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Sample records for adjacent liver parenchyma

  1. In vivo quantification of motion in liver parenchyma and its application in shistosomiasis tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Ahmed M.; Hashem, Ahmed M.; Youssef, Abou-Bakr M.; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed F.

    1995-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major problem in Egypt, despite an active control program it is estimated to exist in about 1/3 of the population. Deposition of less functioning fibrous tissues in the liver is the major contributory factor to the hepatic pathology. Fibrous tissues consist of a complex array of connective matrix material and a variety of collagen isotopes. As a result of an increased stromal density (collagen content), the parenchyma became more ectogenic and less elastic (hard). In this study we investigated the effect of cardiac mechanical impulses from the heart and aorta on the kinetics of the liver parenchyma. Under conditions of controlled patient movements and suspended respiration, a 30 frame per second of 588 X 512 ultrasound images (cineloop, 32 pels per cm) are captured from an aTL ultrasound machine then digitized. The image acquisition is triggered by the R wave of the ECG of the patient. The motion that has a forced oscillation form in the liver parenchyma is quantified by tracking of small box (20 - 30 pels) in 16 directions for all the successive 30 frames. The tracking was done using block matching techniques (the max correlation between boxes in time, frequency domains, and the minimum SAD (sum absolute difference) between boxes). The motion is quantified for many regions at different positions within the liver parenchyma for 80 cases of variable degrees of schisto., cirrhotic livers, and for normal livers. The velocity of the tissue is calculated from the displacement (quantified motion), time between frames, and the scan time for the ultrasound scanner. We found that the motion in liver parenchyma is small in the order of very few millimeters, and the attenuation of the mechanical wave for one ECG cycle is higher in the schisto. and cirrhotic livers than in the normal ones. Finally quantification of motion in liver parenchyma due to cardiac impulses under controlled limb movement and respiration may be of value in the characterization of

  2. Performance assessment of an opto-fluidic phantom mimicking porcine liver parenchyma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; King, Travis J.; Long, Ruiqi; McShane, Michael J.; Nance Ericson, M.; Wilson, Mark A.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2012-07-01

    An implantable, optical oxygenation and perfusion sensor to monitor liver transplants during the two-week period following the transplant procedure is currently being developed. In order to minimize the number of animal experiments required for this research, a phantom that mimics the optical, anatomical, and physiologic flow properties of liver parenchyma is being developed as well. In this work, the suitability of this phantom for liver parenchyma perfusion research was evaluated by direct comparison of phantom perfusion data with data collected from in vivo porcine studies, both using the same prototype perfusion sensor. In vitro perfusion and occlusion experiments were performed on a single-layer and on a three-layer phantom perfused with a dye solution possessing the absorption properties of oxygenated hemoglobin. While both phantoms exhibited response patterns similar to the liver parenchyma, the signal measured from the multilayer phantom was three times higher than the single layer phantom and approximately 21 percent more sensitive to in vitro changes in perfusion. Although the multilayer phantom replicated the in vivo flow patterns more closely, the data suggests that both phantoms can be used in vitro to facilitate sensor design.

  3. Material characterization of liver parenchyma using specimen-specific finite element models.

    PubMed

    Untaroiu, Costin D; Lu, Yuan-Chiao

    2013-10-01

    The liver is one of the most frequently injured abdominal organs during motor vehicle crashes. Realistic car crash simulations require incorporating strain-rate dependent mechanical properties of soft tissue in finite element (FE) material models. This study presents a total of 30 tension tests performed on fresh bovine liver parenchyma at various loading rates in order to characterize the biomechanical and failure properties of liver parenchyma. Each specimen, cut in a standard dog-bone shape, was tested until failure at one of three loading rates (0.01 s(-1), 0.1s(-1), 1 s(-1)) using a tensile testing setup. Load and acceleration recorded from each specimen grip were employed to calculate the time history of force at specimen ends. The shapes of all specimens were reconstructed from laser scans recorded prior to each test and then used to develop specimen-specific FE models. A first-order Ogden material model and the time histories of specimen end displacement were assigned to each specimen FE model. The failure Green-Lagrangian strain showed averages around 50% and no significant dependence on loading rates, but the failure 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress showed rate-dependence with average values ranging from 33 kPa to 94 kPa. The FE models with material model parameters identified using a simulation-based optimization replicated well the time history of load recorded during the test. The FE simulations with model parameters identified using an analytical approach or based on the displacement of optical markers showed a significantly stiffer response and lower failure stress/strain than the FE specimen-specific models. This study provides novel biomechanical and failure data which can be easily implemented in FE models and used to assess injury risk in automobile collisions.

  4. Infarction and Laceration of Liver Parenchyma Caused by Wedged CO{sub 2} Venography Before TIPS Insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Theuerkauf, Ingo; Strunk, Holger; Brensing, Karl August; Schild, Hans Heinz; Pfeifer, Ulrich

    2001-01-15

    We describe the fatal outcome of an elective TIPS procedure performed in a 43-year-old man with alcoholic cirrhosis. Wedged hepatic venography with CO{sub 2} was the reason for infarction and laceration of liver parenchyma resulting in a subcapsular hematoma and subsequent intra-abdominal bleeding. This is the first report of this complication after the use of CO{sub 2} in a cirrhotic patient.

  5. [Dynamic expression profile of HBsAg according to hepatic parenchyma cells' volume at different liver fibrosis stages in the immune clearance phase].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhe-bin; Cao, Hong; Liu, Ting; Wu, Ze-qian; Ke, Wei-min; Gao, Zhi-liang

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dynamic expression profile of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) according to hepatic parenchyma cells' volume at different stages of liver fibrosis during the immune clearance phase. Eighty-nine patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the immune clearance stage were recruited for study. Each patient's serum HBsAg levels were detected by electrochemiluminescence. The serum HBsAg levels were apportioned according to hepatic parenchyma cells' volume at liver fibrosis stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 and compared by ANOVA. The unapportioned serum HBsAg levels (IU/mL) at liver fibrosis stages 1 (227.2+/-237.7), 2 (211.0+/-131.4), 3(300.1+/-144.6), and 4 (278.7+/-148.8) were not significantly different (all comparisons, P range: 0.061 to 0.759). However, when the serum HBsAg levels were apportioned by the same hepatic parenchyma cells' volume at liver fibrosis stages 1 (343.9+/-359.8), 2 (336.4+/-209.5), 3 (508.7+/-245.1), and 4 (525.2+/-274.8), the levels were significantly different (all comparisons, F = 3.045 and P = 0.033; stage 1 vs. 3, P = 0.041; stage 1 vs. 4, P = 0.046; stage 2 vs. 3, P = 0.028; stage 2 vs. 4, P = 0.034). During the immune clearance phase of chronic hepatitis B, increased HBsAg expression is associated with increased hepatic parenchyma cells' volume and progressive liver fibrosis stage.

  6. Temporary Arterial Embolization of Liver Parenchyma with Degradable Starch Microspheres (EmboCept{sup ®}S) in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, Claus C. Meyer, Carsten; Vollmar, Brigitte; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Schild, Hans H.; Wilhelm, Kai E.

    2015-04-15

    BackgroundThis study aimed to evaluate the embolic properties, time to reperfusion, and histologic changes in temporary embolization of liver tissue with degradable starch microspheres (DSM) in a swine model.MethodsIn four adult minipigs, DSMs were injected into the right or left hepatic artery on the lobar level until complete stasis of the blood flow was detectable angiographically. The time required to complete angiographically determined reperfusion was noted. The animals were killed 3 h after complete reperfusion, and samples were taken from the liver. Histologic examinations of the embolized liver parenchyma and untreated tissue were performed.ResultsHepatic arterial embolization using DSMs was technically successful in all cases, with complete blood flow stasis shown by control angiography. A single vial of DSMs (450 mg/7.5 ml) was sufficient to embolize a whole liver lobe in all cases. Angiography showed complete reconstitution of hepatic arterial perfusion after a mean time to reperfusion of 32 ± 6.1 min (range, 26–39 min). Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed no histologically detectable differences between untreated tissue and parenchyma embolized with DSMs except for mild sinusoidal congestion in one case. Indirect in situ DNA nick end labeling staining (TUNEL) showed only single positive hepatocytes, indicating apoptosis.ConclusionTemporary embolization of the hepatic artery using DSMs is feasible with complete reperfusion after 30 min in pigs. Even after complete arterial blood flow stasis, no extensive tissue damage to the embolized liver parenchyma was observed at histologic examinations in this short-term study.

  7. Evaluation of liver parenchyma and perfusion using dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana) under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Contrast-enhanced diagnostic imaging techniques are considered useful in veterinary and human medicine to evaluate liver perfusion and focal hepatic lesions. Although hepatic diseases are a common occurrence in reptile medicine, there is no reference to the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) to evaluate the liver in lizards. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of change in echogenicity and attenuation of the liver in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) after administration of specific contrast media. Results An increase in liver echogenicity and density was evident during CEUS and CECT, respectively. In CEUS, the mean ± SD (median; range) peak enhancement was 19.9% ± 7.5 (18.3; 11.7-34.6). Time to peak enhancement was 134.0 ± 125.1 (68.4; 59.6-364.5) seconds. During CECT, first visualization of the contrast medium was at 3.6 ± 0.5 (4; 3-4) seconds in the aorta, 10.7 ± 2.2 (10.5; 7-14) seconds in the hepatic arteries, and 15 ± 4.5 (14.5; 10-24) seconds in the liver parenchyma. Time to peak was 14.1 ± 3.4 (13; 11-21) and 31 ± 9.6 (29; 23-45) seconds in the aorta and the liver parenchyma, respectively. Conclusion CEUS and dynamic CECT are practical means to determine liver hemodynamics in green iguanas. Distribution of contrast medium in iguana differed from mammals. Specific reference ranges of hepatic perfusion for diagnostic evaluation of the liver in iguanas are necessary since the use of mammalian references may lead the clinician to formulate incorrect diagnostic suspicions. PMID:24885935

  8. Functional units in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson) liver: III. Morphometric analysis of parenchyma, stroma, and component cell types.

    PubMed

    Hampton, J A; Lantz, R C; Hinton, D E

    1989-05-01

    Hepatic stroma and parenchyma with its component cell types were quantitatively described in adult male and female actively-spawning 5-year-old rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson). Point-count morphometry of glycol methacrylate sections estimated volume compartments for stroma and parenchyma. Veins composed 85% of the stroma while arteries and bile ducts occupied approximately 6-7% each. Parenchyma accounted for 95% of hepatic volume. Point-count morphometry of transmission electron micrographs estimated volume compartments as well as numerical and surface density measurements for parenchymal components. Within the hepatic parenchymal compartment, hepatocytes occupied 85% and showed significant sex differences. Female hepatocytes were significantly more numerous but were smaller, only 60% of the volume of male hepatocytes. Since hepatocyte nuclear volume was equal in both sexes, differences were due to reduced cytoplasmic volume in females. Perisinusoidal macrophages of females occupied larger volumes of their respective parenchymal compartments, and their larger mean cytoplasmic volumes suggested activation. Biliary epithelial cells of preductules and ductules were numerous. Ratios of numerical density of hepatocytes to biliary epithelial cells were consistent with a tubular arrangement of hepatocytes. Factors possibly mediating the sexual dimorphism are discussed.

  9. The bioimpedance analysis of a parenchyma of a liver in the conditions of its extensive resection in experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agibalov, D. Y.; Panchenkov, D. N.; Chertyuk, V. B.; Leonov, S. D.; Astakhov, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    The liver failure which is result of disharmony of functionality of a liver to requirements of an organism is the main reason for unsatisfactory results of an extensive resection of a liver. However, uniform effective criterion of definition of degree of a liver failure it isn’t developed now. One of data acquisition methods about a morfo-functional condition of internals is the bioimpedance analysis (BIA) based on impedance assessment (full electric resistance) of a biological tissue. Measurements of an impedance are used in medicine and biology for the characteristic of physical properties of living tissue, studying of the changes bound to a functional state and its structural features. In experimental conditions we carried out an extensive resection of a liver on 27 white laboratory rats of the Vistar line. The comparative characteristic of data of a bioimpedansometriya in intraoperative and after the operational period with the main existing methods of assessment of a functional condition of a liver was carried out. By results of the work performed by us it is possible to claim that the bioimpedance analysis of a liver on the basis of an invasive bioimpedansometriya allows to estimate morphological features and functional activity of a liver before performance of an extensive resection of a liver. The data obtained during scientific work are experimental justification for use of an impedansometriya during complex assessment of functional reserves of a liver. Preliminary data of clinical approbation at a stage of introduction of a technique speak about rather high informational content of a bioimpedansometriya. The subsequent analysis of efficiency of the invasive bioimpedance analysis of a liver requires further accumulation of clinical data. However even at this stage the method showed the prospect for further use in clinical surgical hepathology.

  10. Long-lasting morphofunctional remodelling of liver parenchyma and stroma after a single exposure to low and moderate doses of cadmium in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cupertino, Marli C; Costa, Kyvia L C; Santos, Daiane C M; Novaes, Rômulo D; Condessa, Suellen S; Neves, Ana C; Oliveira, Juraci A; Matta, Sérgio L P

    2013-01-01

    Frequent exposure to cadmium (Cd) in low doses is common; however, the long-lasting effects of this exposure are still poorly understood. Therefore in this study we have evaluated long-lasting hepatic morphofunctional adaptations in rats exposed to low and moderate doses of Cd. Five experimental groups were tested: control (0.9% saline) and other four receiving single intraperitoneal doses of 0.67, 0.74, 0.86 and 1.1 mg of Cd/kg. The animals were killed after eight weeks and the following parameters were analysed: biometrics, oedema, Cd bio-accumulation, collagen, glycogen, lipid droplets, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), serum transaminases, liver histopathology and stereology. In all groups exposed to Cd there was significant increase in SOD and CAT activities, ALP levels, proportion of binucleated hepatocytes, nuclei/cytoplasm ratio, macrophages (Kupffer cells) and collagen fibres. In these groups, glycogen accumulation by hepatocytes and the proportion of sinusoidal capillaries were significantly reduced compared with controls. The liver somatic index was increased, and liver oedema was evident in animals exposed to higher dose of Cd. Areas of necrosis were found in animals exposed to the three highest doses. These results indicate that Cd is an extremely toxic bioactive heavy metal, which even at low doses is able to disrupt liver homeostasis. At low and moderate doses, Cd exposure induces morphofunctional pathological remodelling of the hepatic stroma and parenchyma, which remain active after eight weeks. In response to injury, the liver tissue triggers a reactive process by enhancing activation of antioxidant enzymes and collagenogenesis. PMID:24020407

  11. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Takaaki Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation, 2.1 {+-} 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 {+-} 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 {+-} 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 {+-} 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  12. Hyaluronic acid gel injection to prevent thermal injury of adjacent gastrointestinal tract during percutaneous liver radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takaaki; Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean ± standard deviation, 2.1 ± 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 ± 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 ± 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1%, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 ± 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  13. A mathematical model of lung parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Karakaplan, A D; Bieniek, M P; Skalak, R

    1980-05-01

    The geometry of the proposed model of the parenchyma of a mammalian lung reproduces a cluster of alveoli arranged around a lowest-level air duct. The alveolar walls are assumed to be nonlinear elastic membranes, whose properties are described in terms of a strain energy function which reflects the hardening character of the stress-strain curve. The effect of the surfactant is included in terms of a variable (area-dependent) surface tension. Analyses of various mechanical processes in the parenchyma are performed with the aid of the finite element method, with the geometric and physical nonlinearities of the problem taken into account.

  14. Effectiveness of hepatic parenchyma lithotomy of hepatolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, En Liang; Feng, Qian; Yang, Qing Ping; Liao, Wen Jun; Liu, Wang Wei; Huang, Yong; Wu, Lin Quan; Yin, Xiang Bao; Shao, Jiang Hua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the clinical significance of hepatic parenchyma incision by lithotomy near the second hepatic portal area for the treatment of complex hepatolithiasis. A retrospective study was conducted with 35 patients who had complicated hepatolithiasis in our hospital from January 2008 to December 2013, who underwent hepatic parenchyma incision by lithotomy near the second hepatic portal area. The perioperative and long-term outcomes included the stone clearance rate, operative morbidity and mortality, and the stone recurrence rate. Patients with a preoperative diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma were excluded from the study. All patients with hepatic duct stones were mainly located at S2, S4, and S8 regions. Surgical methods included were hepatic parenchyma incision by lithotomy near the second hepatic portal area, or by combined partial hepatectomy. The mean follow-up period was 51 months. One patient died during hospitalization. The surgical morbidity was 17.6%, stone clearance rate was 88.2%, and final clearance rate was 94.1% followed by postoperative choledochoscopic lithotripsy. The stone recurrence rate was 15.6% and the occurrence of postoperative cholangitis was 11.8% during the follow-up period. Hepatic parenchyma incision by lithotomy near the second hepatic portal area is safe with satisfactory short and long-term outcome results for complicated hepatolithiasis. PMID:28272201

  15. CT Imaging Findings after Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Liver Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Olga R.; Thornton, Eavan; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Mahadevan, Anand; Raptopoulos, Vassilious; Brook, Alexander; Najarian, Robert; Sheiman, Robert; Siewert, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To study radiological response to stereotactic radiotherapy for focal liver tumors. Materials and Methods. In this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study CTs of 68 consecutive patients who underwent stereotactic radiotherapy for liver tumors between 01/2006 and 01/2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Two independent reviewers evaluated lesion volume and enhancement pattern of the lesion and of juxtaposed liver parenchyma. Results. 36 subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 25 with liver metastases, and seven with cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) were included in study. Mean follow-up time was 5.6 ± 7.1 months for HCC, 6.4 ± 5.1 months for metastases, and 10.1 ± 4.8 months for the CCC. Complete response was seen in 4/36 (11.1%) HCCs and 1/25 (4%) metastases. Partial response (>30% decrease in long diameter) was seen in 25/36 (69%) HCCs, 14/25 (58%) metastases, and 7/7 (100%) of CCCs. Partial response followed by local recurrence (>20% increase in long diameter from nadir) occurred in 2/36 (6%) HCCs and 4/25 (17%) metastases. Liver parenchyma adjacent to the lesion demonstrated a prominent halo of delayed enhancement in 27/36 (78%) of HCCs, 19/21 (91%) of metastases, and 7/7 (100%) of CCCs. Conclusion. Sustainable radiological partial response to stereotactic radiotherapy is most frequent outcome seen in liver lesions. Prominent halo of delayed enhancement of the adjacent liver is frequent finding. PMID:26221135

  16. Dissimilarity representations in lung parenchyma classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Lauge; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2009-02-01

    A good problem representation is important for a pattern recognition system to be successful. The traditional approach to statistical pattern recognition is feature representation. More specifically, objects are represented by a number of features in a feature vector space, and classifiers are built in this representation. This is also the general trend in lung parenchyma classification in computed tomography (CT) images, where the features often are measures on feature histograms. Instead, we propose to build normal density based classifiers in dissimilarity representations for lung parenchyma classification. This allows for the classifiers to work on dissimilarities between objects, which might be a more natural way of representing lung parenchyma. In this context, dissimilarity is defined between CT regions of interest (ROI)s. ROIs are represented by their CT attenuation histogram and ROI dissimilarity is defined as a histogram dissimilarity measure between the attenuation histograms. In this setting, the full histograms are utilized according to the chosen histogram dissimilarity measure. We apply this idea to classification of different emphysema patterns as well as normal, healthy tissue. Two dissimilarity representation approaches as well as different histogram dissimilarity measures are considered. The approaches are evaluated on a set of 168 CT ROIs using normal density based classifiers all showing good performance. Compared to using histogram dissimilarity directly as distance in a emph{k} nearest neighbor classifier, which achieves a classification accuracy of 92.9%, the best dissimilarity representation based classifier is significantly better with a classification accuracy of 97.0% (text{emph{p" border="0" class="imgtopleft"> = 0.046).

