial datasets were created defining the discretization of the model region (including the Chesapeake Bay watershed, as well as the adjacent parts of Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia outside the watershed) into land segments, a stream-reach network, and associated watersheds. Land segmentation was based on county boundaries represented by a 1:100,000-scale digital dataset. Fifty of the 254 counties and incorporated cities in the model region were divided on the basis of physiography and topography, producing a total of 309 land segments. The stream-reach network for the Chesapeake Bay watershed part of the model region was based on the U.S. Geological Survey Chesapeake Bay SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) model stream-reach network. Because that network was created only for the Chesapeake Bay watershed, the rest of the model region uses a 1:500,000-scale stream-reach network. Streams with mean annual streamflow of less than 100 cubic feet per second were excluded based on attributes from the dataset. Additional changes were made to enhance the data and to allow for inclusion of stream reaches with monitoring data that were not part of the original network. Thirty-meter-resolution Digital Elevation Model data were used to delineate watersheds for each

  11. Monitoring population and land use change in tropical forest protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvoleff, A. I.; Rosa, M.; Ahumada, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring human-environment interactions in tropical forest protected areas requires linking interdisciplinary datasets collected across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Recent assessments have shown that forest degradation and loss outside of protected areas is strongly associated with declines in biodiversity within protected areas. Biodiversity monitoring efforts must therefore develop approaches that consider change in the broader landscape, using biophysical and socioeconomic datasets that not only cover the extent of a protected area, but also the region surrounding it. The Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network has developed an approach for linking remotely sensed imagery from Landsat and MODIS sensors with in-situ ecological data and socioeconomic datasets to better understand the effects of landscape change on biodiversity. The TEAM Network is a global system for monitoring biodiversity, land use/cover change (LUCC), and climate in sixteen tropical forest sites evenly distributed across global biophysical gradients (rainfall and seasonality) and gradients of expected climate change and land use change. TEAM adopts the Zone of Interaction (ZOI) concept to delineate the spatial extent around protected areas for linking broader-scale trends in LUCC to plot-based monitoring data. This talk reports on a cross-site comparison examining LUCC and biodiversity change across the TEAM network. The analysis indicates a gradient of forest loss in the tropics dependent on landscape-level human factors, such as population and road density. The highest losses of forest cover are associated with changing patterns of land use and agricultural development, particularly plantation forestry in Southeast Asia. While the spatial and temporal resolution of remote sensing-derived datasets continues to increase, a key challenge for monitoring efforts is linking this data to spatially explicit socioeconomic datasets for use in statistical modeling. We will

  12. Hydrogeology for land-use planning: the Peters Creek area, Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunett, Jilann O.; Lee, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Wells currently provide all water supplies in the area. Most wells obtain enough water for individual household needs from unconsolidated, principally glacial and glacioalluvial deposits. In some places, however, wells must be drilled into the underlying bedrock to obtain adequate supplies. It may be possible to develop small community supplies--for individual trailer courts or subdivisions--in areas where yields of 20 gallons per minute or greater are reported for private, domestic wells. Peters Creek is a potential source of surface-water supply, but it would have to be treated to remove glacial silt during summer months. The chemical quality of both ground water and surface water in the area in generally acceptable for most uses. Foundation and excavation conditions, the potential for water pollution from onsite disposal of wastewater through septic tank systems, and the suitability of specific areas for certain types of development may be affected by the following factors: wetlands and areas of shallow ground water underlie about 30 percent of the study area; landslope exceeds 20 percent in about a third of the area; areas of fine-grained, low-permeability sediments are present locally; bedrock is within 25 feet of the land surface in about a third of the area. (USGS)

  13. Geologic framework of pre-Cretaceous rocks in the Southern Ute Indian Reservation and adjacent areas, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condon, Steven M.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a discussion and summary of Jurassic and older rocks in the Southern Ute Indian Reservation and adjacent areas, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico, and is based on analysis of geophysical logs and observations of outcrops. The Reservation, which is located in the northern San Juan Basin, has been the site of deposition of sediments for much of the Phanerozoic. Geologic times represented on the Reservation are the Precambrian, Cambrian, Devonian, Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary. Rocks of Ordovician and Silurian age have not been reported in this region. Thicknesses of pre-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks range from about 750 feet (229 meters) on the Archuleta arch, east of the Reservation, to more than 8,300 feet (2,530 meters) just northwest of the Reservation. About 5,500 feet (1,676 meters) of pre-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks occur in the central part of the Reservation, near Ignacio. At Ignacio the top of the Jurassic lies at a depth of 7,600 feet (2,316 meters) below the surface, which is composed of Tertiary rocks. As much as 2,500 feet (762 meters) of Tertiary rocks occur in the area. More than 10,000 feet (3,048 meters) of Cretaceous and younger rocks, and 15,600 feet (4,755 meters) of all Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks occur in the vicinity of the Reservation. In the early Paleozoic the area that includes the Southern Ute Reservation was on the stable western shelf of the craton. During this time sediments that compose the following shallow-marine clastic and carbonate rocks were deposited: the Upper Cambrian Ignacio Quartzite (0-150 feet; 0-46 meters), Upper Devonian Elbert Formation (50-200 feet; 15-61 meters), Upper Devonian Ouray Limestone (10-75 feet; 3-23 meters), and Mississippian Leadville Limestone (0-250 feet; 0-76 meters). Mixed carbonate and clastic deposition, which was punctuated by a unique episode of deposition of evaporite sediments, continued through

  14. Environmental variation and macrofauna response in a coastal area influenced by land runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoumianaki, Ioanna; Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar.; Nicolaidou, Artemis

    2013-11-01

    Macrofauna community interactions with environmental variables in the water column (salinity, temperature, turbidity, transparency, suspended particulate matter, particulate organic matter, choloroplastic pigments) and in the sediment (granulometric variables, organic carbon and pigments) were investigated in a coastal area with high land runoff due to riverine and temporary stream discharges (Greece, Aegean Sea, Maliakos Gulf). Samples were taken along a distance-depositional gradient from the river mouth to the open sea at eight stations, at times of different precipitation regime from August 2000 to May 2001. The physical variables, such as transparency and median grain size, generally increased seawards, and parallelled the depositional gradient as opposed to measures of food inputs and hydrodynamic regime. High environmental heterogeneity was observed during peak precipitation. The total number of species increased seawards and from August (122 species) to May (170 species). Maximum abundance also increased from August (4953 m-2) to May (10,220 individuals m-2), irrespective of distance from river mouth. Species belonging to different functional groups, as to recolonization, feeding, motility and substrate preferences, coexisted at all times indicating high functional diversity. Non-parametric multivariate regression showed that at times of low, rising and falling precipitation 78-81% of community variation was explained by environmental variables, indicating that macrofauna distribution and species composition respond to food inputs and sediment characteristics. During peak land runoff the community-environment relationship weakened (57% of the variability explained). The diversity of functional traits of the most abundant species indicates that the macrofauna community can absorb the impact of increased turbidity, sedimentation and current-driven dispersion. The study offers baseline information for the integrated coastal zone management in microtidal areas

  15. Current Land Subsidence in the Houston Metropolitan Area, Texas, Derived from GPS Observations (1993-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearns, T.; Wang, G.; Jia, X.; Jiang, J.; Lee, D.

    2014-12-01

    This article summarizes recent land subsidence that has occurred in the Houston metropolitan area. Subsidence measurements derived from observations at 11 borehole extensometers and 90 GPS sites during the past 20 years (1993-2012) were investigated in this study. Precise Point Positioning with Single Receiver Phase Ambiguity (PPP-SRPA) resolution employed by the GIPSY-OASIS software package (V6.2) was applied to calculate daily positions of GPS antennas. GPS and extensometer observations indicate that the overall subsidence rate in the Houston metropolitan area has been decreasing since the 1970s, which was when groundwater withdrawal regulations started to be enforced by the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District (HGSD). Currently, the subsidence in the southeast of the Houston metropolitan area has almost ceased. Slight rebound has been observed at several sites along the Houston Ship Channel area since 2005. Nonetheless, a relatively small area within the Houston Ship Channel area that runs northwest from approximately Texas City to League City has continued to subside. There is some evidence that suggest that this subsidence is the result of local oil and gas withdrawal rather than groundwater withdrawal. Subsidence also continues in the west and northwest of the Houston metropolitan area, where groundwater regulations have only recently been implemented. The maximum rate is 2.5 cm/year. It is evident that the groundwater withdrawal regulations enforced by HGSD have successfully reduced the subsidence in the Houston metropolitan area. Long-term GPS observations also indicate that subsidence rates vary spatially and temporally depending on local groundwater withdrawals and the clay-to-sand ratio in subsurface sediments. The ground water and aquifer systems respond slowly to human actions. It took almost two decades (1980s and 1990s) to halt the subsidence in the east part of the Houston metropolitan area after groundwater regulations were implemented in the late

  16. Mapping coastal vegetation, land use and environmental impact from ERTS-1. [Delaware Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Vegetation map overlays at a scale of 1:24,000 compiled by multispectral analysis from NASA aircraft imagery for all of Delaware's wetlands are being used as ground truth for ERTS-1 mapping and by state agencies for wetlands management. Six major vegetation species were discriminated and mapped, including percentages of minor species. Analogue enhancements of wetlands vegetation and dredge-fill operations have been produced using General Electric's GEMS data processing and ERTS-1 false color composites. Digital, thematic land use, and vegetation mapping of entire Delaware Bay area is in progress using Bendix Corporation's Earth Resources Data System and ERTS-1 digital tapes. Statistical evaluation of target-group selection reliability has been completed. Three papers have been published on ERTS-1 coastal vegetation and land use. Local and state officials are participating in the ERTS-1 program as co-investigators.

  17. Monitoring urban expansion and land use/land cover changes of Shanghai metropolitan area during the transitional economy (1979-2009) in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Yin, Zhane; Zhong, Haidong; Xu, Shiyuan; Hu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jianping

    2011-06-01

    This study explored the spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution of land use/cover changes and urban expansion in Shanghai metropolitan area, China, during the transitional economy period (1979-2009) using multi-temporal satellite images and geographic information systems (GIS). A maximum likelihood supervised classification algorithm was employed to extract information from four landsat images, with the post-classification change detection technique and GIS-based spatial analysis methods used to detect land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes. The overall Kappa indices of land use/cover change maps ranged from 0.79 to 0.89. Results indicated that urbanization has accelerated at an unprecedented scale and rate during the study period, leading to a considerable reduction in the area of farmland and green land. Findings further revealed that water bodies and bare land increased, obviously due to large-scale coastal development after 2000. The direction of urban expansion was along a north-south axis from 1979 to 2000, but after 2000 this growth changed to spread from both the existing urban area and along transport routes in all directions. Urban expansion and subsequent LULC changes in Shanghai have largely been driven by policy reform, population growth, and economic development. Rapid urban expansion through clearing of vegetation has led to a wide range of eco-environmental degradation.

  18. Land Use Regression Models for Ultrafine Particles in Six European Areas

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Long-term ultrafine particle (UFP) exposure estimates at a fine spatial scale are needed for epidemiological studies. Land use regression (LUR) models were developed and evaluated for six European areas based on repeated 30 min monitoring following standardized protocols. In each area; Basel (Switzerland), Heraklion (Greece), Amsterdam, Maastricht, and Utrecht (“The Netherlands”), Norwich (United Kingdom), Sabadell (Spain), and Turin (Italy), 160–240 sites were monitored to develop LUR models by supervised stepwise selection of GIS predictors. For each area and all areas combined, 10 models were developed in stratified random selections of 90% of sites. UFP prediction robustness was evaluated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) at 31–50 external sites per area. Models from Basel and The Netherlands were validated against repeated 24 h outdoor measurements. Structure and model R2 of local models were similar within, but varied between areas (e.g., 38–43% Turin; 25–31% Sabadell). Robustness of predictions within areas was high (ICC 0.73–0.98). External validation R2 was 53% in Basel and 50% in The Netherlands. Combined area models were robust (ICC 0.93–1.00) and explained UFP variation almost equally well as local models. In conclusion, robust UFP LUR models could be developed on short-term monitoring, explaining around 50% of spatial variance in longer-term measurements. PMID:28244744

  19. Land Use Regression Models for Ultrafine Particles in Six European Areas.

    PubMed

    van Nunen, Erik; Vermeulen, Roel; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Imboden, Medea; Ducret-Stich, Regina; Naccarati, Alessio; Raffaele, Daniela; Ranzi, Andrea; Ivaldi, Cristiana; Galassi, Claudia; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Curto, Ariadna; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Cirach, Marta; Chatzi, Leda; Kampouri, Mariza; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Meliefste, Kees; Buijtenhuijs, Daan; Brunekreef, Bert; Morley, David; Vineis, Paolo; Gulliver, John; Hoek, Gerard

    2017-03-21

    Long-term ultrafine particle (UFP) exposure estimates at a fine spatial scale are needed for epidemiological studies. Land use regression (LUR) models were developed and evaluated for six European areas based on repeated 30 min monitoring following standardized protocols. In each area; Basel (Switzerland), Heraklion (Greece), Amsterdam, Maastricht, and Utrecht ("The Netherlands"), Norwich (United Kingdom), Sabadell (Spain), and Turin (Italy), 160-240 sites were monitored to develop LUR models by supervised stepwise selection of GIS predictors. For each area and all areas combined, 10 models were developed in stratified random selections of 90% of sites. UFP prediction robustness was evaluated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) at 31-50 external sites per area. Models from Basel and The Netherlands were validated against repeated 24 h outdoor measurements. Structure and model R(2) of local models were similar within, but varied between areas (e.g., 38-43% Turin; 25-31% Sabadell). Robustness of predictions within areas was high (ICC 0.73-0.98). External validation R(2) was 53% in Basel and 50% in The Netherlands. Combined area models were robust (ICC 0.93-1.00) and explained UFP variation almost equally well as local models. In conclusion, robust UFP LUR models could be developed on short-term monitoring, explaining around 50% of spatial variance in longer-term measurements.

  20. A comparative assessment of land cover dynamics of three protected forest areas in tropical eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Lung, Tobias; Schaab, Gertrud

    2010-02-01

    Processes of deforestation, known to threaten tropical forest biodiversity, have not yet been studied sufficiently in East Africa. To shed light on the patterns and causes of human influences on protected forest ecosystems, comparisons of different study areas regarding land cover dynamics and potential drivers are needed. We analyze the development of land cover since the early 1970s for three protected East African rainforests and their surrounding farmlands and assess the relationship between the observed changes in the context of the protection status of the forests. Processing of Landsat satellite imagery of eight or seven time steps in regular intervals results in 12 land cover classes for the Kakamega-Nandi forests (Kenya) and Budongo Forest (Uganda) whereas ten are distinguished for Mabira Forest (Uganda). The overall classification accuracy assessed for the year 2001 or 2003 is similarly high for all three study areas (81% to 85%). The time series reveal that, despite their protection status, Kakamega-Nandi forests and Mabira Forest experienced major forest decrease, the first a continuous forest loss of 31% between 1972/1973 and 2001, the latter an abrupt loss of 24% in the late 1970s/early 1980s. For both forests, the temporally dense time series show short-term fluctuations in forest classes (e.g., areas of forest regrowth since the 1980s or exotic secondary bushland species from the 1990s onwards). Although selectively logged, Budongo Forest shows a much more stable forest cover extent. A visual overlay with population distribution for all three regions clearly indicates a relationship between forest loss and areas of high population density, suggesting population pressure as a main driver of deforestation. The revealed forest losses due to local and commercial exploitation further demonstrate that weak management impedes effective forest protection in East Africa.

