Science.gov

Sample records for adjacent land masses

  1. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will...

  2. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  3. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  4. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  5. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  6. Impact of adjacent land use on coastal wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Jurasinski, Gerald; Peticzka, Robert; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-15

    Coastal wetlands link terrestrial with marine ecosystems and are influenced from both land and sea. Therefore, they are ecotones with strong biogeochemical gradients. We analyzed sediment characteristics including macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Ni) of two coastal wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis at the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain, a lagoon system at the Southern Baltic Sea, to identify the impact of adjacent land use and to distinguish between influences from land or sea. In the wetland directly adjacent to cropland (study site Dabitz) heavy metal concentrations were significantly elevated. Fertilizer application led to heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of the adjacent wetland zones. In contrast, at the other study site (Michaelsdorf), where the hinterland has been used as pasture, heavy metal concentrations were low. While the amount of macronutrients was also influenced by vegetation characteristics (e.g. carbon) or water chemistry (e.g. sulfate), the accumulation of heavy metals is regarded as purely anthropogenic influence. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on the sediment data showed that the wetland fringes of the two study sites are not distinguishable, neither in their macronutrient status nor in their concentrations of heavy metals, whereas the interior zones exhibit large differences in terms of heavy metal concentrations. This suggests that seaside influences are minor compared to influences from land. Altogether, heavy metal concentrations were still below national precautionary and action values. However, if we regard the macronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the wetland fringes as the natural background values, an accumulation of trace elements from agricultural production in the hinterland is apparent. Thus, coastal wetlands bordering croplands may function as effective pollutant buffers today, but the future development has to be monitored closely to avoid

  7. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 35744, June 20, 2011. (a... adjacent waters, Mass. (a) * * * (2) Anchorage B. All waters bounded by a line beginning at 41°36′42.3″...

  8. Seep and stream nitrogen dynamics in two adjacent mixed land use watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many headwater catchments, streamflow originates from surface seeps and springs. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of seeps on nitrogen (N) dynamics within the stream and at the outlet of two adjacent mixed land use watersheds. Nitrogen concentrations in stream water were...

  9. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  10. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  11. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  12. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  13. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  14. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  15. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  16. 33 CFR 110.140 - Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. 110.140 Section 110.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Nantucket Sound, and adjacent waters, Mass. (a) New Bedford Outer Harbor—(1) Anchorage A. West of...

  17. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  18. Trends in developed land cover adjacent to habitat for threatened salmon in Puget Sound, Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Krista K; Ford, Michael J; Beechie, Timothy J; Fresh, Kurt L; Pess, George R; Kennedy, Robert E; Rowse, Melinda L; Sheer, Mindi

    2015-01-01

    For widely distributed species at risk, such as Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), habitat monitoring is both essential and challenging. Only recently have widespread monitoring programs been implemented for salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest. Remote sensing data, such as Landsat images, are therefore a useful way to evaluate trends prior to the advent of species-specific habitat monitoring programs. We used annual (1986-2008) land cover maps created from Landsat images via automated algorithms (LandTrendr) to evaluate trends in developed (50-100% impervious) land cover in areas adjacent to five types of habitat utilized by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Puget Sound region of Washington State, U.S.A. For the region as a whole, we found significant increases in developed land cover adjacent to each of the habitat types evaluated (nearshore, estuary, mainstem channel, tributary channel, and floodplain), but the increases were small (<1% total increase from 1986 to 2008). For each habitat type, the increasing trend changed during the time series. In nearshore, mainstem, and floodplain areas, the rate of increase in developed land cover slowed in the latter portion of the time series, while the opposite occurred in estuary and tributary areas. Watersheds that were already highly developed in 1986 tended to have higher rates of development than initially less developed watersheds. Overall, our results suggest that developed land cover in areas adjacent to Puget Sound salmon habitat has increased only slightly since 1986 and that the rate of change has slowed near some key habitat types, although this has occurred within the context of a degraded baseline condition. PMID:25923327

  19. Global Projections of 21st Century Land-Use Changes in Regions Adjacent to Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Linda J.; Duursma, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    The conservation efficiency of Protected Areas (PA) is influenced by the health and characteristics of the surrounding landscape matrix. Fragmentation of adjacent lands interrupts ecological flows within PAs and will decrease the ability of species to shift their distribution as climate changes. For five periods across the 21st century, we assessed changes to the extent of primary land, secondary land, pasture and crop land projected to occur within 50 km buffers surrounding IUCN-designated PAs. Four scenarios of land-use were obtained from the Land-Use Harmonization Project, developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). The scenarios project the continued decline of primary lands within buffers surrounding PAs. Substantial losses are projected to occur across buffer regions in the tropical forest biomes of Indo-Malayan and the Temperate Broadleaf forests of the Nearctic. A number of buffer regions are projected to have negligible primary land remaining by 2100, including those in the Afrotropic's Tropical/Subtropical Grassland/Savanna/Shrubland. From 2010–2050, secondary land is projected to increase within most buffer regions, although, as with pasture and crops within tropical and temperate forests, projections from the four land-use scenarios may diverge substantially in magnitude and direction of change. These scenarios demonstrate a range of alternate futures, and show that although effective mitigation strategies may reduce pressure on land surrounding PAs, these areas will contain an increasingly heterogeneous matrix of primary and human-modified landscapes. Successful management of buffer regions will be imperative to ensure effectiveness of PAs and to facilitate climate-induced shifts in species ranges. PMID:22952744

  20. Optimization of tuned mass damper for adjacent buildings with equal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekdaş, Gebrail; Nigdeli, Sinan Melih

    2013-10-01

    During earthquakes, adjacent structures may collide to each other because of insufficient seismic gap. By using tuned mass dampers (TMD), the sway of adjacent buildings be reduced and pounding of structures is prevented. In this case, TMDs must be tuned according to the properties of adjacent structures in order to reduce seismic gap (maximum difference of displacements). Also, adjacent structures with equal properties may collide because live-loads on structures is not constant. Change of live-load affects seismic behavior of structures. In this paper, TMDs for adjacent structures with equal properties are optimized by using harmony search algorithm. The approach is effective to reduce the value of seismic gap needed for protection of structures.

  1. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands.

    PubMed

    Matalin, Andrey V; Chikatunov, Vladimir I

    2016-01-01

    Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided. PMID:27110198

  2. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands

    PubMed Central

    Matalin, Andrey V.; Chikatunov, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided. PMID:27110198

  3. Sound insulation property of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials carrying different masses at adjacent cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Wen, Jihong; Zhao, Honggang; Yu, Dianlong; Cai, Li; Wen, Xisen

    2013-08-01

    We present the experimental realization and theoretical understanding of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials embedded with different masses at adjacent cells, capable of increasing the transmission loss at low frequency. Owing to the reverse vibration of adjacent cells, Transmission loss (TL) peaks appear, and the magnitudes of the TL peaks exceed the predicted results of the composite wall. Compared with commonly used configuration, i.e., all cells carrying with identical mass, the nonuniformity of attaching masses causes another much low TL peak. Finite element analysis was employed to validate and provide insights into the TL behavior of the structure.

  4. 76 FR 44602 - Notice of Temporary Closure of Roads and Trails on Public Lands Adjacent to Big Willow Creek in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Temporary Closure of Roads and Trails on Public Lands Adjacent to Big...: This notice affects closure of approximately 37 miles of roads and trails in an area ] of Payette County, Idaho, located approximately 14 miles northwest of Emmett, Idaho. All roads and trails on...

  5. Comparison of some quality properties of soils around land-mined areas and adjacent agricultural fields.

    PubMed

    Ozturkmen, Ali Rıza; Kavdir, Yasemin

    2012-03-01

    When agricultural lands are no longer used for agriculture and allowed to recover its natural vegetation, soil organic carbon can accumulate in the soil. Measurements of soil organic carbon and aggregate stability changes under various forms of land use are needed for the development of sustainable systems. Therefore, comparison of soil samples taken from both agricultural and nearby area close to land-mined fields where no agricultural practices have been done since 1956 can be a good approach to evaluate the effects of tillage and agriculture on soil quality. The objective of this study was to compare tillage, cropping and no tillage effects on some soil-quality parameters. Four different locations along the Turkey-Syria border were selected to determine effects of tillage and cropping on soil quality. Each location was evaluated separately because of different soil type and treatments. Comparisons were made between non-tilled and non-cropped fallow since 1956 and adjacent restricted lands that were tilled about every 2 years but not planted (T) or adjacent lands tilled and planted with wheat and lentil (P). Three samples were taken from the depths of 0-20 and 20-40 cm each site. Soil organic carbon (SOC), pH ,electrical conductivity, water soluble Ca(++), Mg(++), CO₃⁻² and HCO₃⁻, extractable potassium (K(+)) and sodium (Na(+)), soil texture, ammonium (NH₄⁺-N) and nitrate (NO(3)-N), extractable phosphorous and soil aggregate stability were determined. While the SOC contents of continuous tillage without cropping and continuous tillage and cropping were 2.2 and 11.6 g kg(-1), respectively, it was 30 g kg(-1) in non-tilled and non-planted site. Tillage of soil without the input of any plant material resulted in loss of carbon from the soil in all sites. Soil extractable NO(3)-N contents of non-tilled and non-cropped sites were greatest among all treatments. Agricultural practices increased phosphorus and potassium contents in the soil profile. P(2)O(5

  6. Trends in Developed Land Cover Adjacent to Habitat for Threatened Salmon in Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Krista K.; Ford, Michael J.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Fresh, Kurt L.; Pess, George R.; Kennedy, Robert E.; Rowse, Melinda L.; Sheer, Mindi

    2015-01-01

    For widely distributed species at risk, such as Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), habitat monitoring is both essential and challenging. Only recently have widespread monitoring programs been implemented for salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest. Remote sensing data, such as Landsat images, are therefore a useful way to evaluate trends prior to the advent of species-specific habitat monitoring programs. We used annual (1986-2008) land cover maps created from Landsat images via automated algorithms (LandTrendr) to evaluate trends in developed (50-100% impervious) land cover in areas adjacent to five types of habitat utilized by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Puget Sound region of Washington State, U.S.A. For the region as a whole, we found significant increases in developed land cover adjacent to each of the habitat types evaluated (nearshore, estuary, mainstem channel, tributary channel, and floodplain), but the increases were small (<1% total increase from 1986 to 2008). For each habitat type, the increasing trend changed during the time series. In nearshore, mainstem, and floodplain areas, the rate of increase in developed land cover slowed in the latter portion of the time series, while the opposite occurred in estuary and tributary areas. Watersheds that were already highly developed in 1986 tended to have higher rates of development than initially less developed watersheds. Overall, our results suggest that developed land cover in areas adjacent to Puget Sound salmon habitat has increased only slightly since 1986 and that the rate of change has slowed near some key habitat types, although this has occurred within the context of a degraded baseline condition. PMID:25923327

  7. Contrasting microbial assemblages in adjacent water masses associated with the East Australian Current.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Justin R; Doblin, Martina A; Jeffries, Thomas C; Brown, Mark V; Newton, Kelly; Ralph, Peter J; Baird, Mark; Mitchell, James G

    2012-10-01

    Different oceanographic provinces host discrete microbial assemblages that are adapted to local physicochemical conditions. We sequenced and compared the metagenomes of two microbial communities inhabiting adjacent water masses in the Tasman Sea, where the recent strengthening of the East Australian Current (EAC) has altered the ecology of coastal environments. Despite the comparable latitude of the samples, significant phylogenetic differences were apparent, including shifts in the relative frequency of matches to Cyanobacteria, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Fine-scale variability in the structure of SAR11, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus populations, with more matches to 'warm-water' ecotypes observed in the EAC, indicates the EAC may drive an intrusion of tropical microbes into temperate regions of the Tasman Sea. Furthermore, significant shifts in the relative importance of 17 metabolic categories indicate that the EAC prokaryotic community has different physiological properties than surrounding waters. PMID:23760900

  8. Diet and body mass of wintering ducks in adjacent brackish and freshwater habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.; Burns, E.G.; Wickland, B.E.; Eadie, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Field-collected and hunter-donated ducks obtained during September-January of 1997-98 and 1998-99 were used to determine if food habits and body mass of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) and Mallards (A. platyrhynchos) wintering in Suisun Marsh (Suisun), California, a managed estuarine brackish marsh, differed from values in the adjacent Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (the Delta), a freshwater region of grain fields flooded after harvest. Ducks in Suisun fed primarily on seeds of Sea Purslane (Sesuvium verrucosum), followed by Alkali Bulrush (Schoenoplectus maritimus) and Wild Millet (Echinochloa crusgalli), together forming 73-90% (aggregate % dry mass) of the diets. Ducks in the Delta fed primarily on seeds of Smartweed (Polygonum spp.), followed by corn (Zea mays) and tomato seeds (Lycopersicon esculentum), together forming 62-88% of the diets. Pintails and Mallards collected in Suisun each had similar (5 of 11 seasonal comparisons) or greater (6 of the 11 comparisons) body mass compared to their conspecifics collected from the Delta (90% confidence interval analyses), despite a composite diet in the Delta having about 39% greater metabolizable energy content (ME) and 24% greater protein content than in Suisun. Therefore, diet quality alone was not a predictor of body mass in these two areas. Other factors must have been involved, such as greater food abundance and density, lower waterfowl abundance and density, or lower daily energy costs in Suisun. Direct measurement of these factors should explain the apparent inconsistencies in body mass relative to food quality in these brackish and freshwater habitats.

  9. Spring land temperature anomalies in northwestern US and the summer drought over Southern Plains and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yongkang; Oaida, Catalina M.; Diallo, Ismaila; Neelin, J. David; Li, Suosuo; De Sales, Fernando; Gu, Yu; Robinson, David A.; Vasic, Ratko; Yi, Lan

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent drought and associated heatwave episodes are important features of the US climate. Many studies have examined the connection between ocean surface temperature changes and conterminous US droughts. However, remote effects of large-scale land surface temperature variability, over shorter but still considerable distances, on US regional droughts have been largely ignored. The present study combines two types of evidence to address these effects: climate observations and model simulations. Our analysis of observational data shows that springtime land temperature in northwest US is significantly correlated with summer rainfall and surface temperature changes in the US Southern Plains and its adjacent areas. Our model simulations of the 2011 Southern Plains drought using a general circulation model and a regional climate model confirm the observed relationship between land temperature anomaly and drought, and suggest that the long-distance effect of land temperature changes in the northwest US on Southern Plains droughts is probably as large as the more familiar effects of ocean surface temperatures and atmospheric internal variability. We conclude that the cool 2011 springtime climate conditions in the northwest US increased the probability of summer drought and abnormal heat in the Southern Plains. The present study suggests a strong potential for more skillful intra-seasonal predictions of US Southern Plains droughts when such facts as ones presented here are considered.

  10. Overview of the Pre-YMC2015 campaign over the southwestern coastal land and adjacent sea of Sumatera Island, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shuichi; Katsumata, Masaki; Yoneyama, Kunio; Suzuki, Kenji; Hayati, Noer; Syamsudin, Fadli

    2016-04-01

    An international research project named Years of the Maritime Continent (YMC) is planned during 2017-2019 to expedite the progress of improving understanding and prediction of local multi-scale variability of the Maritime Continent (MC) weather-climate system and its global impact through observations and modeling exercises. We carried out a campaign observation over the southwestern coastal land and adjacent sea of Sumatera Island, Indonesia, during November-December 2015 as a pilot study of the YMC to examine land-ocean coupling processes in mechanisms of coastal heavy rain band (CHeR) along Sumatera Island and further potential scientific themes in the coming YMC. We deployed two land observation sites at Bengkulu city (3.86S, 102.34E) in the southwestern coast of Sumatera Island with various kinds of instruments including an X-band dual polarimetric (DP) radar and a C-band Doppler radar, and the R/V Mirai approximately 50 km southwest (4.07S, 101.90E) of the land stations with a C-band DP radar. We made 3 hourly soundings at Bengkulu and the R/V Mirai during 09 November - 25 December (47 days) and 24 November - 17 December (24 days), respectively. In addition, 18 videosondes observations, which could identify precipitation particles by an onboard camera in and out of rainclouds, were performed under heavy rainfall condition to examine cloud microphysical processes as well as simultaneous RHI observations with the Mirai DP radar. Whereas rainfall amount during the period was less than that of climatological view due to the Godzilla El-Nino event in this rainy season, we found concrete diurnal variation with thunderstorms in the evening along the foothills of coastal land and widely spread stratiform precipitation mainly over the adjacent sea due to the passage of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) convection with strong westerly wind in the lower troposphere during the former and latter halves of the campaign period, respectively. Diurnally developed thunderstorms

  11. Determining the influence of Itaipu Lake on thermal conditions for soybean development in adjacent lands.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Riddle, C; Werner, S S; Caramori, P; Ricce, W S; Nitsche, P; von Bertoldi, P; de Souza, E F

    2015-10-01

    Previous numerical simulations have suggested that the area adjacent to Itaipu Lake in Southern Brazil is significantly affecting the local thermal regime through development of a lake breeze. This has led to concerns that soybean growth and development, and consequently yield, has been affected by the creation of the artificial lake in this important agricultural region, but a systematic climatological study of the thermal effects of Itaipu Lake has not been conducted. The objectives of this study were to assess the spatial pattern of minimum and maximum air temperatures in a 10-km-wide area adjacent to Itaipu Lake as affected by distance from the water. Measurements were conducted over 3 years in seven transects along the shore of Itaipu Lake, with five weather stations placed in each transect. Phenological observations in soybean fields surrounding the weather stations were also conducted. Generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS) analysis indicated no difference in the temperature time series as distance from water increased. Semivariograms showed that the random components in the air temperature were predominant and that there was no spatial structure to the signal. Wind direction measured over the three growing seasons demonstrated that, on average, the development of a lake breeze is limited to a few locations and a few hours of the day, supporting the temporal and spatial analysis. Phenological observations did not show differences in the timing of critical soybean stages. We suggest that the concerns that soybean development is potentially affected by the presence of Itaipu Lake are not supported by the thermal environment observed. PMID:25716222

  12. Determining the influence of Itaipu Lake on thermal conditions for soybean development in adjacent lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner-Riddle, C.; Werner, S. S.; Caramori, P.; Ricce, W. S.; Nitsche, P.; von Bertoldi, P.; de Souza, E. F.

    2015-10-01

    Previous numerical simulations have suggested that the area adjacent to Itaipu Lake in Southern Brazil is significantly affecting the local thermal regime through development of a lake breeze. This has led to concerns that soybean growth and development, and consequently yield, has been affected by the creation of the artificial lake in this important agricultural region, but a systematic climatological study of the thermal effects of Itaipu Lake has not been conducted. The objectives of this study were to assess the spatial pattern of minimum and maximum air temperatures in a 10-km-wide area adjacent to Itaipu Lake as affected by distance from the water. Measurements were conducted over 3 years in seven transects along the shore of Itaipu Lake, with five weather stations placed in each transect. Phenological observations in soybean fields surrounding the weather stations were also conducted. Generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS) analysis indicated no difference in the temperature time series as distance from water increased. Semivariograms showed that the random components in the air temperature were predominant and that there was no spatial structure to the signal. Wind direction measured over the three growing seasons demonstrated that, on average, the development of a lake breeze is limited to a few locations and a few hours of the day, supporting the temporal and spatial analysis. Phenological observations did not show differences in the timing of critical soybean stages. We suggest that the concerns that soybean development is potentially affected by the presence of Itaipu Lake are not supported by the thermal environment observed.

  13. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated {sup 137}Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the

  14. Potential interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality and adjacent land cover in amphibian habitats in the United States.

    PubMed

    Battaglin, W A; Smalling, K L; Anderson, C; Calhoun, D; Chestnut, T; Muths, E

    2016-10-01

    To investigate interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality, and adjacent land cover, we collected samples of water, sediment, and frog tissue from 21 sites in 7 States in the United States (US) representing a variety of amphibian habitats. All samples were analyzed for >90 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and water and frogs were screened for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using molecular methods. Pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected frequently in frog breeding habitats (water and sediment) as well as in frog tissue. Fungicides occurred more frequently in water, sediment, and tissue than was expected based upon their limited use relative to herbicides or insecticides. Pesticide occurrence in water or sediment was not a strong predictor of occurrence in tissue, but pesticide concentrations in tissue were correlated positively to agricultural and urban land, and negatively to forested land in 2-km buffers around the sites. Bd was detected in water at 45% of sites, and on 34% of swabbed frogs. Bd detections in water were not associated with differences in land use around sites, but sites with detections had colder water. Frogs that tested positive for Bd were associated with sites that had higher total fungicide concentrations in water and sediment, but lower insecticide concentrations in sediments relative to frogs that were Bd negative. Bd concentrations on frog swabs were positively correlated to dissolved organic carbon, and total nitrogen and phosphorus, and negatively correlated to pH and water temperature. Data were collected from a range of locations and amphibian habitats and represent some of the first field-collected information aimed at understanding the interactions between pesticides, land use, and amphibian disease. These interactions are of particular interest to conservation efforts as many amphibians live in altered habitats and may depend on wetlands embedded in these landscapes to survive

  15. Impacts of Adjacent Land Use and Isolation on Marsh Bird Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Lyndsay A.; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    Over the next half century the human population is expected to grow rapidly, resulting in the conversion of rural areas into cities. Wetlands in these regions are therefore under threat, even though they have important ecosystem services and functions. Many obligate marsh-nesting birds in North America have shown declines over the past 40 years, and it is important to evaluate marsh bird community response to increased urbanization. We surveyed 20 coastal marshes in southern Ontario, Canada, and found that obligate marsh-nesting birds preferred rural over urban wetlands, generalist marsh-nesting birds showed no preference, while synanthropic species showed a trend towards increased richness and abundance in urban marshes. The Index of Marsh Bird Community Integrity (IMBCI) was calculated for each wetland and we found significantly higher scores in rural compared to urban wetlands. The presence of a forested buffer surrounding the marsh was not an important factor in predicting the distribution of generalists, obligates, synanthropic species, or the IMBCI. More isolated marshes had a lower species richness of obligate marsh-nesters and a lower IMBCI than less isolated marshes. Based on our results, we recommend that urban land use is not the dominant land use within 1000 m from any wetland, as it negatively affects the abundance and richness of obligate marsh-nesters, and the overall integrity of the avian community. We also recommend that all existing wetlands be conserved to mitigate against isolation effects and to preserve biodiversity.

  16. Evidence that local land use practices influence regional climate, vegetation, and stream flow patterns in adjacent natural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A., Sr.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Baron, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    We present evidence that land use practices in the plains of Colorado influence regional climate and vegetation in adjacent natural areas in the Rocky Mountains in predictable ways. Mesoscale climate model simulations using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS) projected that modifications to natural vegetation in the plains, primarily due to agriculture and urbanization, could produce lower summer temperatures in the mountains. We corroborate the RAMS simulations with three independent sets of data: (i) climate records from 16 weather stations, which showed significant trends of decreasing July temperatures in recent decades; (ii) the distribution of seedlings of five dominant conifer species in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, which suggested that cooler, wetter conditions occurred over roughly the same time period; and (iii) increased stream flow, normalized for changes in precipitation, during the summer months in four river basins, which also indicates cooler summer temperatures and lower transpiration at landscape scales. Combined, the mesoscale atmospheric/land-surface model, short-term in regional temperatures, forest distribution changes, and hydrology data indicate that the effects of land use practices on regional climate may overshadow larger-scale temperature changes commonly associated with observed increases in CO2 and other greenhouse gases.

  17. Climate change in the four corners and adjacent regions: Implications for environmental restoration and land-use planning

    SciTech Connect

    Waugh, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document contains the workshop proceedings on Climate Change in the Four Corners and Adjacent Regions: Implications for Environmental Restoration and Land-Use Planning which took place September 12-14, 1994 in Grand Junction, Colorado. The workshop addressed three ways we can use paleoenvironmental data to gain a better understanding of climate change and its effects. (1) To serve as a retrospective baseline for interpreting past and projecting future climate-induced environmental change, (2) To differentiate the influences of climate and humans on past environmental change, and (3) To improve ecosystem management and restoration practices in the future. The papers presented at this workshop contained information on the following subjects: Paleoclimatic data from the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, climate change and past cultures, and ecological resources and environmental restoration. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Mass-selective soft-landing of protein assemblies with controlled landing energies.

    PubMed

    Mikhailov, Victor A; Mize, Todd H; Benesch, Justin L P; Robinson, Carol V

    2014-08-19

    Selection and soft-landing of bionanoparticles in vacuum is potentially a preparative approach to separate heterogeneous mixtures for high-resolution structural study or to deposit homogeneous materials for nanotechnological applications. Soft-landing of intact protein assemblies however remains challenging, due to the difficulties of manipulating these heavy species in mass-selective devices and retaining their structure during the experiment. We have developed a tandem mass spectrometer with the capability for controlled ion soft-landing and ex situ visualization of the soft-landed particles by means of transmission electron microscopy. The deposition conditions can be controlled by adjusting the kinetic energies of the ions by applying accelerating or decelerating voltages to a set of ion-steering optics. To validate this approach, we have examined two cage-like protein complexes, GroEL and ferritin, and studied the effect of soft-landing conditions on the method's throughput and the preservation of protein structure. Separation, based on mass-to-charge ratio, of holo- and apo-ferritin complexes after electrospray ionization enabled us to soft-land independently the separated complexes on a grid suitable for downstream transmission electron microscopy analysis. Following negative staining, images of the soft-landed complexes reveal that their structural integrity is largely conserved, with the characteristic central cavity of apoferritin, and iron core of holoferritin, surviving the phase transition from liquid to gas, soft-landing, and dehydration in vacuum. PMID:25026391

  19. Distinctive Glycerophospholipid Profiles of Human Seminoma and Adjacent Normal Tissues by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Timothy A.; Dill, Allison L.; Eberlin, Livia S.; Mattarozzi, Monica; Cheng, Liang; Beck, Stephen D. W.; Bianchi, Federica; Cooks, R. Graham

    2011-08-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) has been successfully used to discriminate between normal and cancerous human tissue from different anatomical sites. On the basis of this, DESI-MS imaging was used to characterize human seminoma and adjacent normal tissue. Seminoma and adjacent normal paired human tissue sections (40 tissues) from 15 patients undergoing radical orchiectomy were flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and sectioned to 15 μm thickness and thaw mounted to glass slides. The entire sample was two-dimensionally analyzed by the charged solvent spray to form a molecular image of the biological tissue. DESI-MS images were compared with formalin-fixed, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides of the same material. Increased signal intensity was detected for two seminolipids [seminolipid (16:0/16:0) and seminolipid (30:0)] in the normal tubule testis tissue; these compounds were undetectable in seminoma tissue, as well as from the surrounding fat, muscle, and blood vessels. A glycerophosphoinositol [PI(18:0/20:4)] was also found at increased intensity in the normal testes tubule tissue when compared with seminoma tissue. Ascorbic acid (i.e., vitamin C) was found at increased amounts in seminoma tissue when compared with normal tissue. DESI-MS analysis was successfully used to visualize the location of several types of molecules across human seminoma and normal tissues. Discrimination between seminoma and adjacent normal testes tubules was achieved on the basis of the spatial distributions and varying intensities of particular lipid species as well as ascorbic acid. The increased presence of ascorbic acid within seminoma compared with normal seminiferous tubules was previously unknown.

  20. Surface Ionization and Soft Landing Techniques in Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Futrell, Jean H.; Laskin, Julia

    2010-04-01

    The advent of soft ionization techniques, notably electrospray and laser desorption ionization methods, has extended mass spectrometric methods to large molecules and molecular complexes. This both greatly expands appli¬cations of mass spectrometry and makes the activation and dissociation of complex ions an integral part of large molecule mass spectrometry. A corollary of the much greater number of internal degrees of freedom and high density of states associated with molecular complexity is that internal energies much higher than the dissociation energies for competing fragmentation processes are required for observable fragmentation in time scales sampled by mass spectrometers. This article describes the kinetics of surface-induced dissociation (SID), a particularly efficient activation method for complex ions. Two very important characteristics of SID are very rapid, sub-picosecond activation and precise control of ion internal energy by varying ion collision energy. The nature of the surface plays an important role in SID, determining both efficiency and mechanism of ion activation. Surface composition and morphology strongly influence the relative importance of competing reactions of SID, ion capture (soft-landing), surface reaction and neutralization. The important features of SID and ion soft-landing are described briefly in this review and more fully in the recommended reading list.

  1. Evaluation of Effecting Parameters on Optimum Arrangement of Urban Land Uses and Assessment of Their Compatibility Using Adjacency Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaezi, S.; Mesgari, M. S.; Kaviary, F.

    2015-12-01

    Todays, stability of human life is threatened by a set of parameters. So sustainable urban development theory is introduced after the stability theory to protect the urban environment. In recent years, sustainable urban development gains a lot of attraction by different sciences and totally becomes a final target for urban development planners and managers to use resources properly and to establish a balanced relationship among human, community, and nature. Proper distribution of services for decreasing spatial inequalities, promoting the quality of living environment, and approaching an urban stability requires an analytical understanding of the present situation. Understanding the present situation is the first step for making a decision and planning effectively. This paper evaluates effective parameters affecting proper arrangement of land-uses using a descriptive-analytical method, to develop a conceptual framework for understanding of the present situation of urban land-uses, based on the assessment of their compatibility. This study considers not only the local parameters, but also spatial parameters are included in this study. The results indicate that land-uses in the zone considered here are not distributed properly. Considering mentioned parameters and distributing service land-uses effectively cause the better use of these land-uses.

  2. Comparison of Daytime and Nighttime Populations Adjacent to Interstate Highways in Metropolitan Areas Using LandScan USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    An article of similar title was published in the International Journal of Radioactive Materials Transport in 1999. The study concluded that the daytime and nighttime populations are not substantially different for the metropolitan areas examined. This study revisits the issue, but using the LandScan USA high resolution population distribution data, which includes daytime and night-time population. Segments of Interstate highway beltways, along with the direct route through the city, for Atlanta, St. Louis, and Kansas City are examined with an 800m buffer from either side of the highways. The day/night ratio of population is higher using the LandScan USA data. LandScan USA daytime and night-time data will be incorporated into the TRAGIS routing model in future.

  3. Potential impacts on Colorado Rocky Mountain weather due to land use changes on the adjacent Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, T.N.; Pielke, R.A., Sr.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Baron, J.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    Evidence from both meteorological stations and vegetational successional studies suggests that summer temperatures are decreasing in the mountain-plain system in northeast Colorado, particularly since the early 1980s. These trends are coincident with large changes in regional land cover. Trends in global, Northern Hemisphere and continental surface temperatures over the same period are insignificant. These observations suggest that changes in the climate of this mountain-plain system may be, in some part, a result of localized forcing mechanisms. In this study the effects of land use change on the northern Colorado plains, where large regions of grasslands have been transformed into both dry and irrigated agricultural lands, on regional weather is examined in an effort to understand this local deviation from larger-scale trends. We find with high-resolution numerical simulations of a 3-day summer period using a regional atmospheric-land surface model that replacing grasslands with irrigated and dry farmland can have impacts on regional weather and therefore climate which are not limited to regions of direct forcing. Higher elevations remote from regions of land use change are affected as well. Specifically, cases with altered landcover had cooler, moister boundary layers, and diminished low-level upslope winds over portions of the plains. At higher elevations, temperatures also were lower as was low-level convergence. Precipitation and cloud cover were substantially affected in mountain regions. We advance the hypothesis that observed land use changes may have already had a role in explaining part of the observed climate record in the northern Colorado mountain-plain system. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Spatial analysis of land use and shallow groundwater vulnerability in the watershed adjacent to Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMotte, A.E.; Greene, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial relations between land use and groundwater quality in the watershed adjacent to Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia, USA were analyzed by the use of two spatial models. One model used a logit analysis and the other was based on geostatistics. The models were developed and compared on the basis of existing concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen in samples from 529 domestic wells. The models were applied to produce spatial probability maps that show areas in the watershed where concentrations of nitrate in groundwater are likely to exceed a predetermined management threshold value. Maps of the watershed generated by logistic regression and probability kriging analysis showing where the probability of nitrate concentrations would exceed 3 mg/L (>0.50) compared favorably. Logistic regression was less dependent on the spatial distribution of sampled wells, and identified an additional high probability area within the watershed that was missed by probability kriging. The spatial probability maps could be used to determine the natural or anthropogenic factors that best explain the occurrence and distribution of elevated concentrations of nitrate (or other constituents) in shallow groundwater. This information can be used by local land-use planners, ecologists, and managers to protect water supplies and identify land-use planning solutions and monitoring programs in vulnerable areas. ?? 2006 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Middle-Late Permian mass extinction on land

    SciTech Connect

    Retallack, G.J.; Metzger, C.A.; Greaver, T.; Jahren, A.H.; Smith, R.M.H.; Sheldon, N.D.

    2006-11-15

    The end-Permian mass extinction has been envisaged as the nadir of biodiversity decline due to increasing volcanic gas emissions over some 9 million years. We propose a different tempo and mechanism of extinction because we recognize two separate but geologically abrupt mass extinctions on land, one terminating the Middle Permian (Guadalupian) at 260.4 Ma and a later one ending the Permian Period at 251 Ma. Our evidence comes from new paleobotanical, paleopedological, and carbon isotopic studies of Portal Mountain, Antarctica, and comparable studies in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Extinctions have long been apparent among marine invertebrates at both the end of the Guadalupian and end of the Permian, which were also times of warm-wet greenhouse climatic transients, marked soil erosion, transition from high- to low-sinuosity and braided streams, soil stagnation in wetlands, and profound negative carbon isotope anomalies. Both mass extinctions may have resulted from catastrophic methane outbursts to the atmosphere from coal intruded by feeder dikes to flood basalts, such as the end-Guadalupian Emeishan Basalt and end-Permian Siberian Traps.

  6. Survey of Lava Tubes in the Former Puna Forest Reserve and on Adjacent State of Hawaii Lands

    SciTech Connect

    McEldowney, H.; Stone, F.D.

    1991-10-01

    . The first was to establish whether or not the lava tubes continued into the land now held by Campbell Estate or the Geothermal Sub-Zone. The second was to assess the extent to which any lava tube systems found contained archaeological remains or burials and, if so, to evaluate their general significance. The third was to define, if possible, any patterns in the distribution of the lava tube systems or the archaeological remains within them. Such patterns can allow general predictions to be made about which areas are most likely to have similar tube systems with significant archaeological sites. This is of particular importance in this region where large portions of the former Forest Reserve and the Geothermal Sub-Zone have not been inspected, and conducting extensive surveys is extremely difficult because of dense vegetation, hazardous conditions and poor ground visibility. One of the authors (Stone) has a background in Hawaiian lava tube biology, so we were able to include a preliminary survey of the invertebrate fauna found in these underground ecosystems.

  7. Effects of land-use change and fungicide application on soil respiration in playa wetlands and adjacent uplands of the U.S. High Plains.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Dale W; Smith, Loren M; Belden, Jason B; McMurry, Scott T; Swain, Shella

    2015-05-01

    With the increased use of fungicides in cultivated regions such as the southern High Plains (SHP), U.S., unintentional runoff and drift as well as direct overspray during aerial application lead to environmental exposures that may influence soil microbial communities and related biogeochemical functioning. Our goal was to examine the effects of two popular fungicides Headline (pyraclostrobin) and Quilt (azoxystrobin/propiconazole) on respiration from soil microbial communities in playa wetlands embedded in cropland and native grassland and their adjacent watersheds. We monitored fungicide effects (at levels of 0, .1×, 1× and 10× the label rate) by measuring respiration from plant matter amended soils collected from 6 cropland and 6 grassland playas and uplands. In addition, differences in microbial community structure among land use types were determined by measuring ergosterol levels in cropland and native grassland playas and uplands. Native grassland playas and their associated watersheds had up to 43% higher soil respiration rates than cropland playas and watersheds, indicating higher soil microbial activity. Application of either fungicide had no effect on soil respiration at any concentration in either land use type or habitat type (playa/watershed). Native grassland playas and watersheds had 3 and 1.6 times higher ergosterol content than cropland playas and watersheds. The lack of soil respiration response to fungicide application does not necessarily suggest that fungicides used in this study do not affect non-target soil microbial communities due to potential compensation by other biota. Future studies should further elucidate existing microorganism communities in playas and their watersheds. PMID:25668281

  8. Large Mass, Entry, Descent and Landing Sensitivity Results for Environmental, Performance, and Design Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shidner, Jeremy D.; Davis, Jody L.; Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Powell, RIchard W.

    2010-01-01

    Landing on Mars has been a challenging task. Past NASA missions have shown resilience to increases in spacecraft mass by scaling back requirements such as landing site altitude, landing site location and arrival time. Knowledge of the partials relating requirements to mass is critical for mission designers to understand so that the project can retain margin throughout the process. Looking forward to new missions that will land 1.5 metric tons or greater, the current level of technology is insufficient, and new technologies will need to be developed. Understanding the sensitivity of these new technologies to requirements is the purpose of this paper.

  9. Controls on suspended sediment, particulate and dissolved organic carbon export from two adjacent catchments with contrasting land-uses, Exmoor UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glendell, M.; Brazier, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    The fluvial export of total organic carbon (particulate and dissolved) plays an important role in the transportation of organic carbon from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems, with implications for the understanding of the global carbon cycle and calculations of regional carbon budgets. The terrestrial biosphere contains large amounts of stored carbon in the soil and vegetation, thus a small change in the terrestrial carbon pool may have significant implications for atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Since the onset of agriculture, human activities have accelerated soil erosion rates 10- to 100- fold above all estimated natural background levels, especially in the uplands and at lower latitudes, whilst increasing DOC concentrations over the past decades have been reported in rivers across Western Europe and North America, raising concerns about potential destabilisation of the terrestrial soil carbon pool. The increased input of fine sediment and organic carbon into aquatic environments is also an important factor in stream water quality, being responsible for direct ecological effects as well as transport of a range of contaminants. Many factors, such as topography, hydrological regime and vegetation are known to influence the fluvial export of carbon from catchments. However, most work to date has focused on DOC losses from either forested or peaty catchments, with only limited studies examining the controls and rates of TOC (dissolved and particulate) fluxes from agricultural catchments, particularly during flood events. This research aims to: • Quantify the fluxes of total suspended sediment, total dissolved and total particulate carbon in two adjacent catchments with contrasting land-uses and • Examine the controlling factors of total fluvial carbon fluxes in a semi-natural and agricultural catchment in order to assess the impact of agricultural land-use on fluvial carbon export. The two contrasting study catchments (the Aller and Horner), in south

  10. Particulate Matter Mass and Number Concentrations Inside a Naturally Ventilated School Building Located Adjacent to an Urban Roadway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithra, V. S.; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    This work presents the temporal characteristics of Particulate Matter (PM) mass and number concentrations measured inside a naturally ventilated school building, located close to a busy roadway in Chennai city. Two environmental dust monitor instruments (GRIMM Model 107 and Model 108) were used for measuring PM mass and number concentrations. The 1-h mean values of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were found to be 262 ± 161, 68 ± 24, 40 ± 15 µg/m3 and 81 ± 26, 56 ± 2, 45 ± 19 µg/m3 during working hours (8am-4pm) and non-working hours (4pm-8am)/holidays, respectively. The PM number concentrations inside the room during working hours were found to be 2.4 × 105, 2.2 × 103 and 8.1 × 102 particles/l in the size range of 0.3-1, 1-3 and 3-10 µm, respectively. The present study reveals that during working hours, indoor PM concentrations of the classroom were influenced by the activities of occupants and during non working hours it was affected by outdoor vehicular emissions.

  11. Particulate Matter Mass and Number Concentrations Inside a Naturally Ventilated School Building Located Adjacent to an Urban Roadway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithra, V. S.; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.

    2014-09-01

    This work presents the temporal characteristics of Particulate Matter (PM) mass and number concentrations measured inside a naturally ventilated school building, located close to a busy roadway in Chennai city. Two environmental dust monitor instruments (GRIMM Model 107 and Model 108) were used for measuring PM mass and number concentrations. The 1-h mean values of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were found to be 262 ± 161, 68 ± 24, 40 ± 15 µg/m3 and 81 ± 26, 56 ± 2, 45 ± 19 µg/m3 during working hours (8am-4pm) and non-working hours (4pm-8am)/holidays, respectively. The PM number concentrations inside the room during working hours were found to be 2.4 × 105, 2.2 × 103 and 8.1 × 102 particles/l in the size range of 0.3-1, 1-3 and 3-10 µm, respectively. The present study reveals that during working hours, indoor PM concentrations of the classroom were influenced by the activities of occupants and during non working hours it was affected by outdoor vehicular emissions.

  12. Spatial patterns of cadmium and lead deposition on and adjacent to National Park Service lands in the vicinity of Red Dog Mine, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hasselbach, L; Ver Hoef, J M; Ford, J; Neitlich, P; Crecelius, E; Berryman, S; Wolk, B; Bohle, T

    2005-09-15

    Heavy metal escapement associated with ore trucks is known to occur along the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road corridor in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, northwest Alaska. Heavy metal concentrations in Hylocomium splendens moss (n = 226) were used in geostatistical models to predict the extent and pattern of atmospheric deposition of Cd and Pb on Monument lands. A stratified grid-based sample design was used with more intensive sampling near mine-related activity areas. Spatial predictions were used to produce maps of concentration patterns, and to estimate the total area in 10 moss concentration categories. Heavy metal levels in moss were highest immediately adjacent to the DMTS haul road (Cd > 24 mg/kg dw; Pb > 900 mg/kg dw). Spatial regression analyses indicated that heavy metal deposition decreased with the log of distance from the DMTS haul road and the DMTS port site. Analysis of subsurface soil suggested that observed patterns of heavy metal deposition reflected in moss were not attributable to subsurface lithology at the sample points. Further, moss Pb concentrations throughout the northern half of the study area were high relative to concentrations previously reported from other Arctic Alaska sites. Collectively, these findings indicate the presence of mine-related heavy metal deposition throughout the northern portion of Cape Krusenstern National Monument. Geospatial analyses suggest that the Pb depositional area extends 25 km north of the haul road to the Kisimilot/Iyikrok hills, and possibly beyond. More study is needed to determine whether higher moss heavy metal concentrations in the northernmost portion of the study area reflect deposition from mining-related activities, weathering from mineralized Pb/Zn outcrops in the broader region, or a combination of the two. South of the DMTS haul road, airborne deposition appears to be constrained by the Tahinichok Mountains. Heavy metal levels continue to diminish south of

  13. Comparing and Contrasting the Benefits of Land Mass vs. Land Cover on Storm Surge Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siverd, C. G.; Hagen, S. C.; Bilskie, M. V.; Twilley, R.; Braud, D.; Peele, H.

    2015-12-01

    From 1930 through 2012 Louisiana lost approximately 1,880 sq mi (4,870 sq km) of coastal wetlands due to land subsidence, erosion, and sea level rise among other factors. Louisiana could potentially lose an additional 1,750 sq mi (4,530 sq km) of coastal wetlands by 2062 if no action is taken to prevent this land loss (CPRA, 2012). If risk is defined as probability multiplied by consequence (Vrijling, 2006), such land loss will significantly increase the risk of flooding in coastal communities and communities located farther inland. Vital coastal infrastructure will also be at a heightened risk of flood damage. This will be attributable to the increase in frequency of hurricane storm surge events featuring greater depths and farther inland extent. This risk can be described by contrasting the surface area of land and water along the Louisiana coast. Using aerial or satellite imagery, isopleths can be plotted along the coast that describe the land to water (L:W) ratio over time (e.g., Gagliano et al., 1970, 1971 plotted the calculated 50% L:W ratio isopleths for the years 1930, and 1970, with an estimated 2000 isopleth). Risk to coastal infrastructure and coastal communities increases as the L:W ratio is reduced. One possible way to reduce the depth and extent of storm surge is to increase the land area along the coast. A second way is to modify the land cover (i.e. vary the type and density of vegetation). The L:W ratio can be used to quantify storm surge attenuation and assess such contributing factors. For this study, storm surge is simulated along coastal Louisiana for various instances - with increased land area and separately with different land cover types and densities - to determine which of these factors most effectively reduce the depth and extent of storm surge. New metrics involving hydrologic basins for evaluating storm surge attenuation are also described. The results of this study should inform policy makers which factors contribute the most to storm

  14. Lipid Profiles of Canine Invasive Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder and Adjacent Normal Tissue by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Allison L.; Ifa, Demian R.; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Costa, Anthony B.; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Knapp, Deborah W.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used in an imaging mode to interrogate the lipid profiles of thin tissue sections of canine spontaneous invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder (a model of human invasive bladder cancer) as well as adjacent normal tissue from four different dogs. The glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids that appear as intense signals in both the negative ion and positive ion modes were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) product ion scans using collision-induced dissociation. Differences in the relative distributions of the lipid species were present between the tumor and adjacent normal tissue in both the negative and positive ion modes. DESI-MS images showing the spatial distributions of particular glycerophospholipids, sphinoglipids and free fatty acids in both the negative and positive ion modes were compared to serial tissue sections that were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Increased absolute and relative intensities for at least five different glycerophospholipids and three free fatty acids in the negative ion mode and at least four different lipid species in the positive ion mode were seen in the tumor region of the samples in all four dogs. In addition, one sphingolipid species exhibited increased signal intensity in the positive ion mode in normal tissue relative to the diseased tissue. Principal component analysis (PCA) was also used to generate unsupervised statistical images from the negative ion mode data and these images are in excellent agreement with the DESI images obtained from the selected ions and also the H&E stained tissue PMID:19810710

  15. Mars Solar Balloon Landed Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P.; Harpold, D.; Niemann, H.; Atreya, S.; Gorevan, S.; Israel, G.; Bertaux, J. L.; Jones, J.; Owen, T.; Raulin, F.