  17. Airway-parenchyma uncoupling in nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed

    Irvin, C G; Pak, J; Martin, R J

    2000-01-01

    Airway flow resistance is well known to be dependent upon lung volume. The rise in lung volume that occurs in asthma is therefore thought to be an important mechanism that defends airway patency. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the interdependence or mechanical coupling between airways and lung parenchyma during the inflammatory processes that occur in the patient with nocturnal asthma. Five patients with documented nocturnal asthma were studied in both a vertical and a horizontal body plethysmograph. Lung volume was altered with continuous negative pressure as applied to the chest wall with a poncho cuirass in different postures and during sleep. We found during the awake phase that an increase in lung volume decreased lower pulmonary resistance (Rlp); however, within 30 min of sleep onset, functional residual capacity (FRC) fell and Rlp rose more than would be expected for the fall in FRC. Restoring FRC to presleep values either at an early (half-hour) or a late (3-h) time point did not cause Rlp to significantly fall. A second phase of the study showed that the loss of Rlp dependence on lung volume was not due to the assumption of the supine posture. Indirect measurements of lung compliance were consistent with a stiffening of the lung. We conclude that with sleep there is an immediate uncoupling of the parenchyma to the airway, resulting in a loss of interdependence that persists throughout sleep and may contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with nocturnal asthma.

  18. Localization of phenolics in phloem parenchyma cells of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Hong; Nagy, Nina Elisabeth; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Krokene, Paal; Niu, Xue-Mei; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Schneider, Bernd

    2012-12-21

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) bark contains specialized phloem parenchyma cells that swell and change their contents upon attack by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its microbial associate, the blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica. These cells exhibit bright autofluorescence after treatment with standard aldehyde fixatives, and so have been postulated to contain phenolic compounds. Laser microdissection of spruce bark sections combined with cryogenic NMR spectroscopy demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of the stilbene glucoside astringin in phloem parenchyma cells than in adjacent sieve cells. After infection by C. polonica, the flavonoid (+)-catechin also appeared in phloem parenchyma cells and there was a decrease in astringin content compared to cells from uninfected trees. Analysis of whole-bark extracts confirmed the results obtained from the cell extracts and revealed a significant increase in dimeric stilbene glucosides, both astringin and isorhapontin derivatives (piceasides A to H), in fungus-infected versus uninfected bark that might explain the reduction in stilbene monomers. Phloem parenchyma cells thus appear to be a principal site of phenolic accumulation in spruce bark.

  19. Elasticity of excised dog lung parenchyma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vawter, D. L.; Fung, Y. C.; West, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    An optical-electromechanical system is used to measure the force-deformation behavior of biaxially loaded rectangular slabs of excised dog lung parenchyma. In the course of the study, the effects of time, the consistency of reference lengths and areas, the presence of hysteresis, the necessity of preconditioning, the repeatability of results, the effects of lateral load, the effect of strain rate, the effect of pH, the influence of temperature, and the variations among specimens are considered. A new finding is that there is a change in elastic behavior when the tissue undergoes a compressive strain. When the tissue is in tension, increasing the lateral load decreases the compliance, whereas the opposite is true when compressive strain is present.

  20. Destruction of renal parenchyma at percutaneous nephrolithotripsy; experimental study.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Y; Shima, H; Mori, Y; Ikoma, F

    1989-07-01

    The destruction of renal parenchyma caused by excess deflection of the sheath was examined to determine at what level of force the renal parenchyma was ruptured during PNL. The kidney obtained from right nephroureterectomy due to renal pelvic cancer (stage T2N0M0) of a 54-year-old female patient was punctured at the posterolateral portion with a puncture needle. The tract was dilated up to 26 Fr. in size with an Amplatz renal dilation set. The 26 Fr. sheath was left in the tract and fixed to the metal bar attached to Gig Boring Machine (Hydroptic-6) which could sense the change of pressure added to the renal parenchyma in the parallel movement of the metal bar. The critical angle in regard to the deflection of the renal parenchyma in order not to cause the rupture of renal parenchyma on PNL was calculated from both the resultant force and the shape of the wound of renal parenchyma at rupture. The safety angle against horizontal plane of the tract ranged from 18 to 37 degree.

  1. Improved pulmonary nodule classification utilizing lung parenchyma texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilger, S. K.; Judisch, A.; Uthoff, J.; Hammond, E.; Newell, J. D.; Sieren, J. C.

    2015-03-01

    Current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) models, developed to determine the malignancy of pulmonary nodules, characterize the nodule's shape, density, and border. Analyzing the lung parenchyma surrounding the nodule is an area that has been minimally explored. We hypothesize that improved classification of nodules can be achieved through the inclusion of features quantified from the surrounding lung tissue. From computed tomography (CT) data, feature extraction techniques were developed to quantify the parenchymal and nodule textures, including a three-dimensional application of Laws' Texture Energy Measures. Border irregularity was investigated using ray-casting and rubber-band straightening techniques, while histogram features characterized the densities of the nodule and parenchyma. The feature set was reduced by stepwise feature selection to a few independent features that best summarized the dataset. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, a neural network was used for classification. The CAD tool was applied to 50 nodules (22 malignant, 28 benign) from high-resolution CT scans. 47 features, including 39 parenchymal features, were statistically significant, with both nodule and parenchyma features selected for classification, yielding an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.935. This was compared to classification solely based on the nodule yielding an AUC of 0.917. These preliminary results show an increase in performance when the surrounding parenchyma is included in analysis. While modest, the improvement and large number of significant parenchyma features supports our hypothesis that the parenchyma contains meaningful data that can assist in CAD development.

  2. Rapid loss of renal parenchyma after acute obstruction.

    PubMed

    Parvex, P; Pippi-Salle, J L; Goodyer, P R

    2001-12-01

    Urinary tract obstruction (UTO) is a frequent cause of renal failure in the pediatric population. We report a patient with type I/I cystinuria, followed prospectively from birth with yearly ultrasonography, who developed acute UTO due to a cystine stone at 10 years of age. In animal models of UTO, acute obstruction produces rapid loss of renal parenchyma secondary to apoptosis of tubular cells. Since we had prospectively obtained serial ultrasonographic measurements of renal growth, we were able to document sudden decrease in kidney size and function following UTO, suggesting that programmed cell death may similarly have caused the rapid irreversible loss of renal parenchyma in our patient. Despite surgical relief of the obstruction, kidney size decreased for at least 3-4 months. We speculate that anti-apoptotic drugs might be considered as a therapeutic strategy to protect ongoing renal parenchyma loss in UTO.

  3. Invasion front-specific expression and prognostic significance of microRNA in colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Kahlert, Christoph; Klupp, Fee; Brand, Karsten; Lasitschka, Felix; Diederichs, Sven; Kirchberg, Johanna; Rahbari, Nuh; Dutta, Shamik; Bork, Ulrich; Fritzmann, Johannes; Reissfelder, Christoph; Koch, Moritz; Weitz, Juergen

    2011-10-01

    The tumor edge of colorectal cancer and its adjacent peritumoral tissue is characterized by an invasion front-specific expression of genes that contribute to angiogenesis or epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Dysregulation of these genes has a strong impact on the invasion behavior of tumor cells. However, the invasion front-specific expression of microRNA (miRNA) still remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate miRNA expression patterns at the invasion front of colorectal liver metastases. Laser microdissection of colorectal liver metastases was performed to obtain separate tissue compartments from the tumor center, tumor invasion front, liver invasion front and pure liver parenchyma. Microarray expression analysis revealed 23 miRNA downregulated in samples from the tumor invasion front with respect to the same miRNA in the liver, the liver invasion front or the tumor center. By comparing samples from the liver invasion front with samples from pure liver parenchyma, the tumor invasion front and the tumor center, 13 miRNA were downregulated. By quantitative RT-PCR, we validated the liver invasion front-specific downregulation of miR-19b, miR-194, let-7b and miR-1275 and the tumor invasion front-specific downregulation of miR-143, miR- 145, let-7b and miR-638. Univariate analysis demonstrated that enhanced expression of miR-19b and miR-194 at the liver invasion front, and decreased expression of let-7 at the tumor invasion front, is an adverse prognostic marker of tumor recurrence and overall survival. In conclusion, the present study suggests that invasion front-specific downregulation of miRNA in colorectal liver metastases plays a pivotal role in tumor progression.

  4. Improved pulmonary nodule classification utilizing quantitative lung parenchyma features.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Samantha K N; Uthoff, Johanna; Judisch, Alexandra; Hammond, Emily; Mott, Sarah L; Smith, Brian J; Newell, John D; Hoffman, Eric A; Sieren, Jessica C

    2015-10-01

    Current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) models for determining pulmonary nodule malignancy characterize nodule shape, density, and border in computed tomography (CT) data. Analyzing the lung parenchyma surrounding the nodule has been minimally explored. We hypothesize that improved nodule classification is achievable by including features quantified from the surrounding lung tissue. To explore this hypothesis, we have developed expanded quantitative CT feature extraction techniques, including volumetric Laws texture energy measures for the parenchyma and nodule, border descriptors using ray-casting and rubber-band straightening, histogram features characterizing densities, and global lung measurements. Using stepwise forward selection and leave-one-case-out cross-validation, a neural network was used for classification. When applied to 50 nodules (22 malignant and 28 benign) from high-resolution CT scans, 52 features (8 nodule, 39 parenchymal, and 5 global) were statistically significant. Nodule-only features yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.918 (including nodule size) and 0.872 (excluding nodule size). Performance was improved through inclusion of parenchymal (0.938) and global features (0.932). These results show a trend toward increased performance when the parenchyma is included, coupled with the large number of significant parenchymal features that support our hypothesis: the pulmonary parenchyma is influenced differentially by malignant versus benign nodules, assisting CAD-based nodule characterizations.

  5. A tree-parenchyma coupled model for lung ventilation simulation.

    PubMed

    Pozin, N; Montesantos, S; Katz, I; Pichelin, M; Vignon-Clementel, I; Grandmont, C

    2017-02-22

    In this article we develop a lung-ventilation model. The parenchyma is described as an elastic homogenized media. It is irrigated by a space-filling dyadic resistive pipe network, which represents the tracheo-bronchial tree. In this model the tree and the parenchyma are strongly coupled. The tree induces an extra viscous term in the system constitutive relation, which leads, in the finite element framework, to a full matrix. We consider an efficient algorithm that takes advantage of the tree structure to enable a fast matrix-vector product computation. This framework can be used to model both free and mechanically induced respiration, in health and disease. Patient-specific lung geometries acquired from CT scans are considered. Realistic Dirichlet boundary conditions can be deduced from surface registration on CT images. The model is compared to a more classical exit-compartment approach. Results illustrate the coupling between the tree and the parenchyma, at global and regional levels, and how conditions for the purely 0D model can be inferred. Different types of boundary conditions are tested, including a nonlinear Robin model of the surrounding lung structures.

  6. A new boundary correction method for lung parenchyma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junfang; Jiang, Huiqin; Ma, Ling; Liu, Yumin; Toshiya, Nakaguchi

    2017-02-01

    In order to repair the boundary depressions caused by juxtapleural nodules and improve the lung segmentation accuracy, we propose a new boundary correction method for lung parenchyma. Firstly, the top-hat filter is used to enhance the image contrast; Secondly, we employ the Ostu algorithm for image binarization; Thirdly, the connected component labeling algorithm is utilized to remove the main trachea; Fourthly, the initial mask image is obtained by morphological region filling algorithm; Fifthly, the boundary tracing algorithm is applied to extract the initial lung contour; Afterwards, we design a sudden change degree algorithm to modify the initial lung contour; Finally, the complete lung parenchyma image is obtained. The novelty is that sudden change degree algorithm can detect the inflection points more accurately than other methods, which contributes to repairing lung contour efficiently. The experimental results show that the proposed method can incorporate the juxtapleural nodules into the lung parenchyma effectively, and the precision is increased by 6.46% and 2.72% respectively compared with the other two methods, providing favorable conditions for the accurate detection of pulmonary nodules and having important clinical value.

  7. Transcriptional Ontogeny of the Developing Liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    During embryogenesis the liver is derived from endodermal cells lining the digestive tract. These endodermal progenitor cells contribute to forming the parenchyma of a number of organs including the liver and pancreas. Early in organogenesis the fetal liver is populated by hemato...

  8. Interstitial laser photocoagulation of normal lung parenchyma in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, D; Buonaccorsi, G; Hanby, A; Hetzel, M; Bown, S

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Management of peripheral lung tumours may be risky in patients with poor lung function or in the elderly. A new possibility is interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) in which tumours are gently coagulated using thin laser fibres placed percutaneously under radiological guidance. This could have a useful palliative role in selected patients, but to be safe the effects on normal lung parenchyma must first be understood. This paper describes the creation and healing of ILP lesions in the normal rat lung.
METHODS—ILP was performed using single laser fibres placed percutaneously in the left lung of normal rats under general anaesthetic with radiological guidance (laser power 1-3 W at 805 nm, treatment time 250-1000 s). The lesion size and healing were studied in rats killed at times from three days to six months after treatment, the bursting pressure was measured, and any complications noted.
RESULTS—Zones of necrosis up to 12 mm in diameter were produced, the size depending on the laser power and treatment time. Histological examination showed typical thermal effects with complete healing with fibrosis by two months. The effect was very localised with remarkably little effect on the structure and function of the rest of the lung. Adverse effects in the lung parenchyma only occurred if the ILP lesion involved the hilar vessels or the oesophagus, causing pulmonary congestion and perforation, respectively. Pneumothorax was seen in 6% of cases.
CONCLUSIONS—ILP with a single fibre can produce a localised zone of necrosis in normal lung parenchyma which heals safely and which has little effect on the rest of the lung. Further study of this technique using multiple fibres in a larger animal model is warranted to see if it is feasible and safe to produce a large enough volume of necrosis to be of value in the treatment of small peripheral lung tumours in patients who are unsuitable for surgery or palliative radiotherapy.

 PMID:9828858

  9. Infrared Thermographic Profiles Of Vessel Sealing Devices On Thyroid Parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Carter T.; Zarebczan, Barbara; Alhefdhi, Amal; Chen, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Introduction During thyroid lobectomy, division of the thyroid parenchyma has traditionally been accomplished using suture ligation. Development of hemostatic techniques in the forms of ultrasonic dissection (UD) and electronic vessel sealing (EVS) have increased the usage of these devices during thyroid operations. We sought to characterize the thermal profile of each of these devices when used to divide the parenchyma of the thyroid gland. Methods Using a porcine model, the parenchyma of the gland was then sealed by alternating application of the UD and EVS devices. In each case the thermal activity was recorded using infrared thermal imaging. We performed multiple seals with each instrument and then compared the thermal profiles. Results There was no significant difference in lateral thermal spread of EVS and UD above 39, 40 or 60 degrees Celsius (2.30±0.31mm vs. 2.53±0.47mm, P=0.26; 2.22±0.27mm vs. 2.47±0.47mm, P=0.22; and 1.37±0.27mm vs. 1.54±0.26mm, P=0.22). There was no significant difference in mean time above 39, or 40 degrees Celsius (35.1±8.7s vs. 31.7±9.3s, p=0.47 and 29.9±8.1s vs. 27.3±6.7s, p=0.50). UD reached a greater maximum temperature (179.12±0.0008C vs. 96.52±5.6C, p=<0.001) and stayed over 60 degrees Celcius for longer than EVS (9.5±1.8s vs. 5.3±0.97s, p=<0.001). Conclusions The amount of lateral spread of thermal energy was not significantly different between the UD and EVS devices. However, the use of UD produced a higher maximum temperature during thyroid parenchyma sealing and remained above 60 degrees longer than EVS. This may translate into greater thermal injury to thyroid and surrounding tissues during division. PMID:21529840

  10. Assessing Conifer Ray Parenchyma for Ecological Studies: Pitfalls and Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    von Arx, Georg; Arzac, Alberto; Olano, José M.; Fonti, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Ray parenchyma is an essential tissue for tree functioning and survival. This living tissue plays a major role for storage and transport of water, nutrients, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), thus regulating xylem hydraulics and growth. However, despite the importance of rays for tree carbon and water relations, methodological challenges hamper knowledge about ray intra- and inter-tree variability and its ecological meaning. In this study we provide a methodological toolbox for soundly quantifying spatial and temporal variability of different ray features. Anatomical ray features were surveyed in different cutting planes (cross-sectional, tangential, and radial) using quantitative image analysis on stem-wood micro-sections sampled from 41 mature Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris). The percentage of ray surface (PERPAR), a proxy for ray volume, was compared among cutting planes and between early- and latewood to assess measurement-induced variability. Different tangential ray metrics were correlated to assess their similarities. The accuracy of cross-sectional and tangential measurements for PERPAR estimates as a function of number of samples and the measured wood surface was assessed using bootstrapping statistical technique. Tangential sections offered the best 3D insight of ray integration into the xylem and provided the most accurate estimates of PERPAR, with 10 samples of 4 mm2 showing an estimate within ±6.0% of the true mean PERPAR (relative 95% confidence interval, CI95), and 20 samples of 4 mm2 showing a CI95 of ±4.3%. Cross-sections were most efficient for establishment of time series, and facilitated comparisons with other widely used xylem anatomical features. Earlywood had significantly lower PERPAR (5.77 vs. 6.18%) and marginally fewer initiating rays than latewood. In comparison to tangential sections, PERPAR was systematically overestimated (6.50 vs. 4.92%) and required approximately twice the sample area for similar accuracy. Radial cuttings

  11. Aberrant hepatic arteries running through pancreatic parenchyma encountered during pancreatoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Jianwei; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Zongli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Aberrant hepatic arteries (HAs) encountered during pancreatoduodenectomy are difficult to manage. Mehtods: Two cases with rare types of aberrant HA running through the pancreatic parenchyma were reviewed. Results: The first case, a 68-year-old man, was admitted with obstructive jaundice. A tumor of the pancreatic head and aberrant HAs were suspected on computed tomography (CT) scan. At laparotomy, a new variation was identified; namely, 2 aberrant arteries—a right replaced HA and middle HA (RMHA) that both originated from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and ran via intrapancreatic paths posterior and anterior to the pancreatic head, respectively. Branches of the RMHA to the pancreas were ligated and severed and the trunk preserved. The RMHA was mistakenly identified as an aberrant left HA (RLHA), whereas the RLHA was overlooked and not dissected intraoperatively. CT angiography performed 11 days postoperatively identified that the RLHA originated from the left gastric artery (LGA). The second case had a variation of Michels IX. A 58-year-old woman presented with obstructive jaundice and a distal cholangiocarcinoma was suspected on the basis of enhanced CT scan. At laparotomy, the common hepatic artery (CHA) was found to originate entirely from the SMA and run posterior to the pancreatic head via an intrapancreatic path. The segment of CHA in the pancreatic parenchyma was removed and reconstructed with the LGA. Conclusions: Preoperative identification of aberrant HAs helps in planning appropriate operative procedures and minimizing unnecessary complications. Both preservation and reconstruction of these arteries are technically safe and feasible; however, preservation is preferable. PMID:27930504

  12. Transplantable liver production plan

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Toshiyuki; Uemoto, Shinji; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    Organ grafts developed in the xenogeneic pig scaffold are expected to resolve most issues of donor safety and ethical concerns about living-donor liver transplantation in Japan. We have been working on so-called “Yamaton” projects to develop transplantable organs using genetically engineered pigs. Our goal is to produce chimeric livers with human parenchyma in such pigs. The Yamaton-Liver project demonstrated the proof of concept by showing that rat–mouse chimeric livers could develop in mice and be successfully transplanted into syngeneic or allogeneic rats. Under conventional immunosuppression, the transplanted livers showed long-term function and protection against rejection. Because chimeric liver grafts have xenogeneic components, additional strategies, such as humanization of pig genes, induction of hematopoietic chimeras in donors, and replacement of pig endothelial cells with human ones, might be required in clinical use. Our projects still need to overcome various hurdles but can bring huge benefits to patients in the future. PMID:23896578

  13. [MRT of the liver in Wilson's disease].