  1. Higher Surface Ozone Concentrations Over the Chesapeake Bay than Over the Adjacent Land: Observations and Models from the DISCOVER-AQ and CBODAQ Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Daniel L.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Marufu, Lackson T.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    Air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, indicate decidedly higher ozone near the surface of large interior water bodies, such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. In order to test the validity of the model output, we performed surface measurements of ozone (O3) and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) on the 26-m Delaware II NOAA Small Research Vessel experimental (SRVx), deployed in the Chesapeake Bay for 10 daytime cruises in July 2011 as part of NASA's GEO-CAPE CBODAQ oceanographic field campaign in conjunction with NASA's DISCOVER-AQ air quality field campaign. During this 10-day period, the EPA O3 regulatory standard of 75 ppbv averaged over an 8-h period was exceeded four times over water while ground stations in the area only exceeded the standard at most twice. This suggests that on days when the Baltimore/Washington region is in compliance with the EPA standard, air quality over the Chesapeake Bay might exceed the EPA standard. Ozone observations over the bay during the afternoon were consistently 10-20% higher than the closest upwind ground sites during the 10-day campaign; this pattern persisted during good and poor air quality days. A lower boundary layer, reduced cloud cover, slower dry deposition rates, and other lesser mechanisms, contribute to the local maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay. Observations from this campaign were compared to a CMAQ simulation at 1.33 km resolution. The model is able to predict the regional maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay accurately, but NOy concentrations are significantly overestimated. Explanations for the overestimation of NOy in the model simulations are also explored

  2. Impact of Land Use / Land Cover Changes on Water Quality Using Remote Sensing and GIS - a Case Study of Katedhan Industrial Area, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayaker, T.

    2001-12-01

    Land Use, the anthropogenic use of the land and Land Cover, the physical state of such land, are among the most evident impacts of human activities on natural resources. Rapid global industrialisation during the last two decades in general and in the Katedhan industrial area in particular has a profound adverse effect on the land use / land cover practices and the water quality. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been employed to identify and quantify measures for mitigating the adverse impacts of industrialisation on the quality of environment. The specific objective of this paper is to study the correlation between impact of land use and water quality. There are about 400 - 500 industries in this area whose effluent outlet is directly mixing into the near by canal or stream. Due to this the lakes present in this catchment area are being polluted. The methodology employed in this study involves the generation of various thematic layers so as to find out the impacts on water quality. According to the results, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulphates and some heavy metals are very high in the surface water near to Noor Mohammad lake. When compared with ground water, all the above parameters are high near to Sivarampally lake which is around 1 km form Noor Mohammad tank. This is because of the slope of the area due to which the ground water is polluted in lower region of this area. To control further degradation of the water quality it is recommended that a common effluent treatment plant should be constructed so as to control the pollution at the source itself.

  3. History or current selection? A molecular analysis of 'area effects' in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis.

    PubMed Central

    Davison, A; Clarke, B

    2000-01-01

    We have used molecular variation in microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA to throw light on the origins of enigmatic geographical patterns, known as 'area effects', in the shell polymorphisms of the land snail Cepaea nemoralis. Our aim was to assess the relative importance of recent selection and historical events in the formation of these patterns. On the Marlborough Downs in Wiltshire, England, the 'type locality' for area effects, the frequencies of microsatellites are significantly associated with the frequencies of alleles for shell banding. A less clear association is found between microsatellites and shell colour. Mitochondrial haplotypes show no significant relationships. Although the correlated geographical patterns could be the results of random genetic drift from an initially uniform array of populations, the magnitudes of the patterns, and of the correlations between them, seem too strong to have arisen by drift since the last glaciation. Our results suggest that invasions from refugia have been the most important factors in forming area effects. PMID:10983823

  4. Atmospheric boundary layer characteristics and land-atmosphere energy transfer in the Third Pole area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Zhu, Z.; Amatya, P. M.; Chen, X.; Hu, Z.; Zhang, L.; Li, M.; Ma, W.

    2015-05-01

    The Tibetan Plateau and nearby surrounding area (the Third Pole area) dramatically impacts the world's environment and especially controls climatic and environmental changes in China, Asia and even in the Northern Hemisphere. Supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and some international organizations, the Third Pole Environment (TPE) Programme is now under way. First, the background of the establishment of the TPE, the establishment and monitoring plans on long-term for the TPE and six comprehensive observation and study stations are introduced. Then the preliminary observational analysis results on atmosphere-land interaction are presented. The study on the regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes is of paramount importance over the heterogeneous landscape of the Third Pole area. A parameterization methodology based on satellite and in situ data is described and tested for deriving the regional surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux) over the heterogeneous landscape. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the whole Tibetan Plateau area. Eight images of MODIS data and four images of AVHRR data were used for the comparison among winter, spring, summer and autumn, and the annual variation analyses. The derived results were also validated by using the ``ground truth'' measured in the stations of the TPE. The results show that the derived surface heat fluxes in the four different seasons over the Tibetan Plateau area are in good agreement with the ground measurements. The results from AVHRR were also in agreement with MODIS. It is therefore concluded that the proposed methodology is successful for the retrieval of surface heat fluxes using the MODIS data, AVHRR data and in situ data over the Tibetan Plateau area.

  5. Performance Enhancement of Land Vehicle Positioning Using Multiple GPS Receivers in an Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jong-Hwa; Jee, Gyu-In

    2016-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the most widely used navigation system in land vehicle applications. In urban areas, the GPS suffers from insufficient signal strength, multipath propagation and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) errors, so it thus becomes difficult to obtain accurate and reliable position information. In this paper, an integration algorithm for multiple receivers is proposed to enhance the positioning performance of GPS for land vehicles in urban areas. The pseudoranges of multiple receivers are integrated based on a tightly coupled approach, and erroneous measurements are detected by testing the closeness of the pseudoranges. In order to fairly compare the pseudoranges, GPS errors and terms arising due to the differences between the positions of the receivers need to be compensated. The double-difference technique is used to eliminate GPS errors in the pseudoranges, and the geometrical distance is corrected by projecting the baseline vector between pairs of receivers. In order to test and analyze the proposed algorithm, an experiment involving live data was performed. The positioning performance of the algorithm was compared with that of the receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM)-based integration algorithm for multiple receivers. The test results showed that the proposed algorithm yields more accurate position information in urban areas. PMID:27754411

  6. Land area change analysis following hurricane impacts in Delacroix, Louisiana, 2004--2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Brock, John C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide improved estimates of Louisiana wetland land loss due to hurricane impacts between 2004 and 2009 based upon a change detection mapping analysis that incorporates pre- and post-landfall (Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike) fractional water classification of a combination of high resolution (QuickBird, IKONOS and Geoeye-1) and medium resolution (Landsat) satellite imagery. This second dataset focuses on Hurricanes Katrina and Gustav, which made landfall on August 29, 2005, and September 1, 2008, respectively. The study area is an approximately 1208-square-kilometer region surrounding Delacroix, Louisiana, in the eastern Delta Plain. Overall, 77 percent of the area remained unchanged between 2004 and 2009, and over 11 percent of the area was changed permanently by Hurricane Katrina (including both land gain and loss). Less than 3 percent was affected, either temporarily or permanently, by Hurricane Gustav. A related dataset (SIM 3141) focused on Hurricane Rita, which made landfall on the Louisiana/Texas border on September 24, 2005, as a Category 3 hurricane.

  7. Performance Enhancement of Land Vehicle Positioning Using Multiple GPS Receivers in an Urban Area.

    PubMed

    Song, Jong-Hwa; Jee, Gyu-In

    2016-10-14

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the most widely used navigation system in land vehicle applications. In urban areas, the GPS suffers from insufficient signal strength, multipath propagation and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) errors, so it thus becomes difficult to obtain accurate and reliable position information. In this paper, an integration algorithm for multiple receivers is proposed to enhance the positioning performance of GPS for land vehicles in urban areas. The pseudoranges of multiple receivers are integrated based on a tightly coupled approach, and erroneous measurements are detected by testing the closeness of the pseudoranges. In order to fairly compare the pseudoranges, GPS errors and terms arising due to the differences between the positions of the receivers need to be compensated. The double-difference technique is used to eliminate GPS errors in the pseudoranges, and the geometrical distance is corrected by projecting the baseline vector between pairs of receivers. In order to test and analyze the proposed algorithm, an experiment involving live data was performed. The positioning performance of the algorithm was compared with that of the receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM)-based integration algorithm for multiple receivers. The test results showed that the proposed algorithm yields more accurate position information in urban areas.

  8. Fragmented Land Cover Types and Estimation of Area with Course Spatial Resolution Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Chris; Dungan, Jennifer; Gore, William (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Imagery of coarse resolution, such weather satellite imagery with 1 sq km pixels, is increasingly used to monitor dynamic and fragmented types of land surface types, such as scars from recent fires and ponds in wetlands. Accurate estimates of these land cover types at regional to global scales are required to assess the roles of fires and wetlands in global warming, yet difficult to compute when much of the area is accounted for by fragments about the same size as the pixels. In previous research, we found that size distribution of the fragments in several example scenes fit simple two-parameter models and related effects of coarse resolution to errors in area estimates based on pixel counts. We report on progress to develop accurate area estimates based on modelling the size distribution of the fragments, including analysis of size distributions on an expanded set of maps developed from digital imagery and a test of a procedure to correct for effects of coarse spatial resolution.

  9. Evaluation of the environmental sustainability of farmers' land use decisions in the saline-alkaline areas.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ran; Wang, Jiali

    2015-04-01

    Environmental sustainability has become the focus of agricultural sustainability. This study is aimed at evaluating the environmental sustainability of farmers' land use decisions on saline-alkaline soil in China. Based on empirical and theoretical approaches, the decisions mainly include planting, crop distribution, irrigation, drainage, and fertilization. By surveying 22 administrative villages in typical ecologically fragile saline-alkaline areas of five regions (Shandong, Jiangsu, Jilin, Ningxia, and Xinjiang), the paper builds the evaluation criteria at village level, and obtains a comprehensive index. From the results, irrigation concerns are absent from decision-making. For other decisions, farmers in most villages can appropriately deal with planting, drainage, and fertilization according to the regional natural and social geography conditions. But the comprehensive index of crop distribution in the coastal areas is much stronger than in the northeast and northwest. It is found that the similarities of unsustainability lie in the planting of water-consuming crops, the arbitrary distribution of crops, lack of drainage planning, obsolete water conservancy facilities, excessive use of chemical fertilizers, etc. According to the research, on the one hand, it can guide farmers to rationally make use of saline-alkaline land; on the other hand, it can also provide the basis for government to make differentiated policies in different areas and enhance pertinence in the course of technological extension and application.

  10. Mineral surveys by the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines of Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Study Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beikman, Helen M.; Hinkle, Margaret E.; Frieders, Twila; Marcus, Susan M.; Edward, James R.

    1983-01-01

    The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 instructed the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to review all public lands under its jurisdiction and to determine their suitability or nonsuitability for wilderness designation. As part of this process, the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines conduct mineral surveys of areas for which a preliminary determination of wilderness suitability has been made. The BLM has completed its wilderness inventory phase and has found that 23.2 million acres deserve further study for wilderness consideration. These 23.2 million acres of wilderness study areas include 1 million acres of natural and primitive areas (Instant Study Areas), 5.7 million acres in the California Desert Conservation Area, and 16.5 million acres in other wilderness study areas. Mineral surveys on all areas recommended for wilderness will be completed by 1990.

  11. Variations of soil lead in different land uses along the urbanization gradient in the Beijing metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qizheng; Huang, Ganlin; Ma, Keming; Sun, Zexiang

    2014-03-18

    Understanding the spatial pattern of soil lead (Pb) levels is essential to protecting human health. Most previous studies have examined soil Pb distributions by either urbanization gradient or land-use type. Few studies, however, have examined both factors together. It remains unclear whether the impacts of land use on soil Pb levels are consistent along the urbanization gradient. To fill this gap, we investigated variations in soil Pb level under different land-use types along the urbanization gradient in Beijing, China. We classified the degree of urbanization as the urban core, transitional zone, or suburban area and the land-use type as industrial area, roadside, residential area, institutional area, road greenbelt, park, or forest. Our results showed that the range of soil Pb levels in Beijing is <1 mg/kg-292 mg/kg, with a mean of 22 mg/kg. Along the urbanization gradient, the mean soil Pb level increased from the suburban area to the urban core. Land-use types have an impact on soil Pb levels, however, when the degree of urbanization is considered, the impact from land use on soil Pb level was only significant in the transitional zone. Parks and road greenbelts were found to have lower soil Pb, primarily due to soil restoration. Roadside and residential areas were found to have higher soil Pb because of traffic emissions, leaded paint, and previous industrial contamination. In the urban core and suburban area, the soil Pb level showed no significant differences among various land-use types. Given the results of soil Pb in various land-use types, we suggest that future studies consider the urbanization gradient in which different land-use samples are located.

  12. Variations of Soil Lead in Different Land Uses Along the Urbanization Gradient in the Beijing Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qizheng; Huang, Ganlin; Ma, Keming; Sun, Zexiang

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spatial pattern of soil lead (Pb) levels is essential to protecting human health. Most previous studies have examined soil Pb distributions by either urbanization gradient or land-use type. Few studies, however, have examined both factors together. It remains unclear whether the impacts of land use on soil Pb levels are consistent along the urbanization gradient. To fill this gap, we investigated variations in soil Pb level under different land-use types along the urbanization gradient in Beijing, China. We classified the degree of urbanization as the urban core, transitional zone, or suburban area and the land-use type as industrial area, roadside, residential area, institutional area, road greenbelt, park, or forest. Our results showed that the range of soil Pb levels in Beijing is <1 mg/kg–292 mg/kg, with a mean of 22 mg/kg. Along the urbanization gradient, the mean soil Pb level increased from the suburban area to the urban core. Land-use types have an impact on soil Pb levels, however, when the degree of urbanization is considered, the impact from land use on soil Pb level was only significant in the transitional zone. Parks and road greenbelts were found to have lower soil Pb, primarily due to soil restoration. Roadside and residential areas were found to have higher soil Pb because of traffic emissions, leaded paint, and previous industrial contamination. In the urban core and suburban area, the soil Pb level showed no significant differences among various land-use types. Given the results of soil Pb in various land-use types, we suggest that future studies consider the urbanization gradient in which different land-use samples are located. PMID:24646863

  13. Revised hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system in the northern coastal area of Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Lester J.; Gill, Harold E.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework for the Floridan aquifer system has been revised for eight northern coastal counties in Georgia and five coastal counties in South Carolina by incorporating new borehole geophysical and flowmeter log data collected during previous investigations. Selected well logs were compiled and analyzed to determine the vertical and horizontal continuity of permeable zones that make up the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers and to define more precisely the thickness of confining beds that separate these aquifers. The updated framework generally conforms to the original framework established by the U.S. Geological Survey in the 1980s except for adjustments made to the internal boundaries of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers and the individual permeable zones that compose these aquifers. The revised boundaries of the Floridan aquifer system were mapped by taking into account results from local studies and regional correlations of geologic and hydrogeologic units. Because the revised framework does not match the previous regional framework along all edges, additional work will be needed to expand the framework into adjacent areas. The Floridan aquifer system in the northern coastal region of Georgia and parts of South Carolina can be divided into the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers, which are separated by a middle confining unit of relatively lower permeability. The Upper Floridan aquifer includes permeable and hydraulically connected carbonate rocks of Oligocene and upper Eocene age that represent the most transmissive part of the aquifer system. The middle confining unit consists of low permeability carbonate rocks that lie within the lower part of the upper Eocene in Beaufort and Jasper Counties, South Carolina, and within the upper to middle parts of the middle Eocene elsewhere. Locally, the middle confining unit contains thin zones that have moderate to high permeability and can produce water to wells that tap them. The Lower Floridan aquifer

  14. Anticipated climate and land-cover changes reveal refuge areas for Borneo's orang-utans.

    PubMed

    Struebig, Matthew J; Fischer, Manuela; Gaveau, David L A; Meijaard, Erik; Wich, Serge A; Gonner, Catherine; Sykes, Rachel; Wilting, Andreas; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie

    2015-08-01

    Habitat loss and climate change pose a double jeopardy for many threatened taxa, making the identification of optimal habitat for the future a conservation priority. Using a case study of the endangered Bornean orang-utan, we identify environmental refuges by integrating bioclimatic models with projected deforestation and oil-palm agriculture suitability from the 1950s to 2080s. We coupled a maximum entropy algorithm with information on habitat needs to predict suitable habitat for the present day and 1950s. We then projected to the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s in models incorporating only land-cover change, climate change or both processes combined. For future climate, we incorporated projections from four model and emission scenario combinations. For future land cover, we developed spatial deforestation predictions from 10 years of satellite data. Refuges were delineated as suitable forested habitats identified by all models that were also unsuitable for oil palm - a major threat to tropical biodiversity. Our analyses indicate that in 2010 up to 260,000 km(2) of Borneo was suitable habitat within the core orang-utan range; an 18-24% reduction since the 1950s. Land-cover models predicted further decline of 15-30% by the 2080s. Although habitat extent under future climate conditions varied among projections, there was majority consensus, particularly in north-eastern and western regions. Across projections habitat loss due to climate change alone averaged 63% by 2080, but 74% when also considering land-cover change. Refuge areas amounted to 2000-42,000 km(2) depending on thresholds used, with 900-17,000 km(2) outside the current species range. We demonstrate that efforts to halt deforestation could mediate some orang-utan habitat loss, but further decline of the most suitable areas is to be expected given projected changes to climate. Protected refuge areas could therefore become increasingly important for ongoing translocation efforts. We present an approach to help

  15. Adaptive Critic Neural Network-Based Terminal Area Energy Management and Approach and Landing Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, Katie

    2003-01-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) have different mission requirements than the Space Shuttle, which is used for benchmark guidance design. Therefore, alternative Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) and Approach and Landing (A/L) Guidance schemes can be examined in the interest of cost reduction. A neural network based solution for a finite horizon trajectory optimization problem is presented in this paper. In this approach the optimal trajectory of the vehicle is produced by adaptive critic based neural networks, which were trained off-line to maintain a gradual glideslope.