    1999-01-01

    A Mars surface lander Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) is described to measure the chemical composition of abundant and trace volatile species and isotope ratios for noble gases and other elements. These measurements are relevant to the study of atmospheric evolution and past climatic conditions. A Micromission plan is under study where a surface package including a miniaturized GCMS would be delivered to the surface by a solar heated hot air balloon based system. The balloon system would be deployed about 8 km above the surface of Mars, wherein it would rapidly fill with Martian atmosphere and be heated quickly by the sun. The combined buoyancy and parachuting effects of the solar balloon result in a surface package impact of about 5 m/sec. After delivery of the package to the surface, the balloon would ascend to about 4 km altitude, with imaging and magnetometry data being taken for the remainder of the daylight hours as the balloon is blown with the Martian winds. Total atmospheric entry mass of this mission is estimated to be approximately 50 kg, and it can fit as an Ariane 5 piggyback payload. The GCMS would obtain samples directly from the atmosphere at the surface and also from gases evolved from solid phase material collected from well below the surface with a Sample Acquisition and Transport Mechanism (SATM). The experiment envisioned in the Mars Micromission described would obtain samples from a much greater depth of up to one meter below the surface, and would search for organic molecules trapped in ancient stratified layers well below the oxidized surface. Insitu instruments on upcoming NASA missions working in concert with remote sensing measurement techniques have the potential to provide a more detailed investigation of mineralogy and the extent of simple volatiles such as CO2 and H2O in surface and subsurface solid phase materials. Within the context of subsequent mission opportunities such as those provided by the Ariane 5 piggyback

  16. Occurrence of instability through the protostellar accretion disks by landing of low-mass condensations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyasi, Mahjubeh; Nejad-Asghar, Mohsen

    2016-06-01

    Low-mass condensations (LMCs) are observed inside the envelope of the collapsing molecular cloud cores. In this research, we investigate the effects of landing LMCs for occurrence of instability through the protostellar accretion disks. We consider some regions of the disk where duration of infalling and landing of the LMCs are shorter than the orbital period. In this way, we can consider the landing LMCs as density bumps and grooves in the azimuthal direction of an initial thin axisymmetric steady state self-gravitating protostellar accretion disk (nearly Keplerian). Using the linear effects of the bump quantities, we obtain a characteristic equation for growth/decay rate of bumps; we numerically solve it to find occurrence of instability. We also evaluate the minimum-growth-time-scale (MGTS) and the enhanced mass accretion rate. The results show that infalling and landing of the LMCs in the inner regions of the protostellar accretion disks can cause faster unstable modes and less enhanced accretion rates relative to the outer regions. Also, more fragmentation of landed LMCs in the azimuthal direction have less chance for instability, and then can produce more values of enhanced mass accretion rate.

  17. An Iterated Global Mascon Solution with Focus on Land Ice Mass Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthcke, S. B.; Sabaka, T.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Loomis, B. D.; Boy, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Land ice mass evolution is determined from a new GRACE global mascon solution. The solution is estimated directly from the reduction of the inter-satellite K-band range rate observations taking into account the full noise covariance, and formally iterating the solution. The new solution increases signal recovery while reducing the GRACE KBRR observation residuals. The mascons are estimated with 10-day and 1-arc-degree equal area sampling, applying anisotropic constraints for enhanced temporal and spatial resolution of the recovered land ice signal. The details of the solution are presented including error and resolution analysis. An Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) adaptive filter is applied to the mascon solution time series to compute timing of balance seasons and annual mass balances. The details and causes of the spatial and temporal variability of the land ice regions studied are discussed.

  18. A theoretical treatise of drainage and seepage in bottom land areas adjacent to incised channels: the J. J. van Deemter analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saturated groundwater flow research on agricultural land in early times was mainly concerned with drainage of excessive rain. The key issue then was the spacing of drains or ditches to provide the efficient and effective removal, within a given time, of excessive water for a given soil. The focus wa...

  19. Effect of body mass and midsole hardness on kinetic and perceptual variables during basketball landing manoeuvres.

    PubMed

    Nin, Darren Z; Lam, Wing K; Kong, Pui W

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of body mass and shoe midsole hardness on kinetic and perceptual variables during the performance of three basketball movements: (1) the first and landing steps of layup, (2) shot-blocking landing and (3) drop landing. Thirty male basketball players, assigned into "heavy" (n = 15, mass 82.7 ± 4.3 kg) or "light" (n = 15, mass 63.1 ± 2.8 kg) groups, performed five trials of each movement in three identical shoes of varying midsole hardness (soft, medium, hard). Vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during landing was sampled using multiple wooden-top force plates. Perceptual responses on five variables (forefoot cushioning, rearfoot cushioning, forefoot stability, rearfoot stability and overall comfort) were rated after each movement condition using a 150-mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). A mixed factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (Body Mass × Shoe) was applied to all kinetic and perceptual variables. During the first step of the layup, the loading rate associated with rearfoot contact was 40.7% higher in the "heavy" than "light" groups (P = .014) and 12.4% higher in hard compared with soft shoes (P = .011). Forefoot peak VGRF in a soft shoe was higher (P = .011) than in a hard shoe during shot-block landing. Both "heavy" and "light" groups preferred softer to harder shoes. Overall, body mass had little effect on kinetic or perceptual variables. PMID:26211423

  20. Charge Retention by Gold Clusters on Surfaces Prepared Using Soft Landing of Mass Selected Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Grant E.; Priest, Thomas A.; Laskin, Julia

    2012-01-24

    Monodisperse gold clusters have been prepared on surfaces in different charge states through soft landing of mass-selected ions. Ligand-stabilized gold clusters were prepared in methanol solution by reduction of chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold(I) with borane tert-butylamine complex in the presence of 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane. Electrospray ionization was used to introduce the clusters into the gas-phase and mass-selection was employed to isolate a single ionic cluster species (Au11L53+, L = 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) which was delivered to surfaces at well controlled kinetic energies. Using in-situ time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) it is demonstrated that the Au11L53+ cluster retains its 3+ charge state when soft landed onto the surface of a 1H,1H,2H,2H-

  1. Total Land Water Storage Change over 2003 - 2013 Estimated from a Global Mass Budget Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS (the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to +0.30 +/- 0.18 mm/yr in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of -108 +/- 64 cu km/yr in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  2. Total land water storage change over 2003-2013 estimated from a global mass budget approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieng, H. B.; Champollion, N.; Cazenave, A.; Wada, Y.; Schrama, E.; Meyssignac, B.

    2015-12-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS (the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to +0.30 ± 0.18 mm yr-1 in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of -108 ± 64 km3 yr-1 in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  3. Total land water storage change over 2003-2013 estimated from a global mass budget approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieng, Habib B.; Champollion, Nicolas; Cazenave, Anny; Wada, Yoshihide; Schrama, Ernst; Meyssignac, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    We estimate the total land water storage (LWS) change between 2003 and 2013 using a global water mass budget approach. Hereby we compare the ocean mass change (estimated from GRACE space gravimetry on the one hand, and from the satellite altimetry-based global mean sea level corrected for steric effects on the other hand) to the sum of the main water mass components of the climate system: glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets, atmospheric water and LWS(the latter being the unknown quantity to be estimated). For glaciers and ice sheets, we use published estimates of ice mass trends based on various types of observations covering different time spans between 2003 and 2013. From the mass budget equation, we derive a net LWS trend over the study period. The mean trend amounts to+0.30 ± 0.18mmyr‑1 in sea level equivalent. This corresponds to a net decrease of ‑108 ± 64 km3 yr‑1 in LWS over the 2003-2013 decade. We also estimate the rate of change in LWS and find no significant acceleration over the study period. The computed mean global LWS trend over the study period is shown to be explained mainly by direct anthropogenic effects on land hydrology, i.e. the net effect of groundwater depletion and impoundment of water in man-made reservoirs, and to a lesser extent the effect of naturally-forced land hydrology variability. Our results compare well with independent estimates of human-induced changes in global land hydrology.

  4. Parametric Mass Modeling for Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System Analysis Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.; Komar, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the parametric mass models used for the Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems Analysis study conducted by NASA in FY2009-2010. The study examined eight unique exploration class architectures that included elements such as a rigid mid-L/D aeroshell, a lifting hypersonic inflatable decelerator, a drag supersonic inflatable decelerator, a lifting supersonic inflatable decelerator implemented with a skirt, and subsonic/supersonic retro-propulsion. Parametric models used in this study relate the component mass to vehicle dimensions and mission key environmental parameters such as maximum deceleration and total heat load. The use of a parametric mass model allows the simultaneous optimization of trajectory and mass sizing parameters.

  5. Assessments of aquifer sensitivity on Navajo Nation and adjacent lands and ground-water vulnerability to pesticide contamination on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project, Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requested that the Navajo Nation conduct an assessment of aquifer sensitivity on Navajo Nation lands and an assessment of ground-water vulnerability to pesticide contamination on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project. Navajo Nation lands include about 17,000 square miles in northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southeastern Utah. The Navajo Indian Irrigation Project in northwestern New Mexico is the largest area of agriculture on the Navajo Nation. The Navajo Indian Irrigation Project began operation in 1976; presently (2001) about 62,000 acres are available for irrigated agriculture. Numerous pesticides have been used on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project during its operation. Aquifer sensitivity is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as 'The relative ease with which a contaminant [pesticide] applied on or near a land surface can migrate to the aquifer of interest. Aquifer sensitivity is a function of the intrinsic characteristics of the geologic material in question, any underlying saturated materials, and the overlying unsaturated zone. Sensitivity is not dependent on agronomic practices or pesticide characteristics.' Ground-water vulnerability is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as 'The relative ease with which a contaminant [pesticide] applied on or near a land surface can migrate to the aquifer of interest under a given set of agronomic management practices, pesticide characteristics, and aquifer sensitivity conditions.' The results of the aquifer sensitivity assessment on Navajo Nation and adjacent lands indicated relative sensitivity within the boundaries of the study area. About 22 percent of the study area was not an area of recharge to bedrock aquifers or an area of unconsolidated deposits and was thus assessed to have an insignificant potential for contamination. About 72 percent of the Navajo Nation study area was assessed to be in the categories of most potential

  6. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes and Antibiotic Residues in Wastewater and Soil Adjacent to Swine Feedlots: Potential Transfer to Agricultural Lands

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Wang, Thanh; Shao, Bing; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Shaochen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics in swine feed could cause accelerated emergence of antibiotic resistance genes, and agricultural application of swine waste could spread antibiotic resistance genes to the surrounding environment. Objectives: We investigated the distribution of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes from swine feedlots and their surrounding environment. Methods: We used a culture-independent method to identify PMQR genes and estimate their levels in wastewater from seven swine feedlot operations and corresponding wastewater-irrigated farm fields. Concentrations of (fluoro)quinolones in wastewater and soil samples were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The predominant PMQR genes in both the wastewater and soil samples were qnrD, qepA, and oqxB, whereas qnrS and oqxA were present only in wastewater samples. Absolute concentrations of all PMQR genes combined ranged from 1.66 × 107 to 4.06 × 108 copies/mL in wastewater and 4.06 × 106 to 9.52 × 107 copies/g in soil. Concentrations of (fluoro)quinolones ranged from 4.57 to 321 ng/mL in wastewater and below detection limit to 23.4 ng/g in soil. Significant correlations were found between the relative abundance of PMQR genes and (fluoro)quinolone concentrations (r = 0.71, p = 0.005) and the relative abundance of PMQR genes in paired wastewater and agricultural soil samples (r = 0.91, p = 0.005). Conclusions: Swine feedlot wastewater may be a source of PMQR genes that could facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the occurrence of PMQR genes in animal husbandry environments using a culture-independent method. PMID:22569244

  7. Groundwater and surface-water resources in the Bureau of Land Management Moab Master Leasing Plan area and adjacent areas, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, and Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Shope, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Canyon Country District Office is preparing a leasing plan known as the Moab Master Leasing Plan (Moab MLP) for oil, gas, and potash mineral rights in an area encompassing 946,469 acres in southeastern Utah. The BLM has identified water resources as being potentially affected by oil, gas, and potash development and has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare a summary of existing water-resources information for the Moab MLP area. This report includes a summary and synthesis of previous and ongoing investigations conducted in the Moab MLP and adjacent areas in Utah and Colorado from the early 1930s through the late 2000s. Eight principal aquifers and six confining units were identified within the study area. Permeability is a function of both the primary permeability from interstitial pore connectivity and secondary permeability created by karst features or faults and fractures. Vertical hydraulic connection generally is restricted to strongly folded and fractured zones, which are concentrated along steeply dipping monoclines and in narrow regions encompassing igneous and salt intrusive masses. Several studies have identified both an upper and lower aquifer system separated by the Pennsylvanian age Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation evaporite, which is considered a confining unit and is present throughout large parts of the study area. Surface-water resources of the study area are dominated by the Colorado River. Several perennial and ephemeral or intermittent tributaries join the Colorado River as it flows from northeast to southwest across the study area. An annual spring snowmelt and runoff event dominates the hydrology of streams draining mountainous parts of the study area, and most perennial streams in the study area are snowmelt-dominated. A bimodal distribution is observed in hydrographs from some sites with a late-spring snowmelt-runoff peak followed by smaller peaks of shorter duration during the late

  8. Development of Land Segmentation, Stream-Reach Network, and Watersheds in Support of Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) Modeling, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, and Adjacent Parts of Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martucci, Sarah K.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Hopkins, Katherine J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Chesapeake Bay Program Office, Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin, Maryland Department of the Environment, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, and the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science are collaborating on the Chesapeake Bay Regional Watershed Model, using Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN to simulate streamflow and concentrations and loads of nutrients and sediment to Chesapeake Bay. The model will be used to provide information for resource managers. In order to establish a framework for model simulation, digital spatial datasets were created defining the discretization of the model region (including the Chesapeake Bay watershed, as well as the adjacent parts of Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia outside the watershed) into land segments, a stream-reach network, and associated watersheds. Land segmentation was based on county boundaries represented by a 1:100,000-scale digital dataset. Fifty of the 254 counties and incorporated cities in the model region were divided on the basis of physiography and topography, producing a total of 309 land segments. The stream-reach network for the Chesapeake Bay watershed part of the model region was based on the U.S. Geological Survey Chesapeake Bay SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) model stream-reach network. Because that network was created only for the Chesapeake Bay watershed, the rest of the model region uses a 1:500,000-scale stream-reach network. Streams with mean annual streamflow of less than 100 cubic feet per second were excluded based on attributes from the dataset. Additional changes were made to enhance the data and to allow for inclusion of stream reaches with monitoring data that were not part of the original network. Thirty-meter-resolution Digital Elevation Model data were used to delineate watersheds for each

  9. Search for Majorana Neutrinos Near the Inverted Mass Hierarchy Region with KamLAND-Zen.

    PubMed

    Gando, A; Gando, Y; Hachiya, T; Hayashi, A; Hayashida, S; Ikeda, H; Inoue, K; Ishidoshiro, K; Karino, Y; Koga, M; Matsuda, S; Mitsui, T; Nakamura, K; Obara, S; Oura, T; Ozaki, H; Shimizu, I; Shirahata, Y; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Takai, T; Tamae, K; Teraoka, Y; Ueshima, K; Watanabe, H; Kozlov, A; Takemoto, Y; Yoshida, S; Fushimi, K; Banks, T I; Berger, B E; Fujikawa, B K; O'Donnell, T; Winslow, L A; Efremenko, Y; Karwowski, H J; Markoff, D M; Tornow, W; Detwiler, J A; Enomoto, S; Decowski, M P

    2016-08-19

    We present an improved search for neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay of ^{136}Xe in the KamLAND-Zen experiment. Owing to purification of the xenon-loaded liquid scintillator, we achieved a significant reduction of the ^{110m}Ag contaminant identified in previous searches. Combining the results from the first and second phase, we obtain a lower limit for the 0νββ decay half-life of T_{1/2}^{0ν}>1.07×10^{26}  yr at 90% C.L., an almost sixfold improvement over previous limits. Using commonly adopted nuclear matrix element calculations, the corresponding upper limits on the effective Majorana neutrino mass are in the range 61-165 meV. For the most optimistic nuclear matrix elements, this limit reaches the bottom of the quasidegenerate neutrino mass region. PMID:27588852

  10. Predicting runoff induced mass loads in urban watersheds: Linking land use and pyrethroid contamination.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Kazue; Lau, Sim-Lin; Nonezyan, Michael; McElroy, Elizabeth; Wolfe, Becky; Suffet, Irwin H; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2016-10-01

    Pyrethroid pesticide mass loadings in the Ballona Creek Watershed were calculated using the volume-concentration method with a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to explore potential relationships between urban land use, impervious surfaces, and pyrethroid runoff flowing into an urban stream. A calibration of the GIS volume-concentration model was performed using 2013 and 2014 wet-weather sampling data. Permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were detected as the highest concentrations; deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin and cyfluthrin were the most frequently detected synthetic pyrethroids. Eight neighborhoods within the watershed were highlighted as target areas based on a Weighted Overlay Analysis (WOA) in GIS. Water phase concentration of synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) were calculated from the reported usage. The need for stricter BMP and consumer product controls was identified as a possible way of reducing the detections of pyrethroids in Ballona Creek. This model has significant implications for determining mass loadings due to land use influence, and offers a flexible method to extrapolate data for a limited amount of samplings for a larger watershed, particularly for chemicals that are not subject to environmental monitoring. Offered as a simple approach to watershed management, the GIS-volume concentration model has the potential to be applied to other target pesticides and is useful for simulating different watershed scenarios. Further research is needed to compare results against other similar urban watersheds situated in mediterranean climates. PMID:27475081

  11. Protein Chips Compatible with MALDI Mass Spectrometry Prepared by Ambient Ion Landing.

    PubMed

    Pompach, Petr; Benada, Oldřich; Rosůlek, Michal; Darebná, Petra; Hausner, Jiří; Růžička, Viktor; Volný, Michael; Novák, Petr

    2016-09-01

    We present a technology that allows the preparation of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-compatible protein chips by ambient ion landing of proteins and successive utilization of the resulting protein chips for the development of bioanalytical assays. These assays are based on the interaction between the immobilized protein and the sampled analyte directly on the protein chip and subsequent in situ analysis by MALDI mass spectrometry. The electrosprayed proteins are immobilized on dry metal and metal oxide surfaces, which are nonreactive under normal conditions. The ion landing of electrosprayed protein molecules is performed under atmospheric pressure by an automated ion landing apparatus that can manufacture protein chips with a predefined array of sample positions or any other geometry of choice. The protein chips prepared by this technique are fully compatible with MALDI ionization because the metal-based substrates are conductive and durable enough to be used directly as MALDI plates. Compared to other materials, the nonreactive surfaces show minimal nonspecific interactions with chemical species in the investigated sample and are thus an ideal substrate for selective protein chips. Three types of protein chips were used in this report to demonstrate the bioanalytical applications of ambient ion landing. The protein chips with immobilized proteolytic enzymes showed the usefulness for fast in situ peptide MALDI sequencing; the lectin-based protein chips showed the ability to enrich glycopeptides from complex mixtures with subsequent MALDI analysis, and the protein chips with immobilized antibodies were used for a novel immunoMALDI workflow that allowed the enrichment of antigens from the serum followed by highly specific MALDI detection. PMID:27478994

  12. In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-Defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-Selected Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Grant E.; Gunaratne, Kalupathirannehelage Don D.; Laskin, Julia

    2014-06-16

    Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of materials that are inaccessible using conventional synthesis techniques. Coupling soft landing with in situ characterization using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) enables analysis of well-defined surfaces under clean vacuum conditions. The capabilities of three soft-landing instruments constructed in our laboratory are illustrated for the representative system of surface-bound organometallics prepared by soft landing of mass-selected ruthenium tris(bipyridine) dications, [Ru(bpy)3]2+, onto carboxylic acid terminated self-assembled monolayer surfaces on gold (COOH-SAMs). In situ time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS provides insight into the reactivity of the soft-landed ions. In addition, the kinetics of charge reduction, neutralization and desorption occurring on the COOH-SAM both during and after ion soft landing are studied using in situ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-SIMS measurements. In situ IRRAS experiments provide insight into how the structure of organic ligands surrounding metal centers is perturbed through immobilization of organometallic ions on COOH-SAM surfaces by soft landing. Collectively, the three instruments provide complementary information about the chemical composition, reactivity and structure of well-defined species supported on surfaces.

  13. In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Grant E.; Gunaratne, K. Don Dasitha; Laskin, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of materials that are inaccessible using conventional synthesis techniques. Coupling soft landing with in situ characterization using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) enables analysis of well-defined surfaces under clean vacuum conditions. The capabilities of three soft-landing instruments constructed in our laboratory are illustrated for the representative system of surface-bound organometallics prepared by soft landing of mass-selected ruthenium tris(bipyridine) dications, [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (bpy = bipyridine), onto carboxylic acid terminated self-assembled monolayer surfaces on gold (COOH-SAMs). In situ time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS provides insight into the reactivity of the soft-landed ions. In addition, the kinetics of charge reduction, neutralization and desorption occurring on the COOH-SAM both during and after ion soft landing are studied using in situ Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-SIMS measurements. In situ IRRAS experiments provide insight into how the structure of organic ligands surrounding metal centers is perturbed through immobilization of organometallic ions on COOH-SAM surfaces by soft landing. Collectively, the three instruments provide complementary information about the chemical composition, reactivity and structure of well-defined species supported on surfaces. PMID:24961913

  14. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  15. Monodisperse Au11 Clusters Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass Selected Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Grant E.; Wang, Chong M.; Priest, Thomas A.; Laskin, Julia

    2011-11-01

    Preparation of clean monodisperse samples of clusters and nanoparticles for characterization using cutting-edge analytical techniques is essential to understanding their size-dependent properties. Herein, we report a general method for the preparation of high surface coverage samples of monodisperse clusters containing an exact number of atoms. Polydisperse solutions of diphosphine-capped gold clusters were produced by reduction synthesis. Electrospray ionization was used to introduce the clusters into the gas phase where they were filtered by mass-tocharge ratio allowing clusters of a selected size to be deposited onto carbon coated copper grids at well controlled kinetic energies. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) analysis of the soft landed clusters confirms their monodispersity and high coverage on the substrate. The soft landing approach may be extended to other materials compatible with an array of available ionization techniques and, therefore, has widespread utility as a means for controlled preparation of monodisperse samples of nanoparticles and clusters for analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  16. Surface water mass composition changes captured by cores of Arctic land-fast sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, I. J.; Eicken, H.; Mahoney, A. R.; Van Hale, R.; Gough, A. J.; Fukamachi, Y.; Jones, J.

    2016-04-01

    In the Arctic, land-fast sea ice growth can be influenced by fresher water from rivers and residual summer melt. This paper examines a method to reconstruct changes in water masses using oxygen isotope measurements of sea ice cores. To determine changes in sea water isotope composition over the course of the ice growth period, the output of a sea ice thermodynamic model (driven with reanalysis data, observations of snow depth, and freeze-up dates) is used along with sea ice oxygen isotope measurements and an isotopic fractionation model. Direct measurements of sea ice growth rates are used to validate the output of the sea ice growth model. It is shown that for sea ice formed during the 2011/2012 ice growth season at Barrow, Alaska, large changes in isotopic composition of the ocean waters were captured by the sea ice isotopic composition. Salinity anomalies in the ocean were also tracked by moored instruments. These data indicate episodic advection of meteoric water, having both lower salinity and lower oxygen isotopic composition, during the winter sea ice growth season. Such advection of meteoric water during winter is surprising, as no surface meltwater and no local river discharge should be occurring at this time of year in that area. How accurately changes in water masses as indicated by oxygen isotope composition can be reconstructed using oxygen isotope analysis of sea ice cores is addressed, along with methods/strategies that could be used to further optimize the results. The method described will be useful for winter detection of meteoric water presence in Arctic fast ice regions, which is important for climate studies in a rapidly changing Arctic. Land-fast sea ice effective fractionation coefficients were derived, with a range of +1.82‰ to +2.52‰. Those derived effective fractionation coefficients will be useful for future water mass component proportion calculations. In particular, the equations given can be used to inform choices made when

  17. Chloride-mass-balance for predicting increased recharge after land-use change

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, G.W.; Zhang, Z.F.; Tyler, S.W.; Albright, W.H.; Singleton, M.J.

    2004-02-23

    The chloride-mass-balance (CMB) method has been used extensively to estimate recharge in arid and semi-arid environments. Required data include estimates of annual precipitation, total chloride input (from dry fallout and precipitation), and pore-water chloride concentrations. Typically, CMB has been used to estimate ancient recharge but recharge from recent land-use change has also been documented. Recharge rates below a few mm/yr are reliably detected with CMB; however, estimates above a few mm/yr appear to be less reliable. We tested the CMB method against 26 years of drainage from a 7.6-m-deep lysimeter at a simulated waste-burial ground, located on the Department of Energy s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, USA where land-use change has increased recharge rates. Measured drainage from the lysimeter for the past 26 years averaged 62 mm/yr. Precipitation averaged 190 mm/yr with an estimated chloride input of 0.225 mg/L. Initial pore-water chloride concentration was 88 mg/L and decreased to about 6 mg/L after 26 years, while the drainage water decreased to less than 1 mg/L. A recharge estimate made using chloride concentrations in drain water was within 20 percent of the measured drainage rate. In contrast, recharge estimates using 1:1 (water: soil) extracts were lower than actual by factors ranging from 2 to 8 or more. The results suggest that when recharge is above a few mm/yr, soil water extracts can lead to unreliable estimates of recharge. For conditions of elevated recharge, direct sampling of pore water is the preferred method, because chloride concentrations are often 20 to 50 times higher in directly-sampled pore water than in pore-water extracts.

  18. Novel Electrocatalysts Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-Selected Cluster Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Grant; Moser, Trevor; Browning, Nigel; Engelhard, Mark; Laskin, Julia

    2015-03-01

    Metal clusters, which possess size and composition dependent properties, are promising materials for use as catalysts to promote electrochemical reactions in fuel cells. A physical synthesis technique, magnetron sputtering combined with gas-aggregation, has been employed to produce anionic metal clusters in the gas-phase across a range of sizes, shapes, and compositions for mass-selection and deposition onto glassy carbon electrodes. Sputtering of multiple targets in the same region of gas aggregation is demonstrated to produce uncapped binary and ternary alloy clusters with defined composition and morphology that are not accessible through synthesis in solution. Introduction of reactive gases including alcohols, alkanes, and amines into the sputtering region is shown to result in the formation of complex cluster morphologies containing carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. A suite of cutting-edge characterization techniques is utilized to demonstrate how the size, shape, elemental composition, and surface density of clusters may be tuned through variations in source parameters such as the sputtering power, gas flow rates, and aggregation distance. The catalytic activity of the soft landed clusters towards the oxygen reduction reaction, a critical process occurring in hydrogen fuel cells, is measured using cyclic voltammetry. Alloy clusters containing reduced quantities of precious metals are shown to exhibit promising catalytic activity.

  19. Re-estimation of glacier mass loss in Greenland from GRACE with correction of land-ocean leakage effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Zou, Fang

    2015-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites can estimate the high-precision time-varying gravity field and the changes of Earth's surface mass, which have been widely used in water cycle and glacier mass balance. However, one of larger errors in GRACE measurements, land-ocean leakage effects, restricts high precision retrieval of ocean mass and terrestrial water storage variations along the coasts, particularly estimation of mass loss in Greenland. The land-ocean leakage effect along the coasts in Greenland will contaminate the mass loss signals with significant signal attenuation. In this paper, the precise glacier mass loss in Greenland from GRACE is re-estimated with correction of land-ocean leakage effects using the forward gravity modeling. The loss of Greenland ice-sheets is - 102.8 ± 9.01 Gt/a without removing leakage effect, but - 183.0 ± 19.91 Gt/a after removing the leakage effect from September 2003 to March 2008, which has a good agreement with ICESat results of - 184.8 ± 28.2 Gt/a. From January 2003 to December 2013, the total Greenland ice-sheet loss is at - 261.54 ± 6.12 Gt/a from GRACE measurements with removing the leakage effect by 42.4%, while two-thirds of total glacier melting in Greenland occurred in southern Greenland in the past 11 years. The secular leakage effects on glacier melting estimate is mainly located in the coastal areas, where larger glacier signals are significantly attenuated due to leaking out into the ocean. Furthermore, the leakage signals also have remarkable effects on seasonal and acceleration variations of glacier mass loss in Greenland. More significantly accelerated loss of glacier mass in Greenland is found at - 26.19 Gt/a2 after correcting for leakage effects.

  20. Freshwater fluxes into the subpolar North Atlantic from secular trends in Arctic land ice mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamber, J. L.; Enderlin, E. M.; Howat, I. M.; Wouters, B.; van den Broeke, M.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater fluxes (FWF) from river runoff and precipitation minus evaporation for the pan Arctic seas are relatively well documented and prescribed in ocean GCMs. Fluxes from Greenland and Arctic glaciers and ice caps on the other hand are generally ignored, despite their potential impacts on ocean circulation and marine biology and growing evidence for changes to the hydrography of parts of the subpolar North Atlantic. In a previous study we determined the FWF from Greenland for the period 1958-2010 using a combination of observations and regional climate modeling. Here, we update the analysis with data from new satellite observations to extend the record both in space and time. The new FWF estimates cover the period 1958-2014 and include the Canadian, Russian and Norwegian Arctic (Svalbard) in addition to the contributions from Greenland. We combine satellite altimetry (including CryoSat 2) with grounding line flux data, regional climate modeling of surface mass balance and gravimetry to produce consistent estimates of solid ice and liquid FWF into the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. The total cumulative FWF anomaly from land ice mass loss started to increase significantly in the mid 1990s and now exceeds 5000 km^3, a value that is about half of the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s. The majority of the anomaly is entering two key areas of deep water overturning in the Labrador and Irminger Seas, at a rate that has been increasing steadily over the last ~20 years. Since the mid 2000s, however, the Canadian Arctic archipelago has been making a significant contribution to the FW anomaly entering Baffin Bay. Tracer experiments with eddy-permitting ocean GCMs suggest that the FW input from southern Greenland and the Canadian Arctic should accumulate in Baffin Bay with the potential to affect geostrophic circulation, stratification in the region and possibly the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. We also examine the trajectory of

  1. Effects of Earthquake and Human Migration on Land Cover Change and Mass Wasting from the 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Y.; Lee, J.

    2015-12-01

    IntroductionThe 2010 earthquake in Haiti displaced millions of people and drastically induced mass wasting. The purpose of this study is to explore comprehensive relationships between population displacement and landslide frequency by comparing land use and land cover (LULC) maps of pre- and post-earthquake. To assess the impact of anthropogenic activities, we employed a maximum likelihood method to produce LULC maps from Landsat images for the dry season of 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014. Landslide inventory maps were created with ArcGIS and Google Earth to visually detect mass wasting coverage for each year. We assessed LULC characteristics of new landslide areas for pre- and post-earthquake to find out what types of land cover most likely caused landslide events and how they were affected by anthropogenic activities in Haiti. The result (Figure 1) shows that the majority of the landslides occurred in the areas of bare soil and grassland over the entire period of this study. These types of land cover are generally considered to be landslide prone due to lack of forest, which leads to a weakening of slope stability. In the earthquake year of 2010, landslide events were dominantly found in bare soil (67.5%) while grassland only occupied 5.1% of total land use. After the earthquake, landslides increased 14.6% in the forest areas, and then decreased to 7% of the total land use in 2014. Post-earthquake data shows an increase of urban area landslides (16%). After the earthquake from 2010 to 2012, landslides in the forest area noticeably increased. This may be due to refugee camps, which were constructed after the earthquake. Clearing trees for biomass energy might have resulted in poor slope stability because roots are necessary to maintain soils.

  2. Effective mass and Landé g-factor in Si-MOSFETs near the critical density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limouny, Lhoussine; El Kaaouachi, Abdelhamid; Liang, Chi-Te

    2014-02-01

    We analyze the electrical resistivity and conductivity of a dilute two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. When a magnetic field is applied parallel to the plane of the 2DEG, a signature of complete spin polarization, as evidenced by the saturation of the resistivity, is observed. We measured the effective mass and the Landé g-factor near the metal-insulator transition (MIT) and found that the Landé g-factor remained almost constant and close to its value in bulk silicon. In contrast, we have observed a sharp increase in the effective mass near the critical density of the MIT. Our new results suggest that the sharp increase in the previously-observed spin susceptibility is mainly due to the enhanced effective mass. Therefore, renormalization of the effective mass could play an important role in a dilute spinpolarized 2DEG. The data indicate that electron-electron interactions strongly modify the effective mass but only weakly affect the g-factor in a dilute 2DEG. Moreover, our results indicate that B c , which corresponds to the magnetic field at which the magnetoresistivity reaches saturation, vanishes at a characteristic density n χ higher than the critical density n c of the MIT. This is in contrast to the existing experimental results, and further studies are required if this discrepancy is to be understood.

  3. Risk assessment of the fatality due to explosion in land mass transport infrastructure by fast transient dynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, G; Larcher, M; Casadei, F; Solomos, G

    2010-01-15

    Terrorist attacks in New York have shocked the world community showing clearly the vulnerability of air transport in such events. However, the terrorist attacks in Madrid and London showed that land mass transport infrastructure is equally vulnerable in case of similar attacks. The fact that there has not been substantial investment in the domain of risk analysis and evaluation of the possible effects due to such events in land mass transportation infrastructure leaves large room for new developments that could eventually fill this gap. In the present work using the finite element code EUROPLEXUS there has been a large effort to perform a complete study of the land mass infrastructure in case of explosion events. This study includes a train station, a metro station and a metro carriage providing thus valuable simulation data for a variety of different situations. For the analysis of these structures it has been necessary to apply a laser scanning method for the acquisition of geometrical data, to improve the simulation capabilities of EUROPLEXUS by adding failure capabilities for specific finite elements, to implement new material models (e.g. glass), and to add new modules that achieve data post-processing for the calculation of fatal and non-fatal injuries risk. The aforementioned improvements are explained in the present work with emphasis in the newly developed risk analysis features of EUROPLEXUS. PMID:19773121

  4. Preparation and in situ Characterization of Surfaces Using Soft-Landing in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Jormarie; Cooks, Robert G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Gaspar, Dan J.; Futrell, Jean H.; Laskin, Julia

    2005-06-01

    Mass-selected peptide ions produced by electrospray ionization were deposited onto fluorinated self-assembled monolayer surfaces (FSAM) surfaces by soft-landing using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) specially designed for studying interactions of large ions with surfaces. Analysis of the modified surface was performed in situ by combining 2 keV Cs+ secondary ion mass spectrometry with FT-ICR detection of the sputtered ions (FT-ICR-SIMS). Regardless of the initial charge state of the precursor ion, the SIMS mass spectra included singly-protonated peptide fragment ions and peaks characteristic of the surfaces in all cases. In some experiments multiply-protonated peptide ions and [M+Au]+ ions were also observed upon SIMS analysis of modified surfaces. For comparison with the in situ analysis of the modified surfaces, ex situ analysis of some of the modified surfaces was performed by 25 kV Ga+ time of flight ? secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The ex situ analysis demonstrated that a significant number of soft-landed peptide ions remain charged on the surface even when exposed to air for several hours after deposition. Charge retention of soft-landed ions dramatically increases the ion yields obtained during SIMS analysis very sensitive detection of deposited material at less than 1% of monolayer coverage. Accumulation of charged species on the surface undergoes saturation due to Coulomb repulsion between charges at close to 30% coverage. We estimated that close to 1 ng of peptide could be deposited on the spot area of 4 mm2 of the FSAM surface without reaching saturation.

  5. Controlling the Charge State and Redox Properties of Supported Polyoxometalates via Soft Landing of Mass Selected Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gunaratne, Kalupathirannehelage Don D.; Johnson, Grant E.; Andersen, Amity; Du, Dan; Zhang, Weiying; Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Lin, Yuehe; Laskin, Julia

    2014-12-04

    We investigate the controlled deposition of Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anions, PMo12O403- and PMo12O402-, onto different self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces via soft landing of mass-selected ions. Utilizing in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), ex situ cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electronic structure calculations, we examine the structure and charge retention of supported multiply-charged POM anions and characterize the redox properties of the modified surfaces. SAMs of alkylthiol (HSAM), perfluorinated alkylthiol (FSAM), and alkylthiol terminated with NH3+ functional groups (NH3+SAM) are chosen as model substrates for soft landing to examine the factors which influence the immobilization and charge retention of multiply charged anionic molecules. The distribution of charge states of POMs on different SAM surfaces are determined by comparing the IRRAS spectra with vibrational spectra calculated using density functional theory (DFT). In contrast to the results obtained previously for multiply charged cations, soft landed anions are found to retain charge on all three SAM surfaces. This charge retention is attributed to the substantial electron binding energy of the POM anions. Investigation of redox properties by CV reveals that, while surfaces prepared by soft landing exhibit similar features to those prepared by adsorption of POM from solution, the soft landed POM2- has a pronounced shift in oxidation potential compared to POM3- for one of the redox couples. These results demonstrate that ion soft landing is uniquely suited for precisely controlled preparation of substrates with specific electronic and chemical properties that cannot be achieved using conventional deposition techniques.

  6. Entry, Descent, and Landing Technology Concept Trade Study for Increasing Payload Mass to the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juan R.; Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Powell, Richard W.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Tolson, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    A trade study was conducted that compared various entry, descent, and landing technologies and concepts for placing an 1,800 kg payload on the surface of Mars. The purpose of this trade study was to provide data, and make recommendations, that could be used in making decisions regarding which new technologies and concepts should be pursued. Five concepts were investigated, each using a different combination of new technologies: 1) a Baseline concept using the least new technologies, 2) Aerocapture and Entry from Orbit, 3) Inflatable Aeroshell, 4) Mid L/D Aeroshell-A (high ballistic coefficient), and 5) Mid L/D Aeroshell-B (low ballistic coefficient). All concepts were optimized to minimize entry mass subject to a common set of key requirements. These key requirements were: A) landing a payload mass of 1,800 kg, B) landing at an altitude 2.5 km above the MOLA areoid, C) landing with a descent rate of 2.5 m/s, and D) using a single launch vehicle available within the NASA Expendable Launch Vehicle Contract without resorting to in-space assembly. Additional constraints were implemented, some common to all concepts and others specific to the new technologies used. Among the findings of this study are the following observations. Concepts using blunt-body aeroshells (1, 2, and 3 above) had entry masses between 4,028 kg and 4,123 kg. Concepts using mid L/D aeroshells (4 and 5 above) were significantly heavier with entry masses of 5,292 kg (concept 4) and 4,812 kg (concept 5). This increased weight was mainly due to the aeroshell. Based on a comparison of the concepts it was recommended that: 1) re-qualified and/or improved TPS materials be developed, 2) large subsonic parachutes be qualified. Aerocapture was identified as a promising concept, but system issues beyond the scope of this study need to be investigated. Inflatable aeroshells were identified as a promising new technology, but they require additional technology maturation work. For the class of missions

  7. Mass movement processes triggered by land subsidence in Iztapalapa, the eastern part of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Hernández, M.; Carreón-Freyre, D.; Gutierrez-Calderon, R.; Cerca, M.; Flores-Garcia, W.

    2015-11-01

    Geological and structural conditions in the Basin of Mexico coupled with natural and anthropogenic factors, such as groundwater exploitation, provokes land subsidence and differential deformation. The study area is located in to the north of Iztapalapa, a municipality within Mexico City, in a site called "El Eden" with irregular topography. Where volcanic sequences overlie the lacustrine deposits of clays and silts and show displacements by the action of gravity. The displacement zone was delimited at the top of the slope by the formation of circular tensile fractures with stair -shaped geometries. At the base of the slope, compressive processes damaged housing, sidewalks and inclined light poles and trees. A NW-SE system of fractures was identified in which displacement velocities vary from a few millimeters to several centimeters per year. Which affects urban facilities. In this work a conceptual model of deformation is presented that integrates the geological and mechanical factors leading to landslide and land subsidence. A geophysical survey leads to evidence of how land subsidence processes increase the sliding slope.

  8. Coverage Dependent Charge Reduction of Cationic Gold Clusters on Surfaces Prepared Using Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Grant E.; Priest, Thomas A.; Laskin, Julia

    2012-11-29

    The ionic charge state of monodisperse cationic gold clusters on surfaces may be controlled by selecting the coverage of mass-selected ions soft landed onto a substrate. Polydisperse diphosphine-capped gold clusters were synthesized in solution by reduction of chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold(I) with borane tert-butylamine in the presence of 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane. The polydisperse gold clusters were introduced into the gas phase by electrospray ionization and mass selection was employed to select a multiply charged cationic cluster species (Au11L53+, m/z = 1409, L = 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) which was delivered to the surfaces of four different self-assembled monolayers on gold (SAMs) at coverages of 1011 and 1012 clusters/mm2. Employing the spatial profiling capabilities of in-situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) it is shown that, in addition to the chemical functionality of the monolayer (as demonstrated previously: ACS Nano, 2012, 6, 573) the coverage of cationic gold clusters on the surface may be used to control the distribution of ionic charge states of the soft-landed multiply charged clusters. In the case of a 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol SAM (FSAM) almost complete retention of charge by the deposited Au11L53+ clusters was observed at a lower coverage of 1011 clusters/mm2. In contrast, at a higher coverage of 1012 clusters/mm2, pronounced reduction of charge to Au11L52+ and Au11L5+ was observed on the FSAM. When soft landed onto 16- and 11-mercaptohexadecanoic acid surfaces on gold (16,11-COOH-SAMs), the mass-selected Au11L53+ clusters exhibited partial reduction of charge to Au11L52+ at lower coverage and additional reduction of charge to both Au11L52+ and Au11L5+ at higher coverage. The reduction of charge was found to be more pronounced on the surface of the shorter (thinner) C11 than the longer (thicker) C16-COOH-SAM. On the surface of the 1-dodecanethiol (HSAM) monolayer, the most abundant charge state

  9. Periodic spring-mass running over uneven terrain through feedforward control of landing conditions.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Luther R; Eaton, Caitrin E

    2014-09-01

    This work pursues a feedforward control algorithm for high-speed legged locomotion over uneven terrain. Being able to rapidly negotiate uneven terrain without visual or a priori information about the terrain will allow legged systems to be used in time-critical applications and alongside fast-moving humans or vehicles. The algorithm is shown here implemented on a spring-loaded inverted pendulum model in simulation, and can be configured to approach fixed running height over uneven terrain or self-stable terrain following. Offline search identifies unique landing conditions that achieve a desired apex height with a constant stride period over varying ground levels. Because the time between the apex and touchdown events is directly related to ground height, the landing conditions can be computed in real time as continuous functions of this falling time. Enforcing a constant stride period reduces the need for inertial sensing of the apex event, which is nontrivial for physical systems, and allows for clocked feedfoward control of the swing leg. PMID:25162480

  10. Controls on mass loss and nitrogen dynamics of oak leaf litter along an urban-rural land-use gradient.

    PubMed

    Pouyat, Richard V; Carreiro, Margaret M

    2003-04-01

    Using reciprocal leaf litter transplants, we investigated the effects of contrasting environments (urban vs. rural) and intraspecific variations in oak leaf litter quality on mass loss rates and nitrogen (N) dynamics along an urban-rural gradient in the New York City metropolitan area. Differences in earthworm abundances and temperature had previously been documented in the stands along this gradient. Red oak leaf litter was collected and returned to its original source stand as native litter to measure decay rates along the gradient. To separate site effects from litter quality effects on decay, reciprocal transplants of litter were also made between stands at the extremes of the environmental gradient (urban and rural stands). Land-use had no effect on mass loss and N dynamics of native litter by the end of the 22-month incubation period. The lack of differences in native litter suggests the factors affecting decay were similar across the stands in this study. However, in the transplant study both environment and litter type strongly affected decay of oak leaf litter. On average urban and rural litter decomposed faster over the incubation period in urban than in rural stands (P=0.016 and P=0.001, respectively, repeated measures ANOVA). Differences in mass loss between urban and rural stands resulted in rural environments having less mass remaining than urban environments at the end of the incubation period (25.6 and 46.2% for urban and rural sites, respectively). Likewise, less N remained in leaf residue in urban sites (71.3%) compared to that in rural sites (115.1%). Litter type also affected mass loss rates during the 22-month incubation period. On average rural litter mass loss rates were faster than urban litter rates in both urban and rural stands (P=0.030 and P=0.026, respectively, repeated measures ANOVA). By the end of the incubation period, rural litter exhibited 43 and 20% greater mass loss and retained 44 and 5% less N than urban litter decomposing in

  11. In situ Studies of Soft- and Reactive Landing of Mass-Selected Ions Using Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qichi; Wang, Peng; Gassman, Paul L.; Laskin, Julia

    2009-09-01

    Grazing incidence infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) for in situ and in real time characterization of substrates modified by soft- and reactive landing (SL and RL) of complex ions was implemented on a mass-selected ion deposition instrument. Ions produced by electrospray ionization were mass-selected using a quadrupole mass filter and deposited onto inert and reactive self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces. Surface composition during and after ion deposition was monitored using IRRAS. Physisorption of a cyclic peptide, Garmicidin S (GS), was studied for 8 hrs during deposition and additional 12 hrs after the end of deposition. The integrated signal of the characteristic amide bands followed a linear increase during the deposition and stayed unchanged after the deposition was finished. Similar linear increase in IRRAS signal was obtained following reactive deposition of the protonated dodecanediamine onto SAMs of dithiobis (succinimidyl undecanoate) (NHS-SAM) and 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid fluoride (COF-SAM) on gold. IRRAS allowed us to monitor for the first time the formation of the amide bond between reactive SAM surfaces and the projectile molecule.