    PubMed

    Vogl, T J; Steiner, S; Hammerstingl, R; Schwarz, S; Kraft, E; Weinzierl, M; Felix, R

    1994-01-01

    To show that Wilson's disease is one likely cause of multiple low-intensity nodules of the liver we obtained MR images in 16 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Wilson's disease. Corresponding to morphological changes MRI enabled the subdivision of the patients into two groups. Using a T2-weighted spin-echo sequence (TR/TE = 2000/45-90) liver parenchyma showed multiple tiny low-intensity-nodules surrounded by high-intensity septa in 10 out of 16 patients. 5 patients had also low-intensity nodules in T1-weighted images (TR/TE = 600/20). In patients of this group histopathology revealed liver cirrhosis (n = 7) and fibrosis (n = 2). Common feature of this patient group was marked inflammatory cell infiltration into fibrous septa, increase of copper concentration in liver parenchyma and distinct pathological changes of laboratory data. In the remaining 6 patients no pathological change of liver morphology was demonstrated by MRI corresponding to slight histopathological changes of parenchyma and normal laboratory data. As low-intensity nodules surrounded by high intensity septa can be demonstrated in patients with marked inflammatory infiltration of liver parenchyma MRI may help to define Wilson patients with poorer prognosis. In patients with low-intensity nodules of the liver and unknown cause of liver cirrhosis laboratory data and histopathology should be checked when searching for disorders of copper metabolism.

  14. Low-dose high-resolution CT of lung parenchyma

    SciTech Connect

    Zwirewich, C.V.; Mayo, J.R.; Mueller, N.L. )

    1991-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of low-dose high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the assessment of lung parenchyma, three observers reviewed the scans of 31 patients. The 1.5-mm-collimation, 2-second, 120-kVp scans were obtained at 20 and 200 mA at selected identical levels in the chest. The observers evaluated the visualization of normal pulmonary anatomy, various parenchymal abnormalities and their distribution, and artifacts. The low-dose and conventional scans were equivalent in the evaluation of vessels, lobar and segmental bronchi, and anatomy of secondary pulmonary lobules, and in characterizing the extent and distribution of reticulation, honeycomb cysts, and thickened interlobular septa. The low-dose technique failed to demonstrate ground-glass opacity in two of 10 cases (20%) and emphysema in one of nine cases (11%), in which they were evident but subtle on the high-dose scans. These differences were not statistically significant. Linear streak artifact was more prominent on images acquired with the low-dose technique, but the two techniques were judged equally diagnostic in 97% of cases. The authors conclude that HRCT images acquired at 20 mA yield anatomic information equivalent to that obtained with 200-mA scans in the majority of patients, without significant loss of spatial resolution or image degradation due to linear streak artifact.

  15. Lung parenchyma remodeling in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rocco, P R M; Dos Santos, C; Pelosi, P

    2009-12-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the most severe manifestation of acute lung injury (ALI), is described as a stereotyped response to lung injury with a transition from alveolar capillary damage to a fibroproliferative phase. Most ARDS patients survive the acute initial phase of lung injury and progress to either reparation of the lesion or evolution of the syndrome. Despite advances in the management of ARDS, mortality remains high (40%) and autopsies show extended pulmonary fibrosis in 55% of patients, suggesting the importance of deregulated repair in the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Factors influencing progression to fibroproliferative ARDS versus resolution and reconstitution of the normal pulmonary parenchymal architecture are poorly understood. Abnormal repair and remodeling may be profoundly affected by both environmental and genetic factors. In this line, mechanical ventilation may affect the macromolecules that constitute the extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin, fibronectin, laminin, proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycans), suffer changes and impact the biomechanical behavior of lung parenchyma. Furthermore, evidence suggests that acute inflammation and fibrosis may be partially independent and/or interacting processes that are autonomously regulated, and thus amenable to individual and specific therapies. In this review, we explore recent advances in the field of fibroproliferative ARDS/ALI, with special emphasis on 1) the physiological properties of the extracellular matrix, 2) the mechanisms of remodeling, 3) the impact of mechanical ventilation on lung fibrotic response, and (4) therapeutic interventions in the remodeling process.

  16. Parenchyma cell respiration and survival in secondary xylem: does metabolic activity decline with cell age?

    PubMed

    Spicer, R; Holbrook, N M

    2007-08-01

    Sapwood respiration often declines towards the sapwood/heartwood boundary, but it is not known if parenchyma metabolic activity declines with cell age. We measured sapwood respiration in five temperate species (sapwood age range of 5-64 years) and expressed respiration on a live cell basis by quantifying living parenchyma. We found no effect of parenchyma age on respiration in two conifers (Pinus strobus, Tsuga canadensis), both of which had significant amounts of dead parenchyma in the sapwood. In angiosperms (Acer rubrum, Fraxinus americana, Quercus rubra), both bulk tissue and live cell respiration were reduced by about one-half in the oldest relative to the youngest sapwood, and all sapwood parenchyma remained alive. Conifers and angiosperms had similar bulk tissue respiration despite a smaller proportion of parenchyma in conifers (5% versus 15-25% in angiosperms), such that conifer parenchyma respired at rates about three times those of angiosperms. The fact that 5-year-old parenchyma cells respired at the same rate as 25-year-old cells in conifers suggests that there is no inherent or intrinsic decline in respiration as a result of cellular ageing. In contrast, it is not known whether differences observed in cellular respiration rates of angiosperms are a function of age per se, or whether active regulation of metabolic rate or positional effects (e.g. proximity to resources and/or hormones) could be the cause of reduced respiration in older sapwood.

  17. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in colorectal cancer liver metastases is associated with vascular structures.

    PubMed

    Illemann, Martin; Eefsen, Rikke Helene Løvendahl; Bird, Nigel Charles; Majeed, Ali; Osterlind, Kell; Laerum, Ole Didrik; Alpízar-Alpízar, Warner; Lund, Ida Katrine; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2016-02-01

    Metastatic growth by colorectal cancer cells in the liver requires the ability of the cancer cells to interact with the new microenvironment. This interaction results in three histological growth patterns of liver metastases: desmoplastic, pushing, and replacement. In primary colorectal cancer several proteases, involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix components, are up-regulated. In liver metastases, their expression is growth pattern dependent. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is a strong prognostic marker in plasma from colorectal cancer patients, with significant higher levels in patients with metastatic disease. We therefore wanted to determine the expression pattern of TIMP-1 in primary colorectal cancers and their matching liver metastases. TIMP-1 mRNA was primarily seen in α-smooth-muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive cells. In all primary tumors and liver metastases with desmoplastic growth pattern, TIMP-1 mRNA was primarily found in α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts located at the invasive front. Some α-SMA-positive cells with TIMP-1 mRNA were located adjacent to CD34-positive endothelial cells, identifying them as pericytes. This indicates that TIMP-1 in primary tumors and liver metastases with desmoplastic growth pattern has dual functions; being an MMP-inhibitor at the cancer periphery and involved in tumor-induced angiogenesis in the pericytes. In the liver metastases with pushing or replacement growth patterns, TIMP-1 was primarily expressed by activated hepatic stellate cells at the metastasis/liver parenchyma interface. These cells were located adjacent to CD34-positive endothelial cells, suggesting a function in tumor-induced angiogenesis. We therefore conclude that TIMP-1 expression is growth pattern dependent in colorectal cancer liver metastases.

  18. First insights into the functional role of vasicentric tracheids and parenchyma in eucalyptus species with solitary vessels: do they contribute to xylem efficiency or safety?

    PubMed

    Barotto, Antonio José; Fernandez, María Elena; Gyenge, Javier; Meyra, Ariel; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Monteoliva, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between hydraulic specific conductivity (ks) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) with size and number of vessels has been studied in many angiosperms. However, few of the studies link other cell types (vasicentric tracheids (VT), fibre-tracheids, parenchyma) with these hydraulic functions. Eucalyptus is one of the most important genera in forestry worldwide. It exhibits a complex wood anatomy, with solitary vessels surrounded by VT and parenchyma, which could serve as a good model to investigate the functional role of the different cell types in xylem functioning. Wood anatomy (several traits of vessels, VT, fibres and parenchyma) in conjunction with maximum ks and VC was studied in adult trees of commercial species with medium-to-high wood density (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.). Traits of cells accompanying vessels presented correlations with functional variables suggesting that they contribute to both increasing connectivity between adjacent vessels-and, therefore, to xylem conduction efficiency-and decreasing the probability of embolism propagation into the tissue, i.e., xylem safety. All three species presented moderate-to-high resistance to cavitation (mean P50 values = -2.4 to -4.2 MPa) with no general trade-off between efficiency and safety at the interspecific level. The results in these species do not support some well-established hypotheses of the functional meaning of wood anatomy.

  19. Solid focal liver lesions indeterminate by contrast-enhanced CT or MR imaging: the added diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Quaia, Emilio

    2012-08-01

    The main clinically recognized application of contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) with microbubble contrast agents is the characterization of incidental focal liver lesions. CEUS with low transmit power insonation allows the real-time assessment of contrast enhancement in a focal liver lesion after microbubble contrast agent injection, during the arterial (10-25 s), portal venous (from 35 s up to 2 min) and late phase (4-6 min after microbubble injection). During the portal venous and late phase benign lesions appear hyper or iso-enhancing in comparison to the adjacent liver parenchyma, while malignant lesions prevalently present contrast washout with hypo-enhancing appearance. CEUS may provide an added diagnostic value in those incidental focal liver lesions in which contrast-enhanced CT or MR imaging are not conclusive. In particular, CEUS may provide an added diagnostic value in those focal liver lesions appearing indeterminate on single-phase CT scan, or on CT scans performed by an incorrect delay time or also after injection of a low dose of iodinated contrast agent, or also in those focal liver lesions revealing equivocal enhancement patterns on contrast-enhanced CT or MR imaging. CEUS may have an added diagnostic value also in hepatocellular nodules in a cirrhotic liver and can be considered a complementary imaging technique to CT.

  20. Probiotics in Pediatric Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Miloh, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    The gut-liver axis involves complex interaction between the intestinal microbiome and the liver parenchyma. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are used in a variety of diseases. With currently only 2 randomized-controlled studies (one with Lactobacillus GG and the other with VSL #3), data are scarce to support the clinical effect of probiotic use in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. There is evidence that probiotics decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and thereby reduce the prevalence of total parenteral nutrition-induced chronic liver disease. Probiotics are used with a few reported positive outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis and familial hypercholesterolemia and may be promising in other liver conditions. Probiotics are generally safe and well tolerated in children, premature infants, and in patients after liver transplantation. Large, prospective, randomized clinical trials are needed to evaluate the benefit of probiotics in children with liver diseases.

  1. Role of intracellular contents to facilitate supercooling capability in beech (Fagus crenata) xylem parenchyma cells.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Jun; Mizuno, Kaoru; Miyaji, Natsuko; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2006-01-01

    In order to find the possible role of intracellular contents in facilitating the supercooling capability of xylem parenchyma cells, changes in the temperature of supercooling levels were compared before and after the release of intracellular substances from beech xylem parenchyma cells by DTA. Various methods were employed to release intracellular substances from xylem parenchyma cells and all resulted in a reduction of supercooling ability. It was concluded that the reduction of supercooling ability primarily resulted from changes of intracellular conditions, including the release of intracellular contents or their mixing with extracellular solutions, rather than due to changes of cell wall structures. It is therefore suggested that any unidentified intracellular contents may function to facilitate supercooling capability in xylem parenchyma cells.

  2. Hepatitis C virus load in parenchyma cells correlates with hepatic injury in infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen; Lin, Ji-Zong; Lin, Guo-Li; Wei, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Ying; Ke, Wei-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Hong

    2017-01-01

    The association between serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) load and hepatic injury in HCV-infected patients has been extensively investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the association between HCV load in hepatic parenchyma cells and hepatic injury in HCV-infected patients. A total of 56 HCV-infected patients were included in the present retrospective study. The serum HCV mRNA was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, while the hepatic parenchyma cell volume and HCV mRNA in hepatic parenchyma cells were also determined. Hepatic injury was evaluated on the basis of the severity of inflammation and fibrosis. The results demonstrated that there were evident differences in the mean serum HCV RNA levels and the HCV load/parenchyma cell volume among the various grades of hepatic inflammation (G1-G4) when groups with the least and most inflammation were compared (G1 vs. G4; P<0.05). Significant differences in the HCV load existed between groups divided according to the fibrosis grade; in addition, differences existed between fibrosis grades S1 and S2, and S2 and S4 when comparing serum HCV RNA levels (P<0.05). Similarly, differences existed between every two fibrosis stages (S0 vs. S4, S2 vs. S3, and S2 vs. S4; P<0.05) when viral loads and parenchyma cell volumes were compared (F=2.860, P<0.05). Furthermore, the fibrosis staging was correlated with the viral load/parenchyma cell volume (F=2.670, P<0.05). In conclusion, hepatic fibrosis grade was found to be associated with HCV load in parenchyma cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that the viral load in parenchyma cells is a more appropriate index compared with the serum viral load for evaluating HCV replication in hepatocytes, and may function as an important factor in HCV-infected hepatic injury evaluation. PMID:28123484

  3. Hepatitis C virus load in parenchyma cells correlates with hepatic injury in infected patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Lin, Ji-Zong; Lin, Guo-Li; Wei, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Ying; Ke, Wei-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Hong

    2017-01-01

    The association between serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) load and hepatic injury in HCV-infected patients has been extensively investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the association between HCV load in hepatic parenchyma cells and hepatic injury in HCV-infected patients. A total of 56 HCV-infected patients were included in the present retrospective study. The serum HCV mRNA was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, while the hepatic parenchyma cell volume and HCV mRNA in hepatic parenchyma cells were also determined. Hepatic injury was evaluated on the basis of the severity of inflammation and fibrosis. The results demonstrated that there were evident differences in the mean serum HCV RNA levels and the HCV load/parenchyma cell volume among the various grades of hepatic inflammation (G1-G4) when groups with the least and most inflammation were compared (G1 vs. G4; P<0.05). Significant differences in the HCV load existed between groups divided according to the fibrosis grade; in addition, differences existed between fibrosis grades S1 and S2, and S2 and S4 when comparing serum HCV RNA levels (P<0.05). Similarly, differences existed between every two fibrosis stages (S0 vs. S4, S2 vs. S3, and S2 vs. S4; P<0.05) when viral loads and parenchyma cell volumes were compared (F=2.860, P<0.05). Furthermore, the fibrosis staging was correlated with the viral load/parenchyma cell volume (F=2.670, P<0.05). In conclusion, hepatic fibrosis grade was found to be associated with HCV load in parenchyma cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that the viral load in parenchyma cells is a more appropriate index compared with the serum viral load for evaluating HCV replication in hepatocytes, and may function as an important factor in HCV-infected hepatic injury evaluation.

  4. The Effect of Sunlight in Parenchyma Pith Cells Diameter of Manihot esculenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanti, D.; Aziz, D. N.; Astuti, W.; Nuraeni, E.

    2017-03-01

    Sunlight is one of the factors that effect on the grow of a plant. Manihot esculenta is one of the plants that easily found in Indonesia because its role as staple food. The aim of this research is to know the correlation between sunlight the grow of parenchyma pith cells diameter of Manihot esculenta. Independent variable in this research is sunlight, and dependent variable is the parenchyma pith cells diameter of Manihot esculenta. Data was collected is in qualitative and quantitative form. Qualitative data gotten gained by morphology observation. The parenchyma pith cells of Manihot esculenta that is affected by sunlight in 1310 x 10 Lux, morphologically has hexagon, cell walls thick, solid state, and regular composition. Meanwhile, the parenchyma pith cells that has less sunlight (363 x 10 Lux) has a hexagon shape, thin cell walls thin, soft state, and irregular composition. Qualitative data suported by quantitative data. The size of parenchyma pith cells diameter that is affected by sunlight in 1310 x 10 Lux 96,4 µm. While, the stem parenchyma pith cells diameter empulur that has less sunlight (363 x 10 Lux) is 129,8 µm.

