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Sample records for adjacent level disease

  1. Adjacent level disease following lumbar spine surgery: A review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Instrumented lumbar spine surgery is associated with an increased risk of adjacent segment disease (ASD). Multiple studies have explored the various risk factors contributing to ASD that include; fusion length (especially, three or more levels), sagittal malalignment, facet injury, advanced age, and prior cephalad degenerative disease. Methods: In this selective review of ASD, following predominantly instrumented fusions for lumbar degenerative disease, patients typically underwent open versus minimally invasive surgery (MIS), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusions (TLIFs), posterior lumbar interbody fusions (PLIFs), or rarely posterolateral lumbar instrumented or noninstrumented fusions (posterolateral lumbar fusion). Results: The incidence of ASD, following open or MI lumbar instrumented fusions, ranged up to 30%; notably, the addition of instrumentation in different series did not correlate with improved outcomes. Alternatively, in one series, at 164 postoperative months, noninstrumented lumbar fusions reduced the incidence of ASD to 5.6% versus 18.5% for ASD performed with instrumentation. Of interest, dynamic instrumented/stabilization techniques did not protect patients from ASD. Furthermore, in a series of 513 MIS TLIF, there was a 15.6% incidence of perioperative complications that included; a 5.1% frequency of durotomy and a 2.3% instrumentation failure rate. Conclusions: The incidence of postoperative ASD (up to 30%) is greater following either open or MIS instrumented lumbar fusions (e.g., TLIF/PLIF), while decompressions with noninstrumented fusions led to a much smaller 5.6% risk of ASD. Other findings included: MIS instrumented fusions contributed to higher perioperative complication rates, and dynamic stabilization did not protect against ASD. PMID:26693387

  2. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  3. Adjacent Segment Disease Perspective and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Pozo, Fanor M.; Deusdara, Renato A. M.; Benzel, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease has become a common topic in spine surgery circles because of the significant increase in fusion surgery in recent years and the development of motion preservation technologies that theoretically should lead to a decrease in this pathology. The purpose of this review is to organize the evidence available in the current literature on this subject. Methods For this literature review, a search was conducted in PubMed with the following keywords: adjacent segment degeneration and disease. Selection, review, and analysis of the literature were completed according to level of evidence. Results The PubMed search identified 850 articles, from which 41 articles were selected and reviewed. The incidence of adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine is close to 3% without a significant statistical difference between surgical techniques (fusion vs arthroplasty). Authors report the incidence of adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine to range from 2% to 14%. Damage to the posterior ligamentous complex and sagittal imbalances are important risk factors for both degeneration and disease. Conclusion Insufficient evidence exists at this point to support the idea that total disc arthroplasty is superior to fusion procedures in minimizing the incidence of adjacent segment disease. The etiology is most likely multifactorial but it is becoming abundantly clear that adjacent segment disease is not caused by motion segment fusion alone. Fusion plus the presence of abnormal end-fusion alignment appears to be a major factor in creating end-fusion stresses that result in adjacent segment degeneration and subsequent disease. The data presented cast further doubt on previously established rationales for total disc arthroplasty, at least with regard to the effect of total disc arthroplasty on adjacent segment degeneration pathology. PMID:24688337

  4. Biomechanics of Artificial Disc Replacements Adjacent to a 2-Level Fusion in 4-Level Hybrid Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Wei, Na; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal procedure for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases remains controversial. Recent studies on hybrid surgery combining anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) for 2-level and 3-level constructs have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to estimate the biomechanics of 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs, which are more likely to be used clinically compared to 4-level arthrodesis. Material/Methods Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2–T1) were evaluated in different testing conditions: intact, with 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs (hybrid C3–4 ACDR+C4–6 ACDF+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–5ACDF+C5–6ACDR+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–4ACDR+C4–5ACDR+C5–7ACDF); and 4-level fusion. Results Four-level fusion resulted in significant decrease in the C3–C7 ROM compared with the intact spine. The 3 different 4-level hybrid treatment groups caused only slight change at the instrumented levels compared to intact except for flexion. At the adjacent levels, 4-level fusion resulted in significant increase of contribution of both upper and lower adjacent levels. However, for the 3 hybrid constructs, significant changes of motion increase far lower than 4P at adjacent levels were only noted in partial loading conditions. No destabilizing effect or hypermobility were observed in any 4-level hybrid construct. Conclusions Four-level fusion significantly eliminated motion within the construct and increased motion at the adjacent segments. For all 3 different 4-level hybrid constructs, ACDR normalized motion of the index segment and adjacent segments with no significant hypermobility. Compared with the 4-level ACDF condition, the artificial discs in 4-level hybrid constructs had biomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing adjacent level motion. PMID:26694835

  5. Adjacent level spondylodiscitis after anterior cervical decompression and fusion.

    PubMed

    Basu, Saumyajit; Sreeramalingam, Rathinavelu

    2012-05-01

    Postoperative spondylodiscitis after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) is rare, but the same occurring at adjacent levels without disturbing the operated level is very rare. We report a case, with 5 year followup, who underwent ACDF from C5 to C7 for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. He showed neurological improvement after surgery but developed discharging sinus after 2 weeks, which healed with antibiotics. He improved on his preoperative symptoms well for the first 2 months. He started developing progressive neck pain and myelopathy after 3 months and investigations revealed spondylodiscitis at C3 and C4 with erosion, collapse, and kyphosis, without any evidence of implant failure or graft rejection at the operated level. He underwent reexploration and implant removal at the operated level (there was good fusion from C5 to C7) followed by debridement/decompression at C3, C4 along with iliac crest bone grafting and stabilization with plate and screws after maximum correction of kyphosis. The biopsy specimen grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa and appropriate sensitive antibiotics (gentamycin and ciprofloxacin) were given for 6 weeks. He was under regular followup for 5 years his myelopathy resolved completely and he is back to work. Complete decompression of the cord and fusion from C2 to C7 was demonstrable on postoperative imaging studies without any evidence of implant loosening or C1/C2 instability at the last followup. PMID:22719127

  6. The Effects of Single-Level Instrumented Lumbar Laminectomy on Adjacent Spinal Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Bisschop, Arno; Holewijn, Roderick M.; Kingma, Idsart; Stadhouder, Agnita; Vergroesen, Pieter-Paul A.; van der Veen, Albert J.; van Dieën, Jaap H.; van Royen, Barend J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Biomechanical study. Objective Posterior instrumentation is used to stabilize the spine after a lumbar laminectomy. However, the effects on the adjacent segmental stability are unknown. Therefore, we studied the range of motion (ROM) and stiffness of treated lumbar spinal segments and cranial segments after a laminectomy and after posterior instrumentation in flexion and extension (FE), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR). These outcomes might help to better understand adjacent segment disease (ASD), which is reported cranial to the level on which posterior instrumentation is applied. Methods We obtained 12 cadaveric human lumbar spines. Spines were axially loaded with 250 N for 1 hour. Thereafter, 10 consecutive load cycles (4 Nm) were applied in FE, LB, and AR. Subsequently, a laminectomy was performed either at L2 or at L4. Thereafter, load-deformation tests were repeated, after similar preloading. Finally, posterior instrumentation was added to the level treated with a laminectomy before testing was repeated. The ROM and stiffness of the treated, the cranial adjacent, and the control segments were calculated from the load-displacement data. Repeated-measures analyses of variance used the spinal level as the between-subject factor and a laminectomy or instrumentation as the within-subject factors. Results After the laminectomy, the ROM increased (+19.4%) and the stiffness decreased (−18.0%) in AR. The ROM in AR of the adjacent segments also increased (+11.0%). The ROM of treated segments after instrumentation decreased in FE (−74.3%), LB (−71.6%), and AR (−59.8%). In the adjacent segments after instrumentation, only the ROM in LB was changed (−12.9%). Conclusions The present findings do not substantiate a biomechanical pathway toward or explanation for ASD. PMID:25649753

  7. Particulate Matter Levels in Ambient Air Adjacent to Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Nizam, N. M. S.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Lajis, A.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Air quality in the residential areas adjacent to the industrial regions is of great concern due to the association with human health risks. In this work, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) in the ambient air of UTHM campus was investigated tostudy the air qualityand their compliance to the Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (AAQG). The PM10 samples were taken over 24 hours from the most significant area at UTHM including Stadium, KolejKediamanTunDr. Ismail (KKTDI) and MakmalBahan. The meteorological parameters; temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction as well as particulate matterwere estimated by using E-Sampler Particulate Matter (PM10) Collector. The highest concentrations of PM10 (55.56 µg/m3) was recorded at MakmalBahan during the working and weekend days. However, these concentrations are less than 150 pg/m3. It can be concluded that although UTHM is surrounded by the industrial area, the air quality in the campus still within the standards limits.

  8. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  9. Adjacent-Level Hypermobility and Instrumented-Level Fatigue Loosening With Titanium and PEEK Rods for a Pedicle Screw System: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Aakas; Ingels, Marcel; Kodigudla, Manoj; Momeni, Narjes; Goel, Vijay; Agarwal, Anand K

    2016-05-01

    Adjacent-level disease is a common iatrogenic complication seen among patients undergoing spinal fusion for low back pain. This is attributed to the postsurgical differences in stiffness between the spinal levels, which result in abnormal forces, stress shielding, and hypermobility at the adjacent levels. In addition, as most patients undergoing these surgeries are osteoporotic, screw loosening at the index level is a complication that commonly accompanies adjacent-level disease. Recent studies indicate that a rod with lower rigidity than that of titanium may help to overcome these detrimental effects at the adjacent level. The present study was conducted in vitro using 12 L1-S1 specimens divided into groups of six, with each group instrumented with either titanium rods or PEEK (polyetheretherketone) rods. The test protocol included subjecting intact specimens to pure moments of 10 Nm in extension and flexion using an FS20 Biomechanical Spine Test System (Applied Test Systems) followed by hybrid moments on the instrumented specimens to achieve the same L1-S1 motion as that of the intact specimens. During the protocol's later phase, the L4-L5 units from each specimen were segmented for cyclic loading followed by postfatigue kinematic analysis to highlight the differences in motion pre- and postfatigue. The objectives included the in vitro comparison of (1) the adjacent-level motion before and after instrumentation with PEEK and titanium rods and (2) the pre- and postfatigue motion at the instrumented level with PEEK and titanium rods. The results showed that the adjacent levels above the instrumentation caused increased flexion and extension with both PEEK and titanium rods. The postfatigue kinematic data showed that the motion at the instrumented level (L4-L5) increased significantly in both flexion and extension compared to prefatigue motion in titanium groups. However, there was no significant difference in motion between the pre- and postfatigue data in the PEEK

  10. Stress Reduction in Adjacent Level Discs via Dynamic Instrumentation: A Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castellvi, Antonio E.; Huang, Hao; Vestgaarden, Tov; Saigal, Sunil; Pienkowski, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Conventional (rigid) fusion instrumentation is believed to accelerate the degeneration of adjacent discs by increasing stresses caused by motion discontinuity. Fusion instrumentation that employs reduced rod stiffness and increased axial motion, or dynamic instrumentation, may partially alleviate this problem, but the effects of this instrumentation on the stresses in the adjacent disc are unknown. We used a finiteelement model to calculate and compare the stresses in the adjacent-level disc that are induced by rigid and dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation. Methods A 3-dimensional finite-element model of the lumbar spine was obtained that simulated flexion and extension. The L5–S1 segment of this model was fused, and the L4–L5 segment was fixed with rigid or dynamic instrumentation. The mechanical properties of the dynamic instrumentation were determined by laboratory testing and then used in the finite-element model. Peak stresses in the lumbar discs were calculated and compared. Results The reduced-stiffness component of the dynamic instrumentation was associated with a 1% to 2% reduction in peak compressive stresses in the adjacent-level disc (at 45° flexion), and the increased axial motion component of this instrumentation reduced peak disc stress by 8% to 9%. Areas of disc tissue exposed to 80% of peak stresses of 6.17 MPa were 47% less for discs adjacent to dynamic instrumentation than for those adjacent to rigid instrumentation. Conclusions Reduced stiffness and increased axial motion of dynamic posterior lumbar fusion instrumentation designs result in an approximately 10% cumulative stress reduction for each flexion cycle. The effect of this stress reduction over many cycles may be substantial. Clinical Relevance The cumulative effect of this reduced amplitude and distribution of peak stresses in the adjacent disc may partially alleviate the problem of adjacent-level disc degeneration. PMID:25802582

  11. Correlation of sea level falls interpreted from atoll stratigraphy with turbidites in adjacent basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, J.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Past sea levels can be derived from any atoll subsurface sediments deposited at or near sea level by determining the ages of deposition and correcting the present depths to the sediments for subsidence of the underlying edifice since the times of deposition. A sea level curve constructed by this method consists of discontinuous segments, each corresponding to a period of rising relative sea level and deposition of a discrete sedimentary package. Discontinuities in the sea level curve derived by this method correspond to relative sea level falls and stratigraphic hiatuses in the atoll subsurface. During intervals of relative sea level fall an atoll emerges to become a high limestone island. Sea level may fluctuate several times during a period of atoll emergence to become a high limestone island. Sea level may fluctuate several times during a period of atoll emergence without depositing sediments on top of the atoll. Furthermore, subaerial erosion may remove a substantial part of the depositional record of previous sea level fluctuations. For these reasons the authors must look to the adjacent basins to complement the incomplete record of sea level change recorded beneath atolls. During lowstands of sea level, faunas originally deposited near sea level on an atoll may be eroded and redeposited as turbidites in deep adjacent basins. Three such turbidites penetrated during deep-sea drilling at Sites 462 and 315 in the central Pacific correlate well with a late Tertiary sea level curve based on biostratigraphic ages and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr chronostratigraphy for core from Enewetak Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands. Further drilling of the archipelagic aprons adjacent to atolls will improve the sea level history that may be inferred from atoll stratigraphy.

  12. Atrophy of hippocampal subfields and adjacent extrahippocampal structures in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Franciotti, Raffaella; Bubbico, Giovanna; Thomas, Astrid; Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The hippocampus and adjacent extrahippocampal structures are organized in distinct and specialized regions which process heterogeneous functions, including memory, and visuospatial functions. Specific alterations of the different hippocampal subfields and adjacent extrahippocampal structures could differently contribute to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Based on visual symptoms which characterize DLB patients, the hippocampal subfields and the adjacent extrahippocampal structures which are mainly involved in the visual functions could be impaired in DLB and preserved in AD. To test this hypothesis, we performed structural magnetic resonance imaging on 19 DLB, 15 AD, and 19 age-matched healthy controls. FreeSurfer's pipelines were used to perform parcellation of hippocampus and adjacent extrahippocampal structures and to assess the structural changes within each region. The cornu ammonis and subiculum were bilaterally damaged in AD and preserved in DLB. The perirhinal cortex and parahippocampus were damaged in DLB but not in AD. Our findings demonstrate that the hippocampal subfields and adjacent extrahippocampal structures were differently altered in AD and DLB. Particularly, DLB patients showed a more focused alteration of the extrahippocampal structures linked to visual functions.

  13. Cascading Adjacent Level Vertebral Compression Fractures Necessitating a Series of Eleven Kyphoplasties.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Evan; Reuter, Matthew; Samad, Adil; Flynn, Daniel; Menkowitz, Marc; Paragioudakis, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral kyphoplasty is a procedure used for the treatment of compression fractures. While early randomized-controlled trials were equivocal regarding its benefits, more recent RCTs have shown favorable results for kyphoplasty with regard to pain relief, functional recovery, and health-care related quality of life compared to control patients. Risks of kyphoplasty include but are not limited to cement extrusion, infection, hematoma, and vertebral body fracture of adjacent levels. We describe a case of a 66-year-old male attorney who underwent eleven kyphoplasties in an approximately one-year period, the majority of which were for fractures of vertebrae adjacent to those previously treated with kyphoplasty. Information on treatment was gathered from the patient's hospital chart and outpatient office notes. Following the last of the eleven kyphoplasties (two at T8, one each at all vertebrae from T9 to L5), the patient was able to function without pain and return to work. His physiologic thoracic kyphosis of 40 degrees prior to the first procedure was maintained, as were his lung and abdominal volumes. We conclude that kyphoplasty is an appropriate procedure for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures and can be used repeatedly to address fractures of levels adjacent to a previous kyphoplasty. PMID:26509091

  14. Yang-Mills amplitude relations at loop level from non-adjacent BCFW shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boels, Rutger H.; Isermann, Reinke Sven

    2012-03-01

    This article studies methods to obtain relations for scattering amplitudes at the loop level, with concrete examples at one loop. These methods originate in the analysis of large so-called Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten shifts of tree level amplitudes and loop level integrands. In particular BCFW shifts for particles which are not color adjacent and some particular generalizations of this situation are analyzed in some detail in four and higher dimensions. For generic non-adjacent shifts our results are independent of loop order for integrands and hold for generic minimally coupled gauge theories with possible scalar potential and Yukawa terms. By a standard argument this result indicates a generalization of the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson relations for tree level amplitudes exists to the integrand at all loop levels. A concrete relation is presented at one loop. Furthermore, inspired by results in QED it is shown that the results on generalized BCFW shifts of tree level amplitudes imply relations for the so-called rational, bubble and triangle terms of one loop amplitudes in pure Yang-Mills theory. Bubble and triangle terms for instance are shown to obey a five photon decoupling identity, while a three photon decoupling identity is demonstrated for the rational terms. Along the same lines recently conjectured relations for helicity equal amplitudes at one loop are shown to generalize to helicity independent relations for the massive box coefficient of the rational terms.

  15. Repeated adjacent segment diseases and fractures in osteoporotic patients: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsin-Yao; Chen, Chiu-Liang; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Background Pedicle screw instrumentation for treating spinal disorder is becoming increasingly widespread. Many studies have advocated its use to facilitate rigid fixation for spine; however, adjacent segmental disease is a known complication. Instrumented fusion for osteoporotic spines remains a significant challenge for spine surgeons. Prophylactic vertebroplasty for adjacent vertebra has been reported to reduce the complications of junctional compression fractures but has raised a new problem of vertebral subluxation. This case report is a rare and an extreme example with many surgical complications caused by repeated instrumented fusion for osteoporotic spine in a single patient. This patient had various complications including adjacent segmental disease, vertebral subluxation, and junctional fractures on radiographs and magnetic resonance images. Case presentation An 81-year-old Taiwanese woman underwent decompression and instrumented fusion of L4-L5 in Taiwan 10 years ago. Due to degenerative spinal stenosis of L3-L4 and L2-L3, she had decompression with instrumented fusion from L5 to L1 at the previous hospital. However, catastrophic vertebral subluxations with severe neurologic compromise occurred, and she underwent salvage surgeries twice with prolonged instrumented fusion from L5 to T2. The surgeries did not resolve her problems of spinal instability and neurologic complications. Eventually, the patient remained with a Frankel Grade C spinal cord injury. Conclusion Adjacent segmental disease, junctional fracture, and vertebral subluxation are familiar complications following instrumented spinal fusion surgeries for osteoporotic spines. Neurologic injuries following long instrumentation are often serious and difficult to address with surgery alone. Conservative treatments should always be contemplated as an alternative method for patients with poor bone stock. PMID:27555778

  16. Spontaneous Regression of Herniated Lumbar Disc with New Disc Protrusion in the Adjacent Level

    PubMed Central

    Gürcan, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs was reported occasionally. The mechanisms proposed for regression of disc herniation are still incomplete. This paper describes and discusses a case of spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs with a new disc protrusion in the adjacent level. A 41-year-old man was admitted with radiating pain and numbness in the left lower extremity with a left posterolateral disc extrusion at L5-S1 level. He was admitted to hospital with low back pain due to disc herniation caudally immigrating at L4-5 level three years ago. He refused the surgical intervention that was offered and was treated conservatively at that time. He had no neurological deficit and a history of spontaneous regression of the extruded lumbar disc; so, a conservative therapy, including bed rest, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and analgesics, was advised. In conclusion, herniated lumbar disc fragments may regress spontaneously. Reports are prone to advise conservative treatment for extruded or sequestrated lumbar disc herniations. However, these patients should be followed up closely; new herniation at adjacent/different level may occur. Furthermore, it is important to know which herniated disk should be removed and which should be treated conservatively, because disc herniation may cause serious complications as muscle weakness and cauda equine syndrome. PMID:27429818

  17. Spontaneous Regression of Herniated Lumbar Disc with New Disc Protrusion in the Adjacent Level.

    PubMed

    Hakan, Tayfun; Gürcan, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs was reported occasionally. The mechanisms proposed for regression of disc herniation are still incomplete. This paper describes and discusses a case of spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs with a new disc protrusion in the adjacent level. A 41-year-old man was admitted with radiating pain and numbness in the left lower extremity with a left posterolateral disc extrusion at L5-S1 level. He was admitted to hospital with low back pain due to disc herniation caudally immigrating at L4-5 level three years ago. He refused the surgical intervention that was offered and was treated conservatively at that time. He had no neurological deficit and a history of spontaneous regression of the extruded lumbar disc; so, a conservative therapy, including bed rest, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and analgesics, was advised. In conclusion, herniated lumbar disc fragments may regress spontaneously. Reports are prone to advise conservative treatment for extruded or sequestrated lumbar disc herniations. However, these patients should be followed up closely; new herniation at adjacent/different level may occur. Furthermore, it is important to know which herniated disk should be removed and which should be treated conservatively, because disc herniation may cause serious complications as muscle weakness and cauda equine syndrome. PMID:27429818

  18. Biomechanical performance of rigid compared to dynamic anterior cervical plating: analysis of adjacent upper and lower level compressive forces.

    PubMed

    Connor, David E; Shamieh, Khader Samer; Ogden, Alan L; Mukherjee, Debi P; Sin, Anthony; Nanda, Anil

    2012-12-01

    Dynamic anterior cervical plating is well established as a means of enhancing graft loading and subsequent arthrodesis. Current concerns center on the degree of adjacent-level stress induced by these systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the load transferred to adjacent levels for single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion utilizing rigid compared to dynamic anterior plating systems. Nine cadaveric adult human cervical spine specimens were subjected to range-of-motion testing prior to and following C5-C6 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion procedures. Interbody grafting was performed with human fibula tissue. Nondestructive biomechanical testing included flexion/extension and lateral bending loading modes. A constant displacement of 5mm was applied in each direction and the applied load was measured in newtons (N). Specimens were tested in the following order: intact, following discectomy, after rigid plating, then after dynamic plating. Adjacent level (C4-C5 [L(S)] and C6-C7 [L(I)]) compressive forces were measured using low profile load cells inserted into each disc space. The measured load values for plating systems were then normalized using values measured for the intact specimens. Mean loads transferred to L(S) and L(I) during forced flexion in specimens with rigid plating were 23.47 N and 8.76 N, respectively; while the corresponding values in specimens with dynamic plating were 18.55 N and 1.03 N, respectively. Dynamic plating yielded no significant change at L(I) and a 21.0% decrease in load at L(S) when compared with rigid plating, although the difference was not significant. The observed trend suggests that dynamic plating may diminish superior adjacent level compressive stresses.

  19. Cortical screw trajectory for instrumentation and fusion in the setting of osteopathic compression fracture allows for percutaneous kyphoplasty for adjacent level compression fractures.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Donato; Kim, Irene; Wilson, Taylor A; Frempong-Boadu, Anthony

    2015-05-01

    Spinal fixation in the osteoporotic patient can be challenging due to the poor trabecular bone quality of the vertebral body. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures are at risk for future compression fractures at adjacent levels, especially after cement augmentation. The purpose of this technical report is to describe the utilization of a cortical screw trajectory along with kyphoplasty for a patient with an osteoporotic compression fracture as well as degenerative spinal disease. This trajectory allows for the possibility of percutaneous pedicle access in the event of future compression fractures. Our patient underwent a decompressive laminectomy and kyphoplasty at the level of an osteoporotic compression fracture. The fracture was stabilized with cortical screw instrumentation and fusion at a level above and a level below the fracture. Subsequently the patient developed an adjacent level fracture within the fusion construct. Due to the utilization of a cortical screw trajectory for the initial fusion, the traditional pedicle trajectory was still accessible. As a result, the new fracture was treated with a percutaneous kyphoplasty through a standard pedicle trajectory. In conclusion, the use of a cortical screw trajectory for stabilization of osteoporotic compression fractures provides for a stronger bone screw interface and avoids osteoporotic trabecular vertebral body bone. At the same time this trajectory allows for future percutaneous pedicular access in the event that the patient suffers future compression fractures.

  20. Historical change and future scenarios of sea level rise in Macau and adjacent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Huang, Gang; Zhou, Wen; Chen, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Against a background of climate change, Macau is very exposed to sea level rise (SLR) because of its low elevation, small size, and ongoing land reclamation. Therefore, we evaluate sea level changes in Macau, both historical and, especially, possible future scenarios, aiming to provide knowledge and a framework to help accommodate and protect against future SLR. Sea level in Macau is now rising at an accelerated rate: 1.35 mm yr-1 over 1925-2010 and jumping to 4.2 mm yr-1 over 1970-2010, which outpaces the rise in global mean sea level. In addition, vertical land movement in Macau contributes little to local sea level change. In the future, the rate of SLR in Macau will be about 20% higher than the global average, as a consequence of a greater local warming tendency and strengthened northward winds. Specifically, the sea level is projected to rise 8-12, 22-51 and 35-118 cm by 2020, 2060 and 2100, respectively, depending on the emissions scenario and climate sensitivity. Under the +8.5 W m-2 Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP8.5) scenario the increase in sea level by 2100 will reach 65-118 cm—double that under RCP2.6. Moreover, the SLR will accelerate under RCP6.0 and RCP8.5, while remaining at a moderate and steady rate under RCP4.5 and RCP2.6. The key source of uncertainty stems from the emissions scenario and climate sensitivity, among which the discrepancies in SLR are small during the first half of the 21st century but begin to diverge thereafter.

  1. Assessment of the Relative Largest Earthquake Hazard Level in the NW Himalaya and its Adjacent Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsapanos, Theodoros M.; Yadav, R. B. S.; Olasoglou, Efthalia M.; Singh, Mayshree

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the level of the largest earthquake hazard is assessed in 28 seismic zones of the NW Himalaya and its vicinity, which is a highly seismically active region of the world. Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution (hereafter as GIII) is adopted for the evaluation of the largest earthquake magnitudes in these seismic zones. Instead of taking in account any type of Mmax, in the present study we consider the ω value which is the largest earthquake magnitude that a region can experience according to the GIII statistics. A function of the form Θ(ω, RP6.0) is providing in this way a relatively largest earthquake hazard scale defined by the letter K(K index). The return periods for the ω values (earthquake magnitudes) 6 or larger (RP6.0) are also calculated. According to this index, the investigated seismic zones are classified into five groups and it is shown that seismic zones 3 (Quetta of Pakistan), 11 (Hindukush), 15 (northern Pamirs), and 23 (Kangra, Himachal Pradesh of India) correspond to a "very high" K index which is 6.

  2. Periostin differentially induces proliferation, contraction and apoptosis of primary Dupuytren's disease and adjacent palmar fascia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vi, Linda; Feng, Lucy; Zhu, Rebecca D.; Wu, Yan; Satish, Latha; Gan, Bing Siang; O'Gorman, David B.

    2009-12-10

    Dupuytren's disease, (DD), is a fibroproliferative condition of the palmar fascia in the hand, typically resulting in permanent contracture of one or more fingers. This fibromatosis is similar to scarring and other fibroses in displaying excess collagen secretion and contractile myofibroblast differentiation. In this report we expand on previous data demonstrating that POSTN mRNA, which encodes the extra-cellular matrix protein periostin, is up-regulated in Dupuytren's disease cord tissue relative to phenotypically normal palmar fascia. We demonstrate that the protein product of POSTN, periostin, is abundant in Dupuytren's disease cord tissue while little or no periostin immunoreactivity is evident in patient-matched control tissues. The relevance of periostin up-regulation in DD was assessed in primary cultures of cells derived from diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia from the same patients. These cells were grown in type-1 collagen-enriched culture conditions with or without periostin addition to more closely replicate the in vivo environment. Periostin was found to differentially regulate the apoptosis, proliferation, {alpha} smooth muscle actin expression and stressed Fibroblast Populated Collagen Lattice contraction of these cell types. We hypothesize that periostin, secreted by disease cord myofibroblasts into the extra-cellular matrix, promotes the transition of resident fibroblasts in the palmar fascia toward a myofibroblast phenotype, thereby promoting disease progression.

  3. Regional patterns in prevalence of principal external diseases of dab Limanda limanda in the North Sea and adjacent areas 1992-1997.

    PubMed

    Dethlefsen, V; Lang, T; Köves, P

    2000-08-31

    The prevalence and spatial distribution of major diseases of dab Limanda limanda in the North Sea and adjacent areas were studied in the summers 1992 to 1997. Areas covered were the North Sea, Irish Sea, northern and northeastern British Waters and the English Channel. The diseases studied were lymphocystis, epidermal hyperplasia/papilloma and skin ulceration. To standardise data, results were analysed for females >15 cm (>3 yr old). Data were subjected to median polish, and additive, extended and additive plus multiplicative models were applied to best account for effects of region and year. Annual differences in disease prevalence were low whilst differences between areas were pronounced. For lymphocystis higher prevalence was observed in the northwestern sector of the North Sea, at the northern tip of Scotland and in an area south of Iceland. Prevalence was low in the Irish Sea, the English Channel and the southern North Sea, and intermediate in the German Bight. For epidermal hyperplasia/papilloma, levels were low at Icelandic stations, in the northern Irish Sea, in the southern North Sea and the English Channel, whilst levels were high in the northwestern part of the North Sea and the German Bight. Elevated levels of skin ulceration were found on the Dogger, at 1 station in the Irish Sea (off Sellafield) and at 1 station to the south of Iceland. Lower levels were detected west of Iceland. Prevalence in all other areas was intermediate. It is concluded that a detailed analysis of available data on disease prevalence and putative causative factors is desirable and, given the good availability of data, would be a promising step forward toward elucidating possible cause and effect relationships between diseases and anthropogenic factors. PMID:11023251

  4. Effects of Withdrawals on Ground-Water Levels in Southern Maryland and the Adjacent Eastern Shore, 1980-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water supply in most areas of Maryland?s Atlantic Coastal Plain, including Southern Maryland. The counties in this area are experiencing some of the most rapid growth and development in the State, resulting in an increased demand for ground-water production. The cooperative, basic water-data program of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Maryland Geological Survey has collected long-term observations of ground-water levels in Southern Maryland and parts of the Eastern Shore for many decades. Additional water-level observations were made by both agencies beginning in the 1970s, under the Power Plant Research Program of the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. These long-term water levels commonly show significant declines over several decades, which are attributed to ground-water withdrawals. Ground-water-level trends since 1980 in major Coastal Plain aquifers such as the Piney Point-Nanjemoy, Aquia, Magothy, upper Patapsco, lower Patapsco, and Patuxent were compared to water use and withdrawal data. Potentiometric surface maps show that most of the declines in ground-water levels can be directly related to effects from major pumping centers. There is also evidence that deep drawdowns in some pumped aquifers may be causing declines in adjacent, unpumped aquifers. Water-level hydrographs of many wells in Southern Maryland show linear declines in levels year after year, instead of the gradual leveling-off that would be expected as the aquifers equilibrate with pumping. A continual increase in the volumes of water being withdrawn from the aquifers is one explanation for why they are not reaching equilibrium. Although reported ground-water production in Southern Maryland has increased somewhat over the past several decades, the reported increases are often not large enough to account for the observed water-level declines. Numerical modeling simulations indicate that a steady, annual increase in the number of small wells could

  5. Adjacent segment degeneration after single-level anterior cervical decompression and fusion: disc space distraction and its impact on clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Li, Yongqian; Kong, Fanlong; Zhang, Di; Zhang, Yingze; Shen, Yong

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to find whether excessive distraction of the disc space for cage insertion was a risk factor for adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). One hundred and sixteen consecutive patients who underwent ACDF for single-level cervical disc herniation between June 2006 and November 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative, postoperative and final follow-up disc height (DH), sagittal segmental alignment (SSA), and sagittal alignment of the cervical spine (SACS) were measured and compared between the ASD group and non-ASD group. In 116 patients, ASD was radiographically proven in 28 (24.1%) patients. The clinical outcomes were significantly improved compared to the preoperative scores in both groups. However, the postoperative and final follow-up DH of the ASD group were significantly higher than in the non-ASD group (p<0.05). In addition, the postoperative DH was significantly correlated with the postoperative or final follow-up SSA (p<0.05). However, postoperative DH was not found to significantly correlate with postoperative or final follow-up SACS (p=0.072 and p=0.096, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that postoperative DH was the most significant risk factor for ASD. The clinical outcomes of ACDF for single-level degenerative cervical disc disease were satisfactory. Postoperative DH (the distracted distance) had the greatest impact on the incidence of ASD. Excessive disc space distraction is a considerable risk factor for the development of radiographic ASD.

  6. Potential interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality and adjacent land cover in amphibian habitats in the United States.

    PubMed

    Battaglin, W A; Smalling, K L; Anderson, C; Calhoun, D; Chestnut, T; Muths, E

    2016-10-01

    To investigate interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality, and adjacent land cover, we collected samples of water, sediment, and frog tissue from 21 sites in 7 States in the United States (US) representing a variety of amphibian habitats. All samples were analyzed for >90 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and water and frogs were screened for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using molecular methods. Pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected frequently in frog breeding habitats (water and sediment) as well as in frog tissue. Fungicides occurred more frequently in water, sediment, and tissue than was expected based upon their limited use relative to herbicides or insecticides. Pesticide occurrence in water or sediment was not a strong predictor of occurrence in tissue, but pesticide concentrations in tissue were correlated positively to agricultural and urban land, and negatively to forested land in 2-km buffers around the sites. Bd was detected in water at 45% of sites, and on 34% of swabbed frogs. Bd detections in water were not associated with differences in land use around sites, but sites with detections had colder water. Frogs that tested positive for Bd were associated with sites that had higher total fungicide concentrations in water and sediment, but lower insecticide concentrations in sediments relative to frogs that were Bd negative. Bd concentrations on frog swabs were positively correlated to dissolved organic carbon, and total nitrogen and phosphorus, and negatively correlated to pH and water temperature. Data were collected from a range of locations and amphibian habitats and represent some of the first field-collected information aimed at understanding the interactions between pesticides, land use, and amphibian disease. These interactions are of particular interest to conservation efforts as many amphibians live in altered habitats and may depend on wetlands embedded in these landscapes to survive.

  7. Potential interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality and adjacent land cover in amphibian habitats in the United States.

    PubMed

    Battaglin, W A; Smalling, K L; Anderson, C; Calhoun, D; Chestnut, T; Muths, E

    2016-10-01

    To investigate interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality, and adjacent land cover, we collected samples of water, sediment, and frog tissue from 21 sites in 7 States in the United States (US) representing a variety of amphibian habitats. All samples were analyzed for >90 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and water and frogs were screened for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using molecular methods. Pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected frequently in frog breeding habitats (water and sediment) as well as in frog tissue. Fungicides occurred more frequently in water, sediment, and tissue than was expected based upon their limited use relative to herbicides or insecticides. Pesticide occurrence in water or sediment was not a strong predictor of occurrence in tissue, but pesticide concentrations in tissue were correlated positively to agricultural and urban land, and negatively to forested land in 2-km buffers around the sites. Bd was detected in water at 45% of sites, and on 34% of swabbed frogs. Bd detections in water were not associated with differences in land use around sites, but sites with detections had colder water. Frogs that tested positive for Bd were associated with sites that had higher total fungicide concentrations in water and sediment, but lower insecticide concentrations in sediments relative to frogs that were Bd negative. Bd concentrations on frog swabs were positively correlated to dissolved organic carbon, and total nitrogen and phosphorus, and negatively correlated to pH and water temperature. Data were collected from a range of locations and amphibian habitats and represent some of the first field-collected information aimed at understanding the interactions between pesticides, land use, and amphibian disease. These interactions are of particular interest to conservation efforts as many amphibians live in altered habitats and may depend on wetlands embedded in these landscapes to survive

  8. [Serum sclerostin levels and metabolic bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2013-06-01

    Serum sclerostin levels are being investigated in various metabolic bone diseases. Since serum sclerostin levels are decreased in primary hyperparathyroidism and elevated in hypoparathyroidism, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is thought to be a regulatory factor for sclerostin. Serum sclerostin levels exhibit a significant positive correlation with bone mineral density. On the other hand, a couple of studies on postmenopausal women have shown that high serum sclerostin levels are a risk factor for fracture. Although glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis and diabetes are both diseases that reduce bone formation, serum sclerostin levels have been reported to be decreased in the former and elevated in the latter, suggesting differences in the effects of sclerostin in the two diseases. Serum sclerostin levels are correlated with renal function, and increase with reduction in renal function. Serum sclerostin level may be a new index of bone assessment that differs from bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers.

  9. Approximate altitude of water levels in wells completed in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in Fort Bend County and adjacent areas, Texas,January-February 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, Glenn L.

    1993-01-01

    This report was prepared in cooperation with the Fort Bend Subsidence District, and presents maps of the approximate altitude of water levels in wells completed in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers (figs. -2) during January-February 1991 in Fort Bend County and adjacent areas, Texas.  These approximate altitudes of water levels give an approximate depth to potable ground water within Fort Bend County and can be used to estimate depth for installing well pumps.

  10. Serum ferritin levels in hemoglobin H disease.

    PubMed

    Galanello, R; Melis, M A; Paglietti, E; Cornacchia, G; de Virgiliis, S; Cao, A

    1983-01-01

    This study shows that hemoglobin H disease patients aged between 0.5 and 44 years, usually (27 out of 30) have normal serum ferritin levels according to age. This reconfirms that in this disease there are usually normal iron stores. However, in a few patients (3 out of 30) increased levels were found. This may be due to inappropriate iron medication, transfusions or associated idiopathic hereditary hemocromatosis gene.

  11. [Gastrointestinal disease with elevated plasma homocysteine level].

    PubMed

    Coll, P; Guttormsen, A B; Berstad, A

    1999-10-10

    Elevated plasma homocystein (tHcy) is a marker for functional deficiency of folate and/or cobalamin. Malabsorption of these vitamins occurs in various gastroenterologic diseases. A frequent mutation (C677T) in the gene coding for the enzyme methyltetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is often associated with elevated values of tHcy. We have investigated 24 patients with tHcy > 40 mumol/l for gastrointestinal disease that can contribute to such elevation. Of these, 19 were homozygous for mutated MTHFR, four were heterozygous and one was normal. We found two cases of probable celiac disease, one case of Crohn's disease and one case of ulcerative colitis. These four were homozygous for the C667T mutation. Furthermore, we found eight persons who were anacidic; four homozygous, three heterozygous and one normal. All had gastritis histologically, six had serum gastrin > 50 pmol/l, and four were already on treatment with cobalamin injections. Helicobacter pylori-infection was found in nine out of 22 persons. Gastrointestinal disease occurs frequently in patients with tHcy > 40 mumol/l, but with the exception of conditions resulting in serious deficiency of cobalamin, these diseases alone do not seem sufficient to cause such high levels. We suggest that a reasonable approach to patients with homocystein values above 40 mumol/l is to exclude cobalamin deficiency, and that further investigations should be based upon thorough anamnesis and symptoms. PMID:10563175

  12. Type-1 Collagen differentially alters β-catenin accumulation in primary Dupuytren's Disease cord and adjacent palmar fascia cells

    PubMed Central

    Vi, Linda; Njarlangattil, Anna; Wu, Yan; Gan, Bing Siang; O'Gorman, David B

    2009-01-01

    Background Dupuytren's Disease (DD) is a debilitating contractile fibrosis of the palmar fascia characterised by excess collagen deposition, contractile myofibroblast development, increased Transforming Growth Factor-β levels and β-catenin accumulation. The aim of this study was to determine if a collagen-enriched environment, similar to in vivo conditions, altered β-catenin accumulation by primary DD cells in the presence or absence of Transforming Growth Factor-β. Methods Primary DD and patient matched, phenotypically normal palmar fascia (PF) cells were cultured in the presence or absence of type-1 collagen and Transforming Growth Factor-β1. β-catenin and α-smooth muscle actin levels were assessed by western immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Results DD cells display a rapid depletion of cellular β-catenin not evident in patient-matched PF cells. This effect was not evident in either cell type when cultured in the absence of type-1 collagen. Exogenous addition of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 to DD cells in collagen culture negates the loss of β-catenin accumulation. Transforming Growth Factor-β1-induced α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of myofibroblast differentiation, is attenuated by the inclusion of type-1 collagen in cultures of DD and PF cells. Conclusion Our findings implicate type-1 collagen as a previously unrecognized regulator of β-catenin accumulation and a modifier of TGF-β1 signaling specifically in primary DD cells. These data have implications for current treatment modalities as well as the design of in vitro models for research into the molecular mechanisms of DD. PMID:19545383

  13. Water-quality, water-level, and lake-bottom-sediment data collected from the defense fuel supply point and adjacent properties, Hanahan, South Carolina, 1990-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, M.D.; Vroblesky, D.A.; Robertson, J.F.; Bradley, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-year scientific investigation to determine the potential for biore-mediation of ground-water contamination and to monitor the effectiveness of an engineered bioremediation system located at the Defense Fuel Supply Point and adjacent properties in Hanahan, S.C., has culminated in the collection of abundant water-quality and water-level data.This report presents the analytical results of the study that monitored the changes in surface- and ground-water quality and water-table elevations in the study area from December 1990 to January 1996. This report also presents analytical results of lake-bottom sediments collected in the study area.

  14. Water-Level Data for the Albuquerque Basin and Adjacent Areas, Central New Mexico, Period of Record Through 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWees, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25 to 40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompass the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the Albuquerque Basin are obtained solely from ground-water resources. An increase of approximately 20 percent in the population from 1991 to present also resulted in an increased demand for water. From April 1982 through September 1983, a network of wells was established to monitor changes in ground-water levels throughout the Albuquerque Basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly. Currently (2004), the network consists of 234 wells and piezometers. This report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at 155 sites through 2004. Water-level and other data for 71 sites are collected by other agencies. Water-level data for 8 sites of the 155 sites measured by the U.S. Geological Survey were not available for this report.

  15. Dysplasia of the orbit and adjacent bone associated with plexiform neurofibroma and ocular disease in 42 NF-1 patients.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Reinhard E; Stelljes, Claudia; Hagel, Christian; Giese, Manfred; Scheuer, Hanna A

    2010-05-01

    Neurofibromas are the hallmark of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Interestingly, generalised and localised interference or dysfunction of bone is also a key element of the NF1 phenotype. In the skull, NF1-associated orbital dysplasia often results in a severe disfigurement of affected individuals. However, the underlying pathology of orbital dysplasia is a complex phenomenon and up to now poorly understood. This study was performed to describe the orbit in 42 NF1 patients with large, disfiguring soft-tissue tumour of the orbital/eyelid region (plexiform neurofibroma (PNF)). A dysplastic orbit on the affected side was diagnosed in 80.9%. Orbital PNF extension to adjacent regions revealed a significant correlation of orbit and temporal region (0.33, p<0.034), cheek and oral cavity (0.4, p>0.011), oral cavity and nose (0.35, p<0.026), and temporal region and cheek (0.46, p<0.003). Alterations of the optic nerve and adjacent structures were identified on MRI or CT in 14 patients. On plain skull radiographs, only sphenoid wing dysplasia and ipsilateral orbital enlargement were significantly correlated (0.528, p<0.01). This study reveals PNF as the main component of soft tissue affecting eyelids and orbit in those cases, which show a soft tissue mass in the affected orbital region. The oval-shaped orbital rim, typically seen on plain skull radiographs in sagittal projections, seems to be strongly associated with the (lateral and caudal) extension of a PNF and independent from sphenoid wing dysplasia. Several factors constitute the individual orbital dysplasia, including the growth of the invasive PNF.

  16. Levels of iron, silver, zinc, and lead in oranges and avocados from two gold-rich towns compared with levels in an adjacent gold-deficient town

    SciTech Connect

    Golow, A.A.; Laryea, J.N. )

    1994-09-01

    Fruits such as oranges and avocados are important sources of drinks and food in the Ghanaian Society. If such fruits contain various types of metals they may augument the types and amounts of them in the human body. The metals in fruits may depend on what is in the soils from which they are grown. If the soils contain toxic metals like lead, mercury and cadmium then the consumers may be poisoned as happened in the [open quotes]Ouchi - ouchi[close quotes], disease in Japan and similar episodes. In the area under study, the Geological Survey indicates the presence of 2.5 ppm of lead, 10 - 20 ppm of copper and less than 15 ppm of nickel. Silver, not reported in commercial amounts, is a byproduct of gold productions at Obuasi. Since copper and nickel are presented in the area traces of silver will certainly occur. In the same manner zinc is usually associated with lead as sulphide of zinc blend trace amounts of it are likely to occur in the area. Of the four metals measured, iron and zinc essential for citrus. The extractable iron and zinc in the area of study were 90 and 1.8 mg/kg, levels on the low side for the healthy growth of crops. The investigation reported here is the comparison of the levels of some metals in oranges and avocados from farms in Obuasi and Konongo with those from farms in Kumasi City. This is a part of a project aimed at finding out differences in the metal contents of various food crops grown in various regions of the country. Konongo and Obuasi have soils which are rich in gold but Kumasi city, which is not too distant from these towns, does not have gold in its soil. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Periostin differentially induces proliferation, contraction and apoptosis of primary Dupuytren’s disease and adjacent palmar fascia cells

    PubMed Central

    Vi, Linda; Feng, Lucy; Zhu, Rebecca D.; Wu, Yan; Satish, Latha; Gan, Bing Siang; O’Gorman, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Dupuytren’s disease, (DD), is a fibroproliferative condition of the palmar fascia in the hand, typically resulting in permanent contracture of one or more fingers. This fibromatosis is similar to scarring and other fibroses in displaying excess collagen secretion and contractile myofibroblast differentiation. In this report we expand on previous data demonstrating that POSTN mRNA, which encodes the extra-cellular matrix protein periostin, is up-regulated in Dupuytren’s disease cord tissue relative to phenotypically normal palmar fascia. We demonstrate that the protein product of POSTN, periostin, is abundant in Dupuytren’s disease cord tissue while little or no periostin immunoreactivity is evident in patient-matched control tissues. The relevance of periostin up-regulation in DD was assessed in primary cultures of cells derived from diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia from the same patients. These cells were grown in type-1 collagen-enriched culture conditions with or without periostin addition to more closely replicate the in vivo environment. Periostinwas found to differentially regulate the apoptosis, proliferation, α smooth muscle actin expression and stressed Fibroblast Populated Collagen Lattice contraction of these cell types. We hypothesize that periostin, secreted by disease cord myofibroblasts into the extra-cellular matrix, promotes the transition of resident fibroblasts in the palmar fascia toward a myofibroblast phenotype, thereby promoting disease progression. PMID:19619531

  18. Good Functional Outcome and Adjacent Segment Disc Quality 10 Years after Single-Level Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Posterior Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Horsting, Philip P.; Pavlov, Paul W.; Jacobs, Wilco C.H.; Obradov-Rajic, Marina; de Kleuver, Marinus

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the records of a prospective consecutive cohort to evaluate the clinical performance of anterior lumbar interbody fusion with a titanium box cage and posterior fixation, with emphasis on long-term functional outcome. Thirty-two patients with chronic low back pain underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion and posterior fixation. Radiological and functional results (visual analogue scale [VAS] and Oswestry score) were evaluated. Adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) was evaluated radiologically and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-five patients (78%) were available for follow-up. Functional scores showed significant improvement in pain and function up to the 2-year follow-up observation. At 4 years, there was some deterioration of the clinical results. At 10-year follow-up, results remained stable compared with 4-year results. MRI showed ASD in 3/25 (12%) above and 2/10 (20%) below index level (compared with absent preoperatively). ASD could not be related to clinical outcome in this study. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion and posterior fixation is safe and effective. Initial improvement in VAS and Oswestry scores is partly lost at the 4-year follow-up. Good clinical results are maintained at 10-year follow-up and are not related to adjacent segment degeneration. PMID:24353942

  19. Water-level altitudes 1998 and water-level changes 1990-98 and 1997-98 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, Fort Bend County and adjacent areas, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplin, L.S.; Santos, H.X.

    1998-01-01

    This report is one in an annual series of reports that depicts water-level altitudes and water-level changes since 1990 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in Fort Bend County and adjacent areas, Texas. The report, prepared in cooperation with the Ford Bend Subsidence District, presents maps for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers showing the approximate water-level altitudes in wells in 1998 and approximate water-level changes in wells from 1990 to 1998 and from 1997 to 1998. The most recent previously published water-level-altitude maps and water-level-change maps for the two aquifers are by Coplin and others (1997). The earliest water-level-altitude maps and water-level-change maps for the Chicot aquifer are by Wesselman (1972). The first maps of water-level altitudes and water-level changes for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers are by Locke (1990).

  20. The Incidence of Adjacent Segment Breakdown in Polysegmental Thoracolumbar Fusions of Three or More Levels with Minimum 5-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Edward P.; Manson, Neil A.; McKeon, Melissa D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Objective To identify the incidence of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) after thoracolumbar fusion of three or more levels, the risk factors for the development of ASP, and the need for further surgical intervention in this particular patient population. Methods A retrospective analysis of a prospective surgical database identified 217 patients receiving polysegmental (≥ 3 levels) spinal fusion with minimum 5-year follow-up. Risk factors were evaluated, and the following data were obtained from the review of radiographs and charts: radiographic measures—levels fused, fusion status, presence of ASP; clinical measures—patient assessment, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the need for further surgery. Results The incidence of radiographic ASP (RASP) was 29%; clinical or symptomatic ASP (CASP), 18%; and those requiring surgery, 9%. Correlation was observed between ODI and ASP, symptomatic ASP, and need for revision surgery. Age, preoperative degenerative diagnosis, and absence of fusion demonstrated significant association to ASP. Conclusions ASP was observed in a significant number of patients receiving polysegmental fusion of three or more levels. ODI scores correlated to RASP, CASP, and the need for revision surgery. PMID:25072002

  1. The Incidence of Adjacent Segment Breakdown in Polysegmental Thoracolumbar Fusions of Three or More Levels with Minimum 5-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Edward P; Manson, Neil A; McKeon, Melissa D

    2014-06-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Objective To identify the incidence of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) after thoracolumbar fusion of three or more levels, the risk factors for the development of ASP, and the need for further surgical intervention in this particular patient population. Methods A retrospective analysis of a prospective surgical database identified 217 patients receiving polysegmental (≥ 3 levels) spinal fusion with minimum 5-year follow-up. Risk factors were evaluated, and the following data were obtained from the review of radiographs and charts: radiographic measures-levels fused, fusion status, presence of ASP; clinical measures-patient assessment, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the need for further surgery. Results The incidence of radiographic ASP (RASP) was 29%; clinical or symptomatic ASP (CASP), 18%; and those requiring surgery, 9%. Correlation was observed between ODI and ASP, symptomatic ASP, and need for revision surgery. Age, preoperative degenerative diagnosis, and absence of fusion demonstrated significant association to ASP. Conclusions ASP was observed in a significant number of patients receiving polysegmental fusion of three or more levels. ODI scores correlated to RASP, CASP, and the need for revision surgery.

  2. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion.

  3. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  4. Impact of temperature variation between adjacent days on childhood hand, foot and mouth disease during April and July in urban and rural Hefei, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jian; Zhu, Rui; Xu, Zhiwei; Wu, Jinju; Wang, Xu; Li, Kesheng; Wen, Liying; Yang, Huihui; Su, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have found that both high temperature and low temperature increase the risk of childhood hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, little is known about whether temperature variation between neighboring days has any effects on childhood HFMD. A Poisson generalized linear regression model, combined with a distributed lag non-linear model, was applied to examine the relationship between temperature change and childhood HFMD in Hefei, China, from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2012. Temperature change was defined as the difference of current day's mean temperature and previous day's mean temperature. Late spring and early summer (April-July) were chosen as the main study period due to it having the highest childhood HFMD incidence. There was a statistical association between temperature change between neighboring days and childhood HFMD. The effects of temperature change on childhood HFMD increased below a temperature change of 0 °C (temperature drop). The temperature change has the greatest adverse effect on childhood HFMD at 7 days lag, with 4 % (95 % confidence interval 2-7 %) increase per 3 °C drop of temperature. Male children and urban children appeared to be more vulnerable to the effects of temperature change. Temperature change between adjacent days might be an alternative temperature indictor for exploring the temperature-HFMD relationship.

  5. Environmental data package for ORNL Solid Waste Storage Area Four, the adjacent intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the liquid waste pilot pit area

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Shoun, R.R.

    1986-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Remedial Action Program has determined through its review of past environmental studies that Solid Waste Storage Area Four (SWSA-4) continually releases radioactivity to White Oak Creek and therefore requires application of the site stabilization and remedial actions outlined under the 3004u provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Under these provisions, a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) forms the basis for determining the extent of actions. This report assembles available historical and environmental data relative to the SWSA-4 waste area grouping (WAG), which includes the 9.3-ha SWSA-4 site, the adjacent abandoned intermediate-level liquid waste transfer line, and the experimental pilot pit area. The rationale for grouping these three waste management units into the SWSA-4 WAG is the fact that they each lie in the same hydrologic unit and share a common tributary to White Oak Creek. The results of this compilation demonstrate that although a considerable number of studies have been carried out in SWSA-4, needs such as installation of water quality wells and continued monitoring and reporting of hydrologic data still exist. These needs will become even more critical as the RI/FS process proceeds and remedial measures for the site are considered. Fewer studies have been carried out to characterize the extent of contamination at the waste transfer line and the pilot pit area. Alternatives for characterizing and stabilizing these two minor components of the SWSA-4 WAG are presented; however, extensive remedial actions do not appear to be warranted.

  6. Effects of closure of an urban level I trauma centre on adjacent hospitals and local injury mortality: a retrospective, observational study

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, Marie; Sharp, Douglas; Wei, Xiong; Nathens, Avery; Hsia, Renee Y

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of the Martin Luther King Jr Hospital (MLK) closure on the distribution of admissions on adjacent trauma centres, and injury mortality rates in these centres and within the county. Design Observational, retrospective study. Setting Non-public patient-level data from the state of California were obtained for all trauma patients from 1999 to 2009. Geospatial analysis was used to visualise the redistribution of trauma patients to other hospitals after MLK closed. Variance of observed to expected injury mortality using multivariate logistic regression was estimated for the study period. Participants A total of 37 131 trauma patients were admitted to the five major south Los Angeles trauma centres from the MLK service area between 1999 and 2009. Main outcome measures (1) Number and type of trauma admissions to trauma centres in closest proximity to MLK; (2) inhospital injury mortality of trauma patients after the trauma centre closure. Results During and after the MLK closure, trauma admissions increased at three of the four nearby hospitals, particularly admissions for gunshot wounds (GSWs). This redistribution of patient load was accompanied by a dramatic change in the payer mix for surrounding hospitals; one hospital's share of uninsured more than tripled from 12.9% in 1999 to 44.6% by 2009. Overall trauma mortality did not significantly change, but GSW mortality steadily and significantly increased after the closure from 5.0% in 2007 to 7.5% in 2009. Conclusions Though local hospitals experienced a dramatic increase in trauma patient volume, overall mortality for trauma patients did not significantly change after MLK closed. PMID:27165650

  7. Understanding diseases at a molecular level

    SciTech Connect

    Rosev, Tatjana K

    2008-01-01

    A group of scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 2008 successfully pioneered a microscope able to track protein-sized, hard to see particles in three dimensions. The 3D Tracking Microscope, designed and developed by James H. Werner, Guillaume A. Lessard, Nathan Wells and Peter M. Goodwin of LANL's Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, won a 2008 R&D 100 award. The team's invention is a unique confocal 3D tracking microscope capable of following the motion of nanometer-sized objects, such as individual molecules, quantum dots, organic fluorophores and single green fluorescent proteins as they zoom through three-dimensional space at rates faster than many intracellular transport processes. The 3D tracking microscope can follow the transport of nanometer-sized particles at micrometer per second rates. This enables researchers to follow individual protein, ribonucleic acid (RNA), or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) motion throughout the full three-dimensional volume of a cell to discover the path a particular biomolecule takes, the method it employs to get there and the specific proteins it may be interacting with along the way. In addition to applications in molecular spectroscopy and materials research, the 3D tracking microscope is a powerful tool primarily in the fields of cellular biology and biomedical research, Werner said. 'The 3D tracking microscope will advance our understanding of the molecular basis and kinetics of many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, or muscular dystrophy,' he said. 'We anticipate the microscope will become a valuable weapon in the arsenal of biomedical researchers who are fighting to find cures for cancer, heart disease and other protein or DNA-based diseases.'

  8. Ki-67 Expression in Sclerosing Adenosis and Adjacent Normal Breast Terminal Ductal Lobular Units: A Nested Case-Control Study from the Mayo Benign Breast Disease Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Aziza; Hoskin, Tanya L.; Stallings-Mann, Melody L.; Degnim, Amy C.; Radisky, Derek C.; Frost, Marlene H.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Visscher, Daniel W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sclerosing adenosis (SA) increases risk for invasive breast cancer (BC) 2.1 times relative to that in the general population. Here, we sought to evaluate whether the proliferation marker Ki-67 stratifies risk among women with SA. Methods A nested case-control sample of patients with SA was obtained from the Mayo Clinic Benign Breast Disease Cohort. Ki-67 expression was evaluated in SA lesions and in the adjacent normal terminal duct lobular units (TDLU) in women who did (cases, n =133) or did not (controls, n =239) develop BC. Ki67 was scored by intensity and number of positively stained cells per one high-power field (magnification, ×40) (40×HPF) for both SA and normal TDLU. Associations of Ki-67 expression with case-control status were assessed using conditional logistic regression. Results Higher Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with case-control status in both SA (P=.03) and normal background TDLU (P=.006). For the SA lesion, >2 average positively stained cells/40×HPF showed an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% CI, 1.1–3.4) compared to samples with an average of ≤2 positively stained cells. For background TDLU, lobules with >2 but ≤6 average positively stained cells showed an adjusted OR of 1.3 to 1.5, whereas those with an average of >6 positively stained cells had an OR of 2.4 (95% CI, 1.1–5.3) compared to those with an average of <2 positively stained cells. Conclusions Among women with SA, increased Ki-67 expression in either the SA lesion or the normal background TDLU carried an approximately 2-fold increased odds of subsequent BC as compared to lower Ki-67 expression. PMID:25863475

  9. Discovering disease-disease associations by fusing systems-level molecular data.

    PubMed

    Žitnik, Marinka; Janjić, Vuk; Larminie, Chris; Zupan, Blaž; Pržulj, Nataša

    2013-11-15

    The advent of genome-scale genetic and genomic studies allows new insight into disease classification. Recently, a shift was made from linking diseases simply based on their shared genes towards systems-level integration of molecular data. Here, we aim to find relationships between diseases based on evidence from fusing all available molecular interaction and ontology data. We propose a multi-level hierarchy of disease classes that significantly overlaps with existing disease classification. In it, we find 14 disease-disease associations currently not present in Disease Ontology and provide evidence for their relationships through comorbidity data and literature curation. Interestingly, even though the number of known human genetic interactions is currently very small, we find they are the most important predictor of a link between diseases. Finally, we show that omission of any one of the included data sources reduces prediction quality, further highlighting the importance in the paradigm shift towards systems-level data fusion.

  10. Analysis of adjacent segment reoperation after lumbar total disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Rainey, Scott; Blumenthal, Scott L.; Zigler, Jack E.; Guyer, Richard D.; Ohnmeiss, Donna D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Fusion has long been used for treating chronic back pain unresponsive to nonoperative care. However, potential development of adjacent segment degeneration resulting in reoperation is a concern. Total disc replacement (TDR) has been proposed as a method for addressing back pain and preventing or reducing adjacent segment degeneration. The purpose of the study was to determine the reoperation rate at the segment adjacent to a level implanted with a lumbar TDR and to analyze the pre-TDR condition of the adjacent segment. Methods This study was based on a retrospective review of charts and radiographs from a consecutive series of 1000 TDR patients to identify those who underwent reoperation because of adjacent segment degeneration. Some of the patients were part of randomized studies comparing TDR with fusion. Adjacent segment reoperation data were also collected from 67 patients who were randomized to fusion in those studies. The condition of the adjacent segment before the index surgery was compared with its condition before reoperation based on radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography. Results Of the 1000 TDR patients, 20 (2.0%) underwent reoperation. The mean length of time from arthroplasty to reoperation was 28.3 months (range, 0.5–85 months). Of the adjacent segments evaluated on preoperative MRI, 38.8% were normal, 38.8% were moderately diseased, and 22.2% were classified as having severe degeneration. None of these levels had a different grading at the time of reoperation compared with the pre-TDR MRI study. Reoperation for adjacent segment degeneration was performed in 4.5% of the fusion patients. Conclusions The 2.0% rate of adjacent segment degeneration resulting in reoperation in this study is similar to the 2.0% to 2.8% range in other studies and lower than the published rates of 7% to 18% after lumbar fusion. By carefully assessing the presence of pre-existing degenerative changes before performing arthroplasty

  11. Risk Factors Associated with Adjacent and Remote- Level Pathologic Vertebral Compression Fracture Following Balloon Kyphoplasty: 2-Year Follow-Up Comparison Versus Conservative Treatment.

    PubMed

    Faloon, Michael J; Ruoff, Mark; Deshpande, Chetan; Hohman, Donald; Dunn, Conor; Beckloff, Nicholas; Patel, Dipak V

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral compression fractures are a significant source of morbidity and mortality among patients of all age groups. These fractures result in both acute and chronic pain. Patients who sustain such fractures are known to suffer from more comorbidities and have a higher mortality rate compared with healthy people in the same age group. In recent years, balloon kyphoplasty has become a popular method for treating vertebral compression fractures. However, as longer-term follow-up becomes available, the effects of cement augmentation on adjacent spinal segments require investigation. Here, we have performed a retrospective chart review of 258 consecutive patients with pathologic vertebral compression fractures secondary to osteoporosis, treated by either conservative measures or balloon kyphoplasty with polymethylmethacrylate cement augmentation. Multivariate analysis of patient comorbidities was performed to assess the risks associated with subsequent adjacent and remote compression fracture at a minimum of 2 years follow-up. A total of 258 patients had 361 vertebral compression fractures. A total of 121 patients were treated nonoperatively and 137 underwent balloon kyphoplasty with polymethylmethacrylate cement augmentation. The mean follow-up for both cohorts was 2.7 years (range, 2-6 years). The kyphoplasty cohort was significantly older than the nonoperative cohort (mean age, 78.5 versus 74.2 years; p = 0.02), had 24 more patients with diabetes mellitus (37 versus 13; p = 0.05), and had 34 more patients with a history of smoking (50 versus 16; p = 0.05). However, the kyphoplasty cohort had less patients with a history of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use (45 versus 71; p = 0.07). There were no demographic differences between groups in patients with secondary fractures. Nonoperative treatment was identified as a statistically significant independent risk factor for subsequent vertebral compression fracture [odds ratio (OR), 2.28]. Univariate

  12. Optimal Vitamin D Supplementation Levels for Cardiovascular Disease Protection

    PubMed Central

    Lugg, Sebastian T.; Howells, Phillip A.; Thickett, David R.

    2015-01-01

    First described in relation to musculoskeletal disease, there is accumulating data to suggest that vitamin D may play an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review we aim to provide an overview of the role of vitamin D status as both a marker of and potentially causative agent of hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. The role of vitamin D levels as a disease marker for all-cause mortality is also discussed. We review the current knowledge gathered from experimental studies, observational studies, randomised controlled trials, and subsequent systematic reviews in order to suggest the optimal vitamin D level for CVD protection. PMID:26435569

  13. Therapy of Chagas Disease: Implications for Levels of Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Colantonio, Lisandro; Segura, Elsa Leonor

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence supporting the use of etiological treatment for Chagas disease that has changed the standard of care for patients with Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the last decades. Implications of this evidence on different levels of prevention as well as gaps in current knowledge are also discussed. In this regard, etiological treatment has shown to be beneficial as an intervention for secondary prevention to successfully cure the infection or to delay, reduce, or prevent the progression to disease, and as primary disease prevention by breaking the chain of transmission. Timely diagnosis during initial stages would allow for the prescription of appropriate therapies mainly in the primary health care system thus improving chances for a better quality of life. Based on current evidence, etiological treatment has to be considered as an essential public health strategy useful to reduce disease burden and to eliminate Chagas disease altogether. PMID:22523499

  14. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Minfang; Shao, Xinghua; Chang, Xinbei; Fan, Zhuping; Cao, Qin; Mou, Shan; Wang, Qin; Yan, Yucheng; Desir, Gary; Ni, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lupus nephritis (LN) is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity–2000 (SLEDAI-2K) scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages. Conclusion Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest

  15. Epigenetic clustering of lung adenocarcinomas based on DNA methylation profiles in adjacent lung tissue: Its correlation with smoking history and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takashi; Arai, Eri; Kohno, Takashi; Takahashi, Yoriko; Miyata, Sayaka; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Soejima, Kenzo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Kanai, Yae

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations during lung carcinogenesis. Infinium assay was performed using 139 paired samples of non-cancerous lung tissue (N) and tumorous tissue (T) from a learning cohort of patients with lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs). Fifty paired N and T samples from a validation cohort were also analyzed. DNA methylation alterations on 1,928 probes occurred in N samples relative to normal lung tissue from patients without primary lung tumors, and were inherited by, or strengthened in, T samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using DNA methylation levels in N samples on all 26,447 probes subclustered patients into Cluster I (n = 32), Cluster II (n = 35) and Cluster III (n = 72). LADCs in Cluster I developed from the inflammatory background in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in heavy smokers and were locally invasive. Most patients in Cluster II were non-smokers and had a favorable outcome. LADCs in Cluster III developed in light smokers were most aggressive (frequently showing lymphatic and blood vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis and an advanced pathological stage), and had a poor outcome. DNA methylation levels of hallmark genes for each cluster, such as IRX2, HOXD8, SPARCL1, RGS5 and EI24, were again correlated with clinicopathological characteristics in the validation cohort. DNA methylation profiles reflecting carcinogenetic factors such as smoking and COPD appear to be established in non-cancerous lung tissue from patients with LADCs and may determine the aggressiveness of tumors developing in individual patients, and thus patient outcome.