  16. Development and flight tests of a Kalman filter for navigation during terminal area and landing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, S. F.; Flanagan, P. F.; Sorenson, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A Kalman filter for aircraft terminal area and landing navigation was implemented and flight tested in the NASA Ames STOLAND avionics computer onboard a Twin Otter aircraft. This system combines navaid measurements from TACAN, MODILS, air data, radar altimeter sensors along with measurements from strap-down accelerometer and attitude angle sensors. The flight test results demonstrate that the Kalman filter provides improved estimates of the aircraft position and velocity as compared with estimates from the more standard complementary filter. The onboard computer implementation requirements to achieve this improved performance are discussed.

  17. Monitoring and inversion on land subsidence over mining area with InSAR technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, C.; Lu, Zhiming; Ding, X.

    2011-01-01

    The Wulanmulun town, located in Inner Mongolia, is one of the main mining areas of Shendong Company such as Shangwan coal mine and Bulianta coal mine, which has been suffering serious mine collapse with the underground mine withdrawal. We use ALOS/PALSAR data to extract land deformation under these regions, in which Small Baseline Subsets (SBAS) method was applied. Then we compared InSAR results with the underground mining activities, and found high correlations between them. Lastly we applied Distributed Dislocation (Okada) model to invert the mine collapse mechanism. ?? 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  18. Land-subsidence and ground-water storage monitoring in the Tucson Active Management Area, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, Don R.; Winster, Daniel; Cole, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    The Tucson Active Management Area (TAMA) comprises two basins--Tucson Basin and Avra Valley. The TAMA has been directed by Arizona ground-water law to attain an annual balance between groundwater withdrawals and recharge by the year 2025. This balance is defined by the statute as "safe yield." Current ground-water withdrawals exceed recharge, resulting in conditions of ground-water overdraft, which causes removal of water from ground-water storage and subsidence of the land surface. Depletion of storage and associated land subsidence will not be halted until all discharge from the system, both natural and human induced, is balanced by recharge. The amount of the ground-water overdraft has been difficult to estimate until recently because it could not be directly measured. Overdraft has been estimated using indirect water-budget methods that rely on uncertain estimates of recharge. As a result, the status of the ground-water budget could not be known with great certainty. Gravity methods offer a means to directly measure ground-water overdraft through measurement of changes in the gravitational field of the Earth that are caused by changes in the amount of water stored in the subsurface. Changes in vertical position also affect the measured gravity value and thus subsidence also must be monitored. The combination of periodic observations of gravity and vertical positions provide direct measures of changes in stored ground water and land subsidence.

  19. Large rainfall changes consistently projected over substantial areas of tropical land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, Robin; Good, Peter; Martin, Gill; Rowell, David P.

    2016-02-01

    Many tropical countries are exceptionally vulnerable to changes in rainfall patterns, with floods or droughts often severely affecting human life and health, food and water supplies, ecosystems and infrastructure. There is widespread disagreement among climate model projections of how and where rainfall will change over tropical land at the regional scales relevant to impacts, with different models predicting the position of current tropical wet and dry regions to shift in different ways. Here we show that despite uncertainty in the location of future rainfall shifts, climate models consistently project that large rainfall changes will occur for a considerable proportion of tropical land over the twenty-first century. The area of semi-arid land affected by large changes under a higher emissions scenario is likely to be greater than during even the most extreme regional wet or dry periods of the twentieth century, such as the Sahel drought of the late 1960s to 1990s. Substantial changes are projected to occur by mid-century--earlier than previously expected--and to intensify in line with global temperature rise. Therefore, current climate projections contain quantitative, decision-relevant information on future regional rainfall changes, particularly with regard to climate change mitigation policy.

  20. Implementation of research results to prevent land degradation in viticultural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marqués Pérez, Maria Jose; Bienes, Ramon; de Benito, Alejandro; Velasco, Ana

    2013-04-01

    This study shows the lack of interest of land users to establish contact with scientific institutions and their reluctance to change their traditional way to manage their soils. It is conducted in Madrid and Castilla La Mancha, Spain, where the production of wine is an important source of income. The basic research was dealing with sustainable land management in sloping vineyards to prevent soil degradation. The usual reduced tillage practice in the area is compared with different cover grasses in the inter-rows of vines. The results demonstrate that these managements are able to increase soil organic matter, improve infiltration, reduce runoff and soil loss and increase soil aggregate stability. Nevertheless a decrease in production is noticed in some permanent cover treatments. A survey to know the feasibility of implementation of this sustainable land management was conducted. Less than 5% of vine growers coming to cellars and cooperatives were willing to be interviewed. Finally 64 vine growers answered a questionnaire regarding different aspects of their environmental concerns, age, land management practices and economic situation. The majority of respondents (82%) are worried about erosion problems in their sloping vineyards. They were informed about the results of the abovementioned project but only 32% of them would change the cultivation by grasses in the inter-rows. The respondents were not old (72% below 50 years old), and the agriculture was not their first activity (69% had other different sources of income). It is remarkable that they have some misunderstandings and lack of knowledge in questions regarding soil conservation. Only 3% of them receive some kind of economic aid from the institutions to avoid land degradation. This could be related to the small or medium size of their lands as 87% of them have plots smaller than 50 ha. The extension services and policy makers have to face this situation to achieve the proper implementation of scientific

  1. Land use maps of the Tanana and Purcell Mountain areas, Alaska, based on Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS imagery in photographic format was used to make land use maps of two areas of special interest to native corporations under terms of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Land selections are to be made in these areas, and the maps should facilitate decisions because of their comprehensive presentation of resource distribution information. The ERTS images enabled mapping broadly-defined land use classes in large areas in a comparatively short time. Some aerial photography was used to identify colors and shades of gray on the various images. The 14 mapped land use categories are identified according to the classification system under development by the U.S. Geological Survey. These maps exemplify a series of about a dozen diverse Alaskan areas. The principal resource depicted is vegetation, and clearly shown are vegetation units of special importance, including stands possibly containing trees of commercial grade and stands constituting wildlife habitat.

  2. Adapative Management of Protected Areas under Land Use and Climate Changes in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisurat, Yongyut; Kreft, Holger; Klaus, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the potential impacts of future land use and climate change scenarios on mammal distributions in northern Thailand and to priority new protected areas to minimize the predicted impacts. Occurrence data of 17 selected mammals were obtained from a nationwide inventory during 2004-2006. Current and predicted future bioclimatic variables in 2050 were extracted from global datasets. In addition, the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) was used to generate suitable habitats. In addition, the vulnerability matrix and the gravity model were employed to define risk species and additional protected areas, respectively. The results revealed that future climatic conditions would favor species inhabiting dense habitats. However, most species were predicted to lose suitable habitat if the remaining forest cover declines from the current level of 57% to 50% in 2050. When land use and climate changes were combined, the predicted impacts were more severe. Most species would lose suitable habitats and the average shift in distribution was greater than 40%. Centers of current mammal richness and in the future were predicted in large and contiguous protected forests but the percentage of moderate-very high concentrations would decrease marginally in the future. By increasing additional protected areas of 1,861 km2 from the current plan (from 31.4% to 32.5%) in the vulnerable areas, the predicted impacts on mammal distributions will be significantly decreased. This research demonstrates that spatially explicit models and protected areas are effective means to contribute to conservation planning at current and future dynamic threats.

  3. Increase of geodiversity by historical land use in the Maashorst area (SE-Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, J. M.; Seijmonsbergen, A. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Maashorst area (SW Netherlands) is part of an extensive region in Northwestern Europe underlain by predominantly Late Glacial aeolian coversand deposits. The natural geodiversity was determined by the characteristic elements of coversand geomorphology (ridges and planes) and the western Peel fault (horst and graben). The geodiversity should increase by the impact of (pre)historical land management on soils and landforms. Regional deforestation, mainly related to forest grazing and shifting cultivation, started in the Neolithic. The main impact on the landscape was degradation of umbric to carbic podzols and of deciduous forest to heaths on well drained land surfaces. On valley bottoms and in geomorphological depressions, soil wetting was responsible for the transformation of umbric gleysols to histic gleysols or even histosols. The introduction of sedentary agriculture started in the Bronze Age around 1000 BC without more impact on landscape properties than continuing soil acidification and forest degradation. In fact, no drastic environmental changes have been registered till the end of the 10th century. Commercial clear cutting of forest during the 11th - 13th century resulted in the first major extension of driftsand landscapes. During this time, land use was dominated by shallow stable agriculture. Farmers, using the heath for the production of organic manure, had to introduce management measures to protect the heath land and to stabilize the environmental disaster, sand drifting caused by clear cutting. The introduction of the deep stable agriculture in the middle of the 18th century resulted in degradation of heath. Farmers started with digging sods of the humic topsoil. These form of plaggen manure included a mineral fraction and caused the accumulation of plaggic deposits on arable land. The practices of the deep stable agriculture ended around 1900 AD by the introduction of chemical fertilizers and urban compost. The heath lands lost their production

  4. Low-cost computer classification of land cover in the Portland area, Oregon, by signature extension techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaydos, Leonard

    1978-01-01

    The cost of classifying 5,607 square kilometers (2,165 sq. mi.) in the Portland area was less than 8 cents per square kilometer ($0.0788, or $0.2041 per square mile). Besides saving in costs, this and other signature extension techniques may be useful in completing land use and land cover mapping in other large areas where multispectral and multitemporal Landsat data are available in digital form but other source materials are generally lacking.

  5. Temporal and spatial changes of land use and landscape in a coal mining area in Xilingol grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Chunzhu; Zhang, Baolin; Li, Jiannan; Zhao, Junling

    2017-01-01

    Coal mining, particularly surface mining, inevitably disturbs land. According to Landsat images acquired over Xilingol grassland in 2005, 2009 and 2015, land uses were divided into seven classes, i. e., open stope, stripping area, waste-dump area, mine industrial area, farmland, urban area and the original landscape (grassland), using supervised classification and human-computer interactive interpretation. The overall classification accuracies were 97.72 %, 98.43 % and 96.73 %, respectively; the Kappa coefficients were 0.95, 0.97 and 0.95, respectively. Analysis on LUCC (Land Use and Cover Change) showed that surface coal mining disturbed grassland ecosystem: grassland decreased by 8661.15 hm2 in 2005-2015. The area and proportion of mining operation areas (open stope, stripping area, waste-dump area, mine industrial field) increased, but those of grassland decreased continuously. Transfer matrix of land use changes showed that waste-dump had the largest impacts in mining disturbance, and that effective reclamation of waste-dump areas would mitigate eco-environment destruction, as would be of great significance to protect fragile grassland eco-system. Six landscape index showed that landscape fragmentation increased, and the influences of human activity on landscape was mainly reflected in the expansion of mining area and urban area. Remote sensing monitoring of coal surface mining in grassland would accurately demonstrate the dynamics and trend of LUCC, providing scientific supports for ecological reconstruction in surface mining area.

  6. Three Gorges Reservoir Area: soil erosion under natural condition vs. soil erosion under current land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönbrodt, Sarah; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Apparently, the current most prominent human-induced example for large scale environmental impact is the Three Gorges Dam in China. The flooding alongside the Yangtze River, and its tributaries results in a vast loss of settlement and farmland area with productive, fertile valley soils. Due to the associated high land use dynamic on uphill-sites, the soil resources are underlying high land use pressure. Within our study, the soil erosion under natural conditions is compared to the soil erosion under current land use after the impoundment. Both were modeled using the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) which is able to predict long-term annual soil loss with limited data. The database consists of digital terrain data (45 m resolution DEM, erosive slope length based on Monte-Carlo-Aggregation according to Behrens et al. (2008)), field investigations of recent erosion forms, and literature studies. The natural disposition to soil erosion was calculated considering the USLE factors R, S, and K. The soil erosion under current land use was calculated taking into account all USLE factors. The study area is the catchment of the Xiangxi River in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. Within the Xiangxi Catchment (3,200 km²) the highly dynamic backwater area (580 km²), and two micro-scale study sites (Xiangjiaba with 2.8 km², and Quyuan with 88 km²) are considered more detailed as they are directly affected by the river impoundment. Central features of the Xiangxi Catchment are the subtropical monsoon climate, an extremely steep sloping relief (mean slope angle 39°, SD 22.8°) artificially fractured by farmland terraces, and a high soil erodibility (mean K factor 0.37, SD 0.13). On the catchment scale the natural disposition to soil erosion makes up to mean 518.0 t ha-1 a-1. The maximum potential soil loss of 1,730.1 t ha-1 a-1 under natural conditions is reached in the Quyuan site (mean 635.8 t ha-1 a-1) within the backwater area (mean 582.9 t ha-1 a-1). In the

  7. The impact of built-up surfaces on land surface temperatures in Italian urban areas.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Messeri, Alessandro; Orlandini, Simone; Raschi, Antonio; Maracchi, Giampiero; Munafò, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Urban areas are characterized by the very high degree of soil sealing and continuous built-up areas: Italy is one of the European countries with the highest artificial land cover rate, which causes a substantial spatial variation in the land surface temperature (LST), modifying the urban microclimate and contributing to the urban heat island effect. Nevertheless, quantitative data regarding the contribution of different densities of built-up surfaces in determining urban spatial LST changes is currently lacking in Italy. This study, which aimed to provide clear and quantitative city-specific information on annual and seasonal spatial LST modifications resulting from increased urban built-up coverage, was conducted generally throughout the whole year, and specifically in two different periods (cool/cold and warm/hot periods). Four cities (Milan, Rome, Bologna and Florence) were included in the study. The LST layer and the built-up-surface indicator were obtained via use of MODIS remote sensing data products (1km) and a very high-resolution map (5m) of built-up surfaces recently developed by the Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research. The relationships between the dependent (mean daily, daytime and nighttime LST values) and independent (built-up surfaces) variables were investigated through linear regression analyses, and comprehensive built-up-surface-related LST maps were also developed. Statistically significant linear relationships (p<0.001) between built-up surfaces and spatial LST variations were observed in all the cities studied, with a higher impact during the warm/hot period than in the cool/cold ones. Daytime and nighttime LST slope patterns depend on the city size and relative urban morphology. If implemented in the existing city plan, the urban maps of built-up-surface-related LST developed in this study might be able to support more sustainable urban land management practices by identifying the critical areas (Hot