  5. [Ultrasound diagnostics of diffuse liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Jung, E M; Wiggermann, P; Stroszczynski, C; Reiser, M F; Clevert, D-A

    2012-08-01

    The current improvements in modern high resolution ultrasound technology, like Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI), Speckle Reduction Imaging (SRI), partial color coding of B-mode (Color Coded Imaging), and also the advent of ultrasound based elastography as well as contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) offer fundamentally new ways to characterize diffuse alterations of the liver parenchyma. Besides metabolic disease, disorders of liver fat distribution, infectious and malignant diseases can cause diffuse alterations of the liver parenchyma. In case of liver fibrosis, only a combination of different ultrasound techniques including CEUS, allows the differentiation between benign dysplastic and malignant lesions. Ultrasound elastography allows assessing the extent of the fibrosis. This article focuses on the different ultrasound based diagnostic possibilities in case of diffuse liver disease.

  6. Oxaliplatin-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome mimicking metastatic colon cancer in the liver

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, JUNG-HYE; WON, YOUNG-WOONG; KIM, HYUN SUNG; OH, YOUNG-HA; LIM, SANGHYEOK; KIM, HAN-JOON

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer; however, it may cause liver injury, particularly sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). Although SOS does not usually present with focal lesions on radiological images, the present study describes the case of a 22-year-old woman with oxaliplatin-induced SOS mimicking metastatic colon cancer in the liver. An abdominal computed tomography revealed a novel 1 cm, low-density lesion in segment 1 of the liver following the administration of the fourth round of oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer. Since the lesion was indistinguishable from metastasis, even with detailed imaging studies, including magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography, an isolated caudate lobectomy was planned. The cut surface of the resected liver showed a localized reddish congested lesion measuring 1.4 cm in diameter. The adjacent hepatic parenchyma also demonstrated diffuse sinusoidal congestion with a nutmeg-like appearance. Histologically, the lesion exhibited severe sinusoidal congestion with peliosis hepatis-like features. The widened sinusoidal space was outlined by markedly attenuated hepatic cords and filled with erythrocytes. The final diagnosis was oxaliplatin-induced SOS. The patient recovered completely and was relapse-free at the time of writing. PMID:27073565

  7. The pathogenesis of experimentally induced amebic liver abscess in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed Central

    Chadee, K.; Meerovitch, E.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential development and pathology of experimentally induced amebic liver abscess in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) were studied from 1 to 60 days after inoculation. Early lesions were characterized by an acute inflammatory response, which became granulomatous at 5 days. Early granulomas were discrete, with well-defined fibrohistiocytic walls. Trophozoite dissemination as a result of fibrolysis of granuloma wall was confined to the liver parenchyma. The granulomatous cellular infiltrate (less than 20 days) was characterized by granulocytes and histiocytes; older granulomas (greater than 30 days) were composed of lymphocytic infiltrate, plasma cells, and a few granulocytes, and were characterized by the absence of epithelioid histiocytes. The degree of pathologic change adjacent to liver granulomas followed the sequential development of the amebic liver abscess. Severe changes observed were portal canal lymphocytic infiltration, the presence of foreign body giant cells, periportal fibrosis, proliferation of bile duct epithelium, and hepatocyte anisonucleosis and ballooning degeneration. The pathogenesis of the infection and the usefulness of the gerbil model for the study of human amebiasis are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:6385727

  8. High accumulation of soluble sugars in deep supercooling Japanese white birch xylem parenchyma cells.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Jun; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the accumulation of soluble sugars in extracellular freezing cortical parenchyma cells and deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells in Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) were compared to identify the effects of soluble sugars on the mechanism of deep supercooling, which keeps the liquid state of water in cells under extremely low temperatures for long periods. Soluble sugars in both tissues were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the concentrations of sugars in cells were estimated by histological observation of occupancy rates of parenchyma cells in each tissue. Relative and equilibrium melting points of parenchyma cells were measured by differential thermal analysis and cryoscanning electron microscopy, respectively. In both xylem and cortical parenchyma cells, amounts of sucrose, raffinose and stachyose increased in winter, but amounts of fructose and glucose exhibited little change throughout the entire year. In addition, no sugars were found to be specific for either tissue. Combined results of HPLC analyses, histological observation and melting point analyses confirmed that the concentration of sugars was much higher in xylem cells than in cortical cells. It is thought that the higher concentration of soluble sugars in xylem cells may contribute to facilitation of deep supercooling in xylem cells by depressing the nucleation temperature.

  9. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  10. The use of diffusion weighted imaging to evaluate pathology outside the brain parenchyma in neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Philip; Khan, Faraan; MacKinnon, Andrew D

    2017-04-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has transformed the radiological assessment of a variety of cerebral pathologies, in particular acute stroke. In neuroimaging studies, DWI can also be used to evaluate pathology outside the brain parenchyma, although it is sometimes underutilized for this purpose. In this pictorial review, the principles of DWI are outlined, and 13 cases of abnormal diffusion outside the brain parenchyma are illustrated in order to show DWI as a useful sequence for the evaluation of the following recommended review areas: the dural venous sinuses, internal carotid arteries, meninges, ventricles, cavernous sinus and orbits, skull base and lymph nodes.

  11. Tolerance of the liver to the effects of Yttrium-90 radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, B.N.; Burton, M.A.; Kelleher, D.; Klemp, P.; Matz, L. )

    1990-03-01

    There are no reliable data documenting the tolerance of the human liver to ionizing radiation from a continuous Yttrium-90 source. As Yttrium-90 incorporated into microspheres is being used to treat patients with liver cancer, it is imperative that the tolerance of the human liver to this form of radiation damage be determined. Four patients with metastatic liver cancer were treated with Yttrium-90 to deliver radiation doses above that considered tolerable when given by conventional external sources. Patients were monitored with serial estimations of liver function tests and between 7 and 9 months after treatment liver biopsies were performed. Histological examination of the liver biopsies confirmed only minimal changes in the normal liver parenchyma. These data indicate that the human liver may tolerate relatively large radiation doses when delivered by Yttrium-90 microspheres embedded in the liver parenchyma as a number of discrete point sources.

  12. Cellular Mechanisms of Liver Regeneration and Cell-Based Therapies of Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yarygin, Konstantin N.

    2017-01-01

    The emerging field of regenerative medicine offers innovative methods of cell therapy and tissue/organ engineering as a novel approach to liver disease treatment. The ultimate scientific foundation of both cell therapy of liver diseases and liver tissue and organ engineering is delivered by the in-depth studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration. The cellular mechanisms of the homeostatic and injury-induced liver regeneration are unique. Restoration of the mass of liver parenchyma is achieved by compensatory hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the differentiated parenchymal cells, hepatocytes, while expansion and differentiation of the resident stem/progenitor cells play a minor or negligible role. Participation of blood-borne cells of the bone marrow origin in liver parenchyma regeneration has been proven but does not exceed 1-2% of newly formed hepatocytes. Liver regeneration is activated spontaneously after injury and can be further stimulated by cell therapy with hepatocytes, hematopoietic stem cells, or mesenchymal stem cells. Further studies aimed at improving the outcomes of cell therapy of liver diseases are underway. In case of liver failure, transplantation of engineered liver can become the best option in the foreseeable future. Engineering of a transplantable liver or its major part is an enormous challenge, but rapid progress in induced pluripotency, tissue engineering, and bioprinting research shows that it may be doable. PMID:28210629

  13. Cellular Mechanisms of Liver Regeneration and Cell-Based Therapies of Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kholodenko, Irina V; Yarygin, Konstantin N

    2017-01-01

    The emerging field of regenerative medicine offers innovative methods of cell therapy and tissue/organ engineering as a novel approach to liver disease treatment. The ultimate scientific foundation of both cell therapy of liver diseases and liver tissue and organ engineering is delivered by the in-depth studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration. The cellular mechanisms of the homeostatic and injury-induced liver regeneration are unique. Restoration of the mass of liver parenchyma is achieved by compensatory hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the differentiated parenchymal cells, hepatocytes, while expansion and differentiation of the resident stem/progenitor cells play a minor or negligible role. Participation of blood-borne cells of the bone marrow origin in liver parenchyma regeneration has been proven but does not exceed 1-2% of newly formed hepatocytes. Liver regeneration is activated spontaneously after injury and can be further stimulated by cell therapy with hepatocytes, hematopoietic stem cells, or mesenchymal stem cells. Further studies aimed at improving the outcomes of cell therapy of liver diseases are underway. In case of liver failure, transplantation of engineered liver can become the best option in the foreseeable future. Engineering of a transplantable liver or its major part is an enormous challenge, but rapid progress in induced pluripotency, tissue engineering, and bioprinting research shows that it may be doable.

  14. [Liver resection by water jet].

    PubMed

    Horie, T

    1989-01-01

    Major problem in resecting liver parenchyma is how to control the bleeding. Recently, resection of the liver by water jet has been reported. So, experimental and clinical studies were performed to investigate the usefulness of the water jet equipment. Ten pigs weighing around 17kg were used. The optimal pressure to resect the porcine liver was 7 to 15kg/cm2. By 4 weeks the cut surface was covered with fibrous capsule. Portal angiography showed no abnormality in the resected area. The water jet was also used in 30 human operations. The optimal pressure was 12 to 18kg/cm2 for non cirrhotic liver and 15 to 20kg/cm2 for cirrhotic liver. The surface immediately after jet cutting was more smooth than that of CUSA and histologically there was slight bleeding and necrosis. The volume of blood loss during dissection was not different between water jet group and CUSA group. No significant changes were found in the laboratory data. These results suggest that water jet is as useful as CUSA for cutting the liver parenchyma.

  15. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatic transplant; Transplant - liver; Orthotopic liver transplant; Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant ... The donated liver may be from: A donor who has recently died and has not had liver injury. This type of ...

  16. Developmental changes in cell and tissue water relations parameters in storage parenchyma of sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.H. ); Cosgrove, D.J. )

    1991-07-01

    The osmotic pressure of the cell sap of stalk storage parenchyma of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) increases by an order of magnitude during ontogeny to reach molar concentrations of sucrose at maturity. Stalk parenchyma cells must either experience very high turgor at maturation of have an ability to regulate turgor. The authors tested this hypothesis by using pressure probe techniques to quantify parameters of cell and tissue water relations of sugarcane storage parenchyma during ontogeny. The largest developmental change was in the volumetric elastic modulus, which increased from 6 bars in immature tissue to 43 bars in mature tissue. Turgor was maintained relatively low during sucrose accumulation by the partitioning of solutes between the cell and wall compartments. Membrane hydraulic conductivity decreased from about 12 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second per bar down to 4.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second per bar. The 2.7-fold decrease in membrane hydraulic conductivity during tissue maturation was accompanied by a 7.8-fold increase in wall elasticity. Integration of the cell and wall membrane properties appears to be by the opposing effects of turgor on hydraulic conductivity and elastic modulus. The changes in these properties during development of sugarcane stalk tissue may be a way for parenchyma cells to develop a capacity for expansive growth and still serve as a strong sink for storing high concentrations of sucrose.

  17. The functional role of xylem parenchyma cells and aquaporins during recovery from severe water stress.

    PubMed

    Secchi, Francesca; Pagliarani, Chiara; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2016-09-15

    Xylem parenchyma cells [vessel associated cells (VACs)] constitute a significant fraction of the xylem in woody plants. These cells are often closely connected with xylem vessels or tracheids via simple pores (remnants of plasmodesmata fields). The close contact and biological activity of VACs during times of severe water stress and recovery from stress suggest that they are involved in the maintenance of xylem transport capacity and responsible for the restoration of vessel/tracheid functionality following embolism events. As recovery from embolism requires the transport of water across xylem parenchyma cell membranes, an understanding of stem-specific aquaporin expression patterns, localization and activity is a crucial part of any biological model dealing with embolism recovery processes in woody plants. In this review, we provide a short overview of xylem parenchyma cell biology with a special focus on aquaporins. In particular we address their distributions and activity during the development of drought stress, during the formation of embolism and the subsequent recovery from stress that may result in refilling. Complemented by the current biological model of parenchyma cell function during recovery from stress, this overview highlights recent breakthroughs on the unique ability of long-lived perennial plants to undergo cycles of embolism-recovery related to drought/rewetting or freeze/thaw events.

  18. A global analysis of parenchyma tissue fractions in secondary xylem of seed plants.

    PubMed

    Morris, Hugh; Plavcová, Lenka; Cvecko, Patrick; Fichtler, Esther; Gillingham, Mark A F; Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I; McGlinn, Daniel J; Wheeler, Elisabeth; Zheng, Jingming; Ziemińska, Kasia; Jansen, Steven

    2016-03-01

    Parenchyma is an important tissue in secondary xylem of seed plants, with functions ranging from storage to defence and with effects on the physical and mechanical properties of wood. Currently, we lack a large-scale quantitative analysis of ray parenchyma (RP) and axial parenchyma (AP) tissue fractions. Here, we use data from the literature on AP and RP fractions to investigate the potential relationships of climate and growth form with total ray and axial parenchyma fractions (RAP). We found a 29-fold variation in RAP fraction, which was more strongly related to temperature than with precipitation. Stem succulents had the highest RAP values (mean ± SD: 70.2 ± 22.0%), followed by lianas (50.1 ± 16.3%), angiosperm trees and shrubs (26.3 ± 12.4%), and conifers (7.6 ± 2.6%). Differences in RAP fraction between temperate and tropical angiosperm trees (21.1 ± 7.9% vs 36.2 ± 13.4%, respectively) are due to differences in the AP fraction, which is typically three times higher in tropical than in temperate trees, but not in RP fraction. Our results illustrate that both temperature and growth form are important drivers of RAP fractions. These findings should help pave the way to better understand the various functions of RAP in plants.

  19. Comparative analysis of inhaled particles contained in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, lung parenchyma and lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Dumortier, P; De Vuyst, P; Yernault, J C

    1994-01-01

    Translocation of inhaled particles from the alveolar spaces to lung parenchyma and lymph nodes is one of the mechanisms that determine the biopersistence of particles. This study compares the nonfibrous particulate burden in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, lung parenchyma, and thoracic lymph nodes and attempts to detect the degree of differentiation, if any, based on particle size or type. This comparison can only be done on BAL, lung parenchyma, and lymph node samples collected from the same subject over a short time. Patients undergoing surgical lung resection are suitable for this purpose. Particles recovered by digestion-filtration were counted, sized, and analyzed by analytical transmission electron microscopy. Total particle load ranges grossly between 10(5) to 10(7) p/ml in BAL, 10(9) to 10(10) p/g dry tissue in parenchyma and 10(10) to 10(11) p/g dry tissue in lymph nodes. Diameters are log-normally distributed and mean diameters range between 0.5 to 0.9 micron. Nonlamellar silicate particles have a significantly larger diameter in lymph nodes. Differences in particle type between the three sampling sites are small and nonsystematic. PMID:7882946

  20. Developmental changes in cell and tissue water relations parameters in storage parenchyma of sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Moore, P H; Cosgrove, D J

    1991-01-01

    The osmotic pressure of the cell sap of stalk storage parenchyma of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) increases by an order of magnitude during ontogeny to reach molar concentrations of sucrose at maturity. Stalk parenchyma cells must either experience very high turgor at maturation or have an ability to regulate turgor. We tested this hypothesis by using pressure probe techniques to quantify parameters of cell and tissue water relations of sugarcane storage parenchyma during ontogeny. The largest developmental change was in the volumetric elastic modulus, which increased from 6 bars in immature tissue to 43 bars in mature tissue. Turgor was maintained relatively low during sucrose accumulation by the partitioning of solutes between the cell and wall compartments. Membrane hydraulic conductivity decreased from about 12 x 10(-7) centimeters per second per bar down to 4.4 x 10(-7) centimeters per second per bar. The 2.7-fold decrease in membrane hydraulic conductivity during tissue maturation was accompanied by a 7.8-fold increase in wall elasticity. Integration of the cell wall and membrane properties appears to be by the opposing effects of turgor on hydraulic conductivity and elastic modulus. The changes in these properties during development of sugarcane stalk tissue may be a way for parenchyma cells to develop a capacity for expansive growth and still serve as a strong sink for storing high concentrations of sucrose.

  1. Acute Liver Failure After a Late TIPSS Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Radeleff, Boris Sommer, Christof-Matthias; Schawo, Simone; Lopez-Benitez, Ruben; Sauer, Peter; Schemmer, Peter; Kauffmann, Guenter W.; Richter, Goetz M.

    2008-01-15

    We report a rare case of late transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPSS) occlusion due to progressive stent protrusion into the periportal liver parenchyma, which was a result of delayed liver shrinkage 2 years after TIPSS. The initial TIPSS procedure had been carried out in a 52-year-old man as a bridge for liver transplantation because of post-alcoholic liver cirrhosis. We describe the applied TIPSS recanalization and revision technique. Immediately after TIPSS revision acute liver failure developed, which required emergency liver transplantation.

  2. Histological changes in nontumoral liver secondary to radioembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma with yttrium 90-impregnated microspheres: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Sadhna; Schwartz, Myron; Kim, Edward; Mabel Ko, Huaibin; Ward, Stephen C; Fiel, M Isabel; Thung, Swan N

    2014-11-01

    Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) with yttrium-90 is a minimally invasive locoregional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and involves selective delivery of glass or resin microspheres impregnated with radioactive yttrium-90 into small arteries preferentially supplying the tumor for tumoricidal effect thus sparing the nontumoral liver, or into lobar artery to induce atrophy and contralateral hypertrophy. Clinically, post-TARE a small proportion of cases develop radioembolization-induced liver disease. Histological changes of TARE on nontumoral liver parenchyma have not been well characterized. Herein, we report two cases of liver resections for HCC post-TARE, and describe the histological changes in nontumoral liver parenchyma.

  3. Comparison of celery (Apium graveolens L.) collenchyma and parenchyma cell wall polysaccharides enabled by solid-state (13)C NMR.

    PubMed

    Zujovic, Zoran; Chen, Da; Melton, Laurence D

    2016-02-01

    Collenchyma cells with their thickened walls are one of specific mechanical support tissues for plants, while parenchyma cells are thin walled and serve multiple functions. The parenchyma tissue is what you enjoy eating, while collenchyma, because of its fibrous nature, is not so attractive. Celery is a useful model for comparing the cell walls (CWs) of the two cell types such as collenchyma and parenchyma. However, to date, the structural characteristics of collenchyma and parenchyma cell walls from the same plant have not been compared. Monosaccharide composition suggested the collenchyma cell walls contained less pectin but more hemicellulose in comparison to parenchyma. High-resolution solid-state NMR spectra of highly mobile pectins revealed that the arabinan signals were more evident in the collenchyma spectrum, while galactan showed a much stronger resonance in the parenchyma spectrum. In addition, methyl esterified and non-esterified galacturonic acid signals were observed in parenchyma CWs, but only the latter one appeared in the collenchyma. The ratio of cellulose surface/interior obtained from CP/MAS spectra for collenchyma suggested the cellulose microfibrils were ~2.4 nm, while in the parenchyma, these were somewhat larger. X-ray diffraction indicated the size of the cellulose microfibrils were the same for both types of CWs.