  12. A Regional, Integrated Monitoring System for the Hydrology of the Pan-Arctic Land Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serreze, Mark; Barry, Roger; Nolin, Anne; Armstrong, Richard; Zhang, Ting-Jung; Vorosmarty, Charles; Lammers, Richard; Frolking, Steven; Bromwich, David; McDonald, Kyle

    2005-01-01

    Work under this NASA contract developed a system for monitoring and historical analysis of the major components of the pan-Arctic terrestrial water cycle. It is known as Arctic-RIMS (Regional Integrated Hydrological Monitoring System for the Pan-Arctic Landmass). The system uses products from EOS-era satellites, numerical weather prediction models, station records and other data sets in conjunction with an atmosphere-land surface water budgeting scheme. The intent was to compile operational (at 1-2 month time lags) gridded fields of precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (ET), P-ET, soil moisture, soil freeze/thaw state, active layer thickness, snow extent and its water equivalent, soil water storage, runoff and simulated discharge along with estimates of non-closure in the water budget. Using "baseline" water budgeting schemes in conjunction with atmospheric reanalyses and pre-EOS satellite data, water budget fields were conjunction with atmospheric reanalyses and pre-EOS satellite data, water budget fields were compiled to provide historical time series. The goals as outlined in the original proposal can be summarized as follows: 1) Use EOS data to compile hydrologic products for the pan-Arctic terrestrial regions including snowcover/snow water equivalent (SSM/A MODIS, AMSR) and near-surface freeze/thaw dynamics (Sea Winds on QuikSCAT and ADEOS I4 SSMI and AMSR). 2) Implement Arctic-RIMS to use EOS data streams, allied fields and hydrologic models to produce allied outputs that fully characterize pan-Arctic terrestrial and aerological water budgets. 3) Compile hydrologically-based historical products providing a long-term baseline of spatial and temporal variability in the water cycle.

  13. Soft Landing of Mass-Selected Gold Clusters: Influence of Ion and Ligand on Charge Retention and Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

    2015-02-01

    Herein, we employ a combination of reduction synthesis in solution, soft landing of mass-selected precursor and product ions, and in situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to examine the influence of ion and the length of diphosphine ligands on the charge retention and reactivity of ligated gold clusters deposited onto self-assembled monolayer surfaces (SAMs). Product ions (Au10L42+, (10,4)2+, L = 1,3-bis(diphenyl-phosphino)propane, DPPP) were prepared through in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) and precursor ions [(8,4)2+, L = 1,6-bis(diphenylphosphino)hexane, DPPH] were synthesized in solution for comparison to (11,5)3+ precursor ions ligated with DPPP investigated previously (ACS Nano 2012, 6, 573 and J. Phys. Chem. C. 2012, 116, 24977). Similar to (11,5)3+ precursor ions, the (10,4)2+ product ions are shown to retain charge on 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol monolayers (FSAMs). Additional abundant peaks at higher m/z indicative of reactivity are observed in the TOF-SIMS spectrum of (10,4)2+ product ions that are not seen for (11,5)3+ precursor ions. The abundance of (10,4)2+ on 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (COOH-SAMs) is demonstrated to be lower than on FSAMs, consistent with partial reduction of charge. The (10,4)2+ product ion on 1-dodecanethiol (HSAMs) exhibits peaks similar to those seen on the COOH-SAM. On the HSAM, higher m/z peaks indicative of reactivity are observed similar to those on the FSAM. The (8,4)2+ DPPH precursor ions are shown to retain charge on FSAMs similar to (11,5)3+ precursor ions prepared with DPPP. An additional peak corresponding to attachment of one gold atom to (8,4)2+ is observed at higher m/z for DPPH-ligated clusters. On the COOH-SAM, (8,4)2+ is less abundant than on the FSAM consistent with partial neutralization. The results indicate that although retention of charge by product ions generated by CID is similar to precursor ions their reactivity during analysis with SIMS is different

  14. Experimental Investigation of Soil and Atmospheric Conditions on the Momentum, Mass, and Thermal Boundary Layers Above the Land Atmosphere Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautz, A.; Smits, K. M.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Schulte, P.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of soil conditions (i.e. soil type, saturation) and atmospheric forcings (i.e. velocity, temperature, relative humidity) on the momentum, mass, and temperature boundary layers. The atmospheric conditions tested represent those typically found in semi-arid and arid climates and the soil conditions simulate the three stages of evaporation. The data generated will help identify the importance of different soil conditions and atmospheric forcings with respect to land-atmospheric interactions which will have direct implications on future numerical studies investigating the effects of turbulent air flow on evaporation. The experimental datasets generated for this study were performed using a unique climate controlled closed-circuit wind tunnel/porous media facility located at the Center for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes (CESEP) at the Colorado School of Mines. The test apparatus consisting of a 7.3 m long porous media tank and wind tunnel, were outfitted with a sensor network to carefully measure wind velocity, air and soil temperature, relative humidity, soil moisture, and soil air pressure. Boundary layer measurements were made between the heights of 2 and 500 mm above the soil tank under constant conditions (i.e. wind velocity, temperature, relative humidity). The soil conditions (e.g. soil type, soil moisture) were varied between datasets to analyze their impact on the boundary layers. Experimental results show that the momentum boundary layer is very sensitive to the applied atmospheric conditions and soil conditions to a much less extent. Increases in velocity above porous media leads to momentum boundary layer thinning and closely reflect classical flat plate theory. The mass and thermal boundary layers are directly dependent on both atmospheric and soil conditions. Air pressure within the soil is independent of atmospheric temperature and relative humidity - wind velocity and soil

  15. Changes in annual precipitation over the Earth's land mass excluding Antarctica from the 18th century to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijngaarden, W. A.; Syed, A.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation measurements made at nearly 1000 stations located in 114 countries were studied. Each station had at least 100 years of observations resulting in a dataset comprising over 1½ million monthly precipitation amounts. Data for some stations extend back to the 1700s although most of the data exist for the period after 1850. The total annual precipitation was found if all monthly data in a given year were present. The percentage annual precipitation change relative to 1961-90 was plotted for 6 continents; as well as for stations at different latitudes and those experiencing low, moderate and high annual precipitation totals. The trends for precipitation change together with their 95% confidence intervals were found for various periods of time. Most trends exhibited no clear precipitation change. The global changes in precipitation over the Earth's land mass excluding Antarctica relative to 1961-90 were estimated to be: -1.2 ± 1.7, 2.6 ± 2.5 and -5.4 ± 8.1% per century for the periods 1850-2000, 1900-2000 and 1950-2000, respectively. A change of 1% per century corresponds to a precipitation change of 0.09 mm/year.

  16. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Quigg

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  17. 43 CFR 3400.2 - Lands subject to leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands subject to leasing. 3400.2 Section 3400.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., submerged coastal lands within the Continental Shelf adjacent or littoral to any part of land within...

  18. 43 CFR 3400.2 - Lands subject to leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands subject to leasing. 3400.2 Section 3400.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., submerged coastal lands within the Continental Shelf adjacent or littoral to any part of land within...

  19. 43 CFR 3400.2 - Lands subject to leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands subject to leasing. 3400.2 Section 3400.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., submerged coastal lands within the Continental Shelf adjacent or littoral to any part of land within...

  20. Pyrolysis-Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry to Characterize Soil Organic Matter Composition in Chemically Isolated Fractions from Differing Land Uses

    SciTech Connect

    Plante, A. F.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Vigil, M.; Paul, E. A.

    2009-01-01

    Today's questions concerning the role of soil organic matter (SOM) in soil fertility, ecosystem functioning and global change can only be addressed through knowledge of the controls on SOM stabilization and their interactions. Pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS) provides a powerful and rapid means of assessing the biochemical composition of SOM. However, characterization of SOM composition alone is insufficient to predict its dynamic behavior. Chemical fractionation is frequently used to isolate more homogeneous SOM components, but the composition of fractions is frequently unknown. We characterized biochemical SOM composition in two previously studied soils from the USA, under contrasting land uses: cultivated agriculture and native vegetation. Bulk soils, as well as chemically isolated SOM fractions (humic acid, humin and non-acid hydrolysable), were analyzed using py-MBMS. Principal components analysis (PCA) showed distinct differences in the SOM composition of isolated fractions. Py-MBMS spectra and PCA loadings were dominated by low molecular weight fragments associated with peptides and other N-containing compounds. The py-MBMS spectra were similar for native whole-soil samples under different vegetation, while cultivation increased heterogeneity. An approach based on previously published data on marker signals also suggests the importance of peptides in distinguishing samples. While the approach described here represents significant progress in the characterization of changing SOM composition, a truly quantitative analysis will only be achieved using multiple internal standards and by correcting for inorganic interference during py-MBMS analysis. Overall, we have provided proof of principle that py-MBMS can be a powerful tool to understand the controls on SOM dynamics, and further method development is underway.

  1. An energy-filtering device coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer for soft-landing molecular ions on surfaces with controlled energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bodin, A.; Laloo, R.; Abeilhou, P.; Guiraud, L.; Gauthier, S.; Martrou, D.

    2013-09-15

    We have developed an energy-filtering device coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer to deposit ionized molecules on surfaces with controlled energy in ultra high vacuum environment. Extensive numerical simulations as well as direct measurements show that the ion beam flying out of a quadrupole exhibits a high-energy tail decreasing slowly up to several hundred eV. This energy distribution renders impossible any direct soft-landing deposition of molecular ions. To remove this high-energy tail by energy filtering, a 127° electrostatic sector and a specific triplet lenses were designed and added after the last quadrupole of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The results obtained with this energy-filtering device show clearly the elimination of the high-energy tail. The ion beam that impinges on the sample surface satisfies now the soft-landing criterion for molecular ions, opening new research opportunities in the numerous scientific domains involving charges adsorbed on insulating surfaces.

  2. Estimating groundwater recharge following land-use change using chloride mass balance of soil profiles: a case study at Guyuan and Xifeng in the Loess Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe

    2011-02-01

    Groundwater recharge is affected by land use in (semi)arid areas. A new application of the chloride-mass-balance approach has been developed to estimate the reduction in groundwater recharge following land-use change by comparing chloride concentrations below the root zone and above the base of the chloride accumulation zone, before and after the land-use conversion. Two sites in the Loess Plateau of central China have been selected for study. Results from the Guyuan terrace region show that groundwater recharge beneath natural sparse small-grass was 100 mm/year, but the conversion to winter wheat about 100 years ago has reduced groundwater recharge to 55 mm/year. At the Xifeng Loess Plain the conversion from winter wheat, with groundwater recharge at 33 mm/year, to apple orchard 7 years ago has led to chloride accumulation to 5 m below land surface, suggesting the recharge rate has been reduced. This is in agreement with previous studies in these areas which have shown that the regional afforestation and other land-use conversions have resulted in deep soil desiccation and have caused an upper boundary to form with low matrix potential, thus preventing the soil moisture from actually recharging the aquifer.

  3. Identifying the Sources of Dissolved Organic Matter in Streams Using Elemental Analysis Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectroscopy (EA-IRMS) Across a Land Use Gradient.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wymore, A.; Kalbitz, K.; Daley, M.; Koenig, L.; Miller, S.; McDowell, W. H.

    2014-12-01

    Differences in land use are known to influence the dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in stream ecosystems. Previous research has linked changes in land use to changes in both DOM quantity and quality, both of which can affect ecosystem processes within streams. However, the actual source of the carbon and nitrogen entering these lotic ecosystems has yet to be described. We used EA-IRMS (Elemental Analysis - Isotopic Mass Spectroscopy) to determine the δ13C and δ15N values of bulk stream water DOM to understand how the source of C and N varies with land use. Approximately 30 streams in New Hampshire and Maine that vary in land use and ultimately drain into The Great Bay, a nitrogen impaired estuary, were sampled. We also measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrient concentrations, characterized DOM optical properties using fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy, and measured DOM bioavailability via DOC biodegradation assays. Regression-based analyses were then used to relate DOM isotopic ratios, optical metrics, and land-use parameters (e.g. % agriculture, population density) to one another and with rates of DOC decomposition.

  4. The effect of land-use on the diversity and mass-abundance relationships of understory avian insectivores in Sri Lanka and southern India

    PubMed Central

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Srinivasan, Umesh; Mammides, Christos; Chen, Jin; Manage Goodale, Uromi; Wimalabandara Kotagama, Sarath; Sidhu, Swati; Goodale, Eben

    2015-01-01

    Understory avian insectivores are especially sensitive to deforestation, although regional differences in how these species respond to human disturbance may be linked to varying land-use histories. South Asia experienced widespread conversion of forest to agriculture in the nineteenth century, providing a comparison to tropical areas deforested more recently. In Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India, we compared understory insectivores to other guilds, and to insectivores with different vertical strata preferences, both inside mixed-species flocks and for the whole bird community. Overall species richness did not change across the land-use gradient, although there was substantial turnover in species composition between land-use types. We found that the proportion of species represented by insectivores was ~1.14 times higher in forest compared to agriculture, and the proportion of insectivores represented by understory species was ~1.32 times higher in forests. Mass-abundance relationships were very different when analyzed on mixed-species flocks compared to the total community, perhaps indicating reduced competition in these mutualisms. We show that South Asia fits the worldwide pattern of understory insectivores declining with increased land-use intensity, and conclude that these species can be used globally as indicator and/or umbrella species for conservation across different disturbance time scales. PMID:26108368

  5. The effect of land-use on the diversity and mass-abundance relationships of understory avian insectivores in Sri Lanka and southern India.

    PubMed

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Srinivasan, Umesh; Mammides, Christos; Chen, Jin; Manage Goodale, Uromi; Kotagama, Sarath Wimalabandara; Sidhu, Swati; Goodale, Eben

    2015-01-01

    Understory avian insectivores are especially sensitive to deforestation, although regional differences in how these species respond to human disturbance may be linked to varying land-use histories. South Asia experienced widespread conversion of forest to agriculture in the nineteenth century, providing a comparison to tropical areas deforested more recently. In Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India, we compared understory insectivores to other guilds, and to insectivores with different vertical strata preferences, both inside mixed-species flocks and for the whole bird community. Overall species richness did not change across the land-use gradient, although there was substantial turnover in species composition between land-use types. We found that the proportion of species represented by insectivores was ~1.14 times higher in forest compared to agriculture, and the proportion of insectivores represented by understory species was ~1.32 times higher in forests. Mass-abundance relationships were very different when analyzed on mixed-species flocks compared to the total community, perhaps indicating reduced competition in these mutualisms. We show that South Asia fits the worldwide pattern of understory insectivores declining with increased land-use intensity, and conclude that these species can be used globally as indicator and/or umbrella species for conservation across different disturbance time scales. PMID:26108368

  6. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  7. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  8. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  9. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  10. Spatio-temporal patterns of mass fluxes of micropollutants in Swiss rivers of catchments with different land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Christian; van der Voet, Jürgen; Singer, Heinz

    2010-05-01

    lakes, where it has a residence time of several weeks, while it flows through the river system within a few days. This example illustrates how compound properties, season and spatial location may interact and control the occurrence of micropollutants in a stream. The spatial nesting of study catchments made it possible to check the data for plausibility and consistency: we present data on cumulative mass balances downstream and test whether the load development along the river network corresponds to the spatial distribution of possible compound sources (e.g., acreage of arable fields, number of inhabitants etc.). Overall, the data show that monitoring of micropollutants may be achieved even without changing an existing monitoring programme. However, given the generally low concentrations in the composite samples of the NADUF programme compounds with lower use and/or lower stability may fall below the limit of reliable quantification or even detection. A proper interpretation of the data relies on additional (spatio-temporal) information like land use data or precipitation patterns.

  11. Mass losses from Svalbard land-terminating glaciers by the end of the 21st century under an RCP 8.5 scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Marco; Navarro, Francisco; Martín-Español, Alba

    2016-04-01

    The high Arctic archipelagos are among the most strongly glacierized landscapes on earth apart from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Svalbard, one of these archipelagos, holds about 36,000 km2 of glaciers and ice caps and is the region that has shown the least negative mass balance of all the high Arctic regions. However, future projections suggest that the archipelago will experience an unprecedented -for the Arctic- glacier recession over the 21st century. We here present a high-resolution modelling study of the future ice-mass evolution of 29 individual land-terminating glaciers on the Svalbard archipelago under an RCP 8.5 climate forcing, a rather pessimistic scenario that unfortunately seems to be becoming realistic. Our model calculates glacier mass balance and area/volume changes using a temperature-index approach in combination with a surface elevation change parameterization. The initial glacier topographies and volumes have been assessed from extensive ground-penetrating radar measurements carried out in recent years. The calculations are performed for the 21st century and are forced by statistically downscaled output of ten different global circulation models representing the RCP scenario 8.5. By a topography-based extrapolation of the simulation results to the entire archipelago we show that a complete loss of most of Svalbard's land-terminating glaciers and even a deglaciation of certain subregions of the archipelago might occur by the end of the 21st century. 98% of the land-terminating glaciers will have retreated to less than one tenth of their initial extent by 2100, resulting in a loss of 7392±2481 km2 of ice coverage.

  12. Mass balance of Graham Land at present-day and over the past 150 years using GRACE and GNSS station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivins, E. R.; Wiese, D. N.; Watkins, M. M.; Landerer, F. W.; Simms, A.; Yuan, D. N.; Boening, C.; Domack, E. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula has been warming at an anomalously high rate with respect to other parts of the globe for the past 115 years. The increased atmospheric and ocean warmth has caused both increased precipitation and loss of buttressing near the trunks of the numerous outlet glaciers that drain into the ocean. The measurements by space gravimetry (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment or 'GRACE') have been crucial to identifying the dominant role of losses in butressing in a decadal-scale total ice mass budget for the Peninsula north of about 69 °S. One of the major losses of butressing came at a time when the Larsen B Ice Shelf catastrophically disintegrated into the northernmost Weddell Sea in March of 2002, the same month that GRACE was launched into orbit. The solid Earth rebounded in phase with the speed-up of the unbutressed outlet glaciers as evidenced by GNSS station data. The process has been repeating itself throughout the northern Peninsula since the late 1980's. Larsen A Ice Shelf breakup (LAISb) occurred, for example, in the Austral summer of 1993. Rott et al. (2011) have estimated a velocity acceleration at the trunks of 11 LBISb outlet glaciers for which flux-gate mass transport can be measured. Butress loss caused an increase in discharge of 4.3 ± 1.6 Gt/a in 2008, relative to measurements that span 1995-1999 for 11 Larsen B feeding glaciers. GRACE analysis centers have now released 12 years of monthly solutions (RL05) for global mass change. Solutions for the region of the Peninsula north of 69 ° S (Graham Land) using both constrained and unconstrained mascon methods show 2003-2011 net ice loss to the oceans with a trend of greater than 32 Gt/yr (Ivins et al., 2011; Luthcke et al., 2013). A new set of mascon solutions developed by JPL (Wiese et al., 2014) provide a high-resolution look at the evolution of mass in the Antarctic Peninsula from 2003-2014. We employ a time-series from these solutions and discuss the evolution of mass changes

  13. Pyrolysis-Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry to Characterize Soil Organic Matter Composition in Chemically Isolated Fractions from Differing Land Uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Questions concerning the role of soil organic matter (SOM) in soil fertility, ecosystem functioning and global change requires knowledge of the controls on SOM stabilization and their interactions. Pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS) provides a powerful and rapid means of characteri...

  14. Geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Dilamarter, R.C.

    1982-07-01

    The geomorphology of portions of western Kentucky and adjacent areas in Indiana, Illinois and Tennessee is presented as a background for interpreters evaluating the present land surface using remotely sensed imagery. Eight physiographic units were analyzed and are briefly discussed with reference to topography and surface deposits. Great diversity was found to be characteristic of the region, the result of different structural influences and geomorphic processes. The landscape bears the marks of fluvial, glacial, eolian, lacustrine and karstic environments, so a regional geomorphic history was compiled from the literature as an aid to understanding the land surface. Three smaller zones in Kentucky were analyzed in greater detail regarding topography and geomorphic development because of their potential importance in subsurface exploration.

  15. Evolution of size-segregated aerosol mass concentration during the Antarctic summer at Northern Foothills, Victoria Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illuminati, Silvia; Bau, Sébastien; Annibaldi, Anna; Mantini, Caterina; Libani, Giulia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the Italian National Programm for Antarctic Research (PNRA), the first direct gravimetric measurements of size-segregated aerosol fractions were carried out at Faraglione Camp, ˜3-km far from the Italian station "M. Zucchelli" (Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea), during the 2014-2015 austral summer. A six-stage high-volume cascade impactor with size classes between 10 μm and 0.49 μm, and, in parallel, for comparison purposes, a PM10 high-volume sampler (50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm) were used. A 10-day sampling strategy was adopted. Aerosol mass measurements were carried out before and after exposure by using a microbalance specifically designed for the filter weight and placed inside a glove bag in order to maintain stable temperature and humidity conditions during weighing sessions. Measured atmospheric concentrations (referred to the "actual air conditions" of mean temperature of 268 K and mean pressure of 975 hPa) of size-segregated aerosol fractions showed the following values, given as size range, means (interquartile range): Dp < 0.49 μm, 0.33 (0.26-0.34) μg m-3; 0.49-0.95 μm, 0.20 (0.19-0.24) μg m-3; 0.95-1.5 μm, 0.16 (0.13-0.21) μg m-3; 1.5-3.0 μm 0.075 (0.05-0.11) μg m-3; 3.0-7.2 μm 0.12 (0.02-0.19) μg m-3; 7.2-10 μm 0.06 (0.01-0.03) μg m-3. The average mass concentration of the total PM10 at Faraglione Camp for the entire sampling period was 0.92 (0.67-1.1) μg m-3. Although a great variability, the aerosol mass concentration showed a tri-modal distribution, with an accumulation mode (in the range 0.1-1.0 μm) and two coarse modes (CM1 in the range 1.0-3.0 μm, and CM2 in the range 3.0-10 μm). From 50% to 90% of the PM10 mass comes from particles of a size smaller than 1.0 μm. The two coarse modes represented from ˜5% to ˜35% of the PM10, showing opposite seasonal trends (CM1 decreased while CM2 increased). During summer, PM10 mass concentration increased to a maximum of ˜1.6 μg m-3 at mid-December, while

  16. Agricultural Intensification Exacerbates Spillover Effects on Soil Biogeochemistry in Adjacent Forest Remnants

    PubMed Central

    Didham, Raphael K.; Barker, Gary M.; Bartlam, Scott; Deakin, Elizabeth L.; Denmead, Lisa H.; Fisk, Louise M.; Peters, Jennifer M. R.; Tylianakis, Jason M.; Wright, Hannah R.; Schipper, Louis A.

    2015-01-01

    Land-use intensification is a central element in proposed strategies to address global food security. One rationale for accepting the negative consequences of land-use intensification for farmland biodiversity is that it could ‘spare’ further expansion of agriculture into remaining natural habitats. However, in many regions of the world the only natural habitats that can be spared are fragments within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Therefore, land-sparing arguments hinge on land-use intensification having low spillover effects into adjacent protected areas, otherwise net conservation gains will diminish with increasing intensification. We test, for the first time, whether the degree of spillover from farmland into adjacent natural habitats scales in magnitude with increasing land-use intensity. We identified a continuous land-use intensity gradient across pastoral farming systems in New Zealand (based on 13 components of farmer input and soil biogeochemistry variables), and measured cumulative off-site spillover effects of fertilisers and livestock on soil biogeochemistry in 21 adjacent forest remnants. Ten of 11 measured soil properties differed significantly between remnants and intact-forest reference sites, for both fenced and unfenced remnants, at both edge and interior. For seven variables, the magnitude of effects scaled significantly with magnitude of surrounding land-use intensity, through complex interactions with fencing and edge effects. In particular, total C, total N, δ15N, total P and heavy-metal contaminants of phosphate fertilizers (Cd and U) increased significantly within remnants in response to increasing land-use intensity, and these effects were exacerbated in unfenced relative to fenced remnants. This suggests movement of livestock into surrounding natural habitats is a significant component of agricultural spillover, but pervasive changes in soil biogeochemistry still occur through nutrient spillover channels alone, even in fenced

  17. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  18. Impact Differences in Ground Reaction Force and Center of Mass Between the First and Second Landing Phases of a Drop Vertical Jump and their Implications for Injury Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Nathaniel A.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    The drop vertical jump (DVJ) task is commonly used to assess biomechanical performance measures that are associated with ACL injury risk in athletes. Previous investigations have solely assessed the first landing phase. We examined the first and second landings of a DVJ for differences in the magnitude of vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and position of center of mass (CoM). A cohort of 239 adolescent female basketball athletes completed a series of DVJ tasks from an initial box height of 31 cm. Dual force platforms and a three dimensional motion capture system recorded force and positional data for each trial. There was no difference in peak vGRF between landings (p = 0.445), but side-to-side differences increased from the first to second landing (p = 0.007). Participants demonstrated a lower minimum CoM during stance in the first landing than the second landing (p < 0.001). The results have important implications for the future assessment of ACL injury risk behaviors in adolescent female athletes. Greater side-to-side asymmetry in vGRF and higher CoM during impact indicate the second landing of a DVJ may exhibit greater perturbation and better represent in-game mechanics associated with ACL injury risk. PMID:23538000

  19. The influence of mantle viscosity structure and past decadal to millennial-scale ice mass changes on present-day land motion in Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Matthew; Wake, Leanne; Milne, Glenn; Huybrechts, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    We show predictions of present-day vertical land motion in Greenland using a recently developed Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model, calibrated using both relative sea-level observations and geomorphological contraints on ice extent (Simpson et al., 2009). Predictions from our GIA model are in good agreement to the relatively small number of GPS measurements of absolute vertical motion from south and southwest Greenland. This suggests that our model of ice sheet evolution over the Holocene period is reasonably accurate. The uplift predictions are highly sensitive to variations of upper mantle viscosity; depending on the Earth model adopted different periods of ice loading change dominate the present-day response in particular regions of Greenland. We shall present a suite of results to demonstrate this sensitivity. We also consider the possible influence of more recent changes in the ice sheet by applying a second ice model; specifically, a surface mass balance (SMB) model (Wake et al., 2009), which covers the period 1866 to 2005. Predictions from this model suggest that decadal-scale SMB changes over the last c. 140 years play only a small role in determining the present-day viscous response. However, high rates of peripheral thinning from 1995 to 2005 in the SMB model produce large elastic uplift rates in west and southwest Greenland. Using the same SMB model, we extend our study period to cover the last thousand years (for which there is less accurate climate data) and constrain ice mass changes over this time using new high resolution records of relative sea-level change. Our preliminary findings suggest that century-scale ice mass variation over the last thousand years may contribute significantly to the present-day viscous response. Simpson, M.J.R, Milne, G.A., Huybrechts, P., Long, A.J., 2009. Calibrating a glaciological model of the Greenland ice sheet from the last glacial maximum to present-day using field observations of relative sea level and ice

  20. Exophytic Atheroma Mimicking Papillary Fibroelastoma Adjacent to the Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Cho, Tomoki; Tokunaga, Shigehiko; Yasuda, Shota; Izubuchi, Ryo; Masuda, Munetaka

    2015-09-01

    Follow-up echocardiography in a 69-year-old man with alcoholic cardiomyopathy showed a mass above the aortic valve near the left coronary ostium. Transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography suggested a papillary fibroelastoma with a high risk of embolism. At operation we found an exophytic atheroma adjacent to the left coronary artery orifice. The atheroma was removed, and the patient made an uneventful recovery. We describe this very rare case of an exophytic atheroma mimicking a papillary fibroelastoma situated at the left coronary orifice. PMID:26354633

  1. MASS SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  2. Combined deep sampling and mass-based approaches to assess soil carbon and nitrogen losses due to land-use changes in karst area of southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yecui; Du, Zhangliu; Wang, Qibing; Li, Guichun

    2016-07-01

    The conversion of natural vegetation to human-managed ecosystems, especially the agricultural systems, may decrease soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) stocks. The objective of present study was to assess SOC and TN stocks losses by combining deep sampling with mass-based calculations upon land-use changes in a typical karst area of southwestern China. We quantified the changes from native forest to grassland, secondary shrub, eucalyptus plantation, sugarcane and corn fields (both defined as croplands), on the SOC and TN stocks down to 100 cm depth using fixed-depth (FD) and equivalent soil mass (ESM) approaches. The results showed that converting forest to cropland and other types significantly led to SOC and TN losses, but the extent depended on both sampling depths and calculation methods selected (i.e., FD or ESM). On average, the shifting from native forest to cropland led to SOC losses by 19.1, 25.1, 30.6, 36.8 and 37.9 % for the soil depths of 0-10, 0-20, 0-40, 0-60 and 0-100 cm, respectively, which highlighted that shallow sampling underestimated SOC losses. Moreover, the FD method underestimated SOC and TN losses for the upper 40 cm layer, but overestimated the losses in the deeper layers. We suggest that the ESM together with deep sampling should be encouraged to detect the differences in SOC stocks. In conclusion, the conversion of forest to managed systems, in particular croplands significantly decreased in SOC and TN stocks, although the effect magnitude to some extent depended on sampling depth and calculation approach selected.

  3. A hybrid prediction model for PM2.5 mass and components using a chemical transport model and land use regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Qian; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-04-01

    GEOS-Chem, a chemical transport model, provides time-space continuous estimates of atmospheric pollutants including PM2.5 and its major components, but model predictions are not highly correlated with ground monitoring data. In addition, its spatial resolution is usually too coarse to characterize the spatial pattern in pollutant concentrations in urban environments. Our objective was to calibrate daily GEOS-Chem simulations using ground monitoring data and incorporating meteorological variables, land-use terms and spatial-temporal lagged terms. Major PM2.5 components of our interest include sulfate, nitrate, organic carbon, elemental carbon, ammonium, sea salt and dust. We used a backward propagation neural network to calibrate GEOS-Chem predictions with a spatial resolution of 0.500° × 0.667° using monitoring data collected during the period from 2001 to 2010 for the Northeastern United States. Subsequently, we made predictions at 1 km × 1 km grid cells. We determined the accuracy of the spatial-temporal predictions using ten-fold cross-validation and "leave-one-day-out" cross-validation techniques. We found a high total R2 for PM2.5 mass (all data R2 0.85, yearly values: 0.80-0.88) and PM2.5 components (R2 for individual components were around 0.70-0.80). Our model makes it possible to assess spatially- and temporally-resolved short- and long-term exposures to PM2.5 mass and components for epidemiological studies.

  4. SOLIDS TRANSPORT BETWEEN ADJACENT CAFB FLUIDIZED BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an experimental investigation of a pulsed, dense-phase pneumatic transport system for controlled circulation between adjacent fluidized beds. A model was developed to predict performance. The program provides technical support for EPA's program to demo...

  5. Border separation for adjacent orthogonal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, B.L.; Khan, F.M.; Sharma, S.C.; Lee, C.K.; Kim, T.H. )

    1991-06-01

    Field border separations for adjacent orthogonal fields can be calculated geometrically, given the validity of some important assumptions such as beam alignment and field uniformity. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements were used to investigate dose uniformity across field junctions as a function of field separation and, in particular, to review the CCSG recommendation for the treatment of medulloblastoma with separate head and spine fields.

  6. 43 CFR 2807.14 - How will BLM notify me if someone else wants a grant for land subject to my grant or near or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... wants a grant for land subject to my grant or near or adjacent to it? 2807.14 Section 2807.14 Public... grant for land subject to my grant or near or adjacent to it? BLM will notify you in writing when it receives a grant application for land subject to your grant or near or adjacent to it. BLM will...

  7. 43 CFR 2807.14 - How will BLM notify me if someone else wants a grant for land subject to my grant or near or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wants a grant for land subject to my grant or near or adjacent to it? 2807.14 Section 2807.14 Public... grant for land subject to my grant or near or adjacent to it? BLM will notify you in writing when it receives a grant application for land subject to your grant or near or adjacent to it. BLM will...

  8. 43 CFR 2807.14 - How will BLM notify me if someone else wants a grant for land subject to my grant or near or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wants a grant for land subject to my grant or near or adjacent to it? 2807.14 Section 2807.14 Public... grant for land subject to my grant or near or adjacent to it? BLM will notify you in writing when it receives a grant application for land subject to your grant or near or adjacent to it. BLM will...

  9. 43 CFR 2807.14 - How will BLM notify me if someone else wants a grant for land subject to my grant or near or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wants a grant for land subject to my grant or near or adjacent to it? 2807.14 Section 2807.14 Public... grant for land subject to my grant or near or adjacent to it? BLM will notify you in writing when it receives a grant application for land subject to your grant or near or adjacent to it. BLM will...

  10. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  11. Future Landing Capabilities of the Mars 2020 Entry, Descent, and Landing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipp, K. A.; Hines, E. K.; Chen, A.

    2014-06-01

    This study examines landing site elevation capability as a function of landing season, for a future mission using the heritage MSL/Mars 2020 EDL system. Results are presented for a 1200kg landed mass with different parachute technology assumptions.

  12. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  13. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  14. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  15. X-15 landing on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    In this 17-second video clip, the X-15 is shown in flight and then landing on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Edwards Air Force Base. It is followed by an F-104A chase aircraft, whose pilot provided a second set of eyes to the X-15 pilot on landing in case of any problems. The video shows the skids on the back of the X-15 contacting the lakebed, with the aircraft's nose then rotating downward until the nose landing gear was on the lakebed.

  16. 23 CFR 970.214 - Federal lands congestion management system (CMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... value (protection/rejuvenation of resources, improved visitor experience) to the park and adjacent... LANDS HIGHWAYS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS National Park Service Management Systems §...

  17. Reconstructing genome mixtures from partial adjacencies.

    PubMed

    Mahmoody, Ahmad; Kahn, Crystal L; Raphael, Benjamin J

    2012-01-01

    Many cancer genome sequencing efforts are underway with the goal of identifying the somatic mutations that drive cancer progression. A major difficulty in these studies is that tumors are typically heterogeneous, with individual cells in a tumor having different complements of somatic mutations. However, nearly all DNA sequencing technologies sequence DNA from multiple cells, thus resulting in measurement of mutations from a mixture of genomes. Genome rearrangements are a major class of somatic mutations in many tumors, and the novel adjacencies (i.e. breakpoints) resulting from these rearrangements are readily detected from DNA sequencing reads. However, the assignment of each rearrangement, or adjacency, to an individual cancer genome in the mixture is not known. Moreover, the quantity of DNA sequence reads may be insufficient to measure all rearrangements in all genomes in the tumor. Motivated by this application, we formulate the k-minimum completion problem (k-MCP). In this problem, we aim to reconstruct k genomes derived from a single reference genome, given partial information about the adjacencies present in the mixture of these genomes. We show that the 1-MCP is solvable in linear time in the cases where: (i) the measured, incomplete genome has a single circular or linear chromosome; (ii) there are no restrictions on the chromosomal content of the measured, incomplete genome. We also show that the k-MCP problem, for k ≥ 3 in general, and the 2-MCP problem with the double-cut-and-join (DCJ) distance are NP-complete, when there are no restriction on the chromosomal structure of the measured, incomplete genome. These results lay the foundation for future algorithmic studies of the k-MCP and the application of these algorithms to real cancer sequencing data. PMID:23282028

  18. Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Arising Adjacent to a Breast Implant.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Ciara; Ged, Yasser; Quinn, Fiona; Walker, Jan; Kennedy, John; Gillham, Charles; Pittaluga, Stefania; McDermott, Ronan; Vandenberghe, Elisabeth; Grant, Cliona; Flavin, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Breast implant-associated lymphoma has recently gained wide recognition. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is the most frequently diagnosed subtype in this setting but the spectrum is broadening. A 66-year-old woman developed swelling and itch around her saline implant 6 years after its insertion. Imaging revealed a fluid collection surrounding the implant with an adjacent mass. Microscopy showed sclerotic tissue punctuated by discrete cellular nodules comprising small lymphocytes, eosinophils and interspersed large atypical Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS)-like cells. The HRS-like cells stained positively for CD30 and CD15 by immunohistochemistry. Small T-lymphocytes formed rosettes around HRS-like cells. Appearances were consistent with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction demonstrated no clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes, however, a t(14;18)(q32;q21)BCL2-JH translocation involving the major breakpoint region of the bcl2 gene was present. Staging positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan revealed FDG-avid masses in the right axilla and pelvis. Subsequent pathological examination identified low-grade follicular lymphoma (FL) with a t(14;18) translocation at these sites. To our knowledge, this is the first case of HL arising adjacent to a breast implant. An awareness of this diagnosis is important as classical HL, with its prominent mixed inflammatory background, may be overlooked as a reactive process when histologically assessing capsulectomy specimens. It is also important in the differential diagnosis for implant-associated ALCL as both contain large atypical CD30-positive cells highlighting the need for full immunohistochemical and molecular workup in such cases. This case also adds to the large body of literature regarding the association between HL and FL. PMID:26888955

  19. DISTRIBUTION OF CONTAMINANTS IN WATERS OF MONROE HARBOR (RIVER RAISIN), MICHIGAN AND ADJACENT LAKE ERIE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the results of surveys of selected organochlorines and metals in Monroe Harbor and adjacent Lake Erie. Seasonal surveys at 3 sites of contaminant distribution in the water column were designed to support exposure effects studies and mass balance modeling. Che...

  20. Land Retirement as a Habitat Restoration Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, P. N.; Wallender, W. W.

    2007-12-01

    the root zone. Salt on the surface may then be wind blown to adjacent areas creating a potential environmental hazard. Using field results from the U.S. Department of the Interior Land Retirement Demonstration Project at the Tranquillity site located in western Fresno County, principles of mass balance in a fixed control volume, the HYDRUS-1D Software Package for Simulating the One-Dimensional Movement of Water, Heat, and Multiple Solutes in Variably-Saturated Media, and PEST, a model-independent parameter optimizer, we have investigated the processes of soil water and salinity movement in the root zone and the deep vadose zone. Various combinations of evapotranspiration, soil water retention properties, water table condition and top and bottom boundary condition were tested. We show that certain Land Retirement scenarios decrease shallow water table and soil water salinity and enhance development of native plants as a means to facilitate habitat restoration for certain combination of soil and bottom boundary condition. Other combinations are not sustainable.

  1. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Dey, H; Csaba, G; Bernstein, G H; Porod, W

    2016-09-30

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing. PMID:27535227

  2. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  3. Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1974-01-01

    Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

  4. 25 CFR 166.307 - Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not covered by the permit? 166.307 Section 166.307 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations...

  5. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  6. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  7. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  8. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  9. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  14. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  15. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  16. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  17. 33 CFR 334.410 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.410 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, and adjacent waters, NC; danger zones for naval aircraft operations. (a) Target areas—(1) North Landing River (Currituck...

  18. NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN LOADING SOURCES FOR THREE COASTAL LAGOONS FROM ATMOSPHERIC AND WATERSHED SOURCES, ADJACENT COASTAL MARSHES, TIDAL EXCHANGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract and Oral Presentation Gulf Estuarine Research Society.

    Standing stocks and inputs of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) to three coastal lagoons, hereafter referred to as Kee's Bayou, Gongora, and State Park, with varying adjacent land-use, geomorphology, and water re...

  19. Seasonal variation in the quality of dissolved and particulate organic matter exchanged between a salt marsh and its adjacent estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, Christopher L.; Mikan, Molly P.; Etheridge, J. Randall; Burchell, Michael R.; Birgand, François

    2015-07-01

    Fluorescence was used to examine the quality of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM) exchanging between a tidal creek in a created salt marsh and its adjacent estuary in eastern North Carolina, USA. Samples from the creek were collected hourly over four tidal cycles in May, July, August, and October 2011. Absorbance and fluorescence of chromophoric DOM (CDOM) and of base-extracted POM (BEPOM) served as the tracers for organic matter quality while dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and base-extracted particulate organic carbon (BEPOC) were used to compute fluxes. Fluorescence was modeled using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and principle components analysis (PCA) of the PARAFAC results. Of nine PARAFAC components (C) modeled, C3 represented recalcitrant DOM and C4 represented fresher soil-derived source DOM. Component 1 represented detrital POM, and C6 represented planktonic POM. Based on mass balance, recalcitrant DOC export was 86 g C m-2 yr-1 and labile DOC export was 49 g C m-2 yr-1; no planktonic DOC was exported. The marsh also exported 41 g C m-2 yr-1 of detrital terrestrial POC, which likely originated from lands adjacent to the North River estuary. Planktonic POC export from the marsh was 6 g C m-2 yr-1. Assuming the exported organic matter was oxidized to CO2 and scaled up to global salt marsh area, respiration of salt marsh DOC and POC transported to estuaries could amount to a global CO2 flux of 11 Tg C yr-1, roughly 4% of the recently estimated CO2 release for marshes and estuaries globally.

  20. Seasonal Variation in the Quality of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Matter Exchanged Between a Salt Marsh and Its Adjacent Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, C. L.; Mikan, M.; Etheridge, J. R.; Burchell, M. R.; Birgand, F.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marshes are transitional ecosystems between terrestrial and marine environments. Along with mangroves and other vegetated coastal habitats, salt marshes rank among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, with critical global importance for the planet's carbon cycle. Fluorescence was used to examine the quality of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM) exchanging between a tidal creek in a created salt marsh and its adjacent estuary in eastern North Carolina, USA. Samples from the creek were collected hourly over four tidal cycles in May, July, August, and October of 2011. Absorbance and fluorescence of chromophoric DOM (CDOM) and of base-extracted POM (BEPOM) served as the tracers for organic matter quality while dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and base-extracted particulate organic carbon (BEPOC) were used to compute fluxes. Fluorescence was modeled using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and principle components analysis (PCA) of the PARAFAC results. Of nine PARAFAC components modeled, we used multiple linear regression to identify tracers for recalcitrant DOM; labile soil-derived source DOM; detrital POM; and planktonic POM. Based on mass balance, recalcitrant DOC export was 86 g C m-2 yr-1 and labile DOC export was 49 g C m-2 yr-1. The marsh also exported 41 g C m-2 yr-1 of detrital terrestrial POC, which likely originated from lands adjacent to the North River estuary. Planktonic POC export from the marsh was 6 g C m-2 yr-1. Using the DOM and POM quality results obtained via fluorescence measurements and scaling up to global salt marsh area, we estimated that the potential release of CO2 from the respiration of salt marsh DOC and POC transported to estuaries could be 11 Tg C yr-1, roughly 4% of the recently estimated CO2 release for marshes and estuaries globally.

  1. Interaction between adjacent lightning discharges in clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanhui; Zhang, Guangshu; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yajun; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Tinglong

    2013-07-01

    Using a 3D lightning radiation source locating system (LLS), three pairs of associated lightning discharges (two or more adjacent lightning discharges following an arbitrary rule that their space-gap was less than 10 km and their time-gap was less than 800 ms) were observed, and the interaction between associated lightning discharges was analyzed. All these three pairs of associated lightning discharges were found to involve three or more charge regions (the ground was considered as a special charge region). Moreover, at least one charge region involved two lightning discharges per pair of associated lightning discharges. Identified from electric field changes, the subsequent lightning discharges were suppressed by the prior lightning discharges. However, it is possible that the prior lightning discharge provided a remaining discharge channel to facilitate the subsequent lightning discharge. The third case provided evidence of this possibility. Together, the results suggested that, if the charges in the main negative charge region can be consumed using artificial lightning above the main negative charge regions, lightning accidents on the ground could be greatly reduced, on the condition that the height of the main negative charge region and the charge intensity of the lower positive charge region are suitable.

  2. Possible Factors affecting the Thermal Contrast between Middle-Latitude Asian Continent and Adjacent Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huaqiong; Wu, Tongwen; Dong, Wenjie

    2015-04-01

    A middle-latitude Land-Sea thermal contrast Index was used in this study which has close connection to the East Asian summer precipitation. The index has two parts which are land thermal index defined as JJA 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies at a land area (75°-90° E, 40° -55°N ) and ocean thermal index defined as that at an oceanic area (140° -150°E, 35° -42.5°N). The impact of the surface heat flux and atmospheric diabatic heating over the land and the ocean on the index was studied. The results show that the surface heat flux over Eurasian inner land has little influence to the land thermal index, while the variation of the surface latent heat flux and long-wave radiation over the Pacific adjacent to Japan has highly correlation with the ocean thermal index. The changes with height of the atmospheric diabatic heating rates over the Eurasian inner land and the Pacific adjacent to Japan have different features. The variations of the middle troposphere atmospheric long-wave and short-wave radiation heating have significantly influences on land thermal index, and that of the low troposphere atmospheric long-wave radiation, short-wave radiation and deep convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the land thermal index. For the ocean thermal index, the variations of the surface layer atmospheric vertical diffuse heating, large-scale latent heating and long-wave radiation heating are more important, low and middle troposphere atmospheric large-scale latent heating and shallow convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the ocean thermal index. And then the ocean thermal index has closely connection with the low troposphere atmospheric temperature, while the land thermal index has closely connection with the middle troposphere atmospheric temperature. The Effect of the preceding global SST anomalies on the index also was analyzed. The relations of land thermal index and ocean thermal index and the global SST anomalies

  3. Growth and decline of shoreline industry in Sydney estuary (Australia) and influence on adjacent estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Lean, J; Gunns, T

    2015-06-01

    Sydney estuary (Australia), like many urbanised waterways, is degraded due to an extended history of anthropogenic activity. Two major sources of contamination to this estuary are discharge by former shoreline industries and historic and contemporary catchment stormwater. The objectives of the present study were to document changes in shoreline land use from European settlement to the present day and determine the influence of this trend on the metal content of adjacent estuarine sediments. Temporal analysis of land use for seven time horizons between 1788 and 2010 showed rapid expansion of industry along much of the Sydney estuary foreshore soon after European settlement due to the benefits of easy and inexpensive access and readily available water for cooling and power. Shoreline industry attained maximum development in 1978 (32-km length) and declined rapidly to the present-day (9-km length) through redevelopment of industrial sites into medium- to high-density, high-value residential housing. Cores taken adjacent to 11 long-term industrial sites showed that past industrial practices contributed significantly to contamination of estuarine sediment. Subsurface metal concentrations were up to 35 times that of present-day surface sediment and over 100 times greater than natural background concentrations. Sedimentation rates for areas adjacent to shoreline industry were between 0.6 and 2.5 cm/year, and relaxation times were estimated at 50 to 100 years. Natural relaxation and non-disturbance of sediments may be the best management practice in most locations. PMID:25937494

  4. Parametrizations of land-atmosphere energy and mass transfer: the role of the snow layer and the freeze/thaw cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santolaria, E.; Rath, V.