  16. Optimal vitamin D levels in Crohn's disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Raftery, Tara; O'Sullivan, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among patients with Crohn's disease. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is the best measure of an individual's vitamin D status and current cut-off ranges for sufficiency are debatable. Several factors contribute to vitamin D deficiency in Crohn's disease. These include inadequate exposure to sunlight, inadequate dietary intake, impaired conversion of vitamin D to its active metabolite, increased catabolism, increased excretion and genetic variants in vitamin D hydroxylation and transport. The effects of low 25(OH)D on outcomes other than bone health are understudied in Crohn's disease. The aim of the present review is to discuss the potential roles of vitamin D and the possible levels required to achieve them. Emerging evidence suggests that vitamin D may have roles in innate and adaptive immunity, in the immune-pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, prevention of Crohn's disease-related hospitalisations and surgery, in reducing disease severity and in colon cancer prevention. The present literature appears to suggest that 25(OH)D concentrations of ≥75 nmol/l may be required for non-skeletal effects; however, further research on optimal levels is required.

  17. Sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Genre, Fernanda; López-Mejías, Raquel; Ubilla, Begoña; Mijares, Verónica; Cano, Daniel Sánchez; Robles, Concepción López; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Fernández, Raquel Ríos; Ruiz, Manuela Expósito; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Ortego Centeno, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are associated with lower bone mass and an increased risk of fractures. Sclerostin has a pivotal role in bone metabolism. Available data on circulating sclerostin levels in healthy subjects are limited, whereas those in SAD patients are absent. Our objective was to determine circulating sclerostin concentrations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and to analyze the factors associated with sclerostin concentrations. In this cross-sectional case-control study, serum sclerostin levels were measured in 38 SLE patients, 20 CD patients, 8 SSc patients and 20 healthy controls using a sclerostin ELISA. The mean values of the sclerostin (95% confidence interval) were 35.36 pmol l(-1) (12-101) in patients and 33.92 pmol l(-1) (2.31-100) in control subjects. The mean sclerostin value was 36.4 pmol l(-1) (22.1-48.5) in SLE patients, 26.7 pmol l(-1) (17.3-36.3) in CD patients and 51.8 pmol l(-1) (26.5-77.1) in SSc patients (P=0.001). Serum sclerostin levels were positively correlated with age (P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) and lumbar spine Z-score (P=0.001) and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.001). Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect sclerostin levels. Sclerostin levels seem to have a heterogeneous pattern in different autoimmune diseases. SLE and SSc patients did not differ from healthy controls regarding sclerostin levels. The CD group had significantly lower values compared with SSc patients. Factors associated with sclerostin levels in autoimmune diseases seem to be the same than in the general population. PMID:26909149

  18. Evaluation of thyroid hormone levels in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Gandham; Chickballapur Rayappa, Wilma Delphine Silvia; Vijayalakshmi, Ravella; Swathi, Manchala; Kumar, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    We attempted in this study to determine the thyroid hormone levels in 45 adult chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and 45 ageand sex-matched healthy subjects as controls. The serum thyroid hormone levels were measured by a radioimmunoassay. Serum concentrations of creatinine, urea, electrolytes and total proteins and albumin were measured as well. There was a significant decrease in the levels of serum total T3, total T4 and total protein and albumin levels in CKD patients when compared with the controls. There was a significant increase in the level of thyroid stimulating hormone in the CKD patients compared with the controls. Our study suggests that CKD leads to significant changes in the thyroid hormone levels, which need to be interpreted carefully in these patients.

  19. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2015-10-21

    An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. The network currently (2014) consists of 125 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, currently (2014) measures and reports water levels from the 125 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 125 sites through water year 2014 (October 1, 2013, to September 30, 2014).

  20. Approximate water-level changes in wells completed in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, 1991-92, Fort Bend County and adjacent areas, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, Glenn L.; Santos, Horatio X.

    1992-01-01

    This report was prepared in cooperation with the Fort Bend Subsidence District, and presents data on water-level changes during 1991-92 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifer (fig. 1-2) in Fort Bend County.  Water-level change maps were prepared previously by Locke (1990),and Locke and Barbie (1991), for both aquifers, and by Wesselman (1972) for the Chicot aquifer.

  1. Homocysteine Levels in Parkinson's Disease: Is Entacapone Effective?

    PubMed

    Kocer, Bilge; Guven, Hayat; Comoglu, Selim Selcuk

    2016-01-01

    Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels may increase in levodopa-treated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) as a consequence of levodopa methylation via catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Results from previous studies that assessed the effect of COMT inhibitors on levodopa-induced hyperhomocysteinemia are conflicting. We aimed to evaluate the effects of levodopa and entacapone on plasma Hcy levels. A hundred PD patients were enrolled to the study and divided into three treatment groups (group I: levodopa and/or dopamine agonists; group II: levodopa, entacapone, and/or a dopamine agonist; and group III: dopamine agonist alone). We measured the serum B12, folic acid, and Hcy levels in all patients. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of modified Hoehn and Yahr stages, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale II/III, Standardized Mini-Mental Test scores, and serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. Plasma median Hcy levels were found above the normal laboratory values in groups I and II, but they were normal in group III. However, there was no statistically significant difference in plasma Hcy levels between groups. Our results showed that levodopa treatment may cause a slight increase in the Hcy levels in PD compared with dopamine agonists and that COMT inhibitors may not have a significant effect on preventing hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:27493964

  2. Water-Level Data for the Albuquerque Basin and Adjacent Areas, Central New Mexico, Period of Record Through September 30, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2007-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25 to 40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompass the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin are currently (2007) obtained solely from ground-water resources. An increase of about 20 percent in the population from 1990 to 2000 also resulted in an increased demand for water. From April 1982 through September 1983, a network of wells was established to monitor changes in ground-water levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly. Currently (2007), the network consists of 133 wells and piezometers. This report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at 133 sites through 2007.

  3. Geologic and hydrologic data collected during 1976-1983 at the Sheffield low-level radioactive waste disposal site and adjacent areas, Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, J.B.; Garklavs, George; Mackey, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogeologic studies were conducted at the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, from 1976-84. Data in this report include water levels in wells, lake stages, inorganic, organic, and radiometric chemical analyses of ground and surface water, hydraulic conductivities of glacial materials, grain-size distribution, clay and carbonate mineralogy, and cation exchange capacities of the glacial materials. Also included are results of petrographic analyses, physical measurements of wells, stratigraphy and lithology of cores collected from test wells, and horizontal coordinates of wells.

  4. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25-40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. A population increase of about 20 percent in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22 percent increase from 2000 to 2010 resulted in an increased demand for water. An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2012), the network consists of 126 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA), currently (2012) measures and reports water levels from the 126 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 126 sites through water year 2012.

  5. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande began. A population increase of about 20 percent in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent increase from 2000 to 2010 resulted in an increased demand for water. An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2013), the network consists of 123 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, currently (2013) measures and reports water levels from the 123 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 123 sites through water year 2013.

  6. From SNPs to Genes: Disease Association at the Gene Level

    PubMed Central

    Lehne, Benjamin; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Schlitt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) at a gene level is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes that lead to disease. In order to incorporate prior biological knowledge such as pathways and protein interactions in the analysis of GWAS data it is necessary to derive one measure of association for each gene. We compare three different methods to obtain gene-wide test statistics from Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) based association data: choosing the test statistic from the most significant SNP; the mean test statistics of all SNPs; and the mean of the top quartile of all test statistics. We demonstrate that the gene-wide test statistics can be controlled for the number of SNPs within each gene and show that all three methods perform considerably better than expected by chance at identifying genes with confirmed associations. By applying each method to GWAS data for Crohn's Disease and Type 1 Diabetes we identified new potential disease genes. PMID:21738570

  7. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.; Bryant, Christina F.

    2016-10-27

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is hydrologically defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift between San Acacia to the south and Cochiti Lake to the north. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande through the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project. A 20-percent population increase in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent population increase from 2000 to 2010 may have resulted in an increased demand for water in areas within the basin.An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the Albuquerque Basin. In 1983, this network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly. The network currently (2015) consists of 124 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the ABCWUA, currently (2015) measures and reports water levels from the 124 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 124 sites through water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015).

  8. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.; Torres, Leeanna T.

    2010-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25 to 40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompass the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. An increase of about 20 percent in the population from 1990 to 2000 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin from April 1982 through September 1983. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2009), the network consists of 131 wells and piezometers. This report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at 123 sites through water year 2009. In addition, data from four wells (Sites 140, 147, 148, and 149) owned, maintained, and measured by Sandia National Laboratories and three from Kirtland Air Force Base (Sites 119, 125, and 126) are presented in this report.

  9. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. An increase of about 20 percent in the basin human population from 1990 to 2000 and of about 22 percent increase from 2000 to 2010 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2011), the network consists of 126 wells and piezometers (a piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer and is often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths). This report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at those 126 sites through water year 2011 to better help the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority manage water use.

  10. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25-40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. An increase of about 20 percent in the basin human population from 1990 to 2000 and about a 22 percent increase from 2000 to 2010 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin from April 1982 through September 1983. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2010), the network consists of 124 wells and piezometers (a piezometer is a small-diameter subwell usually nested within a larger well). To better help the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority manage water use, this report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at those 124 sites through water year 2010.

  11. Water-Level Data for the Albuquerque Basin and Adjacent Areas, Central New Mexico, Period of Record Through September 30, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25 to 40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompass the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin are currently (2007) obtained solely from ground-water resources. An increase of about 20 percent in the population from 1990 to 2000 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established to monitor changes in ground-water levels throughout the basin from April 1982 through September 1983. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2007), the network consists of 131 wells and piezometers. This report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at 131 sites through water-year 2007. Data from five sites (Sites 9, 10, 31, 71 and 78) were not measured during the 2007 water-year, but are included in this report because recent data are useful for comparison and (or) data have been collected that will be included in the water-year 2008 report.

  12. Water-Level Data for the Albuquerque Basin and Adjacent Areas, Central New Mexico, Period of Record Through September 30, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25 to 40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompass the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin are currently (2008) obtained soley from ground-water resources. An increase of about 20 percent in the population from 1990 to 2000 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established to monitor changes in ground-water levels throughout the basin from April 1982 through September 1983. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2008), the network consists of 144 wells and piezometers. This report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at 125 sites through water-year 2008. In addition, data from 19 wells (Sites 127-30, 132-134, 136, 138-142 and 144-149) owned, maintained, and measured by Sandia National Laboratories are presented in this report.

  13. Kyphosis one level above the cervical disc disease: is the kyphosis cause or effect?

    PubMed

    Ozer, Ercan; Yücesoy, Kemal; Yurtsever, Cem; Seçil, Mustafa

    2007-02-01

    If present, kyphotic angulation is generally at the level of the cervical disc disease (CDD) in the neck, but sometimes occurs at one level above the CDD. We name this situation as kyphosis one level above (KOLA). KOLA CDD has not been studied previously. In this study, we present 18 patients who had KOLA among 147 patients operated for CDD over a 5-year period. Seven of these 18 patients also received surgery for their KOLA. As new, surgical treatment of kyphotic level was performed with plating and without bony fusion in 5 patients. Clinical outcomes (according to Odom's criteria) and kyphotic corrections of KOLA patients receiving and not receiving surgery for their kyphosis during were compared. The 7 KOLA patients having surgery to correct the kyphosis had a mean 20.14+/-3.13 degrees correction in their kyphosis (from mean 12.85 to -7.28 degrees), whereas the 11 patients undergoing surgery only for CDD showed only a mean 3.00+/-2.52 degrees correction (from mean 7.45 to 4.45 degrees). When kyphotic corrections were compared, statistically significant difference was found between 2 groups (P<0.01). Clinical outcome scores showed a trend towards improvement in the patients operated upon for kyphosis correction. KOLA may be a factor in the development of cervical disc herniation and spondylosis, and should be treated if more than 11 degrees. In cervical region, upper adjacent level disease may be an extension of KOLA. Larger studies can further define the relationship between KOLA and CDD, and indications for surgical correction of KOLA. PMID:17285046

  14. Costs of Chronic Diseases at the State Level: The Chronic Disease Cost Calculator

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Louise B.; Khavjou, Olga A.; Li, Rui; Maylahn, Christopher M.; Tangka, Florence K.; Nurmagambetov, Tursynbek A.; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Nwaise, Isaac; Chapman, Daniel P.; Orenstein, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have estimated national chronic disease costs, but state-level estimates are limited. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Chronic Disease Cost Calculator (CDCC), which estimates state-level costs for arthritis, asthma, cancer, congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, other heart diseases, depression, and diabetes. Methods Using publicly available and restricted secondary data from multiple national data sets from 2004 through 2008, disease-attributable annual per-person medical and absenteeism costs were estimated. Total state medical and absenteeism costs were derived by multiplying per person costs from regressions by the number of people in the state treated for each disease. Medical costs were estimated for all payers and separately for Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurers. Projected medical costs for all payers (2010 through 2020) were calculated using medical costs and projected state population counts. Results Median state-specific medical costs ranged from $410 million (asthma) to $1.8 billion (diabetes); median absenteeism costs ranged from $5 million (congestive heart failure) to $217 million (arthritis). Conclusion CDCC provides methodologically rigorous chronic disease cost estimates. These estimates highlight possible areas of cost savings achievable through targeted prevention efforts or research into new interventions and treatments. PMID:26334712

  15. [Plasma homocysteine levels in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Márk, L; Erdei, F; Márki-Zay, J; Nagy, E; Kondacs, A; Katona, A

    2001-07-29

    In the latest years it became clear that beside traditional cardiovascular risk factors the high plasma homocysteine level increases the risk of atherosclerotic diseases too. Metaanalysis of 27 papers found that 10% of population's coronary risk is attributable to homocysteine and a 5 mumol/l increase in its plasma level elevates the coronary risk by as much as 0.5 mumol/l cholesterol increase. Recent studies have shown an inverse relation between the levels of plasma homocysteine and that of folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12. The latters are cofactors and substrates of the homocysteine and methionin metabolism. The plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein(a), Apo A1, Apo B and homocysteine concentrations were examined in 39 patients suffering from coronary artery disease treated in the Cardiac Rehabilitation Department of our hospital. Twenty of them were treated by folic acid and vitamin B6 for a three week period. The mean (+/- SD) plasma homocysteine concentration was 15.60 +/- 6.14 mumol/l. In the treated subgroup the mean (+/- SD) plasma homocysteine concentration was 17.3 +/- 7.00 mumol/l, the mean (+/- SD) plasma folic acid level was 8.58 +/- 4.6 mumol/l. After the three week treatment period (folic acid and vitamin B6) the plasma homocysteine level decreased by 26.5% (p = 0.012), that of folic acid increased by 68.7% (p = 0.002). From the plasma lipids the level of total- and LDL-cholesterol decreased significantly (6.7% and 10.4%, P < 0.05), caused by the strict diet during hospital treatment. As for the genetic polymorphism of the V677 gen of the metylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) enzyme there was a significant correlation with homocysteine level (r = 0.436, p = 0.010), and a negative, but not significant correlation with the folic acid level (r = -0.354).

  16. Temperature variations at nano-scale level in phase transformed nanocrystalline NiTi shape memory alloys adjacent to graphene layers.

    PubMed

    Amini, Abbas; Cheng, Chun; Naebe, Minoo; Church, Jeffrey S; Hameed, Nishar; Asgari, Alireza; Will, Frank

    2013-07-21

    The detection and control of the temperature variation at the nano-scale level of thermo-mechanical materials during a compression process have been challenging issues. In this paper, an empirical method is proposed to predict the temperature at the nano-scale level during the solid-state phase transition phenomenon in NiTi shape memory alloys. Isothermal data was used as a reference to determine the temperature change at different loading rates. The temperature of the phase transformed zone underneath the tip increased by ∼3 to 40 °C as the loading rate increased. The temperature approached a constant with further increase in indentation depth. A few layers of graphene were used to enhance the cooling process at different loading rates. Due to the presence of graphene layers the temperature beneath the tip decreased by a further ∼3 to 10 °C depending on the loading rate. Compared with highly polished NiTi, deeper indentation depths were also observed during the solid-state phase transition, especially at the rate dependent zones. Larger superelastic deformations confirmed that the latent heat transfer through the deposited graphene layers allowed a larger phase transition volume and, therefore, more stress relaxation and penetration depth. PMID:23744099

  17. Temperature variations at nano-scale level in phase transformed nanocrystalline NiTi shape memory alloys adjacent to graphene layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Abbas; Cheng, Chun; Naebe, Minoo; Church, Jeffrey S.; Hameed, Nishar; Asgari, Alireza; Will, Frank

    2013-06-01

    The detection and control of the temperature variation at the nano-scale level of thermo-mechanical materials during a compression process have been challenging issues. In this paper, an empirical method is proposed to predict the temperature at the nano-scale level during the solid-state phase transition phenomenon in NiTi shape memory alloys. Isothermal data was used as a reference to determine the temperature change at different loading rates. The temperature of the phase transformed zone underneath the tip increased by ~3 to 40 °C as the loading rate increased. The temperature approached a constant with further increase in indentation depth. A few layers of graphene were used to enhance the cooling process at different loading rates. Due to the presence of graphene layers the temperature beneath the tip decreased by a further ~3 to 10 °C depending on the loading rate. Compared with highly polished NiTi, deeper indentation depths were also observed during the solid-state phase transition, especially at the rate dependent zones. Larger superelastic deformations confirmed that the latent heat transfer through the deposited graphene layers allowed a larger phase transition volume and, therefore, more stress relaxation and penetration depth.

  18. Temperature variations at nano-scale level in phase transformed nanocrystalline NiTi shape memory alloys adjacent to graphene layers.

    PubMed

    Amini, Abbas; Cheng, Chun; Naebe, Minoo; Church, Jeffrey S; Hameed, Nishar; Asgari, Alireza; Will, Frank

    2013-07-21

    The detection and control of the temperature variation at the nano-scale level of thermo-mechanical materials during a compression process have been challenging issues. In this paper, an empirical method is proposed to predict the temperature at the nano-scale level during the solid-state phase transition phenomenon in NiTi shape memory alloys. Isothermal data was used as a reference to determine the temperature change at different loading rates. The temperature of the phase transformed zone underneath the tip increased by ∼3 to 40 °C as the loading rate increased. The temperature approached a constant with further increase in indentation depth. A few layers of graphene were used to enhance the cooling process at different loading rates. Due to the presence of graphene layers the temperature beneath the tip decreased by a further ∼3 to 10 °C depending on the loading rate. Compared with highly polished NiTi, deeper indentation depths were also observed during the solid-state phase transition, especially at the rate dependent zones. Larger superelastic deformations confirmed that the latent heat transfer through the deposited graphene layers allowed a larger phase transition volume and, therefore, more stress relaxation and penetration depth.

  19. Highest brain bismuth levels and neuropathology are adjacent to fenestrated blood vessels in mouse brain after intraperitoneal dosing of bismuth subnitrate.

    PubMed

    Ross, J F; Broadwell, R D; Poston, M R; Lawhorn, G T

    1994-02-01

    A small fraction of humans ingesting bismuth (Bi)-containing medications develops neurotoxicity in which neuropsychiatric signs precede motor dysfunction. Large ip doses of Bi subnitrate (BSN) produce similar signs in mice, but little is known about the pathogenesis of neurotoxicity in either species. Adult female Swiss-Webster mice received a neurotoxic dose (2500 mg/kg ip) of BSN. Bi distribution and neuropathology were determined as follows: (1) Regions of central and peripheral nervous system were assayed for Bi by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) 28 days after dosing, (2) regional brain Bi distribution was demonstrated in histologic sections by autometallography 28 days after dosing, and (3) blood/brain barrier status and neuropathologic effects were evaluated by light and electron microscopic techniques 1, 3, and 7 days and 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after dosing. By AAS, Bi levels were highest in olfactory bulb (approximately 7 ppm), hypothalamus (approximately 7 ppm), septum (approximately 3 ppm), and brain stem (approximately 3 ppm). Striatum and cerebral cortex had the least Bi (approximately 1 ppm). Regional distribution by autometallography showed that high Bi levels were associated with diffusion of Bi from fenestrated blood vessels of circumventricular organs and olfactory epithelium. All treated mice had hydrocephalus, but no other pathology was demonstrable by light microscopy. By electron microscopy, dramatic expansion of the extracellular space between choroid plexus epithelial cells was observed. Dendrites in the neuropil of the hypothalamus and septum exhibited vacuoles and membranous debris. Based on the Bi distribution and lesions, we propose that diffusion of Bi from fenestrated blood vessels contributes to pathogenesis of neurotoxicity in mice. This proposal is consistent with the clinical features of Bi-related neurotoxicity in humans.

  20. Potential effects of groundwater pumping on water levels, phreatophytes, and spring discharges in Spring and Snake Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent areas in Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, Keith J.; Plume, Russell W.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing hydrologic effects of developing groundwater supplies in Snake Valley required numerical, groundwater-flow models to estimate the timing and magnitude of capture from streams, springs, wetlands, and phreatophytes. Estimating general water-table decline also required groundwater simulation. The hydraulic conductivity of basin fill and transmissivity of basement-rock distributions in Spring and Snake Valleys were refined by calibrating a steady state, three-dimensional, MODFLOW model of the carbonate-rock province to predevelopment conditions. Hydraulic properties and boundary conditions were defined primarily from the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) model except in Spring and Snake Valleys. This locally refined model was referred to as the Great Basin National Park calibration (GBNP-C) model. Groundwater discharges from phreatophyte areas and springs in Spring and Snake Valleys were simulated as specified discharges in the GBNP-C model. These discharges equaled mapped rates and measured discharges, respectively. Recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and transmissivity were distributed throughout Spring and Snake Valleys with pilot points and interpolated to model cells with kriging in geologically similar areas. Transmissivity of the basement rocks was estimated because thickness is correlated poorly with transmissivity. Transmissivity estimates were constrained by aquifer-test results in basin-fill and carbonate-rock aquifers. Recharge, hydraulic conductivity, and transmissivity distributions of the GBNP-C model were estimated by minimizing a weighted composite, sum-of-squares objective function that included measurement and Tikhonov regularization observations. Tikhonov regularization observations were equations that defined preferred relations between the pilot points. Measured water levels, water levels that were simulated with RASA, depth-to-water beneath distributed groundwater and spring discharges, land-surface altitudes, spring discharge at

  1. Serum adipokine levels modified by donepezil treatment in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Pákáski, Magdolna; Fehér, Agnes; Juhász, Anna; Drótos, Gergely; Fazekas, Orsike Csilla; Kovács, János; Janka, Zoltán; Kálmán, János

    2014-01-01

    Neurotransmitter enhancement therapy with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) is a clinically proven approach for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Donepezil is one of the three currently approved AChEIs for treating AD symptoms delaying the decline in cognitive function. In addition to cholinergic hypofunction, there are several factors in AD pathogenesis. For example, adipocytokines released from adipose tissue are also thought to play a role in the progress of dementia. Adipokines, i.e., leptin and adiponectin, are involved in the modulation of certain cognitive functions in the brain. The goal of our study was to elucidate effects of donepezil therapy on the serum levels of certain adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin in AD patients. Clinically diagnosed mild-to-moderate AD patients (n = 26) were involved in this open-labeled, single-center, prospective self-control study. ApoE polymorphism, serum adiponectin, leptin, LDL, HDL, triglyceride levels, and BMI were determined before and at 12 and 24 weeks intervals of donepezil treatment, respectively. Twenty-four weeks of donepezil treatment induced a linear decrease of serum leptin levels (p = 0.013) and a linear elevation of serum adiponectin levels (p = 0.007). BMI (p < 0.001) and abdominal circumference (p = 0.017) were significantly lower at 24 weeks as compared to control values. None of the other examined metabolic parameters were changed during the treatment period. This previously unrecognized serum adipokine regulating potential of donepezil may be relevant in its therapeutic, disease modifying effect in AD by transferring protective (by increasing serum adiponectin levels) and detrimental (by decreasing serum leptin levels) effects onto the neurodegenerative process at the same time.

  2. Endostatin level in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Salza, Romain; Oudart, Jean-Baptiste; Ramont, Laurent; Maquart, François-Xavier; Bakchine, Serge; Thoannès, Henri; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the level of endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII that accumulates in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), in the cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The concentrations of total protein, endostatin, amyloid-β1-42 peptide, tau, and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in CSF of patients with AD (n = 57), behavioral frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, n = 22), non AD and non FTD dementia (nAD/nFTD, n = 84), and 45 subjects without neurodegenerative diseases. The statistical significance of the results was assessed by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal and Wallis tests, and by ROC analysis. The concentration of endostatin in CSF was higher than the levels of the three markers of AD both in control subjects and in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The endostatin/amyloid-β1-42 ratio was significantly increased in patients with AD (257%, p < 0.0001) and nAD/nFTD (140%, p < 0.0001) compared to controls. The endostatin/tau protein ratio was significantly decreased in patients with AD (-49%, p < 0.0001) but was increased in bvFTD patients (89%, p < 0.0001) compared to controls. In the same way, the endostatin/hyperphosphorylated tau protein ratio was decreased in patients with AD (-21%, p = 0.0002) but increased in patients with bvFTD (81%, p = 0.0026), compared to controls. The measurement of endostatin in CSF and the calculation of its ratio relative to well-established AD markers improve the diagnosis of bvFTD patients and the discrimination of patients with AD from those with bvFTD and nAD/nFTD. PMID:25408220

  3. Groundwater pesticide levels and the association with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    James, Katherine A; Hall, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether exposure to environmentally relevant levels of pesticides in groundwater is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between PD and pesticide levels in groundwater. This cross-sectional study included 332 971 Medicare beneficiaries, including 4207 prevalent cases of PD from the 2007 Colorado Medicare Beneficiary Database. Residential pesticide levels were estimated from a spatial model based on 286 well water samples with atrazine, simazine, alachlor, and metolachlor measurements. A logistic regression model with known PD risk factors was used to assess the association between residential groundwater pesticide levels and prevalent PD. We found that for every 1.0 µg/L of pesticide in groundwater, the risk of PD increases by 3% (odds ratio = 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.04) while adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and gender suggesting that higher age-standardized PD prevalence ratios are associated with increasing levels of pesticides in groundwater. PMID:25939349

  4. Groundwater pesticide levels and the association with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    James, Katherine A; Hall, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether exposure to environmentally relevant levels of pesticides in groundwater is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between PD and pesticide levels in groundwater. This cross-sectional study included 332 971 Medicare beneficiaries, including 4207 prevalent cases of PD from the 2007 Colorado Medicare Beneficiary Database. Residential pesticide levels were estimated from a spatial model based on 286 well water samples with atrazine, simazine, alachlor, and metolachlor measurements. A logistic regression model with known PD risk factors was used to assess the association between residential groundwater pesticide levels and prevalent PD. We found that for every 1.0 µg/L of pesticide in groundwater, the risk of PD increases by 3% (odds ratio = 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.04) while adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and gender suggesting that higher age-standardized PD prevalence ratios are associated with increasing levels of pesticides in groundwater.

  5. [The level of circulating PGC1a in cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Zhloba, A A; Subbotina, T F; Alekseevskaya, E S; Moiseeva, O M; Gavrilyuk, N D; Irtyuga, O B

    2016-01-01

    The level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC1α) in human blood plasma was investigated. Samples of healthy individuals (n=34) and patients with cardiovascular diseases (n=110), including aortic aneurysm (n=69), aortic stenosis (n=25) and patients without aortic pathologies were analyzed. In patients the PGC1α concentration was higher than that in healthy persons, and tended to decrease with age. Elevated concentrations of lactic acid, total homocysteine and asymmetric dimethylarginine in the blood of patients suggested a parallel development of endothelial and secondary mitochondrial dysfunction. However, concentrations of lactic and pyruvic acids exceeding reference limit were associated with the decrease in the PGC1α level. PMID:27143380

  6. Prevalence of adjacent segment disc degeneration in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion based on pre-operative MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Lundine, Kristopher M; Davis, Gavin; Rogers, Myron; Staples, Margaret; Quan, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a widely accepted surgical treatment for symptomatic cervical spondylosis. Some patients develop symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration, occasionally requiring further treatment. The cause and prevalence of adjacent segment degeneration and disease is unclear at present. Proponents for motion preserving surgery such as disc arthroplasty argue that this technique may decrease the "strain" on adjacent discs and thus decrease the incidence of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration. The purpose of this study was to assess the pre-operative prevalence of adjacent segment degeneration in patients undergoing ACDF. A database review of three surgeons' practice was carried out to identify patients who had undergone a one- or two-level ACDF for degenerative disc disease. Patients were excluded if they were operated on for recent trauma, had an inflammatory arthropathy (for example, rheumatoid arthritis), or had previous spine surgery. The pre-operative MRI of each patient was reviewed and graded using a standardised methodology. One hundred and six patient MRI studies were reviewed. All patients showed some evidence of intervertebral disc degeneration adjacent to the planned operative segment(s). Increased severity of disc degeneration was associated with increased age and operative level, but was not associated with sagittal alignment. Disc degeneration was more common at levels adjacent to the surgical level than at non-adjacent segments, and was more severe at the superior adjacent level compared with the inferior adjacent level. These findings support the theory that adjacent segment degeneration following ACDF is due in part to the natural history of cervical spondylosis.

  7. A Nest of LTR Retrotransposons Adjacent the Disease Resistance-Priming Gene NPR1 in Beta vulgaris L. U.S. Hybrid H20.

    PubMed

    Kuykendall, David; Shao, Jonathan; Trimmer, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    A nest of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons (RTRs), discovered by LTR_STRUC analysis, is near core genes encoding the NPR1 disease resistance-activating factor and a heat-shock-factor-(HSF-) like protein in sugarbeet hybrid US H20. SCHULTE, a 10 833 bp LTR retrotransposon, with 1372 bp LTRs that are 0.7% divergent, has two ORFs with unexpected introns but encoding a reverse transcriptase with rve and Rvt2 domains similar to Ty1/copia-type retrotransposons and a hypothetical protein. SCHULTE produced significant nucleotide BLAST alignments with repeat DNA elements from all four families of plants represented in the TIGR plant repeat database (PRD); the best nucleotide sequence alignment was to ToRTL1 in Lycopersicon esculentum. A second sugarbeet LTR retrotransposon, SCHMIDT, 11 565 bp in length, has 2561 bp LTRs that share 100% identity with each other and share 98-99% nucleotide sequence identity over 10% of their length with DRVs, a family of highly repetitive, relatively small DNA sequences that are widely dispersed over the sugarbeet genome. SCHMIDT encodes a complete gypsy-like polyprotein in a single ORF. Analysis using LTR_STRUC of an in silico deletion of both of the above two LTR retrotransposons found that SCHULTE and SCHMIDT had inserted within an older LTR retrotransposon, resulting in a nest that is only about 10 Kb upstream of NPR1 in sugarbeet hybrid US H20. PMID:19390694

  8. A case for protein-level and site-level specificity in glycoproteomic studies of disease.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Katherine N; Dodds, Eric D

    2016-06-01

    Abnormal glycosylation of proteins is known to be either resultant or causative of a variety of diseases. This makes glycoproteins appealing targets as potential biomarkers and focal points of molecular studies on the development and progression of human ailment. To date, a majority of efforts in disease glycoproteomics have tended to center on either determining the concentration of a given glycoprotein, or on profiling the total population of glycans released from a mixture of glycoproteins. While these approaches have demonstrated some diagnostic potential, they are inherently insensitive to the fine molecular detail which distinguishes unique and possibly disease relevant glycoforms of specific proteins. As a consequence, such analyses can be of limited sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy because they do not comprehensively consider the glycosylation status of any particular glycoprotein, or of any particular glycosylation site. Therefore, significant opportunities exist to improve glycoproteomic inquiry into disease by engaging in these studies at the level of individual glycoproteins and their exact loci of glycosylation. In this concise review, the rationale for glycoprotein and glycosylation site specificity is developed in the context of human disease glycoproteomics with an emphasis on N-glycosylation. Recent examples highlighting disease-related perturbations in glycosylation will be presented, including those involving alterations in the overall glycosylation of a specific protein, alterations in the occupancy of a given glycosylation site, and alterations in the compositional heterogeneity of glycans occurring at a given glycosylation site. Each will be discussed with particular emphasis on how protein-specific and site-specific approaches can contribute to improved discrimination between glycoproteomes and glycoproteins associated with healthy and unhealthy states.

  9. High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Lori J. P.; Troche, Michelle S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD), defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities. PMID:21860777

  10. Low-level laser therapy for Peyronie's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Douglas E.; Bertini, John E. J.; Harris, James M.; Hawkins, Janet H.

    1995-05-01

    We are reporting the preliminary results of a nonrandomized trial using a low-level gallium- aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser at a wavelength of 830 nm (Microlight 830, Lasermedics, Inc., Stafford, TX) to treat patients with symptomatic Peyronie's disease. All patients entered into the study had disease consisting of a well-defined fibrous plaque causing pain and/or curvature of the penile shaft on erection that interfered with satisfactory sexual intercourse. Treatment has consisted of 30 mW administered over a duty cycle of 100 seconds (3 J) beginning at the base of the penis and extending to the coronal sulcus over the dorsum of the penis at 0.5 cm intervals. An additional duty cycle of 100 seconds was delivered to each 0.5 cm of palpable plaque. The ability of the therapy to reduce the size of the fibrous plaque, the severity of the penile curvature, and the severity of pain associated with penile erection and the treatment's effect on the patient's quality of life were assessed for each patient at completion of therapy and 6 weeks later.

  11. Relationship between Plasma Leptin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Anoop; Syamala, Shirmila; Xiao, Jie; Muntner, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background. Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone shown to be related to several metabolic, inflammatory, and hemostatic factors related to chronic kidney disease. Recent animal studies have reported that infusion of recombinant leptin into normal rats for 3 weeks fosters the development of glomerulosclerosis. However, few studies have examined the association between leptin and CKD in humans. Therefore, we examined the association between plasma leptin levels and CKD in a representative sample of US adults. Methods. We examined the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants >20 years of age (n = 5820, 53.6% women). Plasma leptin levels were categorized into quartiles (≤4.3 Fg/L, 4.4–8.7 Fg/L, 8.8–16.9 Fg/L, >16.9 Fg/L). CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine. Results. Higher plasma leptin levels were associated with CKD after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, hypertension, and serum cholesterol. Compared to quartile 1 of leptin (referent), the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of CKD associated with quartile 4 was 3.31 (1.41 to 7.78); P-trend = 0.0135. Subgroup analyses examining the relation between leptin and CKD by gender, BMI categories, diabetes, and hypertension status also showed a consistent positive association. Conclusion. Higher plasma leptin levels are associated with CKD in a representative sample of US adults. PMID:22666590

  12. Systemic chemokine levels, coronary heart disease, and ischemic stroke events

    PubMed Central

    Canouï-Poitrine, F.; Luc, G.; Mallat, Z.; Machez, E.; Bingham, A.; Ferrieres, J.; Ruidavets, J.-B.; Montaye, M.; Yarnell, J.; Haas, B.; Arveiler, D.; Morange, P.; Kee, F.; Evans, A.; Amouyel, P.; Ducimetiere, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify the association between systemic levels of the chemokine regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES/CCL5), interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10/CXCL10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), and eotaxin-1 (CCL11) with future coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke events and to assess their usefulness for CHD and ischemic stroke risk prediction in the PRIME Study. Methods: After 10 years of follow-up of 9,771 men, 2 nested case-control studies were built including 621 first CHD events and 1,242 matched controls and 95 first ischemic stroke events and 190 matched controls. Standardized hazard ratios (HRs) for each log-transformed chemokine were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Results: None of the 4 chemokines were independent predictors of CHD, either with respect to stable angina or to acute coronary syndrome. Conversely, RANTES (HR = 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–2.74), IP-10 (HR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.06–2.20), and eotaxin-1 (HR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.02–2.46), but not MCP-1 (HR = 0.99; 95% CI 0.68–1.46), were associated with ischemic stroke independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, hs-CRP, and fibrinogen. When the first 3 chemokines were included in the same multivariate model, RANTES and IP-10 remained predictive of ischemic stroke. Their addition to a traditional risk factor model predicting ischemic stroke substantially improved the C-statistic from 0.6756 to 0.7425 (p = 0.004). Conclusions: In asymptomatic men, higher systemic levels of RANTES and IP-10 are independent predictors of ischemic stroke but not of CHD events. RANTES and IP-10 may improve the accuracy of ischemic stroke risk prediction over traditional risk factors. PMID:21849651

  13. cGMP levels in chronic cadmium disease and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Kagamimori, S.; Williams, W. R.; Watanabe, M.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the effect of cadmium on guanyl cyclase activity, urine levels of the nucleotide cGMP were measured in patients with bone and renal lesions resulting from chronic cadmium exposure, in patients with osteoarthritis and in a normal age-matched control population. The effects of cadmium, zinc and mercury salts on blood mononuclear cell cGMP production were also studied in vitro. The two patient groups exhibited clear differences in cGMP excretion. Lower urine cGMP (59%, P less than 0.01) and creatinine values (43%, P less than 0.01) were found in cadmium-exposed patients and higher cGMP values (56%, P less than 0.05) in patients with osteoarthritis, compared to the control group. Creatinine adjusted cGMP values were also lower in cadmium-exposed patients (28%, P less than 0.05) and higher in patients with osteoarthritis (130%, P less than 0.01). In vitro, a 10 h exposure of mononuclear cells to cadmium or mercury salts depressed guanyl cyclase activity in most experiments. At 10(-4) M, mercury was consistently more inhibitory in all cultures (95%, P less than 0.01). As cadmium has a potential for inhibiting guanyl cyclase activity in human tissue, the low urine cGMP values found in patients with cadmium disease may be attributable to chronic cadmium exposure. High guanyl cyclase activity in patients with osteoarthritis may be associated with inflammation. PMID:2874827

  14. Plasma Osteopontin Level in Chronic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Shawky Abdelhamid; Mohamed, Nagwa Abdel Ghaffar; Fawzy, Mary Wadie; Moustafa, Doaa Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted glycoprotein and is frequently associated with various tumors. Objectives We sought to investigate the clinical usefulness of the level of plasma OPN, compared to α-fetoprotein (AFP), as a biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to evaluate its diagnostic value in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its relationship with clinical and laboratory features of HCC and NAFLD. Patients and Methods The study was performed on 120 subjects classified into 5 groups: Group I included 25 chronic non-cirrhotic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients; Group II encompassed 25 patients with chronic HCV infection with liver cirrhosis; Group III comprised 25 patients with chronic HCV with liver cirrhosis and HCC; Group IV was comprised of 25 patients with NAFLD; and Group V consisted of 20 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. All the participants were subjected to history taking and clinical and abdominal ultrasonographic examinations as well as the following laboratory investigations: liver function tests, complete blood count, blood sugar, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C virus antibodies, HCV-RNA by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (for Groups I, II, and III) and serum AFP and plasma OPN levels. Results There were statistically significant differences in plasma OPN levels between the HCC group (401 ± 72 ng/mL) and the other groups, between the cirrhotic group (258.3 ± 35 ng/mL) and the non-cirrhotic group (HCV group, 168.7 ± 41 ng/mL; fatty liver group, 106.7 ± 35 ng/mL), and between the chronic non-cirrhotic HCV group and the fatty liver group (I and IV) and the controls (35.1 ± 6 ng/mL). In the HCC group, the diagnostic value of OPN was comparable to that of AFP at a cutoff value of 280 ng/mL, achieving sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of 100%, 98%, and 96%, respectively. Regarding the validity of plasma OPN as a predictor of fatty change, our results revealed a diagnostic accuracy

  15. Correlation of low levels of nitrite and high levels of fetal hemoglobin in patients with sickle cell disease at baseline

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Darcielle Bruna Dias; Rocha, Lilianne Brito da Silva; Cavalcante, Maritza Barbosa; Pedrosa, Alano Martins; Justino, Izabel Cristina Bandeira; Gonçalves, Romélia Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease is a hemoglobinopathy characterized by hemolytic anemia, increased susceptibility to infections and recurrent vaso-occlusive crises that reduces the quality of life of sufferers. Objective To evaluate the correlation of the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, malonaldehyde and nitrite to fetal hemoglobin in patients with sickle cell disease not under treatment with hydroxyurea in outpatients at a university hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Methods Forty-four patients diagnosed with sickle cell disease were enrolled at baseline. Diagnosis was confirmed by evaluating the beta globin gene using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The concentration of fetal hemoglobin was obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum levels of nitrite, malonaldehyde and lactate dehydrogenase were measured by biochemical methods. Results Significantly higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase, nitrite and malonaldehyde were observed in patients with sickle cell disease compared to a control group. The study of the correlation between fetal hemoglobin levels and these variables showed a negative correlation with nitrite levels. No correlation was found between fetal hemoglobin and malonaldehyde or lactate dehydrogenase. When the study population was stratified according to fetal hemoglobin levels, a decrease in the levels of nitrite was observed with higher levels of fetal hemoglobin (p-value = 0.0415). Conclusion The results show that, similar to fetal hemoglobin levels, the concentration of nitrite can predict the clinical course of the disease, but should not be used alone as a modulator of prognosis in patients with sickle cell disease. PMID:23049438

  16. COMMUNITY LEVEL ANALYSIS OF VECTOR-BORNE DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of ecological community structure of a communicable disease is a key factor in understanding the risk to public health of disease emergency, the mode of transmission, and control options (Forget and Lebel, 2001). Deterministic and stochastic models have been important i...

  17. Degenerative disease supra- and infra-jacent to fused lumbar and lumbo-sacral levels.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, M-A; Lazennec, J-Y

    2016-02-01

    Disc degeneration is a normal age-related process. Accelerated degeneration of discs adjacent to fused spinal levels has been observed in numerous case-series studies. The available data document this phenomenon and provide information on its time to occurrence but show huge variations in incidence rates (5% to 70%). The supra-jacent disc is involved more often than the infra-jacent disc. Studies have clarified the underlying biomechanical rationale by showing increased loading of the adjacent discs. Risk factors have been the focus of the most recent studies. They include the number of fused levels, sagittal alignment, level of fusion, stiffness of the construct, and integrity of the posterior structures. Nevertheless, the many published studies have produced somewhat conflicting results. Various radiological criteria have been used to define degeneration of the adjacent disc. Although most patients have no symptoms, adverse effects on the spine and/or nerve roots may occur and, in some cases, require revision surgery. We draw attention to the many sources of bias in the published studies, of which we provide a critical and pragmatic discussion in the light of our personal experience. PMID:26797007

  18. Nerve growth factor in Alzheimer's disease: increased levels throughout the brain coupled with declines in nucleus basalis.

    PubMed

    Scott, S A; Mufson, E J; Weingartner, J A; Skau, K A; Crutcher, K A

    1995-09-01

    The current study analyzed NGF protein levels in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) as compared with aged neurologically normal individuals. An established two-site ELISA was used to measure NGF-like immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, superior temporal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, frontal and occipital cortical poles, cerebellum, amygdala, putamen, and nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM). ChAT activity was assayed in adjacent tissue samples. NGF levels were also evaluated in Parkinson's disease for comparison with both AD and age-matched control cases. Regardless of the brain bank (University of Cincinnati, Rush Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical Center in Chicago, or University of Alabama at Birmingham), NGF-like activity was at least moderately increased with AD in virtually every brain region examined except for the nbM, in which significant declines were observed. NGF levels were also increased when compared with age-matched Parkinson's cases (frontal cortex). NGF-like activity was not related to age at onset or disease duration in AD cases, nor did NGF levels correlate with age at death in the control or AD groups. Correlations between ChAT and NGF-like activity across brains varied considerably and were generally not significant. The present findings indicate that AD is characterized by a widespread increase in cortical and subcortical NGF. Although a correlation with ChAT activity was not observed in cortex, the AD-related decline in NGF found in nbM is consistent with the possibility of impaired retrograde transport of NGF to this region.

  19. COMMUNITY LEVEL ANALYSIS OF VECTOR-BORNE DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological community structure is particularly important in vector-borne zoonotic diseases with complex life cycles. Single population models, such as the so-called Ross-Macdonald model (Baily, 1982), have been important in developing and characterizing our current understanding...

  20. Disease-Associated SNPs From non-Coding Regions in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Are Located Within or Adjacent to Functional Genomic Elements of Human Neutrophils and CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Kaiyu; Zhu, Lisha; Buck, Michael J.; Chen, Yanmin; Carrier, Bradley; Liu, Tao; Jarvis, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is considered a complex trait in which the environment interacts with inherited genes to produce a phenotype that shows broad inter-individual variance. A recently completed genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 24 regions of genetic risk for JIA, for example. However, as is typical for GWAS, most of the regions of genetic risk for JIA (22 of 24) were in non-coding regions of the genome. The studies reported here were undertaken to identify functional elements (other than genes) that might be located within the regions of genetic risk. Methods We used paired end RNA sequencing to identify non-coding RNAs located within 5 kb of the disease-associated SNPs. In addition, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to identify epigenetic marks associated with enhancer function (H3K4me1 and H3K27ac) in human neutrophils to determine whether there was enrichment of enhancer-associated histone marks in linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks that encompassed the 22 GWAS SNPs from the non-coding genome. Results In human neutrophils, we identified H3K4me1 and/or H3K27ac marks in 15 of the 22 regions previously as identified as risk loci for JIA. In CD4+ T cells, 18 regions demonstrate H3K4me1 and/or H3K27ac marks. In addition, we identified non-coding RNA transcripts at the rs4705862 and rs6894249 loci in human neutrophils. Conclusion Much of the genetic risk for JIA lies within or adjacent to regions of neutrophil and CD4+ T cell genomes that carry epigenetic marks associated with enhancer function and/or ncRNA transcripts. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that JIA is fundamentally a disorder of gene regulation that includes both the innate and adaptive immune system. Elucidating the specific roles of these non-coding elements within leukocyte genomes in JIA pathogenesis will be critical to our understanding disease pathogenesis. PMID:25833190

  1. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels in relation to inflammatory response and disease severity in children with meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    van Woensel, J B; Biezeveld, M H; Alders, A M; Eerenberg, A J; Endert, E; Hack, E C; von Rosenstiel, I A; Kuijpers, T W

    2001-12-15

    This prospective observational study investigated the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to inflammatory markers and to disease severity in children with meningococcal disease. In total, 32 children were studied: 10 with distinct meningococcal meningitis (MM), 10 with MM and septic shock, and 12 with fulminant meningococcal septicemia (FMS). Levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were lowest in the MM group and dramatically elevated in the FMS group. Cortisol and C-reactive protein levels were highest in the MM group and relatively low in the FMS group. Levels of ACTH and inflammatory markers decreased within the first 24 h of admission, but cortisol levels did not fluctuate. Cortisol was significantly inversely correlated with IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 (P < or =.04). These results suggest that the adrenal reserve in children is insufficient to handle the extreme conditions and stress associated with severe meningococcal disease.

  2. Association of hyperhomocysteinemia in Alzheimer disease with elevated neopterin levels.

    PubMed

    Schroecksnadel, Katharina; Leblhuber, Friedrich; Frick, Barbara; Wirleitner, Barbara; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2004-01-01

    In patients with dementias including Alzheimer disease (AD), elevated blood concentrations of homocysteine are common, often going along with low normal folate and vitamin B12. Immune activation leading to oxidative stress also seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. To find out a possible relationship between immune activation and the development of moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, we determined serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and immune activation markers 75 kD soluble TNF receptor (sTNF-R75) and neopterin in 38 patients with clinically diagnosed AD. A subgroup of patients (45%) presented with increased homocysteine concentrations in comparison to reference ranges in healthy controls of similar age. Also, concentrations of immune activation markers were elevated in a significant proportion of patients. In 17 patients with moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, concentrations of neopterin were higher than in those with lower homocysteine (p < 0.001). Homocysteine correlated with folate (rs= -0.43; p < 0.01) and neopterin (rs= 0.506; p < 0.001). The data suggest that immune activation and concomitant production of reactive oxygen species in patients with AD could be involved in the development of hyperhomocysteinemia via an enhanced decomposition of folate.

  3. Low Level Laser Therapy to Reduce Recurrent Oral Ulcers in Behçet's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Babu, D. B. Gandhi; Chavva, Sunanda; Waghray, Shefali

    2016-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing multisystemic vascular condition. Behçet's disease was described by Hulusi Behçet in 1937. This rare multisystem relapsing-remitting inflammatory disease is poorly understood but is thought to be an autoimmune inflammatory vasculitic process in a genetically predisposed population. Diagnosis of Behçet's disease is based on International Criteria of Behçet's Disease (ICBD). The present paper describes a case report of Behçet's syndrome where aphthous stomatitis was treated with low level laser therapy. PMID:27555969

  4. Low Level Laser Therapy to Reduce Recurrent Oral Ulcers in Behçet's Disease.

    PubMed

    Babu, D B Gandhi; Chavva, Sunanda; Waghray, Shefali; Allam, Neeharika Satya Jyothi; Kondaiah, Marella

    2016-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing multisystemic vascular condition. Behçet's disease was described by Hulusi Behçet in 1937. This rare multisystem relapsing-remitting inflammatory disease is poorly understood but is thought to be an autoimmune inflammatory vasculitic process in a genetically predisposed population. Diagnosis of Behçet's disease is based on International Criteria of Behçet's Disease (ICBD). The present paper describes a case report of Behçet's syndrome where aphthous stomatitis was treated with low level laser therapy. PMID:27555969

  5. Reduction of Melatonin Level in Patients with Type II Diabetes and Periodontal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Ahmadi Motemayel, Fatemeh; Jazaeri, Mina; Feradmal, Javad; Zarabadi, Mahdiyeh; Hoseyni, Mostafa; Torkzaban, Parviz

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Melatonin is a circulating hormone that is mainly released from the pineal gland. It possesses antioxidant, free-radical scavenging, and immune-enhancing properties. A growing number of studies reveal a complex role for melatonin in influencing various diseases, including diabetes and periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the possible links between salivary melatonin levels and type II diabetes and periodontal diseases. Materials and methods. A total of 30 type II diabetic patients, 30 patients with periodontal diseases, 30 type II diabetic patients with periodontal disease and 30 age- and BMI-matched controls were studied. The periodontal status was evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Salivary melatonin levels were determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results. The mean of salivary melatonin level was significantly lower in patients with either periodontitis or diabetes compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Salivary melatonin concentration decreased in type II diabetic patients and periodontitis patients, and then decreased reaching the lowest levels in type II diabetic patients with periodontal disease. Conclusion. Based on the results of this study, it can probably be concluded that salivary level of melatonin has an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and periodontal diseases. It is also worth noting that this factor could probably be used as a pivotal biological marker in the diagnosis and possible treatment of these diseases, although further research is required to validate this hypothesis. PMID:25346835

  6. Reduction of Melatonin Level in Patients with Type II Diabetes and Periodontal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Ahmadi Motemayel, Fatemeh; Jazaeri, Mina; Feradmal, Javad; Zarabadi, Mahdiyeh; Hoseyni, Mostafa; Torkzaban, Parviz

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Melatonin is a circulating hormone that is mainly released from the pineal gland. It possesses antioxidant, free-radical scavenging, and immune-enhancing properties. A growing number of studies reveal a complex role for melatonin in influencing various diseases, including diabetes and periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the possible links between salivary melatonin levels and type II diabetes and periodontal diseases. Materials and methods. A total of 30 type II diabetic patients, 30 patients with periodontal diseases, 30 type II diabetic patients with periodontal disease and 30 age- and BMI-matched controls were studied. The periodontal status was evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Salivary melatonin levels were determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results. The mean of salivary melatonin level was significantly lower in patients with either periodontitis or diabetes compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Salivary melatonin concentration decreased in type II diabetic patients and periodontitis patients, and then decreased reaching the lowest levels in type II diabetic patients with periodontal disease. Conclusion. Based on the results of this study, it can probably be concluded that salivary level of melatonin has an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and periodontal diseases. It is also worth noting that this factor could probably be used as a pivotal biological marker in the diagnosis and possible treatment of these diseases, although further research is required to validate this hypothesis. PMID:25346835

  7. Plasma Free H2S Levels are Elevated in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Elvis A.; Shen, Xinggui; Shah, Shivang H.; Pardue, Sibile; Glawe, John D.; Zhang, Wayne W.; Reddy, Pratap; Akkus, Nuri I.; Varma, Jai; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been implicated in regulating cardiovascular pathophysiology in experimental models. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the levels of H2S in health and cardiovascular disease. In this study we examine the levels of H2S in patients with cardiovascular disease as well as bioavailability of nitric oxide and inflammatory indicators. Methods and Results Patients over the age of 40 undergoing coronary or peripheral angiography were enrolled in the study. Ankle brachial index (ABI) measurement, measurement of plasma‐free H2S and total nitric oxide (NO), thrombospondin‐1 (TSP‐1), Interleukin‐6 (IL‐6), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule‐1 (sICAM‐1) levels were performed. Patients with either coronary artery disease alone (n=66), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) alone (n=13), or any vascular disease (n=140) had higher plasma‐free H2S levels compared to patients without vascular disease (n=53). Plasma‐free H2S did not distinguish between disease in different vascular beds; however, total NO levels were significantly reduced in PAD patients and the ratio of plasma free H2S to NO was significantly greater in patients with PAD. Lastly, plasma IL‐6, ICAM‐1, and TSP‐1 levels did not correlate with H2S or NO bioavailability in either vascular disease condition. Conclusions Findings reported in this study reveal that plasma‐free H2S levels are significantly elevated in vascular disease and identify a novel inverse relationship with NO bioavailability in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01407172. PMID:24152982

  8. Does Implicit Learning in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease depend on the Level of Cognitive Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenbossche, Jochen; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the level of cognitive functioning on sequence-specific learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). This was done by examining the relationship between the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-cognition [SCOPA-COG, Marinus, J., Visser, M., Verwey, N. A., Verhey, F. R. J., Middelkoop, H. A. M.,Stiggelbout, A., et…

  9. Elevated serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Young; Jang, Sun Hee; Kim, Song Yee; Chung, Kyung Soo; Song, Joo Han; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kang, Young Ae

    2016-01-01

    Increased serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with nonmalignant diseases have been investigated in previous reports. This study evaluates the clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease and pulmonary tuberculosis. The median CA 19-9 level was higher in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease than in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease: 13.80, tuberculosis: 5.85, p<0.001). A multivariate logistic regression analysis performed in this study showed that Mycobacterium abscessus (OR 9.97, 95% CI: 1.58, 62.80; p=0.014) and active phase of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease (OR 12.18, 95% CI: 1.07, 138.36, p=0.044) were found to be risk factors for serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. The serum CA 19-9 levels showed a tendency to decrease during successful treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease but not in pulmonary tuberculosis. These findings suggest that CA 19-9 may be a useful marker for monitoring therapeutic responses in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, although it is not pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease-specific marker.

  10. Bone mass and vitamin D levels in Parkinson's disease: is there any difference between genders?

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Erhan Arif; Gundogdu, Ibrahim; Tonuk, Burak; Kocer, Bilge Gonenli; Tombak, Yasemin; Comoglu, Selcuk; Cakci, Aytul

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the bone mineral density, vitamin D level, and frequencies of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with Parkinson's disease and to compare male and female patients with the controls separately. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred fifteen Parkinson's disease patients (47 males, 68 females; age range: 55-85 years) and 117 age- and gender-matched controls (47 males, 70 females) were enrolled in the study. Bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum D vitamin levels of each participant were recorded. [Results] The mean lumbar spine, femur neck, and total femur bone mineral density levels, T-scores, and vitamin D levels were found to be significantly lower in Parkinson's disease patients in both genders. Furthermore, osteoporosis rates were found be significantly higher only in female Parkinson's disease patients compared with female controls. [Conclusion] Data from the present study revealed that while osteoporosis was significantly higher only in female Parkinson's disease patients, all Parkinson's disease patients had lower bone mineral density scores and vitamin D levels compared with the controls regardless of gender, suggesting that clinicians should pay attention to the osteoporosis risk in Parkinson's disease and that adequate preventive measures should be taken in order to limit the future risk due to osteoporotic fractures. PMID:27630398

  11. Bone mass and vitamin D levels in Parkinson's disease: is there any difference between genders?

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Erhan Arif; Gundogdu, Ibrahim; Tonuk, Burak; Kocer, Bilge Gonenli; Tombak, Yasemin; Comoglu, Selcuk; Cakci, Aytul

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the bone mineral density, vitamin D level, and frequencies of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with Parkinson's disease and to compare male and female patients with the controls separately. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred fifteen Parkinson's disease patients (47 males, 68 females; age range: 55-85 years) and 117 age- and gender-matched controls (47 males, 70 females) were enrolled in the study. Bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum D vitamin levels of each participant were recorded. [Results] The mean lumbar spine, femur neck, and total femur bone mineral density levels, T-scores, and vitamin D levels were found to be significantly lower in Parkinson's disease patients in both genders. Furthermore, osteoporosis rates were found be significantly higher only in female Parkinson's disease patients compared with female controls. [Conclusion] Data from the present study revealed that while osteoporosis was significantly higher only in female Parkinson's disease patients, all Parkinson's disease patients had lower bone mineral density scores and vitamin D levels compared with the controls regardless of gender, suggesting that clinicians should pay attention to the osteoporosis risk in Parkinson's disease and that adequate preventive measures should be taken in order to limit the future risk due to osteoporotic fractures.

  12. Inverse Association Between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Alzheimer's Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Du, Na; Xu, Donghua; Hou, Xu; Song, Xuejia; Liu, Cancan; Chen, Ying; Wang, Yangang; Li, Xin

    2016-05-01

    The association between Alzheimer's disease and uric acid levels had gained great interest in recent years, but there was still lack of definite evidence. A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies was performed to comprehensively estimate the association. Relevant studies published before October 26, 2014, were searched in PubMed, Embase, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases. Study-specific data were combined using random-effects or fixed-effects models of meta-analysis according to between-study heterogeneity. Twenty-four studies (21 case-control and 3 cohort studies) were finally included into the meta-analysis. Those 21 case-control studies included a total of 1128 cases of Alzheimer's disease and 2498 controls without Alzheimer's disease. Those 3 cohort studies included a total of 7327 participants. Meta-analysis showed that patients with Alzheimer's disease had lower levels of uric acid than healthy controls (weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.77 mg/dl, 95% CI -2.28 to -0.36, P = 0.0002). High serum uric acid levels were significantly associated with decreased risk of Alzheimer's disease (risk ratio (RR) = 0.66, 95% CI 0.52-0.85, P = 0.001). There was low risk of publication bias in the meta-analysis. There is an inverse association between serum uric acid levels and Alzheimer's disease. High serum uric acid level is a protective factor of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. [Relationship between educational level and dementia: social factor and age-related chronic disease].

    PubMed

    Dartigues, J-F; Foubert-Samier, A; Helmer, C

    2013-08-01

    Dementia is an age-related chronic syndrome, whose the first cause is a neurodegenerative disease: Alzheimer's disease (AD). In spite of some controversies, educational level is now considered as a major risk factor for dementia and AD. The protective effect of a high level of education could be related to a preservation of cognitive reserve and a reinforcement of brain reserve. Moreover, subjects with a high level of education have a better access to health care and a better management of vascular risk factors. With the general improvement of the educational level, the age-related incidence of AD and dementia should decrease in the future.

  14. Economic Burden of Disease-Associated Malnutrition at the State Level

    PubMed Central

    Goates, Scott; Du, Kristy; Braunschweig, Carol A.; Arensberg, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease-associated malnutrition has been identified as a prevalent condition, particularly for the elderly, which has often been overlooked in the U.S. healthcare system. The state-level burden of community-based disease-associated malnutrition is unknown and there have been limited efforts by state policy makers to identify, quantify, and address malnutrition. The objective of this study was to examine and quantify the state-level economic burden of disease-associated malnutrition. Methods Direct medical costs of disease-associated malnutrition were calculated for 8 diseases: Stroke, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Coronary Heart Failure, Breast Cancer, Dementia, Musculoskeletal Disorders, Depression, and Colorectal Cancer. National disease and malnutrition prevalence rates were estimated for subgroups defined by age, race, and sex using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the National Health Interview Survey. State prevalence of disease-associated malnutrition was estimated by combining national prevalence estimates with states’ demographic data from the U.S. Census. Direct medical cost for each state was estimated as the increased expenditures incurred as a result of malnutrition. Principal Findings Direct medical costs attributable to disease-associated malnutrition vary among states from an annual cost of $36 per capita in Utah to $65 per capita in Washington, D.C. Nationally the annual cost of disease-associated malnutrition is over $15.5 billion. The elderly bear a disproportionate share of this cost on both the state and national level. Conclusions Additional action is needed to reduce the economic impact of disease-associated malnutrition, particularly at the state level. Nutrition may be a cost-effective way to help address high health care costs. PMID:27655372

  15. Predicted Molecular Effects of Sequence Variants Link to System Level of Disease.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Jonas; Hecht, Maximilian; Mahlich, Yannick; Bromberg, Yana; Rost, Burkhard

    2016-08-01

    Developments in experimental and computational biology are advancing our understanding of how protein sequence variation impacts molecular protein function. However, the leap from the micro level of molecular function to the macro level of the whole organism, e.g. disease, remains barred. Here, we present new results emphasizing earlier work that suggested some links from molecular function to disease. We focused on non-synonymous single nucleotide variants, also referred to as single amino acid variants (SAVs). Building upon OMIA (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals), we introduced a curated set of 117 disease-causing SAVs in animals. Methods optimized to capture effects upon molecular function often correctly predict human (OMIM) and animal (OMIA) Mendelian disease-causing variants. We also predicted effects of human disease-causing variants in the mouse model, i.e. we put OMIM SAVs into mouse orthologs. Overall, fewer variants were predicted with effect in the model organism than in the original organism. Our results, along with other recent studies, demonstrate that predictions of molecular effects capture some important aspects of disease. Thus, in silico methods focusing on the micro level of molecular function can help to understand the macro system level of disease. PMID:27536940

  16. Serum copper and zinc levels in Thai patients with various diseases.

    PubMed

    Songchitsomboon, S; Komindr, S; Komindr, A; Kulapongse, S; Puchaiwatananon, O; Udomsubpayakul, U

    1999-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the possible alteration of serum Cu and Zn levels in 118 medical inpatients (53 women and 65 men) in Ramathibodi Hospital. Patients were classified according to their main clinical diseases: pulmonary (n = 12), renal (14), infectious (30), malignant (9), cardiovascular (22), GI & hepatic (13) and hematological (18) diseases. Significantly increased serum Cu concentrations were found in patients with pulmonary, malignant, cardiovascular and infectious diseases; moreover, 75, 75, 50 and 37 per cent of these diseases, respectively, had serum levels greater than the normal mean + 2SD (23.6 mumol/L). Besides, 5 per cent of patients (3 in renal, 1 in infectious and 2 in GI & hepatic diseases) had low serum Cu levels suggestive of Cu depletion. By contrast, significantly decreased serum Zn concentrations were found in patients with GI & hepatic, infectious, renal, cardiovascular and malignant diseases. Serum Zn levels below the normal mean - 2SD (8.1 mumol/L) were presented in 46, 37, 29, 23 and 22 per cent of cases, respectively. It was found that serum Cu/Zn ratio in our patients not only with cancer but also with other diseases were statistically significant from the normal group. Hence, the use of serum Cu/Zn ratios as markers for the diagnosis of cancer or for staging tumors must be interpreted cautiously.