  4. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis).

    PubMed

    Lamaming, Junidah; Hashim, Rokiah; Leh, Cheu Peng; Sulaiman, Othman; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Nasir, Mohammed

    2015-12-10

    In this study cellulose nanocrystals were isolated through acid hydrolysis process from parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis). The morphological properties of obtained cellulose nanocrystals were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microscopy images showed smoother and cleaner surface of parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals when compared to vascular bundle cellulose nanocrystals. The TEM image shows a higher length and diameter for parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals compared to vascular bundle cellulose nanocrystals. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed changes in functional groups after acid hydrolysis due to removal of lignin, hemicelluloses and other impurities in both type of cellulose nanocrystals. Crystallinity index of cellulose nanocrystals was observed higher for vascular bundle as compared to parenchyma. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study the thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals and it was observed higher for parenchyma cellulose nanocrystals compared to vascular bundle.

  5. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > Liver Transplant Liver Transplant Explore this section to learn more about ... resource. www.paulcox.com.au Why is the liver important? The liver is the second largest organ ...

  6. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Series Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Liver Biopsy What is a liver biopsy? A liver biopsy is a procedure that ... remove the liver tissue sample. What is the liver and what does it do? The liver is ...

  7. MR imaging of pulmonary parenchyma and emboli by paramagnetic and superparamagnetic contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Thakur, M L; Vinitski, S; Mitchell, D G; Consigny, P M; Lin, S; DeFulvio, J; Rifkin, M

    1990-01-01

    Using experimentally induced pulmonary emboli in an animal model, three intravenously administered contrast agents, Gd-DTPA-albumin microspheres (8-15 microns, 0.2 M particles/mg protein, 39-106 micrograms Gd/mg, 50 mg/ml), Gd-DTPA-liposomes (15-30 microns, 130 micrograms/mg lipid, 6 mg Gd/ml) and superparamagnetic ferrosome, (60 nm, 100 mM iron and 20 mg lipid/ml) were examined for MR imaging. Gd-DTPA entrapped in lung capillaries did not enhance the signal intensity of lung parenchyma, but liposomes (5 ml) served as better Gd-DTPA carriers and increased the parenchymal signal intensity by up to a factor of 2.3. However, neither agent improved delineation of pulmonary emboli. Ferrosome decreased the intensity of lung parenchyma, improving detectability of pulmonary emboli by several factors.

  8. The brain parenchyma has a type I interferon response that can limit virus spread

    PubMed Central

    Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Göz Aytürk, Didem; Soh, Timothy K.; Chrenek, Ryan; O’Loughlin, Elaine; Madore, Charlotte; Butovsky, Oleg; Cepko, Constance L.

    2017-01-01

    The brain has a tightly regulated environment that protects neurons and limits inflammation, designated “immune privilege.” However, there is not an absolute lack of an immune response. We tested the ability of the brain to initiate an innate immune response to a virus, which was directly injected into the brain parenchyma, and to determine whether this response could limit viral spread. We injected vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a transsynaptic tracer, or naturally occurring VSV-derived defective interfering particles (DIPs), into the caudate–putamen (CP) and scored for an innate immune response and inhibition of virus spread. We found that the brain parenchyma has a functional type I interferon (IFN) response that can limit VSV spread at both the inoculation site and among synaptically connected neurons. Furthermore, we characterized the response of microglia to VSV infection and found that infected microglia produced type I IFN and uninfected microglia induced an innate immune response following virus injection. PMID:27980033

  9. [Utility of Fibroscan in the evaluation of liver fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Carrión, José A

    2009-01-01

    Chronic liver diseases produce a progressive accumulation of collagenous fiber in the liver parenchyma. For years, liver biopsy has been the gold standard to quantify liver fibrosis. Currently, non-invasive alternatives are available to quantify fibrosis. Transient elastography (TE) or Fibroscan quantifies liver rigidity, which is proportional to the grade of liver fibrosis. Studies are available that have evaluated the reliability and limitations of TE in healthy individuals, in patients with acute hepatitis, in distinct chronic liver diseases and in liver transplant recipients. TE is reliable for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis (F4) and significant fibrosis (F2) but its values may vary according to the patient's characteristics and the etiology of the disease. TE can avoid liver biopsy in 90% of patients with cirrhosis and in up to 70% of those with significant fibrosis when combined with other non-invasive methods.

  10. A rare extramedullary involvement in myeloma: lung parenchyma and association with unfavorable chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Şahin Balçık, Özlem; Albayrak, Murat; Dağdaş, Simten; Ceran, Funda; Özet, Gülsüm; Demirağ, Funda; Yokuş, Osman

    2010-06-05

    Although pulmonary complications developing secondary to lung infections and involvement in ribs occur frequently in multiple myeloma (MM), involvement of the lung parenchyma is quite rare. In clinical studies, the involvement of lung parenchyma has been found to be associated with unfavorable prognosis. Here, a MM case in whom involvement of lung parenchyma was accompanied by unfavorable prognostic cytogenetic markers is presented. A 62-year-old male presented with complaint of cough, and heterogeneous hypodense mass was detected in thorax computerized tomography. The patient underwent bronchoscopic biopsy. Pathological examination revealed diffuse plasma cell infiltration staining with kappa immunohistochemically. In bone marrow biopsy, plasma cell infiltration was observed. In conventional cytogenetic examination, hypodiploidy was established. In cytogenetic examination carried out with fluorescence in situ hybridization, deletion (13q) was determined. In conclusion, in patients diagnosed with MM and presenting with pulmonary mass lesion, lung involvement associated with plasma cell infiltration should also be considered in the differential diagnosis. As overall survival is low in these cases, more aggressive treatment approaches such as high-dose treatment should be immediately considered.

  11. Brachypodium as an experimental system for the study of stem parenchyma biology in grasses.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jacob Krüger; Wilkerson, Curtis Gene

    2017-01-01

    Stem parenchyma is a major cell type that serves key metabolic functions for the plant especially in large grasses, such as sugarcane and sweet sorghum, where it serves to store sucrose or other products of photosynthesis. It is therefore desirable to understand the metabolism of this cell type as well as the mechanisms by which it provides its function for the rest of the plant. Ultimately, this information can be used to selectively manipulate this cell type in a controlled manner to achieve crop improvement. In this study, we show that Brachypodium distachyon is a useful model system for stem pith parenchyma biology. Brachypodium can be grown under condition where it resembles the growth patterns of important crops in that it produces large amounts of stem material with the lower leaves senescing and with significant stores of photosynthate located in the stem parenchyma cell types. We further characterize stem plastid morphology as a function of tissue types, as this organelle is central for a number of metabolic pathways, and quantify gene expression for the four main classes of starch biosynthetic genes. Notably, we find several of these genes differentially regulated between stem and leaf. These studies show, consistent with other grasses, that the stem functions as a specialized storage compartment in Brachypodium.

  12. Brachypodium as an experimental system for the study of stem parenchyma biology in grasses

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, Curtis Gene

    2017-01-01

    Stem parenchyma is a major cell type that serves key metabolic functions for the plant especially in large grasses, such as sugarcane and sweet sorghum, where it serves to store sucrose or other products of photosynthesis. It is therefore desirable to understand the metabolism of this cell type as well as the mechanisms by which it provides its function for the rest of the plant. Ultimately, this information can be used to selectively manipulate this cell type in a controlled manner to achieve crop improvement. In this study, we show that Brachypodium distachyon is a useful model system for stem pith parenchyma biology. Brachypodium can be grown under condition where it resembles the growth patterns of important crops in that it produces large amounts of stem material with the lower leaves senescing and with significant stores of photosynthate located in the stem parenchyma cell types. We further characterize stem plastid morphology as a function of tissue types, as this organelle is central for a number of metabolic pathways, and quantify gene expression for the four main classes of starch biosynthetic genes. Notably, we find several of these genes differentially regulated between stem and leaf. These studies show, consistent with other grasses, that the stem functions as a specialized storage compartment in Brachypodium. PMID:28248997

  13. MAGNETIC RESONANCE ELASTOGRAPHY OF HUMAN LUNG PARENCHYMA: TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT, THEORETICAL MODELING AND IN VIVO VALIDATION

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Yogesh K; Glaser, Kevin J; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Manduca, Armando; Ehman, Richard L; McGee, Kiaran P

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To develop a novel MR-based method for visualizing the elastic properties of human lung parenchyma in vivo and to evaluate the ability of this method to resolve differences in parenchymal stiffness at different respiration states in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods A spin-echo MR Elastography (MRE) pulse sequence was developed to provide both high shear wave motion sensitivity and short TE for improved visualization of lung parenchyma. The improved motion sensitivity of this approach was modeled and tested with phantom experiments. In vivo testing was then performed on ten healthy volunteers at the respiratory states of residual volume (RV) and total lung capacity (TLC). Results Shear wave propagation was visualized within the lungs of all volunteers and was processed to provide parenchymal shear stiffness maps of all ten subjects. Density corrected stiffness values at TLC (1.83 ± 0.22 kPa) were higher than those at the RV (1.14 ± 0.14 kPa) with the difference being statistically significant (p<0.0001). Conclusion 1H-based MR Elastography can noninvasively measure the shear stiffness of human lung parenchyma in vivo and can quantitate the change in shear stiffness due to respiration. The values obtained were consistent with previously reported in vitro assessments of cadaver lungs. Further work is required to increase the flexibility of the current acquisition and to investigate the clinical potential of lung MRE. PMID:21591003

  14. A Segmentation Method for Lung Parenchyma Image Sequences Based on Superpixels and a Self-Generating Neural Forest

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xiaolei; Zhao, Juanjuan; Jiao, Cheng; Lei, Lei; Qiang, Yan; Cui, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung parenchyma segmentation is often performed as an important pre-processing step in the computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules based on CT image sequences. However, existing lung parenchyma image segmentation methods cannot fully segment all lung parenchyma images and have a slow processing speed, particularly for images in the top and bottom of the lung and the images that contain lung nodules. Method Our proposed method first uses the position of the lung parenchyma image features to obtain lung parenchyma ROI image sequences. A gradient and sequential linear iterative clustering algorithm (GSLIC) for sequence image segmentation is then proposed to segment the ROI image sequences and obtain superpixel samples. The SGNF, which is optimized by a genetic algorithm (GA), is then utilized for superpixel clustering. Finally, the grey and geometric features of the superpixel samples are used to identify and segment all of the lung parenchyma image sequences. Results Our proposed method achieves higher segmentation precision and greater accuracy in less time. It has an average processing time of 42.21 seconds for each dataset and an average volume pixel overlap ratio of 92.22 ± 4.02% for four types of lung parenchyma image sequences. PMID:27532214

  15. An unexpected diagnosis of ectopic liver diagnosed by fine needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Barazza, Gonzalo; Adler, Douglas G.; Factor, Rachel E.

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of perigastric masses is broad, ranging from benign to malignant entities. Among the benign entities, accessory liver lobes and ectopic liver are unusual and often incidentally discovered. Here, we report a patient with malignant melanoma who was clinically suspected to have a perigastric metastasis or a gastrointestinal stromal tumor but was ultimately diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA) to have benign ectopic liver. A 47-year-old male was diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the scalp in May 2015 at a tertiary care hospital. He was found to have a 2.6 cm enhancing mass adjacent to the fundus of the stomach and below the diaphragm by computed tomography imaging. To exclude metastasis, the patient was referred to endoscopy, and an endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA was performed with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) by a cytopathologist. A relatively new FNA needle (Shark Core) was used, which produced useful core biopsy material. Cytopathology demonstrated flat sheets, single cells, and small clusters of polygonal cells. There was abundant granular cytoplasm, often containing pigment. Cells lacked pleomorphism. The smear findings appeared consistent with hepatocytes. The cell block demonstrated small core fragments of hepatic parenchyma with portal tracts. Immunohistochemistry for arginase-1 confirmed that this was hepatic tissue. ROSE was useful for communicating with the endoscopist that the mass was both far from, and not connected to, the liver. This is the first documented account of perigastric ectopic liver diagnosed by FNA. This entity should be considered in the differential of perigastric masses. PMID:28105065

  16. Viscoelastic Model for Lung Parenchyma for Multi-Scale Modeling of Respiratory System, Phase II: Dodecahedral Micro-Model

    SciTech Connect

    Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Carson, James P.; Jacob, Rick E.

    2012-03-01

    In the first year of this contractual effort a hypo-elastic constitutive model was developed and shown to have great potential in modeling the elastic response of parenchyma. This model resides at the macroscopic level of the continuum. In this, the second year of our support, an isotropic dodecahedron is employed as an alveolar model. This is a microscopic model for parenchyma. A hopeful outcome is that the linkage between these two scales of modeling will be a source of insight and inspiration that will aid us in the final year's activity: creating a viscoelastic model for parenchyma.

  17. CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Ram, P.C.; Thompson, W.M.

    1982-08-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination.

  18. Effect of storage on tensile material properties of bovine liver.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Chiao; Kemper, Andrew R; Untaroiu, Costin D

    2014-01-01

    Cadaveric tissue models play an important role in the assessment and optimization of novel restraint systems for reducing abdominal injuries. However, the effect of tissue preservation by means of freezing on the material properties of abdominal tissues remains unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of frozen storage time on the material responses of the liver parenchyma in tensile loading. Specimens from ten bovine livers were equally divided into three groups: fresh, 30-day frozen storage, and 60-day frozen storage. All preserved specimens were stored at -12°C. Dog-bone specimens from each preservation group were randomly assigned to one of three strain rates (0.01s(-1), 0.1s(-1), and 1.0s(-1)) and tested to failure in tensile loading. The local material response recorded at the tear location and the global material response of the whole specimen of the liver parenchyma specimens were investigated based on the experimental data and optimized analytical material models. The local and global failure strains decreased significantly between fresh specimens and specimens preserved for 30 days (p<0.05), and between fresh specimens and specimens preserved for 60 days (p<0.05) for all three loading rates. Changes on the material model parameters were also observed between fresh and preserved specimens. Preservation by means of frozen storage was found to affect both the material and failure response of bovine liver parenchyma in tensile loading. The stiffness of the tissue increased with increased preservation time and increased strain rate. In summary, significant changes (p<0.05) between the failure strain of previously frozen liver parenchyma samples and fresh samples were demonstrated at both global and local levels in this study. In addition, nonlinear and viscoelastic characteristics of the liver parenchyma were observed in tension for both fresh and preserved samples.

  19. Outdoor air pollution and risk for kidney parenchyma cancer in 14 European cohorts.

    PubMed

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Pedersen, Marie; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Andersen, Zorana J; Galassi, Claudia; Sommar, Johan; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun H; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Föger, Bernhard; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Migliore, Enrica; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Kooter, Ingeborg; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Vermeulen, Roel; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor air pollution at the residence and the incidence of kidney parenchyma cancer in the general population. We used data from 14 European cohorts from the ESCAPE study. We geocoded and assessed air pollution concentrations at baseline addresses by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM10 , PM2.5 , PMcoarse , PM2.5 absorbance (soot)) and nitrogen oxides (NO2 , NOx ), and collected data on traffic. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effects models for meta-analyses to calculate summary hazard ratios (HRs). The 289,002 cohort members contributed 4,111,908 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 14.2 years) 697 incident cancers of the kidney parenchyma were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed higher HRs in association with higher PM concentration, e.g. HR = 1.57 (95%CI: 0.81-3.01) per 5 μg/m(3) PM2.5 and HR = 1.36 (95%CI: 0.84-2.19) per 10(-5) m(-1) PM2.5 absorbance, albeit never statistically significant. The HRs in association with nitrogen oxides and traffic density on the nearest street were slightly above one. Sensitivity analyses among participants who did not change residence during follow-up showed stronger associations, but none were statistically significant. Our study provides suggestive evidence that exposure to outdoor PM at the residence may be associated with higher risk for kidney parenchyma cancer; the results should be interpreted cautiously as associations may be due to chance.

  20. The diagnostic value of cytokeratins expression in the renal parenchyma tumors.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Aurora; Baderca, Flavia; Lighezan, Rodica; Izvernariu, D; Raica, M

    2010-01-01

    Renal carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors, difficult to classify and identify precisely. Since their prognosis depends very much upon their type, precise diagnosis might mean the difference between therapeutic success and patient death. Cytokeratins are particularly useful for the identification of the epithelial nature of the tumors, because their expression is maintained even in poorly differentiated tumors. Monoclonal cytokeratins such as CK7 and CK20 stain different components of the renal tubular system and are a useful duo for the identification of the origin of the different tumors that might arise in the kidney. Along with polyclonal cytokeratins such as AE1/AE3 and high molecular weight cytokeratin antibodies (34betaE12, Cam 5.2), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and vimentin, they are included in every diagnostic panel for renal tumors. We have selected 138 renal parenchyma tumor specimens, performed morphological diagnosis and then stained them with polyclonal cytokeratin antibody AE1/AE3, and monoclonal antibodies to CK7 and CK20. AE1/AE3 was expressed in 61.7% of the renal parenchyma tumors, with high intensity and percentage of positive cases in the papillary carcinomas (100%), and with rare and weakly positive cells in chromophobic cells carcinomas, clear cells carcinomas and sarcomatous carcinomas. CK7 was positive in 68% of the renal parenchyma tumors, with positive reaction in 100% of the cases of chromophobic cells and sarcomatous carcinomas. Clear cells carcinomas had the less percentage of positive cells, whereas papillary carcinomas were positive in seven out of eight cases. No difference in the staining pattern was noticed between type I and type II papillary carcinomas. CK20 was negative in all cases studied.

  1. Evaluation of airway measurements in phantom parenchyma and soft tissue regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Robert A.; Kim, Hyun J.; Goldin, Jonathan G.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Brown, Matthew S.

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a 3D airway measurement technique that can be initialized at a single point (either automatically or user defined) and to evaluate the measurement accuracy with varying imaging parameters as well as in synthetic parenchyma and soft tissue regions. This approach may have advantages over existing methods that require segmentation of the entire airway branch. METHODS: Rays are cast spherically from the initial measurement point and a range image is created of the distance to the edge of the airway lumen. The trajectory of the airway is estimated from the range image, and can be used to re-construct a 2D slice perpendicular to the airway for cross-sectional measurements. The evaluation phantom consisted of 5 tubes (3.18 to 19.05 mm in diameter and 1.59 to 3.18 mm in wall thickness) embedded in synthetic lung parenchyma and soft tissue. Images were acquired at 10 and 100 mAs at three tube orientations (0°, 45°, 90°) and were reconstructed at 0.6 and 1.5 mm slice thicknesses with both smooth and standard reconstruction kernels. RESULTS: The overall diameter and wall thickness accuracy was 0.43 +/- 0.19 mm and 0.28 +/- 0.15 mm respectively in parenchyma regions and 0.46 +/- 0.16 mm and 0.49 +/- 0.40 mm respectively in the soft tissue regions. The overall accuracy of the trajectory estimate was 0.64 +/- 0.51°. The proposed technique may allow a potentially larger number of airways to be measured for research and clinical analysis than with current methods.