    2012-04-01

    Land surface models are currently an active area of research because of their importance for circulation models on many spatial and temporal scales. Here we will compare the impact of different parametrization of the snow layer and the freeze-thaw cycle. The background of this study is the setup of a ling-term monitoring network in the Guadarrama mountains north of Madrid (GUMNET), where a number of complete meteorological observation sites will be complemented by shallow boreholes (10 m - 20 m), where temperatures and soil moisture are measured at various depths. We will focus our study on the aspects of different available land-surface models (Jules, NOAH, CLM) which impact their suitability to be used in a data assimilation framework with future data from GUMNET.

  5. Petroleum basins of Sakhalin and adjacent shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Mavrinski, Y.; Koblov, E. )

    1993-09-01

    Sixty-seven oil and gas fields have been discovered on Sakhalin and the adjacent shelf but the distribution of fields is uneven in north Sakhalin, south Sakhalin, and the Tatar basins. The sedimentary cover is composed of sandy, clayey, and siliceous rocks, with volcanogenic and coal-bearing deposits of Upper Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene 8-12 km thick. Marine clayey and siliceous oil source rocks are regionally developed in the section at different stratigraphic levels; the organic matter is of mixed type and the content varies from 0.5 to 1.5%. The upper Oligocene and middle-upper Miocene source rocks in the north Sakhalin basin are typical, and the organic carbon content ranges from 1 to 5%. The level of organic matter catagenesis and conversion into hydrocarbons is high because of the high differential geothermal gradient in the basins, 30-50[degrees]C per km. Porous sandstones in the Miocene form the reservoirs in all fields with the exception of Okruzhnoye, where the pay zone is a siliceous claystone. Growth-fault rollovers and anticlines form the main traps ranging in area from 5 to 300 km[sup 2], with amplitudes between 100 and 600 m. both stratigraphic and structural traps have been identified. Considerable volumes of reserves are associated with the Miocene deposits of north Sakhalin, which are characterized by an optimum combination of oil source rocks, focused migration paths, and thick sequences of reservoirs and cap rocks. Six large fields have been discovered in the past 15 yr. Oil and condensate reserves stand at over 300 million MT, and gas reserves are about 900 billion m[sup 3].

  6. [Comparative proteomic analysis of cancerous and adjacent normal lung tissues].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Beom; Pi, Kyung Bae

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in industrialized countries. Unfortunately, most lung cancers are found too late for a cure, therefore early detection and treatment is very important. We have applied proteomic analysis by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques for examination of cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous lung tissues from the same patient. The aim of the study was to find proteins, which could be used as biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of this disease. Indeed, we found differences in expression of several proteins, related to various cellular activities, such as, chaperoning (e.g., GRP96, GRP78, HSP27), metabolism and oxidation stress (e.g., L-fucose, GST), cytoskeleton (e.g., tubulin beta 2/3, beta actin), cell adhesion (e.g., annexin A5/3), binding proteins (e.g., 14-3-3 theta) and signal transduction. These changes may be important for progression of carcinogenesis; they may be used as the molecular-support for future diagnostic markers. PMID:21395069

  7. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  8. Quantifying aquatic insect deposition from lake to land.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Jamin; Townsend, Philip A; Hook, James C; Hoekman, David; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Gratton, Claudio

    2015-02-01

    Adjacent ecosystems are influenced by organisms that move across boundaries, such as insects with aquatic larval stages and terrestrial adult stages, which transport energy and nutrients from water to land. However, the ecosystem-level effect of aquatic insects on land has generally been ignored, perhaps because the organisms themselves are individually small. At the naturally productive Lake Mývatn, Iceland, we used two readily measured quantities: total insect emergence from water and relative insect density on land, to demonstrate an approach for estimating aquatic insect deposition (e.g., kg N x m(-2) x yr(-1)) to shore. Estimates from emergence traps between 2008 and 20.11 indicated a range of 0.15-3.7 g x m(-2) x yr(-1), or a whole-lake emergence of 3.1-76 Mg/yr; all masses are given as dry mass. Using aerial infall trap measurements of midge relative abundance over land, we developed a local-maximum decay function model to predict proportional midge deposition with distance from the lake. The dispersal model predicted midge abundance with R2 = 0.89, a pattern consistent among years, with peak midge deposition occurring 20-25 m inland and 70% of midges deposited within 100 m of shore. During a high-midge year (2008), we estimate midge deposition within the first 50 m of shoreline to be 100 kg xha(-1) x yr(-1), corresponding to inputs of 10 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1) and 1 kg P x ha(-1) x yr(-1), or about three to five times above background terrestrial N deposition rates. Consistent with elevated N input where midges are most dense, we observed that soil available nitrate in resin bags decreases with increasing distance from the lake. Our approach, generalizable to other systems, shows that aquatic insects can be a major source of nutrients to terrestrial ecosystems and have the capacity to significantly affect ecosystem processes. PMID:26240871

  9. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  11. Delayed Acquisition of Non-Adjacent Vocalic Distributional Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to compute non-adjacent regularities is key in the acquisition of a new language. In the domain of phonology/phonotactics, sensitivity to non-adjacent regularities between consonants has been found to appear between 7 and 10 months. The present study focuses on the emergence of a posterior-anterior (PA) bias, a regularity involving two…

  12. Metal speciation in agricultural soils adjacent to the Irankuh Pb-Zn mining area, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza; Roshani Rodsari, Parisa; Cohen, David R.; Emami, Adel; Dehghanzadeh Bafghi, Ali Akbar; Khodaian Ghegeni, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    Mining activities are a significant potential source of metal contamination of soils in surrounding areas, with particular concern for metals dispersed into agricultural area in forms that are bioavailable and which may affect human health. Soils in agricultural land adjacent to Pb-Zn mining operations in the southern part of the Irankuh Mountains contain elevated concentrations for a range of metals associated with the mineralization (including Pb, Zn and As). Total and partial geochemical extraction data from a suite of 137 soil samples is used to establish mineralogical controls on ore-related trace elements and help differentiate spatial patterns that can be related to the effects of mining on the agricultural land soils from general geological and environmental controls. Whereas the patterns for Pb, Zn and As are spatially related to the mining operations they display little correlation with the distribution of secondary Fe + Mn oxyhydroxides or carbonates, suggesting dispersion as dust and in forms with limited bioavailability.

  13. Groundwater recharge to the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Montgomery and Adjacent Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, Timothy D.; Delin, Geoffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Simply stated, groundwater recharge is the addition of water to the groundwater system. Most of the water that is potentially available for recharging the groundwater system in Montgomery and adjacent counties in southeast Texas moves relatively rapidly from land surface to surface-water bodies and sustains streamflow, lake levels, and wetlands. Recharge in southeast Texas is generally balanced by evapotranspiration, discharge to surface waters, and the downward movement of water into deeper parts of the groundwater system; however, this balance can be altered locally by groundwater withdrawals, impervious surfaces, land use, precipitation variability, or climate, resulting in increased or decreased rates of recharge. Recharge rates were compared to the 1971–2000 normal annual precipitation measured Cooperative Weather Station 411956, Conroe, Tex.

  14. Influence of an island land mass on the frequency of waterspout and tornado formation in its vicinity. Example of the Isle of Wight with regard to waterspouts and tornadoes affecting the English South Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meaden, G. T.; Matthews, P.; Bolton, N.; Elsom, D. M.; Gilbert, A.; Reynolds, D. J.; Rowe, M. W.

    2005-04-01

    This research deals with the incidence of tornadoes and waterspouts along the coasts of Hampshire and Sussex. In particular, the areas north and east of the Isle of Wight are studied and some cases analysed. The severity of the property damage indicates tornado tracks up to 900 m wide (as at Selsey on 7 January 1998) and suggests tornado intensities up to T8 on the International Tornado Scale. On extreme occasions (e.g. 14 December 1810, 28 September 1876, 7-8 January 1998, 28 October 2000, 30 October 2000) many dozens-and sometimes hundreds-of properties were damaged. The work suggests that the presence of the Isle of Wight's land mass in westerly and south-westerly conditions disturbs the atmospheric circulation sufficiently to trigger or to intensify tornadic vortices from storm cells, and implies that in the absence of the island there would be fewer such occurrences.

  15. Matrix Intensification Alters Avian Functional Group Composition in Adjacent Rainforest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Deikumah, Justus P.; McAlpine, Clive A.; Maron, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of farmland land-use matrices to surface mining is an increasing threat to the habitat quality of forest remnants and their constituent biota, with consequences for ecosystem functionality. We evaluated the effects of matrix type on bird community composition and the abundance and evenness within avian functional groups in south-west Ghana. We hypothesized that surface mining near remnants may result in a shift in functional composition of avifaunal communities, potentially disrupting ecological processes within tropical forest ecosystems. Matrix intensification and proximity to the remnant edge strongly influenced the abundance of members of several functional guilds. Obligate frugivores, strict terrestrial insectivores, lower and upper strata birds, and insect gleaners were most negatively affected by adjacent mining matrices, suggesting certain ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal may be disrupted by landscape change in this region. Evenness of these functional guilds was also lower in remnants adjacent to surface mining, regardless of the distance from remnant edge, with the exception of strict terrestrial insectivores. These shifts suggest matrix intensification can influence avian functional group composition and related ecosystem-level processes in adjacent forest remnants. The management of matrix habitat quality near and within mine concessions is important for improving efforts to preserveavian biodiversity in landscapes undergoing intensification such as through increased surface mining. PMID:24058634

  16. Agricultural land use and human presence around breeding sites increase stress-hormone levels and decrease body mass in barn owl nestlings.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Bettina; Béziers, Paul; Roulin, Alexandre; Jenni, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    Human activities can have a suite of positive and negative effects on animals and thus can affect various life history parameters. Human presence and agricultural practice can be perceived as stressors to which animals react with the secretion of glucocorticoids. The acute short-term secretion of glucocorticoids is considered beneficial and helps an animal to redirect energy and behaviour to cope with a critical situation. However, a long-term increase of glucocorticoids can impair e.g. growth and immune functions. We investigated how nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) are affected by the surrounding landscape and by human activities around their nest sites. We studied these effects on two response levels: (a) the physiological level of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, represented by baseline concentrations of corticosterone and the concentration attained by a standardized stressor; (b) fitness parameters: growth of the nestlings and breeding performance. Nestlings growing up in intensively cultivated areas showed increased baseline corticosterone levels late in the season and had an increased corticosterone release after a stressful event, while their body mass was decreased. Nestlings experiencing frequent anthropogenic disturbance had elevated baseline corticosterone levels, an increased corticosterone stress response and a lower body mass. Finally, breeding performance was better in structurally more diverse landscapes. In conclusion, anthropogenic disturbance affects offspring quality rather than quantity, whereas agricultural practices affect both life history traits. PMID:25903390

  17. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  18. Weekly Cycle of Lightning and Associated Patterns of Rainfall, Cloud, and Aerosols over Korea and Adjacent Oceans during Boreal Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Ji-In; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the weekly cycle of lightning over Korea and adjacent oceans and associated variations of aerosols, clouds, precipitation, and atmospheric circulations, using aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the NASA Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), cloud properties from MODIS, precipitation and storm height from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, and lightning data from the Korean Lightning Detection Network (KLDN) during 9-year from 2002 to 2010. Lightning data was divided into three approximately equal areas, land area of Korea, and two adjacent oceans, Yellow Sea and South Sea. Preliminary results show that the number of lightning increases during the middle of the week over Yellow Sea. AOD data also shows moderately significant midweek increase at about the same time as lightning peaks. These results are consistent with the recent studies showing the invigoration of storms with more ice hydrometeors by aerosols, and subsequently wash out of aerosols by rainfall. Frequency of lightning strokes tend to peak at weekend in land area and over South Sea, indicating local weekly anomalous circulation between land and adjacent ocean. On the other hand, lightning frequency over Yellow Sea appears to have very strong weekly cycle with midweek peak on around Wednesday. It is speculated that the midweek peak of lightning over Yellow Sea was related with aerosol transport from adjacent land area. AOD data also suggests midweek peak over Yellow Sea, however, the weekly cycle of AOD was not statistically significant. Changes in weekly cycle of lightning from pre-monsoon to monsoon season, as well as associated clouds and circulation patterns are also discussed.

  19. Mars Exploration Entry, Descent and Landing Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Robert D.; Manning, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    The United States has successfully landed five robotic systems on the surface of Mars. These systems all had landed mass below 0.6 metric tons (t), had landed footprints on the order of hundreds of km and landed at sites below -1.4 km MOLA elevation due the need to perform entry, descent and landing operations in an environment with sufficient atmospheric density. At present, robotic exploration systems engineers are struggling with the challenges of increasing landed mass capability to 0.8 t while improving landed accuracy to tens of km and landing at a site as high as +2 km MOLA elevation for the Mars Science Laboratory project. Meanwhile, current plans for human exploration of Mars call for the landing of 40-80 t surface elements at scientifically interesting locations within close proximity (tens of m) of pre-positioned robotic assets. This paper summarizes past successful entry, descent and landing systems and approaches being developed by the robotic Mars exploration program to increased landed performance (mass, accuracy and surface elevation). In addition, the entry, descent and landing sequence for a human exploration system will be reviewed, highlighting the technology and systems advances required.

  20. Low CO/CO2 ratios of comet 67P measured at the Abydos landing site by the Ptolemy mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, A.; Mousis, O.; Sheridan, S.; Morgan, G.; Andrews, D.; Barber, S.; Wright, I.

    2015-11-01

    Comets are generally considered to contain the best-preserved material from the beginning of our planetary system, although the mechanism of their formation and subsequent evolution are still poorly understood. Here we report the direct in situ measurement of H2O, CO, and CO2 by the Ptolemy mass spectrometer onboard the Philae lander, part of the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission, at the Abydos site of the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. A CO/CO2 ratio of around 0.07 ± 0.04 is found at the surface of the comet, a value substantially lower than the one measured by ROSINA in the coma. Such a major difference is a potential indication of heterogeneity of the nucleus and not of changes in the CO/CO2 ratio of the coma with radial distance.

  1. Dimensional analysis of earthquake-induced pounding between adjacent inelastic MDOF buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Changhai; Jiang, Shan; Li, Shuang; Xie, Lili

    2015-06-01

    In this study the seismic pounding response of adjacent multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) buildings with bilinear inter-story resistance characteristics is investigated through dimensional analysis. The application of dimensional analysis leads to a condensed presentation of the response, and the remarkable self-similarity property for bilinear MDOF buildings with inelastic collision is uncovered. It is shown that when the response is expressed in the appropriate dimensionless form, response spectra for any intensity of the excitation collapse to a single master curve. The reduced Π set explicitly describes the interaction between the colliding structures. The effect of pounding on the MDOF building's response is illustrated using three well-divided spectral regions (amplified, de-amplified and unaffected regions). Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects of the story stiffness of structures, the story stiffness ratio and mass ratio of adjacent buildings, the structural inelastic characteristics and the gap size values. Results show that (i) the influence of system stiffness ratio to the lighter and more flexible building is more significant in the first spectral region, where the maximum response of the building is amplified because of pounding; and (ii) the velocity and pounding force of the heavier and stiffer building is unexpectedly sensitive to the mass ratio of adjacent buildings.

  2. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  4. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature. PMID:27437018

  5. 1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 193.75. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 195.55. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  8. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  9. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 2. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS AND NORTHWEST APPROACH SPANS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Red River Bridge, Spanning Red River at U.S. Highway 82, Garland, Miller County, AR

  11. 1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  12. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  13. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  14. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  15. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Complications in exodontia--accidental dislodgment to adjacent anatomical areas.

    PubMed

    Grandini, S A; Barros, V M; Salata, L A; Rosa, A L; Soares, U N

    1993-01-01

    The authors report 4 cases of accidental dislodgement of teeth to adjacent anatomical areas during extraction. The causes and their prevention are discussed and solutions for the problem are suggested. PMID:8241759

  17. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  18. VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION CAMP ROCK FEATURE WITH OVER, ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION CAMP ROCK FEATURE WITH OVER, ADJACENT TO THE COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL. LOOKING NORTHWEST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  19. Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west end of the complex near Highway 101. Detail of Holloshaft pump. View to the south. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  20. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 24. INTERIOR VIEW, WILLIAM GRAY AT SIZING GUAGE ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR VIEW, WILLIAM GRAY AT SIZING GUAGE ADJACENT TO BRADLEY HAMMER; NOTE THIS IS THE SAME TOOL AS BEING FORGED ABOVE - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  2. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  3. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen he designed and installed in the Congdon Canal, facing southeast. Photo dates ca. late 1920's. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  5. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  6. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  7. VIEW OF CONCRETE CHANNEL ADJACENT TO TUMALO FEED CANAL INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONCRETE CHANNEL ADJACENT TO TUMALO FEED CANAL INTAKE STRUCTURE (DOWNSTREAM SIDE). LOOKING EAST/NORTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  8. 14 CFR 151.26 - Procedures: Applications; compatible land use information; consideration of local community...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Procedures: Applications; compatible land use information; consideration of local community interest... to restrict the use of land adjacent to or in the immediate vicinity of the airport to activities and... title to airspace) acquired by the sponsor to assure compatible land use, or to protect or...

  9. 14 CFR 151.26 - Procedures: Applications; compatible land use information; consideration of local community...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures: Applications; compatible land use information; consideration of local community interest... to restrict the use of land adjacent to or in the immediate vicinity of the airport to activities and... title to airspace) acquired by the sponsor to assure compatible land use, or to protect or...

  10. 14 CFR 151.26 - Procedures: Applications; compatible land use information; consideration of local community...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Procedures: Applications; compatible land use information; consideration of local community interest... to restrict the use of land adjacent to or in the immediate vicinity of the airport to activities and... title to airspace) acquired by the sponsor to assure compatible land use, or to protect or...

  11. 14 CFR 151.26 - Procedures: Applications; compatible land use information; consideration of local community...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures: Applications; compatible land use information; consideration of local community interest... to restrict the use of land adjacent to or in the immediate vicinity of the airport to activities and... title to airspace) acquired by the sponsor to assure compatible land use, or to protect or...

  12. Adjacent Segment Disease Perspective and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Pozo, Fanor M.; Deusdara, Renato A. M.; Benzel, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease has become a common topic in spine surgery circles because of the significant increase in fusion surgery in recent years and the development of motion preservation technologies that theoretically should lead to a decrease in this pathology. The purpose of this review is to organize the evidence available in the current literature on this subject. Methods For this literature review, a search was conducted in PubMed with the following keywords: adjacent segment degeneration and disease. Selection, review, and analysis of the literature were completed according to level of evidence. Results The PubMed search identified 850 articles, from which 41 articles were selected and reviewed. The incidence of adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine is close to 3% without a significant statistical difference between surgical techniques (fusion vs arthroplasty). Authors report the incidence of adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine to range from 2% to 14%. Damage to the posterior ligamentous complex and sagittal imbalances are important risk factors for both degeneration and disease. Conclusion Insufficient evidence exists at this point to support the idea that total disc arthroplasty is superior to fusion procedures in minimizing the incidence of adjacent segment disease. The etiology is most likely multifactorial but it is becoming abundantly clear that adjacent segment disease is not caused by motion segment fusion alone. Fusion plus the presence of abnormal end-fusion alignment appears to be a major factor in creating end-fusion stresses that result in adjacent segment degeneration and subsequent disease. The data presented cast further doubt on previously established rationales for total disc arthroplasty, at least with regard to the effect of total disc arthroplasty on adjacent segment degeneration pathology. PMID:24688337

  13. Approximating the largest eigenvalue of network adjacency matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan G.; Ott, Edward; Hunt, Brian R.

    2007-11-01

    The largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of a network plays an important role in several network processes (e.g., synchronization of oscillators, percolation on directed networks, and linear stability of equilibria of network coupled systems). In this paper we develop approximations to the largest eigenvalue of adjacency matrices and discuss the relationships between these approximations. Numerical experiments on simulated networks are used to test our results.

  14. Resonant optical transmission through a one-dimensional photonic crystal adjacent to a thin metal film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chang-Sheng; Tang, Han; He, Cheng; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Ni, Xu; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng; Ming, Nai-Ben

    2011-05-01

    We theoretically and experimentally reveal that the large resonant optical transmission (ROT) can be realized through a one-dimensional photonic crystal adjacent to a thin metal film, at a frequency in the original band-gap of the photonic crystal (PC). The influence of periodic number of PC and the thickness of the adjacent metal on the transmission frequency and intensity is studied in detail. An optimum design is given to reach the maximum transmission efficiency, meanwhile a mechanism underlining the ROT phenomenon is proposed. An effective admittance-matching theory is proposed to understand this effect and quantitatively determine the operating frequency, which matches very well with the simulated and measured results. The effects might be very useful to realize some optical filters and sensor devices since the structure is easy for mass production and is matured technically to be prepared in industry.

  15. A Mass-balance nitrate model for predicting the effects of land use on ground-water quality in municipal wellhead-protection areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frimpter, M.H.; Donohue, J.J.; Rapacz, M.V.; Beye, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    A mass-balance accounting model can be used to guide the management of septic systems and fertilizers to control the degradation of groundwater quality in zones of an aquifer that contributes water to public supply wells. The nitrate nitrogen concentration of the mixture in the well can be predicted for steady-state conditions by calculating the concentration that results from the total weight of nitrogen and total volume of water entering the zone of contribution to the well. These calculations will allow water-quality managers to predict the nitrate concentrations that would be produced by different types and levels of development, and to plan development accordingly. Computations for different development schemes provide a technical basis for planners and managers to compare water quality effects and to select alternatives that limit nitrate concentration in wells. Appendix A contains tables of nitrate loads and water volumes from common sources for use with the accounting model. Appendix B describes the preparation of a spreadsheet for the nitrate loading calculations with a software package generally available for desktop computers. (USGS)

  16. The Biogeohydroclimatology of Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2008-05-01

    When John Donne wrote his Meditation XVII, which includes the famous"No man is an island" passage, he was thinking about connections between people; no human being is isolated from another. Donne might just as well have been writing about the science of land use, however. What happens on one plot of land clearly affects what happens on another, whether downhill, downstream, or downwind. I will explore the consequences of land use for mass and energy fluxes, focusing on pasture, crop, and forest transitions in the Americas. I'll discuss my own work, some work of collaborators, and a few examples from the literature. No man is an island.

  17. Advanced characterisation of organic matter in oil sands and tailings sands used for land reclamation by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noah, M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Wilkes, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Athabasca region of northern Alberta, Canada, is home to deposits of oil sands containing vast amounts (~ 173 billion barrels) of heavily biodegraded petroleum. Oil sands are recovered by surface mining or by in situ steam injection. The extraction of bitumen from oil sands by caustic hot water processing results in large volumes of fluid tailings, which are stored in on-site settling basins. There the tailings undergo a compaction and dewatering process, producing a slowly densifying suspension. The released water is recycled for extraction. The fine tailings will be reclaimed as either dry or wet landscapes. [1] To produce 1 barrel of crude oil, 2 tons of oil sand and 2 - 3 tons of water (including recycled water) are required. [2] Open pit mining and the extraction of the bitumen from the oil sands create large and intense disturbances of different landscapes. The area currently disturbed by mining operations covers about 530 km2 and the area of tailing ponds surpasses 130 km2. An issue of increasing importance is the land remediation and reclamation of oil sand areas in Canada and the reconstruction of these disturbed landscapes back to working ecosystems similar to those existing prior to mining operations. An important issue in this context is the identification of oil sand-derived organic compounds in the tailings, their environmental behaviour and the resulting chances and limitations with respect to land reclamation. Furthermore the biodegradation processes that occur in the tailings and that could lead to a decrease in hazardous organic compounds are important challenges, which need to be investigated. This presentation will give a detailed overview of our compositional and quantitative characterisation of the organic matter in oil sand, unprocessed and processed mature fine tailings samples as well as in tailings sands used as part of land reclamation. The analytical characterisation is based on the extraction of the soluble organic matter, its

  18. Eelgrass Meadows in the California Channel Islands and Adjacent Coast Reveal a Mosaic of Two Species, Evidence for Introgression and Variable Clonality

    PubMed Central

    Coyer, J. A.; Miller, K. A.; Engle, J. M.; Veldsink, J.; Cabello-Pasini, A.; Stam, W. T.; Olsen, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Seagrasses are important facilitator species in shallow, soft-bottom marine environments worldwide and, in many places, are threatened by coastal development and eutrophication. One narrow-leaved species (Zostera marina) and one wide-leaved species, variously designated as Z. marina, Z. pacifica or Z. asiatica, are found off the California Channel Islands and adjacent California–Mexico coast. The aim of the present study was to confirm species identification genetically and to link patterns of genetic diversity, connectivity and hybridization among and within the populations with historical sea levels (Ice Age) or the contemporary environment. Methods Samples (n = 11–100) were collected from 28 sites off five California Channel Islands and six sites off the adjacent coast of southern California and Baja California, Mexico. DNA polymorphisms of the rDNA-ITS (internal transcribed spacer) cistron (nuclear), the matK intron (chloroplast) and nine microsatellite loci (nuclear) were examined in a population genetic and phylogeographic context. Key Results All wide-leaved individuals were Z. pacifica, whereas narrow-leaved forms were Z. marina. Microsatellite genotypes were consistent with hybridization between the two species in three populations. The present distribution of Z. pacifica follows a glacial age land mass rather than present oceanographic regimes, but no link was observed between the present distribution of Z. marina and past or present environments. Island populations of Z. marina often were clonal and characterized by low genotypic diversity compared with populations along the Baja California coast. The high level of clonal connectivity around Santa Catalina Island indicated the importance of dispersal and subsequent re-establishment of vegetative fragments. Conclusions The pristine environmental conditions of offshore islands do not guarantee maximum genetic diversity. Future restoration and transplantation efforts of seagrasses

  19. The Common Land Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yongjiu; Zeng, Xubin; Dickinson, Robert E.; Baker, Ian; Bonan, Gordon B.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Denning, A. Scott; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Houser, Paul R.; Niu, Guoyue; Oleson, Keith W.; Schlosser, C. Adam; Yang, Zong-Liang

    2003-08-01

    The Common Land Model (CLM) was developed for community use by a grassroots collaboration of scientists who have an interest in making a general land model available for public use and further development. The major model characteristics include enough unevenly spaced layers to adequately represent soil temperature and soil moisture, and a multilayer parameterization of snow processes; an explicit treatment of the mass of liquid water and ice water and their phase change within the snow and soil system; a runoff parameterization following the TOPMODEL concept; a canopy photosynthesis-conductance model that describes the simultaneous transfer of CO2 and water vapor into and out of vegetation; and a tiled treatment of the subgrid fraction of energy and water balance. CLM has been extensively evaluated in offline mode and coupling runs with the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3). The results of two offline runs, presented as examples, are compared with observations and with the simulation of three other land models [the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS), Bonan's Land Surface Model (LSM), and the 1994 version of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Atmospheric Physics LSM (IAP94)].

  20. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  1. Amazonian anthrosols support similar microbial communities that differ distinctly from those extant in adjacent, unmodified soils of the same mineralogy.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Julie M; O'Neill, Brendan E; Tsai, Siu Mui; Liang, Biqing; Neves, Eduardo; Lehmann, Johannes; Thies, Janice E

    2010-07-01

    We compared the microbial community composition in soils from the Brazilian Amazon with two contrasting histories; anthrosols and their adjacent non-anthrosol soils of the same mineralogy. The anthrosols, also known as the Amazonian Dark Earths or terra preta, were managed by the indigenous pre-Colombian Indians between 500 and 8,700 years before present and are characterized by unusually high cation exchange capacity, phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca) contents, and soil carbon pools that contain a high proportion of incompletely combusted biomass as biochar or black carbon (BC). We sampled paired anthrosol and unmodified soils from four locations in the Manaus, Brazil, region that differed in their current land use and soil type. Community DNA was extracted from sampled soils and characterized by use of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. DNA bands of interest from Bacteria and Archaea DGGE gels were cloned and sequenced. In cluster analyses of the DNA fingerprints, microbial communities from the anthrosols grouped together regardless of current land use or soil type and were distinct from those in their respective, paired adjacent soils. For the Archaea, the anthrosol communities diverged from the adjacent soils by over 90%. A greater overall richness was observed for Bacteria sequences as compared with those of the Archaea. Most of the sequences obtained were novel and matched those in databases at less than 98% similarity. Several sequences obtained only from the anthrosols grouped at 93% similarity with the Verrucomicrobia, a genus commonly found in rice paddies in the tropics. Sequences closely related to Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria sp. were recovered only from adjacent soil samples. Sequences related to Pseudomonas, Acidobacteria, and Flexibacter sp. were recovered from both anthrosols and adjacent soils. The strong similarities among the microbial communities present in the anthrosols for

  2. On the Adjacent Eccentric Distance Sum Index of Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hui; Cao, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    For a given graph G, ε(v) and deg(v) denote the eccentricity and the degree of the vertex v in G, respectively. The adjacent eccentric distance sum index of a graph G is defined as ξsv(G)=∑v∈V(G)ε(v)D(v)deg(v), where D(v)=∑u∈V(G)d(u,v) is the sum of all distances from the vertex v. In this paper we derive some bounds for the adjacent eccentric distance sum index in terms of some graph parameters, such as independence number, covering number, vertex connectivity, chromatic number, diameter and some other graph topological indices. PMID:26091095

  3. Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.

  4. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica D.; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  5. [Spatial analysis on land use in Xishuangbanna].

    PubMed

    Song, Guobao; Li, Zhenghai; Gao, Jixi; Wang, Haimei

    2006-06-01

    Based on remote image and GIS technology, this paper analyzed the relationships between land use system and natural topographic factors such as elevation, slope, and river system in Xishuangbanna. The results showed that the land use system in the study region was dominated by forestland, cropland and grassland. The area of forestland was 13 420 km, accounting for 74% of the total, and that of cropland and grassland was 3 251 km2 and 2 332 km2, accounting for 13% and 18% of the total, respectively. The areas of these three land use types varied with elevation in single-peaked curve. Forestland mainly distributed around the elevation of 1 000 - 1 200 m, while cropland and grassland centralized at the elevation of 900 m. Urban land and cropland, which were greatly influenced by human activity, had lower slope index than forestland and grassland. Besides elevation and slope, river system in valley had effects on land use condition. With increasing buffer distance in valley, a strong spatial pattern of land use type was presented, i. e. , cropland, urban land and unused land concentrated greatly adjacent to water, while forestland and grassland were far away from valley. A landscape with relatively primary status, which was comprised of forestland as matrix, river as corridor, and cropland as patch, would come into being. PMID:16964932

  6. Land Cover Analysis of Temperate Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Satellite data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) instrument were used to produce a general land cover distribution of temperate Asia (referred to hence as Central Asia) from 1982, starting with the NOAA-7 satellite, and continuing through 1991, ending with the NOAA-11 satellite. Emphasis was placed upon delineating the and and semi-arid zones of Central Asia (largely Mongolia and adjacent areas), mapping broad categories of aggregated land cover, and upon studying photosynthetic capacity increases in Central Asia from 1982 to 1991.

  7. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and the adjacent East China Sea: implication of transport, sources and trends.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shanshan; Yang, Huayun; Zhang, Anping; Li, Yi-Fan; Liu, Weiping

    2014-11-01

    Thirty-eight surface sediments and two sediment cores were collected from Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and adjacent East China Sea (ECS) to study the distribution patterns, origins, potential transport and burden of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the marginal sea. Residues of OCPs ranged from 0.190 to 5.17 ng g(-1) dry weight with a distinct "band type" pattern under the control of Yangtze River inputs and ECS circulation system. Differences in transmission media and redox conditions in situ respectively resulted in the divergent distributions of α/β-HCH and DDD/DDE. The compositional pattern analysis implied that OCPs in the inner shelf of ECS were derived from both "weathered" and fresh sources, whereas those in the outer shelf of ECS had undergone high metabolism. Concurrent with the land-sea migration, vertical profiles of sediment cores showed increasing trends or rebound since the 1990s, characteristic of two evident "jumps" of DDE+DDD/DDT and DDT/DDE ratios. Moreover, the primary distribution pattern founded for HCHs and the considerable mass inventories calculated (6.20 metric tones for OCPs) together suggested that the contaminated sediments in the studied area to be a potential source of OCPs to the global ocean. PMID:25113180

  8. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  9. Colposcopy of vaginal and vulvar human papillomavirus and adjacent sites.

    PubMed

    Hatch, K

    1993-03-01

    Human papillomaviral infections can affect the entire lower female genital tract as multifocal or multicentric disease as well as the surrounding anatomic and adjacent sites. The traditional colposcopic methods are necessary to assist in the diagnosis and help differentiate these infections from other disease mimics. PMID:8392676

  10. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  11. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. 2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  13. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  14. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  15. Effects on stink bugs of field edges adjacent to woodland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers face significant crop losses from stink bug species in the southeastern USA, but the high mobility and polyphagy of the bugs make predictions of their presence in crops difficult. While there is some evidence that they colonize crops from adjacent crops, there are no studies of their colo...

  16. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  1. 45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, WALL ON LEFT DIVIDING CLOTH ROOM ADDED LATER (PROBABLY C. 1970s). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  2. Detail of north intermediate abutment pylon showing proximity of adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north intermediate abutment pylon showing proximity of adjacent 1001-1007 East First Street (James K. Hill and Sons Pickle Works Building), facing east - First Street Bridge, Spanning Los Angeles River at First Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  4. 4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN BUILDING PERIODS 1 AND 3. NOTE REUSED WOOD STRIP NAILED TO BUILDING PERIOD 1 POST INSCRIBED 'ST. LEONARD'. THERE ARE NO NAIL HOLES IN THE PERIOD 3 POST, THE FARRING STRIPS ADJUST FOR CLADDING - Charles' Gift, State Routes 2 & 4, Lusby, Calvert County, MD

  5. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side of bridge, taken from river level. Note entire east side and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  7. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points. 236.404 Section 236.404 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  8. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  9. Improving Hydrology in Land Ice Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephen; Flowers, Gwenn; Schoof, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Community Earth System Model Land Ice Working Group Meeting; Boulder, Colorado, 13 January 2011 ; Recent observations indicate that mass loss from glaciers and ice sheets (“land ice”) is increasing. The drivers of these changes are not well understood, and modeling the land ice response to them remains challenging. As a result, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change explicitly avoided speculating on 21st-century sea level rise from ice dynamical processes in its fourth assessment report. The mismatch between observations of land ice change and model skill at mimicking those changes is behind recent efforts to develop next-generation land ice models. Necessary improvements to existing models include improved dynamics, coupling to climate models, and better representations of important boundary conditions and physical processes. Basal sliding, the primary control on the rate of land ice delivery to the oceans, is one such boundary condition that is largely controlled by land ice hydrology.

  10. Fast microcalcification detection in ultrasound images using image enhancement and threshold adjacency statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Baek Hwan; Chang, Chuho; Lee, Jong-Ha; Ko, Eun Young; Seong, Yeong Kyeong; Woo, Kyoung-Gu

    2013-02-01

    The existence of microcalcifications (MCs) is an important marker of malignancy in breast cancer. In spite of the benefits in mass detection for dense breasts, ultrasonography is believed that it might not reliably detect MCs. For computer aided diagnosis systems, however, accurate detection of MCs has the possibility of improving the performance in both Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon description for calcifications and malignancy classification. We propose a new efficient and effective method for MC detection using image enhancement and threshold adjacency statistics (TAS). The main idea of TAS is to threshold an image and to count the number of white pixels with a given number of adjacent white pixels. Our contribution is to adopt TAS features and apply image enhancement to facilitate MC detection in ultrasound images. We employed fuzzy logic, tophat filter, and texture filter to enhance images for MCs. Using a total of 591 images, the classification accuracy of the proposed method in MC detection showed 82.75%, which is comparable to that of Haralick texture features (81.38%). When combined, the performance was as high as 85.11%. In addition, our method also showed the ability in mass classification when combined with existing features. In conclusion, the proposed method exploiting image enhancement and TAS features has the potential to deal with MC detection in ultrasound images efficiently and extend to the real-time localization and visualization of MCs.

  11. 75 FR 52972 - Notice of Temporary Closures and Restrictions on Specific Uses of Public Lands in Pershing County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...Notice is hereby given that under the authority of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), as amended, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Winnemucca District, Black Rock Field Office will implement and enforce the following temporary closures and restrictions to protect public safety and resources on public lands within and adjacent to the Burning Man Festival on the Black......

  12. 77 FR 48529 - Notice of Temporary Closure and Temporary Restrictions of Specific Uses on Public Lands in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...Notice is hereby given that under the authority of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) of 1976, as amended, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Winnemucca District, Black Rock Field Office will implement and enforce a temporary closure and temporary restrictions to protect public safety and resources on public lands within and adjacent to the Burning Man event on the Black Rock......

  13. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  14. Mosquito Larval Habitats, Land Use, and Potential Malaria Risk in Northern Belize from Satellite Image Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of Anopheles mosquito habitats and land use in northern Belize is examined with satellite data. -A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats. Eleocharis spp. marsh is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of T-ha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. This expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat may in turn cause an increase in malaria risk in the region.

  15. Land Cover Vegetation Changes and Hydrology in Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banta, J. R.; Slattery, R.

    2013-12-01

    Encroachment of woody vegetation into traditional savanna grassland ecosystems in central Texas has largely been attributed to land use practices of settlers, most notably overgrazing and fire suppression. Implementing changes in land cover vegetation (removing the woody vegetation and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area, commonly referred to as brush management), could potentially change the hydrology in a watershed. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with several local, State, and Federal agencies, studied the hydrologic effects of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) removal as a brush management conservation practice in the Honey Creek State Natural Area in Comal County, Tex. Two adjacent watersheds of 104 and 159 hectares were used in a paired study. Rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration (Bowen ratio method), and water quality data were collected in both watersheds. Using a hydrologic mass balance approach, rainfall was allocated to surface-water runoff, evapotranspiration, and potential groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured, but estimated as the residual of the hydrologic mass balance. After hydrologic data were collected in both watersheds for 3 years, approximately 80 percent of the woody vegetation (ashe juniper) was selectively removed from the 159 hectare watershed (treatment watershed). Brush management was not implemented in the other (reference) watershed. Hydrologic data were collected in both watersheds for six years after brush management implementation. The resulting data were examined for differences in the hydrologic budget between the reference and treatment watersheds as well as between pre- and post-brush management periods to assess effects of the treatment. Results indicate there are differences in the hydrologic budget and water quality between the reference and treatment watersheds, as well as between pre- and post-brush management periods.

  16. 38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER. THIS UNIT GENERATED A MAGNETIC PULSE WHICH WAS TRANSMITTED TO THE COLLECTION PLATES IN THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. THESE PERIODIC PULSES VIBRATE THE PLATES AND CAUSE PRECIPITATED ARTICLES OF SMOKE AND FLY ASH TO FALL TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  17. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  18. Epithelial dysplasia immediately adjacent to oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wright, A; Shear, M

    1985-08-01

    A number of workers have attempted to identify dysplastic features which may be predictors of malignant change, by prospective studies of dysplastic lesions. In the present study we have looked at dysplastic changes immediately adjacent to established squamous carcinomas in an attempt to determine whether any predictors can be identified in this way. Eighty cases were included in the study for whom information on tobacco usage was known. Clinical details were recorded. Histological features in epithelium immediately adjacent to the carcinoma were studied in representative sections. Eighteen specific histological characteristics were noted as present or absent. Data were transferred by Conversational Monitoring System (CMS) terminal, processed and analyzed by the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Computer package. Only 8 patients were non-smokers (10%). Dysplastic changes in adjacent epithelium were frequently multicentric. Changes appear to occur first in the basal layer in the form of disturbance of polarity or basal cell hyperplasia, while other dysplastic features are absent. The feature referred to as basal cell hyperplasia appears, in fact, to represent disturbed epithelial maturation. In 80% of cases increased nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appears to result from a decrease in cytoplasmic volume rather than increased nuclear size. A defect in RNA synthesis may be a factor. A sharp decrease in inflammatory cells in the lamina propria of adjacent epithelium, compared with that of the carcinoma, was observed. Russell bodies were noted in 5 of the 8 lesions in non-smokers (63%) and in 16 of 72 lesions in smokers (22%) (p less than 0.001; Chi2 17.65). PMID:3928850

  19. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  20. FMRI evidence of acupoints specificity in two adjacent acupoints.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Xu, Jian-Yang; Li, Lin; Shan, Bao-Ci; Nie, Bin-Bin; Xue, Jing-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Acupoint specificity is the foundation of acupuncture treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the acupoint specificity exists in two adjacent acupoints. Design and Setting. Two adjacent real acupoints, LR3 (Taichong) and ST44 (Neiting), and a nearby nonacupoint were selected. Thirty-three health volunteers were divided into three groups in random order, and each group only received acupuncture at one of the three points. While they received acupuncture, fMRI scan was performed. Results. The common cerebral activated areas responding to LR3 and ST44 included the contralateral primary somatosensory area (SI) and ipsilateral cerebellum. Acupuncture at LR3 specifically activated contralateral middle occipital gyrus, ipsilateral medial frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobe, middle temporal gyrus, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), lentiform nucleus, insula, and contralateral thalamus. Stimulation at ST44 selectively activated ipsilateral secondary somatosensory area (SII), contralateral middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, lingual gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Conclusions. Acupuncture at adjacent acupoints elicits distinct cerebral activation patterns, and those specific patterns might be involved in the mechanism of the specific therapeutic effects of different acupoints. PMID:23762172

  1. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S; Dipersio, John F; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  2. Osteochondroma of the hip with adjacent bursal chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Gould, Elaine S; Baker, Kevin S; Huang, Mingqian; Khan, Fazel; Hoda, Syed

    2014-12-01

    It is well established that irregular bursae can form adjacent to an osteochondroma (bursa exostotica) as a result of mechanical irritation and that these bursae can be complicated by inflammation, hemorrhage, or infection. Bursal chondromatosis is a rare complication, with only seven published cases in the literature according to our searches. We present the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with slowly progressive left hip/thigh pain and was found to have an osteochondroma arising from the lesser trochanter with numerous ossified bodies in the adjacent soft tissues. MRI demonstrated osteochondral bodies in a fluid-filled bursa adjacent to the osteochondroma, with several of the bodies noted to be fairly displaced from the osteochondroma cartilaginous cap. At surgery, the osteochondroma was removed and numerous bodies of varying sizes were excised, some of which were noted to be adherent to the bursal lining and others that were separated/distant from the cartilage cap. The question arises as to whether this process represents bursal chondromatosis resulting from benign neoplasia of cells lining the abnormal bursa, "cartilage shedding" from the osteochondromatous cap, or both. The purpose in presenting this case is to introduce a rare complication of an osteochondroma, demonstrate that soft tissue calcification and osteochondral densities displaced from an underlying osteochondroma are not always the result of sarcomatous degeneration, and provide support for the theory that cells lining a bursa in a nonphysiologic location can undergo benign neoplasia with subsequent formation of osteochondral bodies. PMID:25001874

  3. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  4. Using BRDFs for accurate albedo calculations and adjacency effect corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the authors discuss two uses of BRDFs in remote sensing: (1) in determining the clear sky top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo, (2) in quantifying the effect of the BRDF on the adjacency point-spread function and on atmospheric corrections. The TOA spectral albedo is an important parameter retrieved by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR). Its accuracy depends mainly on how well one can model the surface BRDF for many different situations. The authors present results from an algorithm which matches several semi-empirical functions to the nine MISR measured BRFs that are then numerically integrated to yield the clear sky TOA spectral albedo in four spectral channels. They show that absolute accuracies in the albedo of better than 1% are possible for the visible and better than 2% in the near infrared channels. Using a simplified extensive radiosity model, the authors show that the shape of the adjacency point-spread function (PSF) depends on the underlying surface BRDFs. The adjacency point-spread function at a given offset (x,y) from the center pixel is given by the integral of transmission-weighted products of BRDF and scattering phase function along the line of sight.