  17. Predicted Molecular Effects of Sequence Variants Link to System Level of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Yana; Rost, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Developments in experimental and computational biology are advancing our understanding of how protein sequence variation impacts molecular protein function. However, the leap from the micro level of molecular function to the macro level of the whole organism, e.g. disease, remains barred. Here, we present new results emphasizing earlier work that suggested some links from molecular function to disease. We focused on non-synonymous single nucleotide variants, also referred to as single amino acid variants (SAVs). Building upon OMIA (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals), we introduced a curated set of 117 disease-causing SAVs in animals. Methods optimized to capture effects upon molecular function often correctly predict human (OMIM) and animal (OMIA) Mendelian disease-causing variants. We also predicted effects of human disease-causing variants in the mouse model, i.e. we put OMIM SAVs into mouse orthologs. Overall, fewer variants were predicted with effect in the model organism than in the original organism. Our results, along with other recent studies, demonstrate that predictions of molecular effects capture some important aspects of disease. Thus, in silico methods focusing on the micro level of molecular function can help to understand the macro system level of disease. PMID:27536940

  18. Sex Difference in the Association between Serum Homocysteine Level and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Won, Bo-Youn; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Moon-Jong; Park, Kye-Seon; Kim, Young-Sang; Haam, Ji-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Yuk; Kim, Hye-Jung; Park, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between serum homocysteine levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the sex-specific relationship between serum homocysteine level and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study included 150 men and 132 women who participated in medical examination programs in Korea from January 2014 to December 2014. Patients were screened for fatty liver by abdominal ultrasound and patient blood samples were collected to measure homocysteine levels. Patients that consumed more than 20 grams of alcohol per day were excluded from this study. Results The homocysteine level (11.56 vs. 8.05 nmol/L) and the proportion of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (60.7% vs. 19.7%) were significantly higher in men than in women. In men, elevated serum homocysteine levels were associated with a greater prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (quartile 1, 43.6%; quartile 4, 80.6%; P=0.01); however, in females, there was no significant association between serum homocysteine levels and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In the logistic regression model adjusted for age and potential confounding parameters, the odds ratio for men was significantly higher in the uppermost quartile (model 3, quartile 4: odds ratio, 6.78; 95% confidential interval, 1.67 to 27.56); however, serum homocysteine levels in women were not associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the crude model or in models adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Serum homocysteine levels were associated with the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in men. PMID:27468343

  19. Low neural exosomal levels of cellular survival factors in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Goetzl, Edward J; Boxer, Adam; Schwartz, Janice B; Abner, Erin L; Petersen, Ronald C; Miller, Bruce L; Carlson, Olga D; Mustapic, Maja; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors that mediate neuronal defenses against diverse stresses were quantified in plasma neural-derived exosomes of Alzheimer’s disease or frontotemporal dementia patients and matched controls. Exosomal levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6, heat-shock factor-1, and repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor all were significantly lower in Alzheimer’s disease patients than controls (P < 0.0001). In frontotemporal dementia, the only significant difference was higher levels of repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor than in controls. Exosomal transcription factors were diminished 2–10 years before clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Low exosomal levels of survival proteins may explain decreased neuronal resistance to Alzheimer’s disease neurotoxic proteins. PMID:26273689

  20. Interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels in chronic Chagas disease patients.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, R H T; Azevedo, E de A N; Diniz, G T N; Cavalcanti, M da G A de M; de Oliveira, W; de Morais, C N L; Gomes, Y de M

    2015-07-01

    In Chagas disease, chronically infected individuals may be asymptomatic or may present cardiac or digestive complications, and it is well known that the human immune response is related to different clinical manifestations. Different patterns of cytokine levels have been previously described in different clinical forms of this disease, but contradictory results are reported. Our aim was to evaluate the serum levels of interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in patients with asymptomatic and cardiac Chagas disease. The serum interleukin-10 levels in patients with cardiomyopathy were higher than those in asymptomatic patients, mainly in those without heart enlargement. Although no significant difference was observed in serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels among the patients, we found that cardiac patients also present high levels of this cytokine, largely those with heart dilatation. Therefore, these cytokines play an important role in chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy. Follow-up investigations of these and other cytokines in patients with chronic Chagas disease need to be conducted to improve the understanding of the immunopathology of this disease.

  1. Can IgG4 Levels Identify the Ulcerative Colitis Subtype of Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Ricardo Jacaranda; Clemente, Cintia Mendes; Carneiro, Fabiana P.; Santos-Neto, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    Background Pancreatitis and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency may occur as extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, autoimmune pancreatitis and colitis have been described as presentations of IgG4-related disease. IgG4+ plasma cells have been identified in colon tissue from patients with refractory forms of inflammatory bowel disease. The presence of elevated serum/tissue levels of IgG4 and the frequency of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in inflammatory bowel disease are still a source of controversy. Our aim was to investigate the meaning of elevated IgG4 levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Methods A cross-sectional study analyzed 56 patients with a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease recruited by convenience sampling from two tertiary centers in Midwestern Brazil. All patients underwent fecal pancreatic elastase testing for detection of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and serum IgG4 measurement. Findings were correlated with clinical and epidemiological data and disease activity. Results Elevated serum IgG4 levels were found in 10 patients, and were most frequent in ulcerative colitis (nine cases), with a prevalence ratio of 16.42 (95% CI: 3.32 - 79.58). Ten patients (10 of 56, 17.8%) were diagnosed with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, which did not correlate with disease activity, and serum IgG4 levels. Conclusion Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is prevalent in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, but it is not associated with elevated serum IgG4 levels. The high prevalence of elevated serum IgG4 in ulcerative colitis suggests that this parameter has potential for use as a diagnostic biomarker.

  2. Interleukin 35 Synovial Fluid Levels Are Associated with Disease Activity of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Šenolt, Ladislav; Šumová, Barbora; Jandová, Romana; Hulejová, Hana; Mann, Heřman; Pavelka, Karel; Vencovský, Jiří; Filková, Mária

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the association of systemic and local interleukin-35 (IL-35) levels in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods 37 patients with treatment naïve early RA, 49 with established RA and 29 control patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were studied. Serum and paired synovial fluid samples were analysed for IL-35. Disease activity of RA patients was assessed according to the 28-Joint Count Disease Activity Score (DAS28). Results The levels of serum IL-35 were significantly higher in patients with treatment naïve early RA compared to those with established disease and control OA subjects. In addition, serum levels of IL-35 significantly decreased 12 weeks after initiation of glucocorticoids and conventional synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with treatment naïve early RA. Synovial fluid IL-35 levels were significantly higher in RA compared to OA patients, were significantly elevated compared to serum counterparts and correlated with synovial fluid leukocyte count (r=0.412; p<0.01), serum CRP levels (r=0.362; p<0.05) and DAS28 (r=0.430, p<0.01). Conclusion This is the first study showing elevated circulating levels of IL-35 in treatment naïve early RA, its significant decrease after treatment initiation and positive association between increased synovial fluid IL-35 and disease activity in patients with long-lasting RA. PMID:26204444

  3. Detection of Cardiovascular Disease Risk's Level for Adults Using Naive Bayes Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Eka; Amelga, Alowisius Y.; Maribondang, Marco M.; Salim, Mulyadi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The number of deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke is predicted to reach 23.3 million in 2030. As a contribution to support prevention of this phenomenon, this paper proposes a mining model using a naïve Bayes classifier that could detect cardiovascular disease and identify its risk level for adults. Methods The process of designing the method began by identifying the knowledge related to the cardiovascular disease profile and the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors for adults based on the medical record, and designing a mining technique model using a naïve Bayes classifier. Evaluation of this research employed two methods: accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity calculation as well as an evaluation session with cardiologists and internists. The characteristics of cardiovascular disease are identified by its primary risk factors. Those factors are diabetes mellitus, the level of lipids in the blood, coronary artery function, and kidney function. Class labels were assigned according to the values of these factors: risk level 1, risk level 2 and risk level 3. Results The evaluation of the classifier performance (accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity) in this research showed that the proposed model predicted the class label of tuples correctly (above 80%). More than eighty percent of respondents (including cardiologists and internists) who participated in the evaluation session agree till strongly agreed that this research followed medical procedures and that the result can support medical analysis related to cardiovascular disease. Conclusions The research showed that the proposed model achieves good performance for risk level detection of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27525161

  4. Serum total IgG and IgG4 levels in thyroid eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Sy, Aileen; Silkiss, Rona Z

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG)4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and thyroid eye disease (TED) with respect to IgG levels. Patients and methods A retrospective review of total IgG, IgG subclass, and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) levels in 24 patients with TED. Results Five patients (20.8%) demonstrated serum IgG4 levels consistent with IgG4-RD without any additional systemic disease. Total IgG and IgG subclass levels were found to be an inadequate proxy for TSI elevation. Conclusion There may be a subtype of TED patients with elevated IgG4 in the absence of IgG4-RD systemic findings. PMID:27799828

  5. Plasma histamine and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis at various stages of disease.

    PubMed

    Hagel, A F; de Rossi, T; Konturek, P C; Albrecht, H; Walker, S; Hahn, E G; Raithel, M

    2015-08-01

    Mast cells secrete numerous mediators and this study investigated plasma levels of histamine, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Plasma levels of histamine were determined in 68 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 22 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 13 controls. TNF-α levels were assessed in 29 CD patients, 11 UC patients, and in 11 controls. Plasma histamine levels in the control group were 0.25 ng (0.14 - 0.33) and showed no difference to CD (0.19 ng, 0.09 - 0.35) or UC (0.23 ng, 0.11 - 0.60). Significantly lower histamine levels were only found in CD patients on 5-aminosalicylic acid treatment (P ≤ 0.04). Plasma TNF-α levels in the control group were significantly lower 0.44 ml/m(2) (0 - 1.15) than in CD patients (4.62 ml/m(2), 1.82 - 9.22, P = 0.005) or UC (3.14 ml/m(2); 0.08 - 11.34, P = 0.01). In CD disease activity, fistula, and extraintestinal manifestations (EM) were associated with significantly higher plasma TNF-α values, but not the type of treatment. We concluded that in contrast to TNF-α, histamine levels were normal in CD and UC. There is no correlation with histamine and thus the proportion of TNF-α secreted from mast cells in the plasma in patients with IBD is less important.

  6. Inverse relationship between serum osteocalcin levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in postmenopausal Chinese women with normal blood glucose levels

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yu-qi; Ma, Xiao-jing; Hao, Ya-ping; Pan, Xiao-ping; Xu, Yi-ting; Xiong, Qin; Bao, Yu-qian; Jia, Wei-ping

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Osteocalcin is involved in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in animal models and humans. In this study we investigated the relationship between serum osteocalcin levels and NAFLD in postmenopausal Chinese women. Methods: A total of 733 postmenopausal women (age range: 41–78 years) with normal blood glucose levels were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Women taking lipid-lowering or anti-hypertensive drugs were excluded. Serum osteocalcin levels were assessed using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. The degree of NAFLD progression for each subject was assessed through ultrasonography. The fatty liver index (FLI) of each subject was calculated to quantify the degree of liver steatosis. Results: The median level of serum osteocalcin for all subjects enrolled was 21.99 ng/mL (interquartile range: 17.84–26.55 ng/mL). Subjects with NAFLD had significantly lower serum osteocalcin levels (18.39 ng/mL; range: 16.03–23.64 ng/mL) compared with those without NAFLD (22.31 ng/mL; range: 18.55–27.06 ng/mL; P<0.01). Serum osteocalcin levels decreased with incre¬mental changes in the FLI value divided by the quartile (P-value for trend<0.01). The serum osteocalcin levels showed a negative correlation with the FLI values, even after adjusting for confounding factors (standardized β=−0.124; P<0.01). Binary logistic regression analysis identified an individual's serum osteocalcin level as an independent risk factor for NAFLD (odds ratio: 0.951; 95% confidence interval: 0.911–0.992; P=0.02). Conclusion: Serum osteocalcin levels are inversely correlated with NAFLD in postmenopausal Chinese women with normal blood glucose levels. PMID:26567728

  7. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Jason D; Lee, Monica D; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  8. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica D.; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  9. Atorvastatin Reduces Plasma Levels of Chemokine (CXCL10) in Patients with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grip, Olof; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2009-01-01

    Background In Crohn's disease high tissue expression and serum levels of chemokines and their receptors are known to correlate with disease activity. Because statins can reduce chemokine expression in patients with coronary diseases, we wanted to test whether this can be achieved in patients with Crohn's disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated plasma levels of chemokines (CCL2, CCL4, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, CCL26, CXCL8, CXCL10) and endothelial cytokines (sP-selectin, sE-selectin, sICAM-3, thrombomodulin) in ten Crohn's disease patients before and after thirteen weeks' daily treatment with 80 mg atorvastatin. Of the 13 substances investigated, only CXCL10 was found to be significantly reduced (by 34%, p = 0.026) in all of the treated patients. Levels of CXCL10 correlated with C-reactive protein (r = 0.82, p<0.01). Conclusions/Significance CXCL10 is a ligand for the CXCR3 receptor, the activation of which results in the recruitment of T lymphocytes and the perpetuation of mucosal inflammation. Hence the reduction of plasma CXCL10 levels by atorvastatin may represent a candidate for an approach to the treatment of Crohns disease in the future. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00454545 PMID:19421322

  10. Increased serum levels of interleukin-8 in polyarteritis nodosa and Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Freire, Alzírton de Lira; Bertolo, Manoel Barros; de Pinho, Antônio José; Samara, Adil Muhib; Fernandes, Sandra Regina Muchinechi

    2004-06-01

    The pathogenesis of Behçet's disease (BD) and polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is not yet well established. Endothelial cells have been shown to express chemokines that are involved in inflammatory processes. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophils. We evaluated serum IL-8 levels in patients with PAN and BD. We measured serum IL-8 levels in 21 patients with BD and 16 with PAN. Sera from 30 age-matched healthy blood donors were used as normal controls. Serum IL-8 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean serum IL-8 level of the active BD (1522.31 pg/ml) and that of the active PAN (654.8 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that of the normal controls (40.39 pg/ml, P <0.05). There was no difference in mean serum IL-8 levels between patients with inactive disease and normal controls. We found higher serum levels of IL-8 in those patients with more severe disease. These results suggest that IL-8 may play a role in the pathogenesis of PAN and/or BD. Our study also suggests a possible relation between serum IL-8 levels and the severity of these diseases.

  11. Total glutamine synthetase levels in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease patients are unchanged.

    PubMed

    Timmer, Nienke M; Herbert, Megan K; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Kuiperij, H Bea; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2015-03-01

    Decreased cerebral protein and activity levels of glutamine synthetase (GS) have been reported for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Using a recently established method, we quantified total GS levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from AD patients and control subjects. Furthermore, we investigated if total GS levels in CSF could differentiate AD from frontotemperal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies patients. As we found no significantly altered total GS levels in any of the patient groups compared with control subjects, we conclude that levels of total GS in CSF have no diagnostic value for AD, dementia with Lewy bodies, or frontotemperal dementia.

  12. Serum zinc levels in 368 patients with oral mucosal diseases: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Zhe-Xuan; Yang, Xiao-Wen; Shi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the serum zinc levels in patients with common oral mucosal diseases by comparing these to healthy controls. Material and Methods A total of 368 patients, which consisted of 156 recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) patients, 57 oral lichen planus (OLP) patients, 55 burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients, 54 atrophic glossitis (AG) patients, 46 xerostomia patients, and 115 sex-and age-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. Serum zinc levels were measured in all participants. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way ANOVA, t-test, and Chi-square test. Results The mean serum zinc level in the healthy control group was significantly higher than the levels of all other groups (p < 0.001). No individual in the healthy control group had a serum zinc level less than the minimum normal value. However, up to 24.7% (13/54) of patients with AG presented with zinc deficiency, while 21.2% (33/156) of patients with RAS, 16.4% (9/55) of patients with BMS, 15.2% (7/46) of patients with xerostomia, and 14.0% (8/57) of patients with OLP were zinc deficient. Altogether, the zinc deficiency rate was 19.02% (70/368) in the oral mucosal diseases (OMD) group (all patients with OMD). The difference between the OMD and healthy control group was significant (p <0.001). Gender differences in serum zinc levels were also present, although not statistically significant. Conclusions Zinc deficiency may be involved in the pathogenesis of common oral mucosal diseases. Zinc supplementation may be a useful treatment for oral mucosal diseases, but this requires further investigation; the optimal serum level of zinc, for the prevention and treatment of oral mucosal diseases, remains to be determined. Key words:Oral mucosal diseases, Zinc deficiency, pathogenesis. PMID:27031065

  13. Relationship between levels of neuropeptide Substance P in periodontal disease and chronic pain: a literature review.

    PubMed

    de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; de Molon, Rafael Scaf; de Godoi Gonçalves, Daniela Aparecida; Camparis, Cinara Maria

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the current review was to investigate the relationship between levels of neuropeptide Substance P in periodontal disease and chronic pain. Substance P is a neuropeptide that is directly related with pain. In periodontal disease, it is expressed during the inflammatory process, and is one of the factors responsible for bone resorption. Studies have shown that Substance P levels are highest in the gingival crevicular fluid from sites with active periodontal disease and bone loss. The persistence of these substances could be sufficient to stimulate neurogenic inflammation in susceptible tissues, and cause pain. The scientific literature shows that Substance P expressed during periodontal disease can be a risk factor for patients with systemic inflammatory pathologies, such as chronic arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Additional research is needed to confirm the participation of this substance in the origin of some types of chronic pain. PMID:24574025

  14. Thermal conductivity of biological cells at cellular level and correlation with disease state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byoung Kyoo; Woo, Yunho; Jeong, Dayeong; Park, Jaesung; Choi, Tae-Youl; Simmons, Denise Perry; Ha, Jeonghong; Kim, Dongsik

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the thermal conductivity k of matched pair cell lines: two pairs of a normal and a cancer cell, one pair of a primary and metastatic cell. The 3ω method with a nanoscale thermal sensor was used to measure k at the single-cell level. To observe the difference in k between normal and cancer cells, the measurements were conducted for Hs 578Bst/Hs 578 T (human breast cells) and TE 353.Sk/TE 354.T (human skin cells). Then k of WM-115/WM-266-4, a primary and metastatic pair of human skin cell, was measured to find the effect of disease progression on k. The measured k data for normal and disease cell samples show statistically meaningful differences. In all cases, k decreased as the disease progressed. This work shows that thermal-analysis schemes, such as the 3ω method, have a potential to detect diseases at the cell level.

  15. Serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yo-Han; Lee, Seok Jeong; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won-Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum selenium levels are lower in critically ill patients as compared with healthy controls. However, there is no data about the difference in serum selenium levels depending on the severity of lung diseases. We aimed to identify the factors associated with low serum selenium levels in critically ill patients with respiratory diseases. Methods A prospective study was performed in 83 patients with respiratory diseases who had admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards. We obtained systemic inflammatory markers, nutritional indicators and prognostic factors as the explanatory variables for the outcome of low serum selenium levels. Results Serum selenium levels on admission were lower by 28% in the ICU group as compared with the general ward group (70.0±26.4 and 97.9±20.8 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.001). Low serum selenium levels had a correlation with malnutrition represented by decreases in levels of lymphocyte (R2=0.107, P=0.005) and albumin (R2=0.174, P<0.001). In addition, low serum selenium levels were associated with an increase in baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) (R2=0.059, P=0.041) and APACHE II scores (R2=0.209, P<0.001). Lower albumin levels (P=0.032) and higher APACHE II scores (P=0.046) showed a significant correlation with lower serum selenium levels on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Low serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases have a significant correlation with poor nutritional status and prognosis on admission.

  16. Serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yo-Han; Lee, Seok Jeong; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won-Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum selenium levels are lower in critically ill patients as compared with healthy controls. However, there is no data about the difference in serum selenium levels depending on the severity of lung diseases. We aimed to identify the factors associated with low serum selenium levels in critically ill patients with respiratory diseases. Methods A prospective study was performed in 83 patients with respiratory diseases who had admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and general wards. We obtained systemic inflammatory markers, nutritional indicators and prognostic factors as the explanatory variables for the outcome of low serum selenium levels. Results Serum selenium levels on admission were lower by 28% in the ICU group as compared with the general ward group (70.0±26.4 and 97.9±20.8 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.001). Low serum selenium levels had a correlation with malnutrition represented by decreases in levels of lymphocyte (R2=0.107, P=0.005) and albumin (R2=0.174, P<0.001). In addition, low serum selenium levels were associated with an increase in baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) (R2=0.059, P=0.041) and APACHE II scores (R2=0.209, P<0.001). Lower albumin levels (P=0.032) and higher APACHE II scores (P=0.046) showed a significant correlation with lower serum selenium levels on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Low serum selenium levels in patients with respiratory diseases have a significant correlation with poor nutritional status and prognosis on admission. PMID:27621861

  17. Serum Paraoxonase Levels are Correlated with Impaired Aortic Functions in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Efe, Tolga H; Ertem, Ahmet G; Altunoglu, Alpaslan; Koseoglu, Cemal; Erayman, Ali; Bilgin, Murat; Kurmuş, Özge; Aslan, Turgay; Bilge, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Background The correlation between aortic functions and paraoxonase levels has been previously demonstrated by several earlier studies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between serum paraoxonase levels and aortic functions among patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods Our study enrolled 46 chronic kidney disease patients and 45 healthy controls. From these patients, serum cholesterol, creatinine, hemoglobin, and paraoxonase-1 levels were analyzed. Results Paraoxonase-1 levels were significantly lower in patients with chronic kidney disease compared to the controls (p < 0.001). Additionally, the extent of aortic stiffness index (%) was significantly higher in chronic kidney disease patients, but aortic strain and aortic distensibility were significantly higher in healthy controls (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). We further found that paraoxonase-1 levels were correlated with aortic stiffness index, aortic strain, and aortic distensibility (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions Our study demonstrated that serum paraoxonase-1 levels were significantly correlated with impaired aortic functions. The results of this study highlight the impact of serum paraoxonase-1 activity on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular adverse events. PMID:27122934

  18. Serum omentin 1 level is associated with coronary artery disease and its severity in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Onur, Imran; Oz, Fahrettin; Yildiz, Sezai; Oflaz, Huseyin; Sigirci, Serhat; Elitok, Ali; Pilten, Saadet; Karaayvaz, Ekrem Bilal; Cizgici, Ahmet Y; Kaya, Mehmet G; Onur, Seda Tural; Sahin, Irfan; Dinckal, Hakan M

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated whether serum omentin levels are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and its severity among postmenopausal women. We enrolled 193 consecutive postmenopausal women who had undergone coronary angiography for suspected stable CAD. The study population was divided into 2 groups based on the results of coronary angiography (CAD group, n=110 and control group, n=83). Omentin 1 levels were measured and disease severity was assessed using the SYNTAX score (SS) in the CAD group. Those patients with angiographic CAD had significantly decreased omentin 1 levels, compared to those without CAD (247.5+127.4 vs 506+246 ng/mL, P<.001). After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, a decreased omentin 1 level was found to be an independent predictor of both angiographic CAD and a high SS. Our data indicate that a decreased omentin 1 level is associated with CAD and its severity among postmenopausal women.

  19. Ferritin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid predict Alzheimer's disease outcomes and are regulated by APOE.

    PubMed

    Ayton, Scott; Faux, Noel G; Bush, Ashley I

    2015-05-19

    Brain iron elevation is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, but the impact of iron on disease outcomes has not been previously explored in a longitudinal study. Ferritin is the major iron storage protein of the body; by using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of ferritin as an index, we explored whether brain iron status impacts longitudinal outcomes in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. We show that baseline CSF ferritin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance over 7 years in 91 cognitively normal, 144 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 67 AD subjects, and predicted MCI conversion to AD. Ferritin was strongly associated with CSF apolipoprotein E levels and was elevated by the Alzheimer's risk allele, APOE-ɛ4. These findings reveal that elevated brain iron adversely impacts on AD progression, and introduce brain iron elevation as a possible mechanism for APOE-ɛ4 being the major genetic risk factor for AD.

  20. Adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis, splenomegaly, and highly elevated serum ferritin levels.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Pherez, Francisco M; Alexiadis, Varvara; Gagos, Marios; Strollo, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    erythema. We present a case of adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis and splenomegaly. The patient's myocarditis rapidly resolved, and he did not develop coronary artery aneurysms. In addition to splenomegaly, this case of adult Kawasaki's disease is remarkable because the patient had highly elevated serum ferritin levels of 944-1303 ng/mL; (normal<189 ng/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of adult Kawasaki's disease with highly elevated serum ferritin levels. This is also the first report of splenomegaly in adult Kawasaki's disease. We conclude that Kawasaki's disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in adult patients with rash/fever for> or =5 days with conjunctival suffusion, cervical adenopathy, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, thrombocytosis and otherwise unexplained highly elevated ferritin levels.

  1. 4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side of bridge, taken from river level. Note entire east side and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  2. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  3. China launched a pilot project to improve its rare disease healthcare levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    China is facing the great challenge of serving the world’s largest rare disease population. It is necessary to develop a specific medical plan to increase the levels of optimal prevention, diagnosis and treatment of rare diseases under the existing clinical service structures in China. In 2013, China launched its first pilot project focused on 20 representative rare diseases. A national network including approximately 100 provincial or municipal medical centers has been established to enable collaboration on rare diseases across China. The main objectives for this project are to develop and apply medical guidelines and clinical pathways for rare diseases, to establish a rare disease patient registry and data repository system, and to promote molecular testing for rare genetic disorders. This project also emphasizes building close links among the collaborative network, clinicians on the frontlines in basic medical services institutions and rare disease patient organizations. Primarily, this project expects to develop an actionable medical services plan to increase the delivery of quality healthcare for individuals and families living with rare diseases in China within five years. PMID:24468030

  4. The relationship between Piaget and cognitive levels in persons with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Matteson, M A; Linton, A D; Barnes, S J; Cleary, B L; Lichtenstein, M J

    1996-02-01

    Clinical observations and research studies have documented that people with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD) appear to regress developmentally during the course of the disease. The purpose of this study was to prospectively determine the association between changes in Piaget levels of cognitive development and cognitive decline in nursing home residents in various stages of ADRD. Fifty-seven people were tested three times at yearly intervals, using the Folstein Mini-Mental State Exam to determine cognitive levels and a set of 14 Piaget tasks to determine cognitive developmental levels: 1) Formal Operations; 2) Concrete Operations; 3) Preoperational; and 4) Sensorimotor. Mean MMSE scores declined from 12.7 to 9.4, and there was a downward trend in Piaget levels over the study period. ANOVA showed significant differences (p < 0.0005, Years 1, 2, 3) in MMSE scores among all Piaget levels, and Spearman rho analysis showed significant correlations between Piaget levels and MMSE for each year (p < 0.0005, Years 1, 2, 3). The results suggest that there is a concurrent decline in cognitive developmental levels and cognition in people in various stages of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

  5. Serum lysyl oxidase-like 2 levels and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis disease progression.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jason W; Richards, Thomas J; Gibson, Kevin F; Zhang, Yingze; Lindell, Kathleen O; Shao, Lixin; Lyman, Susan K; Adamkewicz, Joanne I; Smith, Victoria; Kaminski, Naftali; O'Riordan, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated whether lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), which promotes cross-linking of collagen in pathological stroma, was detectable in serum from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients, and assessed its relationship with IPF disease progression. Patients from the ARTEMIS-IPF (n=69) and the Genomic and Proteomic Analysis of Disease Progression in IPF (GAP) (n=104) studies were analysed. Baseline serum LOXL2 (sLOXL2) levels were compared with baseline clinical and physiological surrogates of disease severity, and the association with IPF disease progression was assessed using a classification and regression tree (CART) method. sLOXL2 correlated weakly with forced vital capacity and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (r -0.24-0.05) in both cohorts. CART-determined thresholds were similar: ARTEMIS-IPF 800 pg·mL(-1) and GAP 700 pg·mL(-1). In ARTEMIS-IPF, higher sLOXL2 (>800 pg·mL(-1)) was associated with increased risk for disease progression (hazard ratio (HR) 5.41, 95% CI 1.65-17.73). Among GAP subjects with baseline spirometric data (n=70), higher sLOXL2 levels (>700 pg·mL(-1)) were associated with more disease progression events (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.01-3.11). Among all GAP subjects, higher sLOXL2 levels were associated with increased risk for mortality (HR 2.28, 95% CI 1.18-4.38). These results suggest that higher sLOXL2 levels are associated with increased risk for IPF disease progression. However, due to multiple limitations, these results require validation.

  6. Sclerostin levels in uremic patients: a link between bone and vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bruzzese, Annamaria; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Cernaro, Valeria; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Loddo, Saverio; Romeo, Adolfo; Montalto, Gaetano; Costantino, Giuseppe; Torre, Francesco; Pettinato, Giuseppina; Salamone, Ignazio; Aloisi, Carmela; Santoro, Domenico; Buemi, Michele

    2016-06-01

    Sclerostin is a marker of low-turnover bone disease in end stage renal disease patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum sclerostin in uremic patients, analyzing its behavior during a single hemodialysis session. Twenty-one adult patients on intermittent hemodialysis treatment were enrolled. Acetate Free Bio-filtration (AFB) was the technique employed. Uremic patients were characterized by higher levels of serum sclerostin when compared with values observed in healthy subjects. Sclerostin assessed in pre-dialysis samples was 1.4 ± 1.02 ng/mL, whereas, in post dialysis samples, a reduction of sclerostin values was observed (0.8 ± 0.6 ng/mL; p: 0.008). Sclerostin correlated with parameters of dialysis adequacy, such as creatinine levels and Kt/V values, and it was significantly associated with atherosclerotic disease. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed a good diagnostic profile in identifying atherosclerotic disease. Sclerostin, a full dialyzable substance during AFB dialysis, is closely associated with atherosclerotic disease. Its reduction obtained through AFB could represent a defensive mechanism, improving vascular disease and renal osteodystrophy. PMID:27001371

  7. Farm-level plans and husbandry measures for aquatic animal disease emergencies.

    PubMed

    Mohan, C V; Phillips, M J; Bhat, B V; Umesh, N R; Padiyar, P A

    2008-04-01

    Disease is one of the gravest threats to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. A good understanding of biosecurity and disease causation is essential for developing and implementing farm-level plans and husbandry measures to respond to disease emergencies. Using epidemiological approaches, it is possible to identify pond- and farm-level risk factors for disease outbreaks and develop intervention strategies. Better management practices (BMPs) should be simple, science-based, cost-effective and appropriate to their context if farmers are to adopt and implement them. As part of a regional initiative by the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) to control aquatic animal diseases, effective extension approaches to promote the widespread adoption of BMPs have been developed in India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, and have proved their worth. A highly successful programme, which addresses rising concerns about the effect of disease on the sustainability of shrimp farming in India, is now in its seventh year. In this paper, the authors present a brief insight into the details of the programme, its outcomes and impact, the lessons learned and the way forward.

  8. Effect of thirst challenge on ADH levels in patients with bilateral Menière's disease.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, S; Hundt, W; Hamann, K F; Werner, J A; Mandic, R

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate plasma ADH levels and plasma/urine osmolality in patients suffering from bilateral Menière's disease since a disturbance in the water household after thirst challenge is a suspected pathogenic factor in the development of this disease. In this study the plasma ADH levels and plasma/urine osmolality of bilateral Menière's disease patients under thirst challenge were investigated to show whether the water balance is affected. 9 patients with bilateral Menière's disease and 9 healthy controls skipped water intake for 12 h. Plasma ADH, plasma/urine osmolality, and electrolytes were measured after this thirst period as well as 8 h later after food and fluid intake. During food and fluid intake the patients demonstrated a slightly higher plasma ADH level and plasma osmolality than controls, whereas at the end of the thirst period patients and the controls showed no significant change. Instead the urine osmolality differed significantly (p<0.001): showing a high urine osmolality in controls and an almost stable urine osmolality in patients after thirst challenge. This indicates that the water balance in patients is likely different from that of controls. These observations point to ADH and its target aquaporine 2 as keyplayers in the pathophysiological events leading to the development of Menière's disease.

  9. Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels in the Prediction of Complicated Crohn's Disease Behavior – A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Florian; Paul, Gisela; Schnoy, Elisabeth; Schleder, Stephan; Wolf, Alexandra; Kamm, Florian; Dirmeier, Andrea; Strauch, Ulrike; Obermeier, Florian; Lopez, Rocio; Achkar, Jean-Paul; Rogler, Gerhard; Klebl, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background Markers that predict the occurrence of a complicated disease behavior in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) can permit a more aggressive therapeutic regimen for patients at risk. The aim of this cohort study was to test the blood levels of hemoglobin (Hgb) and hematocrit (Hct) for the prediction of complicated CD behavior and CD related surgery in an adult patient population. Methods Blood samples of 62 CD patients of the German Inflammatory Bowel Disease-network “Kompetenznetz CED” were tested for the levels of Hgb and Hct prior to the occurrence of complicated disease behavior or CD related surgery. The relation of these markers and clinical events was studied using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and adjusted COX-proportional hazard regression models. Results The median follow-up time was 55.8 months. Of the 62 CD patients without any previous complication or surgery 34% developed a complication and/or underwent CD related surgery. Low Hgb or Hct levels were independent predictors of a shorter time to occurrence of the first complication or CD related surgery. This was true for early as well as late occurring complications. Stable low Hgb or Hct during serial follow-up measurements had a higher frequency of complications compared to patients with a stable normal Hgb or Hct, respectively. Conclusions Determination of Hgb or Hct in complication and surgery naïve CD patients might serve as an additional tool for the prediction of complicated disease behavior. PMID:25116048

  10. Aldolase A isoenzyme levels in serum and tissues of patients with liver diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Asaka, M.; Nagase, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Alpert, E.

    1983-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay specific for human aldolase A was used to measure human aldolase A levels in human tissue and serum of patients with various liver diseases. The method was a double-antibody technique using radio-iodinated purified aldolase A, chicken antibody to aldolase A, and rabbit antibody to chicken immunoglobulin G. Normal liver tissue contains only a small amount of aldolase A. In contrast, aldolase A predominates in liver cell carcinoma tissue. Aldolase A levels in the sera of normal subjects were 171 +/- 39 ng/ml (mean +/- 2 SD). In almost all of the nonmalignant liver diseases, the aldolase A levels remained less than 210 ng/ml. The serum aldolase A levels increased remarkable only in fulminant hepatitis. in contrast, 32 of 34 patients with liver cell carcinoma and all of 29 patients with metastatic liver carcinoma showed clearly increased serum aldolase A levels. More patients with primary liver cell carcinoma had increased serum aldolase A levels than elevations of serum alpha-fetoprotein. These results suggest that the determination of aldolase A by radioimmunoassay may be useful to differentiate malignant form nonmalignant liver diseases.

  11. Genetic Loci Influencing C-reactive Protein Levels and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Paul; Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Peden, John F.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Braund, Peter; Engert, James C.; Bennett, Derrick; Coin, Lachlan; Ashby, Deborah; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J.; Mt-Isa, Shahrul; McCarthy, Mark I.; Peltonen, Leena; Freimer, Nelson B.; Farrall, Martin; Ruokonen, Aimo; Hamsten, Anders; Lim, Noha; Froguel, Philippe; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Mooser, Vincent; Scott, James; Hall, Alistair S.; Schunkert, Heribert; Anand, Sonia S.; Collins, Rory; Samani, Nilesh J.; Watkins, Hugh; Kooner, Jaspal S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are independently associated with risk of coronary heart disease, but whether CRP is causally associated with coronary heart disease or merely a marker of underlying atherosclerosis is uncertain. Objective: To investigate association of genetic loci with CRP levels and risk of coronary heart disease. Design, setting and participants: We first carried out a genome-wide association (n=17,967) and replication study (n=14,747) to identify genetic loci associated with plasma CRP concentrations. Data collection took place between 1989 and 2008 and genotyping between 2003 and 2008. We carried out a Mendelian randomisation study of the most closely associated SNP in the CRP locus and published data on other CRP variants involving a total of 28,112 cases and 100,823 controls, to investigate the association of CRP variants with coronary heart disease. We compared our finding with that predicted from meta-analysis of observational studies of CRP levels and risk of coronary heart disease. For the other loci associated with CRP levels, we selected the most closely associated SNP for testing against coronary heart disease among 14,365 cases and 32,069 controls. Main outcome measure: Risk of coronary heart disease. Results: Polymorphisms in five genetic loci were strongly associated with CRP levels (% difference per minor allele): SNP rs6700896 in LEPR (−14.7% [95% Confidence Interval {CI}], −17.5 – −11.9, P=1.6×10−21), rs4537545 in IL6R (−10.8% [95% CI, −13.8 – −7.7], P=5.1×10−11), rs7553007 in CRP locus (−20.7% [95% CI, −23.5 – −17.9], P=3.3×10−38), rs1183910 in HNF1A (−13.6% [95% CI, −16.4 – −10.6], P=1.2×10−17) and rs4420638 in APOE-CI-CII (−21.8% [95% CI, −25.4 – −18.1], P=2.1×10−25). Association of SNP rs7553007 in the CRP locus with coronary heart disease gave odds ratio (OR) 0.98 (95% CI, 0.94 – 1.01) per 20% lower CRP. Our Mendelian randomisation study of variants

  12. Increased acetyl and total histone levels in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Pritika J; Lill, Claire; Faull, Richard; Curtis, Maurice A; Dragunow, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that plays a critical role in chromatin remodelling and transcriptional regulation. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications may become compromised in aging and increase susceptibility to the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Immunohistochemical labelling of free-floating sections from the inferior temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=14; control, n=17) and paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays containing tissue from the middle temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=29; control, n=28) demonstrated that acetyl histone H3 and acetyl histone H4 levels, as well as total histone H3 and total histone H4 protein levels, were significantly increased in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain tissue compared to age- and sex-matched neurologically normal control brain tissue. Changes in acetyl histone levels were proportional to changes in total histone levels. The increase in acetyl histone H3 and H4 was observed in Neuronal N immunopositive pyramidal neurons in Alzheimer's disease brain. Using immunolabelling, histone markers correlated significantly with the level of glial fibrillary acidic protein and HLA-DP, -DQ and -DR immunopositive cells and with the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (hyperphosphorylated tau load and β-amyloid plaques). Given that histone acetylation changes were correlated with changes in total histone protein, it was important to evaluate if protein degradation pathways may be compromised in Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, significant positive correlations were also found between ubiquitin load and histone modifications. The relationship between histone acetylation and ubiquitin levels was further investigated in an in vitro model of SK-N-SH cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor Mg132 and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid. In this model, compromised protein degradation caused by Mg132 lead to elevated histone

  13. Levels of immunity parameters underpin bleaching and disease susceptibility of reef corals.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Caroline V; Bythell, John C; Willis, Bette L

    2010-06-01

    Immunity is a key life history trait that may explain hierarchies in the susceptibility of corals to disease and thermal bleaching, two of the greatest current threats to coral health and the persistence of tropical reefs. Despite their ongoing and rapid global decline, there have been few investigations into the immunity mechanisms of reef-building corals. Variables commonly associated with invertebrate immunity, including the presence of melanin, size of melanin-containing granular cells, and phenoloxidase (PO) activity, as well as concentrations of fluorescent proteins (FPs), were investigated in hard (Scleractinia) and soft (Alcyonacea) corals spanning 10 families from the Great Barrier Reef. Detectable levels of these indicators were present in all corals investigated, although relative investment differed among coral taxa. Overall levels of investment were inversely correlated to thermal bleaching and disease susceptibility. In addition, PO activity, melanin-containing granular cell size, and FP concentration were each found to be significant predictors of susceptibility and thus may play key roles in coral immunity. Correlative evidence that taxonomic (family-level) variation in the levels of these constituent immunity parameters underpins susceptibility to both thermal bleaching and disease indicates that baseline immunity underlies the vulnerability of corals to these two threats. This reinforces the necessity of a holistic approach to understanding bleaching and disease in order to accurately determine the resilience of coral reefs.

  14. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and juvenile idiopathic arthritis: is there an association with disease activity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the association between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), to determine the prevalence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency [25(OH)D=19 ng/ml] and insufficiency [25(OH)D 20-29 ng/ml], and to determine factors associated with ...

  15. Thyroid hormone level is associated with motor symptoms in de novo Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Umehara, Tadashi; Matsuno, Hiromasa; Toyoda, Chizuko; Oka, Hisayoshi

    2015-07-01

    Sympathetic denervation has been observed not only in the myocardium but also in the thyroid of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated whether sympathetic denervation as indicated by decreased cardiac (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine uptake is associated with the levels of thyroid hormones and whether the levels of thyroid hormones affect clinical manifestations in patients with PD. The subjects were 75 patients with de novo PD and 20 age-matched healthy controls. We examined the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine, and evaluated the associations of these levels with cardiac (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine uptake and motor symptoms. The results showed that the free triiodothyronine level was below the normal range in 29 patients (approximately 40 %) and was significantly lower in the patients with PD than in the controls. The decreased free triiodothyronine level was associated with akinetic-rigid motor subtype and washout ratio of cardiac (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. The free triiodothyronine level negatively correlated with disease severity. Thyroid-stimulating hormone level was within normal range. However, its level was lower in patients with tremor-dominant type or mixed type than in those with akinetic-rigid type. All correlations of these variables with the levels of thyroid hormones remained statistically significant on multiple regression analysis. Our results suggest that the thyroid hormone level, especially the free triiodothyronine level, is closely related to motor symptoms in patients with de novo PD. Further studies are needed to clarify whether the decreased hormone levels have functional roles in motor and non-motor symptoms. PMID:25987207

  16. Serum uric acid levels and long-term outcomes in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Miyaoka, Tokiko; Mochizuki, Toshio; Takei, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku

    2014-07-01

    Hyperuricemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but data regarding the relationship between serum uric acid levels and the long-term outcomes of CKD patients have been limited. The present study evaluated the associations between baseline serum uric acid levels with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The subjects of this study were 551 stage 2-4 CKD patients. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationship between serum uric acid tertiles and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, 50 % reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and development of ESRD, initially without adjustment, and then after adjusting for several groups of covariates. The mean age of the study subjects was 58.5 years, 59.3 % were men, and 10.0 % had diabetes. The mean eGFR was 42.02 ± 18.52 ml/min/1.73 m(2). In all subjects, the mean serum uric acid level was 6.57 ± 1.35 mg/dl, and 52.2 % of study subjects were on hypouricemic therapy (allopurinol; 48.3 %) at baseline. Thirty-one patients (6.1 %) died during a follow-up period of approximately 6 years. There was no significant association between serum uric acid level and all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, development of ESRD and 50 % reduction in eGFR in the unadjusted Cox models. In the adjusted models, hyperuricemia was found to be associated with all-cause mortality and CVD mortality after adjustment with CVD risk factors, kidney disease factors, and allopurinol, but not associated with development of ESRD and 50 % reduction in eGFR. The results of this study showed that hyperuricemia but not serum uric acid levels were associated with all-cause mortality, CVD mortality after adjustments with CVD risk factors, kidney disease factors, and allopurinol in stage 2-4 CKD patients.

  17. Increased O-GlcNAc Levels Correlate with Decreased O-GlcNAcase Levels in Alzheimer Disease Brain

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Sarah; Welleford, Andrew S.; Triplett, Judy C.; Sultana, Rukhsana; Schmitz, Brigitte; Butterfield, D. Allan

    2014-01-01

    The potential role of the posttranslational modification of proteins with O-linked N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) has been studied extensively, yet the exact function of O-GlcNAc in AD remains elusive. O-GlcNAc cycling is facilitated by only two highly conserved enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) catalyzes the addition, while O-GlcNAcase (OGA) catalyzes the removal of GlcNAc from proteins. Studies analyzing global O-GlcNAc levels in AD brain have produced inconsistent results and the reasons for altered O-GlcNAcylation in AD are still poorly understood. In this study, we show a 1.2 fold increase in cytosolic protein O-GlcNAc modification in AD brain when compared to age-matched controls. Interestingly, O-GlcNAc changes seem to be attributable to differential modification of a few individual proteins. While our finding of augmented O-GlcNAcylation concurs with some reports, it is contrary to others demonstrating decreased O-GlcNAc levels in AD brain. These conflicting results emphasize the need for further studies providing conclusive evidence on the subject of O-GlcNAcylation in AD. We further demonstrate that, while OGT protein levels are unaffected in AD, OGA protein levels are significantly decreased to 75 % of those in control samples. In addition, augmented protein O-GlcNAc modification correlates to decreased OGA protein levels in AD subjects. While OGA inhibitors are already being tested for AD treatment, our results provide a strong indication that the general subject of O-GlcNAcylation and specifically its regulation by OGA and OGT in AD need further investigation to conclusively elucidate its potential role in AD pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:24859566

  18. Can Serum Ferritin Level Predict Disease Severity in Patients with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever?

    PubMed Central

    Metanat, Maliheh; Sharifi-Mood, Batool; Tabatabaei, Mehdi; Sarraf-Shirazi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute viral disease. Several factors have already been suggested to explain the pathogenesis as well as predict the disease severity. In our study we aim to investigate the role of serum ferritin level as a possible predicting factor of disease severity in these patients. Materials and Methods: We evaluated all patients with laboratory confirmed diagnosis of CCHF who were admitted to Boo-Ali Hospital of Zahedan from May 2011 to June 2012. Confirmation of the disease determined using the presence of anti- CCHFV IgM in the serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or by polymerase chain reaction(PCR). After ethical approval, patients were categorized into two groups of mild and severe disease according to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) severity using the scoring system of International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH). Serum ferritin levels were evaluated and compared between these two groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to assess the optimal cutoff value of serum ferritin for predicting the disease severity. Results: A total of 42 patients (36 men, 6 women, age range: 17–78 years) were included in this study, of whom 38% had Persian and 62% had Baloch ethnicity. According to DIC severity score, 54.7% of the patients had severe disease and 45.3% had mild disease. The area under the ROC curve was 0.896 and 95% CI was 0.801–0.991 (p<0.0001). A cut-off point of 1060 ng/dL, had a sensitivity of 78.9%, a specificity of 87%, a positive predictive value of 6% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Positive and negative likelihood ratios for this serum ferritin level were 6.05 and 0.24, respectively. Conclusion: Increased serum ferritin level has a significant positive correlation with disease severity in patients with CCHF and can evaluate the prognosis of these patients with a high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:25610262

  19. Neprilysin and insulin-degrading enzyme levels are increased in Alzheimer disease in relation to disease severity.

    PubMed

    Miners, James Scott; Baig, Shabnam; Tayler, Hannah; Kehoe, Patrick Gavin; Love, Seth

    2009-08-01

    Experimental reduction of neprilysin (NEP) or insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) in vivo exacerbates beta-amyloid accumulation in the brain. The level of these enzymes is reportedly reduced during aging and in postmortem brains of patients with sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). To distinguish between primary decreases in NEP and IDE activity that might contribute to beta-amyloid accumulation and decreases secondary to neurodegenerative changes in AD, we measured NEP and IDE levels by indirect sandwich ELISA and enzyme activities by immunocapture-based fluorogenic assays in postmortem frontal cortex from patients of different ages and at different pathological stages of AD, as indicated by Braak tangle stage. The ELISA measurements of neuron-specific enolase were used to adjust for neuronal loss. Both unadjusted and neuron-specific enolase-adjusted NEP levels and activity were significantly increased in AD and positively correlated with Braak stage but negatively with age in AD patients. Insulin-degrading enzyme activity was higher in AD than controls; this was significant after adjustment for neuron-specific enolase level; unadjusted IDE protein level was decreased in AD but not after adjustment. Our findings suggest that reduction in NEP and IDE activity is not the primary cause of beta-amyloid accumulation in AD, but rather a late-stage phenomenon secondary to neurodegeneration.

  20. Unusual presentation of Gilbert disease with high levels of unconjugated bilirubin. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Flores-Villalba, Eduardo; Rodriguez-Montalvo, Carlos; Bosques-Padilla, Francisco; Arredondo-Saldaña, Gabriela; Zertuche-Maldonado, Tania; Torre-Flores, Landy

    2016-04-01

    Gilbert's syndrome is a benign condition characterized by asymptomatic sporadic episodes of jaundice, due to a mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia caused by a deficiency in bilirubin glucoronidation. Under certain physiologic or pathologic events bilirubin level rises but according to literature it does not reach out more than 3 mg/dl. We report 2 cases of Gilbert's syndrome, genetically tested, which presented with bilirubin levels above 6 mg/dl without any trigger or coexisting condition. In conclusion, bilirubin levels higher than 6 mg/dL in Gilbert syndrome are rare, hemolytic and other metabolism diseases must be ruled out, and genetic testing may be necessary in some cases. PMID:26181050

  1. Levels of circulating TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    CELEGHINI, CLAUDIO; NOT, TARCISIO; NORCIO, ALESSIA; MONASTA, LORENZO; SECCHIERO, PAOLA

    2014-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that the circulating levels of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) are significantly lower in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) than in normal age- and gender-matched controls. Since celiac disease (CD) is often associated with T1D, a retrospective study was performed to analyze the sera of a cohort of pediatric subjects: i) patients with CD at onset (n=100); ii) patients with potential CD (n=45); iii) patients with CD associated with other auto-immune diseases (n=17); and iv) patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (n=15). Among the patients with CD, 49 were also analyzed after six months on a gluten-free diet, while data were also available for 13 patients after one year on a gluten-free diet. No significant differences were found in the circulating levels of TRAIL between the patients with CD and the patients with either eosinophilic esophagitis or potential CD. Patients with CD associated with other auto-immune diseases showed significantly lower levels of TRAIL when compared with patients with CD alone. The gluten-free diet did not significantly modify the levels of circulating TRAIL at 6 or 12 months. Thus, although T1D and CD share common immunological features, the circulating levels of TRAIL show a significant difference between the two pathologies, and do not appear to be modulated in CD. PMID:25371753

  2. Increase of serum fractalkine and fractalkine gene expression levels in sickle cell disease patients.

    PubMed

    Unal, Selma; Ozdemir, Ozlem; Ozcimen, Ahmet Ata; Oztas, Yesim

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we examined the role of fractalkine (Fkn), a member of the chemokine family, in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD). Eighty-seven children with sickle cell disease and 55 healthy children were enrolled in the study. Complete blood counts, serum levels of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and fractalkine, and gene expression levels of Fkn were investigated. Serum Fkn levels and Fkn gene expression values were significantly higher in the SCD group compared to control group (P < 0.05). The findings of elevated serum Fkn and Fkn gene expression in both vaso-occlusive crisis and stable forms of SCD suggest that this chemokine may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation observed in SCD. This study is the first to our knowledge to describe the relationship of Fkn and inflammation in SCD.

  3. [Serum ghrelin, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.].

    PubMed

    Deveci, Yasemin; Deveci, Figen; Ilhan, Nevin; Karaca, Ilgın; Turgut, Teyfik; Muz, Mehmet Hamdi

    2010-01-01

    It is determined that endocrine factors can play role on cachexia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). High levels of ghrelin is reported in cachectic COPD cases but its' relation couldn't shown statistically. In our study, it is aimed to detect serum ghrelin levels in COPD, its' relation with proinflammatory cytokines and whether serum ghrelin is associated with cachexia. Sixty stable COPD patients and 15 healthy volunteers were included in the study. COPD patients were divided into two groups, cachectic and normal weight, according to their body mass index. Spirometric assessments were performed and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and ghrelin levels were measured in all cases. When COPD patients were compared with control group; serum ghrelin levels were statistically lower, TNF-a and IL-6 levels were statistically higher in COPD group. For cachectic COPD patients; serum ghrelin levels were statistically lower and IL-6 levels were statistically higher, compared with normal weight COPD patients. Although, serum TNF-a levels were higher for cachectic COPD patients; these levels were not significant. Positive correlation between serum ghrelin levels and body mass index was detected in patients with COPD. As a result; it is thought that increased proinflammatory cytokines and decreased serum active ghrelin levels may contribute to the development of weight loss.

  4. Impaired Levels of Gangliosides in the Corpus Callosum of Huntington Disease Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Di Pardo, Alba; Amico, Enrico; Maglione, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Huntington Disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by broad types of cellular and molecular dysfunctions that may affect both neuronal and non-neuronal cell populations. Among all the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex pathogenesis of the disease, alteration of sphingolipids has been identified as one of the most important determinants in the last years. In the present study, besides the purpose of further confirming the evidence of perturbed metabolism of gangliosides GM1, GD1a, and GT1b the most abundant cerebral glycosphingolipids, in the striatal and cortical tissues of HD transgenic mice, we aimed to test the hypothesis that abnormal levels of these lipids may be found also in the corpus callosum white matter, a ganglioside-enriched brain region described being dysfunctional early in the disease. Semi-quantitative analysis of GM1, GD1a, and GT1b content indicated that ganglioside metabolism is a common feature in two different HD animal models (YAC128 and R6/2 mice) and importantly, demonstrated that levels of these gangliosides were significantly reduced in the corpus callosum white matter of both models starting from the early stages of the disease. Besides corroborating the evidence of aberrant ganglioside metabolism in HD, here, we found out for the first time, that ganglioside dysfunction is an early event in HD models and it may potentially represent a critical molecular change influencing the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:27766070

  5. Low-level air pollution and hospital admissions for cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases in Helsinki.

    PubMed Central

    Pönkä, A; Virtanen, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether low concentrations of ambient air pollutants are associated with hospital admissions for ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases. METHODS: Associations between daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulates and daily hospital admissions due to ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases were studied in Helsinki, Finland, 1987 through 1989. The regression analyses controlled for weather, day of the week, season, long-term trends, and influenza epidemics. RESULTS: Admissions via emergency rooms due to ischemic cardiac diseases (n = 7005) were significantly associated with the prevailing levels of nitric oxide and ozone, and those due to cerebrovascular diseases (n = 3737) were associated with nitrogen dioxide; these levels were only moderate. Long-term transient myocardial ischemic attacks were related to particulates, and short-term ischemic attacks were related to nitrogen dioxide. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases may be provoked by pollutants in concentrations lower than those given as guidelines in many countries and lower than previously shown. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8806380

  6. An overview on therapeutics attenuating amyloid β level in Alzheimer's disease: targeting neurotransmission, inflammation, oxidative stress and enhanced cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoling; Li, Yifei; Shi, Xiaozhe; Ma, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common underlying cause of dementia, and novel drugs for its treatment are needed. Of the different theories explaining the development and progression of AD, "amyloid hypothesis" is the most supported by experimental data. This hypothesis states that the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) leads to the formation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides that congregate with formation and deposition of Aβ plaques in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Risk factors including neurotransmitter modulation, chronic inflammation, metal-induced oxidative stress and elevated cholesterol levels are key contributors to the disease progress. Current therapeutic strategies abating AD progression are primarily based on anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors as cognitive enhancers. The AChE inhibitor, donepezil, is proven to strengthen cognitive functions and appears effective in treating moderate to severe AD patients. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, memantine, is also useful, and its combination with donepezil demonstrated a strong stabilizing effect in clinical studies on AD. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs delayed the onset and progression of AD and attenuated cognitive dysfunction. Based upon epidemiological evidence and animal studies, antioxidants emerged as potential AD preventive agents; however, clinical trials revealed inconsistencies. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiling demonstrated pleiotropic functions of the hypolipidemic class of drugs, statins, potentially contributing towards the prevention of AD. In addition, targeting the APP processing pathways, stimulating neuroprotective signaling mechanisms, using the amyloid anti-aggregants and Aβ immunotherapy surfaced as well-tested strategies in reducing the AD-like pathology. Overall, this review covers mechanism of inducing the Aβ formation, key risk factors and major therapeutics prevalent in the AD treatment nowadays. It also delineates the need

  7. Uric Acid Level and Erectile Dysfunction In Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Yalcin; Akilli, Hakan; Kayrak, Mehmet; Aribas, Alpay; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turk, Suleyman; Perez-Pozo, Santos E.; Covic, Adrian; McFann, Kim; Johnson, Richard J.; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent complaint of elderly subjects, and is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Uric acid is also associated with endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease, raising the hypothesis that an increased serum uric acid might predict erectile dysfunction in patients who are at risk for coronary artery disease. Aim To evaluate the association of serum uric acid levels with presence and severity of ED in patients presenting with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 312 adult male patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent exercise stress test (EST) for workup of chest pain and completed a sexual health inventory for men (SHIM) survey form to determine the presence and severity of ED. Routine serum biochemistry (and uric acid levels) were measured. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for ED. Main Outcome Measures The short version of the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) questionnaire diagnosed ED (cutoff score ≤21). Serum Uric acid levels were determined. Patients with chest pain of suspected cardiac origin underwent an exercise stress test. Results 149 of 312 (47.7%) male subjects had ED by survey criteria. Patients with ED were older and had more frequent CAD, hypertension, diabetes, and impaired renal function, and also had significantly higher levels of uric acid, fibrinogen, glucose, CRP, triglycerides compared with patients without ED. Uric acid levels were associated with ED by univariate analysis (OR = 1.36, p = 0.002); however, this association was not observed in multivariate analysis adjusted for eGFR. Conclusion Subjects presenting with chest pain of presumed cardiac origin are more likely to have ED if they have elevated uric acid levels. PMID:24433559

  8. Increased levels of adrenocortical and gonadal hormones in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rasmuson, Sigbritt; Näsman, Birgitta; Carlström, Kjell; Olsson, Tommy

    2002-01-01

    Hormonal changes during normal aging include decreasing levels of gonadal hormones and adrenal androgens. These hormones influence multiple nervous functions, including cognition and mood. Related to this, abnormalities at several levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) have been reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied steroid hormones in 33 patients with mild to moderate AD (12 men; 21 women, 76.4 +/- 7.8 years) and 22 healthy elderly controls (10 men; 12 women, 75.4 +/- 7.5 years old, respectively). Basal levels of serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione were significantly increased in AD patients. Women with AD had significantly higher levels of DHEA and androstenedione. Serum estradiol levels were non-significantly increased in women with AD. After adjustment for age and BMI women with AD had significantly increased levels of androstenedione and DHEA. Increased gonadal hormone levels in mild to moderate AD may reflect an increased secretion, and/or alterations in metabolism of these hormones. This may influence the symptomatology and progression of the disease.

  9. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-11-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS.

  10. Strain-Level Differences in Porphyrin Production and Regulation in Propionibacterium acnes Elucidate Disease Associations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tremylla; Kang, Dezhi; Barnard, Emma

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Propionibacterium acnes is an important skin commensal, but it is also considered a pathogenic factor in several diseases including acne vulgaris, the most common skin disease. While previous studies have revealed P. acnes strain-level differences in health and disease associations, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Recently, we demonstrated that vitamin B12 supplementation increases P. acnes production of porphyrins, a group of proinflammatory metabolites important in acne development (D. Kang, B. Shi, M. C. Erfe, N. Craft, and H. Li, Sci. Transl. Med. 7:293ra103, 2015, doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aab2009). In this study, we compared the porphyrin production and regulation of multiple P. acnes strains. We revealed that acne-associated type IA-2 strains inherently produced significantly higher levels of porphyrins, which were further enhanced by vitamin B12 supplementation. On the other hand, health-associated type II strains produced low levels of porphyrins and did not respond to vitamin B12. Using a small-molecule substrate and inhibitor, we demonstrated that porphyrin biosynthesis was modulated at the metabolic level. We identified a repressor gene (deoR) of porphyrin biosynthesis that was carried in all health-associated type II strains, but not in acne-associated type IA-2 strains. The expression of deoR suggests additional regulation of porphyrin production at the transcriptional level in health-associated strains. Our findings provide one potential molecular mechanism for the different contributions of P. acnes strains to skin health and disease and support the role of vitamin B12 in acne pathogenesis. Our study emphasizes the importance of understanding the role of the commensal microbial community in health and disease at the strain level and suggests potential utility of health-associated P. acnes strains in acne treatment. IMPORTANCE Propionibacterium acnes is a dominant bacterium residing on skin, and it has been thought

  11. Strain-Level Differences in Porphyrin Production and Regulation in Propionibacterium acnes Elucidate Disease Associations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tremylla; Kang, Dezhi; Barnard, Emma; Li, Huiying

    2016-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is an important skin commensal, but it is also considered a pathogenic factor in several diseases including acne vulgaris, the most common skin disease. While previous studies have revealed P. acnes strain-level differences in health and disease associations, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Recently, we demonstrated that vitamin B12 supplementation increases P. acnes production of porphyrins, a group of proinflammatory metabolites important in acne development (D. Kang, B. Shi, M. C. Erfe, N. Craft, and H. Li, Sci. Transl. Med. 7:293ra103, 2015, doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aab2009). In this study, we compared the porphyrin production and regulation of multiple P. acnes strains. We revealed that acne-associated type IA-2 strains inherently produced significantly higher levels of porphyrins, which were further enhanced by vitamin B12 supplementation. On the other hand, health-associated type II strains produced low levels of porphyrins and did not respond to vitamin B12. Using a small-molecule substrate and inhibitor, we demonstrated that porphyrin biosynthesis was modulated at the metabolic level. We identified a repressor gene (deoR) of porphyrin biosynthesis that was carried in all health-associated type II strains, but not in acne-associated type IA-2 strains. The expression of deoR suggests additional regulation of porphyrin production at the transcriptional level in health-associated strains. Our findings provide one potential molecular mechanism for the different contributions of P. acnes strains to skin health and disease and support the role of vitamin B12 in acne pathogenesis. Our study emphasizes the importance of understanding the role of the commensal microbial community in health and disease at the strain level and suggests potential utility of health-associated P. acnes strains in acne treatment. IMPORTANCE Propionibacterium acnes is a dominant bacterium residing on skin, and it has been thought to play a

  12. Acute aerobic exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in elderly with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; Arantes, Franciel José; Rueda, André Veloso; Camarini, Rosana; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decreased BDNF levels may constitute a lack of trophic support and contribute to cognitive impairment in AD. The benefits of acute and chronic physical exercise on BDNF levels are well-documented in humans, however, exercise effects on BDNF levels have not been analyzed in older adults with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on BDNF levels in older adults with AD and to verify associations among BDNF levels, aerobic fitness, and level of physical activity. Using a controlled design, twenty-one patients with AD (76.3 ± 6.2 years) and eighteen healthy older adults (74.6 ± 4.7 years) completed an acute aerobic exercise. The outcomes included measures of BDNF plasma levels, aerobic fitness (treadmill grade, time to exhaustion, VO2, and maximal lactate) and level of physical activity (Baecke Questionnaire Modified for the Elderly). The independent t-test shows differences between groups with respect to the BDNF plasma levels at baseline (p = 0.04; t = 4.53; df = 37). In two-way ANOVA, a significant effect of time was found (p = 0.001; F = 13.63; df = 37), the aerobic exercise significantly increased BDNF plasma levels in AD patients and healthy controls. A significant correlation (p = 0.04; r = 0.33) was found between BDNF levels and the level of physical activity. The results of our study suggest that aerobic exercise increases BDNF plasma levels in patients with AD and healthy controls. In addition to that, BDNF levels had association with level of physical activity.

  13. Opportunities in multi dimensional trace metal imaging: Taking copper associated disease research to the next level

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Stefan; Ralle, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Copper plays an important role in numerous biological processes across all living systems predominantly because of its versatile redox behavior. Cellular copper homeostasis is tightly regulated and disturbances lead to severe disorders such as Wilson disease (WD) and Menkes disease. Age related changes of copper metabolism have been implicated in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The role of copper in these diseases has been topic of mostly bioinorganic research efforts for more than a decade, metal-protein interactions have been characterized and cellular copper pathways have been described. Despite these efforts, crucial aspects of how copper is associated with AD, for example, is still only poorly understood. To take metal related disease research to the next level, emerging multi dimensional imaging techniques are now revealing the copper metallome as the basis to better understand disease mechanisms. This review will describe how recent advances in X-ray fluorescence microscopy and fluorescent copper probes have started to contribute to this field specifically WD and AD. It furthermore provides an overview of current developments and future applications in X-ray microscopic methodologies. PMID:23079951

  14. Preparedness for ebolavirus disease outbreak in Japan: Necessity of Biosafety level-4 facility.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Masayuki; Morita, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Although a globe box-type highly contained laboratory with the internationally-recognized biosafety level-4 standards has been constructed in the Murayama Annex, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan (NIID) in 1981, the laboratory has never been operated as BSL-4 laboratory since its construction. Furthermore, there are no other BSL-4 laboratories in operation in Japan. The evidence indicates that infectious BSL-4 pathogens such as Ebola and Marburg viruses cannot be manipulated in Japan, making it impossible to study the BSL-4 pathogens using the infectious viruses. A large-scale outbreak of ebolavirus disease (EVD) has occurred in the western Africa such as Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Furthermore, the highly pathogenic pathogens' infectious diseases outbreaks such as SARS, Nipah encephalitis, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) have emerged in the world. However, BSL-4 laboratories are not present in Japan, making it difficult to study these pathogens and infectious diseases. Because these emerging virus infections are caused by the zoonotic pathogens, the eradiation and the elimination of these infectious diseases are impossible. We need to develop the diagnostics, therapeutics, and preventive measures based on the studies of the highly pathogenic pathogens more in detail using the infectious microbes. Therefore, BSL-4 in operation in Japan is required to minimize the risk of and combat these emerging highly pathogenic pathogens' infectious diseases.