  8. Variability of land degradation along topographic transects in two Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; Anaya-Romero, María; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Jordán, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; de la Rosa, Diego

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of topography, soil factors and climate conditions on land degradation along topographic transects in two Mediterranean areas: Seville (southern Spain) and El-Fayoum (northern Egypt). Elevation and slope gradient information from both study sites were obtained from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, processed using ENVI 4.7. Additionally, topographic transects were developed using ArcGIS 10 software. To represent the highest variability in elevation, lithology, soil and land use in each site, one representative topographic transect from El-Fayoum and two topographic transects from Seville were selected. Soil characteristics along each of the topographic transect were obtained by mapping land surveying and laboratory analyses data. MicroLEIS DSS (Pantanal and Raizal submodels) was used to assess soil contamination with phosphorus, nitrogen, heavy metals and pesticides and water erosion vulnerability along the topographic transects for each study site using soil data, including depth, texture, drainage, carbonate content, salinity, sodium saturation, organic matter content and acidity (pH). Additionally, monthly average values of climate variables (mean temperature, maximum and minimum rainfall and number of rainy days) have been used. The results obtained by Raizal and Pantanal models suggest that lower elevation areas from transects show low vulnerability classes in both degradation processes (water erosion and soil contamination), when compared to uplands. The variation of climate conditions and soil factors along the Seville and El-Fayoum transects were responsible for the observed variability in both soil degradation processes (erosion and contamination). Key words: MicroLEIS DSS, soil degradation, soil factors, topography, DEM

  9. Potential effects of groundwater pumping on water levels, phreatophytes, and spring discharges in Spring and Snake Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith J.; Plume, Russell W.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing hydrologic effects of developing groundwater supplies in Snake Valley required numerical, groundwater-flow models to estimate the timing and magnitude of capture from streams, springs, wetlands, and phreatophytes. Estimating general water-table decline also required groundwater simulation. The hydraulic conductivity of basin fill and transmissivity of basement-rock distributions in Spring and Snake Valleys were refined by calibrating a steady state, three-dimensional, MODFLOW model of the carbonate-rock province to predevelopment conditions. Hydraulic properties and boundary conditions were defined primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) model except in Spring and Snake Valleys. This locally refined model was referred to as the Great Basin National Park calibration (GBNP-C) model. Groundwater discharges from phreatophyte areas and springs in Spring and Snake Valleys were simulated as specified discharges in the GBNP-C model. These discharges equaled mapped rates and measured discharges, respectively. Recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and transmissivity were distributed throughout Spring and Snake Valleys with pilot points and interpolated to model cells with kriging in geologically similar areas. Transmissivity of the basement rocks was estimated because thickness is correlated poorly with transmissivity. Transmissivity estimates were constrained by aquifer-test results in basin-fill and carbonate-rock aquifers. Recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and transmissivity distributions of the GBNP-C model were estimated by minimizing a weighted composite, sum-of-squares objective function that included measurement and Tikhonov regularization observations. Tikhonov regularization observations were equations that defined preferred relations between the pilot points. Measured water levels, water levels that were simulated with RASA, depth-to-water beneath distributed groundwater and spring discharges, land-surface altitudes, spring discharge at

  10. Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air

  11. Improving Landslide Inventories by Limiting Land Classification to Drainage Areas of Debris Flow-Dominated Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, N. J.; Mitasova, H.; Wegmann, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    Landslide inventories, frequently created by aerial photograph interpretation (API), are often used in the production of hillslope hazard maps to characterize past landslides or to evaluate a hazard model. In the former application of inventories, potential landslides in hazard maps are delineated as areas that have similar morphometrics as past landslides at locations of modeled hillslope instability. Therefore, the accuracy of the inventory has a strong influence upon hazard extent. In the latter application, the partial inventories that sometimes result from API, due to the subjectivity of interpretation and revegetation of landslides, likely results in incorrect evaluations. A more complete, less subjective technique is needed to not only better characterize past landslides and improve evaluation of hazard models, but also to assess the extent of areas prone to significant mass wasting in mountainous regions due to the evolution of landscapes. Inventory accuracy continues to improve with new technology and automated techniques, though rarely is the form of a channel's topography incorporated into the inventory process despite the growing evidence of a topographic signature of debris flows. This signature demarcates the transition between the dominant channel erosional process: fluvial or debris flow. These process transitions are often observed at scaling breaks in log-log plots of a channel's drainage area versus slope (DS plot). The scaling breaks, above which the effects of fluvial power laws upon channel topography are not observed and below which debris flow scars are not found, may signify the lowest point in the watershed where debris flows occur. We present an inventory technique that limits a land classification algorithm to areas that are upstream from this scaling break determined from DS plots of five streams in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) region of the southern Appalachians. Topographic data for the DS plots and the

  12. Improved MODIS aerosol retrieval in urban areas using a land classification approach and empirical orthogonal functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitan, Nathaniel; Gross, Barry

    2016-10-01

    New, high-resolution aerosol products are required in urban areas to improve the spatial coverage of the products, in terms of both resolution and retrieval frequency. These new products will improve our understanding of the spatial variability of aerosols in urban areas and will be useful in the detection of localized aerosol emissions. Urban aerosol retrieval is challenging for existing algorithms because of the high spatial variability of the surface reflectance, indicating the need for improved urban surface reflectance models. This problem can be stated in the language of novelty detection as the problem of selecting aerosol parameters whose effective surface reflectance spectrum is not an outlier in some space. In this paper, empirical orthogonal functions, a reconstruction-based novelty detection technique, is used to perform single-pixel aerosol retrieval using the single angular and temporal sample provided by the MODIS sensor. The empirical orthogonal basis functions are trained for different land classes using the MODIS BRDF MCD43 product. Existing land classification products are used in training and aerosol retrieval. The retrieval is compared against the existing operational MODIS 3 KM Dark Target (DT) aerosol product and co-located AERONET data. Based on the comparison, our method allows for a significant increase in retrieval frequency and a moderate decrease in the known biases of MODIS urban aerosol retrievals.

  13. Land degradation monitoring in Braila agricultural area using RADARSAT2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poenaru, Violeta; Badea, Alexandru; Dana Negula, Iulia; Moise, Cristian; Cimpeanu, Sorin

    2016-08-01

    The estimation of degradation in agricultural lands from fully polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data at C-band using differential SAR interferometry is investigated. To this aim, we used a dataset of high resolution SAR images collected in the joint ESA-CSA SOAR Europe-16605 scientific proposal framework that have been processed through the persistent scattering - DInSAR technique. Moreover, to improve PSInSAR analysis, we used polarimetric optimization method on multi-temporal polarimetric SAR data. Optimization is based on the selection of the most stable scattering mechanism over time since the unitary complex column vector is related to the geometric and electromagnetic features of the target. We applied this method on a dataset including 14 compact polarization SAR data (HH/HV/VV) acquired by RADARSAT2 from August 2014 to November 2015 over Braila agricultural area. The area has been affected by land degradation due to salinization and irrigation water overexploitation. The results reveal that the use of an optimum scattering mechanism provides a significant improvement in increasing the PS density and hence the density of the pixels with valid deformation results with respect to single-pol data (about 50% more than single channel datasets).

  14. Land Subsidence in and around Bangkok area using ALOS/PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.; Mio, A.; Saito, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The metropolitan area of Bangkok, Thailand, has been subsided during the past decades. To effectively monitor, assess, and manage this ground deformation on various time scales and over broad areas, understanding these processes is of critical importance. This ground deformation has been monitored using leveling surveys since 1978 and InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) analysis. These results show that the Bangkok metropolitan city is subsiding with a rate of -20 mm/year in recent years, due to the law limiting groundwater pumping since the late 1980s, although in 1981 the highest subsidence rate up to 120 mm/year had been recorded in the eastern area [Phien-wej et al., 2006]. However, these studies were focused in the Bangkok metropolitan city using C-band satellites images. In this study, we applied the method of measuring long-term land subsidence by Differential InSAR and InSAR time series analysis using ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band SAR) data acquired between 2007 and 2010 to investigate ground deformation in and around Bangkok area. The ground deformation were detected both near the Chao Phraya river and the Tha Chin river, which is a distributary of the Chao Phraya river and flows westerly from the Chao Phraya through the central plains of Thailand until it mouths into the Gulf of Thailand. We compared our results with previous leveling and InSAR studies to find an overall consistency in the deformation estimates. The deformation rates have been monitored, with velocity a maximum rate of about -20 mm/year, and showed consistent with previous studies (e.g., Aobpaet et al., 2009). These results verify the validity of the method and data used.

  15. Land use-based landscape planning and restoration in mine closure areas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjun; Fu, Meichen; Hassani, Ferri P; Zeng, Hui; Geng, Yuhuan; Bai, Zhongke

    2011-05-01

    Landscape planning and restoration in mine closure areas is not only an inevitable choice to sustain mining areas but also an important path to maximize landscape resources and to improve ecological function in mine closure areas. The analysis of the present mine development shows that many mines are unavoidably facing closures in China. This paper analyzes the periodic impact of mining activities on landscapes and then proposes planning concepts and principles. According to the landscape characteristics in mine closure areas, this paper classifies available landscape resources in mine closure areas into the landscape for restoration, for limited restoration and for protection, and then summarizes directions for their uses. This paper establishes the framework of spatial control planning and design of landscape elements from "macro control, medium allocation and micro optimization" for the purpose of managing and using this kind of special landscape resources. Finally, this paper applies the theories and methods to a case study in Wu'an from two aspects: the construction of a sustainable land-use pattern on a large scale and the optimized allocation of typical mine landscape resources on a small scale.

  16. Long-term agricultural land-cover change and potential for cropland expansion in the former Virgin Lands area of Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Roland; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Müller, Daniel; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Radeloff, Volker C.; Dara, Andrey; Terekhov, Alexey; Frühauf, Manfred

    2015-05-01

    During the Soviet Virgin Lands Campaign, approximately 23 million hectares (Mha) of Eurasian steppe grassland were converted into cropland in Northern Kazakhstan from 1954 to 1963. As a result Kazakhstan became an important breadbasket of the former Soviet Union. However, the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 triggered widespread agricultural abandonment, and much cropland reverted to grasslands. Our goal in this study was to reconstruct and analyze agricultural land-cover change since the eve of the Virgin Lands Campaign, from 1953 to 2010 in Kostanay Province, a region that is representative of Northern Kazakhstan. Further, we assessed the potential of currently idle cropland for re-cultivation. We reconstructed the cropland extent before and after the Virgin Lands Campaign using archival maps, and we mapped the agricultural land cover in the late Soviet and post-Soviet period using multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM+ images from circa 1990, 2000 and 2010. Cropland extent peaked at approximately 3.1 Mha in our study area in 1990, 38% of which had been converted from grasslands from 1954 to 1961. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, 45% of the Soviet cropland was abandoned and had reverted to grassland by 2000. After 2000, cropland contraction and re-cultivation were balanced. Using spatial logistic regressions we found that cropland expansion during the Virgin Lands Campaign was significantly associated with favorable agro-environmental conditions. In contrast, cropland expansion after the Campaign until 1990, as well as cropland contraction after 1990, occurred mainly in areas that were less favorable for agriculture. Cropland re-cultivation after 2000 was occurring on lands with relatively favorable agro-environmental conditions in comparison to remaining idle croplands, albeit with much lower agro-environmental endowment compared to stable croplands from 1990 to 2010. In sum, we found that cropland production potentials of the currently uncultivated areas are

  17. Changing Land Use: The Back Lachlan District of Australia. A Case Study of Land Use in a Semi-Arid Area [And] Student Work Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Kevin

    A social studies unit and student workbook explore changes in land use that have occurred over time in a semiarid area of eastern Australia, the Back Lachlan District. Part of the "outback," the District consists of a huge level plain with low rainfall, only one river, and vegetation ranging from timber to grass and shrub. Chapter I…

  18. Microzonation in Urban Areas, Basic Element for Land-Use Planning, Risk Management and Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Morales, G. F.; Dávalos Sotelo, R.; Castillo Aguilar, S.; Mora González, I.; Lermo Samaniego, J. F.; Rodriguez, M.; García Martínez, J.; Suárez, M. Leonardo; Hernández Juan, F.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the results of microzonification of the natural hazards for different metropolitan areas and highlights the importance of integrating these results in urban planning. The cities that have been covered for the definition of danger in the state of Veracruz are: Orizaba, Veracruz and Xalapa, as part of the production of a Geological and Hydrometeorology Hazards Atlas for the state of Veracruz, financed by the Funds for the Prevention of Natural Disasters FOPREDEN and CONACYT. The general data of each metropolitan area was integrated in a geographic information system (GIS), obtaining different theme maps, and maps of dynamic characteristics of soils in each metropolitan area. For the planning of an urban area to aspire to promote sustainable development, it is essential to have a great deal of the details on the pertinent information and the most important is that that has to do with the degree of exposure to natural phenomena. In general, microzonation investigations consider all natural phenomena that could potentially affect an area of interest and hazard maps for each of potential hazards are prepared. With all the data collected and generated and fed into a SIG, models were generated which define the areas most threatened by earthquake, flood and landslide slopes. These results were compared with maps of the main features in the urban zones and a qualitative classification of areas of high to low hazard was established. It will have the basic elements of information for urban planning and land use. This information will be made available to the authorities and the general public through an Internet portal where people can download and view maps using free software available online.;

  19. Mapping change in human pressure globally on land and within protected areas.

    PubMed

    Geldmann, Jonas; Joppa, Lucas N; Burgess, Neil D

    2014-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the main driver of the observed decline in biological diversity is increasing human pressure on Earth's ecosystems. However, the spatial patterns of change in human pressure and their relation to conservation efforts are less well known. We developed a spatially and temporally explicit map of global change in human pressure over 2 decades between 1990 and 2010 at a resolution of 10 km(2) . We evaluated 22 spatial data sets representing different components of human pressure and used them to compile a temporal human pressure index (THPI) based on 3 data sets: human population density, land transformation, and electrical power infrastructure. We investigated how the THPI within protected areas was correlated to International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) management categories and the human development index (HDI) and how the THPI was correlated to cumulative pressure on the basis of the original human footprint index. Since the early 1990s, human pressure increased 64% of the terrestrial areas; the largest increases were in Southeast Asia. Protected areas also exhibited overall increases in human pressure, the degree of which varied with location and IUCN management category. Only wilderness areas and natural monuments (management categories Ib and III) exhibited decreases in pressure. Protected areas not assigned any category exhibited the greatest increases. High HDI values correlated with greater reductions in pressure across protected areas, while increasing age of the protected area correlated with increases in pressure. Our analysis is an initial step toward mapping changes in human pressure on the natural world over time. That only 3 data sets could be included in our spatio-temporal global pressure map highlights the challenge to measuring pressure changes over time.