  5. Functional angiocoupling between follicles and adjacent corpus luteum in heifers.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Siddiqui, M A R; Baldrighi, J M

    2016-07-15

    In single ovulating cattle, ipsilateral versus contralateral interovarian relationships refer to a dominant follicle (DF) and CL in the same versus opposite ovaries. The ipsilateral relationship consists of the DF-CL and the devoid (no DF or CL) intraovarian pattern, and the contralateral relationship consists of the DF pattern and the CL pattern. The DF-CL pattern involves positive effects on both the DF and CL when adjacent (≤3-mm apart) versus separated as follows: greater diameter of DF (e.g., 10.5 ± 0.4 vs. 9.0 ± 0.4 mm), greater percentage of the DF wall with color Doppler signals of blood flow (40.2% ± 2.0% vs. 24.5% ± 1.9%), greater cross-sectional area of the CL (2.2 ± 0.1 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 cm(2)), and greater percentage of the entire CL with blood flow signals (51.8% ± 1.2% vs. 42.5% ± 3.1%). Additional examples of positive coupling are (1) future DF on Day 0 (day of ovulation) is closer to the CL than the future largest subordinate and (2) diameter of growing follicles on Day 0 and the growth rate on Days 0 to 2 are greater for follicles that are adjacent than separated from the CL. An example of a negative intraovarian effect is decreasing diameter and loss of future DF status of a largest follicle when adjacent to a regressing CL. The impact of the continuity of ovarian angioarchitecture during the periovulatory follicular wave was exemplified in 17 of 18 waves by conversion of an ovary with only the preovulatory follicle to the postovulatory DF-CL pattern. Functional angiocoupling from commonality in angioarchitecture of the DF and adjacent CL would account for both the positive two-way coupling between DF and CL during the luteal phase and the negative effect of a regressing CL on an adjacent follicle during luteolysis. PMID:27056414

  6. Assessment of Bacterial bph Gene in Amazonian Dark Earth and Their Adjacent Soils

    PubMed Central

    Brossi, Maria Julia de Lima; Mendes, Lucas William; Germano, Mariana Gomes; Lima, Amanda Barbosa; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2014-01-01

    Amazonian Anthrosols are known to harbour distinct and highly diverse microbial communities. As most of the current assessments of these communities are based on taxonomic profiles, the functional gene structure of these communities, such as those responsible for key steps in the carbon cycle, mostly remain elusive. To gain insights into the diversity of catabolic genes involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons in anthropogenic horizons, we analysed the bacterial bph gene community structure, composition and abundance using T-RFLP, 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR essays, respectively. Soil samples were collected in two Brazilian Amazon Dark Earth (ADE) sites and at their corresponding non-anthropogenic adjacent soils (ADJ), under two different land use systems, secondary forest (SF) and manioc cultivation (M). Redundancy analysis of T-RFLP data revealed differences in bph gene structure according to both soil type and land use. Chemical properties of ADE soils, such as high organic carbon and organic matter, as well as effective cation exchange capacity and pH, were significantly correlated with the structure of bph communities. Also, the taxonomic affiliation of bph gene sequences revealed the segregation of community composition according to the soil type. Sequences at ADE sites were mostly affiliated to aromatic hydrocarbon degraders belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Sphingomonas, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium, Conexibacter and Burkholderia. In both land use sites, shannon's diversity indices based on the bph gene data were higher in ADE than ADJ soils. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that specific properties in ADE soils shape the structure and composition of bph communities. These results provide a basis for further investigations focusing on the bio-exploration of novel enzymes with potential use in the biotechnology/biodegradation industry. PMID:24927167

  7. Assessment of bacterial bph gene in Amazonian dark earth and their adjacent soils.

    PubMed

    Brossi, Maria Julia de Lima; Mendes, Lucas William; Germano, Mariana Gomes; Lima, Amanda Barbosa; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2014-01-01

    Amazonian Anthrosols are known to harbour distinct and highly diverse microbial communities. As most of the current assessments of these communities are based on taxonomic profiles, the functional gene structure of these communities, such as those responsible for key steps in the carbon cycle, mostly remain elusive. To gain insights into the diversity of catabolic genes involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons in anthropogenic horizons, we analysed the bacterial bph gene community structure, composition and abundance using T-RFLP, 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR essays, respectively. Soil samples were collected in two Brazilian Amazon Dark Earth (ADE) sites and at their corresponding non-anthropogenic adjacent soils (ADJ), under two different land use systems, secondary forest (SF) and manioc cultivation (M). Redundancy analysis of T-RFLP data revealed differences in bph gene structure according to both soil type and land use. Chemical properties of ADE soils, such as high organic carbon and organic matter, as well as effective cation exchange capacity and pH, were significantly correlated with the structure of bph communities. Also, the taxonomic affiliation of bph gene sequences revealed the segregation of community composition according to the soil type. Sequences at ADE sites were mostly affiliated to aromatic hydrocarbon degraders belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Sphingomonas, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium, Conexibacter and Burkholderia. In both land use sites, shannon's diversity indices based on the bph gene data were higher in ADE than ADJ soils. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that specific properties in ADE soils shape the structure and composition of bph communities. These results provide a basis for further investigations focusing on the bio-exploration of novel enzymes with potential use in the biotechnology/biodegradation industry. PMID:24927167

  8. 76 FR 15042 - Transfer of Federally Assisted Land or Facility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Board of Public Works intends to transfer a portion of a facility to Indiana State University for use as... transferred is located on land owned by Indiana State University Board of Trustees and leased to the City of... on the campus of Indiana State University and is adjacent to the Hulman Civic Center, a...

  9. Editorial: Eutrophication and hypoxia and their impacts on the ecosystem of the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Xiao, Tian; Huang, Daji; Liu, Su Mei; Fang, Jianguang

    2016-02-01

    The Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary plays an important role in the land-ocean interactions of East Asia, particularly in regard to the fate of land-derived materials and their impact on marine ecosystems in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The 12 papers included in this special issue describe results from the MEcoPAM Study, an IMBER-China project, which occurred in 2011-2015. This project used a multi-disciplinary approach to understand ecosystem function of the Changjiang Estuary in response to multiple stressors (i.e. combined external forcings). The results presented here show that human activities in the watersheds have greatly changed the flux and variation of dissolved and particulate materials from the river. Further interactions between the Changjiang Watersheds and the East China Sea can dramatically modify the pathways of biogeochemistry and food web dynamics of the estuary and adjacent coastal environment at seasonal and inter-annual scales.

  10. The ridges of Europa: Extensions of adjacent topography onto their flanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Richard; Sak, Peter B.

    2014-03-01

    The surface of Europa displays numerous generations of intersecting arrays of linear ridges. At some locations along these ridges, older ridges on adjacent terrain appear to extend up the flank of a more recent ridge. It has thus been suggested that the ridges may have formed by upturning of that adjacent terrain. However, the newer ridges generally appear to be material deposited over the older terrain. Here we consider how the morphology of the overprinted topography may have been inherited by the more recent ridges. An analogous process occurs along some sediment-starved convergent plate boundaries on Earth, where the poorly consolidated material of a frontal prism of an overriding plate is pushed over preexisting ridges and seamounts on the downgoing plate. The overriding plate inherits the morphology of the downgoing plate even though the actual extension of that topography has been underthrust and buried. A well-studied example lies offshore of Costa Rica where the Caribbean plate overrides the Cocos plate. Experiments show other mechanisms as well: mass-wasting down a flank can result in extensions of adjacent ridges thanks to the geometry imposed by a constant angle of repose; in addition, more pronounced extensions of the older ridges result if the new ridge grows as it is bulldozed from behind (i.e., from the central groove of a double ridge on Europa). The shapes of the ridge extensions are distinctly different in these two cases. If tidal pumping extrudes material to the surface at the center of a double ridge, it might drive the latter mechanism. The ridge extensions observed on the flanks of more recent ridges may provide a crucial diagnostic of dominant ridge-building mechanisms when and if additional images are obtained at high resolution from future exploration. In additional to their morphology, the distribution of ridge extensions at only isolated locales may also provide constraints on ridge formation processes and their diversity.

  11. On Landing Gear Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentric, A.

    1956-01-01

    Information on landing gear stresses is presented on the following: vibratory phenomena, tangential forces applied to landing gear, fore and aft oscillations of landing gears, examples of fatigue failures, vibration calculations, and improvement of existing test equipment.

  12. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mganga, K. Z.; Musimba, N. K. R.; Nyariki, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80 % of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems.

  13. Combining Sustainable Land Management Technologies to Combat Land Degradation and Improve Rural Livelihoods in Semi-arid Lands in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mganga, K Z; Musimba, N K R; Nyariki, D M

    2015-12-01

    Drylands occupy more than 80% of Kenya's total land mass and contribute immensely to the national economy and society through agriculture, livestock production, tourism, and wild product harvesting. Dryland ecosystems are areas of high climate variability making them vulnerable to the threats of land degradation. Consequently, agropastoralists inhabiting these ecosystems develop mechanisms and technologies to cope with the impacts of climate variability. This study is aimed to; (1) determine what agropastoralists inhabiting a semi-arid ecosystem in Kenya attribute to be the causes and indicators of land degradation, (2) document sustainable land management (SLM) technologies being undertaken to combat land degradation, and (3) identify the factors that influence the choice of these SLM technologies. Vegetation change from preferred indigenous forage grass species to woody vegetation was cited as the main indicator of land degradation. Land degradation was attributed to recurrent droughts and low amounts of rainfall, overgrazing, and unsustainable harvesting of trees for fuelwood production. However, despite the challenges posed by climate variability and recurrent droughts, the local community is engaging in simple SLM technologies including grass reseeding, rainwater harvesting and soil conservation, and dryland agroforestry as a holistic approach combating land degradation and improving their rural livelihoods. The choice of these SLM technologies was mainly driven by their additional benefits to combating land degradation. In conclusion, promoting such simple SLM technologies can help reverse the land degradation trend, improve agricultural production, food security including access to food, and subsequently improve livelihoods of communities inhabiting dryland ecosystems. PMID:26178534

  14. Improving arable land heterogeneity information in available land cover products for land surface modelling using MERIS NDVI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabel, F.; Hank, T. B.; Mauser, W.

    2010-07-01

    Regionalization of physical land surface models requires the supply of detailed land cover information. Numerous global and regional land cover maps already exist, but generally they do not resolve arable land into different crop types. However, the characteristic phenological behaviour of different crops affects the mass and energy fluxes on the land surface and thus its hydrology. The objective of this study is the generation of a land cover map for Central Europe based on CORINE Land Cover 2000, merged with CORINE Switzerland, but distinguishing different crop types. Accordingly, an approach was developed, subdividing the land cover class arable land into the regionally most relevant subclasses for Central Europe using statistical data from EUROSTAT. This database was analysed concerning the acreage of different crop types, taking a multiseasonal series of MERIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) into account. The satellite data were used for the separation of spring and summer crops. The hydrological impact of the improved land cover map was modelled exemplarily for the Upper Danube catchment.

  15. Unexpectedly higher metazoan meiofauna abundances in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench compared to the adjacent abyssal plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    in occupancy of the top layer. Furthermore, sediment depth and abundance were strongly correlated, but the sediment texture itself and the grain sizes showed only slight correlations with abundance. In the trench slope no correlation between sediment texture and abundance was found. We suggest that sediment is not the only factor that affects meiofauna abundance in the study area. The results of our study were compared with other trench and nontrench studies, and in most cases, the abundance decreases with depth initially but increases again below a certain depth, especially in deep-sea trenches below productive waters. No generalization can be made, however, about the depth at which the reversal occurs; it depends on the area of investigation and on a mixture of many other factors (e.g., sediment heterogeneity, oxygen, redox potential, proximity to land masses, and season).

  16. Compression of adjacent anatomical structures by pulmonary artery dilation.

    PubMed

    Dakkak, Wael; Tonelli, Adriano R

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is the commonest condition leading to dilated pulmonary artery. We describe three different types of compression of adjacent anatomical structures by dilated pulmonary arteries. We included involvement of the left main coronary artery, left recurrent laryngeal nerve and tracheobronchial tree. Compression of these structures can cause major complications such as myocardial ischemia, hoarseness and major airway stenosis. We present a case for each scenario and review the literature for each of these complications, focusing on patients' characteristics and contemporary management. PMID:26898826

  17. Synthesis of a Molecule with Four Different Adjacent Pnictogens.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Alexander; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-08-22

    The synthesis of a molecule containing four adjacent different pnictogens was attempted by conversion of a Group 15 allyl analogue anion [Mes*NAsPMes*](-) (Mes*=2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenyl) with antimony(III) chloride. A suitable precursor is Mes*N(H)AsPMes* (1) for which several syntheses were investigated. The anions afforded by deprotonation of Mes*N(H)AsPMes* were found to be labile and, therefore, salts could not be isolated. However, the in situ generated anions could be quenched with SbCl3 , yielding Mes*N(SbCl2 )AsPMes* (4). PMID:27377437

  18. Stereoselective Organocatalytic Synthesis of Oxindoles with Adjacent Tetrasubstituted Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Engl, Oliver D; Fritz, Sven P; Wennemers, Helma

    2015-07-01

    Oxindoles with adjacent tetrasubstituted stereocenters were obtained in high yields and stereoselectivities by organocatalyzed conjugate addition reactions of monothiomalonates (MTMs) to isatin-derived N-Cbz ketimines. The method requires only a low catalyst loading (2 mol %) and proceeds under mild reaction conditions. Both enantiomers are accessible in good yields and excellent stereoselectivities by using either Takemoto's catalyst or a cinchona alkaloid derivative. The synthetic methodology allowed establishment of a straightforward route to derivatives of the gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist AG-041R. PMID:26033441

  19. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  20. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  1. Method for closing a drift between adjacent in situ oil shale retorts

    DOEpatents

    Hines, Alex E.

    1984-01-01

    A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

  2. Prevalence and Abundance of Florfenicol and Linezolid Resistance Genes in Soils Adjacent to Swine Feedlots.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin; Wang, Yang; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Zheng; Du, Xiang-Dang; Jiang, Haiyang; Xia, Xi; Shen, Zhangqi; Ding, Shuangyang; Wu, Congming; Zhou, Bingrui; Wu, Yongning; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Florfenicol is extensively used in livestock to prevent or cure bacterial infections. However, it is not known whether the administration of florfenicol has resulted in the emergence and dissemination of florfenicol resistance genes (FRGs, including fexA, fexB, cfr, optrA, floR, and pexA) in microbial populations in surrounding farm environments. Here we collected soil samples for the detection of FRGs and the residue of florfenicol from six swine farms with the record of florfenicol usage. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and metagenomic sequencing revealed a significantly higher relative abundance of FRGs in the soils adjacent to the three swine farms where florfenicol was heavily used compared with the other sites. Meanwhile, the detectable levels of florfenicol were also identified in soils from two of these three farms using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. It appears that amount of florfenicol used on swine farms and the spreading of soils with swine waste could promote the prevalence and abundance of FRGs, including the linezolid resistance genes cfr and optrA, in adjacent soils, and agricultural application of swine manure with florfenicol may have caused a residual level of florfenicol in the soils. PMID:27573068

  3. Prevalence and Abundance of Florfenicol and Linezolid Resistance Genes in Soils Adjacent to Swine Feedlots

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qin; Wang, Yang; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Zheng; Du, Xiang-dang; Jiang, Haiyang; Xia, Xi; Shen, Zhangqi; Ding, Shuangyang; Wu, Congming; Zhou, Bingrui; Wu, Yongning; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Florfenicol is extensively used in livestock to prevent or cure bacterial infections. However, it is not known whether the administration of florfenicol has resulted in the emergence and dissemination of florfenicol resistance genes (FRGs, including fexA, fexB, cfr, optrA, floR, and pexA) in microbial populations in surrounding farm environments. Here we collected soil samples for the detection of FRGs and the residue of florfenicol from six swine farms with the record of florfenicol usage. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and metagenomic sequencing revealed a significantly higher relative abundance of FRGs in the soils adjacent to the three swine farms where florfenicol was heavily used compared with the other sites. Meanwhile, the detectable levels of florfenicol were also identified in soils from two of these three farms using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. It appears that amount of florfenicol used on swine farms and the spreading of soils with swine waste could promote the prevalence and abundance of FRGs, including the linezolid resistance genes cfr and optrA, in adjacent soils, and agricultural application of swine manure with florfenicol may have caused a residual level of florfenicol in the soils. PMID:27573068

  4. Automatic detection of aircraft emergency landing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yu-Fei; Rahman, Zia-ur; Krusienski, Dean; Li, Jiang

    2011-06-01

    An automatic landing site detection algorithm is proposed for aircraft emergency landing. Emergency landing is an unplanned event in response to emergency situations. If, as is unfortunately usually the case, there is no airstrip or airfield that can be reached by the un-powered aircraft, a crash landing or ditching has to be carried out. Identifying a safe landing site is critical to the survival of passengers and crew. Conventionally, the pilot chooses the landing site visually by looking at the terrain through the cockpit. The success of this vital decision greatly depends on the external environmental factors that can impair human vision, and on the pilot's flight experience that can vary significantly among pilots. Therefore, we propose a robust, reliable and efficient algorithm that is expected to alleviate the negative impact of these factors. We present only the detection mechanism of the proposed algorithm and assume that the image enhancement for increased visibility, and image stitching for a larger field-of-view have already been performed on the images acquired by aircraftmounted cameras. Specifically, we describe an elastic bound detection method which is designed to position the horizon. The terrain image is divided into non-overlapping blocks which are then clustered according to a "roughness" measure. Adjacent smooth blocks are merged to form potential landing sites whose dimensions are measured with principal component analysis and geometric transformations. If the dimensions of the candidate region exceed the minimum requirement for safe landing, the potential landing site is considered a safe candidate and highlighted on the human machine interface. At the end, the pilot makes the final decision by confirming one of the candidates, also considering other factors such as wind speed and wind direction, etc. Preliminary results show the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Forest adjacent households' voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B S

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers' perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households' voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level. PMID:27390633

  6. Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

  7. Tritium Plume Dynamics in the Shallow Unsaturated Zone Adjacent to an Arid Waste Disposal Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, S.; Andraski, B. J.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Cooper, C. A.; Michel, R. L.; Pohll, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southern Nevada have documented two plumes of tritiated water-vapor (3HHOg) adjacent to a closed, commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Wastes were disposed on-site from 1962-92. Tritium has moved long distances (> 400 m) through a shallow (1-2-m depth) dry gravelly layer—orders of magnitude further than anticipated by standard transport models. Geostatistical methods, spatial moment analyses and tritium flux calculations were applied to assess shallow plume dynamics. A grid-based plant-water sampling method was utilized to infer detailed, field-scale 3HHOg concentrations at 5-yr intervals during 2001-11. Results indicate that gravel-layer 3HHOg mass diminished faster than would be expected from radioactive decay (~70% in 10 yr). Both plumes exhibited center-of-mass stability, suggesting that bulk-plume movement is minimal during the period of study. Nonetheless, evidence of localized lateral advancement along some margins, combined with increases in the spatial covariance of concentration distribution, indicates intra-plume mass redistribution is ongoing. Previous studies have recognized that vertical movement of tritiated water from sub-root-zone gravel into the root-zone contributes to atmospheric release via evapotranspiration. Estimates of lateral and vertical tritium fluxes during the study period indicate (1) vertical tritiated water fluxes were dominated by diffusive-vapor fluxes (> 90%), and (2) vertical diffusive-vapor fluxes were roughly an order of magnitude greater than lateral diffusive-vapor fluxes. This behavior highlights the importance of the atmosphere as a tritium sink. Estimates of cumulative vertical diffusive-vapor flux and radioactive decay with time were comparable to observed declines in total shallow plume mass with time. This suggests observed changes in plume mass may (1) be attributed, in considerable part, to these removal

  8. Image registration using a weighted region adjacency graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hasan, Muhannad; Fisher, Mark

    2005-04-01

    Image registration is an important problem for image processing and computer vision with many proposed applications in medical image analysis.1, 2 Image registration techniques attempt to map corresponding features between two images. The problem is particularly difficult as anatomy is subject to elastic deformations. This paper considers this problem in the context of graph matching. Firstly, weighted Region Adjacency Graphs (RAGs) are constructed from each image using an approach based on watershed saliency. 3 The vertices of the RAG represent salient regions in the image and the (weighted) edges represent the relationship (bonding) between each region. Correspondences between images are then determined using a weighted graph matching method. Graph matching is considered to be one of the most complex problems in computer vision, due to its combinatorial nature. Our approach uses a multi-spectral technique to graph matching first proposed by Umeyama4 to find an approximate solution to the weighted graph matching problem (WGMP) based on the singular value decomposition of the adjacency matrix. Results show the technique is successful in co-registering 2-D MRI images and the method could be useful in co-registering 3-D volumetric data (e.g. CT, MRI, SPECT, PET etc.).

  9. Adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection.

    PubMed

    Ying, Binbin

    2012-03-01

    Mucocele forms because of salivary gland mucous extravasation or retention and is usually related to trauma in the area of the lower lip. It is a common benign lesion in the oral region. Although there are many conservative treatments such as the creation of a pouch (marsupialization), freezing (cryosurgery), micromarsupialization, and CO2 laser vaporization, surgical resection is the most commonly used means. Generally speaking, an elliptic incision was made to fully enucleate the lesion along with the overlying mucosa and the affected glands, then direct suturing is adequate. However, in some cases, direct suturing could cause lower lip deformity, and adjacent flaps for lower lip reconstruction after mucocele resection might be quite necessary. Based on our experience, adjacent mucosal flaps could be used when lesions were close to or even break through the vermilion border or their diameters were much more than 1 cm. A-T advancement flaps and transposition flaps were the mostly applied ones. Follow-up showed that all patients realized primary healing after 1 week postoperatively with satisfactory lower lip appearance, and there was no sign of increasing incidence of relapse. PMID:22421867

  10. Historical volcanoes of Armenia and adjacent areas: What is revisited?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakhanian, A.; Jrbashyan, R.; Trifonov, V.; Philip, H.; Arakelian, S.; Avagyan, A.; Baghdassaryan, H.; Davtian, V.

    2006-07-01

    The validity of some data in Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62] that are revisited by R. Haroutiunian is considered. A conclusion is made that the revisions suggested by Haroutiunian concern unessential parts of the content of work by Karakhanian et al. [Karakhanian, A., Djrbashian, R., Trifonov V., Philip H., Arakelian S., Avagian, A., 2002. Holocene-historical volcanism and active faults as natural risk factor for Armenia and adjacent countries. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 113, 1, 319-344; Karakhanian, A., Jrbashyan, R., Trifonov, V., Philip, H., Arakelian, S., Avagyan, A., Baghdassaryan, H., Davtian, V., Ghoukassyan, Yu., 2003. Volcanic hazards in the region of the Armenian nuclear power plant. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 126/1-2, 31-62]. This article presents new evidence and re-proves the earlier conclusions that are disputed or revised by R. Haroutiunian.

  11. Deserts and Arid Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Glen F.

    The exponential growth of global population and often concomitant degradation of the environment has forced human expansion into the more hostile and less well-known terrains of arid lands and deserts. Drought in the African Sahel, with recent wholesale movement of tribes seeking survival, has focused interest in such regions. However, geologic and geomorphic knowledge of deserts has expanded slowly until the last few decades. For instance, the arid cycle of erosion, as conceived by William Morse Davis (now deceased; formerly, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.), with modifications by W. Penck (now deceased; formerly, Leipzig University, Leipzig, German Democratic Republic), and L. C. King (University of Natal and Durban, South Africa), has dominated desert geomorphological deductions until recently. Since World War II and the verification of plate tectonics, the knowledge of arid lands has increased dramatically, especially in synoptic mapping from remote sensing data and space photography, which transcends political boundaries, thanks to the open skies policy of the U.S. space pioneers.

  12. Improving arable land heterogeneity information in available land cover products for land surface modelling using MERIS NDVI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabel, F.; Hank, T. B.; Mauser, W.

    2010-10-01

    Regionalization of physical land surface models requires the supply of detailed land cover information. Numerous global and regional land cover maps already exist but generally, they do not resolve arable land into different crop types. However, arable land comprises a huge variety of different crops with characteristic phenological behaviour, demonstrated in this paper with Leaf Area Index (LAI) measurements exemplarily for maize and winter wheat. This affects the mass and energy fluxes on the land surface and thus its hydrology. The objective of this study is the generation of a land cover map for central Europe based on CORINE Land Cover (CLC) 2000, merged with CORINE Switzerland, but distinguishing different crop types. Accordingly, an approach was developed, subdividing the land cover class arable land into the regionally most relevant subclasses for central Europe using multiseasonal MERIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The satellite data were used for the separation of spring and summer crops due to their different phenological behaviour. Subsequently, the generated phenological classes were subdivided following statistical data from EUROSTAT. This database was analysed concerning the acreage of different crop types. The impact of the improved land use/cover map on evapotranspiration was modelled exemplarily for the Upper Danube catchment with the hydrological model PROMET. Simulations based on the newly developed land cover approach showed a more detailed evapotranspiration pattern compared to model results using the traditional CLC map, which is ignorant of most arable subdivisions. Due to the improved temporal behaviour and spatial allocation of evapotranspiration processes in the new land cover approach, the simulated water balance more closely matches the measured gauge.

  13. Review of samples of tailings, soils and stream sediment adjacent to and downstream from the Ruth Mine, Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Ruth Mine and mill are located in the western Mojave Desert in Inyo County, California (fig. 1). The mill processed gold-silver (Au-Ag) ores mined from the Ruth Au-Ag deposit, which is adjacent to the mill site. The Ruth Au-Ag deposit is hosted in Mesozoic intrusive rocks and is similar to other Au-Ag deposits in the western Mojave Desert that are associated with Miocene volcanic centers that formed on a basement of Mesozoic granitic rocks (Bateman, 1907; Gardner, 1954; Rytuba, 1996). The volcanic rocks consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions (fig. 2) that were emplaced into Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks (Troxel and Morton, 1962). The Ruth Mine is on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Tailings from the mine have been eroded and transported downstream into Homewood Canyon and then into Searles Valley (figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6). The BLM provided recreational facilities at the mine site for day-use hikers and restored and maintained the original mine buildings in collaboration with local citizen groups for use by visitors (fig. 7). The BLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure arsenic (As) and other geochemical constituents in soils and tailings at the mine site and in stream sediments downstream from the mine in Homewood Canyon and in Searles Valley (fig. 3). The request was made because initial sampling of the site by BLM staff indicated high concentrations of As in tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine and stream sediments downstream from the mine on June 7, 2009. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  14. A Giant Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma Encasing the Entire Left Kidney and Adherent to Adjacent Structures: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sung Don; Oh, Sung Jin; Suh, Byoung Jo; Shin, Jin Yong; Oh, Cheol Kyu; Park, Jong Kwon; Kim, Yeon Mee; Kim, Bo Mi

    2016-01-01

    Retroperitoneal liposarcoma is a rare tumor. The dimension and weight of liposarcoma are variable; those over 20 kg are called ‘giant liposarcoma’. Herein, we report giant retroperitoneal liposarcoma measuring 45 cm in diameter and 25 kg in weight encasing the entire left kidney and adherent to adjacent structures. A 71-year-old woman presented for a regular checkup. Image study revealed a huge mass probably indicative of retroperitoneal liposarcoma encasing the entire left kidney and adherent to adjacent structures. We performed an organ-preserving surgical removal. The pathologic report was liposarcoma. At postoperative month 16, a follow-up CT revealed a locally recurrent tumor. The patient underwent surgical removal of the newly discovered mass. After the second surgery, the patient underwent regular follow-up CT for approximately 12 months, and to date, there has been no evidence of tumor recurrence. High-grade liposarcoma shows sensitivity to radiation therapy. However, the toxic effect of radiation therapy limits this option by treatment modality. The use of chemotherapy is also controversial. As a result, complete resection is the gold standard treatment. Here, we report a giant retroperitoneal liposarcoma encasing the entire left kidney and adherent to adjacent structures, describe successful organ-preserving surgical removal and discuss prognosis. PMID:27462239

  15. Nitrous oxide emission from cropland and adjacent riparian buffers in contrasting hydrogeomorphic settings.

    PubMed

    Fisher, K; Jacinthe, P A; Vidon, P; Liu, X; Baker, M E

    2014-01-01

    Riparian buffers are important nitrate (NO) sinks in agricultural watersheds, but limited information is available regarding the intensity and control of nitrous oxide (NO) emission from these buffers. This study monitored (December 2009-May 2011) NO fluxes at two agricultural riparian buffers in the White River watershed in Indiana to assess the impact of land use and hydrogeomorphologic (HGM) attributes on emission. The study sites included a riparian forest in a glacial outwash/alluvium setting (White River [WR]) and a grassed riparian buffer in tile-drained till plains (Leary Weber Ditch [LWD]). Adjacent corn ( L.) fields were monitored for land use assessment. Analysis of variance identified season, land use (riparian buffer vs. crop field), and site geomorphology as major drivers of NO fluxes. Strong relationships between N mineralization and NO fluxes were found at both sites, but relationships with other nutrient cycling indicators (C/N ratio, dissolved organic C, microbial biomass C) were detected only at LWD. Nitrous oxide emission showed strong seasonal variability; the largest NO peaks occurred in late spring/early summer as a result of flooding at the WR riparian buffer (up to 27.8 mg NO-N m d) and N fertilizer application to crop fields. Annual NO emission (kg NO-N ha) was higher in the crop fields (WR: 7.82; LWD: 6.37) than in the riparian areas. A significant difference ( < 0.02) in annual NO emission between the riparian buffers was detected (4.32 vs. 1.03 kg NO-N ha at WR and LWD, respectively), and this difference was attributed to site geomorphology and flooding (WR is flood prone; no flooding occurred at tile-drained LWD). The study results demonstrate the significance of landscape geomorphology and land-stream connection (i.e., flood potential) as drivers of NO emission in riparian buffers and therefore argue that an HGM-based approach should be especially suitable for determination of regional NO budget in riparian ecosystems. PMID:25602568

  16. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  17. An engineered dimeric protein pore that spans adjacent lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Shiksha; Sapra, K. Tanuj; Cheley, Stephen; Sharp, Thomas H.; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-01-01

    The bottom-up construction of artificial tissues is an underexplored area of synthetic biology. An important challenge is communication between constituent compartments of the engineered tissue and between the engineered tissue and additional compartments, including extracellular fluids, further engineered tissue and living cells. Here we present a dimeric transmembrane pore that can span two adjacent lipid bilayers and thereby allow aqueous compartments to communicate. Two heptameric staphylococcal α-hemolysin (αHL) pores were covalently linked in an aligned cap-to-cap orientation. The structure of the dimer, (α7)2, was confirmed by biochemical analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-channel electrical recording. We show that one of two β barrels of (α7)2 can insert into the lipid bilayer of a small unilamellar vesicle, while the other spans a planar lipid bilayer. (α7)2 pores spanning two bilayers were also observed by TEM. PMID:23591892

  18. 38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A MOVABLE TIRE BENDER FOR SHAPING ELI WINDMILL WHEEL RIMS. AT THE CENTER IS A FLOOR-MOUNTED CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER OF THE TYPE USED FOR SMOOTHING ROUGH CASTINGS. ON THE WHEELED WORK STATION IS A SUNNEN BUSHING GRINDER, BEHIND WHICH IS A TRIPOD CHAIN VICE. IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND IS A WOODEN CHEST OF DRAWERS WHICH CONTAINS A 'RAG DRAWER' STILL FILLED WITH CLOTH RAGS PLACED IN THE FACTORY BUILDING AT THE INSISTENCE OF LOUISE (MRS. ARTHUR) KREGEL FOR THE CONVENIENCE AND CLEANLINESS OF WORKERS. IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND IS A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  19. Preventing Proximal Adjacent Level Kyphosis With Strap Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, Khaled M; Matoian, Brett J; Denardin, Nicholas B; Patel, Vikas V

    2016-07-01

    A substantial proportion of patients develop proximal junctional kyphosis following spinal surgery. To combat this postoperative change, several techniques have focused on maintaining the structural integrity of adjacent spinal levels and adapting the proximal end of the fusion construct to accommodate the increased mechanical stressors produced by long spinal fusion. The use of Mersilene tape (Ethicon, Somerville, New Jersey) for spine and orthopedic surgery is well documented, although considerably less is known about its use for preventing proximal junctional kyphosis. This article describes a proposed technique using Mersilene tape to provide a check-rein strap stabilization at the proximal end of fusion constructs. Initial data suggest that use of this technique may prevent formation of proximal junctional kyphosis. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e794-e799.]. PMID:27158827

  20. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  1. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  2. Scolopendromorpha of New Guinea and adjacent islands (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A; Stoev, Pavel E

    2016-01-01

    The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20th century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings. The old and doubtful record of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844 from New Guinea is referred to S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and the species is here excluded from the present day list of New Guinean scolopendromorphs. Cryptops nepalensis Lewis, 1999 is here recorded from New Guinea for the first time. An annotated list and an identification key to the scolopendromorphs of the studied region are presented. PMID:27515618

  3. Increased apoptosis in gastric mucosa adjacent to intestinal metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    van Grieken, N C T; Meijer, G A; zur Hausen, A; Meuwissen, S G M; Baak, J P A; Kuipers, E J

    2003-01-01

    Background: The biological processes involved in the development of gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia are still incompletely understood. Reports testing the hypothesis that apoptosis leads to atrophy have yielded conflicting results. The availability of new antibodies for the detection of apoptotic cells in tissue sections has facilitated the analysis of the role of apoptosis in the gastritis–atrophy–intestinal metaplasia sequence. Methods: Archival material from 40 gastric resection specimens with normal mucosa (n = 5), chronic active gastritis (n = 17), or intestinal metaplasia (n = 18) was studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies directed against cleaved cytokeratin 18 and active caspase 3. Slides were scored on a 0–3 scale for the presence of apoptotic cells. Results: Normal gastric mucosa contained low numbers of apoptotic cells at the surface epithelium (mean score, 0.20). This number was significantly increased in cases with chronic gastritis (mean score, 1.06) and in those with intestinal metaplasia (mean score, 2.56). Within the intestinal metaplasia cases, 44 different foci of intestinal metaplasia were identified. In 39 of these 44 areas, concentrations of apoptotic cells were seen immediately adjacent to the foci of intestinal metaplasia, but not in the metaplastic epithelium itself. Conclusions: Apoptosis is uncommon in normal gastric mucosa. Chronic inflammation and intestinal metaplasia are associated with increased apoptosis, but occur mainly at the mucosal surface and not in the deeper layers. These findings do not support the concept that apoptosis underlies the loss of gastric glands and leads to atrophy, but the observed concentration of apoptotic epithelial cells adjacent to foci of intestinal metaplasia could be related to heterogeneity of epithelial damage, causing apoptosis, to which intestinal metaplasia is a response. PMID:12719456

  4. Effect of Fluoridated Sealants on Adjacent Tooth Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cagetti, M.G.; Carta, G.; Cocco, F.; Sale, S.; Congiu, G.; Mura, A.; Strohmenger, L.; Lingström, P.; Campus, G.

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed in 6- to 7-yr-old schoolchildren to evaluate, in a 30-mo period, whether the caries increment on the distal surface of the second primary molars adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with fluoride release compounds would be lower with respect to those adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with a nonfluoridated sealant. In sum, 2,776 subjects were enrolled and randomly divided into 3 groups receiving sealants on sound first molars: high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (GIC group); resin-based sealant with fluoride (fluoride-RB group); and a resin-based sealant without fluoride (RB group). Caries (D1 – D3 level) was recorded on the distal surface of the second primary molar, considered the unit of analysis including only sound surfaces at the baseline. At baseline, no differences in caries prevalence were recorded in the 3 groups regarding the considered surfaces. At follow-up, the prevalence of an affected unit of analysis was statistically lower (p = .03) in the GIC and fluoride-RB groups (p = .04). In the GIC group, fewer new caries were observed in the unit of analysis respect to the other 2 groups. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.68; p < .01) for GIC vs. RB and 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.04; p = .005) for fluoride-RB vs. RB. Caries incidence was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status (IRR = 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.42; p = .05). Dental sealant high-viscosity GIC and fluoride-RB demonstrated protection against dental caries, and there was evidence that these materials afforded additional protection for the tooth nearest to the sealed tooth (clinical trial registration NCT01588210). PMID:24846910

  5. Ocean-Atmosphere Environments of Antarctic-Region Cold-Air Mesocyclones: Evaluation of Reanalyses for Contrasting Adjacent 10-Day Periods ("Macro-Weather") in Winter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleton, A. M.; Auger, J.; Birkel, S. D.; Maasch, K. A.; Mayewski, P. A.; Claud, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale cyclones in cold-air outbreaks (mesocyclones) feature in the weather and climate of the Antarctic (e.g., Ross Sea) and sub-antarctic (Drake Passage). They adversely impact field operations, and influence snowfall, the ice-sheet mass balance, and sea-air energy fluxes. Although individual mesocyclones are poorly represented on reanalyses, these datasets robustly depict the upper-ocean and troposphere environments in which multiple mesocyclones typically form. A spatial metric of mesocyclone activity—the Meso-Cyclogenesis Potential (MCP)—used ERA-40 anomaly fields of: sea surface temperature (SST) minus marine air temperature (MAT), near-surface winds, 500 hPa air temperature, and the sea-ice edge location. MCP maps composited by teleconnection phases for 1979-2001, broadly correspond to short-period satellite "climatologies" of mesocyclones. Here, we assess 3 reanalysis datasets (CFSR, ERA-I and MERRA) for their reliably to depict MCP patterns on weekly to sub-monthly periods marked by strong regional shifts in mesocyclone activity (frequencies, track densities) occurring during a La Niña winter: June 21-30, 1999 (SE Indian Ocean) and September 1-10, 1999 (Ross Sea sector). All reanalyses depict the marked variations in upper ocean and atmosphere variables between adjacent 10-day periods. Slight differences may owe to model resolution or internal components (land surface, coupled ocean models), and/or how the observations are assimilated. For June 21-30, positive SST-MAT, southerly winds, proximity to the ice edge, and negative T500, accompany increased meso-cyclogenesis. However, for September 1-10, surface forcing does not explain frequent comma cloud "polar lows" north-east of the Ross Sea. Inclusion of the upper-level diffluence (e.g., from Z300 field) in the MCP metric, better depicts the observed mesocyclone activity. MCP patterns on these "macro-weather" time scales appear relatively insensitive to the choice of reanalysis.

  6. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  7. Land use and land cover digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1994-01-01

    Computer tapes derived from land use and land cover (LULC) data and associated maps at scales of 1 :250,000 and 1: 100,000 are available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This data can be used alone or combined with a base map or other supplemental data for a variety of applications, using commercially available software. You can produce area summary statistics, select specific portions of a map to study or display single classifications, such as bodies of water. LULC and associated digital data offer convenient, accurate, flexible, and cost-effective access to users who are involved in environmental studies, land use planning, land management, or resource planning.

  8. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eendebak, P. T.; van Eekeren, A. W. M.; den Hollander, R. J. M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the detected obstacles we select a safe landing zone for the UAV. The motion and structure detection uses background estimation of stabilized video. The background variation is measured and used to enhance the moving objects if necessary. In the motion and structure map a distance transform is calculated to find a suitable location for landing.

  9. Late Quaternary history of the southwestern St. Lawrence Lowlands and adjacent Adirondack Highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Pair, D.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The reconstruction of Late Wisconsinan ice retreat, proglacial lakes, and Champlain Sea history from the northwest Adirondack slope and adjacent St. Lawrence Lowlands is critical to the synthesis of a regional picture of deglacial events in the eastern Great Lakes region. Unfortunately, these same areas are well known for their limited exposures, landforms covered by thick forest, large tracts of land inaccessible to detailed field mapping, and the overall paucity of glacial materials preserved on upland surfaces. Despite these limitations, a model which utilizes multiple and field-truthed evidence has been used to designate areas where ice border deposits indicate a substantial recessional position. It employs the following criteria in this analysis: sedimentology and morphostratigraphy of morainal landform segments and related sediments; orientation and continuity of ice border drainage channels; and the relationship of ice borders and drainage systems to well documented local and regional water bodies which accompanied ice retreat. The results of this approach have provided a unique regional picture of deglaciation. Despite the inherent limitations of working in upland areas to reconstruct glacial events, detailed morphostratigraphic correlations based on multiple lines of evidence can yield important information. The positions of five former ice borders have been reconstructed from the available data. These ice margins correspond closely with those documented previously by others adjoining areas. This type of study, utilizing multiple and field-truthed lines of evidence, constitutes a tangible step towards understanding the nature and history of ice retreat along this portion of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  10. Hydrogeochemical studies of historical mining areas in the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas, northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The study area comprises the Humboldt River Basin and adjacent areas, with emphasis on mining areas relatively close to the Humboldt River. The basin comprises about 16,840 mi2 or 10,800,000 acres. The mineral resources of the Humboldt Basin have been investigated by many scientists over the past 100 years, but only recently has our knowledge of regional geology and mine geology been applied to the understanding and evaluation of mining effects on water and environmental quality. The investigations reported here apply some of the techniques and perspectives developed in the Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative (AMLI) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a program of integrated geological-hydrological-biological-chemical studies underway in the Upper Animas River watershed in Colorado and the Boulder River watershed in, Montana. The goal of my studies of sites and districts is to determine the character of mining-related contamination that is actively or potentially a threat to water quality and to estimate the potential for natural attenuation of that contamination. These geology-based studies and recommendations differ in matters of emphasis and data collection from the biology-based assessments that are the cornerstone of environmental regulations.

  11. Hydrogeologic data for the Coconino Plateau and adjacent areas, Coconino and Yavapai counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Donald J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2002-01-01

    Data on geology, topography, hydrology, climate, land use, and vegetation were compiled between October 2000 and September 2001 and assembled into a database for use by local and regional waterresource managers and for future water-resource investigations. The hydrologic data include information on wells, springs, streamflow, water chemistry, and water use. Limitations of the data and additional data needs also were prepared. The roughly 5,000-square-mile Coconino Plateau contains a complex regional aquifer that has become increasingly important as a source of water supply for domestic, municipal, and in-stream uses owing to population growth and development. The flow characteristics of the regional aquifer are poorly understood because the aquifer is deeply buried, which limits exploratory drilling and testing, and because the geologic structure, which controls the occurrence and movement of ground water, is complex. The study area is about 10,300 square miles and, besides containing the entire Coconino Plateau, includes parts of adjacent areas where ground water from the Coconino Plateau discharges. Selected data are presented in tabular or graphical form. All data are available in electronic form.

  12. An assessment of transport timescales and return coefficient in adjacent tropical estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andutta, Fernando P.; Helfer, Fernanda; de Miranda, Luiz Bruner; Deleersnijder, Eric; Thomas, Christopher; Lemckert, Charles

    2016-08-01

    Transport timescales (TTS), namely residence time and exposure time, were computed for adjacent shallow meso-tidal tropical estuarines system using the Lagrangian model D-Waq Part coupled with the hydrodynamic model Delft3D-Flow, and the Constituent-oriented Age and Residence time Theory, CART. The main results are threefold: (a) The TTS differs more between releases at high or low tide than between those at spring and neap tides. The exposure time was also calculated and found to be larger than the residence time by a few days. (b) The exposure and residence times were used to evaluate the return coefficient (r) for different scenarios. As with residence and exposure times, the return coefficient was found to differ more between releases at high or low tide than between those at spring and neap tides. (c) For the Caravelas Estuary, where the river inflow was low (~4 m3 s-1), the residence time was found to be much larger than for the Peruípe Estuary, where the river discharge was greater and nearly constant during the sampling period (~20 m3 s-1). These results shows the importance of advection in decreasing TTS in the Peruípe Estuary compared to the Caravelas Estuary. The influence of the advection and dispersion agrees with previous simple estimates obtained using the newly modified Land Ocean Interaction Coastal Zone (LOICZ) model by Andutta et al. (2014).

  13. Effect of chromated copper arsenate structures on adjacent soil arsenic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Patch, Steven C; Scheip, Katherine; Brooks, Billy

    2011-06-01

    Structures made of chromated copper arsenic (CCA) have been shown to leach arsenic into the surrounding soil. Soil cores were taken adjacent to six CCA decks at 0, 15, 60 and 300 cm from the deck at depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm, and were analyzed for soil arsenic concentrations. Median soil arsenic concentrations ranged from 1.8 μg/g at a depth of 10-20 cm and a distance of 300 cm to 34.5 μg/g at a depth of 0-10 cm and a distance of 30 cm. Soil arsenic concentrations taken at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm decreased as distance from the deck increased. Soil arsenic concentrations close to the deck were higher at lower soil depths and at homes with greater deck wipe arsenic concentrations. Age of deck and slope of land had significant effects on the differences in arsenic concentrations between samples taken at different distances when evaluated in models by themselves, but not in models adjusting for deck wipe concentrations. Size of deck and bulk density of soil did not have significant effects on soil arsenic concentrations. PMID:21505794

  14. Wind Development on Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

    2008-01-18

    Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

  15. Orbital-science investigation: Part J: preliminary geologic map of the region around the candidate Proclus Apollo landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilhelms, Don E.

    1972-01-01

    The Proclus Crater region was mapped to test the value, for photogeologic mapping purposes, of Apollo 15 metric photographs and to estimate the scientific value of the area as a potential landing site. A metric photographic frame (fig. 25-67) serves as a base for a map of the region around the Proclus Crater (fig. 25-68), and adjacent frames were overlapped with the base frame to provide stereographic images. The excellent stereocoverage allows easy simultaneous observation of topography and albedo. The large forward overlap and the extensive areal photographic coverage provide the best photogeologic data available to date. Brief study has already refined earlier interpretations of the area (refs. 25-7 and 25-32). Although volcanic units have been shown to be extensive in this region, mass wasting apparently has been more important than volcanism in shaping terra landforms.