  15. Studies of troponin I level changes in patients with coronary artery disease after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Emukhvari, N; Tsetskhladze, E; Khijakadze, Kh; Mamatsashvili, I; Khintibidze, I

    2014-12-01

    Research has been carried out in TSMU Cardiology department of A.Aladashvili University Clinic involving 150 patients with ischemic heart disease. The changes of Tn level before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with CAD as well as its dependence on the cardiovascular events rate have been studied in previous work. In patients with normal Tn I level before and after PCI hospital cardiovascular events rate occurred to be as low as the rate of later events. Elevated level of Tn I after PCI was associated with increased rate of complications, which were mostly appeared in those patients with high level of Tn I before PCI. High level of 30-day mortality was revealed in patients with normal level of Tn I before PCI, which was elevated after procedure. The highest rate of later mortality was demonstrated in patients with high level of Tn I before PCI that was sustained after procedure. Hence, on the basis of our data we can conclude, that the Tn level before and after PCI has a prognostic significance; High level of Tn I before PCI is associated with increased hospitalization and later mortality rates. The elevation of Tn I after PCI in patients with normal initial level is more significant predictor of early (30-day) mortality compared to later (within 12 months) mortality. PMID:25617100

  16. Nur77 gene expression levels were involved in different ACTH-secretion autonomy between Cushing's disease and subclinical Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Yukiko; Kitamura, Tetsuhiro; Fukuhara, Atsunori; Mukai, Kosuke; Onodera, Toshiharu; Miyata, Yugo; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Oshino, Satoru; Saitoh, Youichi; Morii, Eiichi; Otsuki, Michio; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2016-06-30

    Cushing's disease (CD) and subclinical Cushing's disease (subCD) are both diseases caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas. However, ACTH autonomy in subCD is weaker than in CD and there are no Cushingoid features in subCD. The differences of molecular mechanisms in ACTH autonomy between CD and subCD have not yet been reported. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the differences in molecular mechanisms of ACTH-secretion autonomy between CD and subCD. The study included 23 patients [7 CD, 6 subCD, and 10 non-functioning pituitary tumors (NFTs)] who underwent transsphenoidal surgery at the Osaka University Hospital between December 2009 and October 2013. Using quantitative real-time PCR, various ACTH-related gene expressions in tumor tissues from CD, subCD, and NFT were measured such as pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), POMC transcription factor (Tpit, Pitx1, NeuroD1, and Nur77), POMC peptide processing enzymes (prohormone convertase: PC1/3 and PC2), and ACTH secretion-related factors (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1: CRHR1 and glucocorticoid receptor α: GRα). Only Nur77 mRNA levels were significantly higher in CD than in subCD. Furthermore, we stained 6 CD and 6 subCD with anti-Nur77 antibody. All tumor samples from CD had Nur77 protein positive cells. On the other hand, Nur77 protein was expressed in only one tumor sample from subCD. This sample showed high expression of Nur77 mRNA. Nur77 is an important to regulate POMC transcription and negative-feedback by glucocorticoids. Nur77 gene expression levels might involve different autonomy of ACTH production between CD and subCD. PMID:27025408

  17. Nur77 gene expression levels were involved in different ACTH-secretion autonomy between Cushing's disease and subclinical Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Yukiko; Kitamura, Tetsuhiro; Fukuhara, Atsunori; Mukai, Kosuke; Onodera, Toshiharu; Miyata, Yugo; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Oshino, Satoru; Saitoh, Youichi; Morii, Eiichi; Otsuki, Michio; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2016-06-30

    Cushing's disease (CD) and subclinical Cushing's disease (subCD) are both diseases caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas. However, ACTH autonomy in subCD is weaker than in CD and there are no Cushingoid features in subCD. The differences of molecular mechanisms in ACTH autonomy between CD and subCD have not yet been reported. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the differences in molecular mechanisms of ACTH-secretion autonomy between CD and subCD. The study included 23 patients [7 CD, 6 subCD, and 10 non-functioning pituitary tumors (NFTs)] who underwent transsphenoidal surgery at the Osaka University Hospital between December 2009 and October 2013. Using quantitative real-time PCR, various ACTH-related gene expressions in tumor tissues from CD, subCD, and NFT were measured such as pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), POMC transcription factor (Tpit, Pitx1, NeuroD1, and Nur77), POMC peptide processing enzymes (prohormone convertase: PC1/3 and PC2), and ACTH secretion-related factors (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1: CRHR1 and glucocorticoid receptor α: GRα). Only Nur77 mRNA levels were significantly higher in CD than in subCD. Furthermore, we stained 6 CD and 6 subCD with anti-Nur77 antibody. All tumor samples from CD had Nur77 protein positive cells. On the other hand, Nur77 protein was expressed in only one tumor sample from subCD. This sample showed high expression of Nur77 mRNA. Nur77 is an important to regulate POMC transcription and negative-feedback by glucocorticoids. Nur77 gene expression levels might involve different autonomy of ACTH production between CD and subCD.

  18. Serum Level of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 in Addicted Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Forood, Afsaneh; Malekpour-Afshar, Reza; Mahdavi, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a glycoprotein with inhibitory effects on the formation of plasmin from plasminogen by plasminogen activator. Thus, it prevents clot lysis in vessel walls. Several evidences prove the relationship between coronary artery disease and response to fibrinolytic therapy in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) with PAI-1 level. Opium addiction is one of the most important factors in causing MI and cardiovascular events. This is due to it causing imbalance between coagulation and anticoagulation factors in the blood. This study was designed and implemented to determine the levels of PAI-I in opium-addicted patients with coronary artery disease in comparison with non addicts. Methods In this case-control study, 160 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), which was confirmed by angiography results, were enrolled. All of the patients had a medical history, their creatinine levels and lipid profile were evaluated, morphine urine test was performed, and after that a blood sample was taken to determine the levels of PAI-1. Thus, the 80 patients who had a positive morphine urine test result formed the case group, and the control group was constituted of the 80 patients with negative morphine test results. The two groups were matched. Findings Average level of PAI-1 in the control group was 2.4 ± 2.6 and in the case group was 8.8 ± 9.1 and it was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The frequency of two vessel disease was higher in opium addicted patients than non-addicted patients and this was statistically significant (P = 0.030). However, the frequency of single vessel and three vessel disease was the same in the two groups. The two groups had no differences in age, lipid profile, and creatinine level. Moreover, females are at a higher risk of high PAI-1 levels. Conclusion PAI-1 levels in opium addicted patients with CHD are higher than other patients. In these patients, the risk of atherosclerosis and MI is

  19. Awareness level of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Okwuonu, C G; Chukwuonye, I I; Ogah, S O; Abali, C; Adejumo, O A; Oviasu, E

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney diseases is on the increase in Nigeria. The cost of its management is far beyond the reach of an average patient. Prevention is thus of paramount importance and awareness of kidney diseases will help in its prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population. A semi-structured, researcher - administered questionnaire was the tool for data collection. Four hundred and thirty-five questionnaires were analyzed. There were 160 males (36.8%) and 275 females (63.2%). The mean age was 42.8 ± 14 years with a range of 18-78 years. Among these, 82.1% were aware of the kidneys' involvement in waste removal from the body through urine while 36% and 29% were aware of kidneys' role in blood pressure regulation and blood production, respectively. Only 26.6% correctly identified at least two basic functions of the kidneys. Also, 32.6% of the respondents were aware of at least three common causes of kidney diseases in our environment. Majority of the respondents (70.7%) did not know that kidney diseases could be inherited. Furthermore, belief in alternative therapy for kidney disease was documented in 83.2%, while unawareness of dialysis as a treatment modality was recorded in 68% of the respondents. The awareness of kidney functions and diseases among the population is poor. Measures are needed to improve this to stem the rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria.

  20. Motor onset and diagnosis in Huntington disease using the diagnostic confidence level.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dawei; Long, Jeffrey D; Zhang, Ying; Raymond, Lynn A; Marder, Karen; Rosser, Anne; McCusker, Elizabeth A; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2015-12-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor dysfunction, cognitive deterioration, and psychiatric symptoms, with progressive motor impairments being a prominent feature. The primary objectives of this study are to delineate the disease course of motor function in HD, to provide estimates of the onset of motor impairments and motor diagnosis, and to examine the effects of genetic and demographic variables on the progression of motor impairments. Data from an international multisite, longitudinal observational study of 905 prodromal HD participants with cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeats of at least 36 and with at least two visits during the followup period from 2001 to 2012 was examined for changes in the diagnostic confidence level from the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale. HD progression from unimpaired to impaired motor function, as well as the progression from motor impairment to diagnosis, was associated with the linear effect of age and CAG repeat length. Specifically, for every 1-year increase in age, the risk of transition in diagnostic confidence level increased by 11% (95% CI 7-15%) and for one repeat length increase in CAG, the risk of transition in diagnostic confidence level increased by 47% (95% CI 27-69%). Findings show that CAG repeat length and age increased the likelihood of the first onset of motor impairment as well as the age at diagnosis. Results suggest that more accurate estimates of HD onset age can be obtained by incorporating the current status of diagnostic confidence level into predictive models.

  1. Lipoprotein (a) Levels in Relation to Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in North Indian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Fauzia; Goel, Pravin Kumar; Sethi, Rishi; Khan, Mohd Idrees; Ali, Wahid; Idris, Mohd Zafar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] is an established risk marker of coronary artery disease which is independent from other risk factors. Objective: The aim was to address the association between Lp (a) and CAD risk in North Indians. To evaluate whether high levels of lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] is a predictor of risk and is related to the severity of CAD. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done on 360 patients presenting with chest pain. Coronary angiography revealed CAD in 270 patients and 90 patients without CAD. Lipoprotein (a) level, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, anthropometric and clinical parameters were analyzed. Results: Lipoprotein (a) 21.0 mg/dL is associated with the presence of coronary lesions (P = 0.0001). A highly significant difference in Lp (a) levels was observed between normal coronaries vs. single-vessel disease, double-and triple-vessel disease ( P < 0.0001). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly raised in CAD group compared to normal coronary. Conclusion: Multivariate analysis found that Lp (a) was considered an independent predictor for severity of CAD and Lp (a) levels 21.0 mg/dL are associated with severe patterns of coronary atherosclerosis. PMID:23580919

  2. The Relationship between Uric Acid Levels and Huntington’s Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Auinger, Peggy; Kieburtz, Karl; McDermott, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) may be associated with the progression of Parkinson’s disease and related neurodegenerative conditions; however, its association with Huntington’s disease (HD) progression has not been explored. A secondary analysis of 347 subjects from the CARE-HD clinical trial was performed to examine the relationship between baseline UA levels and the level of functional decline in HD. Outcomes included change in scores at 30 months for the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale components. There was less worsening of total functional capacity over time with increasing baseline UA levels (adjusted mean worsening in scores: 3.17, 2.99, 2.95, 2.28, 2.21, from lowest to highest UA quintile, p=0.03). These data suggest a possible association between higher UA levels and slower HD progression, particularly as measured by total functional capacity. If confirmed, UA could be an important predictor and potentially modifiable factor affecting the rate of HD progression. PMID:20063429

  3. [Vitamin D levels in ankylosing spondylitis: does deficiency correspond to disease activity?].

    PubMed

    Pokhai, Gabriel G; Bandagi, Sabiha; Abrudescu, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory disorder that presents with arthritis of the axial skeleton, including sacroiliac joints. Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone with a long-established role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, and in the regulation of bone formation and resorption. It is now known that vitamin D plays an immunosuppressive role in the body, and there is interest of late in the role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases. Inflammation may be responsible for some of the loss of bone mineral density seen in AS. We reviewed the literature for studies assessing vitamin D level as a marker of AS disease activity and those examining vitamin D levels in AS in comparison to healthy controls. Four of 7 studies found a significant negative correlation between vitamin D levels and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Index (BASDAI), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). In a review of 8 case-control studies, the mean level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was 22.8 ± 14.1 ng/mL in 555 AS patients versus 26.6 ± 12.5 ng/mL in 557 healthy controls. When compared with a 2-sample t test, vitamin D levels were significantly higher in healthy controls (p < 0.01). We conclude that patients with AS appear to have lower vitamin D levels versus healthy controls; however, the cause is unclear. Existing studies do not demonstrate a consistent link between vitamin D levels and disease activity in AS. Further studies are in need to determine if a causative link exists between vitamin D deficiency and AS. PMID:25627231

  4. Estimation of Salivary and Serum Total Sialic Acid Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Surekha R; Kolte, Abhay P; Gupta, Madhur

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic gingivitis and periodontitis are inflammatory diseases. An important function of host sialic acid is to regulate innate immunity. The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of Total sialic acid (TSA) in saliva and serum and also to find out their association if any, in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 subjects were clinically examined and distributed into three groups (n=30) according to the periodontal status namely healthy, chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis.Clinical measurements including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, oral hygeine index were recorded .TSA concentration was determined in saliva and serum of all subjects. Results: In healthy group the mean salivary TSA level was 39.05mg/dl ±6.35(p<0.0001), mean serum TSA level was 49.75 mg/dl ± 4.87 (p<0.0001). In the chronic gingivitis group the mean salivary TSA level was 68.23 mg/dl ± 2.71 (p<0.0001), mean serum TSA level was 65.65 mg/dl ±3.56 (p<0.0001). In the chronic periodontitis group the mean salivary TSA was 81.33 mg/dl ±3.94 (p<0.0001), mean serum TSA level was 75.98 mg/dl ±3.58 (p<0.0001). Conclusion:The present data indicates that salivary & serum TSA levels can differentiate between chronic periodontitis patients and normal individuals. Thus it can be used as an adjunct to diagnose, monitor response to therapy, to determine the current periodontal disease status and to assess the treatment outcomes. PMID:25386514

  5. Association between serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and fatty liver disease: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ping; Xu, Cheng-Fu; Wan, Xing-Yong; Yu, Chao-Hui; Shen, Chao; Chen, Peng; Xu, Gen-Yun; Li, You-Ming

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and fatty liver disease (FLD) in a Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among subjects who presented for a health examination at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University in 2013. FLD was diagnosed based on an ultrasonography examination. Serum AFP levels were measured with a chemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Of the 9800 subjects enrolled, 2601 were diagnosed with FLD. Subjects with FLD had higher serum AFP levels than those without the disease. Subjects with high serum AFP levels had a higher prevalence of FLD, metabolic syndrome, and its components. Univariate logistic analysis showed that elevated serum AFP levels were associated with an increased risk of FLD (OR = 1.057, 95%CI: 1.031-1.084). However, after adjusting for covariates, AFP no longer remained significantly associated with the risk factors for FLD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that serum AFP levels are significantly associated with FLD and that AFP acts as a cofactor, but not as an independent factor, for FLD. PMID:25206293

  6. Amyloid beta protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid are elevated in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Shoji, M; Harigaya, Y; Watanabe, M; Hosoda, K; Cheung, T T; Shaffer, L M; Golde, T E; Younkin, L H; Younkin, S G

    1994-12-01

    The 4-kd amyloid beta protein (A beta) deposited as amyloid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is produced and released by normal proteolytic processing of the amyloid beta protein precursor (beta APP) and is readily detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Here, we present the levels of A beta in CSF from a total of 95 subjects, including 38 patients with AD, 14 with early-onset AD and 24 with late-onset AD, 25 normal control subjects, and 32 patients with other neurological diseases. The level of A beta decreased with normal aging, and there was a significant elevation in the level of A beta in the CSF of early-onset AD patients (4.14 +/- 1.37 pmol/ml, p < 0.01). Neither Mini-Mental State nor Functional Assessment Staging were correlated with the amount of A beta in the CSF. The A beta/secreted form of beta APP ratio was elevated, but the level of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin in the CSF did not correlate with the level of CSF A beta in early-onset AD patients. Thus, the level of A beta in the CSF is elevated in early-onset AD patients and is suggested to be correlated with the pathology in the brain that characterizes AD. PMID:7998778

  7. Validating predicted biological effects of Alzheimer’s disease associated SNPs using CSF biomarker levels

    PubMed Central

    Kauwe, John SK; Cruchaga, Carlos; Bertelsen, Sarah; Mayo, Kevin; Latu, Wayne; Nowotny, Petra; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Fagan, Anne M; Holtzman, David M; Goate, Alison M

    2011-01-01

    Recent large-scale genetic studies of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) have identified risk variants in CALHM1, GAB2 and SORL1. The mechanisms by which these genes might modulate risk are not definitively known. CALHM1 and SORL1 may alter amyloid-beta (Aβ) levels and GAB2 may influence phosphorylation of the tau protein. In this study we have analyzed disease associated genetic variants in each of these genes for association with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ or tau levels in 602 samples from two independent CSF series. We failed to detect association between CSF Aβ42 levels and SNPs in SORL1 despite substantial statistical power to detect association. While we also failed to detect association between variants in GAB2 and CSF tau levels, power to detect this association was limited. Finally, our data suggest that the minor allele of rs2986017, in CALHM1, is marginally associated with CSF Aβ42 levels. This association is consistent with previous reports that this non-synonymous coding substitution results in increased Aβ levels in vitro and provides support for an Aβ-related mechanism for modulating risk for AD. PMID:20634593

  8. The role of Vitamin D level and related single nucleotide polymorphisms in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Andre Y O M; Bishop, Karen S; Han, Dug Yeo; Ellett, Stephanie; Jesuthasan, Amalini; Lam, Wen J; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2013-09-27

    New Zealand has one of the highest rates of Crohn's Disease (CD) in the world, and there is much speculation as to why this might be. A high risk of CD has been associated with deficient or insufficient levels of Vitamin D (Vit D), lifestyle as well as various genetic polymorphisms. In this study we sought to analyse the relevance of serum Vit D levels, lifestyle and genotype to CD status. Serum samples were analysed for 25-OH-Vitamin D levels. DNA was isolated from blood and cheek-swabs, and Sequenom and ImmunoChip techniques were used for genotyping. Serum Vit D levels were significantly lower in CD patients (mean = 49.5 mg/L) than those found in controls (mean = 58.9 mg/L, p = 4.74 × 10⁻⁶). A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were examined for effects on serum Vit D levels, with adjustment for confounding variables. Two variants: rs731236[A] (VDR) and rs732594[A] (SCUBE3) showed a significant association with serum Vit D levels in CD patients. Four variants: rs7975232[A] (VDR), rs732594[A] (SCUBE3), and rs2980[T] and rs2981[A] (PHF-11) showed a significant association with serum Vit D levels in the control group. This study demonstrates a significant interaction between Vit D levels and CD susceptibility, as well as a significant association between Vit D levels and genotype.

  9. Halimeter ppb Levels as the Predictor of Erosive Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Gon; Kim, Yoon Jae; Yoo, Seung Hee; Lee, So Jung; Chung, Jun Won; Kim, Min Ho; Park, Dong Kyun

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims In a previous issue published in Gut and Liver, we found that erosive changes in the esophagogastroduodenal mucosa were strongly correlated with increased levels of volatile sulfur-containing compounds (VSC), suggesting that halitosis could be a symptom reflecting the erosive status of the upper gut mucosa. Together with other studies showing a possible association between halitosis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), under the premise that halitosis could be one of extraesophageal manifestations of erosive GERD (ERD), we investigated the significance of Halimeter ppb levels on ERD compared to non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (NERD). Methods Subjects were assigned to the NERD group if there was no evidence of esophageal erosive changes on endoscopy, despite reflux symptoms, and to the ERD group if they had GERD A, B, C, or D (according to the Los Angeles classification). The VSC levels were measured in all patients with either a Halimeter (before endoscopy) or by gas chromatography of the gastric juices aspirated during endoscopy. Results The VSC level differed significantly between the NERD and ERD groups (p<0.0001), suggesting that this can be used to discriminate between NERD and ERD. However, the VSC level did not differ significantly with the severity of GERD. Even though hiatal hernia and a body mass index of >24 kg/m2 was significantly associated with ERD, there was no correlation with Halimeter ppb levels. Minimal-change lesions exhibited the highest VSC levels, signifying that minimal change lesions can be classified as ERD based on our finding that halimeter ppb levels were descrimitive of erosive change. Conclusions Erosive changes in the esophageal mucosa were strongly associated with VSC levels, supporting the hypothesis that halitosis can be a potential biomarker for the discrimination between ERD and NERD, reflecting the presence of erosive change in the lower esophagogastric junction. PMID:20981207

  10. Plasma Levels of microRNA-145 Are Associated with Severity of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Liu, Li-Ping; Su, Li-Xiao; Guo, Duo; Nie, Shao-Ping; Du, Jie; Zhang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be associated with various physiological and pathological conditions, including inflammation and cardiovascular disease, but little is known about their relationship with the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and disease severity. Methods A total of 195 consecutive subjects who underwent coronary angiography for chest pain evaluation were enrolled in this study. In CAD patients severity of coronary lesions was assessed by the number of diseased vessels and the Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac surgery score (SYNTAX score). Plasma levels of miRNA-145 were quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction test, and logarithmic transformation of miRNA-145 levels (Ln_miRNA-145) was used for analyses due to its skewed distribution. Results Of the 195 total subjects 167 patients were diagnosed as having CAD. Ln_miRNA-145 was significantly lower in CAD patients compared with the non-CAD group (-6.11±0.92 vs. -5.06±1.25; p <0.001). In multivariable linear regression analyses CAD was significantly associated with lower Ln_miRNA-145 (Estimate, -0.50; standard error (SE), 0.11; p <0.0001). Furthermore, among CAD patients, three-vessel disease, higher SYNTAX scores and STEMI were significantly associated with lower Ln_miRNA-145 ([Estimate, -0.40; SE, 0.07; p <0.0001]; [Estimate, -0.02, SE, 0.10; p = 0.005] and [Estimate, -0.35, SE, 0.10; p <0.001] respectively). Conclusions Lower plasma levels of miRNA-145 were significantly associated with the presence as well as severity of CAD. As a potential biomarker for CAD, plasma miRNA-145 may be useful in predicting CAD and its severity in patients presenting with chest pain. PMID:25938589

  11. Serum thymosin α 1 levels in patients with chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Pica, F; Chimenti, M S; Gaziano, R; Buè, C; Casalinuovo, I A; Triggianese, P; Conigliaro, P; Di Carlo, D; Cordero, V; Adorno, G; Volpi, A; Perricone, R; Garaci, E

    2016-10-01

    Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is a powerful modulator of immunity and inflammation. Despite years of studies, there are a few reports evaluating serum Tα1 in health and disease. We studied a cohort of healthy individuals in comparison with patients affected by chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Sera from 120 blood donors (healthy controls, HC), 120 patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), 40 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 40 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), attending the Transfusion Medicine or the Rheumatology Clinic at the Policlinico Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy, were tested for Tα1 content by means of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Data were analysed in relation to demographic and clinical characteristics of patients and controls. A gender difference was found in the HC group, where females had lower serum Tα1 levels than males (P < 0·0001). Patients had lower serum Tα1 levels than HC (P < 0·0001), the lowest were observed in PsA group (P < 0·0001 versus all the other groups). Among all patients, those who at the time of blood collection were taking disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) plus steroids had significantly higher Tα1 levels than those taking DMARD alone (P = 0·044) or no treatment (P < 0·0001), but not of those taking steroids alone (P = 0·280). However, whichever type of treatment was taken by the patients, serum Tα1 was still significantly lower than in HC and there was no treatment-related difference in PsA group. Further prospective studies are necessary to confirm and deepen these observations. They might improve our understanding on the regulatory role of Tα1 in health and disease and increase our knowledge of the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases. PMID:27350088

  12. Intelligence System for Diagnosis Level of Coronary Heart Disease with K-Star Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kusnanto, Hari; Herianto, Herianto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and it is important to diagnose the level of the disease. Intelligence systems for diagnosis proved can be used to support diagnosis of the disease. Unfortunately, most of the data available between the level/type of coronary heart disease is unbalanced. As a result system performance is low. Methods This paper proposes an intelligence systems for the diagnosis of the level of coronary heart disease taking into account the problem of data imbalance. The first stage of this research was preprocessing, which included resampled non-stratified random sampling (R), the synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), clean data out of range attribute (COR), and remove duplicate (RD). The second step was the sharing of data for training and testing using a k-fold cross-validation model and training multiclass classification by the K-star algorithm. The third step was performance evaluation. The proposed system was evaluated using the performance parameters of sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction value (PPV), negative prediction value (NPV), area under the curve (AUC) and F-measure. Results The results showed that the proposed system provides an average performance with sensitivity of 80.1%, specificity of 95%, PPV of 80.1%, NPV of 95%, AUC of 87.5%, and F-measure of 80.1%. Performance of the system without consideration of data imbalance provide showed sensitivity of 53.1%, specificity of 88,3%, PPV of 53.1%, NPV of 88.3%, AUC of 70.7%, and F-measure of 53.1%. Conclusions Based on these results it can be concluded that the proposed system is able to deliver good performance in the category of classification. PMID:26893948

  13. Psychological Language on Twitter Predicts County-Level Heart Disease Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Schwartz, Hansen Andrew; Kern, Margaret L.; Park, Gregory; Labarthe, Darwin R.; Merchant, Raina M.; Jha, Sneha; Agrawal, Megha; Dziurzynski, Lukasz A.; Sap, Maarten; Weeg, Christopher; Larson, Emily E.; Ungar, Lyle H.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2015-01-01

    Hostility and chronic stress are known risk factors for heart disease, but they are costly to assess on a large scale. We used language expressed on Twitter to characterize community-level psychological correlates of age-adjusted mortality from atherosclerotic heart disease (AHD). Language patterns reflecting negative social relationships, disengagement, and negative emotions—especially anger—emerged as risk factors; positive emotions and psychological engagement emerged as protective factors. Most correlations remained significant after controlling for income and education. A cross-sectional regression model based only on Twitter language predicted AHD mortality significantly better than did a model that combined 10 common demographic, socioeconomic, and health risk factors, including smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Capturing community psychological characteristics through social media is feasible, and these characteristics are strong markers of cardiovascular mortality at the community level. PMID:25605707

  14. Psychological language on Twitter predicts county-level heart disease mortality.

    PubMed

    Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Schwartz, Hansen Andrew; Kern, Margaret L; Park, Gregory; Labarthe, Darwin R; Merchant, Raina M; Jha, Sneha; Agrawal, Megha; Dziurzynski, Lukasz A; Sap, Maarten; Weeg, Christopher; Larson, Emily E; Ungar, Lyle H; Seligman, Martin E P

    2015-02-01

    Hostility and chronic stress are known risk factors for heart disease, but they are costly to assess on a large scale. We used language expressed on Twitter to characterize community-level psychological correlates of age-adjusted mortality from atherosclerotic heart disease (AHD). Language patterns reflecting negative social relationships, disengagement, and negative emotions-especially anger-emerged as risk factors; positive emotions and psychological engagement emerged as protective factors. Most correlations remained significant after controlling for income and education. A cross-sectional regression model based only on Twitter language predicted AHD mortality significantly better than did a model that combined 10 common demographic, socioeconomic, and health risk factors, including smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Capturing community psychological characteristics through social media is feasible, and these characteristics are strong markers of cardiovascular mortality at the community level.

  15. A colony-level response to disease control in a leaf-cutting ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Adam; Bot, A. N. M.; Brown, Mark

    2002-03-01

    Parasites and pathogens often impose significant costs on their hosts. This is particularly true for social organisms, where the genetic structure of groups and the accumulation of contaminated waste facilitate disease transmission. In response, hosts have evolved many mechanisms of defence against parasites. Here we present evidence that Atta colombica, a leaf-cutting ant, may combat Escovopsis, a dangerous parasite of Atta's garden fungus, through a colony-level behavioural response. In A. colombica, garden waste is removed from within the colony and transported to the midden - an external waste dump - where it is processed by a group of midden workers. We found that colonies infected with Escovopsis have higher numbers of workers on the midden, where Escovopsis is deposited. Further, midden workers are highly effective in dispersing newly deposited waste away from the dumping site. Thus, the colony-level task allocation strategies of the Atta superorganism may change in response to the threat of disease to a third, essential party.

  16. Bacterial vaccines in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: effects on clinical outcomes and cytokine levels.

    PubMed

    Ruso, Salvador; Marco, Francisco M; Martínez-Carbonell, Juan A; Carratalá, José A

    2015-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Exacerbation episodes impair lung function leading to disease progression. Levels of inflammation markers correlate with disease severity. Bacterial immunomodulators have shown a beneficial effect in COPD, improving symptoms and reducing the rate of exacerbations. This is an observational prospective study on 30 patients diagnosed with bronchiectasis and COPD, who received bacterial autogenous vaccine for 12 months. The rate of exacerbation, severity of symptoms and lung function were studied at baseline and after treatment. In addition, plasma levels CRP, IL6, IL8, and TNFα were measured. After treatment we found a reduction in mean acute respiratory infections and signs of lung disease. Acute phase proteins IL6 and CRP increased in blood and IL8 decreased. These changes may be related to the repeated injection of inactivated bacteria. Given the implication of these factors in the pathogenesis of COPD, particularly the production of IL8, the causes and consequences of cytokine modulation by bacterial vaccines should be investigated. Vaccination with autogenous vaccines for 1 year can produce a significant clinical improvement in COPD patients, reducing the frequency of exacerbations associated to changes in the profile of markers of inflammation.

  17. Changes of Some Hormones Levels in Patients With Hepatitis B Virus-Related Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Serin, Ayfer; Akarsu, Mesut; Akpinar, Hale; Simsek, Ilkay

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate some of the hormones in patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Methods The men patients with chronic hepatitis B (Group 1), liver cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B (Group 2), were included in this study. Additionally, a control group of healthy volunteers (Group 3) was formed. We investigated serum levels of Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Total testosterone (T. TES), Free-testosterone (F. TES), Estradiol (E2), Androstenedione (ANDR), Dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), Progesterone (PPOGES), Prolactin (PRL), Sex hormone binding protein (SHGB) were measured by radioimmunoassay and chemiluminescent immunoassay methods. Result A total of 73 patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis were included in the study. Patients were grouped as cirrhosis (n = 28), chronic hepatitis B (n = 41) according to the type of their chronic liver disease. Serum F.TEST level in patient groups (group 1, group 2) was found to be lower than control group (P = 0.045, P = 0.047). Serum LH value was found to be higher in patient group (group 2) than control group (P = 0.048). Serum estradiol was higher in the group 2 compared to the control group (P = 0.046). Conclusions The described disturbances of some of the observed hormones (LH, E2, F. TES) are complex, particularly in their relationship by which the clinical picture of the hepatitis B related cirrhotic patients and chronic liver disease can be explained.

  18. Serum Resistin Level and Progression of Atherosclerosis during Glucocorticoid Therapy for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Nahoko; Masuoka, Shotaro; Kusunoki, Natsuko; Nanki, Toshihiro; Kawai, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Adipokines are important regulators of several processes, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. In patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, atherosclerosis is accelerated with higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We prospectively investigated the association of adipokines and glucocorticoid therapy with progression of premature atherosclerosis in 38 patients starting glucocorticoid therapy for systemic autoimmune diseases. To detect premature atherosclerosis, carotid ultrasonography was performed at initiation of glucocorticoid therapy and after a mean three-year follow-up period. The ankle-brachial pressure index and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) were measured. Serum adipokine levels were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Twenty-three patients (60.5%) had carotid artery plaque at baseline. The carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) increased significantly during follow-up. Glucocorticoids reduced the serum resistin level, while increasing serum leptin and high molecular weight-adiponectin. There was slower progression of atherosclerosis (carotid IMT and CAVI) at follow-up in patients with greater reduction of serum resistin and with higher cumulative prednisolone dose. In conclusion, progression of premature atherosclerosis occurred at an early stage of systemic autoimmune diseases before initiation of glucocorticoid therapy. Since resistin, an inflammation and atherosclerosis related adipokine, is reduced by glucocorticoids, glucocortidoid therapy may not accelerate atherosclerosis in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. PMID:27649254

  19. Serum Resistin Level and Progression of Atherosclerosis during Glucocorticoid Therapy for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nahoko; Masuoka, Shotaro; Kusunoki, Natsuko; Nanki, Toshihiro; Kawai, Shinichi

    2016-09-16

    Adipokines are important regulators of several processes, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. In patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, atherosclerosis is accelerated with higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We prospectively investigated the association of adipokines and glucocorticoid therapy with progression of premature atherosclerosis in 38 patients starting glucocorticoid therapy for systemic autoimmune diseases. To detect premature atherosclerosis, carotid ultrasonography was performed at initiation of glucocorticoid therapy and after a mean three-year follow-up period. The ankle-brachial pressure index and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) were measured. Serum adipokine levels were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Twenty-three patients (60.5%) had carotid artery plaque at baseline. The carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) increased significantly during follow-up. Glucocorticoids reduced the serum resistin level, while increasing serum leptin and high molecular weight-adiponectin. There was slower progression of atherosclerosis (carotid IMT and CAVI) at follow-up in patients with greater reduction of serum resistin and with higher cumulative prednisolone dose. In conclusion, progression of premature atherosclerosis occurred at an early stage of systemic autoimmune diseases before initiation of glucocorticoid therapy. Since resistin, an inflammation and atherosclerosis related adipokine, is reduced by glucocorticoids, glucocortidoid therapy may not accelerate atherosclerosis in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

  20. Serum Resistin Level and Progression of Atherosclerosis during Glucocorticoid Therapy for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nahoko; Masuoka, Shotaro; Kusunoki, Natsuko; Nanki, Toshihiro; Kawai, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Adipokines are important regulators of several processes, including inflammation and atherosclerosis. In patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, atherosclerosis is accelerated with higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We prospectively investigated the association of adipokines and glucocorticoid therapy with progression of premature atherosclerosis in 38 patients starting glucocorticoid therapy for systemic autoimmune diseases. To detect premature atherosclerosis, carotid ultrasonography was performed at initiation of glucocorticoid therapy and after a mean three-year follow-up period. The ankle-brachial pressure index and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) were measured. Serum adipokine levels were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Twenty-three patients (60.5%) had carotid artery plaque at baseline. The carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) increased significantly during follow-up. Glucocorticoids reduced the serum resistin level, while increasing serum leptin and high molecular weight-adiponectin. There was slower progression of atherosclerosis (carotid IMT and CAVI) at follow-up in patients with greater reduction of serum resistin and with higher cumulative prednisolone dose. In conclusion, progression of premature atherosclerosis occurred at an early stage of systemic autoimmune diseases before initiation of glucocorticoid therapy. Since resistin, an inflammation and atherosclerosis related adipokine, is reduced by glucocorticoids, glucocortidoid therapy may not accelerate atherosclerosis in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases. PMID:27649254

  1. Surveillance, detection and response: managing emerging diseases at national and international levels.

    PubMed

    Jebara, K Ben

    2004-08-01

    Globalisation is leading to a rise in the emergence of diseases and the author describes the new challenges that this brings for individual countries and the international community. The paper describes the existing international early warning systems and response mechanisms, discusses the role of international organisations in managing diseases that have the potential for cross-border spread, and underlines the importance of disease surveillance, detection and response at national level. While international collaboration exists in dealing with disease emergency situations, there is a need to develop regional and international contingency plans that can be launched as soon as an emergency situation arises. This will only be possible if there is the political will to tackle problems wherever they occur. The Global Early Warning System, which is a system currently being developed jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Organisation for Animal Health and the World Health Organization, could provide an effective framework in which to achieve a higher level of international emergency preparedness.

  2. Surveillance, detection and response: managing emerging diseases at national and international levels.

    PubMed

    Jebara, K Ben

    2004-08-01

    Globalisation is leading to a rise in the emergence of diseases and the author describes the new challenges that this brings for individual countries and the international community. The paper describes the existing international early warning systems and response mechanisms, discusses the role of international organisations in managing diseases that have the potential for cross-border spread, and underlines the importance of disease surveillance, detection and response at national level. While international collaboration exists in dealing with disease emergency situations, there is a need to develop regional and international contingency plans that can be launched as soon as an emergency situation arises. This will only be possible if there is the political will to tackle problems wherever they occur. The Global Early Warning System, which is a system currently being developed jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Organisation for Animal Health and the World Health Organization, could provide an effective framework in which to achieve a higher level of international emergency preparedness. PMID:15702730

  3. Plasma PGF 2 alpha metabolite levels in cats with uterine disease.

    PubMed

    Hagman, R; Karlstam, E; Persson, S; Kindahl, H

    2009-12-01

    Uterine disease induces PGF(2 alpha) increase in many animal species, which can be measured by the metabolite 15-keto-(13,14)-dihydro-PGF(2 alpha) (PGFM). Plasma PGFM levels are associated with severity of the uterine disease and presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in dogs. The objectives in this study were to investigate PGFM levels, presence of SIRS, and clinical and laboratory parameters in female cats as possible indicators for severity of uterine disease. In total, 7 female cats with pyometra, 2 with mucometra, 7 with cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), and 14 healthy control cats were included. Physical examination, ovariohysterectomy, and histopathology were performed, laboratory parameters were analyzed, and PGFM levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of variance, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. In cats with pyometra, mean PGFM levels were increased (21.1 nmol L(-1)) but were decreased in cats with CEH (0.4 nmol L(-1)) compared with control cats (0.6 nmol L(-1)). In cats with mucometra, the mean PGFM level was 8.8 nmol L(-1). Systemic inflammatory response syndrome was present in 6 (85%) cats with pyometra, 1 cat with mucometra, and 1 cat with CEH. Hospitalization length was negatively correlated with albumin and positively correlated with total white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophils, band neutrophils (BN), percentage BN (PBN), and monocytes. Pyometra and mucometra were associated with increased plasma levels of PGFM. The parameters albumin, WBC, neutrophils, BN, PBN, and monocytes may be useful to determine morbidity as measured by hospitalization length.

  4. Plasma PGF 2 alpha metabolite levels in cats with uterine disease.

    PubMed

    Hagman, R; Karlstam, E; Persson, S; Kindahl, H

    2009-12-01

    Uterine disease induces PGF(2 alpha) increase in many animal species, which can be measured by the metabolite 15-keto-(13,14)-dihydro-PGF(2 alpha) (PGFM). Plasma PGFM levels are associated with severity of the uterine disease and presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in dogs. The objectives in this study were to investigate PGFM levels, presence of SIRS, and clinical and laboratory parameters in female cats as possible indicators for severity of uterine disease. In total, 7 female cats with pyometra, 2 with mucometra, 7 with cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), and 14 healthy control cats were included. Physical examination, ovariohysterectomy, and histopathology were performed, laboratory parameters were analyzed, and PGFM levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of variance, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. In cats with pyometra, mean PGFM levels were increased (21.1 nmol L(-1)) but were decreased in cats with CEH (0.4 nmol L(-1)) compared with control cats (0.6 nmol L(-1)). In cats with mucometra, the mean PGFM level was 8.8 nmol L(-1). Systemic inflammatory response syndrome was present in 6 (85%) cats with pyometra, 1 cat with mucometra, and 1 cat with CEH. Hospitalization length was negatively correlated with albumin and positively correlated with total white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophils, band neutrophils (BN), percentage BN (PBN), and monocytes. Pyometra and mucometra were associated with increased plasma levels of PGFM. The parameters albumin, WBC, neutrophils, BN, PBN, and monocytes may be useful to determine morbidity as measured by hospitalization length. PMID:19748114

  5. Serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease--Causal association or epiphenomenon?

    PubMed

    Kunutsor, Setor K

    2015-12-01

    Observational epidemiological evidence supports a linear inverse and independent association between serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but whether this association is causal remains to be ascertained. A Mendelian randomization approach was employed to test whether serum total bilirubin is causally linked to CHD. The genetic variant rs6742078--well known to specifically modify levels of serum total bilirubin and accounting for up to 20% of the variance in circulating serum total bilirubin levels--was used as an instrumental variable. In pooled analysis of estimates reported from published genome-wide association studies, every copy of the T allele of rs6742078 was associated with 0.42 standard deviation (SD) higher levels of serum total bilirubin (95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.43). Based on combined data from the Coronary Artery Disease Genome wide Replication and Meta-analyses and the Coronary Artery Disease (C4D) Genetics Consortium involving a total of 36,763 CHD cases and 76,997 controls, the odds ratio for CHD per copy of the T allele was 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.04). The odds ratio of CHD for a 1 SD genetically elevated serum total bilirubin level was 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.09). The current findings casts doubt on a strong causal association of serum total bilirubin levels with CHD. The inverse associations demonstrated in observational studies may be driven by biases such as unmeasured confounding and/or reverse causation. However, further research in large-scale consortia is needed. PMID:26408227

  6. Relationship between maternal anti-D levels, fetal phenotype and haemolytic disease of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Morley, G

    1978-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a lower level of maternal anti-D is required to produce the same symptoms of haemolytic disease of the newborn in R2r infants than in R1r infants. This difference could be explained by postulating that the higher site density of R2r cells is associated with an increased association constant and thus will bind sufficiently more anti-D. The level at which amniocentesis should be considered has been calculated to be 1.44 microgram anti-D/cm3 of maternal serum for R1r infants and 0.73 for R2r infants.

  7. Pituitary gland levels of mercury, selenium, iron, and zinc in an Alzheimer`s disease study

    SciTech Connect

    Cornett, C.R.; Markesbery, W.R.; Wekstein, D.R.; Ehmann, W.D.

    1996-12-31

    Mercury, iron, selenium, and zinc imbalances have been observed in comparisons between Alzheimer`s disease (AD) and control subject brains. Analyses of the pituitary gland have demonstrated that this organ retains relatively high concentrations of trace elements, including mercury, iron, and zinc. Our previous work has shown that the pituitary glands of AD and control subjects are typically higher in these trace elements than brain samples from the same subject. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to compare the pituitary trace element levels of AD and control subjects. This study also describes the intrasubject relationships of brain trace element levels to those in the pituitary gland of AD and control subjects.

  8. Relationship between maternal anti-D levels, fetal phenotype and haemolytic disease of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Morley, G

    1978-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a lower level of maternal anti-D is required to produce the same symptoms of haemolytic disease of the newborn in R2r infants than in R1r infants. This difference could be explained by postulating that the higher site density of R2r cells is associated with an increased association constant and thus will bind sufficiently more anti-D. The level at which amniocentesis should be considered has been calculated to be 1.44 microgram anti-D/cm3 of maternal serum for R1r infants and 0.73 for R2r infants. PMID:99877

  9. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) levels to physical activity and family history of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Martín, S; Elosua, R; Covas, M I; Pavesi, M; Vila, J; Marrugat, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the association of physical activity with serum lipoprotein(a) [La(a)] levels in individuals according to whether they had a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Lp(a) levels in 332 healthy Spanish men aged 20 to 60 years were measured. Physical activity and family history of CHD were assessed. RESULTS: For men with a family history of CHD, the odds ratio for Lp(a) levels above the median value was 0.13 (95% confidence interval = 0.03, 0.50) in very active men (energy expended in physical activity > 300 kcal/day) compared with active men (energy expended in physical activity < 300 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Regular daily physical activity in individuals with a family history of CHD could be useful for controlling Lp(a) levels. PMID:10076490

  10. Low avidity and level of serum anti-Abeta antibodies in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Jianping, Lv; Zhibing, Yao; Wei, Quan; Zhikai, Cao; Jie, Xu; Jinbiao, Luo

    2006-01-01

    Some studies have indicated that low level of anti-Abeta antibodies may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), but little is known about the avidity of these antibodies. We investigated the avidity and levels of anti-Abeta antibodies in 20 AD patients and 40 healthy controls by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with thiocyanate elution. Our data revealed that both the levels and the avidity of anti-Abeta antibodies were statistically lower in AD patients than in healthy controls. However, there was no correlation between both of them, suggesting that the levels and the avidity of anti-Abeta antibodies might be regulated by different mechanisms. We hypothesize that incomplete B cell immune tolerance may be the major reason for low antibody avidity in AD patients. Avidity declination in AD patients should have immunopathologic implications as antigen-antibody complexes containing low avidity antibodies are not readily cleared by the immune system.

  11. Total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity and ischemia modified albumin levels in children with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Ersin; Özdem, Sebahat; Uzun, Gülbahar; İşlek, Ali; Yılmaz, Aygen; Artan, Reha

    2015-01-01

    In our study, we aimed to investigate ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as an oxidative stress marker, as well as other oxidant and antioxidant markers that have not been evaluated in children with celiac disease. A total of 37 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with celiac disease (CD) and 29 healthy children were enrolled in this prospective study. We evaluated the IMA, total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, sulfhydryl, and advanced oxidation protein products in all of the subjects. We also compared the levels at the time of the diagnosis, and following a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the children with CD. While the IMA and the other oxidant marker levels were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group, the antioxidant marker levels were found to be significantly lower in the patient group, compared to the control group. We also determined that the tissue transglutaminase IgA showed a highly positive correlation, and that the IMA showed a moderately positive correlation with the Marsh-Oberhuber histopathological stage. Additionally, the IMA and other oxidant marker levels were significantly lower, while the antioxidant marker levels were significantly higher after the GFD, compared to the pre-diet period. We detected that oxidative stress played a role in the pathogenesis of CD, and that this could be evaluated using oxidative stress markers, which would regress after the GFD. We also detected that IMA is a marker that shows a correlation with the histopathological stage, and may be used in the diagnosis. PMID:27411418

  12. Increased Mercury Levels in Patients with Celiac Disease following a Gluten-Free Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Elli, Luca; Rossi, Valentina; Conte, Dario; Ronchi, Anna; Tomba, Carolina; Passoni, Manuela; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Roncoroni, Leda; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Although mercury is involved in several immunological diseases, nothing is known about its implication in celiac disease. Our aim was to evaluate blood and urinary levels of mercury in celiac patients. Methods. We prospectively enrolled 30 celiac patients (20 treated with normal duodenal mucosa and 10 untreated with duodenal atrophy) and 20 healthy controls from the same geographic area. Blood and urinary mercury concentrations were measured by means of flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enrolled patients underwent dental chart for amalgam fillings and completed a food-frequency questionnaire to evaluate diet and fish intake. Results. Mercury blood/urinary levels were 2.4 ± 2.3/1.0 ± 1.4, 10.2 ± 6.7/2.2 ± 3.0 and 3.7 ± 2.7/1.3 ± 1.2 in untreated CD, treated CD, and healthy controls, respectively. Resulting mercury levels were significantly higher in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. No differences were found regarding fish intake and number of amalgam fillings. No demographic or clinical data were significantly associated with mercury levels in biologic samples. Conclusion. Data demonstrate a fourfold increase of mercury blood levels in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in celiac mechanism. PMID:25802516

  13. Low 25 (OH) vitamin D levels are associated with autoimmune thyroid disease in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Palomba, Stefano; Caggiano, Mario; Tafuri, Domenico; Colao, Annamaria; Orio, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Low 25(OH) vitamin D levels have been associated with several autoimmune diseases and recently with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). The aim of the study was to investigate the association of AITD with 25(OH) vitamin D levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Fifty women with PCOS were consecutively enrolled and underwent routine health checkups, which included measurements of 25(OH) vitamin D, anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO-Ab), anti-thyreoglobulin (TG-Ab) antibodies, FT3, FT4, and TSH. Selecting 50 nmol/L as cut-off point, low 25(OH) vitamin D levels were detected in 23 of 50 patients (46 %). AITD was diagnosed when TPO-Ab levels exceeding 80 U/ml and/or TG-Ab levels exceeding 70 U/ml. AITD was detected in 12 of 50 patients (24 %). The levels of 25(OH) vitamin D were significantly lower in women with PCOS and AITD when compared with women with PCOS and without AITD (p = 0.02). In women with AITD no correlation was found between 25(OH) vitamin D and TG-Ab (r = 0.48; p = 0.16), TPO-Ab (r = 0.43; p = 0.21), TSH (r = 0.38; p = 0.27), FT3 (r = -0.40; p = 0.25) and FT4 levels (r = -0.54; p = 0.10). These findings suggest that low levels of 25(OH) vitamin D were significantly associated with AITD in women with PCOS.

  14. d-serine levels in Alzheimer's disease: implications for novel biomarker development

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, C; Lourenco, M V; Vargas-Lopes, C; Suemoto, C K; Brandão, C O; Reis, T; Leite, R E P; Laks, J; Jacob-Filho, W; Pasqualucci, C A; Grinberg, L T; Ferreira, S T; Panizzutti, R

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder still in search of effective methods of diagnosis. Altered levels of the NMDA receptor co-agonist, d-serine, have been associated with neurological disorders, including schizophrenia and epilepsy. However, whether d-serine levels are deregulated in AD remains elusive. Here, we first measured D-serine levels in post-mortem hippocampal and cortical samples from nondemented subjects (n=8) and AD patients (n=14). We next determined d-serine levels in experimental models of AD, including wild-type rats and mice that received intracerebroventricular injections of amyloid-β oligomers, and APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Finally, we assessed d-serine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 21 patients with a diagnosis of probable AD, as compared with patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (n=9), major depression (n=9) and healthy controls (n=10), and results were contrasted with CSF amyloid-β/tau AD biomarkers. d-serine levels were higher in the hippocampus and parietal cortex of AD patients than in control subjects. Levels of both d-serine and serine racemase, the enzyme responsible for d-serine production, were elevated in experimental models of AD. Significantly, d-serine levels were higher in the CSF of probable AD patients than in non-cognitively impaired subject groups. Combining d-serine levels to the amyloid/tau index remarkably increased the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis of probable AD in our cohort. Our results show that increased brain and CSF d-serine levels are associated with AD. CSF d-serine levels discriminated between nondemented and AD patients in our cohort and might constitute a novel candidate biomarker for early AD diagnosis. PMID:25942042

  15. Increased serum osteopontin levels in autistic children: relation to the disease severity.

    PubMed

    Al-ayadhi, Laila Y; Mostafa, Gehan A

    2011-10-01

    Autoimmunity to brain may play an etiopathogenic role in autism. Osteopontin is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been shown to play an important role in various autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases. Osteopontin induces IL-17 production by T-helper 17 lymphocytes, the key players in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. Anti-osteopontin treatment reduces the clinical severity of some autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases by reducing IL-17 production. We are the first to measure serum osteopontin levels, by ELISA, in 42 autistic children in comparison to 42 healthy-matched children. The relationship between serum osteopontin levels and the severity of autism, which was assessed by using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), was also studied. Autistic children had significantly higher serum osteopontin levels than healthy controls (P<0.001). Increased serum osteopontin levels were found in 80.95% (34/42) of autistic children. Children with severe autism had significantly higher serum osteopontin levels than patients with mild to moderate autism (P=0.02). Moreover, serum osteopontin levels of autistic patients had significant positive correlations with CARS (P=0.007). In conclusions, serum osteopontin levels were increased in many autistic children and they were significantly correlated to the severity of autism. Further wide-scale studies are warranted to shed light on the etiopathogenic role of osteopontin in autism and to investigate its relation to IL-17 and brain-specific auto-antibodies, which are indicators of autoimmunity, in these patients. The therapeutic role of anti-osteopontin antibodies in amelioration of autistic manifestations should also be studied.

  16. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  17. Trends in motor neuron disease: association with latitude and air lead levels in Spain.

    PubMed

    Santurtún, Ana; Villar, Alejandro; Delgado-Alvarado, Manuel; Riancho, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Motor neuron diseases (MND) are a group of disorders characterized by motor neuron degeneration. Among them, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is by far the most common in adulthood. This paper assesses the trend and geographical pattern in MND incidence in Spain and the possible air lead levels effect on this pathology. To confirm this concept, we performed a retrospective analysis of the deaths due to MND in Spain during 2000 and 2013, determined the geographical differences, and explored the relationship between MND and the air levels of lead. Overall, between 2000 and 2013, 11,355 people died in Spain because of MND. Disease mortality significantly increased in recent years (2007-2013) when compared with the first time of the period. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient also showed a statistically significant positive trend (CC = 0.824, p = 0.0002). Among people over 65 years, mortality rates were higher in Northern provinces. Moreover, we found a significant association of MND mortality with higher air lead levels (CC = 0.457, p = 0.01). Our study confirms that MND mortality is increasing in Spain, with a significant latitude gradient, which suggests an important role of environmental exposures. This ecological study suggests that air lead levels may be implicated in ALS pathogenesis.

  18. Declines in large wildlife increase landscape-level prevalence of rodent-borne disease in Africa.

    PubMed

    Young, Hillary S; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Helgen, Kristofer M; McCauley, Douglas J; Billeter, Sarah A; Kosoy, Michael Y; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Salkeld, Daniel J; Young, Truman P; Dittmar, Katharina

    2014-05-13

    Populations of large wildlife are declining on local and global scales. The impacts of this pulse of size-selective defaunation include cascading changes to smaller animals, particularly rodents, and alteration of many ecosystem processes and services, potentially involving changes to prevalence and transmission of zoonotic disease. Understanding linkages between biodiversity loss and zoonotic disease is important for both public health and nature conservation programs, and has been a source of much recent scientific debate. In the case of rodent-borne zoonoses, there is strong conceptual support, but limited empirical evidence, for the hypothesis that defaunation, the loss of large wildlife, increases zoonotic disease risk by directly or indirectly releasing controls on rodent density. We tested this hypothesis by experimentally excluding large wildlife from a savanna ecosystem in East Africa, and examining changes in prevalence and abundance of Bartonella spp. infection in rodents and their flea vectors. We found no effect of wildlife removal on per capita prevalence of Bartonella infection in either rodents or fleas. However, because rodent and, consequently, flea abundance doubled following experimental defaunation, the density of infected hosts and infected fleas was roughly twofold higher in sites where large wildlife was absent. Thus, defaunation represents an elevated risk in Bartonella transmission to humans (bartonellosis). Our results (i) provide experimental evidence of large wildlife defaunation increasing landscape-level disease prevalence, (ii) highlight the importance of susceptible host regulation pathways and host/vector density responses in biodiversity-disease relationships, and (iii) suggest that rodent-borne disease responses to large wildlife loss may represent an important context where this relationship is largely negative.

  19. Declines in large wildlife increase landscape-level prevalence of rodent-borne disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Young, Hillary S.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Helgen, Kristofer M.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Salkeld, Daniel J.; Young, Truman P.; Dittmar, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Populations of large wildlife are declining on local and global scales. The impacts of this pulse of size-selective defaunation include cascading changes to smaller animals, particularly rodents, and alteration of many ecosystem processes and services, potentially involving changes to prevalence and transmission of zoonotic disease. Understanding linkages between biodiversity loss and zoonotic disease is important for both public health and nature conservation programs, and has been a source of much recent scientific debate. In the case of rodent-borne zoonoses, there is strong conceptual support, but limited empirical evidence, for the hypothesis that defaunation, the loss of large wildlife, increases zoonotic disease risk by directly or indirectly releasing controls on rodent density. We tested this hypothesis by experimentally excluding large wildlife from a savanna ecosystem in East Africa, and examining changes in prevalence and abundance of Bartonella spp. infection in rodents and their flea vectors. We found no effect of wildlife removal on per capita prevalence of Bartonella infection in either rodents or fleas. However, because rodent and, consequently, flea abundance doubled following experimental defaunation, the density of infected hosts and infected fleas was roughly twofold higher in sites where large wildlife was absent. Thus, defaunation represents an elevated risk in Bartonella transmission to humans (bartonellosis). Our results (i) provide experimental evidence of large wildlife defaunation increasing landscape-level disease prevalence, (ii) highlight the importance of susceptible host regulation pathways and host/vector density responses in biodiversity–disease relationships, and (iii) suggest that rodent-borne disease responses to large wildlife loss may represent an important context where this relationship is largely negative. PMID:24778215

  20. A novel image recuperation approach for diagnosing and ranking retinopathy disease level using diabetic fundus image.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Somasundaram; Alli, P

    2015-01-01

    Retinal fundus images are widely used in diagnosing and providing treatment for several eye diseases. Prior works using retinal fundus images detected the presence of exudation with the aid of publicly available dataset using extensive segmentation process. Though it was proved to be computationally efficient, it failed to create a diabetic retinopathy feature selection system for transparently diagnosing the disease state. Also the diagnosis of diseases did not employ machine learning methods to categorize candidate fundus images into true positive and true negative ratio. Several candidate fundus images did not include more detailed feature selection technique for diabetic retinopathy. To apply machine learning methods and classify the candidate fundus images on the basis of sliding window a method called, Diabetic Fundus Image Recuperation (DFIR) is designed in this paper. The initial phase of DFIR method select the feature of optic cup in digital retinal fundus images based on Sliding Window Approach. With this, the disease state for diabetic retinopathy is assessed. The feature selection in DFIR method uses collection of sliding windows to obtain the features based on the histogram value. The histogram based feature selection with the aid of Group Sparsity Non-overlapping function provides more detailed information of features. Using Support Vector Model in the second phase, the DFIR method based on Spiral Basis Function effectively ranks the diabetic retinopathy diseases. The ranking of disease level for each candidate set provides a much promising result for developing practically automated diabetic retinopathy diagnosis system. Experimental work on digital fundus images using the DFIR method performs research on the factors such as sensitivity, specificity rate, ranking efficiency and feature selection time.

  1. Evaluation of circulating levels and renal clearance of natural amino acids in patients with Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, A; Pivonello, R; Melis, D; Alfieri, R; Filippella, M; Spagnuolo, G; Salvatore, F; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2002-02-01

    Although the hypercortisolism-induced impairment of protein homeostasis is object of several studies, a detailed evaluation of the complete amino acid profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has never been performed. The aim of the current open transversal controlled study was to evaluate serum and urinary concentrations as well as renal clearance of the complete series of natural amino acids and their relationship with glucose tolerance in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Twenty patients with CD (10 active and 10 cured) and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls entered the study. Measurement of serum and urinary levels of the complete series of natural amino acids was performed in all patients analyzed by cationic exchange high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) after 2 weeks of a standardized protein intake regimen. The renal clearance (renal excretion rate) of each amino acid was calculated on the basis of the serum and urinary concentrations of creatinine and the specific amino acid. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin response to standard glucose load, insulinogenic and homeostasis model insulin resistance (Homa-R) indexes were also evaluated and correlated to the circulating levels and renal clearances of each amino acid. Significantly higher serum (p<0.01) and urinary (p<0.05) levels of alanine and cystine, lower serum and higher urinary levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.05) and higher renal excretion rates of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.01) were found in patients with active CD than in patients cured from the disease and in controls. No difference was found between cured patients and controls. Creatinine clearance was similar in active and cured patients and in controls. In patients with active CD, urinary cortisol levels were significantly correlated to urinary cystine levels (r=0.85; p<0.01) and renal excretion rate of leucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05), isoleucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05) and valine (r=-0

  2. Comparative Analysis of GCF Resistin Levels in Obese Subjects with and without Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahendra, Jaideep; Singh, Gurdeep; Pradeep, AR; Sundaravikram; Sekar, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Resistin is an adipocyte derived hormone that has been shown to play a substantial role in the development of insulin resistance. Resistin acts as a pro-inflammatory molecule and stimulates the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Recent studies have reported the association of Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) resistin levels with periodontal condition. Aim The aim of this study was to assess and compare the GCF resistin levels in obese subjects with periodontal health and disease and to correlate the disease severity with GCF resistin levels. Materials and Methods Ninety subjects of both the sexes with age between 20–45 years were selected for the study and were categorized into four groups: 25 obese or overweight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis (Group-I), 25 obese or overweight subjects with healthy periodontium (Group-II), 25 non-obese subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis (Group-III) and 15 non obese subjects with healthy periodontium (Group-IV). The demographic variables like age, Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC) were recorded and the clinical periodontal parameters such as Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) were also assessed in all the groups. GCF was collected and assessed for resistin levels. Results The mean GCF resistin levels in Groups I, II, III & IV were 15.14, 9.06, 12.74 and 5.41 ng/dl respectively and the difference in mean GCF resistin level was statistically significant with the p-value<0.001. The mean GCF resistin levels in Group-I was higher compared to Group II and III and the differences in mean GCF resistin levels were statistically significant. GCF resistin levels were positively correlated with BMI, WC and CAL in Group I and CAL correlated with GCF resistin in Group III and this correlation was statistically significant. Conclusion From our study we report that obese subjects with periodontitis have more GCF resistin levels

  3. Gluthatione level is altered in lymphoblasts from patients with familial Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cecchi, C; Latorraca, S; Sorbi, S; Iantomasi, T; Favilli, F; Vincenzini, M T; Liguri, G

    1999-11-12

    Intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulphide (GSSG), glutamic acid and gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) were measured in lymphoblast lines from patients with familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) and from age-matched controls. Lymphoblasts carrying presenilins (PS) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) genes mutations showed significantly decreased GSH content with respect to controls. Levels of GSSG and glutamic acid, as well as the activity of gamma-GCS were not significantly different in lymphoblasts carrying genes mutations as compared with control cells. These results indicate that even peripheral cells not involved in the neurodegenerative process of AD show altered GSH content when carrying PS and APP genes mutations. The provided data appear to be in accordance with the known alteration of GSH levels in central nervous system and strengthen the hypothesis of oxidative stress as an important, possibly crucial mechanism in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:10568522

  4. Assessing of plasma levels of iron, zinc and copper in Iranian Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Nikyar, Hamidreza; Dehghani, Leila; Basiri, Keivan; Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza Aghaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trace elements have long been suspected to be involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis, but their exact roles have been remained controversial. In this study, we assessed the levels of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in different stage of PD patients. Materials and Methods: Serum concentrations of iron, copper and zinc were measured in 109 patients with PD by colorimetric methods. Staging of the disease was evaluated according to Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) and Unified PD Rating Scale III (UPDRS). Results: Severity values of PD measured by UPRDSIII and HY stages with mean ± SD were 22.9 ± 1.81 and 1.8 ± 1.1, respectively. Mean ± SD values of iron, zinc and copper are 100.7 ± 289.2, 68.3 ± 5.32, and 196.8 ± 162.1 μg/dl, respectively. Serum iron level in most of the patients was normal (76.6%). Whereas zinc concentration in most participants was below the normal range (64.5%) and serum Cu in the majority of patients had a high normal concentration (42.7%) and did not significantly differ among various PD stages. Conclusion: The result of this study does not confirm strong correlation between PD stages and serum levels of tested trace elements. The actual correlations between these elements and PD and whether modulating of these agents levels could be an effective approach in the treatment of this disease remain to be elucidated. PMID:27099844

  5. Diagnosing and Ranking Retinopathy Disease Level Using Diabetic Fundus Image Recuperation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, K.; Alli Rajendran, P.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal fundus images are widely used in diagnosing different types of eye diseases. The existing methods such as Feature Based Macular Edema Detection (FMED) and Optimally Adjusted Morphological Operator (OAMO) effectively detected the presence of exudation in fundus images and identified the true positive ratio of exudates detection, respectively. These mechanically detected exudates did not include more detailed feature selection technique to the system for detection of diabetic retinopathy. To categorize the exudates, Diabetic Fundus Image Recuperation (DFIR) method based on sliding window approach is developed in this work to select the features of optic cup in digital retinal fundus images. The DFIR feature selection uses collection of sliding windows with varying range to obtain the features based on the histogram value using Group Sparsity Nonoverlapping Function. Using support vector model in the second phase, the DFIR method based on Spiral Basis Function effectively ranks the diabetic retinopathy disease level. The ranking of disease level on each candidate set provides a much promising result for developing practically automated and assisted diabetic retinopathy diagnosis system. Experimental work on digital fundus images using the DFIR method performs research on the factors such as sensitivity, ranking efficiency, and feature selection time. PMID:25945362

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid tau levels are a marker for molecular subtype in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Karch, André; Hermann, Peter; Ponto, Claudia; Schmitz, Matthias; Arora, Amandeep; Zafar, Saima; Llorens, Franc; Müller-Heine, Annika; Zerr, Inga

    2015-05-01

    The molecular subtype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is an important prognostic marker for patient survival. However, subtype determination is not possible during lifetime. Because the rate of disease progression is associated with the molecular subtype, this study aimed at investigating if total tau, a marker of neuronal death, allows premortem diagnosis of molecular subtype when codon 129 genotype is known. Two hundred ninety-six sCJD patients were tested for their cerebrospinal fluid total tau level at the time of diagnosis and were investigated for their sCJD subtype postmortem. There was a significant association between tau levels and the prion protein type in patients with codon 129 MM (p < 0.001), MV (p = 0.004), and VV (p = 0.001) genotype. Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed values of area under the curve of 0.76-0.80 for the different genotypes indicating a good diagnostic validity of the test. Total tau can be used as a diagnostic test for the assessment of prion protein type when codon 129 genotype is known. It provides valuable information for physicians and next of kin about the further course of disease.

  7. Proton Beam Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Adjacent to the Porta Hepatis

    SciTech Connect

    Mizumoto, Masashi; Tokuuye, Koichi Sugahara, Shinji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Abei, Masato; Shoda, Junichi; Tohno, Eriko; Minami, Manabu

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of proton beam therapy (PBT) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located adjacent to the porta hepatis. Methods and Materials: Subjects of the study were 53 patients with HCC located within 2 cm of the main portal vein. All patients had tumor confined to the radiation field with no evidence of metastatic disease. All patients had hepatic function levels of a Child-Pugh score of 10 or less, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, and no uncontrolled ascites. Patients underwent PBT of 72.6 GyE in 22 fractions from Sept 2001 to Dec 2004. Results: After 3 years, the actuarial survival rate was 45.1% and local control rate was 86.0%. Prognostic factors for survival included Child-Pugh score, number of tumors, and {alpha}-fetoprotein levels. No late treatment-related toxicity of Grade 2 or higher was observed. Conclusions: The PBT delivering 72.6 GyE in 22 fractions appears to be effective and safe for HCC adjacent to the porta hepatis.