  20. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area, Technical Report 2000-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Kozusko, Shana

    2003-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) currently manages a 15,325 acre parcel of land known as the Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area that was purchased as mitigation for losses incurred by construction of the four lower Snake River dams. The Management Area is located in northern Wallowa County, Oregon and southern Asotin County, Washington (Figure 1). It is divided into three management parcels--the Buford parcel is located on Buford Creek and straddles the WA-OR state line, and the Tamarack and Basin parcels are contiguous to each other and located between the Joseph Creek and Cottonwood Creek drainages in Wallowa County, OR. The project was developed under the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-501), with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The acreage protected under this contract will be credited to BPA as habitat permanently dedicated to wildlife and wildlife mitigation. A modeling strategy known as Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and adopted by BPA as a habitat equivalency accounting system. Nine wildlife species models were used to evaluate distinct cover type features and provide a measure of habitat quality. Models measure a wide range of life requisite variables for each species and monitor overall trends in vegetation community health and diversity. One product of HEP is an evaluation of habitat quality expressed in Habitat Units (HUs). This HU accounting system is used to determine the amount of credit BPA receives for mitigation lands. After construction of the four lower Snake River dams, a HEP loss assessment was conducted to determine how many Habitat Units were inundated behind the dams. Twelve target species were used in that evaluation: Canada goose, mallard, river otter, downy woodpecker, song sparrow, yellow warbler, marsh wren, western meadowlark, chukar, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, and mule deer. The U.S. Army Corp of

  1. Spatial explicit assessment of rural land abandonment in the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissteiner, Christof J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Böttcher, Kristin; Carrara, Paola; Bordogna, Gloria; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    This study adopts the "syndrome approach", originally defined by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), ( Downing et al., 2002) to assess and map rural land abandonment (RLA), that occurred during the period 1990-2005 within the wider Mediterranean area. The basic idea behind the syndrome approach is to describe change processes by archetypical, dynamic, and co-evolutionary patterns of civilization-nature interactions. In the frame of the Rural Exodus Syndrome the RLA can be interpreted as the occurrence of environmental degradation through the abandonment of traditional agricultural practices. Multi-source spatial data, including biophysical-related variables mainly derived from Earth Observation as well as socio-economical GIS-based data, were used to define proxies for expected underlying processes and drivers of the mentioned syndrome. The analysis of data is rooted in the fuzzy set theory and approximate reasoning techniques which allows for the handling of uncertain and imprecise knowledge of environmental systems. Generalized Conjunction/Disjunction operators (GCD) were applied to compute intermediate indicator score maps representing the conditions that may affect the RLA, and a bipolar operator was used to combine mandatory and favouring conditions with the aim of generating a RLA indicator. The indicator expresses the detailed location and severity, or degree, of the syndrome. The Northern Mediterranean was generally found to suffer from RLA to a distinctly higher degree than the Southern Mediterranean. Reported abandonment studies from the existing literature, the European CORINE land cover map, and the Less Favoured Areas (LFA) map all supported the findings by confirming plausibility through convergence of evidence from comparisons with different types of independent information. This spatially highly-detailed results obtained may be of particular interest to policy and decision makers involved in rural development planning in the

  2. State and local response to damaging land subsidence in United States urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    Land subsidence caused by man-induced depressuring of underground reservoirs has occurred in at least nine urban areas in the United States. Significant efforts to control it have been made in three areas: Long Beach, California; Houston-Galveston, Texas; and Santa Clara Valley, California. In these areas coastal flooding and its control cost more than $300 million. Institutional changes were required in each area to ameliorate its subsidence problem. In Long Beach and Houston-Galveston, efforts were made to mitigate subsidence only after significant flood damage had occurred. To arrest subsidence at Long Beach, the city lobbied for a special state law, the California Subsidence Act, that required unitization and repressuring of the Wilmington oil field. In the Houston-Galveston region, the Texas State Legislature authorized formation of the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District with authority to regulate ground-water pumping by permit. This solution, which was achieved through efforts of entities affected by subsidence, was the product of a series of compromises necessitated by political fragmentation and disjointed water planning in the region. Amelioration of subsidence in the Santa Clara Valley was a collateral benefit from the effort by water users to curtail ground-water overdraft in the valley. Importation of surface water and a tax on ground-water pumpage reduced ground-water use, thereby allowing the recovery of water level and the arresting of subsidence. ?? 1989.

  3. Drivers of land cover and land use changes in St. Louis metropolitan area over the past 40 years characterized by remote sensing and census population data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimaitijiang, Maitiniyazi; Ghulam, Abduwasit; Sandoval, J. S. Onésimo; Maimaitiyiming, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we explored the spatial and temporal patterns of land cover and land use (LCLU) and population change dynamics in the St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area. The goal of this paper was to quantify the drivers of LCLU using long-term Landsat data from 1972 to 2010. First, we produced LCLU maps by using Landsat images from 1972, 1982, 1990, 2000, and 2010. Next, tract level population data of 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 were converted to 1-km square grid cells. Then, the LCLU maps were integrated with basic grid cell data to represent the proportion of each land cover category within a grid cell area. Finally, the proportional land cover maps and population census data were combined to investigate the relationship between land cover and population change based on grid cells using Pearson's correlation coefficient, ordinary least square (OLS), and local level geographically weighted regression (GWR). Land cover changes in terms of the percentage of area affected and rates of change were compared with population census data with a focus on the analysis of the spatial-temporal dynamics of urban growth patterns. The correlation coefficients of land cover categories and population changes were calculated for two decadal intervals between 1970 and 2010. Our results showed a causal relationship between LCLU changes and population dynamics over the last 40 years. Urban sprawl was positively correlated with population change. However, the relationship was not linear over space and time. Spatial heterogeneity and variations in the relationship demonstrate that urban sprawl was positively correlated with population changes in suburban area and negatively correlated in urban core and inner suburban area of the St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area. These results suggest that the imagery reflects processes of urban growth, inner-city decline, population migration, and social spatial inequality. The implications provide guidance for sustainable urban

  4. Effect of land use and urbanization on hydrochemistry and contamination of groundwater from Taejon area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Chan Ho

    2001-11-01

    Taejon Metropolitan City located in the central part of South Korea has grown and urbanized rapidly. The city depends heavily on groundwater as a water resource. Because of ubiquitous pollution sources, the quality and contamination have become important issues for the urban groundwater supply. This study has investigated the chemical characteristics and the contamination of groundwater in relation to land use. An attempt was made to distinguish anthrophogenic inputs from the influence of natural chemical weathering on the chemical composition of groundwater at Taejon. Groundwater samples collected at 170 locations in the Taejon area show very variable chemical composition of groundwater, e.g. electrical conductance ranges from 65 to 1,290 μS/cm. Most groundwater is weakly acidic and the groundwater chemistry is more influenced by land use and urbanization than by aquifer rock type. Most groundwater from green areas and new town residential districts has low electrical conductance, and is of Ca-HCO 3 type, whereas the chemical composition of groundwater from the old downtown and industrial district is shifted towards a Ca-Cl (NO 3+SO 4) type with high electrical conductance. A number of groundwater samples in the urbanized area are contaminated by high nitrate and chlorine, and exhibit high hardness. The EpCO 2, that is the CO 2 content of a water sample relative to pure water, was computed to obtain more insight into the origin of CO 2 and bicarbonate in the groundwater. The CO 2 concentration of groundwater in the urbanized area shows a rough positive relationship with the concentration of major inorganic components. The sources of nitrate, chlorine and excess CO 2 in the groundwater are likely to be municipal wastes of unlined landfill sites, leaky latrines and sewage lines. Chemical data of commercial mineral water from other Jurassic granite areas were compared to the chemical composition of the groundwater in the Taejon area. Factor analysis of the chemical

  5. [Spatio-temporal variability of habitat quality in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area based on land use change].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-sheng; Cao, Qi-wen; Shi, Shu-qin; Huang, Xiu-lan; Lu, Zhi-qiang

    2015-11-01

    Land use change is the core content of global change. To achieve sustainable land use planning, it is necessary to evaluate the habitat quality pattern and its spatio-temporal variation resulted from land use change, which can provide basis for the formulation of land management policy. Based on the analysis of land use change from 2000 to 2010, this study investigated the spatio-temporal variation of habitat quality pattern of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area. We used the watershed profile sampling points and spatial autocorrelation analysis based on watershed subdivision. The results showed that the main land use change types from 2000 to 2010 in this area included the transition from cultivated land to construction land, the transition between forest and grassland, and the transition from water bodies to cultivated land. This land use/cover change process led to the decrease of heterogeneity of landscape structure and increase of fragmentation. The overall spatial pattern of habitat quality was that southeast and south areas were relatively lower, while north and west areas were relatively higher. The analysis based on watershed profile showed that the habitat quality of each watershed presented significant difference in each part. Habitat quality of most sampling points degraded in a way, while some improved compared with 2000. In general, the habitat quality of the bottom part of Luanhe River basin, the medium part of Bai-Chaobai-Chaobaixin River basin, the medium and the bottom part of Yongding River basin and medium part of Laozhang-Fudongpai- Beipai River basin were poor and volatile, while other parts were relatively good. There was a decreasing agglomeration characteristic of distribution of habitat quality in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area under the disturbance of human activities. Areas of high habitat quality in 2000 were mainly located in Luanhe River basin and top part of Baihe basin. Areas of low habitat quality were mainly located in medium and bottom part

  6. Land use/cover changes in European mountain areas: identifying links between global driving forces and local consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Schröter, Dagmar; Glade, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Minor land use/cover changes in mountain areas can aggravate the consequences of hydro-meteorological hazards such as landslides, avalanches, rockfall and flash floods. What is more, they change the provisioning of ecosystem services; also as their recovery after anthropogenic induced changes in mountains are slower or not occurring at all due to harsh climate and soil conditions. Examples of these changes are urbanization in high risk areas or deforestation on slopes. To understand the driving forces behind land use/cover changes in European mountain areas, the focus is on the two case study areas: The Val Canale valley in the Italian Alps and the Buzau valley in the Romanian Carpathians. Land use/cover changes were analyzed in the recent decades applying various remote sensing techniques, such as satellite imagery classification and visual interpretation, as well as integration of various databases (e.g. forestry, spatial planning and cadaster plans). Instead of identifying the statistical significance of particular variables (e.g. population change), the links between different driving forces of global change (e.g. political and policy changes, infrastructural plans) and local socio-economic variables were investigated further through interviewing local and regional stakeholders. The results show how both areas differ in the consequences of global changes in terms of land use/cover change. The Italian area witnessed a trajectory from a commercially active and competitive area, to an area with a large portion of abandoned commercial, customs, industrial and mining zones. These processes were accompanied by the expansion of settlements comprised mostly of secondary housing on areas with high risk, resulting in catastrophic consequences in recent flash floods and debris flows events. The Romanian site also witnessed a breakdown of local commercial and industrial activities. Together with land ownership reforms, this has resulted in the emergence of subsistence

  7. The analysis of spatial and temporal changes of land cover and land use in the reclaimed areas with the application of airborne orthophotomaps and LANDSAT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wężyk, Piotr; Hawryło, Paweł; Pietrzykowski, Marcin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible use of geoinformatics tools and generally available geodata for mapping land cover/use on the reclaimed areas. The choice of subject was dictated by the growing number of such areas and the related problem of their restoration. Modern technology, including GIS, photogrammetry and remote sensing are relevant in assessing the reclamation effects and monitoring of changes taking place on such sites. The LULC classes mapping, supported with thorough knowledge of the operator, is useful tool for the proper reclamation process evaluation. The study was performed for two post-mine sites: reclaimed external spoil heap of the sulfur mine Machów and areas after exploitation of sulfur mine Jeziórko, which are located in the Tarnobrzeski district. The research materials consisted of aerial orthophotos, which were the basis of on-screen vectorization; LANDSAT satellite images, which were used in the pixel and object based classification; and the CORINE Land Cover database as a general reference to the global maps of land cover and land use.

  8. Soil respiration and carbon loss relationship with temperature and land use conversion in freeze-thaw agricultural area.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Lai, Xuehui; Li, Xia; Liu, Heying; Lin, Chunye; Hao, Fanghua

    2015-11-15

    Soil respiration (Rs) was hypothesized to have a special response pattern to soil temperature and land use conversion in the freeze-thaw area. The Rs differences of eight types of land use conversions during agricultural development were observed and the impacts of Rs on soil organic carbon (SOC) loss were assessed. The land use conversions during last three decades were categorized into eight types, and the 141 SOC sampling sites were grouped by conversion type. The typical soil sampling sites were subsequently selected for monitoring of soil temperature and Rs of each land use conversion types. The Rs correlations with temperature at difference depths and different conversion types were identified with statistical analysis. The empirical mean error model and the biophysical theoretical model with Arrhenius equation about the Rs sensitivity to temperature were both analyzed and shared the similar patterns. The temperature dependence of soil respiration (Q10) analysis further demonstrated that the averaged value of eight types of land use in this freeze-thaw agricultural area ranged from 1.15 to 1.73, which was lower than the other cold areas. The temperature dependence analysis demonstrated that the Rs in the top layer of natural land covers was more sensitive to temperature and experienced a large vertical difference. The natural land covers exhibited smaller Rs and the farmlands had the bigger value due to tillage practices. The positive relationships between SOC loss and Rs were identified, which demonstrated that Rs was the key chain for SOC loss during land use conversion. The spatial-vertical distributions of SOC concentration with the 1.5-km grid sampling showed that the more SOC loss in the farmland, which was coincided with the higher Rs in farmlands. The analysis of Rs dynamics provided an innovative explanation for SOC loss in the freeze-thaw agricultural area. The analysis of Rs dynamics provided an innovative explanation for SOC loss in the freeze

  9. Forward-looking Assimilation of MODIS-derived Snow Covered Area into a Land Surface Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Rodell, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Snow cover over land has a significant impact on the surface radiation budget, turbulent energy fluxes to the atmosphere, and local hydrological fluxes. For this reason, inaccuracies in the representation of snow covered area (SCA) within a land surface model (LSM) can lead to substantial errors in both offline and coupled simulations. Data assimilation algorithms have the potential to address this problem. However, the assimilation of SCA observations is complicated by an information deficit in the observation SCA indicates only the presence or absence of snow, and not snow volume and by the fact that assimilated SCA observations can introduce inconsistencies with atmospheric forcing data, leading to non-physical artifacts in the local water balance. In this paper we present a novel assimilation algorithm that introduces MODIS SCA observations to the Noah LSM in global, uncoupled simulations. The algorithm utilizes observations from up to 72 hours ahead of the model simulation in order to correct against emerging errors in the simulation of snow cover while preserving the local hydrologic balance. This is accomplished by using future snow observations to adjust air temperature and, when necessary, precipitation within the LSM. In global, offline integrations, this new assimilation algorithm provided improved simulation of SCA and snow water equivalent relative to open loop integrations and integrations that used an earlier SCA assimilation algorithm. These improvements, in turn, influenced the simulation of surface water and energy fluxes both during the snow season and, in some regions, on into the following spring.

  10. The aluminum phosphate zone in the Peace River area, land-pebble phosphate field, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James B.

    1953-01-01

    The Peace River area, comprising T. 30 and 31 S., R. 24 and 25 E., contains a thicker and more persistent aluminum phosphate zone, and one that is higher in P2O5 and uranium content than is known elsewhere in the land-pebble phosphate district. This report has been prepared to bring together all of the information on the aluminum phosphate zone in the area where the first plant to treat this material will probably be located. The area may be divided into three physiographic units, (1) the ridge, (2) the flatwoods, and (3) the valley. Maps showing distribution and grade of the aluminum phosphate zone indicate that the zone is thin or absent in the ridge unit, thickest and most persistent, and of the best grade in P2O5 and uranium in the flatwoods unit, and absent or very low in grade in the valley unit. Maps of thickness and of chemical composition show that even in favorable areas there are places where the aluminum phosphate zone is missing or of questionable economic importance. The distribution maps also show that areas of high P2O5 and high uranium content coincide closely. Areas containing thick aluminum phosphate material usually have high uranium and P2O5 contents. It is estimated that an average of 13,000 tons per day of aluminum phosphate material might be mined from this area. This figure is based on the probable amount of time, per year, that mining would be in favorable ground. When all mines in the area are in favorable ground, the tonnage per day might be about 23,000 tons. Tonnages of aluminum phosphate material have been computed for about 36 percent of the area of T. 30 S., R. 25 E., and for 18 percent of the area of T. 31 S., R. 25 E. The total inferred tonnage is about 150,000,000 short tons, with an average grade of 0.012 percent U3O8.