  16. Entry, Descent, and Landing With Propulsive Deceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet s moons atmospheres for entry, descent, and landing can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions.

  17. A GIS-based hedonic price model for agricultural land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demetriou, Demetris

    2015-06-01

    Land consolidation is a very effective land management planning approach that aims towards rural/agricultural sustainable development. Land reallocation which involves land tenure restructuring is the most important, complex and time consuming component of land consolidation. Land reallocation relies on land valuation since its fundamental principle provides that after consolidation, each landowner shall be granted a property of an aggregate value that is approximately the same as the value of the property owned prior to consolidation. Therefore, land value is the crucial factor for the land reallocation process and hence for the success and acceptance of the final land consolidation plan. Land valuation is a process of assigning values to all parcels (and its contents) and it is usually carried out by an ad-hoc committee. However, the process faces some problems such as it is time consuming hence costly, outcomes may present inconsistency since it is carried out manually and empirically without employing systematic analytical tools and in particular spatial analysis tools and techniques such as statistical/mathematical. A solution to these problems can be the employment of mass appraisal land valuation methods using automated valuation models (AVM) based on international standards. In this context, this paper presents a spatial based linear hedonic price model which has been developed and tested in a case study land consolidation area in Cyprus. Results showed that the AVM is capable to produce acceptable in terms of accuracy and reliability land values and to reduce time hence cost required by around 80%.

  18. Effect of modifying land cover and long-term agricultural practices on the soil characteristics in native forest-land.

    PubMed

    Gol, Ceyhun; Dengiz, Orhan

    2008-09-01

    Natural forestland soils in the high land mountain ecosystems on the eastern Black sea region of Turkey are being seriously degraded and destructed due to intensive agricultural practices. In this study we examined four soil profiles selected from four sites in each of three adjacent land use types which are native forest, pasture and cultivated fields with corn and hazelnut to compare the soil physical, chemical and morphological properties modified after natural forestland transformation into cultivated land. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected from four sites. The effects of agricultural practices on soil properties taken from each three adjacent land use types were most clearly detected in the past 50 years with the land use change. Land use change and subsequent tillage practices resulted in significant decreases in organic matter, total porosity, total nitrogen and reduced soil aggregates stability. However, contents of available P were improved by application of phosphorous fertilizers in cultivated system. There was also a significant change in bulk density among cultivated, pasture and natural forest soils. Depending upon the increase in bulk density and disruption of pores by cultivation, total porosity decreased accordingly. The data show that long term continuous cultivation of the natural forest soils resulted in changes in physical and chemical characteristics of soils. PMID:19295064

  19. Changes in Land Use and Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, William B.; Turner, B. L., II

    1994-10-01

    This book deals with the relationship between land use and land cover: between human activities and the transformation of the Earth's surface. It describes the recent changes in the world's farmland, forests, grasslands and settlements, and the impacts of these changes on soil, water resources and the atmosphere. It explores what is known about the importance of various underlying human sources of land transformation: population growth, technological change, political-economic institutions, political structure, and attitudes and beliefs. Three working group reports outline important avenues for future research: the construction of a global land model, the division of the world into regional situations of land transformation, and a wiring diagram to structure the division of research among fields of study.

  20. Discerning supersymmetry in adjacent branch cascade decay correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Graesser, Michael; Shelton, Jessie; Thomas, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Many models of new physics have mass spectra that lead to production of new coloured particles which decay through long decay chains into a number of quarks and leptons. It is known that invariant mass distributions formed from the visible fermion four-momenta depend on the physical properties of intermediate particles, such as their spin, mass, chiral couplings and other interactions. Here it is emphasized that correlations between these distributions provides useful checks and tests on the underlying model and its theoretical assumptions. This is illustrated in supersymmetric models having cascade decays producing leptons, including taus. Moreover, such correlations can provide evidence on whether the symmetry stabilizing the lightest superpartner is discrete, continuous or approximately continuous. The richer phenomenology of third generation superpartners, and their interactions with neutralinos and charginos, can with sufficient luminosity be investigated with di-fermion distributions involving taus and/or signed b-quarks.

  1. The Current Tectonics of the Yukon and Adjacent Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyndman, R. D.; Leonard, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    The current tectonics across the Yukon and adjacent areas of western Northwest Territories (NWT) and northern British Columbia appear to be driven primarily by the Yakutat Terrane collision, an "indenter" in the corner of the Gulf of Alaska. GPS data show 1-10 mm/yr northward and eastward, decreasing inland. The rates from earthquake statistics are similar although there are important discrepancies. The eastern Cordillera earthquake mechanisms are mainly thrust in the Mackenzie Mountains of southwestern NWT where the Cordillera upper crust is overthrusting the craton. To the north, the mechanisms are mainly strike-slip in the Richardson Mountains that appear to lie along the edge of the craton. The deformation appears to be limited to the hot and weak Cordillera with the strong craton providing an irregular eastern boundary. For example, there is an eastward bow in the craton edge and the deformation in the Mackenzie Mountains. On the Beaufort Sea margin in the region of the Mackenzie Delta there appears to be a type of "subduction zone" with the continent very slowly overthrusting the oceanic plate, a process that has continued since at least the Cretaceous. A northward moving continental margin block is bounded by left lateral faulting in the west (Canning Displacement Zone of eastern Alaska) and right lateral faulting in the east (Richardson Mountains in eastern Yukon). There is almost no seismicity on this thrust belt but as for some other subduction zones such as Cascadia there is the potential for very infrequent great earthquakes.

  2. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  3. Snow Distribution Patterns in Clearings and Adjacent Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Douglas L.; Swanson, Robert H.

    1986-12-01

    Snow accumulation patterns were determined for clearings and adjacent forest at Marmot Creek experimental watershed and James River, Alberta. At maximum accumulation snow water equivalent (SWE) was greater in clearings than in forest whether clearings were large, as in 8- to 13-ha blocks where SWE averaged 20% more than in the forest, or small as in the ¼ to 6-H (height) diameter circular clearings where SWE was 13-45% greater than in the forest. SWE was 42 to 52% less in north than in south sectors of 2-6 H clearings. These differences increased with clearing size and time since beginning of accumulation period and are caused by snow ablation (melt and evaporation), a function of direct solar radiation reaching the snowpack. In such situations the snow that has accumulated on the ground cannot be considered a measure of the snow that has actually fallen there. For water balances and hydrologic modeling, snow measurements in partially cleared watersheds must be adjusted for temporal and spatial factors specific to the watershed.

  4. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  5. The Thermomagnetic Instability in Superconducting Films with Adjacent Metal Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestgården, J. I.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dendritic flux avalanches is a frequently encountered consequence of the thermomagnetic instability in type-II superconducting films. The avalanches, which are potentially harmful for superconductor-based devices, can be suppressed by an adjacent normal metal layer, even when the two layers are not in thermal contact. The suppression of the avalanches in this case is due to so-called magnetic braking, caused by eddy currents generated in the metal layer by propagating magnetic flux. We develop a theory of magnetic braking by analyzing coupled electrodynamics and heat flow in a superconductor-normal metal bilayer. The equations are solved by linearization and by numerical simulation of the avalanche dynamics. We find that in an uncoated superconductor, even a uniform thermomagnetic instability can develop into a dendritic flux avalanche. The mechanism is that a small non-uniformity caused by the electromagnetic non-locality induces a flux-flow hot spot at a random position. The hot spot quickly develops into a finger, which at high speeds penetrates into the superconductor, forming a branching structure. Magnetic braking slows the avalanches, and if the normal metal conductivity is sufficiently high, it can suppress the formation of the dendritic structure. During avalanches, the braking by the normal metal layer prevents the temperature from exceeding the transition temperature of the superconductor. Analytical criteria for the instability threshold are developed using the linear stability analysis. The criteria are found to match quantitatively the instability onsets obtained in simulations.

  6. Macrobenthos of Yenisei Bay and the adjacent Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, S. V.; Vedenin, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Trawl samples were collected in the northern region of Yenisei Bay and adjacent parts of the Kara Sea shelf. A total of eight stations were taken. We found more than 200 species of benthic organisms. A consecutive replacement of benthic communities is observed when going to the north from the Ob and Yenisei estuaries to the open parts of the sea. We could distinguish four different species complexes in the investigated area: a brackish-water complex where Saduria entomon is dominant; an intermediate complex where S. sibirica, S. sabini and Portlandia aestuariorum are dominant; a transitional complex with P. arctica as a dominant species and with a small amount of Ophiocten sericeum; a marine complex where O. sericeum is dominant. When salinity increased, some brackish-water species were replaced by related euryhaline species. One such example was the replacement of brackish-water Saduria entomon isopods by two euryhaline species: S. sibirica and S. sabini. The consecutive replacement of benthic communities showed a break near Sverdrup Island. In this area the marine complex was replaced by a transitional complex with P. arctica.

  7. Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.; Squillace, P.

    1994-01-01

    Herbicide interchange between a stream and the adjacent alluvial aquifer and quantification of herbicide bank storage during high streamflow were investigated at a research site on the Cedar River flood plain, 10 km southeast of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. During high streamflow in March 1990, alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background in water from wells as distant as 20, 50, and 10 m from the river's edge, respectively. During high streamflow in May 1990, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor were detected at concentrations above background as distant as 20, 50, 10, and 20 m from the river's edge, respectively. Herbicide bank storage took place during high streamflow when hydraulic gradients were from the river to the alluvial aquifer and the laterally infiltrating river water contained herbicide concentrations larger than background concentrations in the aquifer. The herbicide bank storage can be quantified by multiplying herbicide concentration by the "effective area" that a well represented and an assumed porosity of 0.25. During March 1990, herbicide bank storage values were calculated to be 1.7,79, and 4.0 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor, respectively. During May 1990, values were 7.1, 54, 11, and 19 mg/m for alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor, respectively. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  8. Apical infection spreading to adjacent teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Jiang, Jin; Zhu, Qiang

    2011-06-01

    This case report describes apical infection on tooth number 24 that spread to adjacent teeth, resulting in devitalized teeth numbers 23 and 25. The 25-year-old Caucasian female patient was referred to the endodontic resident clinic because of uncontrolled apical infection. Root-end surgery and root-end filling of teeth numbers 23, 24, and 25 were performed. The histopathological diagnosis was a periapical cyst; however, the clinical surgical finding of a purulence-filled bone cavity also revealed a periapical abscess. After root-end surgery and regenerative therapy using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Bio-Oss xenograft material, and Bio-Gide resorbable collagen membrane, the patient had no symptoms. Radiographs showed the apical lesion had healed satisfactorily at the 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year follow-ups. The clinical implication of this rare case suggests the importance of standard endodontic diagnostic procedures for pulpal and apical diagnosis, prevention of apical periodontitis exacerbation by reducing bacterial factors, and the effectiveness of healing large bone defects using regenerative materials. PMID:21458327

  9. Seismic responses of two adjacent buildings. I. Data and analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1993-01-01

    In this two-part paper, responses of two, adjacent, seven-story buildings in Norwalk, California, to the Whittier-Narrows, Calif, earthquake of Oct. 1, 1987 are studied. Building A, instrumented according to code recommendations, and building B, extensively instrumented, are offset by 16.3 m from one another. The data set includes motions from the superstructure of both buildings, from a downhole below the foundation of building B, and from three free-field sites. Part I of the paper includes descriptions of the buildings, site, instrumentation, and analysis of the data of each building. System identification and spectral analysis techniques are employed in part I. Building A has identical first-mode frequencies of 0.65 Hz for both building axes. The strong-motion response characteristics of building A are considerably different than those determined from low-amplitude tests. Building B has fundamental modes at 0.76 Hz and 0.83 Hz in the major and minor axes, respectively. Torsional and diaphragm effects in building B are negligible.

  10. Concentric network symmetry grasps authors' styles in word adjacency networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Silva, Filipi N.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2015-06-01

    Several characteristics of written texts have been inferred from statistical analysis derived from networked models. Even though many network measurements have been adapted to study textual properties at several levels of complexity, some textual aspects have been disregarded. In this paper, we study the symmetry of word adjacency networks, a well-known representation of text as a graph. A statistical analysis of the symmetry distribution performed in several novels showed that most of the words do not display symmetric patterns of connectivity. More specifically, the merged symmetry displayed a distribution similar to the ubiquitous power-law distribution. Our experiments also revealed that the studied metrics do not correlate with other traditional network measurements, such as the degree or the betweenness centrality. The discriminability power of the symmetry measurements was verified in the authorship attribution task. Interestingly, we found that specific authors prefer particular types of symmetric motifs. As a consequence, the authorship of books could be accurately identified in 82.5% of the cases, in a dataset comprising books written by 8 authors. Because the proposed measurements for text analysis are complementary to the traditional approach, they can be used to improve the characterization of text networks, which might be useful for applications based on stylistic classification.

  11. Seismic responses of two adjacent buildings. II. Interaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1993-01-01

    Presented in this part of the two-part paper is a study of the relations between earthquake motions recorded from two, adjacent, seven-story buildings, from a downhole below the foundation of one of the buildings and from three free-field sites, all within one city block. This unique data set was obtained during the Whittier-Narrows, Calif. earthquake of Oct. 1, 1987, Part I includes background information on the two buildings, the site, and the data set. Building response characteristics of a code-type instrumented building (A) and an extensively instrumented building (B) are also studied. In this part, spectral analysis techniques are used to study the relationships between the motions of the roofs and basements, the downhole and the free-field sites. It is asserted that there is building-soil-building interaction between the two buildings at a frequency of 2.35 Hz. Furthermore, the free-field motions are shown to be influenced by the presence of the buildings.

  12. Parasites of two native fishes in adjacent Adirondack lakes.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eric F; Whipps, Christopher M

    2013-08-01

    This survey of parasites in 2 adjacent lakes is the first of its kind in the Adirondack Park of New York State. Wolf Lake is designated as a heritage lake whereas nearby Deer Lake is limnologically similar but has at least 5 introduced fish species. Both lakes have 2 native species, i.e., white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus), which were the focus of this study. Parasite communities of both hosts were surveyed and compared between each lake and were statistically evaluated for differences in species similarity, prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance. Between lakes, white suckers had significant differences in the prevalence of 4 parasite species (Myxobolus sp. 2, Myxobolus bibulatus, Octospinifer macilentis, and Pomphorhynchus bulbocoli) and mean abundances of 4 parasites (neascus larvae, Octospinifer macilentis, Pomphorhynchus bulbocoli, and Glaridacris confusus). Redbreast sunfish had significant differences in the prevalence of 3 species (Myxobolus uvuliferis, a coccidian species, and Spinitectus carolini) and differences in parasite mean abundance of 5 species (neascus larvae, Clinostomum marginatum , Leptorhynchoides thecatus, Spinitectus carolini, and Eustrongylides sp.). Differences in component communities between lakes were found and, although the exact causes cannot be determined by this study, we speculate on several possible explanations. PMID:23384764

  13. Women, land, and trees.

    PubMed

    1999-07-01

    This article discusses women's land rights in the context of the findings of the paper, "Women's Land Rights in the Transition to Individualized Ownership: Implications for Tree Resource Management in Western Ghana." The study showed that customary land tenure institutions have evolved toward individualized systems, which provide incentives to invest in tree planting. In effect, individualization of land tenure had strengthened women's land rights through inter vivos gifts. However, transferring of land ownership to women is unlikely to raise productivity if access to and use of other inputs remains unequal. This suggests that attempts to equalize land rights of men and women are unlikely to lead to gender equity and improved efficiency and productivity of women farmers unless other constraints faced by women are also addressed. The article also documents comments, suggestions, and recommendations in response to the summary of the paper. In addition, the different practices of guaranteeing land ownership for women in some countries of Africa are presented. PMID:12295514

  14. Lunar Landing Research Vehicle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lunar lander, called a Lunar Excursion Module, or Lunar Module (LM), was designed for vertical landing and takeoff, and was able to briefly hover and fly horizontally before landing. At first g...

  15. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  16. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Carpena, R; Ritter, A; Li, Y C

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO3-, N-NH4+, P-PO4(3-), Total P, F-and Cl-) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO3-, P-PO4(3-)and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F-and Cl- are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying land

  17. Dynamic factor analysis of groundwater quality trends in an agricultural area adjacent to Everglades National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Carpena, R.; Ritter, A.; Li, Y. C.

    2005-11-01

    The extensive eastern boundary of Everglades National Park (ENP) in south Florida (USA) is subject to one of the most expensive and ambitious environmental restoration projects in history. Understanding and predicting the water quality interactions between the shallow aquifer and surface water is a key component in meeting current environmental regulations and fine-tuning ENP wetland restoration while still maintaining flood protection for the adjacent developed areas. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a recent technique for the study of multivariate non-stationary time-series, was applied to study fluctuations in groundwater quality in the area. More than two years of hydrological and water quality time series (rainfall; water table depth; and soil, ground and surface water concentrations of N-NO 3-, N-NH 4+, P-PO 43-, Total P, F -and Cl -) from a small agricultural watershed adjacent to the ENP were selected for the study. The unexplained variability required for determining the concentration of each chemical in the 16 wells was greatly reduced by including in the analysis some of the observed time series as explanatory variables (rainfall, water table depth, and soil and canal water chemical concentration). DFA results showed that groundwater concentration of three of the agrochemical species studied (N-NO 3-, P-PO 43-and Total P) were affected by the same explanatory variables (water table depth, enriched topsoil, and occurrence of a leaching rainfall event, in order of decreasing relative importance). This indicates that leaching by rainfall is the main mechanism explaining concentration peaks in groundwater. In the case of N-NH 4+, in addition to leaching, groundwater concentration is governed by lateral exchange with canals. F -and Cl - are mainly affected by periods of dilution by rainfall recharge, and by exchange with the canals. The unstructured nature of the common trends found suggests that these are related to the complex spatially and temporally varying

  18. Land and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines implications of…

  19. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  20. Literature and the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, James W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course which focuses on the grassland area of the central United States. Study of the land is approached through: (1) literature dealing directly with land; (2) novels about land-dependent people; and (3) formal lectures on geology and natural history of grassland. (Author/MA)

  1. Land surface interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: land and climate modeling; sensitivity studies; the process of a land model; model-specific parameterizations; water stress; within-canopy resistances; partial vegetation; canopy temperature; and present experience with a land model coupled to a general circulation model.

  2. Movement of citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), from a grove to traps and sentinel plants in adjacent land

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We captured male Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton in traps baited with pheromone in pastureland 1200 m west of a known source. The capture of males was correlated with northeast wind blowing from groves, suggesting males moved passively on wind currents from groves before navigating upwind toward phe...

  3. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ∼150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (∼1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  4. Rayleigh wave tomography of China and adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhongxian; Su, Wei; Peng, Yanju; Zheng, Yuejun; Li, Hongyi

    2003-02-01

    This paper presents a tomographic study on the S wave velocity structure of China and adjacent regions. Group velocity dispersions of fundamental Rayleigh waves along more than 4000 paths were determined with frequency-time analysis. The study region was divided into a 1° × 1° grid, and velocities in between grid nodes were calculated by bilinear interpolation. The Occam's inversion scheme was adopted to invert for group velocity distributions. This method is robust and allows us to use a fine grid in model parameterization and thus helps to restore a more realistic velocity pattern. Checkerboard tests were carried out, and the lateral resolution was estimated to be 4°-6° in China and its eastern continental shelves. The resulting group velocity maps from 10 to 184 s showed good correlation with known geological and tectonic features. The pure path dispersion curves at each node were inverted for shear wave velocity structures. The three-dimensional velocity model indicates thick lithospheres in the Yangtze and Tarim platforms and hot upper mantles in Baikal and western Mongolia, coastal area and continental shelves of eastern China, and Indochina and South China Sea regions. The Tibetan Plateau has a very thick crust with a low-velocity zone in its middle. Beneath the crust a north dipping high-velocity zone, mimicking a subducting plate, reaches to 200 km in depth and reaches to the Kunlun Mountains northward. In northern Tibet a low-velocity zone immediately below the Moho extends eastward then turns southward along the eastern edge of the plateau until it connects to the vast low-velocity area in Indochina and the South China Sea.

  5. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-03-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ˜150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (˜1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  6. Seismotectonics of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Aggarwal, Y.P.

    1981-06-10

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2< or =m/sub b/< or =5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970--1979) with historical earthquakes (1534--1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada.

  7. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  8. Landing gear noise attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  9. Human health-related ecosystem services of avian-dense coastal wetlands adjacent to a Western Lake Erie swimming beach.

    PubMed

    Rea, Chris L; Bisesi, Michael S; Mitsch, William; Andridge, Rebecca; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-03-01

    Wetlands provide many valuable ecosystem services, including water quality improvement to protect downstream aquatic ecosystems such as lakes, rivers, and estuaries. However, their ability to improve water quality to safe levels for direct human exposure while largely surrounded by agricultural lands and hosting large wildlife populations remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the ecosystem service capabilities of an avian-dense coastal wetland surrounded by agricultural lands along the southwestern shore of Lake Erie in Ohio by assessing the quality of water as it flows through the wetland (Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge (ONWR)) and into Lake Erie beach waters. Our study used total phosphorus and fecal indicator (Escherichia coli) concentrations as water quality metrics across the wetland and at an adjacent Lake Erie swimming beach during the 2012 summer swim season. E. coli and total P levels were consistently highest at the site, where water enters the ONWR (mean E. coli = 507 CFU/100 mL; mean total P = 535 μg/L), and steadily decreased as water flowed through the wetland and into the adjacent beach (mean E. coli = 10 CFU/100 mL; mean total P = 41 μg/L). E. coli and total P showed statistically significant (α = 0.01) correlations with phycocyanin, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and pH; total P was also significantly correlated with total N. The results suggest that this wetland may be contributing to improving water quality, which is beneficial for human health as well as to downstream ecosystem health (e.g., limiting eutrophication promoting conditions, etc.). PMID:25582638

  10. Diversification and Demography of the Oriental Garden Lizard (Calotes versicolor) on Hainan Island and the Adjacent Mainland

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yong; Guo, Xianguang; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Shi, Haitao; Li, Jiatang; Li, Jun; Cai, Bo; Wang, Yuezhao

    2013-01-01

    The Oriental garden lizard (Calotes versicolor) is one of the few non-gekkonid lizards that are geographically widespread in the tropics. We investigated its population dynamics on Hainan Island and the adjacent mainland of China and Vietnam, focusing on the impact of cyclic upheaval and submergence of land bridges during the Pleistocene. Our Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals two mitochondrial lineages, A and B, which are estimated to have coalesced about 0.26 million years ago (95% credibility interval: 0.05–0.61 million years ago). Lineage A contains individuals mainly from central and southern Wuzhi Mountain on Hainan Island, whereas lineage B mainly comprises individuals from other sites on the island plus the adjacent mainland. The estimated coalescence times within lineages A (0.05 million years ago) and B (0.13 million years ago) fall within a period of cyclical land-bridge formation and disappearance in the Pleistocene. A spatial analysis of molecular variance identified two distinct population groupings: I, primarily containing lineage A, and II, mainly consisting of lineage B. However, haplotypes from lineages A and B occur sympatrically, suggesting that gene flow is ongoing. Neither Wuzhi Mountain nor Qiongzhou Strait and Gulf of Tonkin act as barriers to gene flow among C. versicolor populations. Analyses of the data using mismatch distributions and extended Bayesian skyline plots provide evidence of a relatively stable population size through time for Group I, and moderate population expansions and contractions during the end of the Pleistocene for Group II. We conclude that the phylogeographical patterns of C. versicolor are the combined product of Pleistocene sea-level oscillations and nonphysical barriers to gene flow. PMID:23840304

  11. Interference measurements on amplitude compandored single sideband (ACSB) land mobil radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, H.

    1983-06-01

    The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) funded the ECAC to conduct adjacent-signal interference tests on a new radio system technology that shows promise of allowing smaller channel spacing in the Government land mobile radio band (162-174 MHz). The system tested was an amplitude compandored single-sideband radio (ACSB) manufactured by Sideband Technology, Inc. This report presents the adjacent-signal interference (ASI) result which will be employed by NTIA in evaluation of the potential usage of the ACSB technology in the Government land mobile radio band.

  12. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  13. Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 16 landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muehlberger, W.R.; Batson, R.M.; Boudette, E.L.; Duke, C.M.; Eggleton, R.E.; Elston, D.P.; England, A.W.; Freeman, V.L.; Hait, M.H.; Hall, T.A.; Head, J.W.; Hodges, C.A.; Holt, H.E.; Jackson, E.D.; Jordan, J.A.; Larson, K.B.; Milton, D.J.; Reed, V.S.; Rennilson, J.J.; Schaber, G.G.; Schafer, J.P.; Silver, L.T.; Stuart-Alexander, D.; Sutton, R.L.; Swann, G.A.; Tyner, R.L.; Ulrich, G.E.; Wilshire, H.G.; Wolfe, E.W.; Young, J.W.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 landing site in the lunar central highlands encompassed terra plains and adjacent mountainous areas of hilly and furrowed terra. These morphologic units, representing important terrane types in the lunar highlands, had been interpreted as volcanic on most premission geologic maps. However, it became apparent during the mission that there are indeed few or no volcanic rocks or landforms at the site but rather that the area is underlain by a wide variety of impact-generated breccias.

  14. A disparity between erosional hazard and accretion of the sundarbans with its adjacent east coast, Bangladesh: a remote sensing and GIS approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlowan, E. U.; Hossain, A. T. M. S.

    2015-10-01

    The Sundarbans, UNESCO affiliated world heritage site and world largest mangrove forest covering with (~10000) km2 along the coastal areas of Bangladesh and India. Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries due to sea level rise caused by global warming. In the present situation world mangrove forest are declining at alarming rate. The extensions of this mangrove forest continuously changing with the nature of Bay of Bengal coast. This paper presents the contrast result of erosional hazard and accretion of Sundarbans with its adjacent east coast of Bangladesh. This study based on images of Landsat MSS, Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM), and Operational Land Imager (OLI) from Landsat 8. Landsat images from 1980 to 2014 were analyzed. The result shows the net erosion rate of Sundarbans is higher than its adjacent east coast. The study area has been divided into two phases - Phase I and Phase II. Phase I represents only Sundarbans and Phase II represents adjacent east coast. These two phases has equal longitudinal distance. Many small channels and river supply water and sediment into the Sundarbans. The adjacent east coast of Sundarbans lies on the Meghana estuary that experienced with huge amount of sediment flow. The Sundarbans has been facing erosional stage with a rate of net erosion about 3 km2 y-1 whereas the adjacent east coast facing an accretional stage with rate of accretion about 1 km2y-1. The highest erosion rate of Phase I (Sundarbans) was 10.61 km2y-1 and highest erosion of Phase II adjacent east coast was 18-km2 y-1 in the period of 1989-1999. The highest accretion rate in the Sundarbans was 6.48 km2 y-1 in the period of 1999-2006 and in the Phase II, accretion rate was 16.43 km2 y-1 in the period of 1980-1989. The lowest erosion rate was 3 km2 y-1 in Phase I and 2.11 km2 y-1 in Phase II in the period of 1999- 2006. The reworking area in phase I is about 37 km2 and phase II is about 51 Km2.So, water is highly active in

  15. Soft Landing of Complex Molecules on Surfaces *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Hu, Qichi; Laskin, Julia

    2011-07-01

    Soft and reactive landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces has become a topic of substantial interest due to its promising potential for the highly controlled preparation of materials. For example, there are possible applications in the production of peptide and protein microarrays for use in high-throughput screening, protein separation and conformational enrichment of peptides, redox protein characterization, thin-film production, and the preparation of catalysts through deposition of clusters and organometallic complexes. Soft landing overcomes many of the limitations associated with conventional thin-film production techniques and offers unprecedented selectivity and specificity of preparation of deposited species. This review discusses the fundamental aspects of soft and reactive landing of mass-selected ions on surfaces that pertain to applications of these techniques in biomaterials, molecular electronics, catalysis, and interfacial chemistry.

  16. Hydraulic relationships between buried valley sediments of the glacial drift and adjacent bedrock formations in northeastern Ohio, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyoum, Wondwosen Mekonnen; Eckstein, Yoram

    2014-08-01

    Buried valleys are ancient river or stream valleys that predate the recent glaciation and since have been filled with glacial till and/or outwash. Outwash deposits are known to store and transmit large amounts of groundwater. In addition to their intrinsic hydraulic properties, their productivity depends on their hydraulic relationships with the adjacent bedrock formations. These relationships are examined using a steady-state three-dimensional groundwater flow model through a section of a buried valley in northeastern Ohio, USA. The flow domain was divided into five hydrostratigraphic units: low-conductivity (K) till, high-K outwash, and three bedrock units (Pottsville Formation, Cuyahoga Group and Berea Sandstone). The model input was prepared using the data from well logs and drilling reports of residential water wells. The model was calibrated using observed heads with mean residual head error of 0.3 m. The calibrated model was used to quantify flux between the buried valley and bedrock formations. Mass balance was calculated to within an error of 2-3 %. Mass balance of the buried valley layer indicates that it receives 1.6 Mm3/year (≈40 % of the total inflow) from the adjacent bedrock aquifers: Pottsville Formation contributes 0.96 Mm3/year (60 %) while the Berea Sandstone 0.64 Mm3/year (40 %).

  17. Geology of the area adjacent to the Free Enterprise uranium-silver Mine, Boulder District, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, W.A.; Gude, A.J., III

    1952-01-01

    Uranium minerals.occur in pods associated with cryptocrystalline silica, silver minerals, and scattered sulfide mineral grains in a hydrothermal vein that cuts quartz monzonite and alaskite at the Free Enterprise mine, 2 miles west of Boulder, Mont. The Free Enterprise vein is one of many silicified reef-like structures in this area, most of which trend about N. 60° E. The cryptocrystalline silica zones of the area are lenticular and are bordered by an altered zone where quartz monzonite is the wall rock. No alteration was noticed where alaskite is adjacent to silica zones. No uranium minerals were observed at the surface, but radioactivity anomalies were noted at 57 outcrops. Underground mining has shown that leaching by downward percolating waters has removed most of the uranium from the near-surface part of the Free Enterprise vein and probably has enriched slightly, parts of the vein and the adjacent wall rock from the bottom of the leached zone to the ground-water level. It is possible that other veins that show low to moderate radioactivity at the surface may contain significant concentrations of uranium minerals at relatively shallow depth. The quartz monzonite appears to be a more favorable host rock for the cryptocrystalline silica and associated uranium minerals than the alaskite. The alaskite occurs as vertical_dikes plug-like masses, and as irregularly shaped, gently dipping masses that are believed to have been intruded into open fractures formed during the cooling of the quartz monzonite.

  18. Seismotectonics of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jih-Ping; Aggarwal, Yash Pal

    1981-06-01

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2 ≤ mb ≤ 5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970-1979) with historical earthquakes (1534-1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada. Highangle reverse or thrust faulting on N to NE trending planes

  19. The effects of changes in land cover and land use on nutrient loadings to the Chesapeake Bay using forecasts of urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Allen Derrick

    This dissertation examined the effects of land cover and land use (LC/LU) change on nutrient loadings (mass for a specified time) to the Chesapeake Bay, after future projections of urbanization were applied. This was accomplished by quantifying the comprehensive impacts of landscape on nutrients throughout the watershed. In order to quantify forecasted impacts of future development and LC/LU change, the current (2000) effects of landscape composition and configuration on total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were examined. The effects of cover types were examined not only at catchment scales, but within riparian stream buffer to quantify the effects of spatial arrangement. Using the SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model, several compositional and configurational metrics at both scales were significantly (p value ≤ 0.05) correlated to nutrient genesis and transport and helped estimate loadings to the Chesapeake Bay with slightly better accuracy and precision. Remotely sensed forecasts of future (2030) urbanization were integrated into SPARROWusing these metrics to project TN and TP loadings into the future. After estimation of these metrics and other LC/LU-based sources, it was found that overall nutrient transport to the Chesapeake Bay will decrease due to agricultural land losses and fertilizer reductions. Although point and non-point source urban loadings increased in the watershed, these gains were not enough to negate decreased agricultural impacts. In catchments forecasted to undergo urban sprawl conditions by 2030, the response of TN locally generated within catchments varied. The forecasted placement of smaller patches of development within agricultural lands of higher nutrient production was correlated to projected losses. However, shifting forecasted growth onto or adjacent to existing development, not agricultural lands, resulted in projected gains. This indicated the importance of forecasted spatial

  20. Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and its land claimants: a pre- and post-land claim conservation and development history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thondhlana, Gladman; Shackleton, Sheona; Muchapondwa, Edwin

    2011-04-01

    Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park is located in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and neighbouring Botswana. The local communities on the South African side, the Khomani San (Bushmen) and Mier living adjacent to the park have land rights inside and outside the park. The path from a history of land dispossession to being land owners has created conservation challenges manifested through heightened inter- and intra-community conflicts. The contestations for land and tourism development opportunities in and outside the park have drawn in powerful institutions such as the governments, South African National Parks, private safari companies, local interest groups and NGOs against relatively powerless local communities. This has consequently attracted national and international interest since it may result in further marginalization of the communities who lack the power to negotiate resource access. Moreover, the social and political system of the San is romanticized while little is reported about the Mier, who are an integral part of the park management system. To make these issues more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties and to better understand present conservation and development challenges and opportunities, this paper synthesizes information on the pre- and post-land restitution history of the park and the adjacent communities.

  1. Volcanic hazards of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P.

    1994-12-01

    Potential volcanic hazards are assessed, and hazard zone maps are developed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and adjacent areas. The basis of the hazards assessment and mapping is the past volcanic history of the INEL region, and the apparent similarity of INEL volcanism with equivalent, well-studied phenomena in other regions of active volcanism, particularly Hawaii and Iceland. The most significant hazards to INEL facilities are associated with basaltic volcanism, chiefly lava flows, which move slowly and mainly threaten property by inundation or burning. Related hazards are volcanic gases and tephra, and ground disturbance associated with the ascent of magma under the volcanic zones. Several volcanic zones are identified in the INEL area. These zones contain most of the volcanic vents and fissures of the region and are inferred to be the most probable sites of future INEL volcanism. Volcanic-recurrence estimates are given for each of the volcanic zones based on geochronology of the lavas, together with the results of field and petrographic investigations concerning the cogenetic relationships of INEL volcanic deposits and associated magma intrusion. Annual probabilities of basaltic volcanism within the INEL volcanic zones range from 6.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per year (average 16,000-year interval between eruptions) for the axial volcanic zone near the southern INEL boundary and the Arco volcanic-rift zone near the western INEL boundary, to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per year (average 100,000-year interval between eruptions) for the Howe-East Butte volcanic rift zone, a geologically old and poorly defined feature of the central portion of INEL. Three volcanic hazard zone maps are developed for the INEL area: lava flow hazard zones, a tephra (volcanic ash) and gas hazard zone, and a ground-deformation hazard zone. The maps are useful in land-use planning, site selection, and safety analysis.

  2. Results of en bloc resection for hepatocellular carcinoma extending to adjacent organs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan-Ming; Sui, Cheng-Jun; Li, Bin; Xu, Feng; Kan, Tong; Yang, Jia-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Background To curatively resect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with adjacent organ extension, the combined resection of these organs is inevitable. We analyzed the safety and effectiveness of en bloc resection for HCC extending to adjacent organs. Methods From December 2002 to May 2006, we compared the surgical outcomes of patients with HCC extending to adjacent organs with those of closely matched, randomly selected patients with HCC without adjacent organ extension. Results We included 42 patients whose HCC extended to adjacent organs and 126 patients whose HCC did not extend to adjacent organs. There was no significant difference in survival, operative morbidity or mortality between the groups. In patients with HCC extending to adjacent organs, histopathological examination of the specimen revealed true tumour invasion in 13 and adhesion in 29 patients. Those with tumour invasion were more likely to have a high incidence of capsule infiltration, microvascular invasion and early intrahepatic recurrence (≤ 1 yr after hepatectomy). The 5-year overall survival of patients with tumour invasion was 11.5%, whereas that of patients with tumour adhesion was 38.1% (p = 0.033). Conclusion En bloc resection is a safe and effective therapy for HCC extending to adjacent organs. Tumour invasion to adjacent organs exhibits a more aggressive clinical behaviour and is associated with worse survival than tumour adhesion. PMID:22617536

  3. Effects of brush management on the hydrologic budget and water quality in and adjacent to Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, 2001-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Edwards Region Grazing Lands Conservation Initiative, the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, the San Antonio River Authority, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, Texas Parks and Wildlife, the Guadalupe Blanco River Authority, and the San Antonio Water System, evaluated the hydrologic effects of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) removal as a brush management conservation practice in and adjacent to the Honey Creek State Natural Area in Comal County, Tex. By removing the ashe juniper and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area as a brush management conservation practice, the hydrology in the watershed might change. Using a simplified mass balance approach of the hydrologic cycle, the incoming rainfall was distributed to surface water runoff, evapotranspiration, or groundwater recharge. After hydrologic data were collected in adjacent watersheds for 3 years, brush management occurred on the treatment watershed while the reference watershed was left in its original condition. Hydrologic data were collected for another 6 years. Hydrologic data include rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and water quality. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured but potential groundwater recharge was calculated using a simplified mass balance approach. The resulting hydrologic datasets were examined for differences between the watersheds and between pre- and post-treatment periods to assess the effects of brush management. The streamflow to rainfall relation (expressed as event unit runoff to event rainfall relation) did not change between the watersheds during pre- and post-treatment periods. The daily evapotranspiration rates at the reference watershed and treatment watershed sites exhibited a seasonal cycle during the pre- and post-treatment periods, with intra- and interannual variability. Statistical analyses indicate the mean

  4. Corals persisting in naturally turbid waters adjacent to a pristine catchment in Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Albert, Simon; Fisher, Paul L; Gibbes, Badin; Grinham, Alistair

    2015-05-15

    Few water quality measurements exist from pristine environments, with fewer reported studies of coastal water quality from Solomon Islands. Water quality benchmarks for the Solomons have relied on data from other geographic regions, often from quite different higher latitude developed nations, with large land masses. We present the first data of inshore turbidity and sedimentation rate for a pristine catchment on Isabel Island. Surveys recorded relatively high coral cover. The lowest cover was recorded at 22.7% (Jejevo) despite this site having a mean turbidity (continuous monitoring) of 32 NTU. However, a similar site (Jihro) was significantly less turbid (2.1 mean NTU) over the same period. This difference in turbidity is likely due to natural features of the Jihro River promoting sedimentation before reaching coastal sites. We provide an important baseline for Solomon Island inshore systems, whilst demonstrating the importance of continuous monitoring to capture episodic high turbidity events. PMID:25752531

  5. Correlation between landscape fragmentation and sandy desertification: a case study in Horqin Sandy Land, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaodong; Dong, Kaikai; Luloff, A E; Wang, Luyao; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Shiying; Wang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The exact roles of landscape fragmentation on sandy desertification are still not fully understood, especially with the impact of different land use types in spatial dimension. Taking patch size and shape into consideration, this paper selected the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index to establish a model that reveals the association between the area of bare sand land and the fragmentation of different land use types adjacent to bare sand land. Results indicated that (1) grass land and arable land contributed the most to landscape fragmentation processes in the regions adjacent to bare sand land during the period 1980 to 2010. Grass land occupied 54 % of the region adjacent to bare sand land in 1980. The Ratio of Patch Size of grass land decreased from 1980 to 2000 and increased after 2000. The Fractal Dimension Index of grass increased during the period 1980 to 1990 and decreased after 1990. Arable land expanded significantly during this period. The Ratio of Patch Size of arable land increased from 1980 to 1990 and decreased since 1990. The Fractal Dimension Index of arable land increased from 1990 to 2000 and decreased after 2000. (2) The Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were significantly related to the area of bare sand land. The role of landscape fragmentation was not linear to sandy desertification. There were both positive and negative effects of landscape fragmentation on sandy desertification. In 1980, the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were negatively related to the area of bare sand land, showing that the landscape fragmentation and regularity of patches contributed to the expansion of sandy desertification. In 1990, 2000, and 2010, the Ratio of Patch Size and the Fractal Dimension Index were mostly positively related to the area of bare sand land, showing the landscape fragmentation and regularity of patches contributed to the reversion of sandy desertification in this phase. The absolute values of

  6. Mercury Export from Mainland China to Adjacent Seas and Its Influence on the Marine Mercury Balance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Maodian; Chen, Long; Wang, Xuejun; Zhang, Wei; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Xie, Han; Shen, Huizhong; Ye, Xuejie; Deng, Chunyan; Wang, Huanhuan

    2016-06-21

    Exports from mainland China are a significant source of mercury (Hg) in the adjacent seas (Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea, and South China Sea) near China. A total of 240 ± 23 Mg was contributed in 2012 (30% from natural sources and 70% from anthropogenic sources), including Hg from rivers, industrial wastewater, domestic sewage, groundwater, nonpoint sources, and coastal erosion. Among the various sources, the Hg from rivers amounts to 160 ± 21 Mg and plays a dominant role. The Hg that is exported from mainland China increased from 1984 to 2013; the contributions from rivers, industrial wastewater, domestic sewage and groundwater increased, and the contributions from nonpoint sources and coastal erosion remained stable. A box model is constructed to simulate the mass balance of Hg in these seas and quantify the sources, sinks and Hg biogeochemical cycle in the seas. In total, 160 Mg of Hg was transported to the Pacific Ocean and other oceans from these seas through oceanic currents in 2012, which could have negative impacts on the marine ecosystem. A prediction of the changes in Hg exportation through 2030 shows that the impacts of terrestrial export might worsen without effective pollution reduction measures and that the Hg load in these seas will increase, especially in the seawater of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea and in the sea margin sediments of the Bohai Sea and East China Sea. PMID:27243109

  7. Crystallization of accessory phases in magmas by local saturation adjacent to phenocrysts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Accessory minerals commonly occur attached to or included in the major crystalline phases of felsic and some intermediate igneous rocks. Apatite is particularly common as inclusions, but Fe-Ti oxides, pyrrhotite, zircon, monazite, chevkinite and xenotime are also known from silicic rocks. Accessories may nucleate near the host crystal/ liquid interface as a result of local saturation owing to formation of a differentiated chemical boundary layer in which accessory mineral solubility would be lower than in the surrounding liquid. Differentiation of this boundary layer would be greatest adjacent to ferromagnesian phenocrysts, especially Fe-Ti oxides; it is with oxides that accessories are most commonly associated in rocks. A boundary layer may develop if the crystal grows more rapidly than diffusion can transport incorporated and rejected elements to and from the phenocryst. Diffusion must dominate over convection as a mode of mass transfer near the advancing crystal/liquid interface in order for a boundary layer to exist. Accumulation of essential structural constituent elements of accessory minerals owing to their slow diffusion in evolved silicate melt also may force local saturation, but this is not a process that applies to all cases. Local saturation is an attractive mechanism for enhancing fractionation during crystallization differentiation. If accessory minerals attached to or included in phenocrysts formed because of local saturation, their host phenocrysts must have grown rapidly when accessories nucleated in comparison to lifetimes of magma reservoirs. Some inconsistencies remain in a local saturation origin for accessory phases that cannot be evaluated without additional information. ?? 1989.

  8. Comparison between soil and biomass carbon in adjacent hardwood and red pine forests

    SciTech Connect

    Perala, D.A.; Rollinger, J.L.; Wilson, D.M.

    1995-06-01

    The distribution of carbon in soil and biomass was studied across Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan, USA, in 40 pole-sized red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantations paired with adjacent hardwood stands. Pine and hardwood stands shared a common boundary and soil. Hardwood stands were mixed species, naturally regenerated second growth following logging. Carbon in total, standing crop averaged the same in both hardwood and red pine forest types, although the hardwoods averaged 14 years older than red pine. Coarse woody debris, shrubs, and herbs contained little carbon. Only the forest floor carbon pool was significantly different between forest types. Forest floor had a greater mass beneath red pine than hardwoods. There was no difference in total ecosystem carbon between red pine and hardwood stands. Total mineral soil aggregated across the depth profile contained the same total amount of carbon in both pine and hardwood stands; however, the carbon was found in different vertical patterns. Amounts of carbon in the upper levels of soil (0--4 cm) were higher under hardwoods, and amounts were higher under red pine at the 8--16 cm and 16--32 cm soil depths. Where July air temperatures were relatively cool, red pine stored carbon more efficiently both in the forest floor and deep in the soil. Red pine also sequestered more carbon in mineral soil with increasing April--September precipitation.