  8. Transgenic Resistance Confers Effective Field Level Control of Bacterial Spot Disease in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Diana M.; Stall, Robert E.; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Pauly, Michael H.; Vallad, Gary E.; Dahlbeck, Doug; Staskawicz, Brian J.; Scott, John W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether lines of transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) expressing the Bs2 resistance gene from pepper, a close relative of tomato, demonstrate improved resistance to bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas species in replicated multi-year field trials under commercial type growing conditions. We report that the presence of the Bs2 gene in the highly susceptible VF 36 background reduced disease to extremely low levels, and VF 36-Bs2 plants displayed the lowest disease severity amongst all tomato varieties tested, including commercial and breeding lines with host resistance. Yields of marketable fruit from transgenic lines were typically 2.5 times that of the non-transformed parent line, but varied between 1.5 and 11.5 fold depending on weather conditions and disease pressure. Trials were conducted without application of any copper-based bactericides, presently in wide use despite negative impacts on the environment. This is the first demonstration of effective field resistance in a transgenic genotype based on a plant R gene and provides an opportunity for control of a devastating pathogen while eliminating ineffective copper pesticides. PMID:22870280

  9. Gingival crevicular fluid and serum cystatin c levels in periodontal health and disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anuj; Pradeep, A R; Raghavendra, N M; Arjun, P; Kathariya, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Cystatin C (CSTC) is an inhibitor of cysteine proteinases and could play a protective and regulatory role under inflammatory conditions. The present study was designed to assess the concentration of CSTC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum, to find out their association if any, in periodontal health and disease. 30 subjects were selected divided into 3 groups consisting of 10 subjects in each group based on clinical parameters: periodontally healthy group, gingivitis group and chronic periodontitis group, while, chronic periodontitis group after 8 weeks of the treatment (scaling and root planing) constituted after periodontal therapy group. GCF and serum samples were collected from all subjects to estimate the levels of CSTC by ELISA. The mean CSTC concentration in GCF and serum was observed to be the highest in periodontitis group and lowest in periodontally healthy group with intermediate concentration in gingivitis group and after periodontal therapy group. CSTC concentration in GCF and serum increased proportionally with the severity of periodontal disease (from health to periodontitis group) and decreased after treatment. This suggests that CSTC increases with disease progression to prevent further periodontal degeneration and decreases after treatment due to bone metabolic homeostasis. Further, longitudinal prospective studies involving larger population are needed to confirm the findings of present study and to better understand the role of CSTC in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. PMID:22377703

  10. Strain-level dissection of the contribution of the gut microbiome to human metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenhong; Zhao, Liping

    2016-04-20

    The gut microbiota has been linked with metabolic diseases in humans, but demonstration of causality remains a challenge. The gut microbiota, as a complex microbial ecosystem, consists of hundreds of individual bacterial species, each of which contains many strains with high genetic diversity. Recent advances in genomic and metabolomic technologies are facilitating strain-level dissection of the contribution of the gut microbiome to metabolic diseases. Interventional studies and correlation analysis between variations in the microbiome and metabolome, captured by longitudinal sampling, can lead to the identification of specific bacterial strains that may contribute to human metabolic diseases via the production of bioactive metabolites. For example, high-quality draft genomes of prevalent gut bacterial strains can be assembled directly from metagenomic datasets using a canopy-based algorithm. Specific metabolites associated with a disease phenotype can be identified by nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics of urine and other samples. Such multi-omics approaches can be employed to identify specific gut bacterial genomes that are not only correlated with detected metabolites but also encode the genes required for producing the precursors of those metabolites in the gut. Here, we argue that if a causative role can be demonstrated in follow-up mechanistic studies--for example, using gnotobiotic models--such functional strains have the potential to become biomarkers for diagnostics and targets for therapeutics.

  11. Low Serum Creatine Kinase Level Predicts Mortality in Patients with a Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Marie; Chassé, Jean-François; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Flamant, Martin; Vrtovsnik, François; Houillier, Pascal; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum creatine kinase (sCK) reflects CK activity from striated skeletal muscle. Muscle wasting is a risk factor for mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study is to evaluate whether sCK is a predictor of mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in a CKD population. Methods We included 1801 non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients from the NephroTest cohort. We used time-fixed and time-dependent cause-specific Cox models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the risk of death and for the risk of ESRD associated with gender-specific sCK tertiles. Results Higher sCK level at baseline was associated with a lower age, a higher body mass index, and a higher level of 24 h urinary creatinine excretion, serum albumin and prealbumin (p<0.001). Men, patients of sub-Saharan ancestry, smokers and statin users also experienced a higher level of sCK. In a time-fixed Cox survival model (median follow-up 6.0 years), the lowest gender-specific sCK tertile was associated with a higher risk of death before and after adjustment for confounders (Crude model: hazard ratio (HR) 1.77 (95% CI: 1.34–2.32) compared to the highest tertile; fully-adjusted model: HR 1.37 (95% CI: 1.02–1.86)). Similar results were obtained with a time-dependent Cox model. The sCK level was not associated with the risk of ESRD. Conclusion A low level of sCK is associated with an increased risk of death in a CKD population. sCK levels might reflect muscle mass and nutritional status. PMID:27248151

  12. Relationship Between Plasma Adiponectin Level With Inflammatory and Metabolic Markers in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Omid; Abediankenari, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin (ADPN) is an important anti-inflammatory marker with anti-atherogenic effects. However, its role in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) should be determined. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between plasma adiponectin level with some inflammatory and metabolic markers in CKD patients. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, we measured plasma ADPN level in 42 CKD patients and 46 healthy persons with the same age and sex as control group. Then, we investigated the association between plasma ADPN level with some inflammatory and metabolic determinants in CKD patients. Results: Plasma ADPN level was significantly higher in CKD patients than control group (P = 0.04). It was directly correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.599, P < 0.001) and serum creatinine levels (r = 0.675, P < 0.001) and inversely correlated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r = -0.570, P < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.318, P = 0.04), C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = -0.548, P < 0.001) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) in CKD patients. Conclusions: These findings suggested that plasma ADPN level is inversely associated with GFR and directly correlate with HDL-cholesterol and inversely with some, but not all metabolic factors of CKD patients who were not undergone dialysis. PMID:24719803

  13. Association between Blood Dioxin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease in an Endemic Area of Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chien-Yuan; Wu, Cheng-Long; Wu, Jin-Shang; Chang, Jung-Wei; Cheng, Ya-Yun; Kuo, Yau-Chang; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Background Dioxin is an industrial pollutant related to various diseases, but epidemiological data on its effects on the kidney are limited. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the association between dioxin exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and identify the related factors. Methods We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study and recruited participants from an area where the residents were exposed to dioxin released from a factory. We defined a “high dioxin level” as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) ≥ 20 pg WHO98-TEQDF/g lipid in the serum and defined CKD as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or a diagnosis of CKD by a physician. The renal function was assessed between 2005 and 2010, and we excluded those who had had kidney diseases before the study started. Comparisons between patients of CKD and those who did not have CKD were made to identify the risk factors for CKD. Results Of the 2898 participants, 1427 had high dioxin levels, and 156 had CKD. In the univariate analyses, CKD was associated with high dioxin levels, age, gender, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and high insulin and uric acid levels. After adjusting for other factors, we found high dioxin levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–2.99), female gender (AOR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.20–2.53), hypertension (AOR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.17–2.42), high insulin levels (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.26–3.61), high uric acid levels (AOR = 4.25, 95% CI: 2.92–6.20), and older age (AOR = 4.66, 95% CI: 1.87–11.62 for 40–64 year and AOR = 26.66, 95% CI: 10.51–67.62 for age ≥ 65 year) were independent predictors of CKD. Conclusion A high dioxin level was associated with an increased prevalence of CKD. Therefore, the kidney function of populations with exposure to dioxin should be monitored. PMID:26963719

  14. Serum Vitamin D Level and Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity: Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jin; Liu, Jian; Davies, Michael L.; Chen, Weiqian

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence from epidemiological studies concerning the relationship between serum vitamin D concentrations and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is inconsistent. This meta-analysis is aimed at determining the magnitude of the correlation between this common autoimmune disease and vitamin D, an important nutrient known to dampen adaptive immune responses. Methods Through multiple search strategies, relevant literature was identified and evaluated for quality before May 16 2015. Data extracted from eligible studies was synthesized to calculate pooled correlation coefficient (r), mean difference (MD) and odds ratio (OR). The Venice criteria were applied to assess the credibility of the evidence for each statistically significant association. Results A total of 24 reports involving 3489 patients were selected for analysis. RA patients had lower vitamin D levels than healthy controls (MD:-16.52 nmol/L, 95% confidence intervals [CI]:-18.85 to -14.19 nmol/L). There existed a negative relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level and disease activity index, e.g. 25OHD vs. Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28): r = -0.13, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.09; 25OHD vs. C-reactive protein: r = -0.12, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.00. Additionally, latitude-stratified subgroup analysis yielded a relatively stronger negative correlation between 25OHD and DAS28 in low-latitude areas. This inverse relationship also appeared more significant in developing countries than in developed countries. No publication bias was detected. Conclusion RA patients had lower vitamin D values than healthy controls. There was a negative association between serum vitamin D and RA disease activity. However, more strictly controlled studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:26751969

  15. Blood Level of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Leukocytes and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) have an important defensive role against various microorganisms and other agents, but by liberating various substances, first of all the superoxide anion (O 2¯), they can damage the bronchial mucosa and influence the development of bronchial inflammation which is the fundamental of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). Objective: to show the role of the PMNL for development and level of BHR in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Material and methods: We observed 160 patients with COPD treated in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Sarajevo during three years :from 2012 to 2014. They were divided into groups and subgroups according to the first registration of BHR in the course of illness and to the number of exacerbations of the disease in one year. The number of blood PMNL was measured in a stable state of disease at the begging and at the end of investigation. Results: The number of blood PMNL was significantly greater in patients with 3 or more exacerbations per one year (p <0.01). Patients with BHR had significantly greater number blood PMNL than patients without BHR (p< 0.05). Patients with 3 exacerbations per year had a statistically significant increase of number of PMNL between first and last examination (p<0.01). Conclusion: There is statistically significant correlation between the number of blood PMNL and the level of BHR in COPD, but future examination need to be done to determine real role and mode of action of PMNL for these processes. PMID:26543311

  16. Metabolic disease network and its implication for disease comorbidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Deok-Sun; Oltvai, Zoltan; Christakis, Nicholas; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2008-03-01

    Given that most diseases are the result of the breakdown of some cellular processes, a key aim of modern medicine is to establish the relationship between disease phenotypes and the various disruptions in the underlying cellular networks. Here we show that our current understanding of the structure of the human metabolic network can provide insight into potential relationships among often distinct disease phenotypes. Using the known enzyme-disease associations, we construct a human metabolic disease network in which nodes are diseases and two diseases are linked if the enzymes associated with them catalyze adjacent metabolic reactions. We find that the more connected a disease is, the higher is its prevalence and the chance that it is associated with a high mortality. The results indicate that the cellular network-level relationships between metabolic pathways and the associated disease provide insights into disease comorbidity, with potential important consequences on disease diagnosis and prevention.

  17. Interleukin 15 Levels in Serum May Predict a Severe Disease Course in Patients with Early Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Ortiz, Ana M.; Alvaro-Gracia, José María; Castañeda, Santos; Díaz-Sánchez, Belen; Carvajal, Inmaculada; García-Vadillo, J. Alberto; Humbría, Alicia; López-Bote, J. Pedro; Patiño, Esther; Tomero, Eva G.; Vicente, Esther F.; Sabando, Pedro; García-Vicuña, Rosario

    2011-01-01

    Background Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is thought to be involved in the physiopathological mechanisms of RA and it can be detected in the serum and the synovial fluid of inflamed joints in patients with RA but not in patients with osteoarthritis or other inflammatory joint diseases. Therefore, the objective of this work is to analyse whether serum IL-15 (sIL-15) levels serve as a biomarker of disease severity in patients with early arthritis (EA). Methodology and Results Data from 190 patients in an EA register were analysed (77.2% female; median age 53 years; 6-month median disease duration at entry). Clinical and treatment information was recorded systematically, especially the prescription of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Two multivariate longitudinal analyses were performed with different dependent variables: 1) DAS28 and 2) a variable reflecting intensive treatment. Both included sIL-15 as predictive variable and other variables associated with disease severity, including rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA). Of the 171 patients (638 visits analysed) completing the follow-up, 71% suffered rheumatoid arthritis and 29% were considered as undifferentiated arthritis. Elevated sIL-15 was detected in 29% of this population and this biomarker did not overlap extensively with RF or ACPA. High sIL-15 levels (β Coefficient [95% confidence interval]: 0.12 [0.06–0.18]; p<0.001) or ACPA (0.34 [0.01–0.67]; p = 0.044) were significantly and independently associated with a higher DAS28 during follow-up, after adjusting for confounding variables such as gender, age and treatment. In addition, those patients with elevated sIL-15 had a significantly higher risk of receiving intensive treatment (RR 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.18–2.7; p = 0.007). Conclusions Patients with EA displaying high baseline sIL-15 suffered a more severe disease and received more intensive treatment. Thus, sIL-15 may be a biomarker for

  18. CSF levels of the histamine metabolite tele-methylhistamine are only slightly decreased in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Motawaj, Mouhammad; Peoc'h, Katell; Callebert, Jacques; Arrang, Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Neuropathological studies have reported a strong neurofibrillary degeneration of the tuberomamillary nucleus, the region of origin of histamine neurons, in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Histaminergic neurons enhance cognition and memory, suggesting that their degeneration may contribute to the cognitive decline of AD. Besides neurons, the brain histaminergic system comprises mast cells and microglia that can also produce histamine. The level of activity of this histaminergic system in AD remained unknown. In the present study, we have measured the levels of the main histamine metabolite in brain, tele-methylhistamine (t-MeHA), an index of histaminergic system activity, in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 97 non-AD (controls) and 91 AD patients, males or females. t-MeHA levels in CSF of controls tended to be higher, although non-significantly, in females than in males. t-MeHA levels of controls and AD significantly increased with age (1.66 ± 0.13, 2.04 ± 0.12, and 2.76 ± 0.12 pmol/ml at 40, 60 and 80 years, respectively). In spite of the strong degeneration of histamine neurons in the disease, t-MeHA levels in CSF were only slightly decreased in AD compared to controls (2.14 ± 0.10 vs 2.76 ± 0.13 pmol/ml, -22%, p < 0.01). This decrease was similar whatever the age, and was slightly higher in females than in males. The increase observed with age, and the limited magnitude of the decrease in AD even at late stages may result from the compensatory activation of spared neurons, as well as the neuroinflammation-induced activation of microglia occurring in senescence and AD.

  19. Serum Iron Levels and the Risk of Parkinson Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    PubMed Central

    Gögele, Martin; Lill, Christina M.; Bertram, Lars; Do, Chuong B.; Eriksson, Nicholas; Foroud, Tatiana; Myers, Richard H.; Nalls, Michael; Keller, Margaux F.; Benyamin, Beben; Whitfield, John B.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Thompson, John R.; Minelli, Cosetta

    2013-01-01

    Background Although levels of iron are known to be increased in the brains of patients with Parkinson disease (PD), epidemiological evidence on a possible effect of iron blood levels on PD risk is inconclusive, with effects reported in opposite directions. Epidemiological studies suffer from problems of confounding and reverse causation, and mendelian randomization (MR) represents an alternative approach to provide unconfounded estimates of the effects of biomarkers on disease. We performed a MR study where genes known to modify iron levels were used as instruments to estimate the effect of iron on PD risk, based on estimates of the genetic effects on both iron and PD obtained from the largest sample meta-analyzed to date. Methods and Findings We used as instrumental variables three genetic variants influencing iron levels, HFE rs1800562, HFE rs1799945, and TMPRSS6 rs855791. Estimates of their effect on serum iron were based on a recent genome-wide meta-analysis of 21,567 individuals, while estimates of their effect on PD risk were obtained through meta-analysis of genome-wide and candidate gene studies with 20,809 PD cases and 88,892 controls. Separate MR estimates of the effect of iron on PD were obtained for each variant and pooled by meta-analysis. We investigated heterogeneity across the three estimates as an indication of possible pleiotropy and found no evidence of it. The combined MR estimate showed a statistically significant protective effect of iron, with a relative risk reduction for PD of 3% (95% CI 1%–6%; p = 0.001) per 10 µg/dl increase in serum iron. Conclusions Our study suggests that increased iron levels are causally associated with a decreased risk of developing PD. Further studies are needed to understand the pathophysiological mechanism of action of serum iron on PD risk before recommendations can be made. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23750121

  20. Lowering plasma cholesterol levels halts progression of aortic valve disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jordan D.; Weiss, Robert M.; Serrano, Kristine M.; Brooks, Robert M.; Berry, Christopher J.; Zimmerman, Kathy; Young, Stephen G.; Heistad, Donald D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Treatment of hyperlipidemia produces functional and structural improvements in atherosclerotic vessels. However, the effects of treating hyperlipidemia on the structure and function of the aortic valve has been controversial, and any effects could be confounded by pleiotropic effects of hypolipidemic treatment. The goal of this study was to determine whether reducing elevated plasma lipid levels with a “genetic switch” in Reversa mice (Ldlr−/−/Apob100/100/Mttpfl/fl/Mx1Cre+/+) reduces oxidative stress, reduces proosteogenic signaling, and retards the progression of aortic valve disease. Methods and Results After 6 months of hypercholesterolemia, Reversa mice exhibited increases in superoxide, lipid deposition, myofibroblast activation, calcium deposition, and pro-osteogenic protein expression in the aortic valve. Maximum aortic valve cusp separation, as judged by echocardiography, was not altered. During an additional 6 months of hypercholesterolemia, superoxide levels, valvular lipid deposition, and myofibroblast activation remained elevated. Furthermore, calcium deposition and pro-osteogenic gene expression became more pronounced and the aortic cusp separation decreased from 0.85 ± 0.04 to 0.70 ± 0.04 mm (mean ± SE; p < 0.05). Rapid normalization of cholesterol levels at 6 months of age (by inducing expression of Cre recombinase) normalized aortic valve superoxide levels, decreased myofibroblast activation, reduced valvular calcium burden, suppressed pro-osteogenic signaling cascades, and prevented the reductions in aortic valve cusp separation. Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate that reducing plasma lipid levels by genetic inactivation of the mttp gene in hypercholesterolemic mice with early aortic valve disease normalizes oxidative stress, reduces pro-osteogenic signaling, and halts the progression of aortic valve stenosis. PMID:19433756

  1. Association between periodontal disease and plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Lafaurie, Gloria Inés; Millán, Lina Viviana; Ardila, Carlos Martin; Duque, Andrés; Novoa, Camilo; López, Diego; Contreras, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: untreated periodontal disease seems to cause low grade systemic inflammation and blood lipid alteration leading to increased cardiovascular disease risk. To start testing this hypothesis in colombian patients, a multicentre study was conducted including the three main state capitals: bogota, medellin and cali. Methods: in this study 192 (28.4%) advanced and 256 (37.8%) moderate periodontitis patients were investigated for socio-demographic variables, city of precedence, periodontal parameters, smoking, red complex periodontopathic bacteria, serum antibodies against porphyromonas gingivalis and aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and blood lipids including total cholesterol, hdl, ldl and triglycerides (tg). Those parameters were compared to 229 (33.8%) controls having periodontal health or gingivitis. Results: advanced periodontitis had worst periodontal indexes, than moderate periodontitis and controls. Interestingly, higher hdl and tg levels were present in periodontitis. Bmi <30 and smoking were associated with increased hdl, hdl-35, ldl and tg, while glycemia >100 mg/dl associated with hdl, hdl-35 and tg. Tannerella forsythia showed a significant association with hdl-35 in bivariate analysis and serum igg1 against p. Gingivalis associated with hdl-35 and serum igg1 against t. Forsythia associated with tg and serum igg2 against a. Actinomycetemcomitans correlated with levels of hdl y hdl-35. In logistic regression the periodontitis patients from cali presented reduced hdl levels as compared to bogota and medellin patients. Presence of igg1 antibodies against p. Gingivalis and a. Actinomycetemcomitans correlated with reduced hdl levels. Conclusion: this study confirmed that untreated periodontitis generates alteration in serum lipid levels and systemic bacterial exposure against important periodontopathic bacteria could be the biological link. PMID:24892452

  2. Plasmatic higher levels of homocysteine in Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease, which includes a spectrum of hepatic pathology such as simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. The increased serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) may be associated with hepatic fat accumulation. Genetic mutations in the folate route may only mildly impair Hcy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between liver steatosis with plasma homocysteine level and MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in Brazilian patients with NAFLD. Methods Thirty-five patients diagnosed with NAFLD by liver biopsy and forty-five healthy controls neither age nor sex matched were genotyped for C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP and PCR-ASA, respectively, and Hcy was determined by HPLC. All patients were negative for markers of Wilson’s, hemochromatosis and autoimmune diseases. Their daily alcohol intake was less than 100 g/week. A set of metabolic and serum lipid markers were also measured at the time of liver biopsies. Results The plasma Hcy level was higher in NAFLD patients compared to the control group (p = 0.0341). No statistical difference for genotypes 677C/T (p = 0.110) and 1298A/C (p = 0.343) in patients with NAFLD and control subjects was observed. The genotypes distribution was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (677C/T p = 0.694 and 1298 A/C p = 0.188). The group of patients and controls showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) for BMI and HOMA_IR, similarly to HDL cholesterol levels (p < 0,006), AST, ALT, γGT, AP and triglycerides levels (p < 0.001). A negative correlation was observed between levels of vitamin B12 and Hcy concentration (p = 0.005). Conclusion Our results indicate that plasma Hcy was higher in NAFLD than controls. The MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms did not differ significantly between groups, despite the 677TT homozygous frequency was higher in patients (17

  3. Correlation of Levels of Oncostatin M Cytokine in Crevicular Fluid and Serum in Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Thorat, ManojKumar; AR, Pradeep; Garg, Garima

    2010-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to measure the level of Oncostatin M (OSM) a gp130 cytokine in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum of chronic periodontitis patients and to find any correlation between them before and after periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing, SRP). Methodology 60 subjects (age 25–50 years) were enrolled into three groups (n=20 per group), group I (healthy), group II (gingivitis) and group III (chronic periodontitis). Group III subjects were followed for 6–8 weeks after the initial periodontal therapy (SRP) as the group IV (after periodontal therapy). Clinical parameters were assessed as gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and radiographic evidence of bone loss. GCF and serum levels of OSM were measured by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results It was found that mean OSM levels had been elevated in both the GCF and serum of chronic periodontitis subjects (726.65 ± 283.56 and 65.59 ± 12.37 pg·mL−1, respectively) and these levels were decreased proportionally after the periodontal therapy (95.50 ± 38.85 and 39.98 ± 16.69 pg·mL−1 respectively). However, OSM was detected in GCF of healthy subjects (66.15 ± 28.10 pg·mL−1) and gingivitis-suffering subjects (128.33 ± 22.96 pg·mL−1) and was found as below the detectable limit (≈0.0 pg·mL−1) in the serum of same subjects. Significant correlation has been found between clinical parameters and GCF-serum levels of OSM. Conclusion Increased OSM level both in the GCF and serum, and the decreased levels after initial periodontal therapy (SRP) may suggest a use as an inflammatory bio-marker in the periodontal disease. PMID:21404969

  4. S100β Levels in CSF of Nonambulatory Dogs with Intervertebral Disk Disease Treated with Electroacupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Murata Hayashi, Ayne; Fonseca Pinto, Ana Carolina Brandão Campos; Cortopassi, Silvia Renata Gaido; Marvulle, Valdecir; Ruivo Maximino, Jessica; Chadi, Gerson; Matera, Julia Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate S100β levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of nonambulatory dogs with intervertebral disk disease treated with electroacupuncture: 10 dogs with thoracolumbar disk extrusion graded 3 to 5 (EA group) and 7 dogs without neurologic dysfunction (control group). All dogs regained ambulation. S100β was detected by Western blot analysis where EA group dogs were evaluated at two time points (M1 = before EA and M2 = when the dogs return ambulation) and at one time point from control group. In EA group dogs M1-S100β levels were significantly higher than in control group. EA group dogs were divided into subgroups A (n = 7—early motor recovery; 6.7 ± 7.8 days) and B (n = 3—late motor recovery; 76 ± 17.0 days). M1-S100β levels were similar between subgroups A and B. However, M2-S100β levels were significantly higher in subgroup B than in subgroup A. An elevated S100β levels were observed in dogs with late motor recovery. S100β may be associated with neuroplasticity following spinal cord injuries with intervertebral disk extrusion. Further studies with larger numbers of subjects and control group with affected dogs are necessary to investigate the relationship between neurotrophic factors and electroacupuncture stimulation. PMID:26464906

  5. Plasma level of neopterin as a marker of disease activity in treated rheumatoid arthritis patients: association with gender, disease activity and anti-CCP antibody.

    PubMed

    Arshadi, Delnia; Nikbin, Behrouz; Shakiba, Yadollah; Kiani, Amir; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Boroushaki, Mohammad Taher

    2013-11-01

    Immune system activation is known to be involved in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ in various cells, including monocytes, induces neopterin production. Plasma level of neopterin has been measured in many autoimmune diseases and can be used as a marker of cellular immunity activation. In this study we measured the plasma level of neopterin in 418 treated RA patients and 398 age and sex matched healthy people by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Disease activity score was calculated in all patients by DAS-CRP method. Plasma level of neopterin was compared between RA and control groups. We also determined the association between neopterin level with gender and disease activity score in RA patients. Significantly higher level of neopterin was observed in RA patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, there was higher neopterin level in male RA patients versus female patients. Plasma neopterin level was increased in patients with active disease and also was correlated with disease activity parameters. There was a significant correlation of plasma level of neopterin with age in both RA and control group and also age of onset and disease duration in RA patients. Anti-CCP positive patients had higher level of neopterin in comparison to anti-CCP negative patients and there was a significant correlation between neopterin level and anti-CCP titer. Our results indicated that neopterin is a sensitive marker for assaying background inflammation and disease activity score in RA patients and may be used as a marker for evaluation of therapy efficacy.

  6. MINARETS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, N. King; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Minarets Wilderness and adjacent areas in the central Sierra Nevada, California was conducted. The results of the survey indicate that the study area has a substantiated resource potential for small deposits of copper, silver, zinc, lead, and iron, and a probable mineral-resource potential for molybdenum. No energy-resource potential was identified in the study.

  7. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  8. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  9. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  10. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS... transporting a material that Table 148.10 of this part associates with a reference to this section, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  11. Association of Small Dense LDL Serum Levels and Circulating Monocyte Subsets in Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A.; Kastl, Stefan P.; Pfaffenberger, Stefan; Lenz, Max; Hofbauer, Sebastian L.; Wonnerth, Anna; Koller, Lorenz; Katsaros, Katharina M.; Pongratz, Thomas; Goliasch, Georg; Niessner, Alexander; Gaspar, Ludovit; Huber, Kurt; Maurer, Gerald; Dostal, Elisabeth; Wojta, Johann; Oravec, Stanislav; Speidl, Walter S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis is considered to be an inflammatory disease in which monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages play a key role. Circulating monocytes can be divided into three distinct subtypes, namely in classical monocytes (CM; CD14++CD16-), intermediate monocytes (IM; CD14++CD16+) and non-classical monocytes (NCM; CD14+CD16++). Low density lipoprotein particles are heterogeneous in size and density, with small, dense LDL (sdLDL) crucially implicated in atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine whether monocyte subsets are associated with sdLDL serum levels. Methods We included 90 patients with angiographically documented stable coronary artery disease and determined monocyte subtypes by flow cytometry. sdLDL was measured by an electrophoresis method on polyacrylamide gel. Results Patients with sdLDL levels in the highest tertile (sdLDL≥4mg/dL;T3) showed the highest levels of pro-inflammatory NCM (15.2±7% vs. 11.4±6% and 10.9±4%, respectively; p<0.01) when compared with patients in the middle (sdLDL=2-3mg/dL;T2) and lowest tertile (sdLDL=0-1mg/dL;T1). Furthermore, patients in the highest sdLDL tertile showed lower CM levels than patients in the middle and lowest tertile (79.2±8% vs. 83.9±7% and 82.7±5%; p<0.01 for T3 vs. T2+T1). Levels of IM were not related to sdLDL levels (5.6±4% vs. 4.6±3% vs. 6.4±3% for T3, T2 and T1, respectively). In contrast to monocyte subset distribution, levels of circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory markers were not associated with sdLDL levels. Conclusion The atherogenic lipoprotein fraction sdLDL is associated with an increase of NCM and a decrease of CM. This could be a new link between lipid metabolism dysregulation, innate immunity and atherosclerosis. PMID:25849089

  12. Financial Impacts of Foot-and-Mouth Disease at Village and National Levels in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Nampanya, S; Khounsy, S; Abila, R; Young, J R; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A

    2016-10-01

    To assist policies on Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) control in Laos and the Mekong region, the financial impact of recent outbreaks at village and national levels was examined. Village-level impacts were derived from recent research on financial losses due to FMD per smallholder household and number of households with FMD-affected livestock in the village. National-level impacts of FMD were determined from examination of 2011-2013 FMD reported to the Lao Department of Livestock and Fisheries (DLF), with the 2011 epidemic reported separately due to the large number and size of outbreaks of FMD in that year. Estimates of the national financial impact of FMD were based on (i) total FMD financial losses at the village level and (ii) the costs of FMD responses and other related costs at the DLF, provincial and district levels where FMD was reported, but excluding the costs of revenue forgone. A Monte Carlo simulation was utilized to account for likelihood of FMD over- and under-reporting. Foot-and-mouth disease was recorded in four provinces of Phonsaly, Bokeo, Xayyabouli and Champasak in three consecutive years from 2011 to 2013. However, the FMD epidemic in 2011 was more widely distributed and involved 414 villages in 14 provinces, with thousands of cases of morbidity in cattle and buffalo and some mortalities. The estimated financial losses due to FMD in 2011 were USD 30 881(±23 176) at the village level and USD 13 512 291 at the national level based on the number of villages with FMD outbreaks reported. However, when the likelihood of FMD under-reporting was accounted for, the estimated financial losses at the national level could potentially increase to USD 102 094 464 (±52 147 261), being almost 12% of the estimated farm gate value of the national large ruminant herd. These findings confirm that FMD causes substantial financial impacts in villages and to the national economy of Laos, providing justification for sustained investments in FMD control

  13. Prion Infectivity Plateaus and Conversion to Symptomatic Disease Originate from Falling Precursor Levels and Increased Levels of Oligomeric PrPSc Species

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Charles E.; van der Merwe, Jacques; Kim, Chae; Haldiman, Tracy; McKenzie, Debbie; Safar, Jiri G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In lethal prion neurodegenerative diseases, misfolded prion proteins (PrPSc) replicate by redirecting the folding of the cellular prion glycoprotein (PrPC). Infections of different durations can have a subclinical phase with constant levels of infectious particles, but the mechanisms underlying this plateau and a subsequent exit to overt clinical disease are unknown. Using tandem biophysical techniques, we show that attenuated accumulation of infectious particles in presymptomatic disease is preceded by a progressive fall in PrPC level, which constricts replication rate and thereby causes the plateau effect. Furthermore, disease symptoms occurred at the threshold associated with increasing levels of small, relatively less protease-resistant oligomeric prion particles (oPrPSc). Although a hypothetical lethal isoform of PrP cannot be excluded, our data argue that diminishing residual PrPC levels and continuously increasing levels of oPrPSc are crucial determinants in the transition from presymptomatic to symptomatic prion disease. IMPORTANCE Prions are infectious agents that cause lethal brain diseases; they arise from misfolding of a cell surface protein, PrPC to a form called PrPSc. Prion infections can have long latencies even though there is no protective immune response. Accumulation of infectious prion particles has been suggested to always reach the same plateau in the brain during latent periods, with clinical disease only occurring when hypothetical toxic forms (called PrPL or TPrP) begin to accumulate. We show here that infectivity plateaus arise because PrPC precursor levels become downregulated and that the duration of latent periods can be accounted for by the level of residual PrPC, which transduces a toxic effect, along with the amount of oligomeric forms of PrPSc. PMID:26423957

  14. Prediagnostic plasma antibody levels to periodontopathic bacteria and risk of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masayuki; Izumi, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Yoko; Ikeda, Ai; Iso, Hiroyasu; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have indicated that periodontitis is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined whether plasma antibody levels to 3 major periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia predicted the risk of CHD events. A nested case-control research design (case: n = 191, control: n = 382), by matching gender, age, study area, date of blood collection, and time since last meal at blood collection, was employed in a large cohort of Japanese community residents.Antibody levels of periodontopathic bacteria were associated with risk of CHD after adjusting for BMI, smoking status, alcohol intake, history of hypertension, history of diabetes mellitus, exercise during leisure time, and perceived mental stress. The association was different by age subgroup. For subjects aged 40-55 years, the medium (31.7-184.9 U/mL) or high tertile plasma antibody level (> 184.9 U/mL) of A. actinomycetemcomitans showed higher risk of CHD (medium: OR = 3.72; 95% CI = 1.20-11.56, high: OR = 4.64; 95% CI = 1.52-14.18) than the low tertile level (< 31.7 U/mL). The ORs of CHD incidence became higher with an increase in IgG level of A. actinomycetemcomitans (P for trend = 0.007). For subjects aged 56-69 years, the high tertile level (> 414.1 U/mL) of P. intermedia was associated with higher risk of CHD (OR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.18-5.94) in a dose-response fashion (P for trend = 0.007). The possible role of periodontopathic bacteria as a risk factor for CHD incidence was suggested by the results of this study by the elevated antibody level to these bacteria with the increased risk of CHD. PMID:22878796

  15. Increased levels of markers of vascular inflammation in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, A; Seljeflot, I; Sommervoll, L; Christensen, B; Otterstad, J E; Arnesen, H

    2002-01-01

    Elevated levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules (sCAMs), inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with atherosclerotic disease states. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether circulating levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), E- and P-selectin were significantly elevated in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) compared with healthy controls, and to study possible associations between these sCAMs, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). interleukin-6 (IL-6), CRP and major CHD risk factors. The study included 193 patients in various stages of CHD and 193 matched controls. To evaluate any possible influence of acute phase reaction, reinvestigation was performed after 6 months. After adjustment for major CHD risk factors, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, P-selectin, IL-6 and CRP remained significantly elevated in the CHD patients (p for all <0.001). In multivariate analysis sVCAM-1 was predicted by age (p=0.015), sICAM-1 by smoking (p<0.001) and total cholesterol (p=0.026), E-selectin by body mass index (BMI) (p=0.004) and P-selectin by male gender (p=0.015). TNFalpha significantly predicted sICAM-1 and E-selectin levels, while IL-6 predicted CRP but none of the sCAMs measured. This might indicate that TNFalpha, but not IL-6, plays a major role in the regulation of sCAM levels in vivo.

  16. Intensive Lowering of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels for Primary Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Karalis, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, and a high concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major risk factor for CAD. Current guidelines recommend the use of statins to lower LDL-C levels for the primary prevention of CAD based on an individual's risk factor profile and baseline LDL-C level. For moderaterisk individuals, those with 2 or more major risk factors for CAD and a Framingham risk score of 10% to 20%, the recommendation is to use a statin to lower LDL-C levels to less than 130 mg/dL. However, up to 40% of individuals who develop CAD have LDL-C levels lower than this cutoff. In 2004, the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines were updated to include an LDL-C goal of less than 100 mg/dL for individuals at moderately high risk of developing CAD. The guidelines identified several risk factors that when present would favor the use of pharmacological therapy to achieve this more aggressive LDL-C goal. This review evaluates the evidence supporting an LDL-C target of less than 100 mg/dL for moderately high-risk individuals and reviews those risk factors that when present help identify patients who would benefit from achieving this lower LDL-C goal. English-language publications in MEDLINE and references from relevant articles published between January 1, 1980, and November 30, 2008, were reviewed. Main keywords searched were coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, statins, cardiac risk factors, inflammatory markers, metabolic syndrome, and coronary artery calcium. PMID:19339653

  17. Associations of Circulating Gut Hormone and Adipocytokine Levels with the Spectrum of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ping-Huei; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Liou, Jyh-Ming; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Lin, Jaw-Town; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is complex and poorly understood. We aim to investigate the association of various circulating peptide hormones with heterogenous manifestations of GERD. Methods One hundred and four patients that had experienced typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation) for at least 3 episodes per week in the past 3 months were enrolled. All patients received a baseline assessment of symptom severity and frequency with the Reflux Disease Questionnaire and an upper endoscopy to classify GERD into erosive esophagitis (EE, n = 67), non-erosive esophagitis (NE, n = 37), and Barrett’s esophagus (BE, n = 8). Fifty asymptomatic subjects with an endoscopically normal esophagus were recruited as the control group. Complete anthropometric measures and blood biochemistry were obtained and fasting serum levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin) and gut hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY)) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all subjects. Results All circulating peptide hormone levels were not statistically different between the GERD and control groups. However, GERD patients appeared to have lower PYY levels [median (25th-75th percentile), 80.1 (49.8–108.3) vs. 99.4 (65.8–131.9) pg/ml, p = 0.057] compared with control subjects. Among the GERD patients, ghrelin levels were inversely associated with the frequency and severity of acid regurgitation. In male GERD patients, EE was associated with significantly higher PYY levels [107.0 (55.0–120.8) vs. 32.8 (28.7–84.5) pg/ml, p = 0.026] but lower adiponectin levels [6.7 (5.6–9.3) vs. 9.9 (9.6–10.6) μg/ml, p = 0.034] than NE. Patients with BE had significantly lower adiponectin levels [6.0 (5.1–9.2) vs. 9.2 (7.1–11.2) μg/ml, p = 0.026] than those without BE. Conclusions Humoral derangement of circulating peptide hormones might participate in inflammation and symptom perception in patients suffering from GERD

  18. Adipokines levels are associated with the severity of liver disease in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Kalafateli, Maria; Triantos, Christos; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Michalaki, Marina; Koutroumpakis, Efstratios; Thomopoulos, Konstantinos; Kyriazopoulou, Venetsanea; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Burroughs, Andrew; Lambropoulou-Karatza, Chryssoula; Nikolopoulou, Vasiliki

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the adipokine levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), apelin in alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC). METHODS: Forty non-diabetic ALC patients [median age: 59 years, males: 35 (87.5%), Child-Pugh (CP) score: median 7 (5-12), CP A/B/C: 18/10/12, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD): median 10 (6-25), follow-up: median 32.5 mo (10-43)] were prospectively included. The serum adipokine levels were estimated in duplicate by ELISA. Somatometric characteristics were assessed with tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance analysis. Pearson’s rank correlation coefficient was used to assess possible associations with adipokine levels. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors for overall survival. RESULTS: Body mass index: median 25.9 (range: 20.1-39.3), fat: 23.4% (7.6-42.1), fat mass: 17.8 (5.49-45.4), free fat mass: 56.1 (39.6-74.4), total body water (TBW): 40.6 (29.8-58.8). Leptin and visfatin levels were positively associated with fat mass (P < 0.001/P = 0.027, respectively) and RBP4 with TBW (P = 0.025). Median adiponectin levels were significantly higher in CPC compared to CPA (CPA: 7.99 ± 14.07, CPB: 7.66 ± 3.48, CPC: 25.73 ± 26.8, P = 0.04), whereas median RBP4 and apelin levels decreased across the spectrum of disease severity (P = 0.006/P = 0.034, respectively). Following adjustment for fat mass, visfatin and adiponectin levels were significantly increased from CPA to CPC (both P < 0.001), whereas an inverse correlation was observed for both RBP4 and apelin (both P < 0.001). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, only MELD had an independent association with overall survival (HR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.32; P = 0.029). CONCLUSION: Adipokines are associated with deteriorating liver function in a complex manner in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. PMID:25780301

  19. Adjacent channel interference degradation with minimum shift keyed modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Computer simulation results for degradation in signal-to-noise ratio for various values of bit error probability are given for minimum shift-keyed-type signaling in the presence of adjacent channel interference. A serial modulator structure which utilizes spectral shaping is characterized in terms of envelope deviation and bandwidth efficiency. This serial generation technique is convenient for implementation at high data rates and results in signal spectra with lower sidelobe levels than conventional minimum shift-keyed modulation at the expense of moderate envelope deviation. Because of the lower sidelobe levels, the resulting spectra allow denser channel packing than does ideal MSK.

  20. A colony-level response to disease control in a leaf-cutting ant.

    PubMed

    Hart, Adam G; Bot, A N M; Brown, Mark J F

    2002-06-01

    Parasites and pathogens often impose significant costs on their hosts. This is particularly true for social organisms, where the genetic structure of groups and the accumulation of contaminated waste facilitate disease transmission. In response, hosts have evolved many mechanisms of defence against parasites. Here we present evidence that Atta colombica, a leaf-cutting ant, may combat Escovopsis, a dangerous parasite of Atta's garden fungus, through a colony-level behavioural response. In A. colombica, garden waste is removed from within the colony and transported to the midden--an external waste dump--where it is processed by a group of midden workers. We found that colonies infected with Escovopsis have higher numbers of workers on the midden, where Escovopsis is deposited. Further, midden workers are highly effective in dispersing newly deposited waste away from the dumping site. Thus, the colony-level task allocation strategies of the Atta superorganism may change in response to the threat of disease to a third, essential party. PMID:12146794

  1. Levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Singapore following a national intervention programme.

    PubMed Central

    Cutter, J.; Tan, B. Y.; Chew, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the National Healthy Lifestyle Programme, a noncommunicable disease intervention programme for major cardiovascular disease risk factors in Singapore, implemented in 1992. METHODS: The evaluation was carried out in 1998 by the Singapore National Health Survey (NHS). The reference population was 2.2 million multiracial Singapore residents, 18-69 years of age. A population-based survey sample (n = 4723) was selected by disproportionate stratified and systematic sampling. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were carried out on all subjects and blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. FINDINGS: The 1998 results suggest that the National Healthy Lifestyle Programme significantly decreased regular smoking and increased regular exercise over 1992 levels and stabilized the prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, the prevalence of high total blood cholesterol and hypertension increased. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and smoking; and in lipid profile and exercise levels were also observed. CONCLUSION: The intervention had mixed results after six years. Successful strategies have been continued and strengthened. PMID:11693972

  2. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in different neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Ventriglia, Mariacarla; Zanardini, Roberta; Bonomini, Cristina; Zanetti, Orazio; Volpe, Daniele; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Gennarelli, Massimo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella

    2013-01-01

    Consistent evidence indicates the involvement of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we compared serum BDNF in 624 subjects: 266 patients affected by AD, 28 by frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 40 by Lewy body dementia (LBD), 91 by vascular dementia (VAD), 30 by PD, and 169 controls. Our results evidenced lower BDNF serum levels in AD, FTD, LBD, and VAD patients (P < 0.001) and a higher BDNF concentration in patients affected by PD (P = 0.045). Analyses of effects of pharmacological treatments suggested significantly higher BDNF serum levels in patients taking mood stabilizers/antiepileptics (P = 0.009) and L-DOPA (P < 0.001) and significant reductions in patients taking benzodiazepines (P = 0.020). In conclusion, our results support the role of BDNF alterations in neurodegenerative mechanisms common to different forms of neurological disorders and underline the importance of including drug treatment in the analyses to avoid confounding effects. PMID:24024214

  3. Elevated levels of oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes from patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mórocz, Mónika; Kálmán, János; Juhász, Anna; Sinkó, Ildikó; McGlynn, Angela P; Downes, C Stephen; Janka, Zoltán; Raskó, István

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have provided evidence of the involvement of oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the role of oxidative stress in the aetiology of the disease is still not clear, the detection of an increased damage status in the cells of patients could have important therapeutic implications. The level of oxidative damage and repair capacity in peripheral lymphocytes of AD patients and of age-matched controls was determined by the Comet assay applied to freshly isolated blood samples with oxidative lesion-specific DNA repair endonucleases. This is less prone to errors arising from oxidative artifacts than chemical analytical methods; and is therefore a relatively reliable, as well as rapid method for assay of oxidative DNA damage in cells. Statistically significant elevations (P < 0.05) of oxidized purines were observed in nuclear DNA of peripheral lymphocytes from AD patients, compared to age matched control subjects, both at basal level and after oxidative stress induced by H(2)O(2.) AD patients also showed a diminished repair of H(2)O(2) -induced oxidized purines.

  4. Sequence-Level Analysis of the Major European Huntington Disease Haplotype.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Shin, Aram; Chao, Michael J; Abu Elneel, Kawther; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi Srinidhi; Kaye, Julia A; Zahed, Hengameh; Kratter, Ian H; Daub, Aaron C; Finkbeiner, Steven; Li, Hong; Roach, Jared C; Goodman, Nathan; Hood, Leroy; Myers, Richard H; MacDonald, Marcy E; Gusella, James F

    2015-09-01

    Huntington disease (HD) reflects the dominant consequences of a CAG-repeat expansion in HTT. Analysis of common SNP-based haplotypes has revealed that most European HD subjects have distinguishable HTT haplotypes on their normal and disease chromosomes and that ∼50% of the latter share the same major HD haplotype. We reasoned that sequence-level investigation of this founder haplotype could provide significant insights into the history of HD and valuable information for gene-targeting approaches. Consequently, we performed whole-genome sequencing of HD and control subjects from four independent families in whom the major European HD haplotype segregates with the disease. Analysis of the full-sequence-based HTT haplotype indicated that these four families share a common ancestor sufficiently distant to have permitted the accumulation of family-specific variants. Confirmation of new CAG-expansion mutations on this haplotype suggests that unlike most founders of human disease, the common ancestor of HD-affected families with the major haplotype most likely did not have HD. Further, availability of the full sequence data validated the use of SNP imputation to predict the optimal variants for capturing heterozygosity in personalized allele-specific gene-silencing approaches. As few as ten SNPs are capable of revealing heterozygosity in more than 97% of European HD subjects. Extension of allele-specific silencing strategies to the few remaining homozygous individuals is likely to be achievable through additional known SNPs and discovery of private variants by complete sequencing of HTT. These data suggest that the current development of gene-based targeting for HD could be extended to personalized allele-specific approaches in essentially all HD individuals of European ancestry. PMID:26320893

  5. Observations on Diseased Pigs with High Sulfate Intake and Normal Tissue Copper Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jericho, K. W. F.; Strausz, K. I.; Martin, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Disease in a large pig herd reared intensively and kept on sulfate-rich drinking water is described. It is the first report of diseased progeny of sows with high sulfate intake. Results of two surveys are presented, one for water with sulfate in excess of 2000 ppm and one for water with less than 1000 ppm. The management practices are described in detail. Disease of Survey I was manifested by high morbidity and mortality (50% of 600) in piglets, incoordination in piglets and some adult stock and osteopathy in piglets and weaners. In Survey II disease was less severe and restricted to piglets. Detailed histopathological studies revealed myelin deficiency in brain and spinal cord of sows and piglets, interferred endochondreal ossification of long bones of piglets and weaners, fatty changes of livers and interstitial nephritis in piglets and weaners. The changes in the nervous tissue were considered due to delayed fixation as tissue was only immersed in fixative and not perfused with it immediately after death. Similar changes have been described for pigs deficient in copper. Copper content of tissue and body fluids of pigs of this study were normal, as were the serum inorganic phosphate and total calcium levels. The bone changes observed have also been reported for rats given dextran sulfate injections, for pigs on experimental low-copper sulfate-enriched diet and for pigs reported low in copper and fed a diet supplemented with sulfide. The cause of the locomotor disturbance and mortality in piglets was not established. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4270430

  6. Increased copper levels in in vitro and in vivo models of Niemann-Pick C disease.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Mary Carmen; Martínez, Pablo; Alvarez, Alejandra R; González, Mauricio; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2012-08-01

    Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a hereditary neurovisceral atypical lipid storage disorder produced by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 genes. The disease is characterized by unesterified cholesterol accumulation in late endosomal/lysosomal compartments and oxidative stress. The most affected tissues are the cerebellum and the liver. The lysotropic drug U18666A (U18) has been widely used as a pharmacological model to induce the NPC phenotype in several cell culture lines. It has already been reported that there is an increase in copper content in hepatoma Hu7 cells treated with U18. We confirmed this result with another human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, treated with U18 and supplemented with copper in the media. However, in mouse hippocampal primary cultures treated under similar conditions, we did not find alterations in copper content. We previously reported increased copper content in the liver of Npc1 (-/-) mice compared to control animals. Here, we extended the analysis to the copper content in the cerebella, the plasma and the bile of NPC1 deficient mice. We did not observe a significant change in copper content in the cerebella, whereas we found increased copper content in the plasma and decreased copper levels in the bile of Npc1(-/-) mice. Finally, we also evaluated the plasma content of ceruloplasmin, and we found an increase in this primary copper-binding protein in Npc1 (-/-) mice. These results indicate cell-type dependence of copper accumulation in NPC disease and suggest that copper transport imbalance may be relevant to the liver pathology observed in NPC disease.

  7. Magnesium Levels in Drinking Water and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; He, Pengcheng; Chen, Jiyan; Liu, Yong; Liu, Dehui; Qin, Genggeng; Tan, Ning

    2016-01-02

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated inconsistent associations between drinking water magnesium levels and risk of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD); thus, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between them. Relevant studies were searched by the databases of Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed and Web of Knowledge. Pooled relative risks (RR) with their 95% CI were calculated to assess this association using a random-effects model. Finally, nine articles with 10 studies involving 77,821 CHD cases were used in this study. Our results revealed an inverse association between drinking water magnesium level and CHD mortality (RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.79-0.99, I² = 70.6). Nine of the 10 studies came from Europe, and the association was significant between drinking water magnesium level and the risk of CHD mortality (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.69-0.98). In conclusion, drinking water magnesium level was significantly inversely associated with CHD mortality.

  8. Influence of Different Intellectual Disability Levels on Caries and Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Costa, Antônio Augusto Iponema; Della Bona, Álvaro; Trentin, Micheline Sandini

    2016-01-01

    Oral health care is fundamental to preserve the individual integrity and consequently influences the general health. This observational, cross-sectional and analytical study evaluated the oral condition of 129 intellectually disabled individuals from the Association of Parents and Friends of Exceptional Children (APAE) in three southern Brazilian cities. Dental caries (DMFT and dmft indices) and periodontal disease (PSR index) were evaluated considering the intellectual disability level. A questionnaire on socioeconomic status (income and education level) and the last visit to a dentist was answered by the subjects' parents/guardians. The data were statistically evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test (α=0.05). The mean DMFT values were 2.27, 3.76 and 0.58 (p<0.05), and the mean dmft values were 1.48, 1.55 and 2.75, respectively for subjects with mild, moderate and severe disabilities. Regarding the PSR index, 43% of the subjects presented gingivitis without retention factor (no calculus or defective margins) with no significant differences among the three disability levels. Considering the population and the limitations of this study, the subjects presenting severe disabilities showed significantly lower mean DMFT values compared to other disability levels, probably because the caretakers are responsible for the oral hygiene of such subjects. PMID:27007346

  9. Magnesium Levels in Drinking Water and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lei; He, Pengcheng; Chen, Jiyan; Liu, Yong; Liu, Dehui; Qin, Genggeng; Tan, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated inconsistent associations between drinking water magnesium levels and risk of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD); thus, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between them. Relevant studies were searched by the databases of Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed and Web of Knowledge. Pooled relative risks (RR) with their 95% CI were calculated to assess this association using a random-effects model. Finally, nine articles with 10 studies involving 77,821 CHD cases were used in this study. Our results revealed an inverse association between drinking water magnesium level and CHD mortality (RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.79–0.99, I2 = 70.6). Nine of the 10 studies came from Europe, and the association was significant between drinking water magnesium level and the risk of CHD mortality (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.69–0.98). In conclusion, drinking water magnesium level was significantly inversely associated with CHD mortality. PMID:26729158

  10. The levels of soluble versus insoluble brain Abeta distinguish Alzheimer's disease from normal and pathologic aging.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Dickson, D W; Trojanowski, J Q; Lee, V M

    1999-08-01

    The abundance and solubility of Abeta peptides are critical determinants of amyloidosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hence, we compared levels of total soluble, insoluble, and total Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 in AD brains with those in age-matched normal and pathologic aging brains using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Since the measurement of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 depends critically on the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies used in the sandwich ELISA, we first demonstrated that each assay is specific for Abeta1-40 or Abeta1-42 and the levels of these peptides are not affected by the amyloid precursor protein in the brain extracts. Thus, this sandwich ELISA enabled us to show that the average levels of total cortical soluble and insoluble Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were highest in AD, lowest in normal aging, and intermediate in pathologic aging. Remarkably, the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 were increased 20-fold while the average levels of insoluble Abeta1-42 were increased only 2-fold in the AD brains compared to pathologic aging brains. Further, the soluble pools of Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were the largest fractions of total Abeta in the normal brain (i.e., 50 and 23%, respectively), but they were the smallest in the AD brain (i.e., 2.7 and 0.7%, respectively) and intermediate (i.e., 8 and 0.8%, respectively) in pathologic aging brains. Thus, our data suggest that pathologic aging is a transition state between normal aging and AD. More importantly, our findings imply that a progressive shift of brain Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 from soluble to insoluble pools and a profound increase in the levels of insoluble Abeta1-40 plays mechanistic roles in the onset and/or progression of AD.

  11. Associations between Thyroid Hormones, Calcification Inhibitor Levels and Vascular Calcification in End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meuwese, Christiaan Lucas; Olauson, Hannes; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Ripsweden, Jonaz; Barany, Peter; Vermeer, Cees; Drummen, Nadja; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vascular calcification is a common, serious and elusive complication of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). As a pro-calcifying risk factor, non-thyroidal illness may promote vascular calcification through a systemic lowering of vascular calcification inhibitors such as matrix-gla protein (MGP) and Klotho. Methods and Material In 97 ESRD patients eligible for living donor kidney transplantation, blood levels of thyroid hormones (fT3, fT4 and TSH), total uncarboxylated MGP (t-ucMGP), desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA-II), and soluble Klotho (sKlotho) were measured. The degree of coronary calcification and arterial stiffness were assessed by means of cardiac CT-scans and applanation tonometry, respectively. Results fT3 levels were inversely associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores and measures of arterial stiffness, and positively with dp-ucMGP and sKlotho concentrations. Subfractions of MGP, PIVKA-II and sKlotho did not associate with CAC scores and arterial stiffness. fT4 and TSH levels were both inversely associated with CAC scores, but not with arterial stiffness. Discussion The positive associations between fT3 and dp-ucMGP and sKlotho suggest that synthesis of MGP and Klotho is influenced by thyroid hormones, and supports a link between non-thyroidal illness and alterations in calcification inhibitor levels. However, the absence of an association between serum calcification inhibitor levels and coronary calcification/arterial stiffness and the fact that MGP and Klotho undergo post-translational modifications underscore the complexity of this association. Further studies, measuring total levels of MGP and membrane bound Klotho, should examine this proposed pathway in further detail. PMID:26147960

  12. Association Between Plasma Beta-2 Microglobulin Level and Cardiac Performance in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Omid; Abediankenari, Saeid; Omranifar, Batoul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) is considered as a surrogate marker for middle molecule uremic toxins and a key component in dialysis-related amyloidosis. However, few studies have evaluated role of B2M in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of plasma B2M level with some metabolic and cardiac performance factors in patients with CKD. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, we measured plasma B2M level in 86 patients with different stages of CKD and 78 age- and sex-matched individuals, as healthy control group. Then we investigated the association between plasma B2M level and left ventricular hypertrophy, ejection fraction (EF), and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) in echocardiography and some inflammatory and metabolic factors in patients with CKD. Results: Mean plasma B2M level was significantly higher in patients with CKD than in control group (P < 0.001). It was directly correlated with serum C-reactive protein (r = 0.167, P < 0.001), phosphate (r = 0.112, P < 0.001) levels, and left ventricular mass index (r = 0.438, P < 0.001) and LVEDD (r = 0.275, P < 0.001) in echocardiography. It was also inversely correlated with glomerular filtration rate (r = -0.033, P < 0.001), albumin (r = -0.521, P < 0.001), hemoglobin (r = -0.748, P < 0.001), and EF (r = -0.625, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggested that plasma B2M level is inversely associated with GFR and EF and directly correlated with some metabolic and cardiac performance factors. PMID:25738124

  13. Decreased serum IL-27 and IL-35 levels are associated with disease severity in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Qi; Jia, Kun; Wang, Rong; Li, Ting; Zhao, Ning; Yang, Li-Na; Yang, Li

    2016-04-15

    The interleukin 12 (IL-12) family plays important roles in autoimmune diseases. To explore the roles of the IL-12 family members IL-27 and IL-35 in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), we determined their serum and cerebral spinal fluid levels and assessed potential correlations with clinical characteristics. Serum IL-27 levels were negatively correlated with disease severity and spinal cord lesion length, while serum IL-35 levels were negatively correlated with disease severity and annual relapse rate. Thus, IL-27 and IL-35 may be important biomarkers of NMOSD severity and these molecules might represent potential therapeutic cytokines for treating NMOSD.

  14. Plasma leptin levels and free leptin index in women with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Bik, Agnieszka; Bik, Wojciech; Styczynska, Maria; Chodakowska-Zebrowska, Malgorzata; Barcikowska, Maria; Wolinska-Witort, Ewa; Kalisz, Malgorzata; Martynska, Lidia; Baranowska, Boguslawa

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by irreversible and progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Controversies still exist on the precise mechanisms contributing to neurodegeneration. Obesity and disturbances in metabolic homeostasis are thought to be AD risk factors. Adipokine leptin has receptors in the brain, also in the regions related to AD. Leptin may protect against AD. The aim was to assess leptin and soluble leptin receptor levels in plasma as well as free leptin index (FLI) in correlation with metabolic status of women diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. Eighteen women with moderate to severe stage of AD, 40 women with AD at early stage, and 42 female controls, matched for age and body mass index, participated in the study. Leptin and soluble leptin receptor levels were measured with RIA and IRMA, respectively. Then, FLI was calculated. In addition, metabolic parameters (lipid profile, glucose and insulin concentrations, HOMA-IR) were estimated. Clinical and anthropometric data were collected. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) as a cognitive impairment measurement was performed. Correlations with both leptin and FLI, and MMSE, clinical and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Leptin levels and FLI were significantly lower and leptin receptor concentrations were higher in AD subjects when compared with the controls. In AD group leptin, soluble leptin receptor and FLI correlated with selected metabolic parameters but not with MMSE. We conclude that alterations in leptin, leptin receptor, and FLI were the most intensified in advanced AD. However, these results did not correlate with dementia stage measured with MMSE. Therefore, further intensive research is needed to explain the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon.

  15. Baseline C-Reactive Protein Levels and Life Prognosis in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Hideyuki; Oeda, Tomoko; Umemura, Atsushi; Tomita, Satoshi; Kohsaka, Masayuki; Park, Kwiyoung; Yamamoto, Kenji; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background C-reactive protein (CRP) is a biomarker of inflammation, and high levels of CRP correlate with vascular death. Chronic inflammation is considered to be involved in neurodegeneration, although there is no evidence linking it with the process of neurodegenerative diseases. Objective To determine the role of baseline CRP levels in the prognosis of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods A cohort of 313 patients with a mean age of 69.1 and mean PD duration of 7.9 years was retrospectively followed for a mean observation time of 1,753 days. CRP was measured when patients were not diagnosed with any infections, and levels were repetitively measured to investigate a tendency of “regression to mean.” The primary outcome measure was a survival time from study enrollment to death. Results During the observation period 56 patients died. Baseline CRP was log-linearly associated with a risk of death in PD. Mean survival time was 3,149 (95% confidence interval; 3,009-3,289) days in patients with CRP ≤ 0.8mg/L (lower two thirds) and 2,620 (2,343-2,897) days in those with CRP > 0.8 mg/L (top third, p < 0.001, log-rank test). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per two-fold higher CRP concentration for all deaths was 1.29 (1.10-1.52), and after excluding PD-unrelated deaths, such as cancer or stroke, HR was 1.23 (1.01-1.49) (adjusted for age, sex, PD duration, modified Hohen-Yahr stages, MMSE scores, and serum albumin). Conclusions Baseline CRP concentrations were associated with the risk of death and predicted life prognosis of patients with PD. The associations were independent from PD duration, PD severity, cognitive function, ages, and nutritional conditions, suggesting the possibility that subclinical chronic inflammation is associated with a neurodegenerative process in PD. PMID:26218286

  16. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  17. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Chul

    2015-01-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  18. Relationship among Periodontal Disease, Insulin Resistance, Salivary Cortisol, and Stress Levels during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Seraphim, Ana Paula Castilho Garcia; Chiba, Fernando Yamamoto; Pereira, Renato Felipe; Mattera, Maria Sara de Lima Coutinho; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Sumida, Doris Hissako

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a period involving important metabolic changes that enable the maintenance of the mother's health and development of the fetus. This study aimed to assess the relationship among periodontal disease, insulin resistance, salivary cortisol concentration and level of perceived stress in pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 96 pregnant women between the fifth and seventh month of pregnancy registered at the Basic Health Units of the Unified Health System (SUS). The periodontal condition was assessed after obtainment free and informed consent from the participants. Participants were divided into three groups: control subjects with a healthy periodontal condition (CN; n=46), patients with gingivitis (GI; n=26), and patients with periodontitis (PI; n=24). Saliva and blood samples were collected for evaluation of salivary cortisol concentration, glycemia, insulinemia and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance index. A validated survey for the assessment of perceived stress levels was also performed. PI group showed significantly higher (p<0.05) blood glucose levels (CN: 4.43±0.05; GI: 4.46±0.04; PI: 4.68±0.08), insulinemia (CN: 6.93±0.45; GI: 8.87±0.79; PI: 12.77±1.30), insulin resistance (CN: 1.40±0.10; GI: 1.81±0.18; PI: 2.66±0.29) compared with the CN and GI groups. The levels of perceived stress were higher (p<0.05) in PI and GI groups when compared to CN group (CN: 20.5±1.26; GI: 25.8±1.95; PI: 26.6±1.36). There was no significant difference in the concentration of salivary cortisol between the groups (CN: 11.13±0.58; GI: 11.96±0.74; PI: 11.47±0.74). It was concluded that there is a relationship between higher levels of perceived stress, insulin resistance and the occurrence of periodontal disease during pregnancy. This study emphasizes the importance of preventing periodontitis in order to avoid insulin resistance and stress during pregnancy since these can cause systemic complications for the

  19. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated.