  11. Application of high resolution land use and land cover data for atmospheric modeling in the Houston-Galveston metropolitan area, Part I: Meteorological simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang-Yi; Byun, Daewon W.

    To predict atmospheric conditions in an urban environment, the land surface processes must be accurately described through the use of detailed land use (LU) and land cover (LC) data. Use of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 25-category data, currently in the Fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5), with the Noah land surface model (LSM) and MRF (medium-range forecast) planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes resulted in the over-prediction of daytime temperatures in the Houston downtown area due to the inaccurate representation as a completely impervious surface. This bias could be corrected with the addition of canopy water in the urban areas from the evapotranspiration effects of urban vegetation. A more fundamental approach would be to utilize an LULC dataset that represents land surface features accurately. The Texas Forest Service (TFS) LULC dataset established with the LANDSAT satellite imagery correctly represents the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area as mixtures of urban, residential, grass, and forest LULC types. This paper describes how the Noah LSM and PBL schemes in the MM5 were modified to accommodate the TFS-LULC data. Comparisons with various meteorological measurements show that the MM5 simulation made with the high resolution LULC data improves the boundary layer mixing conditions and local wind patterns in the Houston Ship Channel, which is a critically important anthropogenic emission area affecting the HGB air pollution problems. In particular, when the synoptic flows are weak, the improved LULC data simulates the asymmetrically elongated Houston heat island convergence zone influencing the location of the afternoon Gulf of Mexico sea-breeze front and the Galveston Bay breeze flows. This paper is part I of a two-part study and focuses on the meteorological simulation. In part II, effects of using the different meteorological inputs on air quality simulations are discussed.

  12. Urban land use mapping by machine processing of ERTS-1 multispectral data: A San Francisco Bay area example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellefsen, R.; Swain, P. H.; Wray, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The study is reported to develop computer produced urban land use maps using multispectral scanner data from a satellite is reported. Data processing is discussed along with the results of the San Francisco Bay area, which was chosen as the test area.

  13. Protected areas in South Asia have not prevented habitat loss: a study using historical models of land-use change.

    PubMed

    Clark, Natalie E; Boakes, Elizabeth H; McGowan, Philip J K; Mace, Georgina M; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss imperils species both locally and globally, so protection of intact habitat is critical for slowing the rate of biodiversity decline. Globally, more than 150,000 protected areas have been designated with a goal of protecting species and ecosystems, but whether they can continue to achieve this goal as human impacts escalate is unknown. Here we show that in South Asia, one of the world's major growth epicentres, the trajectory of habitat conversion rates inside protected areas is indistinguishable from that on unprotected lands, and habitat conversion rates do not decline following gazettement of a protected area. Moreover, a quarter of the land inside South Asia's protected areas is now classified as human modified. If the global community is to make significant progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target on protected areas, there is an urgent need both to substantially enhance management of these protected areas and to develop systematic conservation outside the formal protected area system.

  14. Protected Areas in South Asia Have Not Prevented Habitat Loss: A Study Using Historical Models of Land-Use Change

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Natalie E.; Boakes, Elizabeth H.; McGowan, Philip J. K.; Mace, Georgina M.; Fuller, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss imperils species both locally and globally, so protection of intact habitat is critical for slowing the rate of biodiversity decline. Globally, more than 150,000 protected areas have been designated with a goal of protecting species and ecosystems, but whether they can continue to achieve this goal as human impacts escalate is unknown. Here we show that in South Asia, one of the world's major growth epicentres, the trajectory of habitat conversion rates inside protected areas is indistinguishable from that on unprotected lands, and habitat conversion rates do not decline following gazettement of a protected area. Moreover, a quarter of the land inside South Asia's protected areas is now classified as human modified. If the global community is to make significant progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target on protected areas, there is an urgent need both to substantially enhance management of these protected areas and to develop systematic conservation outside the formal protected area system. PMID:23741486

  15. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  16. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  17. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  18. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  19. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  20. Tectonic control of the damaged areas by land subsidence: Ameca, Jalisco Mexico, a study case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas-Elguera, J.; Malagon, A.; Maciel, R.; Alatorre, M. A.; Perez, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Miocene to Quaternary Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), one of the largest mexican volcanic arcs built on the North America plate, covers about 1000 km along central Mexico from the Pacific ocean to the Gulf of Mexico. The structure of west-central Mexico is dominated by a complex assemblage of crustal blocks bounded by major tectonic structures of the TMVB. These are the NW-SE Tepic-Zacoalco, the N-S Colima, and the E-W Chapala grabens, which separate the Jalisco and Michoacan blocks from the stable North American plate. The three grabens join south of Guadalajara to form what has been long interpreted as an active triple junction. The Tepic-Zacoalco rift is composed of the eastern part of the Plan de Barrancas-Santa Rosa graben and by the Ameca and Zacoalco half-grabens. The Ameca city is located in the Ameca half-graben. From 80´s several houses and buildings (more than 300) have been affected by land subsidence for more than two decades. The damage area follows a specific pattern with NW trend which is similar to the regional faults. The land subsidence is associated with the water extraction. We suggest that the distribution of the damage area is controlled by the fault system in combination with the water extraction. Because of the Ameca half-graben has been affected by historical and present day earthquakes and considering the subsurface geology (sandstones, siltstone intercalated with conglomerates) sudden collapses can be expected.

  1. Converted-wave diodic moveout and application in the land gas cloud area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Si-Hai; Li, Xiang-Yang; Dai, Heng-Chang

    2011-09-01

    PS converted-waves (C-waves) have been commonly used to image through gas clouds but the C-wave imaging may also be degraded by the diodic effect introduced by the gas cloud. It may be compensated for using a velocity perturbation method which decouples the diodic moveout into two parts: the base velocity and the velocity perturbation. Gas clouds are widely distributed in the Sanhu area in the Qaidam basin of northwest China which is rich in natural gas. A land 2D3C seismic dataset is analyzed from the Sanhu area and significant diodic effects are observed in the data which harm the C-wave imaging. The diodic correction is applied to this data and the resultant C-wave imaging and the details of the reservoir structure are significantly improved. The diodic moveout plays an important role in working out the residual shear wave statics and the association of diodic correction and shear wave residual statics computation is a key step of C-wave high fidelity imaging in the gas cloud area. Finally, the new process workflow with diodic moveout is given.

  2. Argan woodlands in South Morocco as an area of conflict between degradation and sustainable land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, Mario; Kagermeier, Andreas; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    The Argan woodlands are endemic for South Morocco and prone to degradation through expanding and intensifying agriculture and overgrazing. Unvegetated areas extend further due to degradation of soil and vegetation. Here infiltration is less than on vegetated areas, while runoff and soil erosion increase. The sale of the highly valuable oil, gained from the seeds of the argan tree, can be seen as an economic alternative for the region and a chance of survival for the argan woodlands. With the introduction of women's cooperatives for the production and sale of the oil, the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ, Association for Technical Cooperation) hoped to halt argan degradation from 1995 to 2002. The effects of this approach shall be studied in a proposed DFG-project. The erosion gradient between soils under canopy cover and intertree areas in varying stages of degradation will be at the center of the analysis. Insight into onsite and offsite degradation shall be gained through the measurement of runoff and erosion rates, which lead to rill and gully erosion downslope. Measurements of soil chemical and physical properties might also help indicate when an argan woodland can be classified as natural. Furthermore to be studied are the effects of the new found value of the Argan woodlands among the local population with focus on regional tourism and a possible reduction of grazing pressure. Sustainable soil management in combination with the needs of the local population is essential for a sustainable land use in the region.

  3. Land sliding in the area of the town of Ocna Mures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Land sliding in the area of the town of Ocna Mures Situated near the center of Romania, the town of Ocna Mures, Alba county, once was considered a health resort. Positioned on the left bank of the river Mures, it has a most important natural asset - that is salt. This town began its growth around the year 1896 when the Sodium Product Plant came into being. From the salt extracted as brine they obtained different chlorine-sodium products. On the morning of December 22, 2010, a landslide occurred in the area close to the center of the town, causing a release of a great deal of salty water that soon formed a lake. During that day the big supermarket that was situated on the back of the sliding area collapsed into the crater of the newly formed salty lake. Due to this sliding the main road began to present huge cracks and it sank into the ground around 3 meters, along a length of 100 meters. Thus the asphalt wrinkled as a result of the landslide and one can no longer use the road. Together with my students I went to that area in order to study the alterations that were produced in the ground and to observe the efforts of the specialized workers trying to avoid a catastrophe. Thus we learned that a variety of corrections were needed: - The design and the installation of a barrier around that area in order to prevent more plain water to enter; - Stopping excavations of pebbles from the river Mures over an area of 5 kilometers up- and down-river of the town area; - The removal of the other salty lakes from the town area; - The new design of the sewer system of the town using resistant materials; - Increased capacity of the sewer system for industrial water and drainage from the abundant rains; - The planting of trees in the area in order to fix the ground and prevent new landslides; In order to establish the safety coefficient to protect the salt reserve due to its ubiquity they have to consult seismology specialists. Therefore they have to do all the necessary efforts in

  4. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in Utah and Goshen Valleys and adjacent areas, Utah. Part II. Water temperature and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Klauk, R.H.; Davis, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    Geothermal reconnaissance techniques have identified five areas in Utah County warranting further investigation for low-temperature geothermal resources. One area in northern Utah Valley is along Utah Lake fault zone and includes Saratoga Hot Springs. Water temperatures within this area range from 21 to 43/sup 0/C. Common ion analyses as well as B and Li concentrations indicate waters sampled in this area are anomalous when compared to other samples from the same aquifer. Two other areas in southern Utah Valley also coincide with the Utah Lake fault zone. Common ion analyses, trace element concentrations, and C1/HCO/sub 3/ ratios distinguish these areas from all other waters in this valley. Temperatures within these southern areas range from 21 to 32/sup 0/C. All three thermal areas are possibly the result of deep circulation of meteoric water being warmed and subsequently migrating upward within the Utah Lake fault zone. The Castilla Hot Springs area has been expanded by this study to include a spring located 3 mi further up Spanish Fork Canyon near the Thistle earthflow. A temperature of 50/sup 0/C was recorded for this spring and chemistry is similar to Castilla. In Goshen Valley, the fifth geothermal area identified, measured temperatures range from 20 to 27/sup 0/C for some wells and springs. Chemical analyses, however, do not discern the location of low-temperature geothermal reservoirs. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Land-Use Planning in the Chaco Plain (Burruyacú, Argentina). Part 1: Evaluating Land-Use Options to Support Crop Diversification in an Agricultural Frontier Area Using Physical Land Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recatalá Boix, Luis; Zinck, Joseph Alfred

    2008-12-01

    The Burruyacú district (Tucumán province, Argentina) is a farming frontier in the western Chaco plain, at the foothills of the sub-Andean mountain ranges, where agricultural land-uses are in conflict with the conservation and management of the Chaco forest. Over the last decades, large-scale farming rapidly expanded due to population pressure, attractive market prices, easy accessibility, favourable annual rainfall, fertile soils, and flexible land tenure. Cropland extension, mainly for heavily mechanized soybean production, has resulted in important reduction of the Chaco forest and also caused physical soil degradation, especially soil compaction, and soil erosion. Land suitability was assessed using the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) framework for a set of crops ecologically adapted to the area, including soybean, maize, wheat, sugarcane, citrus, and safflower. Only 16% of the study area has high suitability for most of the selected crops. Major limitations for cropping are low annual rainfall and flooding in the east of the study area, and topography (slope) and flooding in the west. As climate varies over relatively short periods of time, with recurrent cycles of dry and rainy years, land suitability for the selected crops was also assessed under extreme but realistic climatic conditions. Under rainy-year conditions, almost all the study area is unsuitable or marginally suitable for most of the crops. Under dry-year conditions, the study area is unsuitable for all crops, except safflower, which is more drought-resistant. This article proposes alternatives to the mono-cropping of soybean with the aim to help farmers make adequate decisions on land-use and management under deteriorating environmental conditions and for addressing the issue of competitive land uses in the context of land-use planning.

  6. Effects of Land Use Changes from Paddy Fields on Soil Bacterial Communities in a Hilly and Mountainous Area

    PubMed Central

    Rokunuzzaman, Md; Ueda, Yumiko; Chen, Li; Tanaka, Sota; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacterial community structures in terraced rice fields and abandoned lands in a hilly and mountainous area were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequences. The DGGE band patterns of each soil were similar. Based on pyrosequencing data, the richness and diversity of bacterial species were slightly higher in paddy fields than in other soils. A beta-diversity analysis clearly indicated that the bacterial community structure in paddy fields differed from those in non-paddy field lands and crop fields that had not been used as a paddy field. These results may reflect the history of land use. PMID:27098398

  7. Wildlife Conservation and Private Protected Areas: The Discrepancy Between Land Trust Mission Statements and Their Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayer, Ashley A.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Stedman, Richard C.; Cosbar, Emily A.; Wood, Eric M.

    2016-08-01

    In 2010, land trusts in the U.S. had protected nearly 50 million acres of land, with much of it providing habitat for wildlife. However, the extent to which land trusts explicitly focus on wildlife conservation remains largely unknown. We used content analysis to assess land trust involvement in wildlife and habitat conservation, as reflected in their mission statements, and compared these findings with an organizational survey of land trusts. In our sample of 1358 mission statements, we found that only 17 % of land trusts mentioned "wildlife," "animal," or types of wildlife, and 35 % mentioned "habitat" or types. Mission statements contrasted sharply with results from a land trust survey, in which land trusts cited wildlife habitat as the most common and significant outcome of their protection efforts. Moreover, 77 % of land trusts reported that at least half of their acreage protected wildlife habitat, though these benefits are likely assumed. Importantly, mission statement content was not associated with the percentage of land reported to benefit wildlife. These inconsistencies suggest that benefits to wildlife habitat of protected land are recognized but may not be purposeful and strategic and, thus, potentially less useful in contributing toward regional wildlife conservation goals. We outline the implications of this disconnect, notably the potential omission of wildlife habitat in prioritization schema for land acquisition and potential missed opportunities to build community support for land trusts among wildlife enthusiasts and to develop partnerships with wildlife conservation organizations.

  8. Wildlife Conservation and Private Protected Areas: The Discrepancy Between Land Trust Mission Statements and Their Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Dayer, Ashley A; Rodewald, Amanda D; Stedman, Richard C; Cosbar, Emily A; Wood, Eric M

    2016-08-01

    In 2010, land trusts in the U.S. had protected nearly 50 million acres of land, with much of it providing habitat for wildlife. However, the extent to which land trusts explicitly focus on wildlife conservation remains largely unknown. We used content analysis to assess land trust involvement in wildlife and habitat conservation, as reflected in their mission statements, and compared these findings with an organizational survey of land trusts. In our sample of 1358 mission statements, we found that only 17 % of land trusts mentioned "wildlife," "animal," or types of wildlife, and 35 % mentioned "habitat" or types. Mission statements contrasted sharply with results from a land trust survey, in which land trusts cited wildlife habitat as the most common and significant outcome of their protection efforts. Moreover, 77 % of land trusts reported that at least half of their acreage protected wildlife habitat, though these benefits are likely assumed. Importantly, mission statement content was not associated with the percentage of land reported to benefit wildlife. These inconsistencies suggest that benefits to wildlife habitat of protected land are recognized but may not be purposeful and strategic and, thus, potentially less useful in contributing toward regional wildlife conservation goals. We outline the implications of this disconnect, notably the potential omission of wildlife habitat in prioritization schema for land acquisition and potential missed opportunities to build community support for land trusts among wildlife enthusiasts and to develop partnerships with wildlife conservation organizations.