  2. A large sialolith on the parenchyma of the submandibular gland: A case report

    PubMed Central

    JUNG, JAE-HOON; HONG, SUNG OK; NOH, KWANTAE; LEE, DEOK-WON

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old female was referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with the complaint of pain in the right submandibular region and a dry mouth, which had started one week previously. A clinical examination revealed a swelling and tenderness in the right submandibular region. Panoramic radiography and computed tomography identified a sialolith in the submandibular gland. Surgery on the sialolith was subsequently completed under general anesthesia extraorally. A brownish stone was present in the parenchyma of the submandibular gland, measuring 14×10 mm. PMID:25009613

  3. New star on the stage: amount of ray parenchyma in tree rings shows a link to climate.

    PubMed

    Olano, José Miguel; Arzac, Alberto; García-Cervigón, Ana I; von Arx, Georg; Rozas, Vicente

    2013-04-01

    Tree-ring anatomy reflects the year-by-year impact of environmental factors on tree growth. Up to now, research in this field has mainly focused on the hydraulic architecture, with ray parenchyma neglected despite the growing recognition of its relevance for xylem function. Our aim was to address this gap by exploring the potential of the annual patterns of xylem parenchyma as a climate proxy. We constructed ring-width and ray-parenchyma chronologies from 1965 to 2004 for 20 Juniperus thurifera trees growing in a Mediterranean continental climate. Chronologies were related to climate records by means of correlation, multiple regression and partial correlation analyses. Ray parenchyma responded to climatic conditions at critical stages during the xylogenetic process; namely, at the end of the previous year's xylogenesis (October) and at the onset of earlywood (May) and latewood formation (August). Ray parenchyma-based chronologies have potential to complement ring-width chronologies as a tool for climate reconstructions. Furthermore, medium- and low-frequency signals in the variation of ray parenchyma may improve our understanding of how trees respond to environmental fluctuations and to global change.

  4. [Effects of cadmium on the ovarian parenchyma in Swiss albino mice].

    PubMed

    Lubo-Palma, Adonías; Nava-Leal, Carmen; Villasmil, Víctor; Quevedo, Ana Luisa; Montiel, Maria; Simoes, David; Faría, Clarisa

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of cadmium on the ovarian parenchyma. An experimental study was designed with 25 Swiss albino mice (healthy females) living 50 days under controlled laboratory conditions. For the experimental group, 21 mice were selected at random and divided into 3 groups (B, C, and D) of 7 animals each; thereafter they were exposed, respectively, to 50, 100 and 150 ppm of cadmium chloride dissolved in water offered ad libitum. They were compared with the control group A (6 remaining mice). Beginning on week three, physical and behavioral changes were observed: darkening of the eyes, yellowish discoloration of hair, flaccid and hypotonic muscles, irritability, aggressiveness and indifference. Ovaric histological findings were compared among the groups through optic microscopy and they were the following in cadmium exposed mice: 1) in the epithelium, proliferation, finger-like projections, hyperplasia, degeneration and necrosis; 2) in the ovary cortex, increased numbers of atresic follicles, decreased number of follicles in different stages of maturation, disorganization, edema and decreased number of yellow bodies; 3) in the interfollicular zone, areas of disorganization, edema and necrosis, mainly in the samples belonging to group D; 4) in the ovaric medulla, congestion, hyperemia and large sanguineous vasodilatation tending to haemorrhage. Since these effects increased with increasing concentrations of cadmium chloride, we may conclude that cadmium chloride is a highly toxic agent on the ovaric parenchyma of Swiss albino mice.

  5. The diagnostic value of EMA expression in the renal parenchyma tumors.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Aurora; Baderca, Flavia; Lighezan, Rodica; Zăhoi, Delia Elena; Izvernariu, D

    2011-01-01

    Renal parenchyma tumors are a heterogeneous group of malignancies that are difficult to diagnose and classify. Immunohistochemistry begun to be routinely used for the diagnosis of these tumors. Panels of antibodies are developed for the diagnostic assessment of these tumors, which include cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen and vimentin. Epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) is expressed by most of the tumor cell types. Forty-seven specimens of renal parenchyma tumors were studied immunohistochemically for the expression of EMA. In the majority of the cases, clear cells carcinoma was positive for EMA (25/33, 75.70%). All of the papillary carcinomas were positive, with different staining patterns between the two subtypes. The two cases of chromophobe cells carcinomas were intensely positive with a granular cytoplasmic staining pattern. The mixed epithelial-stromal tumor was negative for EMA in both of the components. Out of the three cases of sarcomatoid carcinomas, one was negative, one was weakly positive (+1) and the last was positive (+2). Intensely positive normal tubes were caught by the tumor proliferation in the negative case and in the negative stained areas of the weakly positive case.

  6. Correlation of neurocognitive function and brain parenchyma volumes in children surviving cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddick, Wilburn E.; White, Holly A.; Glass, John O.; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2002-04-01

    This research builds on our hypothesis that white matter damage and associated neurocognitive symptoms, in children treated for cancer with cranial spinal irradiation, spans a continuum of severity that can be reliably probed using non-invasive MR technology. Quantitative volumetric assessments of MR imaging and psychological assessments were obtained in 40 long-term survivors of malignant brain tumors treated with cranial irradiation. Neurocognitive assessments included a test of intellect (Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (Conner's Continuous Performance Test), and memory (California Verbal Learning Test). One-sample t-tests were conducted to evaluate test performance of survivors against age-adjusted scores from the test norms; these analyses revealed significant impairments in all apriori selected measures of intelligence, attention, and memory. Partial correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationships between brain tissues volumes (normal appearing white matter (NAWM), gray matter, and CSF) and neurocognitive function. Global intelligence (r = 0.32, p = 0.05) and global attentional (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) were significantly positively correlated with NAWM volumes, whereas global memory was significantly positively correlated with overall brain parenchyma (r = 0.38, p = 0.04). We conclude that quantitative assessment of MR examinations in survivors of childhood cancer treated with cranial irradiation reveal that loss of NAWM is associated with decreased intellectual and attentional deficits, whereas overall parenchyma loss, as reflected by increased CSF and decreased white matter, is associated with memory-related deficits.

  7. Biomechanics of the lung parenchyma: critical roles of collagen and mechanical forces.

    PubMed

    Suki, Béla; Ito, Satoru; Stamenovic, Dimitrije; Lutchen, Kenneth R; Ingenito, Edward P

    2005-05-01

    The biomechanical properties of connective tissues play fundamental roles in how mechanical interactions of the body with its environment produce physical forces at the cellular level. It is now recognized that mechanical interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) have major regulatory effects on cellular physiology and cell-cycle kinetics that can lead to the reorganization and remodeling of the ECM. The connective tissues are composed of cells and the ECM, which includes water and a variety of biological macromolecules. The macromolecules that are most important in determining the mechanical properties of these tissues are collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. Among these macromolecules, the most abundant and perhaps most critical for structural integrity is collagen. In this review, we examine how mechanical forces affect the physiological functioning of the lung parenchyma, with special emphasis on the role of collagen. First, we overview the composition of the connective tissue of the lung and their complex structural organization. We then describe how mechanical properties of the parenchyma arise from its composition as well as from the architectural organization of the connective tissue. We argue that, because collagen is the most important load-bearing component of the parenchymal connective tissue, it is also critical in determining the homeostasis and cellular responses to injury. Finally, we overview the interactions between the parenchymal collagen network and cellular remodeling and speculate how mechanotransduction might contribute to disease propagation and the development of small- and large-scale heterogeneities with implications to impaired lung function in emphysema.

  8. [Polycystic liver disease without autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Peces, R; González, P; Venegas, J L

    2003-01-01

    Polycystic liver disease is characterized by the presence of multiple bile duct-derived epithelial cysts scattered in the liver parenchyma. The natural history and clinical manifestations of polycystic liver disease are based on the disease as it manifests in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The occurrence of polycystic liver disease independently from polycystic kidney disease has been known for a long time. More recently, a gene for autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease has been identified on chromosome 19p 13.2-13.1. Isolated polycystic liver disease is underdiagnosed and genetically distinct from polycystic liver disease associated with ADPKD but with similar pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. We report here two men with polycystic liver disease no associated with ADPKD. Ultrasound and computed tomography imaging were effective in documenting the underlying lesions non-invasively.

  9. Role of liver biopsy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Brunt, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as abnormal accumulation (> 5%) of hepatic triglyceride without excess alcohol intake, is the most common form of chronic liver disease in adults and children in the United States. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of histologic findings including uncomplicated steatosis, steatosis with inflammation and steatohepatitis [nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]; the latter can advance to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is currently accepted as the hepatic manifestation of the set of cardiovascular risk factors collectively known as metabolic syndrome. In 1999 a system for histologic grading and staging for NASH was proposed; this was revised by the NASH Clinical Research Network in 2005 for the entire spectrum of lesions in NAFLD, including the lesions and patterns of pediatric NAFLD, and for application in clinical research trials. Diagnosis remains distinct from grade and stage. A recent European proposal separates steatosis from activity to derive a numeric diagnosis of NASH. Even though there have been promising advancements in non-invasive testing, these tests are not yet detailed enough to replace the full range of findings provided by liver biopsy evaluation. Limitations of biopsy are acknowledged, but liver biopsy remains the “gold standard” for diagnosis and determination of amounts of necroinflammatory activity, and location of fibrosis, as well as remodeling of the parenchyma in NASH. This review focuses on the specific histologic lesions of NAFLD and NASH, grading and staging, differential diagnoses to be considered, and the continuing role of the liver biopsy in this important liver disease. PMID:25083076

  10. Compositional analysis of Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) cell-wall material from parenchyma, epidermis, and subepidermal tissues.

    PubMed

    Grassby, Terri; Jay, Andrew J; Merali, Zara; Parker, Mary L; Parr, Adrian J; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2013-10-09

    Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis (Burman f.) Trin ex Henschel) is a corm consumed globally in Oriental-style cuisine. The corm consists of three main tissues, the epidermis, subepidermis, and parenchyma; the cell walls of which were analyzed for sugar, phenolic, and lignin content. Sugar content, measured by gas chromatography, was higher in the parenchyma cell walls (931 μg/mg) than in the subepidermis (775 μg/mg) or epidermis (685 μg/mg). The alkali-extractable phenolic content, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, was greater in the epidermal (32.4 μg/mg) and subepidermal cell walls (21.7 μg/mg) than in the cell walls of the parenchyma (12.3 μg/mg). The proportion of diferulic acids was higher in the parenchyma. The Klason lignin content of epidermal and subepidermal cell walls was ~15%. Methylation analysis of Chinese water chestnut cell-wall polysaccharides identified xyloglucan as the predominant hemicellulose in the parenchyma for the first time, and also a significant pectin component, similar to other nongraminaceous monocots.

  11. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  12. The lung strip: evaluation of a method to study contractility of pulmonary parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Evans, J N; Adler, K B

    1981-08-01

    Isolated strips of rabbit lung were examined as an in vitro model for assessment of the direct effect of pharmacologic agents on the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in force of the strip were measured with an isometric force transducer. Histamine, acetylcholine and epinephrine elicited dose-related contractile responses. Morphological and immunohistochemical examination revealed three possible sources of force generation within the strip: airway smooth muscle, vascular smooth muscle, and interstitial actin-containing cells. Generation of force by the strip could reflect contraction of any combination of these three elements. Therefore, ascription of such contraction to peripheral airway smooth muscle alone is questionable. In order to assess the properties of the contractile elements within the strip, it is necessary to isolate and study them individually.

  13. Larch (Larix kaempferi) xylem parenchyma cells respond to subfreezing temperature by deep supercooling.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Jun; Takata, Naoki; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2007-01-01

    In previous studies, xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in the boreal softwood species larch, which has thick and rigid walls similar to those of XPCs in boreal hardwood species, were shown to respond to subfreezing temperature by deep supercooling during summer but change their freezing behavior to extracellular freezing during winter. In this study, we re-examined freezing behavior of XPCs in larch by observation of deep etching of frozen samples as well as observation of re-warmed samples after freezing using a cryo-scanning electron microscope. The results showed that XPCs in larch adapts to subfreezing temperature by deep supercooling throughout all seasons. Such freezing behavior is the same as that of XPCs in boreal hardwood species.

  14. Vascular defense responses in rice: peroxidase accumulation in xylem parenchyma cells and xylem wall thickening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Young, S. A.; Willard, L. H.; McGee, J. D.; Sweat, T.; Chittoor, J. M.; Guikema, J. A.; Leach, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    The rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a vascular pathogen that elicits a defensive response through interaction with metabolically active rice cells. In leaves of 12-day-old rice seedlings, the exposed pit membrane separating the xylem lumen from the associated parenchyma cells allows contact with bacterial cells. During resistant responses, the xylem secondary walls thicken within 48 h and the pit diameter decreases, effectively reducing the area of pit membrane exposed for access by bacteria. In susceptible interactions and mock-inoculated controls, the xylem walls do not thicken within 48 h. Xylem secondary wall thickening is developmental and, in untreated 65-day-old rice plants, the size of the pit also is reduced. Activity and accumulation of a secreted cationic peroxidase, PO-C1, were previously shown to increase in xylem vessel walls and lumen. Peptide-specific antibodies and immunogold-labeling were used to demonstrate that PO-C1 is produced in the xylem parenchyma and secreted to the xylem lumen and walls. The timing of the accumulation is consistent with vessel secondary wall thickening. The PO-C1 gene is distinct but shares a high level of similarity with previously cloned pathogen-induced peroxidases in rice. PO-C1 gene expression was induced as early as 12 h during resistant interactions and peaked between 18 and 24 h after inoculation. Expression during susceptible interactions was lower than that observed in resistant interactions and was undetectable after infiltration with water, after mechanical wounding, or in mature leaves. These data are consistent with a role for vessel secondary wall thickening and peroxidase PO-C1 accumulation in the defense response in rice to X. oryzae pv. oryzae.

  15. Gene expression associated with increased supercooling capability in xylem parenchyma cells of larch (Larix kaempferi).

    PubMed

    Takata, Naoki; Kasuga, Jun; Takezawa, Daisuke; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2007-01-01

    Xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in larch adapt to subfreezing temperatures by deep supercooling, while cortical parenchyma cells (CPCs) undergo extracellular freezing. The temperature limits of supercooling in XPCs changed seasonally from -30 degrees C during summer to -60 degrees C during winter as measured by freezing resistance. Artificial deacclimation of larch twigs collected in winter reduced the supercooling capability from -60 degrees C to -30 degrees C. As an approach to clarify the mechanisms underlying the change in supercooling capability of larch XPCs, genes expressed in association with increased supercooling capability were examined. By differential screening and differential display analysis, 30 genes were found to be expressed in association with increased supercooling capability in XPCs. These 30 genes were categorized into several groups according to their functions: signal transduction factors, metabolic enzymes, late embryogenesis abundant proteins, heat shock proteins, protein synthesis and chromatin constructed proteins, defence response proteins, membrane transporters, metal-binding proteins, and functionally unknown proteins. All of these genes were expressed most abundantly during winter, and their expression was reduced or disappeared during summer. The expression of all of the genes was significantly reduced or disappeared with deacclimation of winter twigs. Interestingly, all but one of the genes were expressed more abundantly in the xylem than in the cortex. Eleven of the 30 genes were thought to be novel cold-induced genes. The results suggest that change in the supercooling capability of XPCs is associated with expression of genes, including genes whose functions have not been identified, and also indicate that gene products that have been thought to play a role in dehydration tolerance by extracellular freezing also have a function by deep supercooling.

  16. SECs (Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells), Liver Microenvironment, and Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Vaishaali; Harris, Edward N.

    2017-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing response to chronic liver injury such as alcoholic/nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and viral hepatitis with no FDA-approved treatments. Liver fibrosis results in a continual accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and paves the way for replacement of parenchyma with nonfunctional scar tissue. The fibrotic condition results in drastic changes in the local mechanical, chemical, and biological microenvironment of the tissue. Liver parenchyma is supported by an efficient network of vasculature lined by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). These nonparenchymal cells are highly specialized resident endothelial cell type with characteristic morphological and functional features. Alterations in LSECs phenotype including lack of LSEC fenestration, capillarization, and formation of an organized basement membrane have been shown to precede fibrosis and promote hepatic stellate cell activation. Here, we review the interplay of LSECs with the dynamic changes in the fibrotic liver microenvironment such as matrix rigidity, altered ECM protein profile, and cell-cell interactions to provide insight into the pivotal changes in LSEC physiology and the extent to which it mediates the progression of liver fibrosis. Establishing the molecular aspects of LSECs in the light of fibrotic microenvironment is valuable towards development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic targets of liver fibrosis. PMID:28293634

  17. The role of the parenchyma sheath and PCD during the development of oil cavities in Pterodon pubescens (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Tatiane Maria; Santos, Daniela Carvalho Dos; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2011-07-01

    Pterodon pubescens cavities are constituted by lumen and uniseriated epithelium surrounded by multiseriate parenchyma sheath. We studied the development of secretory cavities, including the role of parenchyma sheath, using light and transmission electron microscopy. A Tunel assay was performed to verify whether programmed cell death (PCD) occurs during the process. The lumen is formed by schizogeny and lysigeny occur in later developmental stages of the secretory cavities. Ultrastructurally, epithelial cells in later developmental stages become dark and with sinuous walls; the protoplast becomes retracted and the cytoplasm shows low organelle definition. Degenerated cells are released toward the lumen. Our results showed that PCD occurs during later developmental stages of cavities and plays a critical role in functioning of these glands. New cells originated from the parenchyma sheath differentiate into secretory cells and replace those degenerated ones. This fact associated to PCD guarantees epithelium renovation during the secretory cycle and the maintenance of secretory activity of cavities.

  18. Experimental study of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on a model of starving chickens: is generalization of steatosis accompanied by fibrosis of the liver tissue?