  20. Elevated Levels of Circulating DNA in Cardiovascular Disease Patients: Metagenomic Profiling of Microbiome in the Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Dinakaran, Vasudevan; Rathinavel, Andiappan; Pushpanathan, Muthuirulan; Sivakumar, Ramamoorthy; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. An expanding body of evidence supports the role of human microbiome in the establishment of CVDs and, this has gained much attention recently. This work was aimed to study the circulating human microbiome in CVD patients and healthy subjects. The levels of circulating cell free DNA (circDNA) was higher in CVD patients (n = 80) than in healthy controls (n = 40). More specifically, the relative levels of circulating bacterial DNA and the ratio of 16S rRNA/β-globin gene copy numbers were higher in the circulation of CVD patients than healthy individuals. In addition, we found a higher circulating microbial diversity in CVD patients (n = 3) in comparison to healthy individuals (n = 3) by deep shotgun sequencing. At the phylum level, we observed a dominance of Actinobacteria in CVD patients, followed by Proteobacteria, in contrast to that in healthy controls, where Proteobacteria was predominantly enriched, followed by Actinobacteria. The circulating virome in CVD patients was enriched with bacteriophages with a preponderance of Propionibacterium phages, followed by Pseudomonas phages and Rhizobium phages in contrast to that in healthy individuals, where a relatively greater abundance of eukaryotic viruses dominated by Lymphocystis virus (LCV) and Torque Teno viruses (TTV) was observed. Thus, the release of bacterial and viral DNA elements in the circulation could play a major role leading to elevated circDNA levels in CVD patients. The increased circDNA levels could be either the cause or consequence of CVD incidence, which needs to be explored further. PMID:25133738

  1. Maintenance of basal levels of autophagy in Huntington's disease mouse models displaying metabolic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Barbara; Soylu, Rana; Petersén, Asa

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat in the huntingtin protein. Neuropathology in the basal ganglia and in the cerebral cortex has been linked to the motor and cognitive symptoms whereas recent work has suggested that the hypothalamus might be involved in the metabolic dysfunction. Several mouse models of HD that display metabolic dysfunction have hypothalamic pathology, and expression of mutant huntingtin in the hypothalamus has been causally linked to the development of metabolic dysfunction in mice. Although the pathogenic mechanisms by which mutant huntingtin exerts its toxic functions in the HD brain are not fully known, several studies have implicated a role for the lysososomal degradation pathway of autophagy. Interestingly, changes in autophagy in the hypothalamus have been associated with the development of metabolic dysfunction in wild-type mice. We hypothesized that expression of mutant huntingtin might lead to changes in the autophagy pathway in the hypothalamus in mice with metabolic dysfunction. We therefore investigated whether there were changes in basal levels of autophagy in a mouse model expressing a fragment of 853 amino acids of mutant huntingtin selectively in the hypothalamus using a recombinant adeno-associate viral vector approach as well as in the transgenic BACHD mice. We performed qRT-PCR and Western blot to investigate the mRNA and protein expression levels of selected autophagy markers. Our results show that basal levels of autophagy are maintained in the hypothalamus despite the presence of metabolic dysfunction in both mouse models. Furthermore, although there were no major changes in autophagy in the striatum and cortex of BACHD mice, we detected modest, but significant differences in levels of some markers in mice at 12 months of age. Taken together, our results indicate that overexpression of mutant huntingtin in mice do not significantly perturb basal levels of

  2. A Chronic Disease Prevention and Management Corridor© to Supporting System-Level Transformations for Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Sampalli, Tara; Christian, Erin; Edwards, Lynn; Ryer, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Improving care for chronic conditions requires system-level transformations to ensure multiple levels of adoption and sustainability of the implemented improvements. These comprehensive solutions require transformations and supports at various levels, leadership and process changes at service/program level. Recognizing the importance of an organization-wide strategy to mitigate the growing issue of chronic disease prevention and management, a novel system-level approach has been developed in a district health authority in Nova Scotia, Canada. In this paper, the contextual factors and efforts that led to the conceptual framework of the Chronic Disease Prevention and Management (CDPM) "Corridor©" to management of chronic conditions are discussed. The CDPM Corridor© essentially constitutes a system-level redesign process; common elements, tools and resources; and a hub of supports for chronic disease prevention and management. The CDPM Corridor PMID:26718253

  3. Relation between admission plasma fibrinogen levels and mortality in Chinese patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yong; Wang, Hua; Li, Yi-ming; Huang, Bao-tao; Huang, Fang-yang; Xia, Tian-li; Chai, Hua; Wang, Peng-ju; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Mao; Huang, De-jia

    2016-01-01

    Fibrinogen (Fib) was considered to be a potential risk factor for the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), but there was lack of the evidence from Chinese contemporary population. 3020 consecutive patients with CAD confirmed by coronary angiography were enrolled and were grouped into 2 categories by the optimal Fib cut-off value (3.17 g/L) for all-cause mortality prediction. The end points were all-cause mortality and cardiac mortality. Cumulative survival curves showed that the risk of all-cause mortality was significantly higher in patients with Fib ≥3.17 g/L compared to those with Fib <3.17 g/L (mortality rate, 11.5% vs. 5.7%, p < 0.001); and cardiovascular mortality obtained results similar to those mentioned above (cardiac mortality rate, 5.9% vs. 3.6%, p = 0.002). Subgroup analysis showed that elevated Fib levels were predictive for the risk of all-cause mortality in the subgroups according to age, medical history, and diagnosis. COX multivariate regression analysis showed that plasma Fib levels remained independently associated with all-cause mortality after adjustment for multiple cardiovascular risk factors (all-cause mortality, HR 2.01, CI 1.51–2.68, p < 0.001). This study has found that Fib levels were independently associated with the mortality risk in Chinese CAD patients. PMID:27456064

  4. Measuring Hemoglobin Levels in the Optic Disc of Parkinson's Disease Patients Using New Colorimetric Analysis Software

    PubMed Central

    Bambo, Maria Pilar; Garcia-Martin, Elena; Satue, Maria; Perez-Olivan, Susana; Alayon, Silvia; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta; Polo, Vicente; Larrosa, Jose Manuel; Gonzalez-De la Rosa, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate a new method of measuring hemoglobin (Hb) levels and quantifying the color changes in the optic nerve head of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We also compared differences in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses obtained using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) device between PD group and healthy group. Methods. One hundred and fifty-five PD patients and 91 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. OCT examinations and one photograph of the optic disc were performed. The Laguna ONhE (“optic nerve hemoglobin”; Insoft SL, Tenerife, Spain) software was used to analyze the Hb level on the acquired optic disc photographs. Results. PD patients exhibited significantly reduced mean optic disc Hb percentages (57.56% in PD, 67.63% in healthy subjects; P = 0.001) as well as reduced Hb in almost all analyzed sectors, with the largest differences detected in the inferior and nasal sectors. RNFL parameters were significantly reduced in PD patients compared with healthy subjects, especially in the inferior quadrant. Conclusions. Measurements of optic disc Hb levels obtained with the Laguna ONhE software had good ability to detect optic nerve color changes (more papillary paleness and consequently this could suggest optic atrophy and axonal loss) in PD patients. PMID:25587487

  5. A Comparative Study of Serum Uric Acid levels and Lipid Ratios in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sathiya, R.; Velu, V. Kuzhandai; Niranjan, G.; Srinivasan, A. R.; Amirtha, Ganesh B.; Ramesh, R.; Babu, M. Sathish; Saha, Subiman

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) appears to be common in the Indian population of different geographical origins, religions and languages. Measurement of lipid fractions and ratios are widely recommended for risk assessment. A few studies have shown that serum uric acid plays a role in the development of cardiovascular morbidity. Very few reports are cited linking serum uric acid with the lipid fraction in CAD Objectives: To find the significance of non-HDL cholesterol, LDL-c/HDL-c ratio, TC/HDL ratio and serum uric acid level in CAD patients Subjects and Methodology: In this study, we included fifty CAD patients as subjects and an equal number of controls. Both subjects and controls were assessed for anthropometric, physiological and biochemical parameters Results: The present study showed significant increased levels of total cholesterol (p=0.002), TAGs (p<0.001), HDL (p=0.005), LDL (p<0.006) and non-HDL cholesterol (p<0.001). LDL-c/HDL-c ratio (p<0.001) and TC/HDL ratio (p<0.001) in CAD patients (subjects) were also significant when compared to controls. Uric acid level in CAD patients was increased (p<0.001). Conclusion: Serum Uric Acid, TC/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios could be regarded as objective markers, in association with existing atherogenic dyslipidemia in patients with CAD. PMID:25018681

  6. Lacosamide reduces HDAC levels in the brain and improves memory: Potential for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bang, Shraddha R; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D; Jagdale, Priti G; Adkar, Prafulla P; Waghmare, Arun B; Ambavade, Prashant D

    2015-07-01

    Lacosamide, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of epilepsy. Some HDAC inhibitors have been proven effective for the treatment of memory disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of lacosamide on memory and brain HDAC levels. The effect on memory was evaluated in animals with scopolamine-induced amnesia using the elevated plus maze, object recognition test, and radial arm maze. The levels of acetylcholinesterase and HDAC in the cerebral cortex were evaluated. Lacosamide at doses of 10 and 30mg/kg significantly reduced the transfer latency in the elevated plus maze. Lacosamide at a dose of 30mg/kg significantly increased the time spent with a familiar object in the object recognition test at the 24h interval and decreased the time spent in the baited arm. Moreover, at this dose, the number of errors in the radial arm maze at 3 and 24h intervals was minimized and a reduction in the level of HDAC1, but not acetylcholinesterase, was observed in the cerebral cortex. These effects of lacosamide are equivalent to those of piracetam at a dose of 300mg/kg. These results suggest that lacosamide at a 30mg/kg dose improves disrupted memory, possibly by inhibiting HDAC, and could be used to treat amnesic symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Reduced levels of protein recoding by A-to-I RNA editing in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Khermesh, Khen; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Barak, Michal; Annese, Anita; Wachtel, Chaim; Levanon, Erez Y; Picardi, Ernesto; Eisenberg, Eli

    2016-02-01

    Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, catalyzed by the ADAR enzyme family, acts on dsRNA structures within pre-mRNA molecules. Editing of the coding part of the mRNA may lead to recoding, amino acid substitution in the resulting protein, possibly modifying its biochemical and biophysical properties. Altered RNA editing patterns have been observed in various neurological pathologies. Here, we present a comprehensive study of recoding by RNA editing in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of irreversible dementia. We have used a targeted resequencing approach supplemented by a microfluidic-based high-throughput PCR coupled with next-generation sequencing to accurately quantify A-to-I RNA editing levels in a preselected set of target sites, mostly located within the coding sequence of synaptic genes. Overall, editing levels decreased in AD patients' brain tissues, mainly in the hippocampus and to a lesser degree in the temporal and frontal lobes. Differential RNA editing levels were observed in 35 target sites within 22 genes. These results may shed light on a possible association between the neurodegenerative processes typical for AD and deficient RNA editing.

  8. Bone mass and vitamin D levels in Parkinson’s disease: is there any difference between genders?

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Erhan Arif; Gundogdu, Ibrahim; Tonuk, Burak; Kocer, Bilge Gonenli; Tombak, Yasemin; Comoglu, Selcuk; Cakci, Aytul

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the bone mineral density, vitamin D level, and frequencies of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with Parkinson’s disease and to compare male and female patients with the controls separately. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred fifteen Parkinson’s disease patients (47 males, 68 females; age range: 55–85 years) and 117 age- and gender-matched controls (47 males, 70 females) were enrolled in the study. Bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum D vitamin levels of each participant were recorded. [Results] The mean lumbar spine, femur neck, and total femur bone mineral density levels, T-scores, and vitamin D levels were found to be significantly lower in Parkinson’s disease patients in both genders. Furthermore, osteoporosis rates were found be significantly higher only in female Parkinson’s disease patients compared with female controls. [Conclusion] Data from the present study revealed that while osteoporosis was significantly higher only in female Parkinson’s disease patients, all Parkinson’s disease patients had lower bone mineral density scores and vitamin D levels compared with the controls regardless of gender, suggesting that clinicians should pay attention to the osteoporosis risk in Parkinson’s disease and that adequate preventive measures should be taken in order to limit the future risk due to osteoporotic fractures. PMID:27630398

  9. Bone mass and vitamin D levels in Parkinson’s disease: is there any difference between genders?

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Erhan Arif; Gundogdu, Ibrahim; Tonuk, Burak; Kocer, Bilge Gonenli; Tombak, Yasemin; Comoglu, Selcuk; Cakci, Aytul

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the bone mineral density, vitamin D level, and frequencies of osteopenia and osteoporosis in patients with Parkinson’s disease and to compare male and female patients with the controls separately. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred fifteen Parkinson’s disease patients (47 males, 68 females; age range: 55–85 years) and 117 age- and gender-matched controls (47 males, 70 females) were enrolled in the study. Bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum D vitamin levels of each participant were recorded. [Results] The mean lumbar spine, femur neck, and total femur bone mineral density levels, T-scores, and vitamin D levels were found to be significantly lower in Parkinson’s disease patients in both genders. Furthermore, osteoporosis rates were found be significantly higher only in female Parkinson’s disease patients compared with female controls. [Conclusion] Data from the present study revealed that while osteoporosis was significantly higher only in female Parkinson’s disease patients, all Parkinson’s disease patients had lower bone mineral density scores and vitamin D levels compared with the controls regardless of gender, suggesting that clinicians should pay attention to the osteoporosis risk in Parkinson’s disease and that adequate preventive measures should be taken in order to limit the future risk due to osteoporotic fractures.

  10. High ferritin levels have major effects on the morphology of erythrocytes in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Bester, Janette; Buys, Antoinette V.; Lipinski, Boguslaw; Kell, Douglas B.; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Unliganded iron both contributes to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and also changes the morphology of erythrocytes (RBCs). We tested the hypothesis that these two facts might be linked, i.e., that the RBCs of AD individuals have a variant morphology, that might have diagnostic or prognostic value. Methods: We included a literature survey of AD and its relationships to the vascular system, followed by a laboratory study. Four different microscopy techniques were used and results statistically compared to analyze trends between high and normal serum ferritin (SF) AD individuals. Results: Light and scanning electron microscopies showed little difference between the morphologies of RBCs taken from healthy individuals and from normal SF AD individuals. By contrast, there were substantial changes in the morphology of RBCs taken from high SF AD individuals. These differences were also observed using confocal microscopy and as a significantly greater membrane stiffness (measured using force-distance curves). Conclusion: We argue that high ferritin levels may contribute to an accelerated pathology in AD. Our findings reinforce the importance of (unliganded) iron in AD, and suggest the possibility both of an early diagnosis and some means of treating or slowing down the progress of this disease. PMID:24367334

  11. High level resistance against rhizomania disease by simultaneously integrating two distinct defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Ourania I; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Skaracis, George N

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of achieving durable resistance against rhizomania disease of sugar beet, the employment of different sources of resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus was pursued. To this purpose, Nicotiana benthamiana transgenic plants that simultaneously produce dsRNA originating from a conserved region of the BNYVV replicase gene and the HrpZ(Psph) protein in a secreted form (SP/HrpZ(Psph)) were produced. The integration and expression of both transgenes as well as proper production of the harpin protein were verified in all primary transformants and selfed progeny (T1, T2). Transgenic resistance was assessed by BNYVV-challenge inoculation on T2 progeny by scoring disease symptoms and DAS-ELISA at 20 and 30 dpi. Transgenic lines possessing single transformation events for both transgenes as well as wild type plants were included in inoculation experiments. Transgenic plants were highly resistant to virus infection, whereas in some cases immunity was achieved. In all cases, the resistant phenotype of transgenic plants carrying both transgenes was superior in comparison with the ones carrying a single transgene. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for a first time, that the combination of two entirely different resistance mechanisms provide high level resistance or even immunity against the virus. Such a novel approach is anticipated to prevent a rapid virus adaptation that could potentially lead to the emergence of isolates with resistance breaking properties.

  12. High level resistance against rhizomania disease by simultaneously integrating two distinct defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Ourania I; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Skaracis, George N

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of achieving durable resistance against rhizomania disease of sugar beet, the employment of different sources of resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus was pursued. To this purpose, Nicotiana benthamiana transgenic plants that simultaneously produce dsRNA originating from a conserved region of the BNYVV replicase gene and the HrpZ(Psph) protein in a secreted form (SP/HrpZ(Psph)) were produced. The integration and expression of both transgenes as well as proper production of the harpin protein were verified in all primary transformants and selfed progeny (T1, T2). Transgenic resistance was assessed by BNYVV-challenge inoculation on T2 progeny by scoring disease symptoms and DAS-ELISA at 20 and 30 dpi. Transgenic lines possessing single transformation events for both transgenes as well as wild type plants were included in inoculation experiments. Transgenic plants were highly resistant to virus infection, whereas in some cases immunity was achieved. In all cases, the resistant phenotype of transgenic plants carrying both transgenes was superior in comparison with the ones carrying a single transgene. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for a first time, that the combination of two entirely different resistance mechanisms provide high level resistance or even immunity against the virus. Such a novel approach is anticipated to prevent a rapid virus adaptation that could potentially lead to the emergence of isolates with resistance breaking properties. PMID:23284692

  13. Huntington's disease accelerates epigenetic aging of human brain and disrupts DNA methylation levels

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Steve; Langfelder, Peter; Kwak, Seung; Aaronson, Jeff; Rosinski, Jim; Vogt, Thomas F.; Eszes, Marika; Faull, Richard L.M.; Curtis, Maurice A.; Waldvogel, Henry J.; Choi, Oi-Wa; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Coppola, Giovanni; Yang, X. William

    2016-01-01

    Age of Huntington's disease (HD) motoric onset is strongly related to the number of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene, suggesting that biological tissue age plays an important role in disease etiology. Recently, a DNA methylation based biomarker of tissue age has been advanced as an epigenetic aging clock. We sought to inquire if HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age. DNA methylation data was generated for 475 brain samples from various brain regions of 26 HD cases and 39 controls. Overall, brain regions from HD cases exhibit a significant epigenetic age acceleration effect (p=0.0012). A multivariate model analysis suggests that HD status increases biological age by 3.2 years. Accelerated epigenetic age can be observed in specific brain regions (frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and cingulate gyrus). After excluding controls, we observe a negative correlation (r=−0.41, p=5.5×10−8) between HD gene CAG repeat length and the epigenetic age of HD brain samples. Using correlation network analysis, we identify 11 co-methylation modules with a significant association with HD status across 3 broad cortical regions. In conclusion, HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age of specific brain regions and more broadly with substantial changes in brain methylation levels. PMID:27479945

  14. Huntington's disease accelerates epigenetic aging of human brain and disrupts DNA methylation levels.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Steve; Langfelder, Peter; Kwak, Seung; Aaronson, Jeff; Rosinski, Jim; Vogt, Thomas F; Eszes, Marika; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A; Waldvogel, Henry J; Choi, Oi-Wa; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Coppola, Giovanni; Yang, X William

    2016-07-01

    Age of Huntington's disease (HD) motoric onset is strongly related to the number of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the huntingtin gene, suggesting that biological tissue age plays an important role in disease etiology. Recently, a DNA methylation based biomarker of tissue age has been advanced as an epigenetic aging clock. We sought to inquire if HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age. DNA methylation data was generated for 475 brain samples from various brain regions of 26 HD cases and 39 controls. Overall, brain regions from HD cases exhibit a significant epigenetic age acceleration effect (p=0.0012). A multivariate model analysis suggests that HD status increases biological age by 3.2 years. Accelerated epigenetic age can be observed in specific brain regions (frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and cingulate gyrus). After excluding controls, we observe a negative correlation (r=-0.41, p=5.5×10-8) between HD gene CAG repeat length and the epigenetic age of HD brain samples. Using correlation network analysis, we identify 11 co-methylation modules with a significant association with HD status across 3 broad cortical regions. In conclusion, HD is associated with an accelerated epigenetic age of specific brain regions and more broadly with substantial changes in brain methylation levels. PMID:27479945

  15. Increased IL6 plasma levels in indolent systemic mastocytosis patients are associated with high risk of disease progression.

    PubMed

    Mayado, A; Teodosio, C; Garcia-Montero, A C; Matito, A; Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Morgado, J M; Muñiz, C; Jara-Acevedo, M; Álvarez-Twose, I; Sanchez-Muñoz, L; Matarraz, S; Caldas, C; Muñoz-González, J I; Escribano, L; Orfao, A

    2016-01-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a heterogeneous disease with altered interleukin (IL)-6 and IL13 plasma levels. However, no study has simultaneously investigated the plasma levels of IL1β, IL6, IL13, CCL23 and clusterin in SM at diagnosis and correlated them with disease outcome. Here we investigated IL1β, IL6, IL13, CCL23 and clusterin plasma levels in 75 SM patients--66 indolent SM (ISM) and 9 aggressive SM--and analyzed their prognostic impact among ISM cases grouped according to the extent of hematopoietic involvement of the bone marrow cells by the KIT D816V mutation. Although increased IL1β, IL6 and CCL23 levels were detected in SM patients versus healthy controls, only IL6 and CCL23 levels gradually increased with disease severity. Moreover, increased IL6 plasma levels were associated with ISM progression to more aggressive disease, in particular among ISM patients with multilineal KIT mutation (ISM-ML), these patients also showing a higher frequency of organomegalies, versus other ISM-ML patients. Of note, all ISM patients who progressed had increased IL6 plasma levels already at diagnosis. Our results indicate that SM patients display an altered plasma cytokine profile already at diagnosis, increased IL6 plasma levels emerging as an early marker for disease progression among ISM cases, in particular among high-risk ISM patients who carry multilineage KIT mutation. PMID:26153655

  16. Forest adjacent households' voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B S

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers' perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households' voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level. PMID:27390633

  17. Forest adjacent households' voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Balama, Chelestino; Augustino, Suzana; Eriksen, Siri; Makonda, Fortunatus B S

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers' perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households' voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level.

  18. Apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms and plasma levels in healthy Tunisians and patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Bahri, Raoudha; Esteban, Esther; Moral, Pedro; Hassine, Mohsen; Hamda, Khaldoun Ben; Chaabani, Hassen

    2008-01-01

    Aim To analyze apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms in the Tunisian population and to check the relation of these polymorphisms and homocysteine, lipid and apolipoprotein levels to the coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods In healthy blood donors and in patients with CAD complicated by myocardial infarction (MI) four apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms [APO (a) PNR, APO E, APO CI and APO CII] were determined and plasma levels of total homocysteine, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HLD-C) and apolipoproteins (apo A-I, Apo B, Apo E) were measured. Results Analysis of the four apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms shows a relative genetic homogeneity between Tunisian population and those on the other side of Mediterranean basin. Compared to controls, CAD patients have significantly higher main concentrations of TC, TG, LDL-C, apo B and homocysteine, and significantly lower ones of HDL-C, apo A-I and apo E. The four apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms have not showed any significant differences between patients and controls. However, the APO E4 allele appears to be associated to the severity of CAD and to high levels of atherogenic parameters and low level of apo E, which has very likely an anti-atherogenic role. Conclusion Although APO (a) PNR, APO CI and APO CII genes are analyzed in only few populations, they show a frequency distribution, which is not at variance with that of APO E gene and other widely studied genetic markers. In the Tunisian population the APO E 4 appears to be only indirectly involved in the severity of CAD. In the routine practice, in addition of classic parameters, it will be useful to measure the concentration of apo E and that of Homocysteine and if possible to determine the APO E gene polymorphism. PMID:19014618

  19. Low levels of astroglial markers in Parkinson's disease: relationship to α-synuclein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Junchao; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Williams, Belinda; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Fitzmaurice, Paul; Guttman, Mark; Boileau, Isabelle; Hornykiewicz, Oleh; Kish, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Although gliosis is a normal response to brain injury, reports on the extent of astrogliosis in the degenerating substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease (PD) are conflicting. It has also been recently suggested that accumulation of nigral α-synuclein in this disorder might suppress astrocyte activation which in turn could exacerbate the degenerative process. This study examined brain protein levels (intact protein, fragments, and aggregates, if any) of astroglial markers and their relationship to α-synuclein in PD and in the positive control parkinson-plus conditions multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Autopsied brain homogenates of patients with PD (n=10), MSA (n=11), PSP (n=11) and matched controls (n=10) were examined for the astroglial markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and heat shock protein-27 (Hsp27) by quantitative immunoblotting. As expected, both MSA (putamen>substantia nigra>caudate>frontal cortex) and PSP (substantia nigra>caudate>putamen, frontal cortex) showed widespread but regionally specific pattern of increased immunoreactivity of the markers, in particular for the partially proteolyzed fragments (all three) and aggregates (GFAP). In contrast, immunoreactivity of the three markers was largely normal in PD in brain regions examined with the exception of trends for variably increased levels of cleaved vimentin in substantia nigra and frontal cortex. In patients with PD, GFAP levels in the substantia nigra correlated inversely with α-synuclein accumulation whereas the opposite was true for MSA. Our biochemical findings of generally normal protein levels of astroglial markers in substantia nigra of PD, and negative correlation with α-synuclein concentration, are consistent with some recent neuropathology reports of mild astroglial response and with the speculation that astrogliosis might be suppressed in this disorder by excessive α-synuclein accumulation. Should astrogliosis protect, to

  20. Relationship between Chemerin Levels and Cardiometabolic Parameters and Degree of Coronary Stenosis in Korean Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hah, Yu-Jin; Kim, Nam-Keong; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hye-Soon; Hur, Seung-Ho; Yoon, Hyuck-Jun; Kim, Yoon-Nyun

    2011-01-01

    Background Chemerin is a novel adipokine that is associated with inflammation and adipogenesis. However, it remains unclear whether chemerin is involved in patients with cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether the serum chemerin levels of Korean patients with coronary artery disease correlated with specific cardiometabolic parameters. Methods In total, 131 patients, all of whom had coronary artery stenosis exceeding 50%, participated in this study. Their serum chemerin levels and cardiometabolic parameters were measured. The serum chemerin levels of two groups of patients were compared; those with one stenotic vessel (n=68) and those with multiple stenotic vessels, including left main coronary artery disease (n=63). Results Serum chemerin levels correlated positively with the degree of coronary artery stenosis and fasting glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels. The group with multiple stenotic vessels, including left main disease, had higher chemerin levels than the group with one stenotic vessel (t=-2.129, P=0.035). Multiple binary logistic regression showed chemerin was not an independent risk factor of multiple vessel disease (odds ratio, 1.018; confidence interval, 0.997 to 1.040; P=0.091). Conclusion Serum chemerin levels have a significant correlation with several cardiometabolic risk factors and the degree of coronary artery stenosis in Korean patients with coronary artery disease. However, multiple binary logistic regression showed chemerin was not an independent risk factor of multiple vessel disease. Additional investigations are necessary to fully elucidate the role of chemerin in cardiovascular disease. PMID:21785745

  1. What is the optimal level of vitamin D in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease population?

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Pablo; Górriz, José L; Molina, Mariola D; Beltrán, Sandra; Vizcaíno, Belén; Escudero, Verónica; Kanter, Julia; Ávila, Ana I; Bover, Jordi; Fernández, Elvira; Nieto, Javier; Cigarrán, Secundino; Gruss, Enrique; Fernández-Juárez, Gema; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Navarro-González, Juan F; Romero, Ramón; Pallardó, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate thresholds for serum 25(OH)D concentrations in relation to death, kidney progression and hospitalization in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. METHODS Four hundred and seventy non-dialysis 3-5 stage CKD patients participating in OSERCE-2 study, a prospective, multicenter, cohort study, were prospectively evaluated and categorized into 3 groups according to 25(OH)D levels at enrollment (less than 20 ng/mL, between 20 and 29 ng/mL, and at or above 30 ng/mL), considering 25(OH)D between 20 and 29 ng/mL as reference group. Association between 25(OH)D levels and death (primary outcome), and time to first hospitalization and renal progression (secondary outcomes) over a 3-year follow-up, were assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox-proportional hazard models. To identify 25(OH)D levels at highest risk for outcomes, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed. RESULTS Over 29 ± 12 mo of follow-up, 46 (10%) patients dead, 156 (33%) showed kidney progression, and 126 (27%) were hospitalized. After multivariate adjustment, 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (HR = 2.33; 95%CI: 1.10-4.91; P = 0.027) and kidney progression (HR = 2.46; 95%CI: 1.63-3.71; P < 0.001), whereas the group with 25(OH)D at or above 30 ng/mL did not have a different hazard for outcomes from the reference group. Hospitalization outcomes were predicted by 25(OH) levels (HR = 0.98; 95%CI: 0.96-1.00; P = 0.027) in the unadjusted Cox proportional hazards model, but not after multivariate adjusting. ROC curves identified 25(OH)D levels at highest risk for death, kidney progression, and hospitalization, at 17.4 ng/mL [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.60; 95%CI: 0.52-0.69; P = 0.027], 18.6 ng/mL (AUC = 0.65; 95%CI: 0.60-0.71; P < 0.001), and 19.0 ng/mL (AUC = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.50-0.62; P = 0.048), respectively. CONCLUSION 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL was an independent predictor of death and progression in patients with stage 3

  2. Relationship of circulating hyaluronic acid levels to disease control in asthma and asthmatic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Eszes, Noémi; Toldi, Gergely; Bohács, Anikó; Ivancsó, István; Müller, Veronika; Rigó, János; Losonczy, György; Vásárhelyi, Barna; Tamási, Lilla

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled asthma is a risk factor for pregnancy-related complications. Hyaluronic acid (HA), a potential peripheral blood marker of tissue fibrosis in various diseases, promotes eosinophil survival and plays a role in asthmatic airway inflammation as well as in physiological processes necessary to maintain normal pregnancy; however the level of circulating HA in asthma and asthmatic pregnancy is unknown. We investigated HA levels in asthmatic patients (N = 52; asthmatic pregnant (AP) N = 16; asthmatic non-pregnant (ANP) N = 36) and tested their relationship to asthma control. Serum HA level was lower in AP than in ANP patients (27 [24.7-31.55] vs. 37.4 [30.1-66.55] ng/mL, p = 0.006); the difference attenuated to a trend after its adjustment for patients' age (p = 0.056). HA levels and airway resistance were positively (r = 0.467, p = 0.004), HA levels and Asthma Control Test (ACT) total score inversely (r = -0.437, p = 0.01) associated in ANP patients; these relationships remained significant even after their adjustments for age. The potential value of HA in the determination of asthma control was analyzed using ROC analysis which revealed that HA values discriminate patients with ACT total score ≥20 (controlled patients) and <20 (uncontrolled patients) with a 0.826 efficacy (AUC, 95% CI: 0.69-0.97, p = 0.001) when 37.4 ng/mL is used as cut-off value in ANP group, and with 0.78 efficacy (AUC, 95% CI: 0.65-0.92, p = 0.0009) in the whole asthmatic cohort. In conclusion circulating HA might be a marker of asthma control, as it correlates with airway resistance and has good sensitivity in the detection of impaired asthma control. Decrease of HA level in pregnancy may be the consequence of pregnancy induced immune tolerance.

  3. What is the optimal level of vitamin D in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease population?

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Pablo; Górriz, José L; Molina, Mariola D; Beltrán, Sandra; Vizcaíno, Belén; Escudero, Verónica; Kanter, Julia; Ávila, Ana I; Bover, Jordi; Fernández, Elvira; Nieto, Javier; Cigarrán, Secundino; Gruss, Enrique; Fernández-Juárez, Gema; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Navarro-González, Juan F; Romero, Ramón; Pallardó, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate thresholds for serum 25(OH)D concentrations in relation to death, kidney progression and hospitalization in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. METHODS Four hundred and seventy non-dialysis 3-5 stage CKD patients participating in OSERCE-2 study, a prospective, multicenter, cohort study, were prospectively evaluated and categorized into 3 groups according to 25(OH)D levels at enrollment (less than 20 ng/mL, between 20 and 29 ng/mL, and at or above 30 ng/mL), considering 25(OH)D between 20 and 29 ng/mL as reference group. Association between 25(OH)D levels and death (primary outcome), and time to first hospitalization and renal progression (secondary outcomes) over a 3-year follow-up, were assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox-proportional hazard models. To identify 25(OH)D levels at highest risk for outcomes, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed. RESULTS Over 29 ± 12 mo of follow-up, 46 (10%) patients dead, 156 (33%) showed kidney progression, and 126 (27%) were hospitalized. After multivariate adjustment, 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (HR = 2.33; 95%CI: 1.10-4.91; P = 0.027) and kidney progression (HR = 2.46; 95%CI: 1.63-3.71; P < 0.001), whereas the group with 25(OH)D at or above 30 ng/mL did not have a different hazard for outcomes from the reference group. Hospitalization outcomes were predicted by 25(OH) levels (HR = 0.98; 95%CI: 0.96-1.00; P = 0.027) in the unadjusted Cox proportional hazards model, but not after multivariate adjusting. ROC curves identified 25(OH)D levels at highest risk for death, kidney progression, and hospitalization, at 17.4 ng/mL [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.60; 95%CI: 0.52-0.69; P = 0.027], 18.6 ng/mL (AUC = 0.65; 95%CI: 0.60-0.71; P < 0.001), and 19.0 ng/mL (AUC = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.50-0.62; P = 0.048), respectively. CONCLUSION 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL was an independent predictor of death and progression in patients with stage 3

  4. Plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor and its soluble receptors correlate with clinical features and outcome of Hodgkin's disease patients.

    PubMed Central

    Warzocha, K.; Bienvenu, J.; Ribeiro, P.; Moullet, I.; Dumontet, C.; Neidhardt-Berard, E. M.; Coiffier, B.; Salles, G.

    1998-01-01

    A prospective study was performed to assess the use of plasma measurement of tumour necrosis factor (TNF), lymphotoxin alpha (LT alpha) and their soluble receptors (p55 and p75) for prognostic risk assignment in 61 patients with Hodgkin's disease. Plasma levels of TNF, p55 and p75, but not of LT alpha, were higher in Hodgkin's disease patients than in healthy controls. Plasma levels of TNF, p55 and p75 were associated with several prognostic factors for Hodgkin's disease, including those related to the host (age, performance status) and to the tumour (disease stage, extranodal site involvement, bulky tumour, serum levels of LDH and beta2-microglobulin, histology). Elevated plasma levels of TNF, p55 and p75 were also associated with several parameters reflecting an immune activation, including the presence of B symptoms, elevated serum levels of gammaglobulins, alkaline phosphatase and fibrinogen, as well as peripheral monocytosis, anaemia and low serum albumin levels. Finally, elevated TNF ligand receptor plasma markers were associated with a lower incidence of complete response to therapy and predicted shorter free-from-progression survival and overall survival of the patients. These results indicate that the plasma levels of TNF and its soluble receptors correlate with clinical features and outcome of patients with Hodgkin's disease. PMID:9649158

  5. Ultraviolet-ozone treatment reduces levels of disease-associated prion protein and prion infectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Gilbert, P.; McKenzie, D.; Pedersen, J.A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by novel infectious agents referred to as prions. Prions appear to be composed primarily, if not exclusively, of a misfolded isoform of the cellular prion protein. TSE infectivity is remarkably stable and can resist many aggressive decontamination procedures, increasing human, livestock and wildlife exposure to TSEs. Findings. We tested the hypothesis that UV-ozone treatment reduces levels of the pathogenic prion protein and inactivates the infectious agent. We found that UV-ozone treatment decreased the carbon and prion protein content in infected brain homogenate to levels undetectable by dry-ashing carbon analysis or immunoblotting, respectively. After 8 weeks of ashing, UV-ozone treatment reduced the infectious titer of treated material by a factor of at least 105. A small amount of infectivity, however, persisted despite UV-ozone treatment. When bound to either montmorillonite clay or quartz surfaces, PrPTSE was still susceptible to degradation by UV-ozone. Conclusion. Our findings strongly suggest that UV-ozone treatment can degrade pathogenic prion protein and inactivate prions, even when the agent is associated with surfaces. Using larger UV-ozone doses or combining UV-ozone treatment with other decontaminant methods may allow the sterilization of TSE-contaminated materials. ?? 2009 Aiken et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  6. Base excision DNA repair levels in mitochondrial lysates of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Canugovi, Chandrika; Shamanna, Raghavendra A; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2014-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a senile dementia with increased incidence in older subjects (age >65 years). One of the earliest markers of AD is oxidative DNA damage. Recently, it has been reported that preclinical AD patient brains show elevated levels of oxidative damage in both nuclear and mitochondrial nucleic acids. Moreover, different oxidative lesions in mitochondrial DNA are between 5- and 10-fold higher than in nuclear DNA in both control and AD postmortem brains. We previously showed that there is a significant loss of base excision repair (BER) components in whole tissue extracts of AD and mild cognitive impairment subjects relative to matched control subjects. However, comprehensive analysis of specific steps in BER levels in mitochondrial extracts of AD patient brains is not available. In this study, we mainly investigated various components of BER in mitochondrial extracts of AD and matched control postmortem brain samples. We found that the 5-hydroxyuracil incision and ligase activities are significantly lower in AD brains, whereas the uracil incision, abasic site cleavage, and deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate incorporation activities are normal in these samples.

  7. The Level of Cholesterol in COPD Patients with Severe and Very Severe Stage of the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zafirova-Ivanovska, Beti; Stojkovikj, Jagoda; Dokikj, Dejan; Anastasova, Sasha; Debresliovska, Angela; Zejnel, Sead; Stojkovikj, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High blood cholesterol is part of metabolic syndrome and can be caused by medical conditions or bad dietary habits. AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in privies diagnosed patients with the severe and very severe stage of COPD, which were stable. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated 100 subjects, all of them smokers, with smoking status >10 years, stratified into two groups: with severe and very severe stage of the disease. It was clinical, randomized, cross-sectional study. Besides demographic parameters and functional parameters, body mass index, cholesterol, LDL, and HDL were investigated. RESULTS: In the group of patients with very severe COPD were recorded significantly higher average values of cholesterol (6.16 ± 1.5 vs. 5.61 ± 1.1, p = 0.039). As independent significant factors influencing cholesterol in the group with a very severe COPD were confirmed the age of the patients (p = 0.005), LDL (p = 0.004) and HDL (p = 0.002). In the group with severe COPD, only LDL was confirmed as an independent significant factor that has an impact on cholesterol (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The results of our survey demonstrated a high level of blood cholesterol and LDL, and low level of blood HDL in both investigated group’s patients with COPD. PMID:27335600

  8. Systematic assessment of BDNF and its receptor levels in human cortices affected by Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Zuccato, Chiara; Marullo, Manuela; Conforti, Paola; MacDonald, Marcy E; Tartari, Marzia; Cattaneo, Elena

    2008-04-01

    One cardinal feature of Huntington's disease (HD) is the degeneration of striatal neurons, whose survival greatly depends on the binding of cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with high-affinity (TrkB) and low-affinity neurotrophin receptors [p75 pan-neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR))]. With a few exceptions, results obtained in HD mouse models demonstrate a reduction in cortical BDNF mRNA and protein, although autopsy data from a limited number of human HD cortices are conflicting. These studies indicate the presence of defects in cortical BDNF gene transcription and transport to striatum. We provide new evidence indicating a significant reduction in BDNF mRNA and protein in the cortex of 20 HD subjects in comparison with 17 controls, which supports the hypothesis of impaired BDNF production in human HD cortex. Analyses of the BDNF isoforms show that transcription from BDNF promoter II and IV is down-regulated in human HD cortex from an early symptomatic stage. We also found that TrkB mRNA levels are reduced in caudate tissue but not in the cortex, whereas the mRNA levels of T-Shc (a truncated TrkB isoform) and p75(NTR) are increased in the caudate. This indicates that, in addition to the reduction in BDNF mRNA, there is also unbalanced neurotrophic receptor signaling in HD. PMID:18093249

  9. Exploring the Spatial Association between Social Deprivation and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality at the Neighborhood Level

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death in the United States, is impacted by neighborhood-level factors including social deprivation. To measure the association between social deprivation and CVD mortality in Harris County, Texas, global (Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and local (Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR)) models were built. The models explored the spatial variation in the relationship at a census-tract level while controlling for age, income by race, and education. A significant and spatially varying association (p < .01) was found between social deprivation and CVD mortality, when controlling for all other factors in the model. The GWR model provided a better model fit over the analogous OLS model (R2 = .65 vs. .57), reinforcing the importance of geography and neighborhood of residence in the relationship between social deprivation and CVD mortality. Findings from the GWR model can be used to identify neighborhoods at greatest risk for poor health outcomes and to inform the placement of community-based interventions. PMID:26731424

  10. Plasma neurofilament heavy chain levels and disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: insights from a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ching-Hua; Petzold, Axel; Topping, Jo; Allen, Kezia; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Clarke, Jan; Pearce, Neil; Kuhle, Jens; Giovannoni, Gavin; Fratta, Pietro; Sidle, Katie; Fish, Mark; Orrell, Richard; Howard, Robin; Greensmith, Linda; Malaspina, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of longitudinal plasma neurofilament heavy chain protein (NfH) levels as an indicator of clinical progression and survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods A cross-sectional study involving 136 clinically heterogeneous patients with ALS and 104 healthy and neurological controls was extended to include a prospective analysis of 74 of these ALS cases, with samplings at approximately 3-month intervals in a follow-up period of up to 3 years. We analysed the correlation between longitudinal NfH-phosphoform levels and disease progression. Temporal patterns of NfH changes were evaluated using multilevel linear regression. Results Baseline plasma NfH levels were higher than controls only in patients with ALS with short disease duration to baseline sampling. Compared with controls, fast-progressing patients with ALS, particularly those with a short diagnostic latency and disease duration, had higher plasma NfH levels at an early stage and lower levels closer to end-stage disease. Lower NfH levels between visits were associated with rapid functional deterioration. We also detected antibodies against NfH, NfH aggregates and NfH cleavage products. Conclusions Disease progression in ALS involves defined trajectories of plasma NfH levels, reflecting speed of neurological decline and survival. Intervisit plasma NfH changes are also indicative of disease progression. This study confirms that longitudinal measurements of NfH plasma levels are more informative than cross-sectional studies, where the time of sampling may represent a bias in the interpretation of the results. Autoantibodies against NfH aggregates and NfH cleavage products may explain the variable expression of plasma NfH with disease progression. Trail registration number NIHRID6160. PMID:25009280

  11. Low Testosterone Level and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease in the Elderly Men: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wenshan; Du, Na; Liu, Ying; Fan, Xinyi; Wang, Yunyang; Jia, Xiujuan; Hou, Xu; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Sex steroids can positively affect the brain function, and low levels of sex steroids may be associated with worse cognitive function in the elderly men. However, previous studies reported contrary findings on the relationship between testosterone level and risk of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly men. The objective of this study was to comprehensively assess the relationship between low testosterone level and Alzheimer's disease risk in the elderly men using a meta-analysis. Only prospective cohort studies assessing the influence of low testosterone level on Alzheimer's disease risk in elderly men were considered eligible. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were pooled to assess the risk of Alzheimer's disease in elderly men with low testosterone level. Seven prospective cohort studies with a total of 5251 elderly men and 240 cases of Alzheimer's disease were included into the meta-analysis. There was moderate degree of heterogeneity among those included studies (I(2) = 47.2%). Meta-analysis using random effect model showed that low plasma testosterone level was significantly associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease in elderly men (random RR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.12-1.96, P = 0.006). Sensitivity analysis by omitting one study by turns showed that there was no obvious change in the pooled risk estimates, and all pooled RRs were statistically significant. This meta-analysis supports that low plasma testosterone level is significantly associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease in the elderly men. Low testosterone level is a risk factor of worse cognitive function in the elderly men.

  12. Association of MAPT haplotypes with Alzheimer’s disease risk and MAPT brain gene expression levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction MAPT encodes for tau, the predominant component of neurofibrillary tangles that are neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Genetic association of MAPT variants with late-onset AD (LOAD) risk has been inconsistent, although insufficient power and incomplete assessment of MAPT haplotypes may account for this. Methods We examined the association of MAPT haplotypes with LOAD risk in more than 20,000 subjects (n-cases = 9,814, n-controls = 11,550) from Mayo Clinic (n-cases = 2,052, n-controls = 3,406) and the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC, n-cases = 7,762, n-controls = 8,144). We also assessed associations with brain MAPT gene expression levels measured in the cerebellum (n = 197) and temporal cortex (n = 202) of LOAD subjects. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which tag MAPT haplotypes with frequencies greater than 1% were evaluated. Results H2-haplotype tagging rs8070723-G allele associated with reduced risk of LOAD (odds ratio, OR = 0.90, 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.85-0.95, p = 5.2E-05) with consistent results in the Mayo (OR = 0.81, p = 7.0E-04) and ADGC (OR = 0.89, p = 1.26E-04) cohorts. rs3785883-A allele was also nominally significantly associated with LOAD risk (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.01-1.13, p = 0.034). Haplotype analysis revealed significant global association with LOAD risk in the combined cohort (p = 0.033), with significant association of the H2 haplotype with reduced risk of LOAD as expected (p = 1.53E-04) and suggestive association with additional haplotypes. MAPT SNPs and haplotypes also associated with brain MAPT levels in the cerebellum and temporal cortex of AD subjects with the strongest associations observed for the H2 haplotype and reduced brain MAPT levels (β = -0.16 to -0.20, p = 1.0E-03 to 3.0E-03). Conclusions These results confirm the previously reported MAPT H2 associations with LOAD risk in two large series, that this haplotype has the strongest

  13. Greater serum carotenoid levels associated with lower prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yi; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Liu, Zhao-min; Ling, Wen-hua; Chen, Yu-ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that serum carotenoids may be inversely associated with liver injury, but limited data are available from population-based studies. We examined the relationship between serum carotenoid levels and the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese adults. A total of 2935 participants aged 40–75 years were involved in this community-based cross-sectional study. General information, lifestyle factors, serum levels of carotenoid and the presence and degree of NAFLD were determined. After adjusting for potential covariates, we observed a dose-dependent inverse association between NAFLD risk and each individual serum carotenoid and total carotenoids (all p-values < 0.001). The ORs of NAFLD for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.44 (95% CI 0.35, 0.56) for α-carotene, 0.32 (95% CI 0.25, 0.41) for β-carotene, 0.62 (95% CI 0.49, 0.79) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.54 (95% CI 0.42, 0.68) for lycopene, 0.56 (95% CI 0.44, 0.72) for lutein + zeaxanthin and 0.41 (95% CI 0.32, 0.53) for total carotenoids. Higher levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin and total carotenoids were significantly associated with a decrease in the degree of NAFLD (p-trend: < 0.001 to 0.003). Serum carotenoids are inversely associated with prevalence of NAFLD in middle aged and elderly Chinese. PMID:26256414

  14. Interleukin-17 and interleukin-18 levels in different stages of inflammatory periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Chitrapriya, Muthugounder Nalanaswamy; Rao, Suresh Ranga; Lavu, Vamsi

    2015-01-01

    Context: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory condition of the tooth supporting structures. There is increasing evidence that the cytokines interleukin-17 (IL-17) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) play a role in progression of chronic periodontitis. Aim: The objective of this study was to compare the levels of the cytokines IL-17 and IL-18 in gingival tissue extracts from individuals with healthy gingiva, chronic gingivitis, and mild chronic periodontitis. Settings and Design: The study was performed in a hospital-based population with an experimental design. Materials and Methods: A total of 69 individuals (n = 23 per group) were recruited for the study. Group 1 included 23 individuals with healthy gingiva and Group 2 included 23 chronic gingivitis patients and Group 3 included 23 patients with mild chronic periodontitis. Gingival tissues were collected during surgical procedures and levels of IL-17 and IL-18 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical Analysis: Intergroup comparison was done by posthoc Tukey's test. Results: The gingival tissue concentration of IL-17 was found to be highest in Group 2 (415.19 ± 76.84 pg/mg) followed by Group 3 (193.77 ± 37.32 pg/mg) and Group 1 (20.49 ± 6.05 pg/mg). Concentrations of IL-18 were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in Group 2 (1479.42 ± 330.33 pg/mg) when compared with Group 1 (385.18 ± 71.26 pg/mg) and Group 3 (330.24 ± 48.56 pg/mg). Conclusion: There appears to be considerable variation of IL-17 and IL-18 levels in gingival tissue during periodontal health and disease. PMID:25810587

  15. Does Caffeine Consumption Modify Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-β Levels in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease?

    PubMed

    Travassos, Maria; Santana, Isabel; Baldeiras, Inês; Tsolaki, Magda; Gkatzima, Olymbia; Sermin, Genc; Yener, Görsev G; Simonsen, Anja; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Kapaki, Elisabeth; Mara, Bourbouli; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Agostinho, Paula; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Mendes, Vera M; Manadas, Bruno; de Mendon, Alexandreça

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine may be protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD) by modulating amyloid-β (Aβ) metabolic pathways. The present work aimed to study a possible association of caffeine consumption with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, particularly Aβ. The study included 88 patients with AD or mild cognitive impairment. The consumption of caffeine and theobromine was evaluated using a validated food questionnaire. Quantification of caffeine and main active metabolites was performed with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The levels of A(1-42), total tau, and phosphorylated tau in the CSF were determined using sandwich ELISA methods and other Aβ species, Aβ(X-38), Aβ(X-40), and Aβ(X-42), with the MSD Aβ Triplex assay. The concentration of caffeine was 0.79±1.15 μg/mL in the CSF and 1.20±1.88 μg/mL in the plasma. No correlation was found between caffeine consumption and Aβ42 in the CSF. However, a significant positive correlation was found between the concentrations of theobromine, both in the CSF and in the plasma, with Aβ42 in the CSF. Theobromine in the CSF was positively correlated with the levels of other xanthines in the CSF, but not in the plasma, suggesting that it may be formed by central metabolic pathways. In conclusion, caffeine consumption does not modify the levels of CSF biomarkers, and does not require to be controlled for when measuring CSF biomarkers in a clinical setting. Since theobromine is associated with a favorable Aβ profile in the CSF, the possibility that it might have a protective role in AD should be further investigated.

  16. Reduced levels of skeletal muscle Na+K+ -ATPase in McArdle disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, R. G.; Clausen, T.; Vissing, J.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that impaired sarcolemmal function associated with exaggerated potassium release, impaired potassium uptake, or both may contribute to exertional fatigue and abnormal circulatory responses to exercise in McArdle disease (MD). The cellular mechanism of exertional fatigue and muscle injury in MD is unknown but likely involves impaired function of the ATPases that couple ATP hydrolysis to cellular work, including the muscle sodium potassium pump (Na+K+-ATPase). However, the concentration of muscle Na+K+ pumps in MD is not known, and no studies have related exercise increases in blood potassium concentrations to muscle Na+K+ pump levels. We measured muscle Na+K+ pumps (3H-ouabain binding) and plasma K+ in response to 20 minutes of cycle exercise in six patients with MD and in six sex-, age-, and weight-matched sedentary individuals. MD patients had lower levels of 3H-ouabain binding (231 +/- 18 pmol/g w.w., mean +/- SD, range, 210 to 251) than control subjects (317 +/- 37, range, 266 to 371, p < 0.0004), higher peak increases in plasma potassium in response to 45 +/- 7 W cycle exercise (MD, 1.00 +/- 0.15 mmol/L; control subjects, 0.48 +/- 0.09; p < 0.0001), and mean exercise heart rate responses to exercise that were 45 +/- 12 bpm greater than control subjects. Our results indicate that Na+K+ pump levels are low in MD patients compared with healthy subjects and identify a limitation of potassium reuptake that could result in sarcolemmal failure during peak rates of membrane activation and may promote exaggerated potassium-activated circulatory responses to submaximal exercise. The mechanism of the low Na+K+ pump concentrations in MD is unknown but may relate to deconditioning or to disruption of a close functional relationship between membrane ion transport and glycolysis.

  17. Quantitative estimation of Newcastle disease virus antibody levels in chickens and turkeys by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Adair, B M; McNulty, M S; Todd, D; Connor, T J; Burns, K

    1989-01-01

    A quantitative single-well ELISA for estimation of Newcastle disease (ND) virus antibodies in chickens and turkeys was developed using purified antigen from PMV-1/Chicken/Ulster 2C/71. The test was standardised using sera from 20-week-old chickens or 20- 30-week-old turkeys. Absorbance values for negative sera in chickens increased with the age of the birds but overall was lower than the cut-off for the test. ND haemagglutination inhibition (HI) positive field sera were always positive by ELISA and the mean was significantly higher than that of the negative population. Standard antisera to four of seven of the other PMV serotypes (including PMV-3) gave positive reactions in ELISA and three were also positive at low level by PMV-1 HI test. Absorbance values remained negative in turkeys given two inoculations of PMV-3 vaccine in spite of good PMV-3 HI responses. Doubling dilutions of chicken and turkey sera were tested by ELISA and end-point titres calculated. Standard curves relating ELISA titre and absorbance of each sample at 1/100 dilution were constructed and used to determine titres of test samples from single well absorbance values. A significant positive correlation between ELISA titre and HI titre for chicken and turkey sera was demonstrated. Sensitivity of the test was investigated using birds experimentally infected with PMV-1/Chicken/Ulster 2C/71 or a pigeon PMV-1 isolate. Seroconversion was detected at the same time by ELISA and HI. In experiments to estimate the ELISA titre required to protect birds against virulent ND, five groups of chickens were vaccinated twice with one of four commercial ND vaccines (three inactivated; one live) on two occasions and challenged with a virulent ND strain (PMV-1/ Chicken/Antrim/73). Two of the groups vaccinated with inactivated vaccines were protected against challenge. In another group also given inactivated vaccine, clinical signs were seen in one bird and ELISA proved a better indicator of immune status than HI. In

  18. [Terminal complement complex (TCC) levels in urine in patients with renal diseases].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, K

    2001-03-01

    The terminal complement complex (TCC) has been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of proteinuria not only in experimental nephritis but also in human glomerulonephritis. In order to clarify the clinical significance of TCC, the author investigated a total of 129 pediatric patients with the following glomerular diseases: idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS; 40 cases), IgA nephropathy (IgAN; 48 cases), mesangio-capillary glomerulonephritis (MPGN; 16 cases), lupus nephritis (LN; 16 cases), purpura nephritis (5 cases) and membranous nephritis (4 cases). Results were analyzed in relation to the responsiveness to steroid treatment in INS and the degree of proteinuria and histopathologic severity in glonerulonephritis groups. In 40 patients who underwent renal biopsy, the localizations of vitronectin and clusterin, both of which are regulatory proteins for TCC, were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy in conjunction with that of TCC for the study of the mechanism of local defense in glomerulonephritis. The urinary TCC levels were elevated in 9 (90%) of 10 patients with steroid-resistant INS, while they were elevated only in 2 of 30 steroid-responsive patients. In glomerulonephritis groups, urinary TCC levels were elevated in 13 of 48 patients with IgAN, 6 of 16 with MPGN, 8 of 16 with LN, 2 of 5 purpural nephritis and 1 of 4 with membranous nephritis. Urinary TCC levels correlated with histological severity in IgAN and showed a reciprocal relation to C3 levels in MPGN and LN. Immunofluorescence findings showed that localization of TCC was quite similar to that of C3 in glomerulonephritis groups. Vitronectin and clusterin were also demonstrated to deposit in similar pattern to TCC. These results suggest that in INS urinary TCC levels could predict the responsiveness to steroid therapy and might be useful as a non-invasive diagnostic method in differential diagnosis of INS. In IgAN, urinary TCC could be a useful marker of histologic severity. The

  19. Lipoprotein(a) levels, apo(a) isoform size, and coronary heart disease risk in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], Lp(a) cholesterol, and of apo(a) isoform size to prospective coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma Lp(a) and Lp(a) cholesterol levels, and apo(a) isoform size were measured at examinati...

  20. Landscape-level variation in disease susceptibility related to shallow-water hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Breitburg, Denise L; Hondorp, Darryl; Audemard, Corinne; Carnegie, Ryan B; Burrell, Rebecca B; Trice, Mark; Clark, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Diel-cycling hypoxia is widespread in shallow portions of estuaries and lagoons, especially in systems with high nutrient loads resulting from human activities. Far less is known about the effects of this form of hypoxia than deeper-water seasonal or persistent low dissolved oxygen. We examined field patterns of diel-cycling hypoxia and used field and laboratory experiments to test its effects on acquisition and progression of Perkinsus marinus infections in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, as well as on oyster growth and filtration. P. marinus infections cause the disease known as Dermo, have been responsible for declines in oyster populations, and have limited success of oyster restoration efforts. The severity of diel-cycling hypoxia varied among shallow monitored sites in Chesapeake Bay, and average daily minimum dissolved oxygen was positively correlated with average daily minimum pH. In both field and laboratory experiments, diel-cycling hypoxia increased acquisition and progression of infections, with stronger results found for younger (1-year-old) than older (2-3-year-old) oysters, and more pronounced effects on both infections and growth found in the field than in the laboratory. Filtration by oysters was reduced during brief periods of exposure to severe hypoxia. This should have reduced exposure to waterborne P. marinus, and contributed to the negative relationship found between hypoxia frequency and oyster growth. Negative effects of hypoxia on the host immune response is, therefore, the likely mechanism leading to elevated infections in oysters exposed to hypoxia relative to control treatments. Because there is considerable spatial variation in the frequency and severity of hypoxia, diel-cycling hypoxia may contribute to landscape-level spatial variation in disease dynamics within and among estuarine systems. PMID:25671595

  1. Increased Levels of Eotaxin and MCP-1 in Juvenile Dermatomyositis Median 16.8 Years after Disease Onset; Associations with Disease Activity, Duration and Organ Damage

    PubMed Central

    Flatø, Berit; Vistnes, Maria; Christensen, Geir; Sjaastad, Ivar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare cytokine profiles in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) after medium to long-term follow-up with matched controls, and to examine associations between cytokine levels and disease activity, disease duration and organ damage. Methods Fifty-four JDM patients were examined median 16.8 years (2–38) after disease onset (follow-up) and compared with 54 sex- and age-matched controls. Cytokine concentrations in serum were quantified by Luminex technology. In patients, disease activity score (DAS), myositis damage index (MDI) and other disease parameters were collected by chart review (early parameters) and clinical examination (follow-up). Results Serum levels of eotaxin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) were elevated in JDM patients compared to controls (31.5%, 37.2% and 43.2% respectively, all p<0.05). Patients with active (n = 28), but not inactive disease (n = 26) had a higher level of MCP-1 than their respective controls. Levels of eotaxin and MCP-1 correlated with disease duration (r = 0.47 and r = 0.64, both p<0.001) and age in patients, but not with age in controls. At follow-up, MDI was associated with MCP-1(standardized β = 0.43, p = 0.002) after adjusting for disease duration and gender. High MDI 1 year post-diagnosis predicted high levels of eotaxin and MCP-1 at follow-up (standardized β = 0.24 and 0.29, both p<0.05) after adjusting for disease duration and gender. Conclusion Patients with JDM had higher eotaxin, MCP-1 and IP-10 than controls. High eotaxin and MCP-1 at follow-up was predicted by early disease parameters, and MCP-1 was associated with organ damage at follow-up, highlighting a role of these chemokines in JDM. PMID:24647150

  2. Identifying risk factors of avian infectious diseases at household level in Poyang Lake region, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian; Zhou, Jieting; Jiang, Zhiben; Xu, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Poultry kept in backyard farms are susceptible to acquiring and spreading infectious diseases because of free ranging and poor biosecurity measures. Since some of these diseases are zoonoses, this is also a significant health concern to breeders and their families. Backyard farms are common in rural regions of China. However, there is lack of knowledge of backyard poultry in the country. To obtain first-hand information of backyard poultry and identify risk factors of avian infectious diseases, a cross-sectional study was carried out at household level in rural regions around Poyang Lake. A door-to-door survey was conducted to collect data on husbandry practices, trading practices of backyard farmers, and surrounding environments of backyard farms. Farms were categorized into cases and controls based on their history of poultry death. Data were collected for 137 farms, and the association with occurrence of poultry death event was explored by chi-square tests. Results showed that vaccination implementation was a protective factor (odds ratio OR=0.40, 95% confidence interval CI: 0.20-0.80, p=0.01), while contact with other backyard flocks increased risk (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 0.79-3.74, p=0.16). A concept of "farm connectivity" characterized by the density of particular land-use types in the vicinity of the farm was proposed to characterize the degree of contact between poultry in one household farm and those in other household farms. It was found that housing density in a 20-m buffer zone of the farmhouse was most significantly associated with poultry death occurrence (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, p=0.03), and was in agreement with observation of villagers. Binary logistic regression was applied to evaluate the relationship between poultry death event and density of land-use types in all buffer zones. When integrated with vaccination implementation for poultry, prediction accuracy of poultry death event reached 72.0%. Results combining questionnaire survey with

  3. Increased glucose metabolism and ATP level in brain tissue of Huntington's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Oláh, Judit; Klivényi, Péter; Gardián, Gabriella; Vécsei, László; Orosz, Ferenc; Kovacs, Gabor G; Westerhoff, Hans V; Ovádi, Judit

    2008-10-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by multifarious dysfunctional alterations including mitochondrial impairment. In the present study, the formation of inclusions caused by the mutation of huntingtin protein and its relationship with changes in energy metabolism and with pathological alterations were investigated both in transgenic and 3-nitropropionic acid-treated mouse models for HD. The HD and normal mice were characterized clinically; the affected brain regions were identified by immunohistochemistry and used for biochemical analysis of the ATP-producing systems in the cytosolic and the mitochondrial compartments. In both HD models, the activities of some glycolytic enzymes were somewhat higher. By contrast, the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was much lower in the affected region of the brain compared to that of the control. Paradoxically, at the system level, glucose conversion into lactate was enhanced in cytosolic extracts from the HD brain tissue, and the level of ATP was higher in the tissue itself. The paradox could be resolved by taking all the observed changes in glycolytic enzymes into account, ensuing an experiment-based detailed mathematical model of the glycolytic pathway. The mathematical modelling using the experimentally determined kinetic parameters of the individual enzymes and the well-established rate equations predicted the measured flux and concentrations in the case of the control. The same mathematical model with the experimentally determined altered V(max) values of the enzymes did account for an increase of glycolytic flux in the HD sample, although the extent of the increase was not predicted quantitatively. This suggested a somewhat altered regulation of this major metabolic pathway in HD tissue. We then used the mathematical model to develop a hypothesis for a new regulatory interaction that might account for the observed changes; in HD, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

  4. Disease Phenotype, Activity and Clinical Course Prediction Based on C-Reactive Protein Levels at Diagnosis in Patients with Crohn’s Disease: Results from the CONNECT Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jee Hye; Im, Jong Pil; Ye, Byong Duk; Cheon, Jae Hee; Jang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Kang Moon; Kim, You Sun; Kim, Sang Wook; Kim, Young Ho; Song, Geun Am; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Won Ho; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims C-reactive protein (CRP) is an easily measured index of disease activity, but its ability to predict clinical course is controversial. We therefore designed a study to determine whether the CRP level at Crohn’s disease (CD) diagnosis is a valuable indicator of the disease phenotype, activity, and clinical course. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 705 CD patients from 32 institutions. The patients were classified into two groups according to CRP level. The patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics and their use of immunosuppressive or biological agents were recorded. Disease location and behavior, hospitalization, and surgery were analyzed. Results A high CRP was associated with younger age, steroid use, colonic or ileocolonic location, high CD activity index, and active inflammation at colonoscopy (p<0.001). As the disease progressed, patients with high CRP were more likely to exhibit strictures (p=0.027). There were significant differences in the use of 5-aminosalicylic acid, antibiotics, corticosteroids, azathioprine, and infliximab (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, and p=0.023, respectively). Hospitalization was also more frequent in patients with high CRP. Conclusions The CRP level at diagnosis is useful for evaluating the phenotype, activity, and clinical course of CD. Closer follow-up strategies, with early aggressive treatment, could be considered for patients with high CRP. PMID:27021506

  5. Unraveling the disease pathogenesis behind lethal hydrolethalus syndrome revealed multiple changes in molecular and cellular level

    PubMed Central

    Honkala, Heli; Lahtela, Jenni; Fox, Heli; Gentile, Massimiliano; Pakkasjärvi, Niklas; Salonen, Riitta; Wartiovaara, Kirmo; Jauhiainen, Matti; Kestilä, Marjo

    2009-01-01

    Background Hydrolethalus syndrome (HLS) is a severe fetal malformation syndrome characterized by multiple developmental anomalies, including central nervous system (CNS) malformation such as hydrocephaly and absent midline structures of the brain, micrognathia, defective lobation of the lungs and polydactyly. Microscopically, immature cerebral cortex, abnormalities in radial glial cells and hypothalamic hamartoma are among key findings in the CNS of HLS fetuses. HLS is caused by a substitution of aspartic acid by glycine in the HYLS1 protein, whose function was previously unknown. Results To provide insight into the disease mechanism(s) of this lethal disorder we have studied different aspects of HLS and HYLS1. A genome-wide gene expression analysis indicated several upregulated genes in cell cycle regulatory cascades and in specific signal transduction pathways while many downregulated genes were associated with lipid metabolism. These changes were supported by findings in functional cell biology studies, which revealed an increased cell cycle rate and a decreased amount of apoptosis in HLS neuronal progenitor cells. Also, changes in lipid metabolism gene expression were reflected by a significant increase in the cholesterol levels of HLS liver tissues. In addition, based on our functional studies of HYLS1, we propose that HYLS1 is a transcriptional regulator that shuffles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, and that when HYLS1 is mutated its function is significantly altered. Conclusion In this study, we have shown that the HYLS1 mutation has significant consequences in the cellular and tissue levels in HLS fetuses. Based on these results, it can be suggested that HYLS1 is part of the cellular transcriptional regulatory machinery and that the genetic defect has a widespread effect during embryonic and fetal development. These findings add a significant amount of new information to the pathogenesis of HLS and strongly suggest an essential role for HYLS1 in

  6. Hair Selenium Levels of School Children in Kashin-Beck Disease Endemic Areas in Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Yonghua; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Nima, Cangjue; Zhao, Shengcheng; Wang, Jing; Ye, Bixiong; Danzeng, Sangbu; Deji, Yangzong

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the selenium (Se) deficiency is an important factor for the etiology of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Although KBD is presently controlled in most regions of China, it is still active in the Tibetan Plateau. The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status of selenium in school children by using the Se level in hair as a biomarker in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa in Tibet, China. Hair samples of 155 school children aged 6-15 years were collected in both KBD areas and non-KBD areas of Lhasa in 2013. The Se level in the hair samples was determined by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The average concentration of Se in children's hair was 0.232 μg/g in KBD areas of Lhasa, which was significantly higher than the data reported decades ago. A significant difference in hair Se was observed between the boys (0.255 μg/g) and the girls (0.222 μg/g) in the studied KBD areas (P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test), but hair Se did not vary by age or region. School children in KBD endemic areas in Lhasa likely have improved Se status as a result of high Se content staple food substitution with the enforcement of Free Education Policy and Nutrition Improvement Plan in Tibet. Nevertheless, there were still 20.3 % of students with low Se status (hair Se <0.20 μg/g), which showed that Se status of school children was also partly affected by low Se environment in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa.

  7. Evaluation of Serum S100A8/S100A9 Levels in Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Korkmaz, Hakan; Tabur, Suzan; Savaş, Esen; Özkaya, Mesut; Aksoy, Şefika Nur; Aksoy, Nurten; Akarsu, Ersin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The correlation of S100A8/S100A9 with various inflammatory conditions, including autoimmune diseases have been reported. There is no study investigating the levels of S100A8/S100A9 in autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) Aims: We aimed to evaluate the level of serum S100A8/S100A9 in AITD. Study Design: Case control study. Methods: Fifty patients with AITD (25 Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and 25 Graves’ disease (GD)) were included in the study. Twenty seven healthy subjects participated as a control group. Blood samples were obtained in the 3 months after the initiation of medical treatment. Serum levels of total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidative status (TOS), total free sulfhydryl (SH), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) and S100A8/S100A9 were analyzed. Results: The patients with AITD had significantly higher S100A8/S100A9, OSI, LOOH and TOS levels than the healthy control group. There was no significant difference between GD and HT patients in terms of S100A8/S100A9, TOS and OSI levels. S100A8/S100A9 level was positively correlated with LOOH, TOS and OSI levels but negatively correlated with –SH level in the patients with AITD. Conclusion: Serum S100A8/S100A9 levels were increased in patients with AITD and positively correlated with LOOH, TOS and OSI whereas negatively correlated with SH. PMID:27761284

  8. Polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T) gene and homocysteine levels: a comparison in Brazilian patients with coronary arterial disease, ischemic stroke and peripheral arterial obstructive disease.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Adriano; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Ribeiro, Daniel Dias; Sousa, Marinez Oliveira; de Castro Santos, Maria Elizabeth Rennó; Mota, Ana Paula Lucas; Dusse, Luci Maria Sant'Ana; das Graças Carvalho, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to compare plasma levels of total homocysteine (tHcy) in different arterial events as well as to investigate an association between homocysteine levels and C677T polymorphism in Brazilian patients. A total of 145 subjects were enrolled in this study including 43 patients with coronary arterial disease (CAD), 21 with ischemic stroke (IS), 44 with peripheral arterial obstructive disease (PAOD) and 37 control subjects. A preliminary analysis showed significant difference for tHcy plasma levels between patients with CAD (P = 0.003) or PAOD (P = 0.03) compared to controls. However, after adjustment for sex, age, total cholesterol, LDL, diabetes, tabagism or C677T polymorphism, no significant differences were detected in tHcy levels among patients groups and controls. No significant correlation was demonstrated for C677T polymorphism and homocysteine levels. These results indicate that increased Hcy levels may not be considered an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic diseases in Brazilian patients. PMID:18040753

  9. The relationship between levels of income inequality and dental caries and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Fritzell, Johan; Nadanovsky, Paulo

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between income inequality at a lagged time of 2 and 11 years with two short latency outcomes (untreated dental caries and gingivitis) and two long latency outcomes (edentulism and periodontal attachment loss > 8mm). We used data from the Brazilian oral health survey in 2002-2003. Our analysis included 13,405 subjects aged 35-44 years. Different lagged Gini at municipal level were fitted using logistic and negative binomial multilevel analyses. Covariates included municipal per capita income, equivalized income, age, sex, time since last dental visit and place of residence (rural versus urban). Crude estimates showed that only untreated dental caries was associated with current and lagged Gini, but in adjusted models only current Gini remained significant with a ratio of 1.19 (95%CI: 1.09-1.30) for every ten-point increase in the Gini coefficient. We conclude that lagged Gini showed no association with oral health; and current income Gini was associated with current dental caries but not with periodontal disease.