  9. The influences of land use and land cover on climate; an analysis of the Washington-Baltimore area that couples remote sensing with numerical simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pease, R.W.; Jenner, C.B.; Lewis, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Sun drives the atmospheric heat engine by warming the terrestrial surface which in turn warms the atmosphere above. Climate, therefore, is significantly controlled by complex interaction of energy flows near and at the terrestrial surface. When man alters this delicate energy balance by his use of the land, he may alter his climatic environment as well. Land use climatology has emerged as a discipline in which these energy interactions are studied; first, by viewing the spatial distributions of their surface manifestations, and second, by analyzing the energy exchange processes involved. Two new tools for accomplishing this study are presented: one that can interpret surface energy exchange processes from space, and another that can simulate the complex of energy transfers by a numerical simulation model. Use of a satellite-borne multispectral scanner as an imaging radiometer was made feasible by devising a gray-window model that corrects measurements made in space for the effects of the atmosphere in the optical path. The simulation model is a combination of mathematical models of energy transfer processes at or near the surface. Integration of these two analytical approaches was applied to the Washington-Baltimore area to coincide with the August 5, 1973, Skylab 3 overpass which provided data for constructing maps of the energy characteristics of the Earth's surface. The use of the two techniques provides insights into the relationship of climate to land use and land cover and in predicting alterations of climate that may result from alterations of the land surface.

  10. Erosion and Land Degradation in Mediterranean areas as a adaptive response to Mediterranean agriiculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imeson, Anton

    2014-05-01

    The motivation for this session is the statement or claim that Mediterranean areas are sensitive to erosion and desertification. One result of the LEDDRA Approach, which is applying the Complex Adaptive (CAS)paradigm at study sites in Mediterranean Spain, Greece and Italy is that there is just a single socio-environmental system in which land degradation is being caused by the actions of people and the Mediterranean soils have co-eveolved with people under the influence of fire and grazing. They are therefore resilient, and this was demonstrated by Naveh and Thornes. Also the Medalus field sites showed very low rates of erosion. With examples from different Mediterranean landscapes, it is considered that Mediterranean landscapes went through an initial phase of being sensitive to erosion which ended up with the original soils before ploughing or deforestation, being eroded from most of the areas, In some places these are found. LEDDRA The Leddra approach is to consider different states which are separated by transitions. The first state is that of the deforestaion and destruction of the forest that took place 6000 10000 years ago, in the Eastern and Northern Mediterranean, and 2000 to 4,000 years ago in large areas of the Western Mediterranean, and 100 to 400 years ago in California. Australia, New Zealand and Chile. The second state involves appropriating and settling the land from indigenous people and introducing cattle and sheep and Mediterranean crops. The current state of desertification is one in which erosion occurs because of the use of specific cultivation methods and subsidies for irrigating and producing crops outside of their range. In the Mediterranean landscape State, such as found near Santiago in Chile and in Crete, society gains many cultural benefits from grazing. However, the consequences of this are that the whole ecosystem is maintained in an arid state, so that areas in Crete receiving 800-1100 mm rainfall have a semi arid vegetation, instead

  11. Taxonomic classification of world map units in crop producing areas of Argentina and Brazil with representative US soil series and major land resource areas in which they occur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huckle, H. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The most probable current U.S. taxonomic classification of the soils estimated to dominate world soil map units (WSM)) in selected crop producing states of Argentina and Brazil are presented. Representative U.S. soil series the units are given. The map units occurring in each state are listed with areal extent and major U.S. land resource areas in which similar soils most probably occur. Soil series sampled in LARS Technical Report 111579 and major land resource areas in which they occur with corresponding similar WSM units at the taxonomic subgroup levels are given.

  12. Formation of Land Use Order in Hamamatsu City under the Original Criteria of the Farm Land Exclusion from the Agricultural Promotion Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arita, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Shingo

    While zoning has been practiced to prevent sprawling development and to preserve collective farmland under the Agriculture Promotion Act, The Agricultural Promotion Area (APA) has been reduced in area by the action of the Farm Land Exclusion from the APA (EAPA) aiming at urban-uses. Since the EAPA has a great impact on the regional land use, appropriate criteria application techniques ought to be formulated at the transaction level. However, most local governments seem to have no strategic measure so far. Hamamatsu city, meanwhile, has introduced a unique standard upon which approval of the EAPA aptitude is based in 2003. Since the number of EAPA registration was relatively large in Hamamatsu city owing to the zone bordering on the line of land which a building has erected the officials' willingness to establish an objective standard was high. In this research, we verified the effect of the criteria application over the land use ordering, and made proposals for improvement of the present state through the examination of the EAPA criterion application of Hamamatsu city.

  13. ASSESSING THE ACCURACY OF NATIONAL LAND COVER DATASET AREA ESTIMATES AT MULTIPLE SPATIAL EXTENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site specific accuracy assessments provide fine-scale evaluation of the thematic accuracy of land use/land cover (LULC) datasets; however, they provide little insight into LULC accuracy across varying spatial extents. Additionally, LULC data are typically used to describe lands...

  14. Agricultural Intensification Exacerbates Spillover Effects on Soil Biogeochemistry in Adjacent Forest Remnants

    PubMed Central

    Didham, Raphael K.; Barker, Gary M.; Bartlam, Scott; Deakin, Elizabeth L.; Denmead, Lisa H.; Fisk, Louise M.; Peters, Jennifer M. R.; Tylianakis, Jason M.; Wright, Hannah R.; Schipper, Louis A.

    2015-01-01

    Land-use intensification is a central element in proposed strategies to address global food security. One rationale for accepting the negative consequences of land-use intensification for farmland biodiversity is that it could ‘spare’ further expansion of agriculture into remaining natural habitats. However, in many regions of the world the only natural habitats that can be spared are fragments within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Therefore, land-sparing arguments hinge on land-use intensification having low spillover effects into adjacent protected areas, otherwise net conservation gains will diminish with increasing intensification. We test, for the first time, whether the degree of spillover from farmland into adjacent natural habitats scales in magnitude with increasing land-use intensity. We identified a continuous land-use intensity gradient across pastoral farming systems in New Zealand (based on 13 components of farmer input and soil biogeochemistry variables), and measured cumulative off-site spillover effects of fertilisers and livestock on soil biogeochemistry in 21 adjacent forest remnants. Ten of 11 measured soil properties differed significantly between remnants and intact-forest reference sites, for both fenced and unfenced remnants, at both edge and interior. For seven variables, the magnitude of effects scaled significantly with magnitude of surrounding land-use intensity, through complex interactions with fencing and edge effects. In particular, total C, total N, δ15N, total P and heavy-metal contaminants of phosphate fertilizers (Cd and U) increased significantly within remnants in response to increasing land-use intensity, and these effects were exacerbated in unfenced relative to fenced remnants. This suggests movement of livestock into surrounding natural habitats is a significant component of agricultural spillover, but pervasive changes in soil biogeochemistry still occur through nutrient spillover channels alone, even in fenced

  15. Agricultural intensification exacerbates spillover effects on soil biogeochemistry in adjacent forest remnants.

    PubMed

    Didham, Raphael K; Barker, Gary M; Bartlam, Scott; Deakin, Elizabeth L; Denmead, Lisa H; Fisk, Louise M; Peters, Jennifer M R; Tylianakis, Jason M; Wright, Hannah R; Schipper, Louis A

    2015-01-01

    Land-use intensification is a central element in proposed strategies to address global food security. One rationale for accepting the negative consequences of land-use intensification for farmland biodiversity is that it could 'spare' further expansion of agriculture into remaining natural habitats. However, in many regions of the world the only natural habitats that can be spared are fragments within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Therefore, land-sparing arguments hinge on land-use intensification having low spillover effects into adjacent protected areas, otherwise net conservation gains will diminish with increasing intensification. We test, for the first time, whether the degree of spillover from farmland into adjacent natural habitats scales in magnitude with increasing land-use intensity. We identified a continuous land-use intensity gradient across pastoral farming systems in New Zealand (based on 13 components of farmer input and soil biogeochemistry variables), and measured cumulative off-site spillover effects of fertilisers and livestock on soil biogeochemistry in 21 adjacent forest remnants. Ten of 11 measured soil properties differed significantly between remnants and intact-forest reference sites, for both fenced and unfenced remnants, at both edge and interior. For seven variables, the magnitude of effects scaled significantly with magnitude of surrounding land-use intensity, through complex interactions with fencing and edge effects. In particular, total C, total N, δ15N, total P and heavy-metal contaminants of phosphate fertilizers (Cd and U) increased significantly within remnants in response to increasing land-use intensity, and these effects were exacerbated in unfenced relative to fenced remnants. This suggests movement of livestock into surrounding natural habitats is a significant component of agricultural spillover, but pervasive changes in soil biogeochemistry still occur through nutrient spillover channels alone, even in fenced

  16. Land-use impacts on water resources and protected areas: applications of state-and-transition simulation modeling of future scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Tamara; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sherba, Jason T; Dick Cameron,

    2015-01-01

    Human land use will increasingly contribute to habitat loss and water shortages in California, given future population projections and associated land-use demand. Understanding how land-use change may impact future water use and where existing protected areas may be threatened by land-use conversion will be important if effective, sustainable management approaches are to be implemented. We used a state-and-transition simulation modeling (STSM) framework to simulate spatially-explicit (1 km2) historical (1992-2010) and future (2011-2060) land-use change for 52 California counties within Mediterranean California ecoregions. Historical land use and land cover (LULC) change estimates were derived from the Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program dataset and attributed with county-level agricultural water-use data from the California Department of Water Resources. Five future alternative land-use scenarios were developed and modeled using the historical land-use change estimates and land-use projections based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emission Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios. Spatial land-use transition outputs across scenarios were combined to reveal scenario agreement and a land conversion threat index was developed to evaluate vulnerability of existing protected areas to proximal land conversion. By 2060, highest LULC conversion threats were projected to impact nearly 10,500 km2 of land area within 10 km of a protected area boundary and over 18,000 km2 of land area within essential habitat connectivity areas. Agricultural water use declined across all scenarios perpetuating historical drought-related land use from 2008-2010 and trends of annual cropland conversion into perennial woody crops. STSM is useful in analyzing land-use related impacts on water resource use as well as potential threats to existing protected land. Exploring a range of alternative, yet plausible, LULC change impacts will help to better inform resource

  17. Assessment of land use in protected areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iori, P.; da Silva, R. B.; Dias Junior, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is of universal knowledge that the soil, a basic natural resource, is renewable only if conserved or used correctly(Primavesi, 2002). It is salient for Araújo et al. (2007) that the establishment of index of soil quality is an important tool in the functions of control, supervision and monitoring of areas for environmental protection. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the soil by means of a comparative diagram in different soil uses in permanent preservation areas (APP). The study was conducted in areas near the Ribeira de Iguape river in the city of Registro - São Paulo - Brazil, belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain, a Haplic Cambisol. The following uses of the soil had been evaluated: a) banana culture (CBAN) without agricultural traffic of machines; b) degraded pasture (PDEG) with extensive system predominantly Brachiaria decumbens L. c) use silvopastoral (MPIs), consisted in a kills with a traffic free for the animals, and d) native vegetation (MNAT), proposed in this study as a reference area.The following physical indicators were analyzed: bulk density (BD), total soil porosity (TP), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), water dispersible clay (ADA), flocculation index (FI), preconsolidation pressure (PP), soil shear strength (SS), soil resistance to penetration (RP). To construct the comparative diagram the values for each attribute of the soil in each land use were related to the values of the native forest. It was feasible to use the comparative model in the qualitative evaluation of soil use, allowing separate environments under different uses. According to the comparative diagram of banana culture is the use that most negatively impacts the physical and mechanical soil due to the smaller size of the lower polygon.

  18. Examining soil erosion and nutrient accumulation in forested and agriculture lands of the low mountainous area of Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, A. T.; Gomi, T.; Takahisa, F.; Phung, K. V.

    2011-12-01

    We examined soil erosion and nutrient accumulations in the Xuanmai area located in the low mountainous region of Northern Vietnam, based on field investigations and remote sensing approaches. The study area had been degraded by land-use change from forest to agriculture in the last 20 years. In contrast, around the study area, the Vietnam government promoted reforestation projects. Such changes in land-use conditions, which may or may not be associated with vegetation ground cover conditions, potentially alter soil erosion and nutrient accumulation. We selected 10 dominant land-use types including forested land (e.g., Pinus massoniana and Acacia mangium plantation) agriculture land (e.g., Cassava), and bare land. We established three 1 x 1 m plots in each land-use type in September 2010. Vegetation biomass, litter cover, soil erosion (height of soil pedestal), and soil physical (soil bulk density and particle size distribution) and chemical properties (Total soil carbon, nitrate, and phosphorus) were measured. Height of soil pedestal can be a record of soil erosion by rain splash during rainy periods from April to August (prior to our field study). We also conducted remote sensing analysis using Landsat TM images obtained in 1993, 2000, and 2007 for identifying temporal patterns of land-use types. We found that the intensity of soil erosion depended primary on current vegetation ground cover condition with no regard of land-use. Hence, nutrient accumulation varied among vegetation ground cover and soil erosion. Remote sensing analysis suggested that shrub and bare lands had been altered from forested land more recently. Our finding suggested that variability of soil nutrient conditions can be associated with long-term soil erosion and production processes. Findings of our study are that: (1) current vegetation and litter ground cover affected the amount of surface soil erosion, and (2) legacy of land-use can be more critical for soil nutrient accumulation. Both

  19. Contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution in the plague endemic area of Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hieronimo, Proches; Kihupi, Nganga I; Kimaro, Didas N; Gulinck, Hubert; Mulungu, Loth S; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Fleas associated with different rodent species are considered as the major vectors of bubonic plague, which is still rampant in different parts of the world. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution at fine scale in the plague endemic area of north-eastern Tanzania. Data was collected in three case areas namely, Shume, Lukozi and Mwangoi, differing in plague incidence levels. Data collection was carried out during both wet and dry seasons of 2012. Analysis of Variance and Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) statistical methods were used to clarify the relationships between fleas and specific land use characteristics. There was a significant variation (P ≤ 0.05) of flea indices in different land use types. Fallow and natural forest had higher flea indices whereas plantation forest mono-crop and mixed annual crops had the lowest flea indices among the aggregated land use types. The influence of individual land use types on flea indices was variable with fallow having a positive effect and land tillage showing a negative effect. The results also demonstrated a seasonal effect, part of which can be attributed to different land use practices such as application of pesticides, or the presence of grass strips around fields. These findings suggest that land use factors have a major influence on rodent flea abundance which can be taken as a proxy for plague infection risk. The results further point to the need for a comprehensive package that includes land tillage and crop type considerations on one hand and the associated human activities on the other, in planning and implementation of plague control interventions.

  20. Location effect analysis of land using change in coal mining subsidence area based on RS and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Quanyuan; Zhang, Ningyu; Liu, Zailiang; Chang, Jun; Liu, Tianxiang

    2008-10-01

    China is one of the large coal mining countries in the world. Coal mining accelerates economic prosperity, as well as engenders a series of environment problems either. One of the most obvious problems is that coal mining changes the landforms around the mining areas. Abundant arable area, garden area, forest area and construction area have been changed under the drive of this dynamic landform. The law that other environment elements change resulting from transformation of one element can be analysed by location theory---Concentric-Circle Mode (or Circle Layer Mode) proposed by professor E. W. Burgess of Chicago University. For the case of Longkou coal mining subsidence area in Shandong province, based on the ground measurement elevation data of the years of 1978, 1989, 1995 and 2004, firstly, this paper considers the DEM data of 1978 before subsidence as standard elevation, and calculates the difference value DEM data of three periods through the difference operation of the other later three-period DEM data and the standard elevation. The coal mining subsidence region and area can be figured out, which is grid region and the overall sum of the grid area with z<0. Secondly, by choosing the digital remote sensing images which are the same period with the later three-period DEM data, with operation of the classifier of BP Artificial Nerve Network (BPNN), the author classifies these images by combining spectral information, texture information of remote sensing image with terrain index. Thirdly, under the guidance of location theory, the author uses location index to make "location image". Lastly, with spatial superposition of location image, three-period DEM data and land use classification result, the author figures out the area and proportion of all the land use types in different locations and the transfer matrix of land use types, and analyses the rule of space-time change of land use in different locations, in order to explain the location effect that coal

  1. Seasat over-land scatterometer data. II - Selection of extended area land-target sites for the calibration of spaceborne scatterometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennett, Rosemary G.; Li, Fuk K.