  9. Survey of roadside alien plants in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and adjacent residential areas 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bio, Keali'i F.; Pratt, Linda W.; Jacobi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    The sides of all paved roads of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) were surveyed on foot in 2001 to 2005, and the roadside presence of 240 target invasive and potentially invasive alien plant species was recorded in mile-long increments. Buffer zones 5–10 miles (8–16 km) long along Highway 11 on either side of the Kīlauea and Kahuku Units of the park, as well as Wright Road that passed by the disjunct `Ōla`a Tract Unit, were included in the survey. Highway 11 is the primary road through the park and a major island thoroughfare. Three residential subdivisions adjacent to the park were similarly surveyed in 0.5–1 mile (0.8–1.6 km) intervals in 2003, and data were analyzed separately. Two roads to the east and northeast were also surveyed, but data from these disjunct areas were analyzed separately from park roads. In total, 174 of the target alien species were observed along HAVO roads and buffers, exclusive of residential areas, and the mean number of target aliens per mile surveyed was 20.6. Highway 11 and its buffer zones had the highest mean number of target alien plants per mile (26.7) of all park roads, and the Mauna Loa Strip Road had the lowest mean (11.7). Segments of Highway 11 adjacent to HAVO and Wright Road next to `Ōla`a Tract had mean numbers of target alien per mile (24–47) higher than those of any internal road. Alien plant frequencies were summarized for each road in HAVO. Fifteen new records of vascular plants for HAVO were observed and collected along park roads. An additional 28 alien plant species not known from HAVO were observed along the buffer segments of Highway 11 adjacent to the park. Within the adjacent residential subdivisions, 65 target alien plant species were sighted along roadsides. At least 15 potentially invasive species not currently found within HAVO were observed along residential roads, and several other species found there have been previously eliminated from the park or controlled to remnant populations

  10. Investigating the Impact of Land between the Lakes (LBL) and Land Use/Land Cover Change on Precipitation Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degu, A. M.; Hossain, F.

    2012-12-01

    Large dams/reservoirs as open water surface and as a mechanism of triggering land use/land cover changes in their vicinity have impacted local climate and extreme precipitation patterns as study show. Urbanization, agricultural development, and forestation are some of the Land Use/Land Cover Changes (LULCC) that are result of development of large dams/reservoirs. Thus creating heterogeneities. It is believed that such heterogeneities bring about a boundary of different air masses that triggers convection due to differential heating as well as variation in soil moisture. One such heterogeneities is of the Land Between the Lakes (LBL). LBL is an inland peninsula formed by Lake Kentucky on Tennessee River and Lake Barkley on Cumberland River in Western Kentucky. The development of the two lakes brought about an area of 680 sq.km forest cover. The LBL renders unique land use/land cover heterogeneities with in a shorter distance providing open water for evaporation and forest for evapotranspiration. Reports as well as a preliminary investigation of nearby weather radar data showed storms dying out as it approaches the inland peninsula and gaining strength east of LBL. The storm exhibits a wave like strength, attenuating before LBL and gaining strength after. The purpose of this study mainly is to investigate the impact of LBL and in general LULCC on precipitation in the area. In this study the following specific scientific question will be addressed a. Has the development of LBL modified precipitation in the region? b. Which LULCC predominately affects storm formation? Summer radar reflectivity data from Paducah, KY station along with North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) geopotential height and wind direction data will be analyzed for identification of LBL effect precipitation and synoptic effect precipitation, respectively. A Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) will be setup to investigate what land use/land cover predominately modifies precipitation in

  11. Seismic reflection characteristics of glacial and glacimarine sediment in the Gulf of Alaska and adjacent fjords

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    Glaciation together with tectonism have been dominant factors affecting sedimentation in the Gulf of Alaska area from at least the late Miocene throughout the Quaternary. The effects of tectonism are apparent in high mountains that border the gulf, raised terraces of Middleton Island and the eastern gulf coastal zone, and numerous active faults and related earthquakes. Glacial evidence includes magnificent glaciers and their onshore deposits, spectacular fjords, large sea valleys incised in the continental shelf, submarine morainal ridges at mouths of bays and sea valleys, and thick glacimarine sedimentary sequences (diamicts) that are exposed onshore and at the sea floor along the outer shelf. Seismic-reflection profiling and sampling of the uppermost marine sedimentary sequences in the Gulf of Alaska and adjacent fjords and bays have allowed identification of three discrete glacially related stratigraphic units. These units were delineated on the basis of seismic signature, geometry, physiographic location, stratigraphic position, and sedimentologic characteristics. The oldest unit, a Quaternary diamict, is portrayed on seismic profiles by irregular, discontinuous reflections. This unit probably includes till, outwash and glacimarine sediment. A geographically restricted unit, one incorporating Holocene end moraines at bay mouths and associated with some sea valleys, consists of jumbled masses of discontinuous reflections and very irregular surface morphology. The youngest unit, a blanket of Holocene sand to clayey silt prograding as a sediment wedge across the shelf, contains nearly horizontal, parallel reflections except where disrupted by mass movement. Although seismic-reflection data alone cannot provide definitive proof of the presence of glacial sediment, when combined with sea-floor sampling, seismic profiling is a powerful tool for determining the continuity of marine sedimentary units and relationships to past and modern glaciers. ?? 1989.

  12. Activity and abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria in secondary forest and manioc plantations of Amazonian Dark Earth and their adjacent soils.

    PubMed

    Lima, Amanda B; Muniz, Aleksander W; Dumont, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    The oxidation of atmospheric CH4 in upland soils is mostly mediated by uncultivated groups of microorganisms that have been identified solely by molecular markers, such as the sequence of the pmoA gene encoding the β-subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase enzyme. The objective of this work was to compare the activity and diversity of methanotrophs in Amazonian Dark Earth soil (ADE, Hortic Anthrosol) and their adjacent non-anthropic soil. Secondly, the effect of land use in the form of manioc cultivation was examined by comparing secondary forest and plantation soils. CH4 oxidation potentials were measured and the structure of the methanotroph communities assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and amplicon pyrosequencing of pmoA genes. The oxidation potentials at low CH4 concentrations (10 ppm of volume) were relatively high in all the secondary forest sites of both ADE and adjacent soils. CH4 oxidation by the ADE soil only recently converted to a manioc plantation was also relatively high. In contrast, both the adjacent soils used for manioc cultivation and the ADE soil with a long history of agriculture displayed lower CH4 uptake rates. Amplicon pyrosequencing of pmoA genes indicated that USCα, Methylocystis and the tropical upland soil cluster (TUSC) were the dominant groups depending on the site. By qPCR analysis it was found that USCα pmoA genes, which are believed to belong to atmospheric CH4 oxidizers, were more abundant in ADE than adjacent soil. USCα pmoA genes were abundant in both forested and cultivated ADE soil, but were below the qPCR detection limit in manioc plantations of adjacent soil. The results indicate that ADE soils can harbor high abundances of atmospheric CH4 oxidizers and are potential CH4 sinks, but as in other upland soils this activity can be inhibited by the conversion of forest to agricultural plantations. PMID:25374565

  13. Activity and abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria in secondary forest and manioc plantations of Amazonian Dark Earth and their adjacent soils

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Amanda B.; Muniz, Aleksander W.; Dumont, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    The oxidation of atmospheric CH4 in upland soils is mostly mediated by uncultivated groups of microorganisms that have been identified solely by molecular markers, such as the sequence of the pmoA gene encoding the β-subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase enzyme. The objective of this work was to compare the activity and diversity of methanotrophs in Amazonian Dark Earth soil (ADE, Hortic Anthrosol) and their adjacent non-anthropic soil. Secondly, the effect of land use in the form of manioc cultivation was examined by comparing secondary forest and plantation soils. CH4 oxidation potentials were measured and the structure of the methanotroph communities assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and amplicon pyrosequencing of pmoA genes. The oxidation potentials at low CH4 concentrations (10 ppm of volume) were relatively high in all the secondary forest sites of both ADE and adjacent soils. CH4 oxidation by the ADE soil only recently converted to a manioc plantation was also relatively high. In contrast, both the adjacent soils used for manioc cultivation and the ADE soil with a long history of agriculture displayed lower CH4 uptake rates. Amplicon pyrosequencing of pmoA genes indicated that USCα, Methylocystis and the tropical upland soil cluster (TUSC) were the dominant groups depending on the site. By qPCR analysis it was found that USCα pmoA genes, which are believed to belong to atmospheric CH4 oxidizers, were more abundant in ADE than adjacent soil. USCα pmoA genes were abundant in both forested and cultivated ADE soil, but were below the qPCR detection limit in manioc plantations of adjacent soil. The results indicate that ADE soils can harbor high abundances of atmospheric CH4 oxidizers and are potential CH4 sinks, but as in other upland soils this activity can be inhibited by the conversion of forest to agricultural plantations. PMID:25374565

  14. Land use planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The organization, objectives, and accomplishments of the panel on Land Use Planning are reported. Technology developments, and projected developments are discussed along with anticipated information requirements. The issues for users, recommended remote sensing programs, and space systems are presented. It was found that remote sensing systems are useful in future land use planning. It is recommended that a change detection system for monitoring land use and critical environmental areas be developed by 1979.

  15. Landing-gear impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flugge, W

    1952-01-01

    Report deals with the impact forces in landing gears. Both the landing impact and the taxiing impact have been considered, but drag forces have so far been excluded. The differential equations are developed and their numerical integration is shown, considering the nonlinear properties of the oleo shock strut. A way is shown for determining the dimensions of the metering pin from a given load-time diagram. A review of German literature on landing-gear impact is also presented.

  16. Land Treatment Digital Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Across the country, public land managers make hundreds of decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within the lands they manage. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations known as land treatments. Land treatments include activities such as removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding burned areas, and herbicide applications. Data on these land treatments are usually stored at local offices, and gathering information across large spatial areas can be difficult. There is a need to centralize and store treatment data for Federal agencies involved in land treatments because these data are useful to land managers for policy and management and to scientists for developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to catalog information about land treatments on Federal lands in the western United States for all interested parties. The flexible framework of the library allows for the storage of a wide variety of data in different formats. The LTDL currently stores previously established land treatments or what often are called legacy data. The project was developed and has been refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders, with opportunity for the library holdings to expand as new information becomes available. The library contains data in text, tabular, spatial, and image formats. Specific examples include project plans and implementation reports, monitoring data, spatial data files from geographic information systems, digitized paper maps, and digital images of land treatments. The data are entered by USGS employees and are accessible through a searchable web site. The LTDL can be used to respond to information requests, conduct analyses and other forms of information syntheses, produce maps, and generate reports for DOI managers and scientists and other authorized users.

  17. Competition for land

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

  18. Galaxy masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courteau, Stéphane; Cappellari, Michele; de Jong, Roelof S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Emsellem, Eric; Hoekstra, Henk; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Mamon, Gary A.; Maraston, Claudia; Treu, Tommaso; Widrow, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy masses play a fundamental role in our understanding of structure formation models. This review addresses the variety and reliability of mass estimators that pertain to stars, gas, and dark matter. The different sections on masses from stellar populations, dynamical masses of gas-rich and gas-poor galaxies, with some attention paid to our Milky Way, and masses from weak and strong lensing methods all provide review material on galaxy masses in a self-consistent manner.

  19. Biomechanics and control of landing in toads.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Gary; Ekstrom, Laura; Azizi, Emanuel

    2014-12-01

    Anything that jumps must land, but unlike during jumping when muscles produce energy to accelerate the body into the air, controlled landing requires muscles to dissipate energy and decelerate the body. Among anurans, toads (genus Bufo) exhibit highly coordinated landing behaviors, using their forelimbs to stabilize the body after touch-down as they lower their hindlimbs to the ground. Moreover, toads land frequently, as they cover distances by stringing together long series of relatively short hops. We have been using toads as a model to understand the biomechanics and motor control strategies of coordinated landing. Our results show that toads prepare for landing differently depending on how far they hop. For example, the forelimbs are extended farther prior to impact after long hops than after short ones. Such kinematic alterations are mirrored by predictable modulation of the recruitment intensity of forelimb muscles before impact, such that longer hops lead to higher levels of pre-landing recruitment of muscles. These differences in kinematics and muscular activity help to control the most flexed configuration of the elbow that is achieved after impact, which in turn constrains the extent to which muscles involved in dissipating energy are stretched. Indeed, a combination of in vivo and in vitro experiments has shown that the elbow-extending anconeus muscle, which is stretched during landing as the elbow flexes, rarely reaches lengths longer than those on the plateau of the muscle's length-tension curve (where damage becomes more likely). We have also been studying how movements of the hindlimbs after take-off help to stabilize animals during landing. In particular, the immediate and rapid flexion of a toad's knees after take-off leads to a repositioning of the animal's center of mass (COM) that better aligns it with ground-reaction forces (GRFs) at impact and reduces torques that would destabilize the animal. Finally, recent work on sensory feedback involved

  20. Propanil (3,4-dichloropropionanilide) particulate concentrations within and near the residences of families living adjacent to aerially sprayed rice fields.

    PubMed

    Richards, S M; McClure, G Y; Lavy, T L; Mattice, J D; Keller, R J; Gandy, J

    2001-07-01

    Propanil is widely used as a postemergence herbicide in rice. Because it is typically applied aerially, there is a potential for propanil to drift into and around homes of those living adjacent to rice fields. Propanil has been shown to be immunotoxic in rodent models. The objective of this study was to measure the levels of propanil to which families living adjacent to aerially sprayed rice fields may be exposed. Air levels were sampled by actively and passively collecting propanil in and around the homes of volunteer families living in close proximity to rice fields sprayed with propanil. Homes ranged from 73 m to 113 m from treated rice fields. Sampling was conducted in the home, adjacent to the home (within 5 m of the home), 30 m from the home, and at the edge of the rice field. Concentrations were determined via gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Propanil levels adjacent to the homes ranged from nondetectable to 1,106.4 microg per 400 cm2 collection surface (2.0 microg detection limit). Wind direction and wind velocity were the primary determinants of propanil drift. At sites where the prevailing wind was blowing away from the home, no propanil was detected except at the edge of the field. Distance from the edge of the rice field also influenced the amount of drift with higher levels measured at 30 m from the house than adjacent to the house. No propanil vapor was detected on absorbent media sampled in and around the homes. The results indicate that individuals living adjacent to rice fields aerially sprayed with propanil are potentially exposed to variable amounts of propanil, and wind speed and direction are the most important factors that influence the concentration of aerially applied pesticide. PMID:11385597

  1. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-05-01

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  2. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    SciTech Connect

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-05-15

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  3. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  4. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  5. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  6. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  7. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  8. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  9. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  10. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  11. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  12. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  13. 33 CFR 110.168 - Hampton Roads, Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... explosives, as defined in 49 CFR 173.50. Dangerous cargo means “certain dangerous cargo” as defined in § 160... adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83). 110.168 Section 110.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83). (a) Anchorage Grounds—(1) Anchorage A . The waters bounded...

  14. Relationship between Rock Varnish and Adjacent Mineral Dust Compositions Using Microanalytical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macholdt, D.; Jochum, K. P.; Otter, L.; Stoll, B.; Weis, U.; Pöhlker, C.; Müller, M.; Kappl, M.; Weber, B.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Weigand, M.; Al-Amri, A. M.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Rock varnishes are up to 250 μm thick, Mn- and Fe-rich, dark black to brownish-orange lustrous rock coatings. Water and aeolian dust (60-70%), in combination with biological oxidation or inorganic precipitation processes, or even a combination of both, induce varnish growth rates of a few μm per 1000 a, indicating that element enrichment and aging processes are of major importance for the varnish formation. A combination of 200 nm-fs laser- and 213 nm-ns laser ablation- inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), focused ion beam (FIB) slicing, and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy-near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) was chosen for high-spatial-resolution analyses. The aim was to identify provenance, chemistry, and dynamics of the varnishes, and their formation over the millennia. To this end, mineral dust and adjacent varnishes were sampled in six arid to semi-arid deserts, in Israel, South Africa, California, and Saudi Arabia. Dust minerals incorporated in the varnishes were examined by STXM-NEXAFS spectroscopic and element mapping at the nm scale. Varnishes from different locations can be distinguished by element ratio plots of Pb/Ni vs. Mn/Ba. A comparison of dust element ratios of particles <50 μm to ratios of adjacent varnishes reveals much lower values for dust. However, the factors between the element ratios of dust and of varnish are similar for four of six regions (Mn/Ba: 6 ± 2; Pb/Ni: 4 ± 3). Two of the six regions diverge, which are South African (Mn/Ba: 20, Pb/Ni: 0.5) and Californian (Anza Borrego Desert: Mn/Ba: 4.5; Pb/Ni: 16.5) varnishes.The results indicate that the enrichment and degradation processes might be similar for most locations, and that Mn and Pb are preferably incorporated and immobilized in most varnishes compared to Ba and Ni. The Pb/Ni ratios of the South African varnishes are indicators for either a preferred incorporation of Ni compared to Pb from available dust, and

  15. USGS MODERATE RESOLUTION LAND IMAGING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, J. L.; Willems, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    For the past 37 years, the Landsat series of satellites has provided continuous data of the Earth’s land masses, coastal boundaries, and coral reefs creating an unprecedented comprehensive record of landscape dynamics. Landsat 5 and 7 continue to capture hundreds of images of the Earth’s surface each day. In mid-December 2008, the USGS made the entire Landsat archive available to everyone, anywhere, at anytime via the Internet at no cost to the user. The opening of the Landsat archive, the longest record of the terrestrial environment, is a revolution that will affect the future of moderate resolution Earth observations, enabling scientists to address research questions and develop operational applications that were previously cost prohibitive. In addition, the time-series data richness of the archive allows for the development of essential climate variables used to monitor the causes and consequences of lands cover change as a function of climate variability and anthropogenic influences. Landsat is unique as a single source of systematic, global land observations in terms of the number of spectral bands, global collection capacity, image quality, and the proven fidelity of its calibrated sensors. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992 and the Presidential Decision Direct/NSTC-3 (1994), as amended on October 16, 2000, the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) is charged to ensure the continuity of Landsat data. To accomplish this, the USGS, in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), is currently preparing for the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) in December 2012, the eighth satellite in the Landsat Program. The LDCM will ensure the continuation of the Landsat record and will consist of significant improvements in radiometric response and additional spectral bands, from which high quality data products will be generated and accessible to users at no cost.

  16. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  17. Hierarchical Marginal Land Assessment for Land Use Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Bandaru, Vara Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Marginal land provides an alternative potential for food and bioenergy production in the face of limited land resources; however, effective assessment of marginal lands is not well addressed. Concerns over environmental risks, ecosystem services and sustainability for marginal land have been widely raised. The objective of this study was to develop a hierarchical marginal land assessment framework for land use planning and management. We first identified major land functions linking production, environment, ecosystem services and economics, and then classified land resources into four categories of marginal land using suitability and limitations associated with major management goals, including physically marginal land, biologically marginal land, environmental-ecological marginal land, and economically marginal land. We tested this assessment framework in south-western Michigan, USA. Our results indicated that this marginal land assessment framework can be potentially feasible on land use planning for food and bioenergy production, and balancing multiple goals of land use management. We also compared our results with marginal land assessment from the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and land capability classes (LCC) that are used in the US. The hierarchical assessment framework has advantages of quantitatively reflecting land functions and multiple concerns. This provides a foundation upon which focused studies can be identified in order to improve the assessment framework by quantifying high-resolution land functions associated with environment and ecosystem services as well as their criteria are needed to improve the assessment framework.

  18. 17 CFR 256.304 - Land and land rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Land and land rights. 256.304... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.304 Land and land rights. (a) This account shall include the cost of any right, title, or interest to land held by the service company,...

  19. Shallow ground-water quality adjacent to burley tobacco fields in northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia, spring 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.C.; Connell, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey began an assessment of the upper Tennessee River Basin as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. A ground-water land-use study conducted in 1996 focused on areas with burley tobacco production in northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. Land-use studies are designed to focus on specific land uses and to examine natural and human factors that affect the quality of shallow ground water underlying specific types of land use. Thirty wells were drilled in shallow regolith adjacent to and downgradient of tobacco fields in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of the upper Tennessee River Basin. Ground-water samples were collected between June 4 and July 9, 1997, to coincide with the application of the majority of pesticides and fertilizers used in tobacco production. Ground-water samples were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, 79 pesticides, 7 pesticide degradation products, 86 volatile organic compounds, and dissolved organic carbon. Nutrient concentrations were lower than the levels found in similar NAWQA studies across the United States during 1993-95. Five of 30 upper Tennessee River Basin wells (16.7 percent) had nitrate levels exceeding 10 mg/L while 19 percent of agricultural land-use wells nationally and 7.9 percent in the Southeast had nitrate concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L. Median nutrient concentrations were equal to or less than national median concentrations. All pesticide concentrations in the basin were less than established drinking water standards, and pesticides were detected less frequently than average for other NAWQA study units. Atrazine was detected at 8 of 30 (27 percent) of the wells, and deethylatrazine (an atrazine degradation product) was found in 9 (30 percent) of the wells. Metalaxyl was found in 17 percent of the wells, and prometon, flumetralin, dimethomorph, 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, dichlorprop, and silvex were detected once each (3 percent). Volatile organic compounds

  20. Some Landing Studies Pertinent to Glider-Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houbolt, John C.; Batterson, Sidney A.

    1960-01-01

    Results are presented of some landing studies that may serve as guidelines in the consideration of landing problems of glider-reentry configurations. The effect of the initial conditions of sinking velocity, angle of attack, and pitch rate on impact severity and the effect of locating the rear gear in various positions are discussed. Some information is included regarding the influence of landing-gear location on effective masses. Preliminary experimental results on the slideout phase of landing include sliding and rolling friction coefficients that have been determined from tests of various skids and all-metal wheels.

  1. Synthesis and characterization, novel across adjacent ring formed phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Elmali, Dilek; Altindal, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Ali Riza; Salih, Bekir; Bekaroğlu, Ozer

    2011-01-21

    Novel mononuclear Zn(ii) 4, Co(ii) 5 and Cu(ii) 6 metallophthalocyanines have been synthesized from 4,4'(ethane-1,1-p-phenol-2,2-p-phenoxy)phthalonitrile 3, which can be obtained by the reaction of 4-nitrophthalonitrile 1 with 1,1,2,2-tetrakis(p-hydroxy-phenyl)-ethane 2. The target water-soluble derivatives of 7-9 were acquired from a boiling suspension of the compounds in aqueous 20% KOH solution. The synthesized complexes have been characterized by UV-vis, IR, (1)H NMR and MALDI-TOF-mass spectroscopies. In addition, the geometric and electronic structures of 2-6 were investigated by ab initio/DFT quantum mechanical calculations using the Gaussian 03 program with HF theory at the B3LYP/3-21G level. The redox properties of the complexes 4-6 were examined by cyclic voltammetry on platinum in DMSO/TBAP. These complexes displayed one-electron metallophthalocyanine-based and multi-electron hydroxyphenyl-based redox processes. The effect of temperature on the d.c. conductivity and impedance spectra of spin coated films of compounds were investigated at the temperatures between 300-452 K and in the frequency range of 40-105 Hz. Thermally activated conductivity dependence on temperature was observed for all compounds. A.c. results indicated that conduction mechanism can be explained by classical hopping barriers mechanism for all films. PMID:21125131

  2. Stabilities of ant nests and their adjacent soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echezona, B. C.; Igwe, C. A.

    2012-10-01

    Nests habour ants and termites and protect them from harsh environmental conditions. The structural stabilities of nests were studied to ascertain their relative vulnerability to environmental stresses. Arboreal-ant nests were pried from different trees, while epigeous-termite nests were excavated from soil surface within the sample area. Soils without any visible sign of ant or termite activity were also sampled 6 m away from the nests as control. Laboratory analysis result showed that irrespective of the tree hosts, the aggregate stabilities of the ant nests were lower than those of the ground termite, with nests formed on Cola nitida significantly showing lower aggregate stability (19.7%) than other antnest structures. Clay dispersion ratio, moisture content, water stable aggregate class <0.25mm and sand mass were each negatively correlated with aggregate stability, while water stable aggregate class1.00-0.50 mm gave a positive correlation. Nest structures were dominated more by water stable aggregate class >2.00 mm but path analysis demonstrated that water stable aggregate class <0.25 mm contributed most to the higher aggregate stability of the termite nest than the other nest. Nest aggregates had greater structural stability compared to the control soil. The higher structural stability of termite nests over other nest and soil was considered a better adaptive mechanism against body desiccation.

  3. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  4. Landing on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.; Adler, Mark

    2005-01-01

    here have been five fully successful robotic landings on Mars. The systems used to deliver these robots to the surface have shown large design diversity and continue to evolve. How will future Mars landing systems evolve to eventually deliver precious human cargo? We do not yet know the answers, but current trends tell us an interesting and daunting tale.

  5. Tales From Silver Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Charles J.

    In 1925, "Tales From Silver Lands" was awarded the Newbery medal as the most distinguished contribution to American children's literature for the year. The book contains a collection of 19 short stories learned from the Indians of South America as the author traveled to different lands. As described on the dust jacket, the tales are about "strange…

  6. All That Unplowed Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Potentially arable lands either do not yield well or are too expensive to farm. Aimed with a better knowledge of the ecologies involved plus fertilizer and water, some of the marginal lands can be forced to produce food, but not soon enough to alleviate food shortages in this decade. (BT)

  7. Seasat land experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Barath, F.; Bryant, N.; Cannon, P. J.; Elachi, C.; Goetz, A.; Krishen, K.; Macdonald, H. C.; Marmelstein, A.; Miller, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the Seasat land experiments is presented. The potential roles for active microwave imaging systems on board satellites were reviewed with particular emphasis on the Seasat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Recommendations were made concerning the type of experiments that could most profitably be conducted over land with the Seasat SAR system capabilities available.

  8. Airplane landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiorca, Salvatore

    1931-01-01

    This report presents an investigation of the design and construction of various types of landing gears. Some of the items discussed include: chassises, wheels, shock absorbers (rubber disk and rubber cord), as well as oleopneumatic shock absorbers. Various types of landing gears are also discussed such as the Messier, Bendix, Vickers, and Bleriot.

  9. Negative mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Richard T.

    2015-03-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given.

  10. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  11. Landing at the terminus of Sabrina Vallis: A potential 2020 Mars rover landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, T.; Hauber, E.; Le Deit, L.; Van Gasselt, S.; Kinch, K.; Madsen, M. B.; Rosenberg, H.

    2014-04-01

    For the upcoming 2020 Mars rover mission we selected a potential landing site that meets all geological criteria including the presence of Noachian/Early Hesperian aqueous sediments and associated hydrous mineral phases and access to unaltered igneous rocks. Our proposed landing site is located at the terminus of Sabrina Vallis in Magong crater. The 25 km × 20 km landing ellipse is centred at 11.990°N, 313.425°E. This site features deltaic sediments and distal lacustrine sediments. In central delta cliff sections weak signatures of Fe/Mg-bearing phyllosilicates are detected. Lacustrine sediments are cut by a partially exhumed igneous dyke. On the crater floor of Magong crater, remnants of an approximately 1 m thick dark deposit are observed, which is interpreted to be a tephra layer sourced from the adjacent volcanic field within Lederberg crater. Detailed terrain analysis of the landing site shows that engineering constraints are met with respect to slope and relief.

  12. Use of remote sensing technology for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A project was undertaken in Meade County, South Dakota to provide (1) a general county-wide resource survey of land use and soils and (2) a detailed survey of land use for the environmentally sensitive area adjacent to the Black Hills. Imagery from LANDSAT-1 was visually interpreted to provide land use information and a general soils map. A detailed land use map for the Black Hills area was interpreted from RB-57 photographs and interpretations of soil characteristics were input into a computer data base and mapped. The detailed land use data were then used in conjunction with soil maps to provide information for the development of zoning ordinance maps and other land use planning in the Black Hills area. The use of photographs as base maps was also demonstrated. In addition, the use of airborne thermography to locate spoilage areas in sugar beet piles and to determine the apparent temperature of rooftops was evaluated.

  13. Decision analysis and risk models for land development affecting infrastructure systems.

    PubMed

    Thekdi, Shital A; Lambert, James H

    2012-07-01

    Coordination and layering of models to identify risks in complex systems such as large-scale infrastructure of energy, water, and transportation is of current interest across application domains. Such infrastructures are increasingly vulnerable to adjacent commercial and residential land development. Land development can compromise the performance of essential infrastructure systems and increase the costs of maintaining or increasing performance. A risk-informed approach to this topic would be useful to avoid surprise, regret, and the need for costly remedies. This article develops a layering and coordination of models for risk management of land development affecting infrastructure systems. The layers are: system identification, expert elicitation, predictive modeling, comparison of investment alternatives, and implications of current decisions for future options. The modeling layers share a focus on observable factors that most contribute to volatility of land development and land use. The relevant data and expert evidence include current and forecasted growth in population and employment, conservation and preservation rules, land topography and geometries, real estate assessments, market and economic conditions, and other factors. The approach integrates to a decision framework of strategic considerations based on assessing risk, cost, and opportunity in order to prioritize needs and potential remedies that mitigate impacts of land development to the infrastructure systems. The approach is demonstrated for a 5,700-mile multimodal transportation system adjacent to 60,000 tracts of potential land development. PMID:22050390

  14. Communications: Mosquito Habitats, Land Use, and Malaria Risk in Belize from Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Satellite imagery of northern Belize is used to examine the distribution of land use and breeding habitats of the malaria vector the Anopheles mosquito. A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats, and one, Eleocharis spp. marsh, is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of Typha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. Thus, land use induced expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat is potentially increasing malaria risk in Belize, and in other regions where Anopheles vestitipennis is a major malaria vector.

  15. 76 FR 29784 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Jerome County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... owners of the adjacent private land, Todd and Bridget Buschhorn, for the appraised fair market value of... than the appraised fair market value: Boise Meridian T. 10 S., R. 19 E., sec. 25, lot 10. The area described contains 7.45 acres in Jerome County. The appraised fair market value is $5,600. The public...

  16. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... navigational aids; (c) Airport environmental factors such as local weather conditions and adjacent...

  17. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... navigational aids; (c) Airport environmental factors such as local weather conditions and adjacent...

  18. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... navigational aids; (c) Airport environmental factors such as local weather conditions and adjacent...

  19. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... navigational aids; (c) Airport environmental factors such as local weather conditions and adjacent...

  20. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... navigational aids; (c) Airport environmental factors such as local weather conditions and adjacent...

  1. Correlation between Focal Nodular Low Signal Changes in Hoffa's Fat Pad Adjacent to Anterior Femoral Cartilage and Focal Cartilage Defect Underlying This Region and Its Possible Implication

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wuey Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigates the association between focal nodular mass with low signal in Hoffa's fat pad adjacent to anterior femoral cartilage of the knee (FNMHF) and focal cartilage abnormality in this region. Method. The magnetic resonance fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition sequence (MR FIESTA) sagittal and axial images of the B1 and C1 region (described later) of 148 patients were independently evaluated by two reviewers and categorized into four categories: normal, FNMHF with underlying focal cartilage abnormality, FNMHF with normal cartilage, and cartilage abnormality with no FNMHF. Results. There was a significant association (p = 0.00) between FNMHF and immediate adjacent focal cartilage abnormality with high interobserver agreement. The absence of focal nodular lesions next to the anterior femoral cartilage has a very high negative predictive value for chondral injury (97.8%). Synovial biopsy of focal nodular lesion done during arthroscopy revealed some fibrocollagenous tissue and no inflammatory cells. Conclusion. We postulate that the FNMHF adjacent to the cartilage defects is a form of normal healing response to the cartilage damage. One patient with FHMHF and underlying cartilage abnormality was rescanned six months later. In this patient, the FNMHF disappeared and normal cartilage was observed in the adjacent region which may support this theory. PMID:27213085

  2. Compositional Comparison of Iceland Rift Zones and Adjacent Portions of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D.; Barton, M.

    2007-12-01

    Iceland is a portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) that has been built by anomalous crustal production throughout the 55ma spreading history of the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The anomalously thick crust of Iceland contains the subaerial traces of the MAR which are the volcanically active rift zones. From the south, the Reykjanes Ridge (RR) continues on land as the Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ). In the north, the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) traces into the sea where it offset from the Kolbeinsey Ridge (KR) by the Tjornnes Fracture Zone (TVZ). We report the results of petrologic comparison of the WVZ, the EVZ, and the NVZ of Iceland and the adjacent portions of the MAR - the RR and the KR. The EVZ, WVZ, and NVZ have been shown to have similar crustal structures with ~20 km thick crust thickening toward the hotspot in central Iceland with magma chambers located at the base of the crust and at some depth in the upper crust. Likewise, the KR and RR have melt chambers at the base of and within the crust. Melt compositions have been compared using a filtered database of 588 glass analyses from 29 localities throughout the rift zones, 57 glass analyses from the KR, and 521 glass analyses from the RR. This is the first such study carried out with such an extensive data set. Compositions are similar between the NVZ and WVZ with SiO2 wt.% of 49.0, and 48.6, MgO wt.% of 7.9, and 7.5, and FeOT wt.% of 10.9, and 11.7 respectively. The EVZ which is considered to be a propagating rift is a bit different with SiO2 wt.% of 49.4, MgO wt.% of 5.9, and FeOT wt.% of 13.8. The NVZ and WVZ have also been compared with their respectively adjacent ridge segments, the KR (SiO2 50.3 wt.%, MgO 6.9 wt.%, and FeOT 12.0 wt.%), and the RR (SiO2 50.8 wt.%, MgO 6.9 wt.%, and FeOT 12.3 wt.%). Mg#s for the NVZ and the WVZ are 0.56, and .053 respectively while the Mg# for both the KR and RR is 0.50. For further comparison, a database of 9035 glass analyses from mid-ocean ridge basalts worldwide

  3. Hydrogeology of the Coconino Plateau and adjacent areas, Coconino and Yavapai Counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Donald J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Monroe, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Two large, regional ground-water flow systems occur in the Coconino Plateau and adjacent areas: the C aquifer and the Redwall-Muav aquifer. The C aquifer occurs mainly in the eastern and southern parts of the 10,300-square-mile Coconino Plateau study area, and the Redwall-Muav aquifer underlies the entire study area. The C aquifer is a water-table aquifer for most of its occurrence with depths to water that range from a few hundred feet to more than 1,500 feet. In the western part of the Coconino Plateau study area, the C aquifer is dry except for small localized perched water-bearing zones decoupled from the C aquifer to the east. The Redwall-Muav aquifer underlies the C aquifer and ranges from at least 3,000 feet below land surface in the western part of the Coconino Plateau study area to more than 3,200 feet below land surface in the eastern part of the study area. The Redwall-Muav aquifer is a confined aquifer for most of its occurrence with hydraulic heads of several hundred to more than 500 feet above the top of the aquifer in the western part of the study area and more than 2,000 feet above the top of the aquifer in the eastern part of the study area near Flagstaff. In the eastern and northeast parts of the area, the C aquifer and the Redwall-Muav aquifer are in partial hydraulic connection through faults and other fractures. The water discharging from the two aquifers on the Coconino Plateau study area is generally of good quality for most intended uses. Water from sites in the lower Little Colorado River Canyon had high concentrations of most trace elements relative to other springs, rivers, and streams in the study area. Concentrations of barium, arsenic, uranium, and lead, and gross alpha radioactivity were greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels for drinking water at some sites. Ground water discharging to most springs, streams, and wells on the Coconino Plateau and in adjacent areas is a calcium magnesium

  4. Roof Deformation, Failure Characteristics, and Preventive Techniques of Gob-Side Entry Driving Heading Adjacent to the Advancing Working Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jian-biao; Shen, Wen-long; Guo, Guan-long; Wang, Xiang-yu; Yu, Yang

    2015-11-01

    In mining excavation, the roof bending subsidence of gob-side entry driving heading adjacent to the advancing working face (HAWF) can be considerable. Influenced by the original rock pressure, the front and lateral abutment pressure of the adjacent working face, and the front abutment pressure of the current working face, the support body can easily fail, leading to serious instability of the rock mass surrounding the tunnel. To study the stress state and the deformation failure mechanism of the HAWF roof structure, we use on-site survey data, numerical simulation, and theoretical calculations to fit the spatial distribution law of mining abutment pressure piecewise, and establish a dynamic mechanical model of the roof structure. We then propose a roof failure criterion and examine the roof flexure deformation behavioral pattern. We found that the central part of the roof is the main point that controls the surrounding rock. To prevent the deformation and collapse of the roof and rock surrounding the tunnel, we propose techniques that can be applied to HAWF gob-side entry driving, including setting the coal pillar width, the driving stop and restart timing, and other control concepts.

  5. Algorithm for Autonomous Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuwata, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Because of their small size, high maneuverability, and easy deployment, micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) are used for a wide variety of both civilian and military missions. One of their current drawbacks is the vast array of sensors (such as GPS, altimeter, radar, and the like) required to make a landing. Due to the MAV s small payload size, this is a major concern. Replacing the imaging sensors with a single monocular camera is sufficient to land a MAV. By applying optical flow algorithms to images obtained from the camera, time-to-collision can be measured. This is a measurement of position and velocity (but not of absolute distance), and can avoid obstacles as well as facilitate a landing on a flat surface given a set of initial conditions. The key to this approach is to calculate time-to-collision based on some image on the ground. By holding the angular velocity constant, horizontal speed decreases linearly with the height, resulting in a smooth landing. Mathematical proofs show that even with actuator saturation or modeling/ measurement uncertainties, MAVs can land safely. Landings of this nature may have a higher velocity than is desirable, but this can be compensated for by a cushioning or dampening system, or by using a system of legs to grab onto a surface. Such a monocular camera system can increase vehicle payload size (or correspondingly reduce vehicle size), increase speed of descent, and guarantee a safe landing by directly correlating speed to height from the ground.

  6. Land-Breeze Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability, low temperatures, and fog development. Accurate predictions of the land breeze are critical for toxic material dispersion forecasts associated with space launch missions, since wind direction and low-level stability can change noticeably with the onset of a land breeze. This report presents a seven-year observational study of land breezes over east-central Florida from 1995 to 2001. This comprehensive analysis was enabled by the high-resolution tower observations over KSC/CCAFS. Five-minute observations of winds, temperature, and moisture along with 9 15-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler data were used to analyze specific land-breeze cases, while the tower data were used to construct a composite climatology. Utilities derived from this climatology were developed to assist forecasters in determining the land-breeze occurrence, timing, and movement based on predicted meteorological conditions.

  7. The land and its people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Rulli, Maria Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Large tracts of agricultural land are being bought up by external investors. Turning the land into a commodity can have detrimental effects, for generations to come, on the local communities that sell or lease the land.

  8. Water and solute transfer between a prairie wetland and adjacent uplands, 2. Chloride cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masaki; van der Kamp, Garth; Rudolph, Dave L.

    1998-06-01

    The quality of water in lakes and wetlands depends on the exchange of solutes with adjacent uplands. In many prairie wetlands, the input of water is dominated by snowmelt runoff and the outputis dominated by groundwater flow. We use chloride as a tracer to quantify the mass transfer processes associated with surface runoff and groundwater flow between a wetland in Saskatchewan, Canada and the surrounding upland. Snowmelt runoff transports 4-5 kg yr -1 of chloride from the upland to the wetland. Most of this chloride infiltrates under the wetland and moves laterally to the upland with shallow groundwater. Under the upland, chloride moves upward in the vadose zone with soil water, and accumulates near the surface as water is consumed by evapotranspiration. Part of this chloride mixes with snowmelt runoff and moves back to the wetland Therefore, chloride is cycled between the wetland and the upland at an approximate rate of 5 kg yr -1. The chloride cycle occurs within 5-6 m of the ground surface. A small amount of chloride escapes from the cycle with the downward flow of groundwater into the deep aquifer. The estimated flux of chloride leaving the cycle is 0.1-0.6 kg yr -1, which is of the same order of magnitude as the rate at which the catchment receives atmospheric deposition of chloride. Because the atmospheric input is reasonably well known over the prairie region, the concentration of chloride in groundwater under recharge wetlands can be used to estimate the recharge rate of deep aquifers.

  9. Contrasting Patterns of Fine Fluvial Sediment Delivery in Two Adjacent Upland Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perks, M.; Bracken, L.; Warburton, J.

    2010-12-01

    Quantifying patterns of fine suspended sediment transfer in UK upland rivers is of vital importance in combating the damaging effects of elevated fluxes of suspended sediment, and sediment associated transport of contaminants, on in-stream biota. In many catchments of the UK there is still a lack of catchment-wide understanding of both the spatial patterns and temporal variation in fine sediment delivery. This poster describes the spatial and temporal distribution of in-stream fine sediment delivery from a network of 44 time-integrated mass flux samplers (TIMs) in two adjacent upland catchments. The two catchments are the Esk (210 km2) and Upper Derwent (236 km2) which drain the North York Moors National Park. Annual suspended sediment loads in the Upper Derwent are 1273 t, whereas in the Esk catchment they are greater at 1778 t. Maximum yields of 22 t km-2 yr -1 were measured in the headwater tributaries of the Rye River (Derwent), whereas peak yields in the Esk are four times greater (98 t km-2 yr-1) on the Butter Beck subcatchment. Analysis of the within-storm sediment dynamics, indicates that the sediment sources within the Upper Derwent catchment are from distal locations possibly mobilised by hillslope runoff processes, whereas in the Esk, sediment sources are more proximal to the channel e.g. within channel stores or bank failures. These estimates of suspended sediment flux are compared with the diffuse pollution potential generated by a risk-based model of sediment transfer (SCIMAP) in order to assess the similarity between the model predictions and observed fluxes.

  10. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Las Vegas Strip and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr

    2009-02-01

    As proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of the Las Vegas Strip and adjacent areas on December 29, 2008. This survey was one of the bi-annual surveys carried in support of the city of Las Vegas Police Department (LVPD) before significant events on the Las Vegas Strip: e.g., the annual New Year’s Eve and July Fourth celebrations. The AMS operation and appropriate law enforcement agencies selected this area as an appropriate urban location to exercise AMS capability for mapping environmental radiation and searching for man-made radioactive sources. The surveys covered approximately 11 square miles. Each survey required a 2.5-hour-long flight, performed at an altitude of 300 ft above ground level (AGL) at a line spacing of 600 ft. Water line and test line flights are conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to determine the non-terrestrial background contributed by aircraft, radon, and cosmic activity, and to determine the altitude-dependent air mass correction. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2" x 4" x 16" sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Gamma energy spectral data were collected second-by-second over the survey area. This spectral data allows the system to distinguish between natural terrestrial background contributions and man-made radioisotope contributions. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific man-made radioactive isotopes. Data geo-locations were determined with a Real-Time Differential Global Positioning System (RDGPS).

  11. Transduction of the cellular src gene and 3' adjacent sequences in avian sarcoma virus PR2257.

    PubMed Central

    Geryk, J; Dezélée, P; Barnier, J V; Svoboda, J; Nehyba, J; Karakoz, I; Rynditch, A V; Yatsula, B A; Calothy, G

    1989-01-01

    When injected into chickens, a transformation-defective mutant of the Prague C strain of Rous sarcoma virus induced tumors at low incidence and after a long latency. One such tumor released a replication-defective virus designated PR2257. We molecularly cloned and sequenced the proviral DNA from quail fibroblasts transformed by PR2257. Comparison of PR2257 sequence with that of Prague C, cellular src, and 3' adjacent cellular DNA showed that the spliced version of the c-src gene and about 950 base pairs (bp) of 3'-flanking cellular DNA were transduced into PR2257. This transduction eliminated nearly all replicative genes, since the gag gene splice donor site was linked to the splice acceptor site of the src gene and, on the 3' side, recombination occurred in the end of env gene. Insertion of two extra cytosines 23 bp before and 19 bp after the c-src stop codon resulted in an extension of the coding portion up to 587 amino acids, divergence of sequences after Pro-525 and replacement of Tyr-527 by a valine residue. In addition, it appears that the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of PR2257 result from multiple recombinations between exogenous and endogenous virus genomes. Limited digestion of p66src encoded by PR2257 with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease yielded a V2 peptide (C-terminal moiety) with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kilodaltons, consistent with the 5.7-kilodalton increase expected from the DNA sequence. The structure of PR2257 suggests that the first step in the capture of c-src gene by avian lymphomatosis viruses is the trans splicing of the viral leader mRNA to exon 1 of c-src. Images PMID:2463376

  12. Non-native earthworms in riparian soils increase nitrogen flux into adjacent aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Costello, David M; Lamberti, Gary A

    2008-12-01

    Riparian zones are an important transition between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and they function in nutrient cycling and removal. Non-native earthworms invading earthworm-free areas of North America can affect nutrient cycling in upland soils and have the potential to affect it in riparian soils. We examined how the presence of earthworms can affect riparian nutrient cycling and nutrient delivery to streams. Two mesocosm experiments were conducted to determine how (1) the biomass of earthworms and (2) earthworm species can affect nutrient flux from riparian zones to nearby streams and how this flux can affect streamwater nutrients and periphyton growth. In separate experiments, riparian soil cores were amended with one of four mixed earthworm biomasses (0, 4, 10, or 23 g m(-2) ash-free dry mass) or with one of three earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus terrestris, L. rubellus) or no earthworm species. Riparian soil cores were coupled to artificial streams, and over a 36-day period, we measured nutrient leaching rates, in-stream nutrient concentrations, and periphyton growth. Ammonium leaching increased with increasing biomass and was greatest from the A. caliginosa treatments. Nitrate leaching increased through time and increased at a greater rate with higher biomass and from cores containing A. caliginosa. We suggest that the overall response of increased nitrate leaching [90% of total nitrogen (N)] was due to a combination of ammonium excretion and burrowing by earthworms, which increased nitrification rates. During both experiments, periphyton biomass increased through time but did not differ across treatments despite high in-stream inorganic N. Through time, in-stream phosphorus (P) concentration declined to <5 microg l(-1), and periphyton growth was likely P-limited. We conclude that activities of non-native earthworms (particularly A. caliginosa) can alter biogeochemical cycling in riparian zones, potentially reducing the N

  13. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  14. Christmas in Physics Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    A short story of everyday folk for the Yuletide season It was a beautiful scene. Children were sledging, or at least adults were sledging whilst the children waited for a go. Snow flakes were falling gently to the ground. The physicist was extremely content. All the snow flakes had a perfectly symmetric hexagonal crystal structure; the sledges were all reaching the bottom of the slope at just the correct velocity, neglecting heat loss due to friction. A skater went past. The physicist smiled. The change in melting point under the blades was just as it should have been, and angular momentum was completely conserved in the pirouette. A snowball hit the physicist squarely in the face, probably thrown by a geographer. But even this made the physicist laugh, as the trajectory was perfect, as long as you accounted for the changing mass. How different to last year when the physicist had spent Christmas in the real world. How glad he was that he had come to Physics Land for the festive season where everything was just as it ought to be. Someone in the crowd barged into him, but it didn't matter, he was a boson, so they just ignored each other. How horrid it had been last Christmas.... As a young man carrying a light ladder went past, whistling merrily and enjoying the experience of the Doppler effect, the physicist leant back against the perfectly smooth wall, revelling in the joy of resolving his forces on the rough ground... and began to think dark thoughts about the previous year. You see the problem with the real world was that it didn't understand physicists at all. Probably the worst place of all for a physicist was at a party. So often things would go wrong and he would leave early in disgrace. How well he remembered the evening when he had been curious whether it was a pnp or npn type semiconductor controlling the disco lights. It had taken barely three hours to reassemble the lights, and indeed improve on the flashing sequence by altering the reverse bias voltage

  15. Increased Fidelity in Prediction Methods For Landing Gear Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, Leonard V.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Morris, Philip J.; Lockhard, David P.