  10. Histamine levels in embryonic chicken livers infected with very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinju; He, Lei; Cheng, Xiangchao; Li, Jing; Jia, Yanyan; Yang, Danfang

    2015-11-15

    Histamine is an endogenous nitrogenous compound with extensive effects on immunologic cells and involved in many physiological functions. The current aim was to determine histamine levels in embryonic liver and its association with the pathogenicity of a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) isolate serially passaged in chicken embryos. A vvIBDV isolate and the passaged viruses were inoculated into SPF embryonated chicken eggs (0.2 ml per egg) via the chorioallantoic membrane. Embryonic livers were collected at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h post-inoculation and histamine contents were quantified by fluorescence spectrophotometry analyses. Results showed that the histamine content in embryonic livers infected with the original vvIBDV isolate and the early passaged viruses significantly increased 48 h post-inoculation, as compared with the adapted IBDV isolate (p<0.01) and controls (p<0.01), with the concentration peaking from 72 h to 96 h. Most of the infected chicken embryos died from 48 h to 96 h post-inoculation. Moreover, the histamine content in dead embryos was markedly increased compared with live embryos (p<0.05), peaking at 72 h post-inoculation (p<0.01). There was an association between histamine content in embryonic livers and an elevation in histidine decarboxylase activity. Taken together, our results suggest that an excess of histamine correlates with inflammatory responses during vvIBDV infection. This study provides an incremental step in the understanding of the pathogenesis of vvIBDV.

  11. Community-level analysis of risk of vector-borne disease.

    PubMed

    Zavaleta, Jennifer Orme; Rossignol, Philippe A

    2004-10-01

    Ecological community structure is particularly important in vector-borne zoonotic diseases with complex life cycles. Qualitative community model analysis may provide a meaningful alternative to standard population-based models of vector-borne disease. We built on recent mathematical developments in qualitative community modeling coupled with conventional biomathematical models of vector-borne disease transmission, to provide a procedure to analyze risk. Using this procedure, we can hypothesize changes in risk of vector-borne disease from disturbances, such as control measures, habitat alteration, or global warming. We demonstrate the application of this procedure to an oak forest community to predict the risk of Lyme disease. Our predictions of Lyme disease risk in an oak forest community confirm reports of positive associations between deer abundance and risk of disease and are consistent with published observations.

  12. Association of homocysteine level with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yining; Zhu, Jinzhou; Meng, Di; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between plasmatic higher of homocysteine level and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We aimed to investigate this association by conducting a meta-analysis. Literature was searched on PubMed from inception to January 2015. Eight studies evaluating plasma level of homocysteine in biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease subjects compared to healthy controls were included. Compared with the controls, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients witnessed a higher level of homocysteine [standard mean difference (SMD): 0.66 µmol/L, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.92 µmol/L], and were associated with a significant increased risk for hyperhomocysteinemia [odds ratio (OR) 5.09, 95% CI: 1.69, 15.32]. In addition, patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver presented 0.45 µmol/L higher levels of homocysteine compared to healthy controls (95% CI: 0.09, 0.82 µmol/L), whereas non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients had 1.02 µmol/L higher levels of homocysteine (95% CI: 0.28, 1.76 µmol/L). There was neither difference of folate level nor vitamin B12 level between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease subjects and healthy controls. This study revealed that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients presented an increased serum concentration of homocysteine, and were associated with an increased risk of hyperhomocysteinemia. Further studies are needed to demonstrate a causal role of hyperhomocysteinemia in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:26798201

  13. TNF polymorphisms in Alzheimer disease and functional implications on CSF beta-amyloid levels.

    PubMed

    Laws, Simon M; Perneczky, Robert; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Müller, Ulrich; Förstl, Hans; Martins, Ralph N; Kurz, Alexander; Riemenschneider, Matthias

    2005-07-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia, and stroke are all associated with inflammation though their respective initiating factors differ. Recently a polymorphism in the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF), in association with apolipoprotein E (APOE), was reported to increase AD risk. Two SNPs, rs1799724 (-850C>T; NT_007592.14:g.22400733C>T) and rs1800629 (-308G>A; [NT_007592.14:g.22401282G>A]), and the APOE polymorphism were genotyped in 506 patients with sporadic AD and in 277 cognitively healthy controls. In a subset of 90 individuals we also investigated whether these SNPs exerted any functional effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) beta-amyloid (Abeta) levels. The frequency of the rs1799724 genotypes and the rs1799724-T allele were significantly different in AD individuals (P=0.009; odds ratio [OR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-2.34), while the rs1800629 SNP was not associated with AD. Significant interaction was observed between the rs1799724-T and APOE epsilon4 alleles in that the rs1799724-T allele significantly modified risk associated with possession of the epsilon4 allele only (epsilon4 in absence of rs1799724-T: OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 2.00-4.27; epsilon4 in presence of rs1799724-T: OR, 6.65; 95% CI, 3.26-13.55; P=0.03). Haplotyping analysis revealed a significant overrepresentation of an rs1799724-T/rs1800629-G haplotype in AD (P=0.012; OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.11-2.29), although to a lesser degree than rs1799724-T alone. Further, the rs1799724-T allele was found to be associated with lower levels of CSF Abeta42 (P=0.023), thus corroborating the genetic findings. Inheritance of the rs1799724-T allele appears to synergistically increase the risk of AD in APOEepsilon4 carriers and is associated with altered CSF Abeta42 levels. Further investigations are warranted to assess the significance of these novel findings.

  14. Investigation of serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein IgG levels in patients with angiographically defined coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Moohebati, Mohsen; Kabirirad, Vahid; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Esmaily, Habibollah; Tavallaie, Shima; Akhavan Rezayat, Amir; Pourghadamyari, Hossein; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that antioxidized low-density lipoprotein (anti-oxLDL) antibodies play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to measure serum ox-LDL IgG levels in 31 patients with angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD) (≥50% stenosis in at least one major coronary artery; CAD(+) group) and compare these levels with those of 32 subjects with <50% coronary stenosis (CAD(-) group) and 24 healthy age- and sex-matched controls using ELISA. We did not find any significant difference between CAD(+), CAD(-), and control groups in regard to oxLDL IgG levels (P = 0.83). Serum oxLDL IgG levels did not differ between 1VD (one vessel disease), 2VD (2 vessels disease), and 3VD (3 vessels disease) subgroups of CAD(+) patients (P = 0.20). Serum anti-oxLDL titers were only significantly correlated with LDL-C in the CAD(+) group (P < 0.05) and waist and hip circumference (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, resp.) in the CAD(-) group. In stepwise regression analysis, none of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors was associated with serum ox-LDL IgG levels. The present results suggest that serum levels of ox-LDL IgG are neither associated with the presence and severity of CAD nor with the conventional cardiovascular risk factors.

  15. The levels of water-soluble and triton-soluble Aβ are increased in Alzheimer's disease brain

    PubMed Central

    Mc Donald, Jessica M.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Holtzman, David; Walsh, Dominic M.

    2012-01-01

    Although plaques composed of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) are considered a defining feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), they are also found in cognitively normal individuals and extensive evidence suggests that non-plaque, water-soluble forms of Aβ may play a role in AD pathogenesis. However, the relationship between the levels of water-soluble Aβ and the clinical severity of disease has never been investigated. Here, we present results of a pilot study designed to examine the levels of water-soluble forms of Aβ in brains of individuals who died at clinically distinct stages of AD. Using a serial extraction method, we also investigated the levels of triton-soluble and formic acid-soluble Aβ. We found that water-soluble and detergent-soluble Aβ monomer and SDS-stable dimer were elevated in AD and that the levels of water soluble Aβ did not increase with plaque pathology. These results support the notion that both water- and detergent-soluble Aβ are important in AD and are not simply released from plaques by mechanical disruption. Moreover, the fact that the levels of water- and triton-soluble Aβ were similar in very mild/mild AD and moderate/severe AD suggests that once a certain level of these species is attained, further accumulation is not necessary for the disease to progress. Consequently, therapeutic targeting of water-soluble Aβ should best benefit individuals in earliest phases of the disease process. PMID:22440675

  16. Elevated serum levels of a biliary glycoprotein (BGP I) in patients with liver or biliary tract disease.

    PubMed

    Svenberg, T; Wahren, B; Hammarström, S

    1979-05-01

    Human hepatic bile contains a glycoprotein (biliary glycoprotein I, BGP I) which cross-reacts with the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). A radioimmunoassay for BGP I was developed. The interference of CEA or 'non-specific cross-reacting antigen' (NCA) in the assay was small. The serum levels of BGP I were determined in healthy subjects, in patients with hepato-biliary diseases and in patients with various infectious or inflammatory disorders. Healthy individuals, including pregnant women, had a serum BGP I concentration of about 0.5-1 mg/l. Diseases of the liver or biliary tract (e.g. hepatitis A or B, cytomegalovirus hepatitis, obstructive jaundice or primary biliary cirrhosis) were associated with elevated serum levels of BGP I, as opposed to infectious diseases not affecting the liver mostly showing values within the normal range. Raised levels of serum BGP I activity may reflect biliary obstruction as a result of interference with normal BGP I secretion to the bile.

  17. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, H.; Csaba, G.; Bernstein, G. H.; Porod, W.

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing.

  18. Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1974-01-01

    Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

  19. Association of serum KL-6 levels with interstitial lung disease in patients with connective tissue disease: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Ekin Oktay; Kucuksahin, Orhan; Turgay, Murat; Yildizgoren, Mustafa Turgut; Ates, Askin; Demir, Nalan; Kumbasar, Ozlem Ozdemir; Kinikli, Gulay; Duzgun, Nursen

    2016-03-01

    It was aimed to evaluate KL-6 glycoprotein levels to determine if it may be a diagnostic marker for the connective tissue diseases (CTDs) predicting CTD-related interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) (CTD-ILD) development and to examine if there was a difference between patients and healthy controls. The study included 113 patients with CTD (45 CTD without lung involvement, 68 CTD-ILD) and 45 healthy control subjects. KL-6 glycoprotein levels were analyzed with ELISA in patients and the control group. The relationship between KL-6 glycoprotein levels and CTD-ILD was assessed. In the comparison of all the groups in the study, significantly higher levels of KL-6 were determined in the CTD-ILD group than in either the CTD without pulmonary involvement group or the healthy control group (p < 0.008 and p < 0.001, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the KL-6 levels in the healthy control group and the CTD without pulmonary involvement group (p = 0.289). The KL-6 levels did not differ significantly according to the connective tissue diseases in the diagnostic groups (systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, mixed connective tissue disease, scleroderma, polymyositis/ dermatomyositis). In the healthy control group, there was a statistically significant difference between KL-6 levels in smokers and non-smokers. Smokers had significantly higher serum KL-6 levels compared with non-smokers (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between smoking status (pack-year) and serum KL-6 levels. There was no statistically significant correlation between serum KL-6 levels and time since diagnosis of CTD and CTD-ILD. The level of KL-6 as a predictive factor could be used to identify the clinical development of ILD before it is detected on imaging modality. Further prospective clinical studies are needed to define whether levels of KL-6 might have prognostic value or might predict

  20. A Qualitative Study of State-level Zoonotic disease surveillance in New England

    PubMed Central

    Scotch, Matthew; Mattocks, Kristin; Rabinowitz, Peter; Brandt, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Summary Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases transmittable between animals and humans and outbreaks of these diseases in animals can signify that humans are also infected (or vice-versa). Thus, communication between animal and human health agencies is critical for surveillance. Understanding how these agencies conduct surveillance and share information is important for development of successful automated zoonotic monitoring systems. Individual interviews were conducted with 13 professionals who perform animal or human zoonotic disease surveillance in one of the New England states. Questions centered on existing surveillance methods, collaborations between animal and human health agencies, and technological and data needs. The results showed that agencies routinely communicate over suspected zoonotic disease cases yet there are barriers preventing automated electronic linking of health data of animals and humans. These include technological barriers and barriers due sensitivity and confidentiality of information. Addressing these will facilitate development of electronic systems for integrating animal and human zoonotic disease surveillance data. PMID:20163575

  1. Circulating transforming growth factor-β1 levels and the risk for kidney disease in African-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Suthanthiran, Manikkam; Gerber, Linda M.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Sharma, Vijay K.; Medeiros, Mara; Marion, RoseMerie; Pickering, Thomas G.; August, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is well known to induce progression of experimental renal disease. Here we determined whether there is an association between serum levels of TGF-β1 and the risk factors for progression of clinically relevant renal disorders in 186 black and 147 white adults none of whom had kidney disease or diabetes. Serum TGF-β1 protein levels were positively and significantly associated with plasma renin activity along with the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in blacks but not whites after controlling for age, gender and body mass index. These TGF-β1 protein levels were also significantly associated with body mass index and metabolic syndrome and more predictive of microalbuminuria in blacks than in whites. The differential association between TGF-β1 and renal disease risk factors in blacks and whites suggests an explanation for the excess burden of end-stage renal disease in the black population but this requires validation in an independent cohort. Whether these findings show that it is the circulating levels of TGF-β1 that contributes to renal disease progression or reflects other unmeasured factors will need to be tested in longitudinal studies. PMID:19279557

  2. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  7. Osteopontin is increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease and its levels correlate with cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Comi, Cristoforo; Carecchio, Miryam; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Nicola, Stefania; Galimberti, Daniela; Fenoglio, Chiara; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Monaco, Francesco; Scarpini, Elio; Dianzani, Umberto

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation is believed to play a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Osteopontin (OPN) is a molecule involved in macrophage recruitment and activation and implicated in neurodegeneration. In order to elucidate the role of OPN in AD, we evaluated its levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 67 AD patients, 46 frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients, and 69 controls. We found that OPN levels: i) are significantly increased in the CSF of AD patients; ii) correlate with MMSE score; and iii) are higher in the early disease phases ( 2 years). These findings support a role of OPN in AD pathogenesis. PMID:20308780

  8. Extremely high ferritin level after an acute myocardial infarction in an end stage renal disease patient.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Gagangeet; Mankal, Pavan; Gupta, Isha; Tagani, Adrian; Ranade, Aditi; Jones, James; Bansal, Anip

    2014-07-01

    We present here a case of an asymptomatic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient, who had an unexplained persistent mild leukocytosis in the setting of an extremely high ferritin level (8,997 ng/ml; reference range: 12 - 300 ng/ml) 3 weeks after she suffered from a myocardial infarction (MI). Infection as the cause of these laboratory abnormalities was ruled out. A week later, the patient was noted to have asymptomatic hypotension (100/60 mmHg; her baseline blood pressure was 120/70 mmHg) during a maintenance hemodialysis session. An echocardiography revealed an interval development of moderate pericardial effusion when compared to her previous echocardiography 4 weeks before. In the setting of a recent MI with other laboratory markers suggesting an ongoing inflammatory process, a tentative diagnosis of Dressler's syndrome was made. A pericardial tap yielded exudative (bloody) fluid, thus, confirming our suspicion. Dressler's syndrome results from an inflammation of the pericardium as a consequence of an underlying autoimmune process few weeks to months after a myocardial infarction or post-cardiac surgery. Although it typically presents with pleuritic chest pain, fever, leukocytosis, and a friction rub; our case illustrates that the initial presentation may be asymptomatic in ESRD patients. For the same reason, it is likely an under-recognized entity in such patients. An unexplained elevated ferritin in an ESRD patient with recent history of MI should prompt an investigation for Dressler's syndrome. In those with associated significant pericardial effusion, daily HD should be initiated and anticoagulation should be avoided. Unlike other ESRD associated pericarditis, steroids and NSAIDs should be avoided in Dressler's syndrome as they may hamper cardiac remodeling in the immediate post-MI period. Colchicine may offer some benefit in patients with associated chest pain. For those failing medical management or manifesting overt signs of tamponade, surgical drainage

  9. Correlation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Levels in Serum and Synovial Fluid with Disease Severity of Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Hou, Ruizhi; Yin, Ruofeng; Yin, Weitian

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) levels in serum and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to exam its correlation with radiographic and symptomatic severity of the disease. Material/Methods A total of 37 knee OA patients and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Knee OA radiographic grading was performed according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading system by evaluating X-ray changes observed in anteroposterior knee radiography. Symptomatic severity of the disease was evaluated according to the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores. BMP-2 levels in serum and SF were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Serum BMP-2 level in patients with knee OA was higher than that in healthy controls. Knee OA patients with KL grade 4 showed significantly elevated BMP-2 levels in the serum and SF compared with those with KL grade 2 and 3. Knee OA patients with KL grade 3 had significant higher SF levels of BMP-2 than those with KL grade 2. BMP-2 levels in the serum and SF of knee OA patients were both positively correlated with KL grades and WOMAC scores. Conclusions BMP2 levels in serum and SF were closely related to the radiographic and symptomatic severity of knee OA and may serve as an alternative biochemical parameter to determine disease severity of primary knee OA. PMID:25644704

  10. The effect of chronic periodontitis on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Farhad, Shirin Zahra; Amini, Shahram; Khalilian, Amir; Barekatain, Majid; Mafi, Morvarid; Barekatain, Mehrdad; Rafei, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the outbreak in dental science, oral and dental complications in Alzheimer are of the unsolved problems. It is assumed that tumor necrosis factor-α, which is a key factor in Alzheimer, has a relation with periodontal complications in patients with Alzheimer disease. The present study evaluated the effect of chronic periodontitis on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α in Alzheimer disease. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 80 patients with Alzheimer disease seeking medical care at Nour Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Eighty patients with Alzheimer disease between 40 and 70 years old attended this study. Forty had chronic periodontitis (case group), and 40 patients had healthy periodontium (control group). Blood sample was taken, and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α were measured by means of an ELISA Reader device. Independent T-Test was used to analyze data, and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean of tumor necrosis factor-α was 749.1 ng/μL in case group and 286.8 ng/μL in control group. Independent t-test showed that the mean of tumor necrosis factor-α in patients with Alzheimer and periodontitis was approximately three folds higher than the patients only with Alzheimer, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that there is a difference between serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α in patient with Alzheimer and chronic periodontitis and patients with Alzheimer disease and healthy periodontium. Tumor necrosis factor-α level in serum may act as a diagnostic marker of periodontal disease in patients with Alzheimer disease PMID:25426144

  11. Relationship between disease activity and serum levels of vitamin D metabolites and parathyroid hormone in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Lange, U; Jung, O; Teichmann, J; Neeck, G

    2001-12-01

    Vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis are a common but frequently unrecognized complication of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and various factors may contribute to the development of osteoporosis in AS. It is known that inflammatory activity in rheumatic disease (i.e., proinflammatory cytokines) itself plays a possible role in the pathophysiology of bone loss. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) seems to be another possible candidate for mediatory function in regulating both the inflammatory process and bone turnover. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between disease activity, bone turnover and calciotropic hormones. In 70 patients with established AS and an age- and sex-matched control group, the relation between disease activity (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index), and serum levels of vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) and urinary pyridinium cross-links were determined. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 (p<0.01) and PTH (p<0.01) were negatively correlated with disease activity, the excretion of urinary pyridinium crosslinks showed a positive correlation with disease activity (p<0.01), and 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH were positively correlated with bAP (p<0.01). These results indicate that high disease activity in AS is associated with an alteration in vitamin D metabolism and increased bone resorption. Furthermore, the decreased levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 may contribute to a negative calcium balance and inhibition of bone formation. Our results suggest further research is necessary to determine whether low levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 as an endogenous immune modulator suppressing activated T cells and cell proliferation may accelerate the inflammation process in AS. PMID:11846329

  12. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  13. Serum Early Prostate Cancer Antigen (EPCA) Level and Its Association with Disease Progression in Prostate Cancer in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhigang; Ma, Wenjing; Zeng, Guohua; Qi, Defeng; Ou, Lili; Liang, Yeping

    2011-01-01

    Background Early prostate cancer antigen (EPCA) has been shown a prostate cancer (PCa)-associated nuclear matrix protein, however, its serum status and prognostic power in PCa are unknown. The goals of this study are to measure serum EPCA levels in a cohort of patients with PCa prior to the treatment, and to evaluate the clinical value of serum EPCA. Methods Pretreatment serum EPCA levels were determined with an ELISA in 77 patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy and 51 patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease who received primary androgen deprivation therapy, and were correlated with clinicopathological variables and disease progression. Serum EPCA levels were also examined in 40 healthy controls. Results Pretreatment mean serum EPCA levels were significantly higher in PCa patients than in controls (16.84±7.60 ng/ml vs. 4.12±2.05 ng/ml, P<0.001). Patients with locally advanced and metastatic PCa had significantly higher serum EPCA level than those with clinically localized PCa (22.93±5.28 ng/ml and 29.41±8.47 ng/ml vs. 15.17±6.03 ng/ml, P = 0.014 and P<0.001, respectively). Significantly elevated EPCA level was also found in metastatic PCa compared with locally advanced disease (P<0.001). Increased serum EPCA levels were significantly and positively correlated with Gleason score and clinical stage, but not with PSA levels and age. On multivariate analysis, pretreatment serum EPCA level held the most significantly predictive value for the biochemical recurrence and androgen-independent progression among pretreatment variables (HR = 4.860, P<0.001 and HR = 5.418, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Serum EPCA level is markedly elevated in PCa. Pretreatment serum EPCA level correlates significantly with the poor prognosis, showing prediction potential for PCa progression. PMID:21559289

  14. Identification of causal genetic drivers of human disease through systems-level analysis of regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, James C; Alvarez, Mariano J; Talos, Flaminia; Dhruv, Harshil; Rieckhof, Gabrielle E; Iyer, Archana; Diefes, Kristin L; Aldape, Kenneth; Berens, Michael; Shen, Michael M; Califano, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Identification of driver mutations in human diseases is often limited by cohort size and availability of appropriate statistical models. We propose a framework for the systematic discovery of genetic alterations that are causal determinants of disease, by prioritizing genes upstream of functional disease drivers, within regulatory networks inferred de novo from experimental data. We tested this framework by identifying the genetic determinants of the mesenchymal subtype of glioblastoma. Our analysis uncovered KLHL9 deletions as upstream activators of two previously established master regulators of the subtype, C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ. Rescue of KLHL9 expression induced proteasomal degradation of C/EBP proteins, abrogated the mesenchymal signature, and reduced tumor viability in vitro and in vivo. Deletions of KLHL9 were confirmed in > 50% of mesenchymal cases in an independent cohort, thus representing the most frequent genetic determinant of the subtype. The method generalized to study other human diseases, including breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Posterior lumbar dynamic stabilization instead of arthrodesis for symptomatic adjacent-segment degenerative stenosis: description of a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, Hazem; Paschel, Erin E; Khattar, Nicolas K; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Gerszten, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The development of symptomatic adjacent-segment disease (ASD) is a well-recognized consequence of lumbar fusion surgery. Extension of a fusion to a diseased segment may only lead to subsequent adjacent-segment degeneration. The authors report the use of a novel technique that uses dynamic stabilization instead of arthrodesis for the surgical treatment of symptomatic ASD following a prior lumbar instrumented fusion. METHODS A cohort of 28 consecutive patients was evaluated who developed symptomatic stenosis immediately adjacent to a previous lumbar instrumented fusion. All patients had symptoms of neurogenic claudication refractory to nonsurgical treatment and were surgically treated with decompression and dynamic stabilization instead of extending the fusion construct using a posterior lumbar dynamic stabilization system. Preoperative symptoms, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, and perioperative complications were recorded. Clinical outcome was gauged by comparing VAS scores prior to surgery and at the time of last follow-up. RESULTS The mean follow-up duration was 52 months (range 17-94 months). The mean interval from the time of primary fusion surgery to the dynamic stabilization surgery was 40 months (range 10-96 months). The mean patient age was 51 years (range 29-76 years). There were 19 (68%) men and 9 (32%) women. Twenty-three patients (82%) presented with low-back pain at time of surgery, whereas 24 patients (86%) presented with lower-extremity symptoms only. Twenty-four patients (86%) underwent operations that were performed using single-level dynamic stabilization, 3 patients (11%) were treated at 2 levels, and 1 patient underwent 3-level decompression and dynamic stabilization. The most commonly affected and treated level (46%) was L3-4. The mean preoperative VAS pain score was 8, whereas the mean postoperative score was 3. No patient required surgery for symptomatic degeneration rostral to the level of dynamic stabilization during the

  16. Posterior lumbar dynamic stabilization instead of arthrodesis for symptomatic adjacent-segment degenerative stenosis: description of a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, Hazem; Paschel, Erin E; Khattar, Nicolas K; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Gerszten, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The development of symptomatic adjacent-segment disease (ASD) is a well-recognized consequence of lumbar fusion surgery. Extension of a fusion to a diseased segment may only lead to subsequent adjacent-segment degeneration. The authors report the use of a novel technique that uses dynamic stabilization instead of arthrodesis for the surgical treatment of symptomatic ASD following a prior lumbar instrumented fusion. METHODS A cohort of 28 consecutive patients was evaluated who developed symptomatic stenosis immediately adjacent to a previous lumbar instrumented fusion. All patients had symptoms of neurogenic claudication refractory to nonsurgical treatment and were surgically treated with decompression and dynamic stabilization instead of extending the fusion construct using a posterior lumbar dynamic stabilization system. Preoperative symptoms, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, and perioperative complications were recorded. Clinical outcome was gauged by comparing VAS scores prior to surgery and at the time of last follow-up. RESULTS The mean follow-up duration was 52 months (range 17-94 months). The mean interval from the time of primary fusion surgery to the dynamic stabilization surgery was 40 months (range 10-96 months). The mean patient age was 51 years (range 29-76 years). There were 19 (68%) men and 9 (32%) women. Twenty-three patients (82%) presented with low-back pain at time of surgery, whereas 24 patients (86%) presented with lower-extremity symptoms only. Twenty-four patients (86%) underwent operations that were performed using single-level dynamic stabilization, 3 patients (11%) were treated at 2 levels, and 1 patient underwent 3-level decompression and dynamic stabilization. The most commonly affected and treated level (46%) was L3-4. The mean preoperative VAS pain score was 8, whereas the mean postoperative score was 3. No patient required surgery for symptomatic degeneration rostral to the level of dynamic stabilization during the

  17. High Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Levels Associated With Low Hemoglobin Levels in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 3 and 4

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Fang, Yu-Wei; Liou, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In chronic kidney disease (CKD), decreased erythropoietin production, low serum active vitamin D levels, and high renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activities had been regarded as major causes of renal anemia. At present, no clinical data are available to elucidate the association between renal anemia and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels in CKD. This study aimed to access whether FGF23 is involved in the pathogenesis of renal anemia. This cross-sectional observational study included 53 stable outpatients with CKD stages 3 and 4. Our primary predictor was serum FGF23 levels and outcome was hemoglobin levels. Measurements contained hemoglobin, FGF23, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, plasma renin, serum aldosterone, HbA1C levels, lipid and iron profiles, and serum and urine electrolytes. Mean age of our patients was 66.4 ± 12.8 (SD) years, mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 33.5 ± 13.9 mL/min/1.73 m2, median FGF23 level 200 (25th–75th percentile, 124–303) pg/mL, vitamin D level 19.5 (25th–75th percentile, 14.0–25.9) ng/mL, and hemoglobin level 12.7 (25th–75th percentile, 10.7–13.75) g/dL. Even after adjusting multiple variables, lower hemoglobin levels correlated significantly with FGF23 levels that were higher than the median value (>200 pg/mL). Moreover, after adjusting for aldosterone, but not 25-hydroxyvitamin D, it decreased the association with FGF23 that higher than median level and hemoglobin levels. We also observed a significant decrease of hemoglobin level in the higher FGF23 group who had a diabetes history. High FGF23 levels were observed to be associated with low hemoglobin levels, which may be partially mediated through the effects of serum aldosterone levels in our patients with CKD stages 3 and 4. Furthermore, we also presumed that diabetes itself may have an impact on the loop among FGF23, hemoglobin, and aldosterone levels in these CKD patients. PMID:26986127

  18. High Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Levels Associated With Low Hemoglobin Levels in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 3 and 4.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Fang, Yu-Wei; Liou, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-03-01

    In chronic kidney disease (CKD), decreased erythropoietin production, low serum active vitamin D levels, and high renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activities had been regarded as major causes of renal anemia. At present, no clinical data are available to elucidate the association between renal anemia and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels in CKD. This study aimed to access whether FGF23 is involved in the pathogenesis of renal anemia. This cross-sectional observational study included 53 stable outpatients with CKD stages 3 and 4. Our primary predictor was serum FGF23 levels and outcome was hemoglobin levels. Measurements contained hemoglobin, FGF23, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, plasma renin, serum aldosterone, HbA1C levels, lipid and iron profiles, and serum and urine electrolytes. Mean age of our patients was 66.4 ± 12.8 (SD) years, mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 33.5 ± 13.9 mL/min/1.73 m, median FGF23 level 200 (25th-75th percentile, 124-303) pg/mL, vitamin D level 19.5 (25th-75th percentile, 14.0-25.9) ng/mL, and hemoglobin level 12.7 (25th-75th percentile, 10.7-13.75) g/dL. Even after adjusting multiple variables, lower hemoglobin levels correlated significantly with FGF23 levels that were higher than the median value (>200 pg/mL). Moreover, after adjusting for aldosterone, but not 25-hydroxyvitamin D, it decreased the association with FGF23 that higher than median level and hemoglobin levels. We also observed a significant decrease of hemoglobin level in the higher FGF23 group who had a diabetes history. High FGF23 levels were observed to be associated with low hemoglobin levels, which may be partially mediated through the effects of serum aldosterone levels in our patients with CKD stages 3 and 4. Furthermore, we also presumed that diabetes itself may have an impact on the loop among FGF23, hemoglobin, and aldosterone levels in these CKD patients.

  19. Severity of chronic experimental Chagas' heart disease parallels tumour necrosis factor and nitric oxide levels in the serum: models of mild and severe disease

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Isabela Resende; Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; da Silva, Andrea Alice; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2014-01-01

    Heart tissue inflammation, progressive fibrosis and electrocardiographic alterations occur in approximately 30% of patients infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, 10-30 years after infection. Further, plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and nitric oxide (NO) are associated with the degree of heart dysfunction in chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC). Thus, our aim was to establish experimental models that mimic a range of parasitological, pathological and cardiac alterations described in patients with chronic Chagas’ heart disease and evaluate whether heart disease severity was associated with increased TNF and NO levels in the serum. Our results show that C3H/He mice chronically infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain have more severe cardiac parasitism and inflammation than C57BL/6 mice. In addition, connexin 43 disorganisation and fibronectin deposition in the heart tissue, increased levels of creatine kinase cardiac MB isoenzyme activity in the serum and more severe electrical abnormalities were observed in T. cruzi-infected C3H/He mice compared to C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, T. cruzi-infected C3H/He and C57BL/6 mice represent severe and mild models of CCC, respectively. Moreover, the CCC severity paralleled the TNF and NO levels in the serum. Therefore, these models are appropriate for studying the pathophysiology and biomarkers of CCC progression, as well as for testing therapeutic agents for patients with Chagas’ heart disease. PMID:24937048

  20. Significance of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and interleukin-6 levels in immunoglobulin treatment of Kawasaki disease in children

    PubMed Central

    An, Xinjiang; Fu, Mingyu; Tian, Jing; Xue, Ying; Xu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the significance of the level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25-(OH)D3] and interleukin (IL)-6 in serum prior to and after immunoglobulin treatment in children suffering from Kawasaki disease in order to provide a reference for the successful treatment of Kawasaki disease in children. From February, 2013 to February, 2015, 45 patients with Kawasaki disease were enrolled in the observation group. The normal control group comprised 43 healthy volunteers and the feverish control group 46 patients with respiratory infection and fever. Venous blood was collected from each case before and after immunoglobulin treatment and the level of 25-(OH)D3 and IL-6 in the serum were measured using fluorescent quantitative PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting. Before treatment, the level of 25-(OH)D3 in the feverish control group was significantly lower than that of the normal control group, while the level of 25-(OH)D3 in the observation group was significantly higher than that of the normal control group. The level of 25-(OH)D3 in the feverish control group was lower than the IL-6 level in the normal children, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The level 25-(OH)D3 in the observation group was significantly higher than the IL-6 level in the normal control group. The serum content of 25-(OH)D3 was significantly higher after the treatment compared to before treatment levels and after treatment IL-6 level was only slightly lower. It was observed that the 25-(OH)D3 level in the observation group was significantly increased after immunoglobulin treatment and this was positively correlated with the effects of the treatment. The IL-6 level had no significant changes after treatment and had little correlation with the treatment effect. The results suggested that 25-(OH)D3 may be involved in the occurrence of Kawasaki disease in children and in the aggravation of the disease to some extent. PMID

  1. Elevated Serum Levels of the Antiapoptotic Protein Decoy-Receptor 3 Are Associated with Advanced Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Bamias, Giorgos; Gizis, Michalis; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Laoudi, Eyfrosyni; Siakavellas, Spyros I; Koutsounas, Ioannis; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Vlachogiannakos, John; Vafiadis-Zouboulis, Irene; Daikos, George L; Papatheodoridis, George V; Ladas, Spiros D

    2016-01-01

    Background. Decoy-receptor 3 (DcR3) exerts antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory function and is overexpressed in neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Serum DcR3 (sDcR3) levels during the chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) sequence have not been explored. Objective. To assess the levels and significance of sDcR3 protein in various stages of chronic liver disease. Methods. We compared sDcR3 levels between healthy controls and patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH), decompensated cirrhosis (DC), and HCC. Correlations between sDcR3 levels and various patient- and disease-related factors were analyzed. Results. sDcR3 levels were significantly higher in patients with CVH than in controls (P < 0.01). sDcR3 levels were elevated in DC and HCC, being significantly higher compared not only to controls (P < 0.001 for both) but to CVH patients as well (P < 0.001 for both). In addition, DcR3 protein was detected in large quantities in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotics. In patients with CVH, sDcR3 significantly correlated to fibrosis severity, as estimated by Ishak score (P = 0.019) or by liver stiffness measured with elastography (Spearman r = 0.698, P < 0.001). In cirrhotic patients, significant positive correlations were observed between sDcR3 levels and markers of severity of hepatic impairment, including MELD score (r = 0.653, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Circulating levels of DcR3 are elevated during chronic liver disease and correlate with severity of liver damage. sDcR3 may serve as marker for liver fibrosis severity and progression to end-stage liver disease. PMID:27595094

  2. Elevated Serum Levels of the Antiapoptotic Protein Decoy-Receptor 3 Are Associated with Advanced Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gizis, Michalis; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Laoudi, Eyfrosyni; Siakavellas, Spyros I.; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Vlachogiannakos, John; Vafiadis-Zouboulis, Irene; Daikos, George L.; Papatheodoridis, George V.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Decoy-receptor 3 (DcR3) exerts antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory function and is overexpressed in neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Serum DcR3 (sDcR3) levels during the chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) sequence have not been explored. Objective. To assess the levels and significance of sDcR3 protein in various stages of chronic liver disease. Methods. We compared sDcR3 levels between healthy controls and patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH), decompensated cirrhosis (DC), and HCC. Correlations between sDcR3 levels and various patient- and disease-related factors were analyzed. Results. sDcR3 levels were significantly higher in patients with CVH than in controls (P < 0.01). sDcR3 levels were elevated in DC and HCC, being significantly higher compared not only to controls (P < 0.001 for both) but to CVH patients as well (P < 0.001 for both). In addition, DcR3 protein was detected in large quantities in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotics. In patients with CVH, sDcR3 significantly correlated to fibrosis severity, as estimated by Ishak score (P = 0.019) or by liver stiffness measured with elastography (Spearman r = 0.698, P < 0.001). In cirrhotic patients, significant positive correlations were observed between sDcR3 levels and markers of severity of hepatic impairment, including MELD score (r = 0.653, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Circulating levels of DcR3 are elevated during chronic liver disease and correlate with severity of liver damage. sDcR3 may serve as marker for liver fibrosis severity and progression to end-stage liver disease. PMID:27595094

  3. Plasma and Synovial Fluid TrxR Levels are Correlated With Disease Risk and Severity in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhijun; Sun, Jing; Li, Haichang; Shao, Tiejuan; Wang, Dawei; Zheng, Qi; Wen, Chengping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed and performed to establish the relationship between plasma and synovial fluid (SF) levels of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and disease activity in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study consisted of a total of 224 patients diagnosed with RA, 224 age and sex-matched healthy controls, and 156 patient controls. The disease activity of RA patients was calculated as diseases activity score that include 28-joint counts (DAS 28), which was divided into low-diseases activity (LDA) and high-diseases activity (HDA) groups. Increased plasma TrxR was detected in patients with RA than healthy controls (P < 0.0001). With an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.874, plasma TrxR showed a evidently greater discriminatory ability than C-reactive protein (CRP; AUC, 0.815), antistreptolysin-O (ASO; AUC, 0.631), rheumatoid factor (RF, AUC, 0.793), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, AUC, 0.789) in diagnosing RA. RA patients with HDA had significantly elevated TrxR levels in plasma and SF than did those with LDA (P < 0.0001). With an AUC of 0.874, plasma TrxR levels as an indicator for screening of HDA showed a significantly greater discriminatory ability than CRP (AUC, 0.690), ASO (AUC, 0.597), RF (AUC, 0.657), and ESR (AUC, 0.603). Similarly, SF TrxR levels as an indicator for screening of HDA also showed a significantly greater discriminatory ability as compared with above biomarkers. TrxR levels in plasma and SF were positively correlated with the severity of RA. TrxR levels may therefore serve as a new biomarker in addition of the traditional biomarkers for assessing the risk and severity of RA. Further analysis of TrxR release machinery may give us a new understanding of pathogenesis of RA. PMID:26871773

  4. Brain glucose metabolism is associated with hormone level in Cushing's disease: A voxel-based study using FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Yinyan; Xu, Kaibin; Ping, Fan; Wang, Renzhi; Li, Fang; Cheng, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids can exert a neurotoxic effect in patients, possibly manifesting as molecular imaging alterations in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between brain metabolism and elevated hormone level using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. We retrospectively enrolled 92 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of Cushing's disease. A voxel-based analysis was performed to investigate the association between cerebral (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and serum cortisol level. Relatively impaired metabolism of specific brain regions correlated with serum cortisol level was found. Specifically, notable correlations were found in the hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum, regions considered to be involved in the regulation and central action of glucocorticoids. Moreover, some hormone-associated regions were found in the frontal and occipital cortex, possibly mediating the cognitive changes seen in Cushing's disease. Our findings link patterns of perturbed brain metabolism relates to individual hormone level, thus presenting a substrate for cognitive disturbances seen in Cushing's disease patients, as well as in other conditions with abnormal cortisol levels.

  5. Brain glucose metabolism is associated with hormone level in Cushing's disease: A voxel-based study using FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Yinyan; Xu, Kaibin; Ping, Fan; Wang, Renzhi; Li, Fang; Cheng, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids can exert a neurotoxic effect in patients, possibly manifesting as molecular imaging alterations in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between brain metabolism and elevated hormone level using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. We retrospectively enrolled 92 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of Cushing's disease. A voxel-based analysis was performed to investigate the association between cerebral (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and serum cortisol level. Relatively impaired metabolism of specific brain regions correlated with serum cortisol level was found. Specifically, notable correlations were found in the hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum, regions considered to be involved in the regulation and central action of glucocorticoids. Moreover, some hormone-associated regions were found in the frontal and occipital cortex, possibly mediating the cognitive changes seen in Cushing's disease. Our findings link patterns of perturbed brain metabolism relates to individual hormone level, thus presenting a substrate for cognitive disturbances seen in Cushing's disease patients, as well as in other conditions with abnormal cortisol levels. PMID:27622138

  6. Prolonged suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in hyperthyroidism in a neonate born to a mother with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Hojo, M; Momotani, N; Ikeda, N; Ueda, A; Uno, K; Ishikita, T; Ishiguro, A; Shimbo, T

    1998-10-01

    We report here a case of neonatal hyperthyroidism born to a mother, whose pregnancy was complicated by poorly controlled Graves' disease. The patient demonstrated exophthalmos and marked goiter at birth, indicating the existence of thyrotoxicosis in utero. The mother's Graves' disease was well controlled in the third trimester, resulting in a slightly lower level of free thyroxine (FT4) in the umbilical cord blood serum; however, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was undetectable. Thyroid-stimulating hormone remained undetectable for 2 months, while FT4 levels varied in the course. This case suggests that severe and prolonged thyrotoxicosis in utero, due to poor control of pregnancy with Graves' disease, might induce unresponsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary system in the newborn.

  7. Cardiovascular health in the Americas: facts, priorities and the UN high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Ordúñez, Pedro

    2011-10-01

    Population aging, smoking, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity, in the context of globalization and unregulated urbanization, explain the high prevalences of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in the Americas, making cardiovascular diseases the main cause of death. Moreover, cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors disproportionately affect the poorest people, obstructing antipoverty efforts and further deepening health and other inequities. The global crisis of chronic non-communicable diseases has reached such proportions that the UN General Assembly called a high-level meeting in September 2011 to address the issue as one of human development, aiming to stimulate political commitment to a concerted global effort to stem the pandemic. In reference to the Americas, this article reviews the burden of cardiovascular diseases and describes priorities for strategies and action in the region and their relation to the results of the UN meeting.

  8. Association of apolipoprotein A5 concentration with serum insulin and triglyceride levels and coronary artery disease in Korean men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: Whereas the relation between apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene polymorphisms and triglycerides (TG) levels is well established, the associations between apoA5 concentrations, TG and coronary artery disease (CAD) remain controversial. Therefore, we investigated these relations in the setting ...

  9. PAIRED-CITY STUDY TO DETERMINE THE CONTRIBUTION OF SOURCE WATER TYPE TO THE ENDEMIC LEVEL OF MICROBIAL DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paired-City Study to Determine the Contribution of Source Water Type to the Endemic Level of Microbial Disease

    F Frost PhD, T Kunde MPH, L Harter PhD, T Muller MS, GF Craun PE MPH, RL Calderon MPH PhD

    ABSTRACT

    Context: The effectiveness of current drinking...

  10. Regular Exercise and Plasma Lipid Levels Associated with the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teramoto, Masaru; Golding, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of regular exercise on the plasma lipid levels that contribute to coronary heart disease (CHD), of 20 sedentary men who participated in an exercise program over 20 consecutive years. The men, whose initial ages ranged from 30-51 years, participated in the University of Nevada-based exercise program for an average of 45…

  11. Elevated Salivary Alpha-Amylase Level, Association Between Depression and Disease Activity, and Stress as a Predictor of Disease Flare in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ju-Yang; Nam, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Suh, Chang-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Psychological stress has been shown to trigger systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, objective evidence of symptom aggravation due to mental stress is difficult to identify. We aimed to investigate the relationship between SLE disease activity and mental stress, and the usefulness of saliva as an assessment index for stress in patients with SLE. We prospectively assessed the salivary stress hormone and disease-related biomarkers, and questionnaire data regarding stress and depression in 100 patients with SLE and 49 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs). Patients with SLE had higher mean salivary α-amylase levels (5.7 ± 4.6 U/mL vs 2.7 ± 2.5 U/mL, P < 0.001), anti-chromatin antibody levels (25.3 ± 22.9 U/mL vs 15.9 ± 10.9 U/mL, P < 0.001), and Beck Depression Index (BDI) scores (11.1 ± 9.2 vs 5.3 ± 5.1, P < 0.001) than NCs. However, salivary cortisol levels and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores did not differ between the groups. The BDI scores correlated with the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) scores (r = 0.253, P = 0.011) and erythrocyte sedimentation rates (r = 0.234, P = 0.019). SLE patients with the highest-quartile PSS scores had significantly increased SLEDAI scores compared to those with the lowest-quartile PSS scores after 4 to 5 months’ follow-up. Moreover, SLE patients with elevated SLEDAI scores had higher baseline PSS scores. Patients with SLE showed uncoupling of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis; higher salivary α-amylase and no different cortisol levels compared with NCs. Also, patients with SLE were more depressed, which correlated with disease activity. Furthermore, perceived stress was not correlated with disease activity; however, disease activity worsened several months later with elevated perceived stress levels. PMID:26222848

  12. Characterization of pericardial and plasma ghrelin levels in patients with ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sax, Balazs; Merkely, Béla; Túri, Katalin; Nagy, Andrea; Ahres, Abdelkrim; Hartyánszky, István; Hüttl, Tivadar; Szabolcs, Zoltán; Cseh, Károly; Kékesi, Violetta

    2013-09-10

    Ghrelin is an endocrine regulatory peptide with multiple functions including cardioprotective effects. It is produced in various tissues among others in the myocardium. Pericardial fluid has been proven to be a biologically active compartment of the heart that communicates with the myocardial interstitium. Thus, pericardial level of certain agents may reflect their concentration in the myocardium well. In our study we measured acylated (active) and total (acylated and non-acylated) pericardial and plasma ghrelin levels of patients with ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease. Pericardial fluid and plasma samples were obtained from patients with coronary artery disease (ISCH, n=54) or valvular heart disease (VHD, n=41) undergoing cardiac surgery. Acylated pericardial ghrelin concentrations were found to be significantly higher in patients with ischemic heart disease (ISCH vs. VHD, 32±3 vs. 16±2pg/ml, p<0.01), whereas plasma levels of the peptide showed no difference between patient groups. Pericardial-to-plasma ratio, an index abolishing systemic effects on local ghrelin level was also significantly higher in ISCH group for both acylated and total ghrelin. Plasma total ghrelin showed negative correlation to BMI, plasma insulin and insulin resistance index HOMA-A. Pericardial acylated and total ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated with posterior wall thickness (R=-0.31, p<0.05 and R=-0.35, p<0.01, respectively). Plasma insulin concentration and HOMA-A showed significant negative correlation with pericardial ghrelin levels. In conclusion, increased pericardial active ghrelin content and higher pericardial-to-plasma ghrelin ratio were found in ischemic heart disease as compared to non-ischemic patients suggesting an increased ghrelin production of the chronically ischemic myocardium. According to our results, pericardial ghrelin content is negatively influenced by left ventricular hypertrophy and insulin resistance.

  13. Effects of rs3846662 Variants on HMGCR mRNA and Protein Levels and on Markers of Alzheimer's Disease Pathology.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Valerie; Théroux, Louise; Dea, Doris; Dufour, Robert; Poirier, Judes

    2016-01-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) is a cholesterol-regulating gene with statin relevance. rs3846662 being involved in regulation of HMGCR alternative splicing, we explored its impact on HMGCR messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in the brain and the associations between those levels and levels of Alzheimer's disease pathological markers. We used brain samples derived from a cohort of 33 non-demented controls and 90 Alzheimer's disease autopsied-confirmed cases. HMGCR mRNA levels were determined in the frontal cortex (n = 114) and cerebellum (n = 110) using Taqman-qPCR, and HMGCR protein levels were determined in the frontal cortex (n = 117) using a commercial enzyme immunoassay. While densities of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques were determined in the frontal cortex (n = 74), total tau, phosphorylated Tau, and beta-amyloid 1-42 levels were determined in the frontal cortex (n = 94) and cerebellum (n = 91) using commercial enzyme immunoassays. Despite an increase in full-length HMGCR mRNA ratio in the frontal cortex of women carrying the AA genotype, there were no associations between rs3846662 and HMGCR mRNA or protein levels. An increased Δ13 HMGCR mRNA ratio was associated with increased levels of HMGCR proteins and neurofibrillary tangles in the frontal cortex but with reduced beta-amyloid 1-42 levels in the cerebellum, suggesting a brain cell type- or a disease progression-dependent association.

  14. High Levels of Crohn’s Disease-Associated Anti-Microbial Antibodies Are Present and Independent of Colitis in Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Joyce E.; De Ravin, Suk See; Uzel, Gulbu; Landers, Carol; Targan, Stephan; Malech, Harry L.; Holland, Steven M.; Cao, Wenqing; Harpaz, Noam; Mayer, Lloyd; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have overlapping gastrointestinal manifestations. Serum antibodies to intestinal microbial antigens in IBD are thought to reflect a loss of tolerance in the setting of genetically encoded innate immune defects. CGD subjects studied here, with or without colitis, had considerably higher levels of ASCA IgA, ASCA IgG, anti-OmpC, anti-I2, and anti-CBir1, but absent to low pANCA, compared to IBD-predictive cutoffs. Higher antibody levels were not associated with a history of colitis. Except for higher ASCA IgG in subjects <18 years, antibody levels were not age-dependent. In comparison, 7 HIES subjects expressed negative to low antibody levels to all of these antigens; none had colitis. Our results suggest that markedly elevated levels of antimicrobial antibodies in CGD do not correlate with a history of colitis but may reflect a specific defect in innate immunity in the face of chronic antigenic stimulation. PMID:20956091

  15. Correlation of serum hepcidin levels with disease progression in hepatitis B virus-related disease assessed by nanopore film based assay

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Dong, Ailian; Liu, Gang; Anderson, Gregory J.; Hu, Tony Y.; Shi, Jian; Hu, Yulin; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection often develop into cirrhosis, and both are major risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, effective approaches for the monitoring of HBV-related disease progress are still in need. Increased iron storage has an important role in HBV-related diseases. Hepcidin is a key regulator of iron homeostasis whose expression changes are often indicative of abnormal iron metabolism. There are few reports of hepcidin levels in patients with HBV infections, and the available results are inconsistent. In this study, using a recently validated nanopore silica film based method, we measured serum hepcidin levels in 46 HBV-related patients and 20 healthy controls. Patients were divided into three groups: chronic hepatitis B without cirrhosis; HBV-related cirrhosis; and HBV-related cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma. Compared to healthy controls, the mean serum hepcidin level was significantly higher in CHB patients without cirrhosis, and in those with hepatocellular carcinoma, but not in those with cirrhosis. Iron-loading, viral infection and liver dysfunction are determined to be the major regulators of hepcidin in these patients. These observations suggest correlations between serum hepcidin and progression of chronic HBV infection, and may shed a new light on the development of biomarkers for HBV-related disease surveillance. PMID:27694815

  16. Configuration optimization of dampers for adjacent buildings under seismic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigdeli, Kasra; Hare, Warren; Tesfamariam, Solomon

    2012-12-01

    Passive coupling of adjacent structures is known to be an effective method to reduce undesirable vibrations and structural pounding effects. Past results have shown that reducing the number of dampers can considerably decrease the cost of implementation and does not significantly decrease the efficiency of the system. The main objective of this study was to find the optimal arrangement of a limited number of dampers to minimize interstorey drift. Five approaches to solving the resulting bi-level optimization problem are introduced and examined (exhaustive search, inserting dampers, inserting floors, locations of maximum relative velocity and a genetic algorithm) and the numerical efficiency of each method is examined. The results reveal that the inserting damper method is the most efficient and reliable method, particularly for tall structures. It was also found that increasing the number of dampers does not necessarily increase the efficiency of the system. In fact, increasing the number of dampers can exacerbate the dynamic response of the system.

  17. Cyclic AMP level of lymphocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and its relation to disease activity.

    PubMed

    Phi, N C; Takáts, A; Binh, V H; Vien, C V; González-Cabello, R; Gergely, P

    1989-11-01

    The basal and stimulated intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 16 control subjects and 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), all fulfilling the ARA criteria, were studied. No significant difference in basal cAMP level was observed between SLE patients and controls. SLE lymphocytes (both active and inactive) elicited a diminished response to aminophylline and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). No correlation was seen between disease activity and either baseline cAMP levels or response to these stimulators. We suggest an intrinsic (not disease activity-related) impairment of the adenylate cyclase-dependent regulatory mechanism in the PBMC of SLE patients, which may result in a defective IL-2 production and IL-2 dependent biological functions. PMID:2558072

  18. Anti-TNF levels and anti-drug antibodies, immunosuppressants and clinical outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ha, Christina; Mathur, Jagrati; Kornbluth, Asher

    2015-04-01

    The anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) antibodies have revolutionized the management of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The development of assays to allow for the measurements of serum drug levels and anti-drug antibodies have provided a more objective means of therapeutic decision making, particularly among patients losing response to treatment. Additionally, more evidence is emerging that indicates the relationship between drug levels and response to therapy including clinical response, mucosal healing and sustained remission. The use of combination therapies of the anti-TNF agents and the thiopurine immunosuppressants may also decrease immunogenicity to the anti-TNF agents and potentiate response to therapy. With more evidence emerging evidence of the importance of therapeutic drug levels and anti-drug antibodies, clinicians may be able to better optimize the current arsenal of inflammatory bowel disease therapeutics to achieve greater rates of durable remission and improved quality of life.

  19. Increased serum levels of MIP-1alpha correlate with bone disease and angiogenic cytokines in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Tsirakis, George; Roussou, Parascevi; Pappa, Constantina A; Kolovou, Anna; Vasilokonstantaki, Chrysoula; Miminas, Ioannis; Kyriakaki, Stavroula; Alegakis, Athanasios; Alexandrakis, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Many cytokines possess variable roles in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) is an osteoclast-activating factor with a major role in myeloma bone disease. The aim of the study was to examine its participation in the angiogenic process of the disease. We measured, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, its serum levels in 56 newly diagnosed myeloma patients, in several skeletal grades and stages of the disease and in 25 healthy controls. Concurrently, we measured serum levels of the angiogenic cytokines basic-fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and interleukin-18. All the above cytokines were higher in myeloma patients (p < 0.001 for all cases) and were increasing in parallel with disease stage (p < 0.001 for all cases) and skeletal grade (p < 0.04 for MIP-1alpha and p < 0.001 for the other cases). Moreover, positive correlations between MIP-1alpha and all the angiogenic cytokines were noted (p < 0.001 for all cases). MIP-1alpha seems to be a predominant factor responsible for the enhancement of bone resorption and increased angiogenesis. The positive correlation between MIP-1alpha and the angiogenic chemoattractants supports the involvement of these factors in the biology of myeloma cell growth. Moreover, they could be used as possible therapeutic targets as well as markers of disease activity.

  20. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce's disease.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Christopher M; Wallingford, Anna K; Chen, Jianchi

    2013-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce's disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after 6 months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected vs. non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor. PMID:24376452

  1. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce's disease

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Christopher M.; Wallingford, Anna K.; Chen, Jianchi

    2013-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce's disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after 6 months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected vs. non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor. PMID:24376452

  2. Serum Inflammatory Cytokine Levels Correlate with Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease Severity: A Nested Serial Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wumei; Sui, Meili; Zhang, Rongguang; Wang, Xinhong; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Weidong; Xi, Yuanlin; Fan, Qingtang

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand-food-mouth disease (HFMD) cases can be fatal. These cases develop rapidly, and it is important to predict the severity of HFMD from mild to fatal and to identify risk factors for mild HFMD. The objective of this study was to correlate the levels of serum inflammatory cytokines with HFMD severity. Methods This study was designed as a nested serial case-control study. The data collected included general information, clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory findings and serum cytokine levels. Results The levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ in patients with severe HFMD were significantly higher than in mild patients during the 2nd to 5th day after disease onset. The levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ increased from the 2nd day to the 4th day and later decreased. The levels of TNF-α were high on the first two days and subsequently decreased. The changes of IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ in the controls were similar for all cases. The levels of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-17 in the controls were not significantly different with the progression of HFMD. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels correlate with HFMD severity. PMID:25391156

  3. Does the level of reproductive knowledge specific to inflammatory bowel disease predict childlessness among women with inflammatory bowel disease?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Vivian W; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Kroeker, Karen I; Goodman, Karen J; Hegadoren, Kathleen M; Dieleman, Levinus A; Fedorak, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may choose to remain childless due to a lack of IBD-specific reproductive knowledge. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of IBD-specific reproductive knowledge and discussion of family planning with a physician on childlessness among women with IBD. METHODS: Female IBD patients 18 to 45 years of age completed the Crohn’s and Colitis Pregnancy Knowledge questionnaire (CCPKnow), and answered questions regarding reproductive history, plans to have children and discussion of family planning with a physician. CCPKnow scores were grouped according to poor (0 to 7), adequate (8 to 10), good (11 to 13) and very good (14 to 17). RESULTS: Of 434 eligible women, 248 (57.1%) completed the questionnaires. Of these 248 women, 51.6% were childless and, among these, 12.9% were voluntarily childless and 12.1% were trying to become pregnant. Childless women had a lower median CCPKnow score than women with children (6.0 versus 8.0; P=0.001). After adjusting for current age and marital status, each one point increase in the CCPKnow score corresponded to 8% lower odds of childlessness (OR 0.92 [95% CI 0.86 to 0.99]), 9% lower odds of voluntary child-lessness (OR 0.91 [95% CI 0.79 to 1.0]) and 20% higher odds of trying to become pregnant (OR 1.2 [95% CI 1.0 to 1.4]). Discussion of family planning with a gastroenterologist corresponded to 72% lower odds of a poor CCPKnow score (OR 0.28 [95% CI 0.15 to 0.53]) and of voluntary childlessness (OR 0.28 [95% CI 0.057 to 1.3]). CONCLUSION: In the present study, higher IBD-specific reproductive knowledge lowered the odds of childlessness among women with IBD. Discussion of family planning with a physician was associated with higher CCPKnow scores and lower odds of voluntary childlessness. PMID:25803020

  4. Serum sex hormone and growth arrest-specific protein 6 levels in male patients with coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rui; Li, Yan; Dai, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of low serum testosterone levels in men with cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl, the ligand of which is growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6), is expressed in the vasculature, and serum GAS6 levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular events. Testosterone regulates GAS6 gene transcription directly, which inhibits calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells and provides a mechanistic insight into the cardioprotective action of androgens. This study was designed to determine the correlation between serum GAS6 and testosterone levels in male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We recruited 225 patients with CHD and 102 apparently healthy controls. Serum concentrations of GAS6 and soluble Axl were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, testosterone, estradiol, and other routine biochemical markers were also measured. Testosterone decreased from 432.69 ± 14.40 to 300.76 ± 6.23 ng dl−1 (P < 0.001) and GAS6 decreased from 16.20 ± 0.31 to 12.51 ± 0.19 ng ml−1 (P < 0.001) in patients with CHD, compared with control subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum testosterone and GAS6 levels were positively associated in male patients with CHD. Alterations in GAS6 levels may influence the development of CHD. Downregulation of GAS6/Axl signaling in the presence of low sex hormone levels during disease progression is a potential mechanism by which GAS6 affects CHD. This study provides novel results regarding the influence of sex hormones on serum GAS6 levels in patients with CHD. PMID:26924277

  5. Identification of causal genetic drivers of human disease through systems-level analysis of regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, James C.; Alvarez, Mariano J.; Talos, Flaminia; Dhruv, Harshil; Rieckhof, Gabrielle E.; Iyer, Archana; Diefes, Kristin L.; Aldape, Kenneth; Berens, Michael; Shen, Michael M.; Califano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Identification of driver mutations in human diseases is often limited by cohort size and availability of appropriate statistical models. We propose a novel framework for the systematic discovery of genetic alterations that are causal determinants of disease, by prioritizing genes upstream of functional disease drivers, within regulatory networks inferred de novo from experimental data. We tested this framework by identifying the genetic determinants of the mesenchymal subtype of glioblastoma. Our analysis uncovered KLHL9 deletions as upstream activators of two previously established master regulators of the subtype, C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ. Rescue of KLHL9 expression induced proteasomal degradation of C/EBP proteins, abrogated the mesenchymal signature, and reduced tumor viability in vitro and in vivo. Deletions of KLHL9 were confirmed in >50% of mesenchymal cases in an independent cohort, thus representing the most frequent genetic determinant of the subtype. The method generalized to study other human diseases, including breast cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25303533

  6. Estimate of CRP and TNF-alpha level before and after periodontal therapy in cardiovascular disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Koppolu, Pradeep; Durvasula, Satyanarayana; Palaparthy, Rajababu; Rao, Mukhesh; Sagar, Vidya; Reddy, Sunil Kumar; Lingam, Swapna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies show that individuals with periodontitis have a radically amplified threat to develop cardiovascular disease. CRP& TNF-α, are acute phase proteins monitored as a marker of inflammatory status, which have been identified as a major risk factor for atherosclerotic complications. Elevated CRP & TNF-α level in periodontitis patients have been reported by several groups. The present study was performed to determine whether presence of periodontitis and periodontal therapy could influence the serum levels of CRP & TNF-α in cardiovascular disease patients. Methods Forty cardiovascular disease subjects participated in the study. They were classified into two groups. Group A (Control) where no periodontal treatment was given, Group B (Test) where periodontal treatment (scaling & root planing) was performed. Periodontal clinical parameters like OHI-S, probing pocket depth, were evaluated together with serum CRP, TNF-α, at baseline and reassessed after 8 weeks for all the subjects in both the groups. Results The CRP & TNF-α levels in both the groups decreased but the decrease in the Group A was minimal and was not statistically significant (P > 0.05); whereas in Group B where periodontal therapy was performed, there was statistically significant decrease. Conclusion It can be concluded from the study that there can be a possible causal relationship between pathogenesis of periodontal disease and CVD as inferred from the statistical significant outcome in the form of decreased inflammatory biomarkers after the periodontal treatment. PMID:24198887

  7. Chronic exposure to low benzo[a]pyrene level causes neurodegenerative disease-like syndromes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Gao, Dongxu; Wu, Meifang; Wang, Chonggang; Wang, Yuanchuan; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2015-10-01

    Previous epidemiological and animal studies report that exposure to environmental pollutant exposure links to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a neurotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, has been increasingly released into the environment during recent decades. So far, the role of BaP on the development of neurodegenerative diseases remaind unclear. This study aimed to determine whether chronic exposure to low dose BaP would cause neurodegenerative disease-like syndromes in zebrafish (Danio rerio). We exposed zebrafish, from early embryogenesis to adults, to environmentally relevant concentrations of BaP for 230 days. Our results indicated that BaP decreased the brain weight to body weight ratio, locomotor activity and cognitive ability; induced the loss of dopaminergic neurons; and resulted in neurodegeneration. In addition, obvious cell apoptosis in the brain was found. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter levels of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, the mRNA levels of the genes encoding dopamine transporter, Parkinson protein 7, phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1, leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine kinase 2, amyloid precursor protein b, presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 were significantly down-regulated by BaP exposure. These findings suggest that chronic exposure to low dose BaP could cause the behavioral, neuropathological, neurochemical, and genetic features of neurodegenerative diseases. This study provides clues that BaP may constitute an important environmental risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases in humans.

  8. Evaluation of Salivary Levels of Pyridinoline Cross Linked Carboxyterminal Telopeptide of Type I Collagen (ICTP) in Periodontal Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Debasish; Gopalakrishnan, Sivaram; Arun, K.V.; Kumar, Tirunveli Saravanan Subu; Devanathan, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional parameters (Pocket depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment loss, radiographic findings) have been used for a long time for the assessment of periodontal disease conditions. However, these parameters only indicate towards the periodontal damage that has already taken place but do not give any idea regarding the current status of the periodontal health or disease. Hence, the present study is aimed at evaluating the concentration of the bone biomarker ICTP in saliva, which can give a better real time assessment of periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods Forty three patients were selected and divided into three groups based on the recorded clinical parameters of probing pocket depth, attachment loss and bleeding on probing. Group I (Healthy, n = 11), Group II (Gingivitis, n = 17), Group III (Periodontitis. n = 15). Salivary samples were collected before scaling and root planning to avoid contamination by blood. ICTP levels were evaluated in the salivary samples by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis used Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare the mean ICTP level of the three groups. Results ICTP was detected in all the samples. Highest mean ICTP concentrations in saliva were obtained for group III (periodontitis group) and the lowest mean ICTP concentrations were seen in group I (healthy group). This suggests that the level of ICTP in saliva increases proportionally from periodontal health to diseased conditions (gingivitis & periodontitis). Conclusion There is a substantial increase in the salivary concentration of ICTP in chronic periodontitis patients than in gingivitis and healthy patients. Salivary ICTP levels were the maximum in chronic periodontitis patients followed by gingivitis patients and the least in healthy individuals. ICTP may be considered as a biomarker in periodontal disease progression. PMID:26501013

  9. [Changes in the hemoglobin A2 level of patients with ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Damianova, L; Popnikolov, S; Pencheva, B; Angelova, A

    1989-01-01

    40 patients with ischemic heart disease were studied. In 60% of them a higher content of HbA2 was found. These data for higher frequency of HbA2 among the patients with ischemic heart disease do not correspond with the average incidence of the genetically determined anomaly A2-beta-thalassemia among the Bulgarian population. The negative data for increased methemoglobin, the shift of the oxygen dissociation curve to the right toward increased oxygen release from the hemoglobin molecule, the normalization of HbA2 after several days, the lack of anomalous fraction in the analyses lead to the conclusion that HbA2 plays a compensatory role in patients with ischemic heart disease and its dynamic changes could be used as a diagnostic test for ischemia.