    1989-01-01

    The post-launch performance verification for future scatterometers can use extended area land targets to calibrate antenna gain patterns and to verify and monitor deployment configurations. For the Ku-band Seasat scatterometer, a region of tropical rain forest in the Amazon basin was used as a homogeneous extended-area land target. As this region is continuously being deforested, other regions are investigated for calibrating scatterometers. The global backscatter coefficients (sigma0) are compared to classifications of natural vegetation and cultivation intensity and the variability with time during the three-month mission is studied. The statistical variability of sigma0 is compared with prior estimates resulting from the known variability of the instrument parameters and communication noise. Data from selected forested regions with relatively homogeneous sigma0 and little time-dependence are presented.

  2. Hydrological Modelling and data assimilation of Satellite Snow Cover Area using a Land Surface Model, VIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naha, Shaini; Thakur, Praveen K.; Aggarwal, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    The snow cover plays an important role in Himalayan region as it contributes a useful amount to the river discharge. So, besides estimating rainfall runoff, proper assessment of snowmelt runoff for efficient management and water resources planning is also required. A Land Surface Model, VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) is used at a high resolution grid size of 1 km. Beas river basin up to Thalot in North West Himalayas (NWH) have been selected as the study area. At first model setup is done and VIC has been run in its energy balance mode. The fluxes obtained from VIC has been routed to simulate the discharge for the time period of (2003-2006). Data Assimilation is done for the year 2006 and the techniques of Data Assimilation considered in this study are Direct Insertion (D.I) and Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) that uses observations of snow covered area (SCA) to update hydrologic model states. The meteorological forcings were taken from 0.5 deg. resolution VIC global forcing data from 1979-2006 with daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature from Climate Research unit (CRU), rainfall from daily variability of NCEP and wind speed from NCEP-NCAR analysis as main inputs and Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) data of 0.25 °. NBSSLUP soil map and land use land cover map of ISRO-GBP project for year 2014 were used for generating the soil parameters and vegetation parameters respectively. The threshold temperature i.e. the minimum rain temperature is -0.5°C and maximum snow temperature is about +0.5°C at which VIC can generate snow fluxes. Hydrological simulations were done using both NCEP and IMD based meteorological Forcing datasets, but very few snow fluxes were obtained using IMD data met forcing, whereas NCEP based met forcing has given significantly better snow fluxes throughout the simulation years as the temperature resolution as given by IMD data is 0.5°C and rainfall resolution of 0.25°C. The simulated discharge has been validated using observed

  3. Inhalation of primary motor vehicle emissions: Effects of urbanpopulation and land area

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Julian D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2004-06-14

    Urban population density can influence transportation demand, as expressed through average daily vehicle-kilometers traveled per capita (VKT). In turn, changes in transportation demand influence total passenger vehicle emissions. Population density can also influence the fraction of total emissions that are inhaled by the exposed urban population. Equations are presented that describe these relationships for an idealized representation of an urban area. Using analytic solutions to these equations, we investigate the effect of three changes in urban population and urban land area (infill, sprawl, and constant-density growth) on per capita inhalation intake of primary pollutants from passenger vehicles. The magnitude of these effects depends on density-emissions elasticity ({var_epsilon}{sub e}), a normalized derivative relating change in population density to change in vehicle emissions. For example, if urban population increases, per capita intake is less with infill development than with constant-density growth if {var_epsilon}{sub e} is less than -0.5, while for {var_epsilon}{sub e} greater than -0.5 the reverse is true.

  4. Inhalation of motor vehicle emissions: effects of urban population and land area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; Nazaroff, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Urban population density may influence transportation demand, e.g., as expressed through average daily vehicle-kilometers traveled in private motor vehicles per capita. In turn, changes in transportation demand influence total passenger vehicle emissions to which populations are exposed. Population density can also influence the fraction of total emissions that are inhaled by the exposed urban population. Equations are presented that describe these relationships for an idealized representation of an urban area. Using analytic solutions to these equations, we investigate the effect of three changes in urban population and urban land area (infill, sprawl, and constant-density growth) on per capita inhalation intake of primary pollutants from passenger vehicles. For the system considered, the magnitude of these effects depends on density-emissions elasticity (εe) , a normalized derivative relating change in population density to change in vehicle emissions. For example, based on the idealized representation of the emissions-to-intake relationship presented herein, if urban population increases, then per capita intake is less with infill development than with constant-density growth if εe is <-0.5, while for εe >-0.5, the reverse is true.

  5. Water-quality assessment of the Rio Grande Valley, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas : shallow ground-water quality and land use in the Albuquerque area, central New Mexico, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, Scott K.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the quality of shallow ground water and the relations between land use and the quality of that shallow ground water in an urban area in and adjacent to Albuquerque, New Mexico. Water samples were collected from 24 shallow wells. Samples were analyzed for selected common constituents, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides. The study area, which is in the Albuquerque Basin in central New Mexico, was limited to the Rio Grande flood plain; depth to water in this area generally is less than 25 feet. The amount and composition of recharge to the shallow ground-water system are important factors that affect shallow ground-water composition in this area. Important sources of recharge that affect shallow ground-water quality in the area include infiltration of surface water, which is used in agricultural land-use areas to irrigate crops, and infiltration of septic-system effluent in residential areas. Agricultural land use represents about 28 percent of the area, and residential land use represents about 35 percent of the total study area. In most of the study area, agricultural land use is interspersed with residential land use and neither is the dominant land use in the area. Land use in the study area historically has been changing from agricultural to urban. The composition of shallow ground water in the study area varies considerably. The dissolved solids concentration in shallow ground water in the study area ranges from 272 to 1,650 milligrams per liter, although the relative percentages of selected cations and anions do not vary substantially. Calcium generally is the dominant cation and bicarbonate generally is the dominant anion. Concentrations of nutrients generally were less than 1 milligram per liter. The concentration of many trace elements in shallow ground water was below or slightly above 1 microgram per liter and there was little variation in the concentrations. Barium, iron, manganese

  6. The geology and petroleum potential of the North Afghan platform and adjacent areas (northern Afghanistan, with parts of southern Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookfield, Michael E.; Hashmat, Ajruddin

    2001-10-01

    The North Afghan platform has a pre-Jurassic basement unconformably overlain by a Jurassic to Paleogene oil- and gas-bearing sedimentary rock platform cover, unconformably overlain by Neogene syn- and post-orogenic continental clastics. The pre-Jurassic basement has four units: (1) An ?Ordovician to Lower Devonian passive margin succession developed on oceanic crust. (2) An Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous (Tournaisian) magmatic arc succession developed on the passive margin. (3) A Lower Carboniferous (?Visean) to Permian rift-passive margin succession. (4) A Triassic continental magmatic arc succession. The Mesozoic-Palaeogene cover has three units: (1) A ?Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic rift succession is dominated by variable continental clastics. Thick, coarse, lenticular coal-bearing clastics were deposited by braided and meandering streams in linear grabens, while bauxites formed on the adjacent horsts. (2) A Middle to Upper Jurassic transgressive-regressive succession consists of mixed continental and marine Bathonian to Lower Kimmeridgian clastics and carbonates overlain by regressive Upper Kimmeridgian-Tithonian evaporite-bearing clastics. (3) A Cretaceous succession consists of Lower Cretaceous red beds with evaporites, resting unconformably on Jurassic and older deposits, overlain (usually unconformably) by Cenomanian to Maastrichtian shallow marine limestones, which form a fairly uniform transgressive succession across most of Afghanistan. (4) A Palaeogene succession rests on the Upper Cretaceous limestones, with a minor break marked by bauxite in places. Thin Palaeocene to Upper Eocene limestones with gypsum are overlain by thin conglomerates, which pass up into shales with a restricted brackish-water ?Upper Oligocene-?Lower Miocene marine fauna. The Neogene succession consists of a variable thickness of coarse continental sediments derived from the rising Pamir mountains and adjacent ranges. Almost all the deformation of the North Afghan

  7. An assessment of the available windy land area and wind energy potential in the contiguous United States

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.L.; Wendell, L.L.; Gower, G.L.

    1991-08-01

    Estimates of land areas with various levels of wind energy resource and resultant wind energy potential have been developed for each state in the contiguous United States. The estimates are based on published wind resource data and account for the exclusion of some windy lands as a result of environmental and land-use considerations. Despite these exclusions, the amount of wind resource estimated over the contiguous United States is surprisingly large and has the potential to supply a substantial fraction of the nation's energy needs, even with the use of today's wind turbine technology. Although this study shows that, after exclusions, only about 0.6% of the land area in the contiguous United States is characterized by high wind resource (comparable to that found in windy areas of California where wind energy is being cost-effectively developed), the wind electric potential that could be extracted with today's technology from these areas across the United States is equivalent to about 20% of the current US electric consumption. Future advances in wind turbine technology will further enhance the potential of wind energy. As advances in turbine technology allow areas of moderate wind resource to be developed, more than a tenfold increase in the wind energy potential is possible. These areas, which cover large sections of the Great Plains and are widely distributed throughout many other sections of the country, have the potential of producing more than three times the nation's current electric consumption. 9 refs., 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Land-use Effect on Stream Organic Matter Composition in Two Metropolitan Areas in USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, S.; Kaushal, S.; Amon, R. M.; Brinkmeyer, R.

    2011-12-01

    Urbanization is a form of land-use change that is increasing in coastal watersheds and may affect the quantity and quality of organic carbon delivered to streams and coastal ocean. Here, we examine the changes in optical and isotopic characteristics of organic matter in streams (Gwynns Fall and Buffalo Bayou) draining Baltimore and Houston Metropolitan Areas (USA), relative to nearby less affected forested watersheds. A summer longitudinal sampling in Gwynns Fall along a rural-urban gradient showed increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fluorescent protein to humic ratio but a decrease in specific UV absorption (SUVA). Parallel Factor modeling shows dominance of terrestrial component of DOC, and the ratio of an unknown component to the component of humic substance was high in urban watersheds and it was positively correlated impervious surface cover (an index of urbanization). Incubation experiments with leaves and stream algae suggest origin of decayed leaf leachate of this component. Conversely, DOM in Buffalo Bayou showed higher intensity of protein-like fluorescence, and the intensity increased longitudinal along a rural-urban gradient but decreased from low-flows to a flooding event. The difference in fluorescent organic matter composition between the two streams probably reflected different management of wastewater in watersheds. Surface sediment collected at sites of sub-watersheds of Gwynns Fall showed changes in particle size, elemental and isotopic composition with land use. Sediment incubations showed that higher temperature (due to urban heat island effect) enhanced loss of labile organic matter and release of refractory organic matter into stream water. Release of reactive soluble phosphorus, loss of nitrogen and reduction of sulfate also occurred at high incubating temperatures, along with mineralization of sediment organic matter. Bed sediment collected along Buffalo Bayou displayed a longitudinal decrease in N-15, probably reflecting the

  9. Water information bulletin No. 30: geothermal investigations in Idaho. Part 11. Geological, hydrological, geochemical and geophysical investigations of the Nampa-Caldwell and adjacent areas, southwestern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.C.

    1981-12-01

    The area under study included approximately 925 sq km (357 sq mi) of the Nampa-Caldwell portion of Canyon County, an area within the central portion of the western Snake River Plain immediately west of Boise, Idaho. Geologic mapping, hydrologic, geochemical, geophysical, including detailed gravity and aeromagnetic surveys, were run to acquire needed data. In addition, existing magnetotelluric and reflection seismic data were purchased and reinterpreted in light of newly acquired data.

  10. Patterns of Distribution of Macro-fauna in Different Types of Estuarine, Soft Sediment Habitats Adjacent to Urban and Non-urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindegarth, M.; Hoskin, M.

    2001-02-01

    Urban development typically creates a large number of potentially interacting disturbances that may cause impacts on assemblages of animals and plans in estuarine habitats. We tested predictions from the general model that intertidal areas exposed to different types of disturbances have different types of assemblages of benthic macrofauna. Different parts of the Port Hacking Estuary (New South Wales, Australia) are exposed to varying degrees of disturbance by human activities. We predicted that the average structure of assemblages of intertidal animals, and patterns of variability would differ between urban and non-urban areas of Port Hacking. Consistent with previous observations from the literature, there were differences in average structure between urban and non-urban sandy areas. Qualitative differences between abundances of individual taxa in urban and non-urban areas were generally not consistent with previous observations. Differences between assemblages in urban and non-urban areas were not observed in muddy sediments, nor in sediments among mangroves and seagrass. No significant differences in variability was observed between urban and non-urban areas. Two general models may be proposed to explain the observed differences in response to urbanization in different habitats: (1) animals are exposed to different levels or combinations of disturbances in different habitats; or (2) assemblages of animals differ in sensitivity to disturbances among habitats.

  11. Estimation of biogenic emissions with satellite-derived land use and land cover data for air quality modeling of Houston-Galveston ozone nonattainment area.

    PubMed

    Byun, Daewon W; Kim, Soontae; Czader, Beata; Nowak, David; Stetson, Stephen; Estes, Mark

    2005-06-01

    The Houston-Galveston Area (HGA) is one of the most severe ozone non-attainment regions in the US. To study the effectiveness of controlling anthropogenic emissions to mitigate regional ozone nonattainment problems, it is necessary to utilize adequate datasets describing the environmental conditions that influence the photochemical reactivity of the ambient atmosphere. Compared to the anthropogenic emissions from point and mobile sources, there are large uncertainties in the locations and amounts of biogenic emissions. For regional air quality modeling applications, biogenic emissions are not directly measured but are usually estimated with meteorological data such as photo-synthetically active solar radiation, surface temperature, land type, and vegetation database. In this paper, we characterize these meteorological input parameters and two different land use land cover datasets available for HGA: the conventional biogenic vegetation/land use data and satellite-derived high-resolution land cover data. We describe the procedures used for the estimation of biogenic emissions with the satellite derived land cover data and leaf mass density information. Air quality model simulations were performed using both the original and the new biogenic emissions estimates. The results showed that there were considerable uncertainties in biogenic emissions inputs. Subsequently, ozone predictions were affected up to 10 ppb, but the magnitudes and locations of peak ozone varied each day depending on the upwind or downwind positions of the biogenic emission sources relative to the anthropogenic NOx and VOC sources. Although the assessment had limitations such as heterogeneity in the spatial resolutions, the study highlighted the significance of biogenic emissions uncertainty on air quality predictions. However, the study did not allow extrapolation of the directional changes in air quality corresponding to the changes in LULC because the two datasets were based on vastly different

  12. Land-use and transport-network indicators in the assessment of the sustainability of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasanko, Marjo; Lavalle, Carlo; Demicheli, Luca; McCormick, Niall L.; Turchini, Maddalena

    2002-01-01

    MOLAND (Monitoring Land Cover/Use Dynamics) is a research project aiming to assess and monitor the evolution of urban and regional land use and traffic networks. The main aims of MOLAND are to offer planners and decision-makers at various levels reliable, up-to-date and harmonized information on land use changes and a tool for monitoring, analyzing and forecasting such changes from the point of view of sustainable development. The method has been tested in more than 30 urban areas situated mainly in Europe. The study period covers 50 years from the 1950s to the late 1990s. The method is based on the usage of high-resolution satellite images such as IRS. Land use data are analyzed and combined with statistical datasets in a GIS application to produce indicators for sustainable development. This paper looks at the principles and technical solutions behind the MOLAND method, a range of urban indicators derived from the airborne imagery and the potential uses of the method in urban monitoring and planning. Special emphasis is on t