    2006-01-01

    An aeroacoustic prediction scheme has been developed for landing gear noise. The method is designed to handle the complex landing gear geometry of current and future aircraft. The gear is represented by a collection of subassemblies and simple components that are modeled using acoustic elements. These acoustic elements are generic, but generate noise representative of the physical components on a landing gear. The method sums the noise radiation from each component of the undercarriage in isolation accounting for interference with adjacent components through an estimate of the local upstream and downstream flows and turbulence intensities. The acoustic calculations are made in the code LGMAP, which computes the sound pressure levels at various observer locations. The method can calculate the noise from the undercarriage in isolation or installed on an aircraft for both main and nose landing gear. Comparisons with wind tunnel and flight data are used to initially calibrate the method, then it may be used to predict the noise of any landing gear. In this paper, noise predictions are compared with wind tunnel data for model landing gears of various scales and levels of fidelity, as well as with flight data on fullscale undercarriages. The present agreement between the calculations and measurements suggests the method has promise for future application in the prediction of airframe noise.

  16. Simulation of X-38 Landing Scenarios With Landing Gear Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Stockwell, Alan E.

    2000-01-01

    Abnormal landing scenarios of the X-38 prototype Crew Rescue Vehicle (CRV) were modeled for three different cases involving non-deployment of landing gear with an explicit dynamic nonlinear finite element code, MSC/DYTRAN. The goal of this research was to develop models to predict the probability of crew injuries. The initial velocity conditions for the X-38 with chute deployed were 10 ft/s vertical and 57 ft/s longitudinal velocity. An MSC/NASTRAN structural model was supplied by JSC and was converted to a dynamic MSC/DYTRAN model. The MSC/NASTRAN model did not include seats or floor structure; thus, the acceleration of a lumped-mass attached to the bulkhead near each assumed occupant location was used to determine injury risk for each occupant. The worst case for injury was nondeployment of all gears. The mildest case was nondeployment of one main gear. Although a probability for minor injury was predicted for all cases, it is expected that the addition of energy-absorbing floor structure and seats would greatly diminish the probability of injury.

  17. Evolution of oleosin in land plants.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Zhu, Rui-Liang; Mishler, Brent D

    2014-01-01

    Oleosins form a steric barrier surface on lipid droplets in cytoplasm, preventing them from contacting and coalescing with adjacent droplets. Oleosin genes have been detected in numerous plant species. However, the presence of oleosin genes in the most basally diverging lineage of land plants, liverworts, has not been reported previously. Thus we explored whether liverworts have an oleosin gene. In Marchantia polymorpha L., a thalloid liverwort, one predicted sequence was found that could encode oleosin, possessing the hallmark of oleosin, a proline knot (-PX5SPX3P-) motif. The phylogeny of the oleosin gene family in land plants was reconstructed based on both nucleotide and amino acid sequences of oleosins, from 31 representative species covering almost all the main lineages of land plants. Based on our phylogenetic trees, oleosin genes were classified into three groups: M-oleosins (defined here as a novel group distinct from the two previously known groups), low molecular weight isoform (L-oleosin), and high molecular weight isoform (H-oleosin), according to their amino-acid organization, phylogenetic relationships, expression tissues, and immunological characteristics. In liverworts, mosses, lycophytes, and gymnosperms, only M-oleosins have been described. In angiosperms, however, while this isoform remains and is highly expressed in the gametophyte pollen tube, two other isoforms also occur, L-oleosins and H-oleosins. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the M-oleosin isoform is the precursor to the ancestor of L-oleosins and H-oleosins. The later two isoforms evolved by successive gene duplications in ancestral angiosperms. At the genomic level, most oleosins possess no introns. If introns are present, in both the L-isoform and the M-isoform a single intron inserts behind the central region, while in the H-isoform, a single intron is located at the 5'-terminus. This study fills a major gap in understanding functional gene evolution of oleosin in land plants

  18. Evolution of Oleosin in Land Plants

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuan; Zhu, Rui-Liang; Mishler, Brent D.

    2014-01-01

    Oleosins form a steric barrier surface on lipid droplets in cytoplasm, preventing them from contacting and coalescing with adjacent droplets. Oleosin genes have been detected in numerous plant species. However, the presence of oleosin genes in the most basally diverging lineage of land plants, liverworts, has not been reported previously. Thus we explored whether liverworts have an oleosin gene. In Marchantia polymorpha L., a thalloid liverwort, one predicted sequence was found that could encode oleosin, possessing the hallmark of oleosin, a proline knot (-PX5SPX3P-) motif. The phylogeny of the oleosin gene family in land plants was reconstructed based on both nucleotide and amino acid sequences of oleosins, from 31 representative species covering almost all the main lineages of land plants. Based on our phylogenetic trees, oleosin genes were classified into three groups: M-oleosins (defined here as a novel group distinct from the two previously known groups), low molecular weight isoform (L-oleosin), and high molecular weight isoform (H-oleosin), according to their amino-acid organization, phylogenetic relationships, expression tissues, and immunological characteristics. In liverworts, mosses, lycophytes, and gymnosperms, only M-oleosins have been described. In angiosperms, however, while this isoform remains and is highly expressed in the gametophyte pollen tube, two other isoforms also occur, L-oleosins and H-oleosins. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the M-oleosin isoform is the precursor to the ancestor of L-oleosins and H-oleosins. The later two isoforms evolved by successive gene duplications in ancestral angiosperms. At the genomic level, most oleosins possess no introns. If introns are present, in both the L-isoform and the M-isoform a single intron inserts behind the central region, while in the H-isoform, a single intron is located at the 5′-terminus. This study fills a major gap in understanding functional gene evolution of oleosin in land plants

  19. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  20. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePlus

    ... Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  1. Space Shuttle night landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandenstein, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    The tracking and guidance requirements of the Indian National Satellite during its transition from the low-earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit dictated a night launch and subsequent night landing. The development of an Orbiter-independent external lighting system (ELS) that would work in conjunction with the Orbiter navigation, guidance, and control systems used for day approach and landing is described. The ELS includes the night landing visual aids; the heading alignment circle precision approach path indicator lights, as an aid for the outer glide slope; the runway floodlight, to accommodate for the transition area between preflare and intercepting inner glide slope (IGS) system; the ball/bar reference IGS system; and heads-up displays. The aspects of the lakebed dust problems are discussed. Diagrams illustrating the approach trajectory, final night-lighting configurations, and the approach and land symbology are included.

  2. Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida marked the finish line for space shuttle missions since 1984. It is also staffed by a group of air traffic controllers who wor...

  3. Land Reuse Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rebekah Buckles

    1997-09-22

    The intent of this cooperative agreement was to establish a conduit and infrastructure that would allow for the transfer of DOE developed environmental technologies within land restoration activities first in the State of California and ultimately nationwide.

  4. KamLAND Zen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishidoshiro, Koji

    2014-09-01

    KamLAND-Zen is an experiment for neutrinoless double beta decay search with xenon 136 based on large liquid scintillator detector KamLAND. The first phase of the experiment was operated from Oct. 12, 2011 to June 14, 2012 and we set lower limit for the neutrino-less double beta decay half-life , T1 / 2 (0 ν) > 1 . 9 ×1025 yr. The combined result of KamLAND-Zen and EXO data give T1 / 2 (0 ν) > 3 . 4 ×1025 yr. At the first phase, we found problematic background, 110mAg. Then we purified liquid scintillator and xenon gas by distillation to remove the background. The purification campaign was started just after the first phase and ended at Dec. 2013. We present current status and latest results from KamLAND-Zen second phase, and discuss the future prospects.

  5. The White Promised Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Norman

    1978-01-01

    Describing Bolivia's interest in encouraging Caucasian immigrants from South Africa, for purposes of settling and developing traditionally Indian lands, this article details the miserable conditions of slavery and cultural/physical genocide currently operative in Bolivia. (JC)

  6. NASA's Mars Landings

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the landing sites of all six NASA spacecraft to reachMars—Viking 1, Viking 2, Pathfinder, Spirit, Opportunity, Phoenix—and thetarget location where Curiosity will touch down ...

  7. Land Product Validation (LPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

  8. 5. Former P&LE tracks (now CSXT) adjacent to trestle towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Former P&LE tracks (now CSXT) adjacent to trestle towards west. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Y Trestle, South side of Monongahela River between Thirty-fourth & Twenty-ninth Streets, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  9. 7. WALKWAY/ENTRANCE TO ADMINSITRATIVE SITE ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE ROAD AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WALKWAY/ENTRANCE TO ADMINSITRATIVE SITE ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE ROAD AND INTERNAL POLICE POST, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Manzanar War Relocation Center, Owens Valley off U.S. Highway 395, 6 miles South of Independence, Independence, Inyo County, CA

  10. Divergent parasite faunas in adjacent populations of West Greenland caribou: suggested natural and anthropogenic influences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal parasite diversity was characterized for two adjacent populations of west Greenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) through examinations of abomasa and small intestines of adult and subadult females collected during late winter. Three trichostrongyline (Trichostrongylina: ...

  11. Multi-focal histiocytosis X of bone in two adjacent vertebrae causing paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Turgut, M; Gurçay, O

    1992-03-01

    This report describes a case of multi-focal histiocytosis X of bone in two adjacent vertebrae that caused a spinal cord compression. This case was treated radically with combined surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (RT). PMID:1550511

  12. Numerical Simulation of Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen at Perdido Bay and Adjacent Coastal Ocean

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC), a numerical estuarine and coastal ocean circulation hydrodynamic model, was used to simulate the distribution of the salinity, temperature, nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Perdido Bay and adjacent Gulf of Mexico. External forcing fa...

  13. MERIS Land Products Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramon, D.; Santer, R.; Dilligeard, E.; Jolivet, D.; Vidot, J.

    2004-05-01

    Over land, the aerosol remote sensing is based on the observation of Dense Dark Vegetation (DDV) and this concept is applied on MERIS with a spectral index (ARVI, Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index) to detect the DDV and the use of the bands at 412, 443 and 670 nm to characterize the aerosols. The aerosol size distribution is assumed to follow the Junge law while the aerosol refractive index is set to 1.44. The aerosol product consists on the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 865 nm and on the spectral dependence of the aerosol path radiance (Epsilon coefficient ɛ which is the ratio of the aerosol reflectance at 765 nm to that at 865 nm). The validation exercise is mostly based on the use of ground based optical measurements from the AERONET network. A classical validation of the aerosol product is conducted using the extinction measurements. A deeper validation is done in order to investigate the different assumptions used in the aerosol remote sensing module by: (i) using the ground based measurements to validate the DDV reflectance model. Atmospheric correction will be done, including the aerosols, to derive DDV reflectances for comparison to standard values. (ii) using the ground based measurements to validate the choice of the Junge size distribution by comparing the simulated radiances with this model to the measurements in the principal plane. The AOT at 865 nm is badly retrieved because of the inaccuracy of the DDV reflectance model in the red whereas the AOT at 443 nm is in good agreement with AERONET data and accuracy is comparable to what is achieved by MODIS over comparable sites. The Junge size distribution is well adapted for the representation of aerosols optical properties. The main algorithm improvement we recommend consists in introducing a dynamical DDV reflectance model that is a reflectance which varies with the ARVI of the target. Under clear sky conditions, the surface pressure is a level-2 MERIS product based on a two band ratio

  14. Viking landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.

    1973-01-01

    A valley near the mouth of the 20,000-foot-deep Martian Grand Canyon has been chosen by NASA as the site of its first automated landing on the planet Mars. The landing site for the second mission of the 1975-76 Viking spacecraft will probably be an area about 1,000 miles northeast of the first site, where the likelihood of water increases the chances of finding evidence of life.

  15. Landing-shock Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, M J

    1934-01-01

    A description of a special type of seismograph, called a "landing-shock recorder," to be used for measuring the acceleration during impacts such as are experienced in airplane landings, is given . The theory, together with the assumptions made, is discussed in its relation to calculating the acceleration experienced in impact. Calculations are given from records obtained for two impacts of known acceleration. In one case the impact was very severe and in the other it was only moderately severe.

  16. Minimally invasive treatment for esthetic enhancement of white spot lesion in adjacent tooth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dae-Gon; Park, Chan-Jin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the treatment provided to a patient with the maxillary anterior teeth exhibiting severe secondary caries beneath the previous restoration and a white spot lesion on the adjacent incisor. Two implants were placed after extraction of hopeless teeth with the guided bone regeneration technique. A white spot lesion of the adjacent incisor was treated with minimally invasive treatment. This clinical report describes the multidisciplinary treatment for the white spot lesion and esthetic restoration of missing anterior teeth. PMID:24049579

  17. Stress Reduction in Adjacent Level Discs via Dynamic Instrumentation: A Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castellvi, Antonio E.; Huang, Hao; Vestgaarden, Tov; Saigal, Sunil; Pienkowski, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Conventional (rigid) fusion instrumentation is believed to accelerate the degeneration of adjacent discs by increasing stresses caused by motion discontinuity. Fusion instrumentation that employs reduced rod stiffness and increased axial motion, or dynamic instrumentation, may partially alleviate this problem, but the effects of this instrumentation on the stresses in the adjacent disc are unknown. We used a finiteelement model to calculate and compare the stresses in the adjacent-level disc that are induced by rigid and dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation. Methods A 3-dimensional finite-element model of the lumbar spine was obtained that simulated flexion and extension. The L5–S1 segment of this model was fused, and the L4–L5 segment was fixed with rigid or dynamic instrumentation. The mechanical properties of the dynamic instrumentation were determined by laboratory testing and then used in the finite-element model. Peak stresses in the lumbar discs were calculated and compared. Results The reduced-stiffness component of the dynamic instrumentation was associated with a 1% to 2% reduction in peak compressive stresses in the adjacent-level disc (at 45° flexion), and the increased axial motion component of this instrumentation reduced peak disc stress by 8% to 9%. Areas of disc tissue exposed to 80% of peak stresses of 6.17 MPa were 47% less for discs adjacent to dynamic instrumentation than for those adjacent to rigid instrumentation. Conclusions Reduced stiffness and increased axial motion of dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation designs result in an approximately 10% cumulative stress reduction for each flexion cycle. The effect of this stress reduction over many cycles may be substantial. Clinical Relevance The cumulative effect of this reduced amplitude and distribution of peak stresses in the adjacent disc may partially alleviate the problem of adjacent-level disc degeneration. PMID:25802582

  18. Feasibility of simultaneous operation of passive remote microwave sensors and active services occupying adjacent frequency bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sue, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    To ensure proper sensor operations, it is necessary to understand the situation of potential interference to sensors due to active equipment sharing common frequency bands as well as equipment occupying adjacent bands. The feasibility of sharing common frequency bands between passive sensors and other active services was analyzed. Potential interference to sensors due to equipment in bands adjacent to sensor frequency bands is examined and criteria to avoid interference is developed.

  19. Aircraft landing using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  20. LAND USE LAND COVER (LULC) - US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Mapping Program, a component of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), produces and distributes land use and land cover maps and digitized data for the conterminous U.S. and Hawaii. Land use refers to the human activities that are directly related to the land. The int...

  1. Microstrip monopulse antenna for land mobile communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Q.; Martin, C.; Delvalle, J. C.; Jongejans, A.; Rinous, P.; Travers, M. N.

    1993-01-01

    Low cost is one of the main requirements in a communication system suitable for mass production, as it is the case for satellite land mobile communications. Microstrip technology fulfills this requirement which must be supported by a low cost tracking system design. The tradeoff led us to a prototype antenna composed of microstrip patches based on electromechanical closed-loop principle; the design and the results obtained are described.

  2. Database Development of Land Use Characteristics along Major U.S. Highways

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, D

    2000-06-06

    The major objective of the effort reported here is to develop methods to measure transportation land use at the national level (i.e., how much land and what types of lands are used by transportation systems) and to track changes over time. Data for transportation-related land use are important for environmental analysis, climate change studies, transportation-land use interaction research, policy decisions related to urban sprawl, and more. Transportation systems have direct effects on the environment through modification of vegetation, impacts on wildlife habitats, changes in local climate and alternation of drainage patterns (U.S. DOT/BTS, 1996; U.S. DOT/BTS, 1998; U.S. EPA, 1999; Maggi, 1994; Verhoef, 1994). However, without accurate and complete land use data, it is extremely difficult to study and evaluate these effects. Transportation systems also induce land use changes. Such indirect effects, while not the subject of this study, may be more significant than the direct land-use impacts of transportation infrastructure. Establishing an inventory of transportation infrastructure and adjacent land use and maintaining the inventory over time is an important first step towards understanding the full range of interactions between transportation and land use. While current and historic land use data are essential for investigating the relationships between transportation and land use, so far, no technological or institutional mechanisms have been established to systematically collect such data at the national level. The lack of long-term planning in land use data acquisition can be a major setback for future research in transportation land use studies. Land use data also play a key role in the understanding of problems related to urban sprawl and in policy decisions in dealing with these problems.

  3. Mass spectrometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  4. Glacial erosion and expected permafrost thickness of Fennoscandia and adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amantov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    Linked geological, geomorphological and tectonic features of Fennoscandia with adjacent regions of East-European plain and Barents-Kara shelf indirectly influenced the history of glacial grows and decays. The first-order bedrock landscape elements (often created or exhumed during pre-glacial Cenozoic stages) were the major factors that could partly control centers of ice nucleation and basal velocities, serve natural barriers shaping ice sheet margin during some time intervals, etc. On the hand, many landforms were powerfully modified by glacial and periglacial processes, in particular by strong glacial erosion with lithological and structural control. Quantitative estimation of Plio-Pleistocene erosion and deposition was performed combining regional geological-geomorphological analysis (GA) and modeling with rate-based time-scale reconstructions (RR), and mass-balance control. Of special GA importance was to compare and extract changes of preserved elements of pre-glacial Neogene topography from areas that underwent different duration of glacial activity, in comparison with bordering non-glaciated ones. More distinct radial glacial erosion pattern and larger basal ice velocities seem likely at the beginning of the early ice-age stage, with partial widening of pre-glacial drainage elements. Few wide lowlands with meandering rivers in permafrost condition could provoke early stage onset of topographic ice-streams. Over time, further complication of the pattern from radial to "spider web" is expected due to developing of topographic ice-streams. Worth to mention is progressive exhumation of resistant formations, additional complications of the pattern by fluvioglacial activity and glacial sedimentation, "pendulum" principle, with increasing amount of glacial and interglacial sedimentation in eroded material. Approximated variable permafrost distribution seems to be additional weighty aspect, changing erosion rates at some time intervals. To estimate mean annual

  5. Testing wetland axioms at a watershed scale: Case studies of the aggregate hydrologic effects of non-adjacent wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands not adjacent to streams (i.e. “non-adjacent wetlands”) are hypothesized to affect downgradient hydrology in a number of ways. Non-adjacent wetlands may, for example, attenuate peak flows, serve as focal points for groundwater recharge, and decrease streamflow...

  6. Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Minimally Affects Adjacent Lumbar Segment Motion: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiapour, Ali; Yerby, Scott A.; Goel, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease is a recognized consequence of fusion in the spinal column. Fusion of the sacroiliac joint is an effective method of pain reduction. Although effective, the consequences of sacroiliac joint fusion and the potential for adjacent segment disease for the adjacent lumbar spinal levels is unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the change in range of motion of the sacroiliac joint and the adjacent lumbar spinal motion segments due to sacroiliac joint fusion and compare these changes to previous literature to assess the potential for adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine. Methods An experimentally validated finite element model of the lumbar spine and pelvis was used to simulate a fusion of the sacroiliac joint using three laterally placed triangular implants (iFuse Implant System, SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA). The range of motion of the sacroiliac joint and the adjacent lumbar spinal motion segments were calculated using a hybrid loading protocol and compared with the intact range of motion in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Results The range of motions of the treated sacroiliac joints were reduced in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, by 56.6%, 59.5%, 27.8%, and 53.3%, respectively when compared with the intact condition. The stiffening of the sacroiliac joint resulted in increases at the adjacent lumbar motion segment (L5-S1) for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, of 3.0%, 3.7%, 1.1%, and 4.6%, respectively. Conclusions Fusion of the sacroiliac joint resulted in substantial (> 50%) reductions in flexion, extension, and axial rotation of the sacroiliac joint with minimal (< 5%) increases in range of motion in the lumbar spine. Although the predicted increases in lumbar range of motion are minimal after sacroiliac joint fusion, the long-term clinical results remain to be investigated. PMID:26767156

  7. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for the new flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes

  8. Land Mines Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The same rocket fuel that helps power the Space Shuttle as it thunders into orbit will now be taking on a new role, with the potential to benefit millions of people worldwide. Leftover rocket fuel from NASA is being used to make a flare that destroys land mines where they were buried, without using explosives. The flare is safe to handle and easy to use. People working to deactivate the mines simply place the flare next to the uncovered land mine and ignite it from a safe distance using a battery-triggered electric match. The flare burns a hole in the land mine's case and ignites its explosive contents. The explosive burns away, disabling the mine and rendering it harmless. Using leftover rocket fuel to help destroy land mines incurs no additional costs to taxpayers. To ensure enough propellant is available for each Shuttle mission, NASA allows for a small percentage of extra propellant in each batch. Once mixed, surplus fuel solidifies and carnot be saved for use in another launch. In its solid form, it is an ideal ingredient for new the flare. The flare was developed by Thiokol Propulsion in Brigham City, Utah, the NASA contractor that designs and builds rocket motors for the Solid Rocket Booster Space Shuttle. An estimated 80 million or more active land mines are scattered around the world in at least 70 countries, and kill or maim 26,000 people a year. Worldwide, there is one casualty every 22 minutes.

  9. Land-use Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page

    2009-12-01

    Leakage occurs whenever actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in one part of the world unleash countervailing forces elsewhere in the world so that reductions in global emissions are less than emissions mitigation in the mitigating region. While many researchers have examined the concept of industrial leakage, land-use policies can also result in leakage. We show that land-use leakage is potentially as large as or larger than industrial leakage. We identify two potential land-use leakage drivers, land-use policies and bioenergy. We distinguish between these two pathways and run numerical experiments for each. We also show that the land-use policy environment exerts a powerful influence on leakage and that under some policy designs leakage can be negative. International “offsets” are a potential mechanism to communicate emissions mitigation beyond the borders of emissions mitigating regions, but in a stabilization regime designed to limit radiative forcing to 3.7 2/m2, this also implies greater emissions mitigation commitments on the part of mitigating regions.

  10. Future land use plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  11. Energy and land use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the land use impacts of past and future energy development and summarizes the major federal and state legislation which influences the potential land use impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which are used to measure, and in some cases, predict the potential conflicts between energy development and alternative uses of the nation's land resources. The topics section of this report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the myriad of federal, state and local legislation which have a direct or indirect impact upon the use of land for energy development. The second part addresses the potential land use impacts associated with the extraction, conversion and combustion of energy resources, as well as the disposal of wastes generated by these processes. The third part discusses the conflicts that might arise between agriculture and energy development as projected under a number of DOE mid-term (1990) energy supply and demand scenarios.

  12. Anticipating land surface change

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The interplay of human actions and natural processes over varied spatial and temporal scales can result in abrupt transitions between contrasting land surface states. Understanding these transitions is a key goal of sustainability science because they can represent abrupt losses of natural capital. This paper recognizes flickering between alternate land surface states in advance of threshold change and critical slowing down in advance of both threshold changes and noncritical transformation. The early warning signals we observe are rises in autocorrelation, variance, and skewness within millimeter-resolution thickness measurements of tephra layers deposited in A.D. 2010 and A.D. 2011. These signals reflect changing patterns of surface vegetation, which are known to provide early warning signals of critical transformations. They were observed toward migrating soil erosion fronts, cryoturbation limits, and expanding deflation zones, thus providing potential early warning signals of land surface change. The record of the spatial patterning of vegetation contained in contemporary tephra layers shows how proximity to land surface change could be assessed in the widespread regions affected by shallow layers of volcanic fallout (those that can be subsumed within the existing vegetation cover). This insight shows how we could use tephra layers in the stratigraphic record to identify “near misses,” close encounters with thresholds that did not lead to tipping points, and thus provide additional tools for archaeology, sustainability science, and contemporary land management. PMID:23530230

  13. Geomorphic data collected within and adjacent to Nebraska Public Power District's Cottonwood Ranch Property, Platte River, Nebraska, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinzel, Paul; Parker, Randolph; Nelson, Johnathan; Burman, R.; Heckman, Aashley

    2003-01-01

    River-channel topographic surveys were conducted and bed-material samples were collected along transects across the Platte River during water year 2001 (October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2001). A total of 57 transect lines or cross sections were established within three study reaches located along the middle channel of the Platte River in a 2,650-acre parcel of land owned by the Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD), hereinafter referred to as the Cottonwood Ranch Property. Five additional cross sections were established downstream of the Cottonwood Ranch Property across the entire width of the Platte River as a component of a proposed future general monitoring program. A development and enhancement plan is proposed by NPPD on the Cottonwood Ranch Property to satisfy their Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing guidelines. The goal of the plan is to improve habitat along this reach for endangered species. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) designed a monitoring and research program to study and detect what effects, if any, these channel management actions have on channel morphology and sediment transport within and adjacent to the Cottonwood Ranch Property. This report presents the data-collection methods and summarizes the geomorphic data collected in support of the monitoring program for water year 2001.

  14. Reduce torques and stick the landing: limb posture during landing in toads.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Emanuel; Larson, Neil P; Abbott, Emily M; Danos, Nicole

    2014-10-15

    A controlled landing, where an animal does not crash or topple, requires enough stability to allow muscles to effectively dissipate mechanical energy. Toads (Rhinella marina) are exemplary models for understanding the mechanics and motor control of landing given their ability to land consistently during bouts of continuous hopping. Previous studies in anurans have shown that ground reaction forces (GRFs) during landing are significantly higher compared with takeoff and can potentially impart large torques about the center of mass (COM), destabilizing the body at impact. We predict that in order to minimize such torques, toads will align their COM with the GRF vector during the aerial phase in anticipation of impact. We combined high-speed videography and force-plate ergometry to quantify torques at the COM and relate the magnitude of torques to limb posture at impact. We show that modulation of hindlimb posture can shift the position of the COM by about 20% of snout-vent length. Rapid hindlimb flexion during the aerial phase of a hop moved the COM anteriorly and reduced torque by aligning the COM with the GRF vector. We found that the addition of extrinsic loads did not significantly alter landing behavior but did change the torques experienced at impact. We conclude that anticipatory hindlimb flexion during the aerial phase of a hop is a critical feature of a mechanically stable landing that allows toads to quickly string together multiple, continuous hops. PMID:25320271

  15. This Land is Your Land. The Problem of Land Utilization. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Carl; And Others

    This unit, written for seventh-grade school children, focuses on the variety of factors that are involved in land utilization. It specifically examines land use in St. Louis County, Missouri, and discusses such concepts as the variety of ways man has used this land, the influence surface features have on land use, the influence of socio-cultural…

  16. Effects of land use changes on the dynamics of selected soil properties in northeast Wellega, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adugna, Alemayehu; Abegaz, Assefa

    2016-02-01

    Land use change can have negative or positive effects on soil quality. Our objective was to assess the effects of land uses changes on the dynamics of selected soil physical and chemical properties. Soil samples were collected from three adjacent soil plots under different land uses, namely forestland, grazing land, and cultivated land at 0-15 cm depth. Changes in soil properties on cultivated and grazing land were computed and compared to forestland, and ANOVA (analysis of variance) was used to test the significance of the changes. Sand and silt proportions, soil organic content, total nitrogen content, acidity, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable Ca2+ content were higher in forestlands. Exchangeable Mg2+ was highest in grazing land, while clay, available phosphorous, and exchangeable K+ were highest in cultivated land. The percentage changes in sand, clay, soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ were higher in cultivated land than in grazing land and forestland. In terms of the relation between soil properties, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable Ca2+ were strongly positively correlated with most of soil properties, while available phosphorous and silt have no significant relationship with any of the other considered soil properties. Clay has a negative correlation with all soil properties. Generally, cultivated land has the least concentration of soil physical and chemical properties except clay and available phosphorous, which suggests an increasing degradation rate in soils of cultivated land. So as to increase soil organic matter and other nutrients in the soil of cultivated land, the integrated implementation of land management through compost, cover crops, manures, minimum tillage, crop rotation, and liming to decrease soil acidity are suggested.

  17. Land use and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  18. Biological assessment for the transfer of the DP land tract

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, D.C.

    1996-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to transfer to the County of Los Alamos up to 10-ha (25-ac) of federal land located in Technical Area-21 to be developed for commercial uses. Previous studies for the proposed land transfer area indicate that potential habitat for four threatened, endangered, and sensitive species occurs in or adjacent to the proposed land transfer area. These include the northern goshawk (federal species of concern), Mexican spotted owl (federal threatened), the spotted bat (federal species of concern, state threatened), die peregrine falcon (federal endangered, state endangered), and the. In order to determine the possible influences of the land transfer on these organisms, information from species-specific surveys was collected. These surveys were used to confirm the presence of these species or to infer their absence in or near the project area. It was concluded that none of die above mentioned species occur in the project area. Stretches of the stream channel within Los Alamos Canyon have been identified as palustrine and riverine, temporarily flooded wetlands. The proposed land transfer should not affect these wetlands.

  19. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas

    PubMed Central

    Skvortsova, Yulia V.; Zinovyeva, Marina V.; Stukacheva, Elena A.; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A.; Azhikina, Tatyana L.

    2016-01-01

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  20. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas.

    PubMed

    Gainetdinov, Ildar V; Kondratieva, Sofia A; Skvortsova, Yulia V; Zinovyeva, Marina V; Stukacheva, Elena A; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A; Azhikina, Tatyana L

    2016-04-19

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  1. Positive adjacency effects mediated by seed disperser birds in pine plantations.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Regino; Hódar, José Antonio; Matías, Luís; Mendoza, Irene

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the consequences of adjacent elements for a given patch, through their effects on zoochorous dispersion by frugivorous birds. The case study consists of pine plantations (the focal patch) adjacent to other patches of native vegetation (mixed patches of native forest and shrublands), and/or pine plantations. Our hypothesis is that input of native woody species propagules generated by frugivorous birds within plantations strongly depends on the nature of the surrounding vegetation. To test this hypothesis, we studied frugivorous-bird abundance, seed dispersion, and seedling establishment in nine pine plantation plots in contact with patches of native vegetation. To quantify adjacency arrangement effects, we used the percentage of common border between a patch and each of its adjacent elements. Frugivorous bird occurrence in pine plantations is influenced by the adjacent vegetation: the greater the contact with native vegetation patches, the more abundant were the frugivorous birds within pine plantations. Furthermore, frugivorous birds introduce into plantations the seeds of a large sample of native fleshy-fruited species. The results confirm the hypothesis that zoochorous seed rain is strongly determined by the kind of vegetation surrounding a given plantation. This finding underlines the importance of the composition of the mosaic surrounding plantations and the availability of mobile link species as key landscape features conditioning passive restoration processes. PMID:20597289

  2. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna L.; Gerow, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  3. [Effects of GA, and CPPU on grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis and fruit quality].

    PubMed

    Xin, Shou-peng; Liu, Shuai; Yu, Yang; Nie, Song-qing; Gao, Zhi-hong; Tao, Jian-min

    2015-06-01

    Taken the grape cultivar 'Shine Muscat' as the material, the effect of the combination of GA3 and CPPU on the light-response curves in the fruit adjacent leaves and fruit quality were investigated two weeks after blossoming. The results showed that non-rectangular hyperbolic model was more suitable for grape fruit adjacent leaf light response curve-fitting. Pn and g(s) of fruit adjacent leaves among all treatments increased with the increasing light intensity under the combination treat-ments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15, 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively, but Ci decreased. Fruit quality increased with the increasing CPPU concentration under the combination treatments of 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 and 5, 10, 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU, respectively. Grape fruit adjacent leaf photosynthesis under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was higher than the other treatments. The fruit quality under the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 20 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was lower than the 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment. It indicated that reasonable CPPU treatment concentration could improve fruit adjacent leaf photosynthetic ability and fruit quality. Too high concentration made the fruit quality lower instead. The 25 mg · L(-1) GA3 + 15 mg · L(-1) CPPU treatment was most appropriate in two weeks after blossoming. PMID:26572037

  4. Uplink Scheduling and Adjacent-Channel Coupling Loss Analysis for TD-LTE Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI. PMID:24707214

  5. Uplink scheduling and adjacent-channel coupling loss analysis for TD-LTE deployment.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI. PMID:24707214

  6. Non-target adjacent stimuli classification improves performance of classical ERP-based brain computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, G. A.; Hernández, L. F.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The classical ERP-based speller, or P300 Speller, is one of the most commonly used paradigms in the field of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). Several alterations to the visual stimuli presentation system have been developed to avoid unfavorable effects elicited by adjacent stimuli. However, there has been little, if any, regard to useful information contained in responses to adjacent stimuli about spatial location of target symbols. This paper aims to demonstrate that combining the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli with standard classification (target versus non-target) significantly improves classical ERP-based speller efficiency. Approach. Four SWLDA classifiers were trained and combined with the standard classifier: the lower row, upper row, right column and left column classifiers. This new feature extraction procedure and the classification method were carried out on three open databases: the UAM P300 database (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico), BCI competition II (dataset IIb) and BCI competition III (dataset II). Main results. The inclusion of the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli improves target classification in the classical row/column paradigm. A gain in mean single trial classification of 9.6% and an overall improvement of 25% in simulated spelling speed was achieved. Significance. We have provided further evidence that the ERPs produced by adjacent stimuli present discriminable features, which could provide additional information about the spatial location of intended symbols. This work promotes the searching of information on the peripheral stimulation responses to improve the performance of emerging visual ERP-based spellers.

  7. Adjacent Codons Act in Concert to Modulate Translation Efficiency in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Caitlin E; Brule, Christina E; Dean, Kimberly M; Fields, Stanley; Grayhack, Elizabeth J

    2016-07-28

    Translation elongation efficiency is largely thought of as the sum of decoding efficiencies for individual codons. Here, we find that adjacent codon pairs modulate translation efficiency. Deploying an approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that scored the expression of over 35,000 GFP variants in which three adjacent codons were randomized, we have identified 17 pairs of adjacent codons associated with reduced expression. For many pairs, codon order is obligatory for inhibition, implying a more complex interaction than a simple additive effect. Inhibition mediated by adjacent codons occurs during translation itself as GFP expression is restored by increased tRNA levels or by non-native tRNAs with exact-matching anticodons. Inhibition operates in endogenous genes, based on analysis of ribosome profiling data. Our findings suggest translation efficiency is modulated by an interplay between tRNAs at adjacent sites in the ribosome and that this concerted effect needs to be considered in predicting the functional consequences of codon choice. PMID:27374328

  8. Namibian women and land.

    PubMed

    Andima, J J

    1994-03-01

    More than 50% of Namibia's 1.5 million inhabitants live in reserved communal areas; most of these are women who make up a third of the country's total population. Women are the main food producers, but access to land, livestock, water, and fuelwood is determined for women by marriage arrangements and settlements. In some parts of the country, women can obtain land in their own right, but they suffer from such subtle discouragements as receiving inferior land or having their stock mysteriously disappear. In some villages, a fee must be paid to a village head upon the allocation of land. This fee guarantees land tenure until the death or eviction of the person who paid the fee. In some areas, only men or widows (and sometimes divorced women) are eligible, and widows must reapply for permission to stay on their husband's land. Women also have a heavy labor burden. Since most of the men migrate to the urban areas for wage employment, the women must tend livestock and harvest and store the grain as well as run their households. Woman also may be evicted from commercial farms if their husbands die. In some areas, all property reverts to a husband's family upon his death, and the wife must return to her own relative. In some tribes, widows must leave their houses empty-handed; their sisters-in-law inherit any stored grain or clothing available. Other tribes are more liberal, and property remains with the widow. In this case, a male relative will be assigned to help the widow manage the property. Reform efforts which attempt to end such abuses by bringing common and customary law in compliance with the Namibian constitution are having an effect. The Women and Law Committee of the Law Reform and the Development Commission is working with the Customary Law Commission to involve traditional leaders in the adaptation of customary law to modern requirements which make discrimination against women unlawful. Until woman have security of land tenure, they are unwilling to invest

  9. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  10. Land Use and Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    The overall purpose of this training session is to familiarize Central American project cooperators with the remote sensing and image processing research that is being conducted by the NASA research team and to acquaint them with the data products being produced in the areas of Land Cover and Land Use Change and carbon modeling under the NASA SERVIR project. The training session, therefore, will be both informative and practical in nature. Specifically, the course will focus on the physics of remote sensing, various satellite and airborne sensors (Landsat, MODIS, IKONOS, Star-3i), processing techniques, and commercial off the shelf image processing software.

  11. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  12. A study of the estuarine and coastal oceanography of Block Island Sound and adjacent New York coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. ERTS-1 imagery was received from NASA in both positive and negative form. This imagery was analyzed to determine the hydrologic features of the water mass, including current patterns, particulate in suspension, and the contacts between different water masses, as well as coastal marsh characteristics. A Spectral Data Model 64 multispectral projector/viewer was used for the analysis. Quick look analysis of the second generation negatives indicated that: (1) green spectral band lacked contrast and was overexposed; (2) red spectral had acceptable contrast, but somewhat overexposed; and (3) infrared bands overexposed for land areas, but exposure good for water. Analysis of second generation positives indicated that; (1) green spectral band extremely flat; (2) red spectral band of acceptable contrast, but too dense for projection; and (3) infrared bands lacked detail in both water and land areas. Photographs indicate that it is necessary to expose and process the multispectral imagery for the scene brightness range under consideration.

  13. Land use pattern at Alacam mountainous range land (submediterranean-Turkey) due to edaphic and physiographical factors.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Osman Yalcin; Sevgi, Orhan; Tecimen, Huseyin Baris; Carus, Serdar; Kavgaci, Ali

    2012-04-01

    Soil degradation is perceived as a major threat in the Mediterranean region due to land use pattern and projected climate change. As the high altitudinal mountainous lands are sensitive lands, the land use patterns atAlaçam mountains were investigated in this study. The assessment of land use distribution is arranged with the altitude, exposure, slope and bedrock parameters. The spatial database of project was created using GRASS GIS open source software (GRASS Development Team, 2008). The scanned land use and main rock map of the project area rectified, digitized, and attributes of land use and bedrocks were entered into the database tables. Also raster SRTM3 data were imported into these databases for making physiographical factor (elevation, slope, aspect) maps. Our findings illustrated thatthe whole area of Alaçam mountains is 282 480 ha where most of the area of the mass is located between 700-1300 m asl with 200 585 ha corresponding to 71% of the whole area. We detected two kinds of mis-land use; (1) agricultural activities applied at the slopes above 17% (representing 35 220 ha) and agricultural activities applied on metamorphic rocks (representing 872 ha). Total misuse of lands reached 36 092 ha comprised 12.77% of the whole area. PMID:23424838

  14. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) on landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision

  15. Inertial Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    The inertial balance is one device that can help students to quantify the quality of inertia--a body's resistance to a change in movement--in more generally understood terms of mass. In this hands-on activity, students use the inertial balance to develop a more quantitative idea of what mass means in an inertial sense. The activity also helps…

  16. Lever arm extension of myosin VI is unnecessary for the adjacent binding state

    PubMed Central

    Ikezaki, Keigo; Komori, Tomotaka; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Yanagida, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Myosin VI is a processive myosin that has a unique stepping motion, which includes three kinds of steps: a large forward step, a small forward step and a backward step. Recently, we proposed the parallel lever arms model to explain the adjacent binding state, which is necessary for the unique motion. In this model, both lever arms are directed the same direction. However, experimental evidence has not refuted the possibility that the adjacent binding state emerges from myosin VI folding its lever arm extension (LAE). To clarify this issue, we constructed a myosin VI/V chimera that replaces the myosin VI LAE with the IQ3-6 domains of the myosin V lever arm, which cannot fold, and performed single molecule imaging. Our chimera showed the same stepping patterns as myosin VI, indicating the LAE is not responsible for the adjacent binding state.

  17. Summary geochemical maps, Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area, Mono and Tuolumne counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Hill, R.H.; Sutley, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Hoover Wilderness and the adjacent Hoover Extension (East), Hoover Extension (West), and Cherry Creek A Roadless Areas (the adjacent study area) encompass approximately 153,900 acres (241 mi2; 623 km2) in the Inyo, Stanislaus, and Toiyabe Naitonal Forests, Mono and Tuolumne Counties, Calif. These two areas lie along and mostly east of the crest of the Sierra Nevada, along the north and east sides of Yosemite National Park. Elevations vary from a high of 12,446 ft (3,793 m) on the crest of the Sierra Nevada to a low of about 6,500 ft (1,981 m) near the Bridgeport Ranger Station. Access to the Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area is by U.S. Highway 395, California State Highways 108 (Sonora Pass) and 120 (Tioga Pass), and by other paved and graded roads that lead off of these U.S. and State highways.

  18. Association of Chromosome Loss with Centromere-Adjacent Mitotic Recombination in a Yeast Disomic Haploid

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D. A.; Fogel, S.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments designed to characterize the association between disomic chromosome loss and centromere-adjacent mitotic recombination were performed. Mitotic gene convertants were selected at two heteroallelic sites on the left arm of disomic chromosome III and tested for coincident chromosome loss. The principal results are: (1) Disomic chromosome loss is markedly enhanced (nearly 40-fold) over basal levels among mitotic gene convertants selected to arise close to the centromere; no such enhancement is observed among convertants selected to arise relatively far from the centromere. (2) Chromosome loss is primarily associated with proximal allele conversion at the centromere-adjacent site, and many of these convertants are reciprocally recombined in the adjacent proximal interval. (3) Partial aneuploid exceptions provisionally identified as carrying left arm telocentrics have been found. A testable model is proposed suggesting that centromere involvement in genetic recombination may precipitate segregational disfunction leading to mitotic chromosome loss. PMID:324869

  19. Quantification of lincomycin resistance genes associated with lincomycin residues in waters and soils adjacent to representative swine farms in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Sun, Jian; Liu, Baotao; Zhao, Donghao; Ma, Jun; Deng, Hui; Li, Xue; Hu, Fengyang; Liao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yahong

    2013-01-01

    Lincomycin is commonly used on swine farms for growth promotion as well as disease treatment and control. Consequently, lincomycin may accumulate in the environment adjacent to the swine farms in many ways, thereby influencing antibiotic resistance in the environment. Levels of lincomycin-resistance genes and lincomycin residues in water and soil samples collected from multiple sites near wastewater discharge areas were investigated in this study. Sixteen lincomycin-resistance and 16S rRNA genes were detected using real-time PCR. Three genes, lnu(F), erm(A), and erm(B), were detected in all water and soil samples except control samples. Lincomycin residues were determined by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with concentrations detected as high as 9.29 ng/mL in water and 0.97 ng/g in soil. A gradual reduction in the levels of lincomycin-resistance genes and lincomycin residues in the waters and soils were detected from multiple sites along the path of wastewater discharging to the surrounding environment from the swine farms. Significant correlations were found between levels of lincomycin-resistance genes in paired water and soil samples (r = 0.885, p = 0.019), and between lincomycin-resistance genes and lincomycin residues (r = 0.975, p < 0.01). This study emphasized the potential risk of dissemination of lincomycin-resistance genes such as lnu(F), erm(A), and erm(B), associated with lincomycin residues in surrounding environments adjacent to swine farms. PMID:24348472

  20. Mixed land use and walkability: Variations in land use measures and relationships with BMI, overweight, and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Barbara B.; Yamada, Ikuho; Smith, Ken R.; Zick, Cathleen D.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Fan, Jessie X.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies compare alternative measures of land use diversity or mix in relationship to body mass index. We compare four types of diversity measures: entropy scores (measures of equal distributions of walkable land use categories), distances to walkable destinations (parks and transit stops), proxy measures of mixed use (walk to work measures and neighborhood housing ages), and land use categories used in entropy scores. Generalized estimating equations, conducted on 5000 randomly chosen licensed drivers aged 25 to 64 in Salt Lake County, Utah, relate lower BMIs to older neighborhoods, components of a 6-category land use entropy score, and nearby light rail stops. Thus the presence of walkable land uses, rather than their equal mixture, relates to healthy weight. PMID:19632875