  10. β-Glucans (Saccharomyces cereviseae) Reduce Glucose Levels and Attenuate Alveolar Bone Loss in Diabetic Rats with Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of oral ingestion of β-glucans isolated from Saccharomyces cereviseae on the metabolic profile, expression of gingival inflammatory markers and amount of alveolar bone loss in diabetic rats with periodontal disease. Diabetes mellitus was induced in 48 Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg). After confirming the diabetes diagnosis, the animals were treated with β-glucans (by gavage) for 28 days. On the 14th day of this period, periodontal disease was induced using a ligature protocol. β-glucans reduced the amount of alveolar bone loss in animals with periodontal disease in both the diabetic and non-diabetic groups (p < 0.05). β-glucans reduced blood glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in diabetic animals, both with and without periodontal disease (p < 0.05). Furthermore, treatment with β-glucans reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand and increased osteoprotegerin expression in animals with diabetes and periodontal disease (p < 0.05). It was concluded that treatment with β-glucans has beneficial metabolic and periodontal effects in diabetic rats with periodontal disease. PMID:26291983

  11. Early events of citrus greening (Huanglongbing) disease development at the ultrastructural level.

    PubMed

    Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Achor, Diann S

    2010-09-01

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing [HLB]) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. The causal agent of HLB in Florida is thought to be 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Understanding of the early events in HLB infection is critical for the development of effective measures to control the disease. In this work, we conducted cytopathological studies by following the development of the disease in citrus trees graft inoculated with 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-containing material under greenhouse conditions to examine the correlation between ultrastructural changes and symptom production, with the main objective of characterizing the early events of infection. Based on our observations, one of the first degenerative changes induced upon invasion of the pathogen appears to be swelling of middle lamella between cell walls surrounding sieve elements. This anatomical aberration was often observed in samples from newly growing flushes in inoculated sweet orange and grapefruit trees at the early "presymptomatic" stage of HLB infection. Development of symptoms and their progression correlated with an increasing degree of microscopic aberrations. Remarkably, the ability to observe the bacterium in the infected tissue also correlated with the degree of the disease progression. Large numbers of bacterial cells were found in phloem sieve tubes in tissue samples from presymptomatic young flushes. In contrast, we did not observe the bacteria in highly symptomatic leaf samples, suggesting a possibility that, at more advanced stages of the disease, a major proportion of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is present in a nonviable state. We trust that observations reported here advance our understanding of how 'Ca. L. asiaticus' causes disease. Furthermore, they may be an important aid in answering a question: when and where within an infected tree the tissue serves as a better inoculum source for acquisition and transmission of the bacterium by its psyllid vector.

  12. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY DUE TO AIDS: A STUDY OF BURDEN OF DISEASE AT A MUNICIPAL LEVEL

    PubMed Central

    SILVA, Jane DA; RAMOS, Victoria; SILVA, Helena Caetano Gonçalves DA; TRAEBERT, Jefferson

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of measuring the burden of disease involves aggregating morbidity and mortality components into a single indicator, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY), to measure how much and how people live and suffer the impact of a disease. Objective: To estimate the global burden of disease due to AIDS in a municipality of southern Brazil. Methods: An ecological study was conducted in 2009 to examine the incidence and AIDS-related deaths among the population residing in the city of Tubarao, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Data from the Mortality Information System in the National Health System was used to calculate the years of life lost (YLL) due to premature mortality. The calculation was based on the difference between a standardized life expectancy and age at death, with a discount rate of 3% per year. Data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases were used to calculate the years lived with disability (YLD). The DALY was estimated by the sum of YLL and YLD. Indicator rates were estimated per 100,000 inhabitants, distributed by age and gender. Results: A total of 131 records were examined, and a 572.5 DALYs were estimated, which generated a rate of 593.1 DALYs/100,000 inhabitants. The rate among men amounted to 780.7 DALYs/100,000, whereas among women the rate was 417.1 DALYs/100,000. The most affected age groups were 30-44 years for men and 60-69 years for women. Conclusion: The burden of disease due to AIDS in the city of Tubarao was relatively high when considering the global trend. The mortality component accounted for more than 90% of the burden of disease. PMID:26603227

  13. Association of serum SPARC level with severity of coronary artery lesion in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Song, Hai-Yan; An, Meng-Meng; Zhu, Li-Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association of serum SPARC level with the severity of coronary artery lesion in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: 120 patients with type 2 diabetic patients were the subjects. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect levels of serum SPARC and Gensini score was used to assess extent of coronary artery lesions. The patients were divided into 4 groups: A group was the healthy control group with 40 patients. According to angiography and the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria for diabetes the rest were divided into B, C, D group: there were 40 cases in group B (simple type 2 diabetes mellitus group), 40 cases were in group C (simple CHD group), and 40 cases were in D group (type 2 diabetes combined with coronary heart disease group). Results: Compared with that in group A, the serum SPARC level in group B, C and D increased significantly (4.22±1.19) μg/L, (3.71±1.05) μg/L and (5.96±1.40) μg/L vs (3.60±0.40) μg/L (P<0.05 ). Moreover, the serum SPARC level in group D was the highest (P<0.05). Serum SPARC level, insulin resistance (IR), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were the vital factors contributing to coronary heart disease. Serum SPARC level was positively correlated with the Gensini scores in group D (r=0.770, P<0.05), whereas it was not related to the Gensini scores in group C (r=0.520, P>0.05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that serum SPARC level was positively correlated with triglyceride, fasting insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance Index (r=0.780, 0.762 and 0.891, respectively; P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum SPARC level elevated in T2DM patients with coronary heart disease, which was correlated with the severity of coronary artery disease significantly. PMID:26770566

  14. High serum vitamin D levels reduce the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in healthy men independent of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Baek, Ki Hyun; Lee, Won-Young; Kang, Moo Il; Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Sun-Woo; Oh, Ki Won

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest an association of vitamin D with obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We analyzed the association of serum vitamin D level assessed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 {25(OH)D3 } with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in apparently healthy men. We performed a cross-sectional study of 6,567 Korean men who participated in a health screening program, evaluating the association of serum 25(OH)D3 levels with the risk of NAFLD assessed by abdominal ultrasonogram. Of the participants, 43.6% had NAFLD and 21.1% had metabolic syndrome. Age, serum calcium, and aspartate aminotransferase levels showed weak but significant positive correlations with 25(OH)D3 level; total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting insulin level showed weak but significant negative correlations with 25(OH)D3 level. The mean 25(OH)D3 level was significantly lower in participants with NAFLD than in those without (38.7 ± 9.0 vs. 39.7 ± 9.7 nmol/L, p < 0.001). When participants were divided into tertiles based on mean 25(OH)D3 level, the proportion with NAFLD significantly increased as mean 25(OH)D3 level decreased (40.0, 45.0 and 45.9%, p for linear trend < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses with NAFLD as the dependent variable showed that the tertiles with lower 25(OH)D3 levels had a significantly increased risk for NAFLD compared with the highest tertile, even after adjusting for body mass index and metabolic syndrome (OR 1.247 and 1.408 vs. the highest tertile, p < 0.001). Thus, participants with higher serum 25(OH)D3 showed a significantly reduced risk for NAFLD compared with the low 25(OH)D3 groups, independent of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  15. High Intestinal and Systemic Levels of Interleukin-23/T-Helper 17 Pathway in Chinese Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rui; Huang, Sha; Zhou, Feng; Xu, Shufang; Yi, Fengming; Xia, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-23/T-helper 17 (IL-23/Th17) pathway plays a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but little is known about its expression in Chinese population. In this study, we investigated the mRNA and protein levels of IL-12p40, tumor necrosis factor-like cytokine 1A (TL1A), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and IL-23R both locally and systemically in Chinese IBD patients. Our results indicated that the mRNA levels of IL-12p40 and TL1A were increased in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Furthermore, serum IL-12p40 and TL1A levels were higher in active UC patients, especially in patients with disease course less than 1.25 years or initial onset. No correlation was found between the genotype and serum levels of IL-12p40 or TL1A in UC patients. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression of JAK2 and IL-23R were increased in UC and Crohn's disease (CD) patients. Taken together, our results provided evidence that IL-23/Th17 pathway genes may represent important biomarkers of active stage of IBD and serve as novel therapeutic targets for IBD in Chinese population. PMID:24382939

  16. Clinical disease activity and acute phase reactant levels are discordant among patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: acute phase reactant levels contribute separately to predicting outcome at one year

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Clinical trials of new treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) typically require subjects to have an elevated acute phase reactant (APR), in addition to tender and swollen joints. However, despite the elevation of individual components of the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) (tender and swollen joint counts and patient and physician global assessment), some patients with active RA may have normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and/or C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and thus fail to meet entry criteria for clinical trials. We assessed the relationship between CDAI and APRs in the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) registry by comparing baseline characteristics and one-year clinical outcomes of patients with active RA, grouped by baseline APR levels. Methods This was an observational study of 9,135 RA patients who had both ESR and CRP drawn and a visit at which CDAI was >2.8 (not in remission). Results Of 9,135 patients with active RA, 58% had neither elevated ESR nor CRP; only 16% had both elevated ESR and CRP and 26% had either ESR or CRP elevated. Among the 4,228 patients who had a one-year follow-up visit, both baseline and one-year follow-up modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (mHAQ) and CDAI scores were lowest for patients with active RA but with neither APR elevated; both mHAQ and CDAI scores increased sequentially with the increase in number of elevated APR levels at baseline. Each individual component of the CDAI followed the same trend, both at baseline and at one-year follow-up. The magnitude of improvement in both CDAI and mHAQ scores at one year was associated positively with the number of APRs elevated at baseline. Conclusions In a large United States registry of RA patients, APR levels often do not correlate with disease activity as measured by joint counts and global assessments. These data strongly suggest that it is appropriate to obtain both ESR and CRP from RA patients at the initial

  17. Validity of a Questionnaire to Assess the Physical Activity Level in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiraud, Thibaut; Granger, Richard; Bousquet, Marc; Gremeaux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare, in coronary artery disease patients, physical activity (PA) assessed with the Dijon Physical Activity Questionnaire (DPAQ) and the true PA objectively measured using an accelerometer. Seventy patients wore an accelerometer (MyWellness Key actimeter) throughout 1 week after a cardiac rehabilitation program that…

  18. Modeling Chagas Disease at Population Level to Explain Venezuela's Real Data

    PubMed Central

    González-Parra, Gilberto; Chen-Charpentier, Benito M.; Bermúdez, Moises

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this paper we present an age-structured epidemiological model for Chagas disease. This model includes the interactions between human and vector populations that transmit Chagas disease. Methods The human population is divided into age groups since the proportion of infected individuals in this population changes with age as shown by real prevalence data. Moreover, the age-structured model allows more accurate information regarding the prevalence, which can help to design more specific control programs. We apply this proposed model to data from the country of Venezuela for two periods, 1961–1971, and 1961–1991 taking into account real demographic data for these periods. Results Numerical computer simulations are presented to show the suitability of the age-structured model to explain the real data regarding prevalence of Chagas disease in each of the age groups. In addition, a numerical simulation varying the death rate of the vector is done to illustrate prevention and control strategies against Chagas disease. Conclusion The proposed model can be used to determine the effect of control strategies in different age groups. PMID:26929912

  19. On developing and enhancing plant-level disease rating systems in real fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) is one of the most serious diseases in sugar beet plants causing an enormous decrease in the sugar production throughout the world. Agricultural researchers are continuously seeking CLS-resistant sugar beet cultivars. Normally human experts manually observe and rate the re...

  20. The United Nations High Level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases: a missed opportunity?

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Kavita; Parker, Richard G

    2012-11-01

    The United Nations High Level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (September 19-20, 2011) provided an opportunity to recast the current global health agenda and offered a formidable platform to mobilize political will for concerted action. We argue that the opportunity was missed because the World Health Organization (WHO) neglected the politics of process that are key to mobilizing political support for global noncommunicable disease policies. Instead, it focused on the implementation process. The lessons to be drawn from the summit are critical because the WHO is the key agency that will be expected in the near future to steer further discussions and debate on the noncommunicable disease agenda.

  1. Neighbourhood Deprivation, Individual-Level and Familial-Level Socio-demographic Factors and Risk of Congenital Heart Disease: A Nationwide Study from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Sundquist, Jan; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Zöller, Bengt; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the study is to examine whether there is an association between neighbourhood deprivation and incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD), after accounting for family- and individual-level potential confounders. Methods All children aged 0 to 11 years and living in Sweden (n=748,951) were followed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Data were analysed by multilevel logistic regression, with family- and individual-level characteristics at the first level and level of neighbourhood deprivation at the second level. Results During the study period, among a total of 748,951 children, 1499 (0.2 %) were hospitalised with CHD. Age-adjusted cumulative hospitalisation rates for CHD increased with increasing level of neighbourhood deprivation. In the study population, 1.8 per 1000 and 2.2 per 1000 children in the least and most deprived neighbourhoods, respectively, were hospitalised with CHD. The incidence of hospitalisation for CHD increased with increasing neighbourhood-level deprivation across all family and individual-level socio-demographic categories. The odds ratio (OR) for hospitalisation for CHD for those living in high-deprivation neighbourhoods versus those living in low-deprivation neighbourhoods was 1.23 (95 % confidence interval (CI)=1.04–1.46). In the full model, which took account for age, paternal and maternal individual-level socio-economic characteristics, comorbidities (e.g. maternal type 2 diabetes, OR=3.03; maternal hypertension, OR=2.01), and family history of CHD (OR=3.27), the odds of CHD were slightly attenuated but did not remain significant in the most deprived neighbourhoods (OR=1.20, 95 % CI=0.99–1.45, p=0.057). Conclusions This study is the largest so far on neighbourhood influences on CHD, and the results suggest that deprived neighbourhoods have higher rates of CHD, which represents important clinical knowledge. However, the association does not seem to be independent of individual- and family-level

  2. Serum levels of innate immunity cytokines are elevated in dogs with metaphyseal osteopathy (hypertrophic osteodytrophy) during active disease and remission.

    PubMed

    Safra, Noa; Hitchens, Peta L; Maverakis, Emanual; Mitra, Anupam; Korff, Courtney; Johnson, Eric; Kol, Amir; Bannasch, Michael J; Pedersen, Niels C; Bannasch, Danika L

    2016-10-15

    Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) (hypertrophic osteodystrophy) is a developmental disorder of unexplained etiology affecting dogs during rapid growth. Affected dogs experience relapsing episodes of lytic/sclerotic metaphyseal lesions and systemic inflammation. MO is rare in the general dog population; however, some breeds (Weimaraner, Great Dane and Irish Setter) have a much higher incidence, supporting a hereditary etiology. Autoinflammatory childhood disorders of parallel presentation such as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), and deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), involve impaired innate immunity pathways and aberrant cytokine production. Given the similarities between these diseases, we hypothesize that MO is an autoinflammatory disease mediated by cytokines involved in innate immunity. To characterize immune dysregulation in MO dogs we measured serum levels of inflammatory markers in 26 MO and 102 control dogs. MO dogs had significantly higher levels (pg/ml) of serum Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-18, IL-6, Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-10. Notably, recovered MO dogs were not different from dogs during active MO disease, providing a suggestive mechanism for disease predisposition. This is the first documentation of elevated immune markers in MO dogs, uncovering an immune profile similar to comparable autoinflammatory disorders in children.

  3. Alterations in cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (CDK5) protein levels, activity and immunocytochemistry in canine motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Green, S L; Vulliet, P R; Pinter, M J; Cork, L C

    1998-11-01

    Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA) is a dominantly inherited motor neuron disease in Brittany spaniels that is clinically characterized by progressive muscle weakness leading to paralysis. Histopathologically, degeneration is confined to motor neurons with accumulation of phosphorylated neurofilaments in axonal internodes. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a kinase related to the cell cycle kinase cdc2, phosphorylates neurofilaments and regulates neurofilament dynamics. We examined CDK5 activity, protein levels, and cellular immunoreactivity in nervous tissue from dogs with HCSMA, from closely age-matched controls and from dogs with other neurological diseases. On immunoblot analysis, CDK5 protein levels were increased in the HCSMA dogs (by approximately 1.5-fold in both the cytosolic and the particulate fractions). CDK5 activity was significantly increased (by approximately 3-fold) in the particulate fractions in the HCSMA dogs compared to all controls. The finding that CDK5 activity was increased in the young HCSMA homozygotes with the accelerated form of the disease, who do not show axonal swellings histologically, suggests that alterations in CDK5 occurs early in the pathogenesis, prior to the development of significant neurofilament pathology. Immunocytochemically, there was strong CDK5 staining of the nuclei, cytoplasm and axonal processes of the motor neurons in both control dogs and dogs with HCSMA. Further immunocytochemical studies demonstrated CDK5 staining where neurofilaments accumulated, in axonal swellings in the dogs with HCSMA. Our observations suggest phosphorylation-dependent events mediated by CDK5 occur in canine motor neuron disease.

  4. Serum levels of innate immunity cytokines are elevated in dogs with metaphyseal osteopathy (hypertrophic osteodytrophy) during active disease and remission.

    PubMed

    Safra, Noa; Hitchens, Peta L; Maverakis, Emanual; Mitra, Anupam; Korff, Courtney; Johnson, Eric; Kol, Amir; Bannasch, Michael J; Pedersen, Niels C; Bannasch, Danika L

    2016-10-15

    Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) (hypertrophic osteodystrophy) is a developmental disorder of unexplained etiology affecting dogs during rapid growth. Affected dogs experience relapsing episodes of lytic/sclerotic metaphyseal lesions and systemic inflammation. MO is rare in the general dog population; however, some breeds (Weimaraner, Great Dane and Irish Setter) have a much higher incidence, supporting a hereditary etiology. Autoinflammatory childhood disorders of parallel presentation such as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), and deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), involve impaired innate immunity pathways and aberrant cytokine production. Given the similarities between these diseases, we hypothesize that MO is an autoinflammatory disease mediated by cytokines involved in innate immunity. To characterize immune dysregulation in MO dogs we measured serum levels of inflammatory markers in 26 MO and 102 control dogs. MO dogs had significantly higher levels (pg/ml) of serum Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-18, IL-6, Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-10. Notably, recovered MO dogs were not different from dogs during active MO disease, providing a suggestive mechanism for disease predisposition. This is the first documentation of elevated immune markers in MO dogs, uncovering an immune profile similar to comparable autoinflammatory disorders in children. PMID:27590423

  5. Effect of Fluoridated Sealants on Adjacent Tooth Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cagetti, M.G.; Carta, G.; Cocco, F.; Sale, S.; Congiu, G.; Mura, A.; Strohmenger, L.; Lingström, P.; Campus, G.

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed in 6- to 7-yr-old schoolchildren to evaluate, in a 30-mo period, whether the caries increment on the distal surface of the second primary molars adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with fluoride release compounds would be lower with respect to those adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with a nonfluoridated sealant. In sum, 2,776 subjects were enrolled and randomly divided into 3 groups receiving sealants on sound first molars: high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (GIC group); resin-based sealant with fluoride (fluoride-RB group); and a resin-based sealant without fluoride (RB group). Caries (D1 – D3 level) was recorded on the distal surface of the second primary molar, considered the unit of analysis including only sound surfaces at the baseline. At baseline, no differences in caries prevalence were recorded in the 3 groups regarding the considered surfaces. At follow-up, the prevalence of an affected unit of analysis was statistically lower (p = .03) in the GIC and fluoride-RB groups (p = .04). In the GIC group, fewer new caries were observed in the unit of analysis respect to the other 2 groups. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.68; p < .01) for GIC vs. RB and 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.04; p = .005) for fluoride-RB vs. RB. Caries incidence was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status (IRR = 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.42; p = .05). Dental sealant high-viscosity GIC and fluoride-RB demonstrated protection against dental caries, and there was evidence that these materials afforded additional protection for the tooth nearest to the sealed tooth (clinical trial registration NCT01588210). PMID:24846910

  6. Alteration of acylphosphatase levels in familial Alzheimer's disease fibroblasts with presenilin gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Liguri, G; Cecchi, C; Latorraca, S; Pieri, A; Sorbi, S; Degl'Innocenti, D; Ramponi, G

    1996-06-01

    Acylphosphatase (AcPase), an enzyme that modulates the activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase by hydrolysing its phosphorylated moiety, has been found to be significantly higher in cultured skin fibroblasts from donors affected by early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD) with PS-1 and PS-2 gene mutations. Of the two known isoenzymes of acylphosphatase, only the erythrocyte one accounts for the total increase in activity. No relevant alteration was observed in phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity (PTPase), in Ca(2+)-ATPase and Na+, K(+)-ATPase activities of the same cells as compared to age-matched controls. This finding could suggest a possible explanation for the calcium-dependent biochemical alterations previously described in Alzheimer's disease fibroblasts. PMID:8805118

  7. Orthostatic hypotension is associated with decreased cerebrospinal fluid levels of chromogranin A in early stage of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Kaiserova, Michaela; Prikrylova Vranova, Hana; Galuszka, Jan; Stejskal, David; Mensikova, Katerina; Zapletalova, Jana; Mares, Jan; Kanovsky, Petr

    2015-10-01

    An association between the CSF chromogranin A (CgA) and orthostatic blood pressure changes was investigated in 20 patients in the early stage of Parkinson disease (PD). There was a positive correlation between the CSF CgA and diastolic blood pressure change, when CSF CgA levels were lower in patients with orthostatic hypotension (OH). Decreased CSF CgA may be useful in predicting OH in the early stage of PD.

  8. Lower vitamin D levels are associated with higher systemic lupus erythematosus activity, but not predictive of disease flare-up

    PubMed Central

    Schoindre, Yoland; Jallouli, Moez; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Ghillani, Pascale; Galicier, Lionel; Aumaître, Olivier; Francès, Camille; Le Guern, Véronique; Lioté, Frédéric; Smail, Amar; Limal, Nicolas; Perard, Laurent; Desmurs-Clavel, Hélène; Thi Huong, Du Le; Asli, Bouchra; Kahn, Jean-Emmanuel; Sailler, Laurent; Ackermann, Félix; Papo, Thomas; Sacré, Karim; Fain, Olivier; Stirnemann, Jérôme; Cacoub, Patrice; Leroux, Gaëlle; Cohen-Bittan, Judith; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Lechat, Philippe; Musset, Lucile; Piette, Jean-Charles; Amoura, Zahir; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Growing evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recent studies have found an association between lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and higher SLE activity. We studied the relationship between 25(OH)D levels and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score, and we assessed for the first time the role of vitamin D in predicting SLE flare-ups. Methods Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured in 170 patients with SLE who were prospectively followed up for 6 months (Plaquenil LUpus Systemic study, ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00413361). Results The mean SLEDAI score was 2.03±2.43 and 12.3% patients had active disease (SLEDAI ≥6). The mean 25(OH)D level was 20.6±9.8 ng/mL. Deficiency (25(OH)D <10 ng/mL) was observed in 27 (15.9%), insufficiency (10≤25(OH)D<30) in 112 (65.9%) and optimal vitamin D status (25(OH)D≥30) in 31 (18.2%) patients. In multivariate analysis, female gender (p=0.018), absence of defined antiphospholipid syndrome (p=0.002) and higher creatinine clearance (p=0.004) were predictive of lower 25(OH)D levels. In multivariate analysis, lower 25(OH)D levels were associated with high SLE activity (p=0.02). Relapse-free survival rate was not statistically different according to the vitamin D status during the 6-month follow-up (p=0.22). Conclusions We found a low vitamin D status in the majority of patients with SLE, and a modest association between lower 25(OH)D levels and high disease activity. There was no association between baseline 25(OH)D levels and relapse-free survival rate. PMID:25379192

  9. Proliferative kidney disease in brown trout: infection level, pathology and mortality under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Hirschi, Regula; Schneider, Ernst

    2015-05-21

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging disease threatening wild salmonid populations. In temperature-controlled aquaria, PKD can cause mortality rates of up to 85% in rainbow trout. So far, no data about PKD-related mortality in wild brown trout Salmo trutta fario are available. The aim of this study was to investigate mortality rates and pathology in brown trout kept in a cage within a natural river habitat known to harbor Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. Young-of-the-year (YOY) brown trout, free of T. bryosalmonae, were exposed in the River Wutach, in the northeast of Switzerland, during 3 summer months. Samples of wild brown trout caught by electrofishing near the cage location were examined in parallel. The incidence of PKD in cage-exposed animals (69%) was not significantly different to the disease prevalence of wild fish (82 and 80% in the upstream and downstream locations, respectively). The mortality in cage-exposed animals, however, was as low as 15%. At the termination of the exposure experiment, surviving fish showed histological lesions typical for PKD regression, suggesting that many YOY brown trout survive the initial infection. Our results at the River Wutach suggest that PKD in brown trout does not always result in high mortality under natural conditions.

  10. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, race, and the progression of kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Michal L; Astor, Brad; Michos, Erin D; Hostetter, Thomas H; Powe, Neil R; Muntner, Paul

    2009-12-01

    Black individuals have lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and experience a disproportionate burden of ESRD compared with white individuals. Animal studies suggest that vitamin D has renoprotective effects. We evaluated the contribution of low 25(OH)D levels on incidence of ESRD using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-linked Medicare claims files (n = 13,328). We included baseline (1988 through 1994) measurements of 25(OH)D and assessed the incidence of ESRD through July 31, 2001. Overall, 34% of non-Hispanic black individuals had 25(OH)D levels <15 ng/ml compared with 5% of non-Hispanic white individuals (P < 0.001). During a median of 9.1 yr, 65 participants developed ESRD. After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical and laboratory factors (including diabetes, hypertension, estimated GFR, and albuminuria), participants with 25(OH)D levels <15 ng/ml had a 2.6-fold greater incidence of ESRD than those with levels > or =15 ng/ml (incidence rate ratio 2.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00 to 7.05; P = 0.05). After adjustment for clinical covariates but not 25(OH)D levels, non-Hispanic black individuals had a 2.83-fold (95% CI 1.03 to 7.77) higher risk for developing ESRD compared with non-Hispanic white individuals. Additional adjustment for 25(OH)D levels reduced the risk by 58% (incidence rate ratio 1.77; 95% CI 0.38 to 8.21). In summary, low 25(OH)D levels associate with development of ESRD even after adjustment for multiple risk factors. Low 25(OH)D levels may account for a substantial proportion of the increased risk for ESRD experienced by black individuals.

  11. High Soluble CD14 Levels at Primary HIV-1 Infection Predict More Rapid Disease Progression.

    PubMed

    Krastinova, Evguenia; Lecuroux, Camille; Leroy, Carole; Seng, Remonie; Cabie, Andre; Rami, Agathe; Venet, Alain; Meyer, Laurence; Goujard, Cecile

    2015-09-15

    The soluble CD14 (sCD14) level was found associated with mortality during the chronic phase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Here we assessed its prognostic value in 138 patients with primary HIV infection. Higher sCD14 levels were associated with death, from myocardial infarction, but this was based on 3 deaths only. Among 68 untreated patients, those with higher sCD14 levels had more rapid spontaneous CD4 cell decline during the first 18 months following primary infection. This association persisted after adjustment for age, the CD4 cell count, and HIV viral load at diagnosis.

  12. Moderate-intensity interval training increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor level and decreases inflammation in Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, J A; Majerczak, J; Zeligowska, E; Mencel, J; Jaskolski, A; Jaskolska, A; Marusiak, J

    2014-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that physical training increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy people. The aim of this study was to establish the effect of physical training on the basal serum level of the BDNF in the Parkinson's disease patients (PD patients) in relation to their health status. Twelve PD patients (mean ± S.E.M: age 70 ± 3 years; body mass 70 ± 2 kg; height 163 ± 3 cm) performed a moderate-intensity interval training (three 1-hour training sessions weekly), lasting 8 weeks. Basal serum BDNF in the PD patients before training amounted to 10,977 ± 756 pg x mL(-1) and after 8 weeks of training it has increased to 14,206 ± 1256 pg x mL(-1) (i.e. by 34%, P=0.03). This was accompanied by an attenuation of total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (P=0.01). The training resulted also in a decrease of basal serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) (P=0.001) and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (P=0.03) levels. We have concluded that the improvement of health status of the Parkinson's disease patients after training could be related to the increase of serum BDNF level caused by the attenuated inflammation in those patients. PMID:24930517

  13. Association of levels of antibodies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease with extracellular proteins of food and probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hevia, Arancha; López, Patricia; Suárez, Ana; Jacquot, Claudine; Urdaci, María C; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract mucosa and is related to an abnormal immune response to commensal bacteria. Our aim of the present work has been to explore the levels of antibodies (IgG and IgA) raised against extracellular proteins produced by LAB and its association with IBD. We analyzed, by Western-blot and ELISA, the presence of serum antibodies (IgA and IgG) developed against extracellular protein fractions produced by different food bacteria from the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. We used a sera collection consisting of healthy individuals (HC, n = 50), Crohn's disease patients (CD, n = 37), and ulcerative colitis patients (UC, n = 15). Levels of IgA antibodies developed against a cell-wall hydrolase from Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus GG (CWH) were significantly higher in the IBD group (P < 0.002; n = 52). The specificity of our measurements was confirmed by measuring IgA antibodies developed against the CWH peptide 365-VNTSNQTAAVSAS-377. IBD patients appeared to have different immune response to food bacteria. This paper sets the basis for developing systems for early detection of IBD, based on the association of high levels of antibodies developed against extracellular proteins from food and probiotic bacteria.

  14. Association of Levels of Antibodies from Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Extracellular Proteins of Food and Probiotic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hevia, Arancha; López, Patricia; Suárez, Ana; Jacquot, Claudine; Urdaci, María C.; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract mucosa and is related to an abnormal immune response to commensal bacteria. Our aim of the present work has been to explore the levels of antibodies (IgG and IgA) raised against extracellular proteins produced by LAB and its association with IBD. We analyzed, by Western-blot and ELISA, the presence of serum antibodies (IgA and IgG) developed against extracellular protein fractions produced by different food bacteria from the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. We used a sera collection consisting of healthy individuals (HC, n = 50), Crohn's disease patients (CD, n = 37), and ulcerative colitis patients (UC, n = 15). Levels of IgA antibodies developed against a cell-wall hydrolase from Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus GG (CWH) were significantly higher in the IBD group (P < 0.002; n = 52). The specificity of our measurements was confirmed by measuring IgA antibodies developed against the CWH peptide 365-VNTSNQTAAVSAS-377. IBD patients appeared to have different immune response to food bacteria. This paper sets the basis for developing systems for early detection of IBD, based on the association of high levels of antibodies developed against extracellular proteins from food and probiotic bacteria. PMID:24991549

  15. TLR4 Endogenous Ligand S100A8/A9 Levels in Adult-Onset Still’s Disease and Their Association with Disease Activity and Clinical Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Han, Jae Ho; Kim, Woo-Jung; Noh, Hyun Jin; An, Jeong-Mi; Yim, Hyunee; Jung, Ju-Yang; Kim, You-Sun; Suh, Chang-Hee

    2016-01-01

    S100A8/A9 has been suggested as a marker of disease activity in patients with adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD). We evaluated the clinical significance of S100A8/A9 as a biomarker and its pathogenic role in AOSD. Blood samples were collected prospectively from 20 AOSD patients and 20 healthy controls (HCs). Furthermore, skin and lymph node biopsy specimens of AOSD patients were investigated for S100A8/A9 expression levels via immunohistochemistry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of active AOSD patients and HCs were investigated for S100A8/A9 cell signals. S100A8/A9, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in active AOSD patients were higher than those of HCs. S100A8/A9 levels correlated positively with IL-1β, TNF-α and C-reactive protein. The inflammatory cells expressing S100A8/A9 were graded from one to three in skin and lymph node biopsies of AOSD patients. The grading for S100A8/A9 was more intense in the skin lesions with karyorrhexis, mucin deposition, and neutrophil infiltration. Like lipopolysaccharide (LPS), S100A8/A9 induced phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) in PBMCs, suggesting that S100A8/A9 activates Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathways. These findings suggest that S100A8/A9 may be involved in the inflammatory response with induction of proinflammatory cytokines and may serve as a clinicopathological marker for disease activity in AOSD. PMID:27537874

  16. Soluble CD14 levels in the serum, synovial fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with various stages of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, B; Noring, R; Steere, A C; Klempner, M S; Hu, L T

    2000-03-01

    Levels of circulating soluble CD14 (sCD14) in patients with various stages of Lyme disease (LD) were examined. Patients with early or untreated late LD had significantly higher levels of sCD14 than did healthy controls (P=.0001 and .0007, respectively); levels returned to normal within 3 months after antibiotic therapy. Patients with persistent posttreatment symptoms of LD had sCD14 levels equivalent to those of healthy controls. Differences in the serum sCD14 levels in patients with various stages of LD are likely to be directly correlated with differences in bacterial burden, suggesting that posttreatment symptoms may not require continued presence of the organism. sCD14 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with any stage of LD were no different from those of control subjects. Levels of synovial fluid sCD14 from patients with Borrelia burgdorferi in their joints were elevated, compared with levels in normal serum, and may play a role in the pathogenesis of arthritis.

  17. Elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with prednisone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Halloran, B.; Fong, L.; Steinbach, L.; Shellito, J.

    1993-01-01

    Glucocorticoid administration is a well established cause of osteopenia. Mechanisms underlying the deleterious effect of glucocorticoids on bone may include direct inhibition of bone formation as well as indirect effects through changes in intestinal calcium absorption, renal calcium excretion, and/or levels of the calciotropic hormones. To further examine the potential role of the calciotropic hormones we measured serum levels of PTH and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], as well as serum and urine levels of calcium and vertebral bone density in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being managed with or without prednisone. Patients treated with prednisone had lower spinal bone density (53 vs. 106 mg/cm3) and higher serum calcium (2.40 vs. 2.33 mmol/l), urine calcium (6.9 vs. 2.7 mmol/24h), and 1,25(OH)2D levels (147 vs. 95 pmol/L). Compared to the patients not treated with glucocorticoids. PTH levels also tended to be higher (33 vs. 26 microliters-eq/ml), but the difference was not significant. Serum and urine calcium levels correlated positively with 1,25(OH)2D levels, but none of these measurements correlated with PTH levels. Our results suggest that prednisone treatment alters the regulation of 1,25(OH)2D production, and this may contribute to the loss of bone mineral induced by prednisone.

  18. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  19. Vitamin D level among Egyptian patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and its relation to severity of the disease.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rehim, Asmaa S M; Sheha, Dina S; Mohamed, Nesrine A

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in the immune system. Decreased serum vitamin D level is known to be associated with autoimmune and atopic diseases. This study aimed to assess vitamin D status in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and its relation with severity of the disease. This case-control study was conducted on 22 patients and 20 age and sex matched controls. Patients were subjected to clinical assessment, routine laboratory examination: complete blood picture (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C virus antibody (HCV Ab), anti-thyroid antibody, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), total immunoglobulin E (IgE), vitamin D assay and stool analysis, and special investigations including: skin prick test (SPT), autologous serum skin test (ASST) and urticaria activity score (UAS). Patients' mean age was 32.8 ± 13.17 years. The median and interquartile range of duration of illness was 2.5 (1-4) years and of Ig E was 79 (62-312) IU/ml. According to UAS; 14 (63.6%) had severe and 8 (36.4%) had moderate degree illness. The mean vitamin D level among the patients was 28.4 ± 9.09 nmol/L. Vitamin D level was significantly lower among patients in comparison to controls (28.4 ± 9.09 vs. 104.5 ± 76.8, t = 4.4 P < 0.01). Vitamin D correlated negatively with IgE level (r = -0.45, P < 0.05), meanwhile it was insignificantly correlated with age and duration of illness (r = -0.117 and 0.34 respectively, P > 0.05). In conclusion; Low vitamin D level (r = 0.45) is associated with chronic spontaneous urticaria but has no relation with the severity of the disease.

  20. Plasma levels of N-telopeptide of Type I collagen in periodontal health, disease and after treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aruna, Ganganna

    2016-01-01

    Background: To determine plasma concentrations of bone resorption marker cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide (NTx) of Type I collagen in periodontal health, disease and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy in chronic periodontitis group. In addition, to know the association between plasma NTx levels and the different clinical parameters. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects were divided on the basis of their periodontal status and were categorized as Group I: Healthy, Group II: Gingivitis, and Group III: Chronic periodontitis. Group III subjects were treated with scaling and root planing, 6-8 weeks later blood samples were analyzed, and they constituted Group IV. NTx levels in plasma were analyzed by competitive - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All data were analyzed using statistical software (SPSS) (α = 0.05). Results: All the samples tested positive for the presence of NTx. The mean NTx concentration was highest in Group III (18.77 nanomole Bone Collagen Equivalent [nm BCE]) and the lowest in Group IV (16.02 nm BCE). The values of Group I and Group II fell between the highest and the lowest values (16.23 nm BCE and 16.70 nm BCE, respectively). The difference in mean NTx levels in Group III and Group IV were statistically significant. NTx levels in all the groups positively correlated with the clinical parameters. All data were analyzed using statistical software (SPSS) (α = 0.05). Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it may be suggested that plasma NTx levels may provide distinguishing data between periodontally healthy diseased sites and after nonsurgical therapy of diseased sites. PMID:26962311

  1. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  2. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Delayed Acquisition of Non-Adjacent Vocalic Distributional Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to compute non-adjacent regularities is key in the acquisition of a new language. In the domain of phonology/phonotactics, sensitivity to non-adjacent regularities between consonants has been found to appear between 7 and 10 months. The present study focuses on the emergence of a posterior-anterior (PA) bias, a regularity involving two…

  4. Accumulation of secondary metabolites in healthy and diseased barley, grown under future climate levels of CO2, ozone and temperature.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, B L; Olsen, C E; Lyngkjær, M F

    2015-10-01

    Plants produce secondary metabolites promoting adaptation to changes in the environment and challenges by pathogenic microorganisms. A future climate with increased temperature and CO2 and ozone levels will likely alter the chemical composition of plants and thereby plant-pathogen interactions. To investigate this, barley was grown at elevated CO2, temperature and ozone levels as single factors or in combination resembling future climatic conditions. Increased basal resistance to the powdery mildew fungus was observed when barley was grown under elevated CO2, temperature and ozone as single factors. However, this effect was neutralized in the combination treatments. Twenty-five secondary metabolites were putatively identified in healthy and diseased barley leaves, including phenylpropanoids, phenolamides and hydroxynitrile glucosides. Accumulation of the compounds was affected by the climatic growth conditions. Especially elevated temperature, but also ozone, showed a strong impact on accumulation of many compounds, suggesting that these metabolites play a role in adaptation to unfavorable growth conditions. Many compounds were found to increase in powdery mildew diseased leaves, in correlation with a strong and specific influence of the climatic growth conditions. The observed disease phenotypes could not be explained by accumulation of single compounds. However, decreased accumulation of the powdery mildew associated defense compound p-coumaroylhydroxyagmatine could be implicated in the increased disease susceptibility observed when barley was grown under combination of elevated CO2, temperature and ozone. The accumulation pattern of the compounds in both healthy and diseased leaves from barley grown in the combination treatments could not be deduced from the individual single factor treatments. This highlights the complex role and regulation of secondary metabolites in plants' adaptation to unfavorable growth conditions.

  5. Predicting the level of herd infection for outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in vaccinated herds.

    PubMed

    Hutber, A M; Kitching, R P; Conway, D A

    1999-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious virus infection of sheep, goats, cattle, pigs and other, non-domesticated species of artiodactyls, and causes both clinical and subclinical infection according to the natural or acquired immunity of the host. Within vaccinated dairy herds FMD may appear as an acute, mild or subclinical infection, dependent upon the immune status of the herd, the level of challenge and the efficacy of the vaccine used. In the large dairy herds of Saudi Arabia, sub-clinical FMD was on a number of occasions, found to have spread amongst the cattle before signs of disease were seen. Such undetected transmission resulted in a large incidence on the first day of diagnosis and curtailed the impact of post-outbreak vaccination (PoV). First day incidence (FDI) for these herds was found to correlate with the final cumulative incidence of clinical disease. Since FDI is available at the start of an outbreak it can be used as a predictive tool for the eventual outcome of an FMD outbreak. During the past 11 years 47 % of dairy herds examined in Saudi Arabia have experienced FMD initially as sub-clinical disease. For the remaining 53 %, waning vaccinal protection did not suppress clinical disease in the initially infected animals, and these showed severe rather than mild signs. Hence, in such herds there was a very low initial level of subclinical infection, so PoV was more effective, and the timing of PoV was found to give a good correlation with cumulative herd incidence: an early PoV resulted in low prevalence of clinically infected animals whilst late PoV permitted high prevalence. PoV timing can thereby be used in tandem with FDI as a predictive tool for future outbreaks, estimating the final cumulative incidence (or prevalence) of clinical FMD cases.

  6. Fasting Glucose Levels Correlate with Disease Severity of Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Guan, Yun; Press, Rayomand; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Hong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective A potential association between diabetes and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has been indicated by a few case studies. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features of a large cohort of GBS patients to explore the relationship between the level of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) obtained in the acute phase at admission and the severity of GBS. Methods Three hundred and four GBS patients were divided into two groups, one with normal FPG and the other with high FPG levels according to the international standards of FPG. Results The GBS disability scale score was positively, the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score was negatively correlated to the level of FPG, but not to blood HBA1c or CSF glucose concentrations. A relatively higher FPG level was observed in older and younger GBS patients, and more often in those with cranial nerve involvement, autonomic deficit, dyspnea and ventilator dependence than in patients without these clinical characteristics. Importantly, higher levels of FPG at admission were associated with poorer short-term prognosis measured by the MRC sum score and the GBS disability scale at discharge. Conclusions Our data demonstrates that FPG in the acute phase of GBS correlates with the severity of GBS and may predict the short-term prognosis of GBS. PMID:26684748

  7. Comparative evaluation of levels of C-reactive protein and PMN in periodontitis patients related to cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, G.; Nagaraj, M.; Jayashree, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Numerous cross-sectional studies have suggested that chronic periodontitis is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. There is evidence that periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases are linked by inflammatory factors including C-reactive protein. The purpose of the study was to investigate the levels of CRP and PNM cells as a marker of inflammatory host response in the serum of chronic periodontitis patients and in patients with CVD. Materials and Methods: Study population included 75 patients; both male and female above 35 years were included for the study. The patients were divided into three groups of 25 each – Group I: Chronic periodontitis patients with CVD, Group II: Chronic periodontitis patients without CVD and Group III: Control subjects (without chronic periodontitis and CVD). Patients with chronic periodontitis had ≥8 teeth involved with probing depth (PD) ≥5 mm involved. The control group had PD ≤ 3 mm and no CVD. Venous blood was collected from the patients and C-reactive protein levels were analyzed by immunoturbidimetry. PMN was recorded by differential count method. Results: On comparison, OHI-S Index, GI, mean PD, CRP and PMN values showed significant difference from Group I to III. CRP level was highly significant in Group I when compared with Group II and Group III. PMN level was highly significant in Group I when compared with Group III PMN level which was not significant. Conclusion: This study indicated that periodontitis may add the inflammation burden of the individual and may result in increased levels of CVD based on serum CRP levels. Thus, controlled prospective trials with large sample size should be carried out to know the true nature of the relationship if indeed one exists. PMID:24049333

  8. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in patients with acne vulgaris and its association with disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Toossi, Parviz; Azizian, Zahra; Yavari, Hassan; Fakhim, Tannaz Hoseinzade; Amini, Seyed Hadi Sadat; Enamzade, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Since vitamin D is a recent known immunoregulatory factor in some diseases which are addressed in immune system disorders such as SLE, [psoriasis] and others. Objective To determine the serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 [25(OH)D] in patients with acne vulgaris and its association with clinical features. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted over months. This study included 39 patients with acne vulgaris and 40 healthy controls. Subjects who did not use alcohol, vitamin D supplements, oral steroids or PUVA and/or NBUVB for more than three months were included. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured. Baseline demographics, family history and comorbidities like PCO were recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0.0. Results The median concentration of 25(OH)D was 8.4 ng/mL (range: 1.4–99) in patients and 10.4 ng/mL (range: 3.1–56.7) in controls, with no statistical significant difference. PCOS was a significant predictor of the occurrence of acne vulgaris (OR=6.25; 95% CI: 1.52–25.66; p=0.01). There were no significant associations between severity of disease and serum 25(OH)D levels (rs=−0.12, p=0.45), age (rs=−0.28, p=0.09), BMI (rs=−0.12, p=0.46), age at onset of disease (rs=−0.08, p=0.63) and duration of disease (rs=−0.10, p=0.54). Conclusion Based on the previous studies this is highly suspected that vitamin D would be a prominent factor in acne patients and more performances with bigger sample size could be useful to get positive results. PMID:26811702

  9. Interleukin 12 levels during the initial phase of septic shock with purpura in children: relation to severity of disease.

    PubMed

    Hazelzet, J A; Kornelisse, R F; van der Pouw Kraan, T C; Joosten, K F; van der Voort, E; van Mierlo, G; Suur, M H; Hop, W C; de Groot, R; Hack, C E

    1997-09-01

    Plasma levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12), a cytokine consisting of two different polypeptide subunits (p40 and p35), were measured together with interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and other cytokines in 46 children with septic shock and purpura. The median (range) plasma IL-12 p40 level on admission was 457 (244-2677) pg/ml in non-survivors vs 189 (< 40-521) pg/ml in survivors (P = < 0.001). IL-12 p70 levels were elevated in only nine patients. IL-12 p40 plasma levels were positively correlated with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and PRISM-score, whereas they were negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP), whole blood cell (WBC) and serum glucose levels. Twelve (29%) of the patients had detectable levels of IFN-gamma. Thus, circulating levels of IL-12 p40 and to a lesser extent those of IL-12 p70, are elevated in children with septic shock and purpura, and correlate with severity of disease and outcome.

  10. Association between serum free fatty acid levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juanwen; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Chengfu; Hong, Yani; Lu, Huanle; Wu, Jianping; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    High serum free fatty acid (FFA) levels are associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). This study aimed to assess the association of fasting serum FFAs with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a Chinese population. A total of 840 subjects fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of NAFLD and 331 healthy control participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Fasting serum FFA levels and other clinical and laboratory parameters were measured. NAFLD patients had significantly higher serum FFA levels than controls (P < 0.001). Serum FFA levels were significantly and positively correlated with parameters of MS, inflammation indexes, and markers of hepatocellular damage. Elevated serum FFA levels were found in NAFLD subjects with individual components of MS (obesity, hypertriglyceridaemia, and hyperglycaemia). Stepwise regression showed that serum FFA levels were an independent factor predicting advanced fibrosis (FIB-4 ≥ 1.3) in NAFLD patients. Serum FFA levels correlated with NAFLD and could be used as an indicator for predicting advanced fibrosis in NAFLD patients. PMID:25060337

  11. Serum levels of pregnancy zone protein are elevated in presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ijsselstijn, Linda; Dekker, Lennard J M; Stingl, Christoph; van der Weiden, Marcel M; Hofman, Albert; Kros, Johan M; Koudstaal, Peter J; Sillevis Smitt, Peter A E; Ikram, M Arfan; Breteler, Monique M B; Luider, Theo M

    2011-11-01

    We have sought for disease-related proteins that could predict the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a study population derived from the Rotterdam Scan Study, a population-based prospective cohort study designed to investigate the etiology and natural history of age-related brain changes in the elderly. The serum proteome of 43 persons who developed AD, after an average of 4.2 years (±2.6 years SD) after blood sampling, and 43 gender- and age-matched controls who remained dementia-free during follow-up was investigated by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. We identified 61 differentially expressed peptides between presymptomatic AD and controls, 9 of which were derived from pregnancy zone protein (PZP). Quantitative measurements using a multiple reaction monitoring assay showed a significant increase in concentration of PZP in presymptomatic AD (34.3 ± 20.6 mg/L) compared with controls (23.6 ± 13.6 mg/L) (p = 0.006). The difference in PZP was significant in women. Immunohistochemical validation of the findings on brain tissue sections showed strong PZP expression in senile plaques and in microglial and glial cells in AD with only low expression in some scattered glial cells in controls.

  12. Increased ocular levels of IGF-1 in transgenic mice lead to diabetes-like eye disease

    PubMed Central

    Ruberte, Jesús; Ayuso, Eduard; Navarro, Marc; Carretero, Ana; Nacher, Víctor; Haurigot, Virginia; George, Mónica; Llombart, Cristina; Casellas, Alba; Costa, Cristina; Bosch, Assumpció; Bosch, Fatima

    2004-01-01

    IGF-1 has been associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, although its role is not fully understood. Here we show that normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic transgenic mice overexpressing IGF-1 in the retina developed most alterations seen in human diabetic eye disease. A paracrine effect of IGF-1 in the retina initiated vascular alterations that progressed from nonproliferative to proliferative retinopathy and retinal detachment. Eyes from 2-month-old transgenic mice showed loss of pericytes and thickening of basement membrane of retinal capillaries. In mice 6 months and older, venule dilatation, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, and neovascularization of the retina and vitreous cavity were observed. Neovascularization was consistent with increased IGF-1 induction of VEGF expression in retinal glial cells. In addition, IGF-1 accumulated in aqueous humor, which may have caused rubeosis iridis and subsequently adhesions between the cornea and iris that hampered aqueous humor drainage and led to neovascular glaucoma. Furthermore, all transgenic mice developed cataracts. These findings suggest a role of IGF-1 in the development of ocular complications in long-term diabetes. Thus, these transgenic mice may be used to study the mechanisms that lead to diabetes eye disease and constitute an appropriate model in which to assay new therapies. PMID:15085194

  13. Impaired binaural hearing in children produced by a threshold level of middle ear disease.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Sarah C M; Moore, David R

    2003-06-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME), a form of middle ear disease, is the most common reason for young children both to visit their family doctor and to have surgery. Almost all children have at least a single episode of OME before their first birthday and annual incidence rates exceed 50% in each of the first five years. For most children, OME occurs infrequently, but about 10-15% of children have OME during more than half of their first six years. Middle ear effusions attenuate and delay sound, causing conductive sound distortion during the crucial years for language acquisition. The many studies of OME effects on language and other indices of development have produced mixed results. However, a consensus is emerging of mild language impairment in the preschool years, with subsequent performance, emotional, and behavioral difficulties. In addition to the peripheral hearing loss produced directly by the disease, binaural and other central auditory deficits can outlive the OME. It has been unclear which children are at risk of central impairment following OME, since the children studied have generally been recruited from otolaryngology clinics. Consequently, a detailed prospective history of the middle ear status of participants has not been available. By studying six-year-old children with a lifetime known history of OME, we show in this study that only those children with a cumulative OME experience of more than about half the time during the first five years consistently have residual impaired binaural hearing. PMID:12943367

  14. System-level multi-target drug discovery from natural products with applications to cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chunli; Wang, Jinan; Liu, Jianling; Pei, Mengjie; Huang, Chao; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-08-01

    The term systems pharmacology describes a field of study that uses computational and experimental approaches to broaden the view of drug actions rooted in molecular interactions and advance the process of drug discovery. The aim of this work is to stick out the role that the systems pharmacology plays across the multi-target drug discovery from natural products for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Firstly, based on network pharmacology methods, we reconstructed the drug-target and target-target networks to determine the putative protein target set of multi-target drugs for CVDs treatment. Secondly, we reintegrated a compound dataset of natural products and then obtained a multi-target compounds subset by virtual-screening process. Thirdly, a drug-likeness evaluation was applied to find the ADME-favorable compounds in this subset. Finally, we conducted in vitro experiments to evaluate the reliability of the selected chemicals and targets. We found that four of the five randomly selected natural molecules can effectively act on the target set for CVDs, indicating the reasonability of our systems-based method. This strategy may serve as a new model for multi-target drug discovery of complex diseases.

  15. Impaired binaural hearing in children produced by a threshold level of middle ear disease.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Sarah C M; Moore, David R

    2003-06-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME), a form of middle ear disease, is the most common reason for young children both to visit their family doctor and to have surgery. Almost all children have at least a single episode of OME before their first birthday and annual incidence rates exceed 50% in each of the first five years. For most children, OME occurs infrequently, but about 10-15% of children have OME during more than half of their first six years. Middle ear effusions attenuate and delay sound, causing conductive sound distortion during the crucial years for language acquisition. The many studies of OME effects on language and other indices of development have produced mixed results. However, a consensus is emerging of mild language impairment in the preschool years, with subsequent performance, emotional, and behavioral difficulties. In addition to the peripheral hearing loss produced directly by the disease, binaural and other central auditory deficits can outlive the OME. It has been unclear which children are at risk of central impairment following OME, since the children studied have generally been recruited from otolaryngology clinics. Consequently, a detailed prospective history of the middle ear status of participants has not been available. By studying six-year-old children with a lifetime known history of OME, we show in this study that only those children with a cumulative OME experience of more than about half the time during the first five years consistently have residual impaired binaural hearing.

  16. A pilot study on the effect of cognitive training on BDNF serum levels in individuals with Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Angelucci, Francesco; Peppe, Antonella; Carlesimo, Giovanni A.; Serafini, Francesca; Zabberoni, Silvia; Barban, Francesco; Shofany, Jacob; Caltagirone, Carlo; Costa, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, besides motor dysfunctions, may also display mild cognitive deficits (MCI) which increase with disease progression. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in the survival of dopaminergic neurons and in the regulation of synaptic connectivity. Moreover, the brain and peripheral level of this protein may be significantly reduced in PD patients. These data suggest that a cognitive rehabilitation protocol aimed at restoring cognitive deficits in PD patients may also involve changes in this neurotrophin. Thus, in this pilot study we evaluated the effect of a cognitive rehabilitation protocol focused on the training of executive functioning and measured BDNF serum levels in a group of PD patients with mild cognitive impairment, as compared to the effect of a placebo treatment (n = 7/8 group). The results showed that PD patients undergoing the cognitive rehabilitation, besides improving their cognitive performance as measured with the Zoo Map Test, also displayed increased serum BDNF levels as compared to the placebo group. These findings suggest that BDNF serum levels may represent a biomarker of the effects of cognitive rehabilitation in PD patients affected by MCI. However, the functional significance of this increase in PD as well as other neuropathological conditions remains to be determined. PMID:25852518

  17. Increased Soluble Leptin Receptor Levels in Morbidly Obese Patients With Insulin Resistance and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Medici, Valentina; Ali, Mohamed R.; Seo, Suk; Aoki, Christopher A.; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Kim, Kyoungmi; Fuller, Will D.; Vidovszky, Tamas J.; Smith, William; Jiang, Joy X.; Maganti, Kalyani; Havel, Peter J.; Kamboj, Amit; Ramsamooj, Rajendra; Török, Natalie J.

    2016-01-01

    The adipocyte hormone, leptin has been demonstrated to have profibrogenic actions in vitro and in animal models. However, no correlation was found between plasma leptin levels and fibrosis stage in humans. Thus, our aim was to study whether soluble leptin receptor (SLR) or free leptin index (FLI; calculated as the ratio of leptin to SLR), may correlate better with the features of metabolic syndrome and with the histological grade and stage of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We studied a population (n = 104) of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Data including BMI, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia were obtained. Plasma fasting leptin and SLR, fasting glucose and insulin were measured, and homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (HOMAIR) index and FLI were calculated. All patients had intraoperative liver biopsies. Leptin levels correlated with the BMI. The multiple regression analysis indicated that increasing HOMA and decreasing FLI were predictors of steatosis in the liver (P < 0.0003). SLR levels were positively correlated with the presence of diabetes mellitus and the stage of fibrosis. In conclusion, increased SLR levels in morbidly obese patients with diabetes are correlated with the stage of liver fibrosis, and may reflect progressive liver disease. PMID:20448542

  18. Increased soluble leptin receptor levels in morbidly obese patients with insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Medici, Valentina; Ali, Mohamed R; Seo, Suk; Aoki, Christopher A; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Kim, Kyoungmi; Fuller, Will D; Vidovszky, Tamas J; Smith, William; Jiang, Joy X; Maganti, Kalyani; Havel, Peter J; Kamboj, Amit; Ramsamooj, Rajendra; Török, Natalie J

    2010-12-01

    The adipocyte hormone, leptin has been demonstrated to have profibrogenic actions in vitro and in animal models. However, no correlation was found between plasma leptin levels and fibrosis stage in humans. Thus, our aim was to study whether soluble leptin receptor (SLR) or free leptin index (FLI; calculated as the ratio of leptin to SLR), may correlate better with the features of metabolic syndrome and with the histological grade and stage of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We studied a population (n = 104) of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Data including BMI, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia were obtained. Plasma fasting leptin and SLR, fasting glucose and insulin were measured, and homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) index and FLI were calculated. All patients had intraoperative liver biopsies. Leptin levels correlated with the BMI. The multiple regression analysis indicated that increasing HOMA and decreasing FLI were predictors of steatosis in the liver (P < 0.0003). SLR levels were positively correlated with the presence of diabetes mellitus and the stage of fibrosis. In conclusion, increased SLR levels in morbidly obese patients with diabetes are correlated with the stage of liver fibrosis, and may reflect progressive liver disease. PMID:20448542

  19. Correlation of serum levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor with disease severity and clinical outcome in dengue patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lien-Cheng; Lei, Huan-Yao; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Shiesh, Shu-Chu; Chen, Shun-Hua; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Lin, Yee-Shin; Wang, Shan-Tair; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Yeh, Trai-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Dengue virus infection can cause mild dengue fever (DF) or severe dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Cytokines are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of dengue infection. However, the role of the pro-inflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in dengue infection is unclear. In this study, serum levels of MIF in adult dengue patients with different disease severity and clinical outcome were determined and compared with the levels of other cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), in the same patients. Serum levels of MIF, IL-6, and IL-10, but not IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha, were higher in all DHF patients who died than in DHF survivors and DF patients. We conclude that in addition to IL-6 and IL-10, elevated levels of serum MIF are a potential predictor of disease severity and clinical outcome in dengue patients.

  20. Effects of dazoxiben on transcardiac thromboxane levels and haemodynamics in coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, I.; Tweddel, A. C.; Rankin, A. C.; Walker, I. D.; Davidson, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    1 Plasma thromboxane levels were obtained from both the coronary sinus and aorta in patients with stable angina pectoris paced to angina, and in unstable angina patients before and after dazoxiben 100 mg. 2 Although there was a wide range of values in the different groups, dazoxiben significantly reduced plasma thromboxane levels in all patients. 3 Dazoxiben had no adverse effect on coronary and systemic haemodynamics, and atrial pacing time to angina was increased from 245±41 to 308±48 s (P<0.01). PMID:6681709

  1. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas

    PubMed Central

    Skvortsova, Yulia V.; Zinovyeva, Marina V.; Stukacheva, Elena A.; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A.; Azhikina, Tatyana L.

    2016-01-01

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  2. An overview on therapeutics attenuating amyloid β level in Alzheimer’s disease: targeting neurotransmission, inflammation, oxidative stress and enhanced cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoling; Li, Yifei; Shi, Xiaozhe; Ma, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common underlying cause of dementia, and novel drugs for its treatment are needed. Of the different theories explaining the development and progression of AD, “amyloid hypothesis” is the most supported by experimental data. This hypothesis states that the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) leads to the formation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides that congregate with formation and deposition of Aβ plaques in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Risk factors including neurotransmitter modulation, chronic inflammation, metal-induced oxidative stress and elevated cholesterol levels are key contributors to the disease progress. Current therapeutic strategies abating AD progression are primarily based on anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors as cognitive enhancers. The AChE inhibitor, donepezil, is proven to strengthen cognitive functions and appears effective in treating moderate to severe AD patients. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, memantine, is also useful, and its combination with donepezil demonstrated a strong stabilizing effect in clinical studies on AD. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs delayed the onset and progression of AD and attenuated cognitive dysfunction. Based upon epidemiological evidence and animal studies, antioxidants emerged as potential AD preventive agents; however, clinical trials revealed inconsistencies. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiling demonstrated pleiotropic functions of the hypolipidemic class of drugs, statins, potentially contributing towards the prevention of AD. In addition, targeting the APP processing pathways, stimulating neuroprotective signaling mechanisms, using the amyloid anti-aggregants and Aβ immunotherapy surfaced as well-tested strategies in reducing the AD-like pathology. Overall, this review covers mechanism of inducing the Aβ formation, key risk factors and major therapeutics prevalent in the AD treatment nowadays. It also delineates the

  3. Lower Serum Levels of Uric Acid in Uterine Fibroids and Fibrocystic Breast Disease Patients in Dongying City, China

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Qicai; XIAO, Juan; ZHANG, Pengpeng; CHEN, Lili; CHEN, Xiaoxiao; WANG, Shumei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing serum levels of uric acid (SUA) after menopause in women brought up a hypothesis that estrogenic effect may protectively regulate SUA. Estrogenic effect is a major etiology of uterine fibroids and fibrocystic breast disease. The study aimed to explore SUA among patients suffering from these diseases to enhance the hypothesis. Methods: Overall, 1349 female participants were selected into three cases: Case I having uterine fibroids (n=568), Case II having fibrocycstic breast disease (n=608) and Case III having uterine fibroids combining with fibrocycstic breast disease (n=173); 4206 participants without these diseases were selected as controls. Based on health check-up data from 2011 to 2012, in Dongying Shengli Oilfield Central Hospital, a cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the difference in SUA between the case and control. We adjusted covariates by generalized linear regression mode. Results: From 19 to 44 yr, SUA of Case I to Case III were lower than controls by 8.46 umol/L (P=0.011), 5.88umol/L (P=0.014) and 9.39 umol/L (P=0.059), respectively. From 45–54 yr, no significant differences were between three cases and controls. In Case I and its control: from 54–59 yr, differences were not significant; from 60 to 72 yr, SUA in Case I was lower than the control by 32.02umol/L (P=0.003). Conclusion: Participants of uterine fibroids and fibrocystic breast disease had a lower SUA except the stage of menopause, which indirectly supported that estrogenic effect, may protectively decrease SUA. PMID:27398332

  4. Spatiotemporal Cluster Patterns of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease at the County Level in Mainland China, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjie; Xu, Qin; Huang, Fangfang; Cao, Kai; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Jin; Gao, Qi; Wang, Wei; Fang, Liqun; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is known to be a highly contagious childhood illness. In recent years, the number of reported cases of HFMD has significantly increased in mainland China. This study aims at the epidemiological features, spatiotemporal patterns of HMFD at the county/district level in mainland China. Methods Data on reported HFMD cases for each county from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012 were obtained from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Cluster analysis, spatial autocorrelation, and retrospective scan methods were used to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of the disease. Results The annual incidences varied greatly among the counties, ranging from 0 to 74.31‰ with the median of 5.42‰ (interquartile range: 1.54‰–13.55‰) during 2008–2012 in mainland China. Counties close to provincial capital cities generally had higher incidences than rural counties. A seasonal distribution was observed between the northern and southern China, of which dual epidemic were shown in southern China and usually only one in northern China. Based on the global and local spatial autocorrelation analysis, we found that the spatial distribution of HFMD was presented a significant clustering pattern for each year (P<0.001), and hotspots of the disease were mostly distributed in coastal provinces of China. The retrospective scan statistic further identified the dynamics of spatiotemporal clustering areas of the disease, which were mainly distributed in the counties of eastern and southern China, as well as provincial capitals and their surrounding counties. Conclusions The spatiotemporal clustering areas of the disease identified in this way were relatively stable, and imminent public health planning and resource allocation should be focused within those areas. PMID:26809151

  5. Associations of high HDL cholesterol level with all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure complicating coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Anping; Li, Xida; Zhong, Qi; Li, Minming; Wang, Rui; Liang, Yingcong; Chen, Wenzhong; Huang, Tehui; Li, Xiaohong; Zhou, Yingling; Li, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between HDL cholesterol level and all-cause mortality in patients with ejection fraction reduced heart failure (EFrHF) complicating coronary heart disease (CHD). A total of 323 patients were retrospectively recruited. Patients were divided into low and high HDL cholesterol groups. Between-group differences and associations between HDL cholesterol level and all-cause mortality were assessed. Patients in the high HDL cholesterol group had higher HDL cholesterol level and other lipid components (P <0.05 for all comparison). Lower levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and higher albumin (ALB) level were observed in the high HDL cholesterol group (P <0.05 for all comparison). Although left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were comparable (28.8 ± 4.5% vs 28.4 ± 4.6%, P = 0.358), mean mortality rate in the high HDL cholesterol group was significantly lower (43.5% vs 59.1%, P = 0.007). HDL cholesterol level was positively correlated with ALB level, while inversely correlated with ALT, Hs-CRP, and NYHA classification. Logistic regression analysis revealed that after extensively adjusted for confounding variates, HDL cholesterol level remained significantly associated with all-cause mortality although the magnitude of association was gradually attenuated with odds ratio of 0.007 (95% confidence interval 0.001–0.327, P = 0.012). Higher HDL cholesterol level is associated with better survival in patients with EFrHF complicating CHD, and future studies are necessary to demonstrate whether increasing HDL cholesterol level will confer survival benefit in these populations of patients. PMID:27428188

  6. Extenuating Circumstances in Perceptions of Suicide: Disease Diagnosis (AIDS, Cancer), Pain Level, and Life Expectancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen K.; Range, Lillian M.

    1991-01-01

    Examined whether illness type, pain level, and life expectancy affected reactions of undergraduates (n=160) toward a terminal illness suicide with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or cancer. AIDS patients were more stigmatized than cancer patients; suicide was more tolerated if victim was suffering greater pain. (Author/ABL)

  7. Altered Levels of Visinin-Like Protein 1 Correspond to Regional Neuronal Loss in Alzheimer Disease and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Caitlin M; MacDonald, Matthew L; Schempf, Tadhg A; Vatsavayi, Anil V; Ikonomovic, Milos D; Koppel, Jeremy L; Ding, Ying; Sun, Mai; Kofler, Julia K; Lopez, Oscar L; Yates, Nathan A; Sweet, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have implicated the neuronal calcium-sensing protein visinin-like 1 protein (Vilip-1) as a peripheral biomarker in Alzheimer disease (AD), but little is known about expression of Vilip-1 in the brains of patients with AD. We used targeted and quantitative mass spectrometry to measure Vilip-1 peptide levels in the entorhinal cortex (ERC) and the superior frontal gyru