    PubMed

    Makovicky, Peter; Dudova, Marketa; Tumova, Eva; Rajmon, Radko; Vodkova, Zuzana

    2011-03-15

    The objective of this work was to study the mechanism of liver parenchyma development under the influence of restriction of diet. Useful information is presented about the pathologic features associated with diet restriction in a chicken animal model of NAFLD. There were 96 chickens of two genotypes, Ross 308 and Cobb 500, in the experiment. The control group was fed a standard mixture ad libitum (ADL). The first experimental group, under restriction from the age of 2 weeks, was fed 80% ADL. The second experimental group was fed 65% ADL from the age of 2 weeks. There were 16 animals in each group. The experiment lasted 5 weeks. Liver parenchyma samples were obtained at the age of 35 days by the necropsy method and then processed by standard histologic methods. The slices were stained by standard staining: hematoxylin-eosin and by Sirius red kit for collagen type I and reticulin visualization. Hepatocyte diameter and the proportion of interstitial tissue to the parenchyma of the liver were measured objectively. Microvesicular liver steatosis was observed after 35 days of restriction. Hepatocyte diameter was significantly influenced by sex, genotype, and the experimental group. The proportion of interstitial tissue to the liver parenchyma was highly influenced by genotype and group, but there were no interactions. An increase in the steatosis histologic grade is associated with inflammatory changes, with decrease of hepatocyte diameter and with a decreasing proportion of interstitial tissue to the liver parenchyma. The results show that early restriction is not associated with the development of fibrosis of the liver tissue.

  19. Hepatic progenitor cells of biliary origin with liver repopulation capacity

    PubMed Central

    Boulter, Luke; Tsuchiya, Atsunori; Cole, Alicia M; Hay, Trevor; Guest, Rachel V; Wojtacha, Davina; Man, Tak Yung; Mackinnon, Alison; Ridgway, Rachel A; Kendall, Timothy; Williams, Michael J; Jamieson, Thomas; Raven, Alex; Hay, David C; Iredale, John P; Clarke, Alan R; Sansom, Owen J; Forbes, Stuart J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatocytes and cholangiocytes self renew following liver injury. Following severe injury hepatocytes are increasingly senescent, whether Hepatic Progenitor Cells (HPCs) then contribute to liver regeneration is unclear. Here, we describe a mouse model where Mdm2 is inducibly deleted in over 98% of hepatocytes, causing apoptosis, necrosis and senescence with nearly all hepatocytes expressing p21. This results in florid HPC activation, which is necessary for survival, followed by complete, functional liver reconstitution. HPCs isolated from genetically normal mice, using cell surface markers, were highly expandable and phenotypically stable in vitro. These HPCs were transplanted into adult mouse livers where hepatocyte Mdm2 was repeatedly deleted, creating a non-competitive repopulation assay. Transplanted HPCs contributed significantly to restoration of liver parenchyma, regenerating hepatocytes and biliary epithelia, highlighting their in vivo lineage potency. HPCs are therefore a potential future alternative to hepatocyte or liver transplantation for liver disease. PMID:26192438

  20. Liver resection using a water jet.

    PubMed

    Une, Y; Uchino, J; Horie, T; Sato, Y; Ogasawara, K; Kakita, A; Sano, F

    1989-01-01

    The water-jet method has been used during hepatic resection. The instrument cuts the hepatic tissue with the high pressure of the fine water flow, while the exposed elastic intrahepatic vessels are spared injury. A comparative study on the water-jet method with the previously employed conventional methods was undertaken. Hepatic resections were performed on 35 patients using the water-jet method. Cirrhosis of the liver was associated with 10 of the 24 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. An ordinary saline solution was used as the jet, which was projected at a pressure of between 12 kg/cm2 and 20 kg/cm2 through a 0.15/mm-diameter nozzle. A higher jet pressure was needed to cut the fibrotic hepatic parenchyma. In the case of normal liver, the intrahepatic vessels of more than 0.2 mm were well preserved. In most of the cases, the loss of blood when cutting the hepatic parenchyma can be easily reduced with a jet pressure of 15-16 kg/cm2, thus preserving the fine vessels more than 0.2 mm in diameter without injury. When the same pressure was applied in the cutting of a cirrhotic liver, it took much longer time compared to that of a non-cirrhotic normal liver parenchyma. The cut surface was smooth compared to that after using CUSA, although its disadvantages lie in the formation of air bubbles, which obscure the operative field. The controlled projection of a jet of water under optimal pressure may ensure a safe hepatic resection of both normal and cirrhotic livers. Furthermore, because of its uncomplicated form, a wide range of applications can be expected, while the lower cost will also expedite its large-scale use for economic reasons.

  1. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  2. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  3. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  4. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  5. Chemotherapy-associated liver injury: impact on surgical management of colorectal cancer liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Kneuertz, Peter J; Maithel, Shishir K; Staley, Charles A; Kooby, David A

    2011-01-01

    Chemotherapy is integral to the management of patients with advanced colorectal cancer liver metastases. Due to their improved efficacy, modern regimens can sometimes convert unresectable disease to a resectable state. As chemotherapy is often administered prior to hepatic resection, adverse effects on the liver are increasingly being recognized. Investigators have identified a wide spectrum of effects on the underlying liver parenchyma, ranging from mild forms of steatosis to severe steatohepatitis and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. As the histopathologic definitions of these changes evolve, studies have identified specific patterns of hepatic injury related to the various chemotherapeutic agents. The impact of these changes on perioperative outcome after partial hepatectomy remains controversial. Timing and duration of chemotherapy may play a key role and account for discrepancies in outcomes seen among studies. In this review, we provide an overview of the spectrum of chemotherapy-associated liver injury and discuss its relevance to perioperative management of patients undergoing hepatic resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases.

  6. Access to the brain parenchyma using endovascular techniques and a micro-working channel.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Johan; Johansson, Carina B; Jonsson, Stefan; Holmin, Staffan

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Several older studies report a low risk for parenchymal access to the CNS by surgical techniques. In more recent studies, including those with post-puncture CT scans, there are indications that the risk of bleeding might approach 8%. New therapies, such as those that use viral vectors, modified mRNA, or cell transplantation, will probably warrant more parenchymal access to the CNS. Other minimally invasive routes might then be tempting to explore. This study was designed in 2 parts to address the possibility of using the endovascular route. The first aim was to test the ability to create a parenchymal micro-working channel to the CNS in macaque monkeys through the vessel wall. Second, the biocompatibility of a device-associated, detached, distal securing plug that was made of nitinol was investigated in swine for 1 year. METHODS Trans-vessel wall intervention in the middle cerebral artery and associated cerebral parenchyma was performed in 4 rhesus macaque monkeys using a full clinical angiography suite. A contrast agent and methylene blue were injected to test the working channel and then detached at the distal end to act as a securing plug through the vessel wall. One-year follow-ups were also performed using angiography and histological analysis in 10 swine with 24 implants that were distributed in the external carotid artery tree. RESULTS The cerebral interventions were performed without acute bleeding. Both the contrast agent and methylene blue were infused into the brain parenchyma and subarachnoidal space via the endovascular micro-working channel (7 injections in 4 animals). In the 1-year follow-up period, the implant that was left in the external carotid vessel wall in the swine was covered by the endothelium, which was followed by dislodgement just outside the blood vessel with thin capsule formation. No stenosis in the artery was detected on 1-year angiography. The animals showed normal behavior and blood sample results during the follow

  7. Texture-learning-based system for three-dimensional segmentation of renal parenchyma in abdominal CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cong-Qi; Chang, Yuan-Hsiang; Wang, Li-Jen; Wong, Yon-Choeng; Chiang, Yang-Jen; Jiang, Yan-Yau

    2009-02-01

    Abdominal CT images are commonly used for the diagnosis of kidney diseases. With the advances of CT technology, processing of CT images has become a challenging task mainly because of the large number of CT images being studied. This paper presents a texture-learning based system for the three-dimensional (3D) segmentation of renal parenchyma in abdominal CT images. The system is designed to automatically delineate renal parenchyma and is based on the texturelearning and the region-homogeneity-based approaches. The first approach is achieved with the texture analysis using the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features and an artificial neural network (ANN) to determine if a pixel in the CT image is likely to fall within the renal parenchyma. The second approach incorporates a two-dimensional (2D) region growing to segment renal parenchyma in single CT image slice and a 3D region growing to propagate the segmentation results to neighboring CT image slices. The criterion for the region growing is a test of region-homogeneity which is defined by examining the ANN outputs. In system evaluation, 10 abdominal CT image sets were used. Automatic segmentation results were compared with manually segmentation results using the Dice similarity coefficient. Among the 10 CT image sets, our system has achieved an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.87 that clearly shows a high correlation between the two segmentation results. Ultimately, our system could be incorporated in applications for the delineation of renal parenchyma or as a preprocessing in a CAD system of kidney diseases.

  8. Celery (Apium graveolens) parenchyma cell walls: cell walls with minimal xyloglucan.

    PubMed

    Thimm, Julian C.; Burritt, David J.; Sims, Ian M.; Newman, Roger H.; Ducker, William A.; Melton, Laurence D.

    2002-10-01

    The primary walls of celery (Apium graveolens L.) parenchyma cells were isolated and their polysaccharide components characterized by glycosyl linkage analysis, cross-polarization magic-angle spinning solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS 13C NMR) and X-ray diffraction. Glycosyl linkage analysis showed that the cell walls consisted of mainly cellulose (43 mol%) and pectic polysaccharides (51 mol%), comprising rhamnogalacturonan (28 mol%), arabinan (12 mol%) and galactan (11 mol%). The amounts of xyloglucan (2 mol%) and xylan (2 mol%) detected in the cell walls were strikingly low. The small amount of xyloglucan present means that it cannot coat the cellulose microfibrils. Solid-state 13C NMR signals were consistent with the constituents identified by glycosyl linkage analysis and allowed the walls to be divided into three domains, based on the rigidity of the polymers. Cellulose (rigid) and rhamnogalacturonan (semi-mobile) polymers responded to the CP/MAS 13C NMR pulse sequence and were distinguished by differences in proton spin relaxation time constants. The arabinans, the most mobile polymers, responded to single-pulse excitation (SPE), but not CP/MAS 13C NMR. From solid-state 13C NMR of the cell walls the diameter of the crystalline cellulose microfibrils was determined to be approximately 3 nm while X-ray diffraction of the cell walls gave a value for the diameter of approximately 2 nm.

  9. Molecular crosstalk between tumour and brain parenchyma instructs histopathological features in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bougnaud, Sébastien; Golebiewska, Anna; Oudin, Anaïs; Keunen, Olivier; Harter, Patrick N.; Mäder, Lisa; Azuaje, Francisco; Fritah, Sabrina; Stieber, Daniel; Kaoma, Tony; Vallar, Laurent; Brons, Nicolaas H.C.; Daubon, Thomas; Miletic, Hrvoje; Sundstrøm, Terje; Herold-Mende, Christel; Mittelbronn, Michel; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Niclou, Simone P.

    2016-01-01

    The histopathological and molecular heterogeneity of glioblastomas represents a major obstacle for effective therapies. Glioblastomas do not develop autonomously, but evolve in a unique environment that adapts to the growing tumour mass and contributes to the malignancy of these neoplasms. Here, we show that patient-derived glioblastoma xenografts generated in the mouse brain from organotypic spheroids reproducibly give rise to three different histological phenotypes: (i) a highly invasive phenotype with an apparent normal brain vasculature, (ii) a highly angiogenic phenotype displaying microvascular proliferation and necrosis and (iii) an intermediate phenotype combining features of invasion and vessel abnormalities. These phenotypic differences were visible during early phases of tumour development suggesting an early instructive role of tumour cells on the brain parenchyma. Conversely, we found that tumour-instructed stromal cells differentially influenced tumour cell proliferation and migration in vitro, indicating a reciprocal crosstalk between neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells. We did not detect any transdifferentiation of tumour cells into endothelial cells. Cell type-specific transcriptomic analysis of tumour and endothelial cells revealed a strong phenotype-specific molecular conversion between the two cell types, suggesting co-evolution of tumour and endothelial cells. Integrative bioinformatic analysis confirmed the reciprocal crosstalk between tumour and microenvironment and suggested a key role for TGFβ1 and extracellular matrix proteins as major interaction modules that shape glioblastoma progression. These data provide novel insight into tumour-host interactions and identify novel stroma-specific targets that may play a role in combinatorial treatment strategies against glioblastoma. PMID:27049916

  10. Transcranial sonography (TCS) of brain parenchyma in movement disorders: quality standards, diagnostic applications and novel technologies.

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Školoudík, D

    2014-08-01

    Transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS) of brain parenchyma is being increasingly used as a diagnostic tool in movement disorders. Compared to other neuroimaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, TCS can be performed today with portable machines and has the advantages of noninvasiveness and high resistance to movement artifacts. In distinct brain disorders TCS detects abnormalities that cannot be visualized or can only be visualized with significant effort with other imaging methods. In the field of movement disorders, TCS has been established mainly as a tool for the early and differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. The postoperative position control of deep brain stimulation electrodes, especially in the subthalamic nucleus, can reliably and safely be performed with TCS.  The present update review summarizes the current methodological standards and defines quality criteria of adequate TCS imaging and assessment of diagnostically relevant deep brain structures such as substantia nigra, brainstem raphe, basal ganglia and ventricles. Finally, an overview is given on recent technological advances including TCS-MRI fusion imaging and upcoming technologies of digitized image analysis aiming at a more investigator-independent assessment of deep brain structures on TCS.

  11. Efficient ethanol production from separated parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk.

    PubMed

    Prawitwong, Panida; Kosugi, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Deng, Lan; Lee, Kok Chang; Ibrahim, Darah; Murata, Yoshinori; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Sudesh, Kumar; Ibrahim, Wan Asma Bt; Saito, Masayoshi; Mori, Yutaka

    2012-12-01

    For efficient utilization of both starchy and cellulosic materials, oil palm trunk was separated into parenchyma (PA) and vascular bundle (VB). High solid-state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (HSS-SSF) using 30% (w/v) PA, containing 46.7% (w/w) starch, supplemented with amylases and Saccharomyces cerevisiae K3, produced 6.1% (w/v) ethanol. Subsequent alkali-pretreatment using sodium hydroxide was carried out with starch-free PA (sfPA) and VB. Enzymatic digestibility of 5% (w/v) pretreated sfPA and VB was 92% and 97%, respectively, using 18 FPU of commercial cellulase supplemented with 10 U of Novozyme-188 per gram of substrate. Likewise, HSS-SSF using 30% (w/v) alkali-pretreated sfPA and VB, with cellulases and yeast, resulted in high ethanol production (8.2% and 8.5% (w/v), respectively). These results show that HSS-SSF using separated PA and VB is a useful fermentation strategy, without loss of starchy and cellulosic materials, for oil palm trunk.

  12. Agrin in Alzheimer's Disease: Altered Solubility and Abnormal Distribution within Microvasculature and Brain Parenchyma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, John E.; Berzin, Tyler M.; Rafii, Michael S.; Glass, David J.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Fallon, Justin R.; Stopa, Edward G.

    1999-05-01

    Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is widely expressed in neurons and microvascular basal lamina in the rodent and avian central nervous system. Agrin induces the differentiation of nerve-muscle synapses, but its function in either normal or diseased brains is not known. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by loss of synapses, changes in microvascular architecture, and formation of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. Here we have asked whether AD causes changes in the distribution and biochemical properties of agrin. Immunostaining of normal, aged human central nervous system revealed that agrin is expressed in neurons in multiple brain areas. Robust agrin immunoreactivity was observed uniformly in the microvascular basal lamina. In AD brains, agrin is highly concentrated in both diffuse and neuritic plaques as well as neurofibrillary tangles; neuronal expression of agrin also was observed. Furthermore, patients with AD had microvascular alterations characterized by thinning and fragmentation of the basal lamina. Detergent extraction and Western blotting showed that virtually all the agrin in normal brain is soluble in 1% SDS. In contrast, a large fraction of the agrin in AD brains is insoluble under these conditions, suggesting that it is tightly associated with β -amyloid. Together, these data indicate that the agrin abnormalities observed in AD are closely linked to β -amyloid deposition. These observations suggest that altered agrin expression in the microvasculature and the brain parenchyma contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.

  13. Predictive models for pressure-driven fluid infusions into brain parenchyma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Raghu; Brady, Martin

    2011-10-01

    Direct infusions into brain parenchyma of biological therapeutics for serious brain diseases have been, and are being, considered. However, individual brains, as well as distinct cytoarchitectural regions within brains, vary in their response to fluid flow and pressure. Further, the tissue responds dynamically to these stimuli, requiring a nonlinear treatment of equations that would describe fluid flow and drug transport in brain. We here report in detail on an individual-specific model and a comparison of its prediction with simulations for living porcine brains. Two critical features we introduced into our model—absent from previous ones, but requirements for any useful simulation—are the infusion-induced interstitial expansion and the backflow. These are significant determinants of the flow. Another feature of our treatment is the use of cross-property relations to obtain individual-specific parameters that are coefficients in the equations. The quantitative results are at least encouraging, showing a high fraction of overlap between the computed and measured volumes of distribution of a tracer molecule and are potentially clinically useful. Several improvements are called for; principally a treatment of the interstitial expansion more fundamentally based on poroelasticity and a better delineation of the diffusion tensor of a particle confined to the interstitial spaces.

  14. Biochemical and Cytological Analyses of RNA Synthesis in Kinetin-treated Pea Root Parenchyma 1

    PubMed Central

    Shininger, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Excised cortical parenchyma from the pea root (cv. Little Marvel) responds to kinetin/auxin treatment with an increased rate of RNA synthesis well before reinitiating DNA synthesis. Few cells synthesize RNA in the 1st hour of culture. In the presence of kinetin/auxin, the nuclear labeling index increases 2.5-fold as compared to control cultures. The RNA synthesis response has an apparent lag period of 2-4 hours as shown by double label ([3H]adenosine/[14C]adenosine) experiments. Qualitatively, the RNA synthesized at 4-6 hours sediments between 18S and 5S. The RNA synthesized at 14-16 hours and 24-26 hours is primarily ribosomal RNA when kinetin is present. In the absence of kinetin, no clear pattern of RNA synthesis emerges. The data are interpreted to mean that kinetin treatment elicits RNA synthesis in a small proportion of the population initially and this may involve messenger-like RNA. Later, more cells synthesize RNA and this is primarily rRNA. Images PMID:16661292

  15. Human Polyomavirus Receptor Distribution in Brain Parenchyma Contrasts with Receptor Distribution in Kidney and Choroid Plexus

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Sheila A.; O'Hara, Bethany A.; Nelson, Christian D.S.; Brittingham, Frances L.P.; Henriksen, Kammi J.; Stopa, Edward G.; Atwood, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    The human polyomavirus, JCPyV, is the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a rare demyelinating disease that occurs in the setting of prolonged immunosuppression. After initial asymptomatic infection, the virus establishes lifelong persistence in the kidney and possibly other extraneural sites. In rare instances, the virus traffics to the central nervous system, where oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and glial precursors are susceptible to lytic infection, resulting in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The mechanisms by which the virus traffics to the central nervous system from peripheral sites remain unknown. Lactoseries tetrasaccharide c (LSTc), a pentasaccharide containing a terminal α2,6–linked sialic acid, is the major attachment receptor for polyomavirus. In addition to LSTc, type 2 serotonin receptors are required for facilitating virus entry into susceptible cells. We studied the distribution of virus receptors in kidney and brain using lectins, antibodies, and labeled virus. The distribution of LSTc, serotonin receptors, and virus binding sites overlapped in kidney and in the choroid plexus. In brain parenchyma, serotonin receptors were expressed on oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, but these cells were negative for LSTc and did not bind virus. LSTc was instead found on microglia and vascular endothelium, to which virus bound abundantly. Receptor distribution was not changed in the brains of patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Virus infection of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes during disease progression is LSTc independent. PMID:26056932

  16. Neutrophils Infiltrate the Spinal Cord Parenchyma of Rats with Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Victoria L.; Guck, Jonathan D.; Cotter, Mary A.

    2017-01-01

    Spinal glial cell activation and cytokine secretion have been implicated in the etiology of neuropathic pain in a number of experimental models, including diabetic neuropathy. In this study, streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with gabapentin (50 mg/kg/day by gavage for 2 weeks, from 6 weeks after STZ). At 8 weeks after STZ, hypersensitivity was confirmed in the untreated diabetic rats as a reduced response threshold to touch, whilst mechanical thresholds in gabapentin-treated diabetic rats were no different from controls. Diabetes-associated thermal hypersensitivity was also ameliorated by gabapentin. We performed a cytokine profiling array in lumbar spinal cord samples from control and diabetic rats. This revealed an increase in L-selectin, an adhesion molecule important for neutrophil transmigration, in the spinal cord of diabetic rats but not diabetic rats treated with gabapentin. Furthermore, we found an increase in the number of neutrophils present in the parenchyma of the spinal cord, which was again ameliorated in gabapentin-treated diabetic rats. Therefore, we suggest that dysregulated spinal L-selectin and neutrophil infiltration into the spinal cord could contribute to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy. PMID:28293643

  17. Resistance to alveolar shape change limits range of force propagation in lung parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Baoshun; Smith, Bradford J; Bates, Jason H T

    2015-06-01

    We have recently shown that if the lung parenchyma is modeled in 2 dimensions as a network of springs arranged in a pattern of repeating hexagonal cells, the distortional forces around a contracting airway propagate much further from the airway wall than classic continuum theory predicts. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that this occurs because of the negligible shear modulus of a hexagonal spring network. We simulated the narrowing of an airway embedded in a hexagonal network of elastic alveolar walls when the hexagonal cells of the network offered some resistance to a change in shape. We found that as the forces resisting shape change approach about 10% of the forces resisting length change of an individual spring the range of distortional force propagation in the spring network fell of rapidly as in an elastic continuum. We repeated these investigations in a 3-dimensional spring network composed of space-filling polyhedral cells and found similar results. This suggests that force propagation away from a point of local parenchymal distortion also falls off rapidly in real lung tissue.

  18. Human polyomavirus receptor distribution in brain parenchyma contrasts with receptor distribution in kidney and choroid plexus.

    PubMed

    Haley, Sheila A; O'Hara, Bethany A; Nelson, Christian D S; Brittingham, Frances L P; Henriksen, Kammi J; Stopa, Edward G; Atwood, Walter J

    2015-08-01

    The human polyomavirus, JCPyV, is the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a rare demyelinating disease that occurs in the setting of prolonged immunosuppression. After initial asymptomatic infection, the virus establishes lifelong persistence in the kidney and possibly other extraneural sites. In rare instances, the virus traffics to the central nervous system, where oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and glial precursors are susceptible to lytic infection, resulting in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The mechanisms by which the virus traffics to the central nervous system from peripheral sites remain unknown. Lactoseries tetrasaccharide c (LSTc), a pentasaccharide containing a terminal α2,6-linked sialic acid, is the major attachment receptor for polyomavirus. In addition to LSTc, type 2 serotonin receptors are required for facilitating virus entry into susceptible cells. We studied the distribution of virus receptors in kidney and brain using lectins, antibodies, and labeled virus. The distribution of LSTc, serotonin receptors, and virus binding sites overlapped in kidney and in the choroid plexus. In brain parenchyma, serotonin receptors were expressed on oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, but these cells were negative for LSTc and did not bind virus. LSTc was instead found on microglia and vascular endothelium, to which virus bound abundantly. Receptor distribution was not changed in the brains of patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Virus infection of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes during disease progression is LSTc independent.

  19. Predictive models for pressure-driven fluid infusions into brain parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Raghu; Brady, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Direct infusions into brain parenchyma of biological therapeutics for serious brain diseases have been, and are being, considered. However, individual brains, as well as distinct cytoarchitectural regions within brains, vary in their response to fluid flow and pressure. Further, the tissue responds dynamically to these stimuli, requiring a nonlinear treatment of equations that would describe fluid flow and drug transport in brain. We here report in detail on an individual–specific model and a comparison of its prediction with simulations for living porcine brains. Two critical features we introduced into our model — absent from previous ones, but requirements for any useful simulation — are the infusion-induced interstitial expansion and the backflow. These are significant determinants of the flow. Another feature of our treatment is the use of cross–property relations to obtain individual–specific parameters that are coefficients in the equations. The quantitative results are at least encouraging, showing a high fraction of overlap between the computed and measured volumes of distribution of a tracer molecule, and are potentially clinically useful. Several improvements are called for; principally a treatment of the interstitial expansion more fundamentally based on poroelasticity, and a better delineation of the diffusion tensor of a particle confined to the interstitial spaces. PMID:21891847

  20. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  1. Liver Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Liver Panel Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Liver Profile; Liver Function Tests; LFTs Formal name: Hepatic ...

  2. Optofluidic phantom mimicking optical properties of porcine livers

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Ruiqi; King, Travis; Akl, Tony; Ericson, Milton Nance; Wilson, Mark A.; Cote, Gerard L.; McShane, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    One strategy for assessing efficacy of a liver transplant is to monitor perfusion and oxygenation after transplantation. An implantable optical sensor is being developed to overcome inadequacies of current monitoring approaches. To facilitate sensor design while minimizing animal use, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based liver phantom was developed to mimic the optical properties of porcine liver in the 630-1000 nm wavelength range and the anatomical geometry of liver parenchyma. Using soft lithography to construct microfluidic channels in pigmented elastomer enabled the 2D approximation of hexagonal liver lobules with 15mm sinusoidal channels, which will allow perfusion with blood-mimicking fluids to facilitate the development of the liver perfusion and oxygenation monitoring system.

  3. Liver Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Changes during Telaprevir-Based Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Gürcan, Nagihan İnan; Sakçı, Zakir; Akhan, Sıla; Altunok, Elif Sargın; Aynıoğlu, Aynur; Gürbüz, Yeşim; Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin; Akansel, Gür

    2016-01-01

    Background Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has become an established diagnostic modality for the evaluation of liver parenchymal changes in diseases such as diffuse liver fibrosis. Aims To evaluate the parenchymal apparent diffusion coefficient value (ADC) changes using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) during telaprevir-based triple therapy. Study Design Diagnostic accuracy study. Methods Seventeen patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) virus and twenty-five normal volunteers were included. All of the patients took 12-weeks of telaprevir-based triple therapy followed by 12-weeks of PEGylated interferon and ribavirin therapy. They were examined before treatment (BT), as well as 12-weeks (W12) and 24-weeks (W24) after treatment by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DWI was obtained using a breath-hold single-shot echo-planar spin echo sequence. Histopathologically, liver fibrosis was classified in accordance with the modified Knodell score described by Ishak. Quantitatively, liver ADCs were compared between patients and normal volunteers to detect the contribution of DWI in the detection of fibrosis. In addition, liver ADCs were compared during the therapy to analyze the effect of antiviral medication on liver parenchyma. Results The liver ADC values of fibrotic liver parenchyma were significantly lower than those of the healthy liver parenchyma (p<0.001). However, we were not able to reach a sufficiently discriminative threshold value. The ADC values showed a declining trend with increasing fibrotic stage. No statistically significant correlation (p=0.204) was observed. Compared with those before treatment, the liver ADC values after telaprevir-based triple therapy were significantly decreased at W12. A significant increase in the liver ADC values was also observed after the cessation of telaprevir therapy at W24 with a return to initial values. Conclusion Liver ADC values appear to indicate the present but not the stage of liver fibrosis. DWI may be

  4. Peliosis hepatis: 2 case reports of a rare liver disorder and its differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yi-Ning; Ren, Ze-Ze; Song, Wen-Yuan; Huang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Dan-Hong; Wang, Ming-Shan; Huang, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Juan; Zhang, Jia-Jie; Tong, Yong-Xi; Pan, Hong-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Peliosis hepatis (PH) is a rare tumor-like liver lesion composed of multiple blood-filled cavities within the liver parenchyma. It is hard to differentiate PH from other liver lesions by imaging, such as carcinoma, metastases, or abscess. Patient concerns: Here, we reported 2 cases that presented with liver lesions under ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scanning, without any history of liver diseases or drug usage traced back. Diagnoses: Liver biopsy and laparoscopy were processed, and the lesions were eventually diagnosed as PH by histopathology, which microscopically presented with multiple sinusoidal dilatations with blood-filled cystic spaces. Interventions: After the liver biopsy or laparoscopy, the patients were discharged and followed up in the clinic. Outcomes: Both patients were followed up for at least 1 year with good recovery. Lessons: PH should always be recognized in the differentiation of liver lesions, particularly indistinctive lesion(s) without any history of liver-related diseases. PMID:28353584

  5. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging for evaluation of renal parenchyma elasticity in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Goya, Cemil; Kilinc, Faruk; Hamidi, Cihad; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Yildirim, Yasar; Cetincakmak, Mehmet Guli; Hattapoglu, Salih

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The goal of this study is to evaluate the changes in the elasticity of the renal parenchyma in diabetic nephropathy using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. The study included 281 healthy volunteers and 114 patients with diabetic nephropathy. In healthy volunteers, the kidney elasticity was assessed quantitatively by measuring the shear-wave velocity using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging based on age, body mass index, and sex. The changes in the renal elasticity were compared between the different stages of diabetic nephropathy and the healthy control group. RESULTS. In healthy volunteers, there was a statistically significant correlation between the shear-wave velocity values and age and sex. The shear-wave velocity values for the kidneys were 2.87, 3.14, 2.95, 2.68, and 2.55 m/s in patients with stage 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 diabetic nephropathy, respectively, compared with 2.35 m/s for healthy control subjects. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging was able to distinguish between the different diabetic nephropathy stages (except for stage 5) in the kidneys. The threshold value for predicting diabetic nephropathy was 2.43 m/s (sensitivity, 84.1%; specificity, 67.3%; positive predictive value, 93.1%; negative predictive value 50.8%; accuracy, 72.1%; positive likelihood ratio, 2.5; and negative likelihood ratio, 0.23). CONCLUSION. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging could be used for the evaluation of the renal elasticity changes that are due to secondary structural and functional changes in diabetic nephropathy.

  6. Thermodynamic Battle for Photosynthate Acquisition between Sieve Tubes and Adjoining Parenchyma in Transport Phloem1

    PubMed Central

    Hafke, Jens B.; van Amerongen, Jan-Kees; Kelling, Frits; Furch, Alexandra C.U.; Gaupels, Frank; van Bel, Aart J.E.

    2005-01-01

    In transport phloem, photoassimilates escaping from the sieve tubes are released into the apoplasmic space between sieve element (SE)/companion cell (CC) complexes (SE/CCs) and phloem parenchyma cells (PPCs). For uptake respective retrieval, PPCs and SE/CCs make use of plasma membrane translocators energized by the proton motive force (PMF). Their mutual competitiveness, which essentially determines the amount of photoassimilates translocated through the sieve tubes, therefore depends on the respective PMFs. We measured the components of the PMF, membrane potential and ΔpH, of SE/CCs and PPCs in transport phloem. Membrane potentials of SE/CCs and PPCs in tissue slices as well as in intact plants fell into two categories. In the first group including apoplasmically phloem-loading species (e.g. Vicia, Solanum), the membrane potentials of the SEs are more negative than those of the PPCs. In the second group including symplasmically phloem-loading species (e.g. Cucurbita, Ocimum), membrane potentials of SEs are equal to or slightly more positive than those of PPCs. Pure sieve tube sap collected from cut aphid stylets was measured with H+-selective microelectrodes. Under our experimental conditions, pH of the sieve tube saps was around 7.5, which is comparable to the pH of cytoplasmic compartments in parenchymatous cells. In conclusion, only the membrane potential appears to be relevant for the PMF-determined competition between SE/CCs and PPCs. The findings may imply that the axial sinks along the pathway withdraw more photoassimilates from the sieve tubes in symplasmically loading species than in apoplasmically loading species. PMID:15980202

  7. Ultrastructure of Fibre and Parenchyma Cell Walls During Early Stages of Culm Development in Dendrocalamus asper

    PubMed Central

    GRITSCH, CRISTINA SANCHIS; MURPHY, RICHARD J.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The anatomy of bamboo culms and the multilayered structure of fibre cell walls are known to be the main determinant factors for its physical and mechanical properties. Studies on the bamboo cell wall have focussed mainly on fully elongated and mature fibres. The main aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of primary and secondary cell walls in culm tissues of Dendrocalamus asper at different stages of development. • Methods The development of fibre and parenchyma tissues was classified into four stages based on light microscopy observations made in tissues from juvenile plants. The stages were used as a basis for transmission electron microscopy study on the ultrastructure of the cell wall during the process of primary and early secondary cell wall formation. Macerations and phloroglucinol–HCl staining were employed to investigate fibre cell elongation and fibre cell wall lignification, respectively. • Key Results The observations indicated that the primary wall is formed by the deposition of two distinct layers during the elongation of the internode and that secondary wall synthesis may begin before the complete cessation of internode and fibre elongation. Elongation was followed by a maturation phase characterized by the deposition of multiple secondary wall layers, which varied in number according to the cell type, location in the culm tissue and stage of shoot development. Lignification of fibre cell walls started at the period prior to the cessation of internode elongation. • Conclusions The structure of the primary cell wall was comprised of two layers. The fibre secondary cell wall began to be laid down while the cells were still undergoing some elongation, suggesting that it may act to cause the slow-down and eventual cessation of cell elongation. PMID:15665037

  8. Application of stapling devices in liver surgery: Current status and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Dian-Bo; Wu, Shuo-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The liver is a vascular-rich solid organ. Safe and effective dissection of the vessels and liver parenchyma, and control of intraoperative bleeding are the main concerns when performing liver resection. Several studies have confirmed that intraoperative blood loss and postoperative transfusion are predictors of postoperative morbidity and mortality in liver surgery. Various methods and instruments have been developed during hepatectomy. Stapling devices are crucial for safe and rapid anastomosis. They are used to divide hepatic veins and portal branches, and to transect liver parenchyma in open liver resection. In recent years, laparoscopic liver surgery has developed rapidly, and is now preferred by many surgeons. Stapling devices have also been gradually introduced in laparoscopic liver surgery, from dividing vascular and biliary structures to parenchymal transection. This may be because staplers make manipulation more simple, rapid and safe. Even in single incision laparoscopic surgery, which is recognized as a new minimally invasive technique, staplers are also utilized, especially in left lateral hepatectomy. For safe application of stapling devices in liver surgery, more related designs and modifications, such as application of a suitable laparoscopic articulating liver tissue crushing device, a staple line reinforcement technique with the absorbable polymer membrane or radiofrequency ablation assistance, are still needed. More randomized studies are needed to demonstrate the benefits and find broader indications for the use of stapling devices, to help expand their application in liver surgery. PMID:27610019

  9. Mouse models of liver fibrosis mimic human liver fibrosis of different etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Allyson K.; Maroni, Luca; Marzioni, Marco; Ahmed, Syed T.; Milad, Mena; Ray, Debolina; Alpini, Gianfranco; Glaser, Shannon S.

    2014-01-01

    The liver has the amazing capacity to repair itself after injury; however, the same processes that are involved in liver regeneration after acute injury can cause serious consequences during chronic liver injury. In an effort to repair damage, activated hepatic stellate cells trigger a cascade of events that lead to deposition and accumulation of extracellular matrix components causing the progressive replacement of the liver parenchyma by scar tissue, thus resulting in fibrosis. Although fibrosis occurs as a result of many chronic liver diseases, the molecular mechanisms involved depend on the underlying etiology. Since studying liver fibrosis in human subjects is complicated by many factors, mouse models of liver fibrosis that mimic the human conditions fill this void. This review summarizes the general mouse models of liver fibrosis and mouse models that mimic specific human disease conditions that result in liver fibrosis. Additionally, recent progress that has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the fibrogenic processes of each of the human disease conditions is highlighted. PMID:25396098

  10. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  11. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  12. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  13. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  14. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  15. [Radiofrequency for the treatment of liver tumors].

    PubMed

    Elias, D; De Baere, T

    2001-04-01

    Radiofrequency is performed with thin electrodes that are placed in the center of a tumor under ultrasonographic guidance. Radiofrequency waves induce ionic agitation which destroys neighboring tissues by heat. The most recent equipment can produce necrosis of 4-cm diameter areas. Efficacy is enhanced by blocking intrahepatic blood flow which naturally refreshes the liver parenchyma. The technique has the advantage of minimal invasion and of sparing liver parenchymal tissue. radiofrequency can be performed percutaneously or by laparoscopi or laparotomy. results in most reported series have been good with low morbidity. rapid improvment of material and of new associated procedures (vascular clamping, cooling infusion of the bile ducts, transplaeurodiaphragmatic approach, combination with other new approaches in liver surgery) are continuously modifying performance levels and potential indications curently under validation. radiofrequency, like other tools for local tumor destruction, will greatly change our therapeutic strategies in the neat future.

  16. Celery (Apium graveolens L.) parenchyma cell walls examined by atomic force microscopy: effect of dehydration on cellulose microfibrils.

    PubMed

    Thimm, J C; Burritt, D J; Ducker, W A; Melton, L D

    2000-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image celery (Apium graveolens L.) parenchyma cell walls in situ. Cellulose microfibrils could clearly be distinguished in topographic images of the cell wall. The microfibrils of the hydrated walls appeared smaller, more uniformly distributed, and less enmeshed than those of dried peels. In material that was kept hydrated at all times and imaged under water, the microfibril diameter was mainly in the range 6-25 nm. The cellulose microfibril diameters were highly dependent on the water content of the specimen. As the water content was decreased, by mixing ethanol with the bathing solution, the microfibril diameters increased. Upon complete dehydration of the specimen we observed a significant increase in microfibril diameter. The procedure used to dehydrate the parenchyma cells also influenced the size of cellulose microfibrils with freeze-dried material having larger diameters than air-dried material.

  17. Accidental aspiration of head scarf pin in left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma: A rare case in a child

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Yusuf; Kandath, Mohammed Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration is commonly seen in children but less commonly in adolescents. Headscarf pin aspiration is common in Muslim girls, who inappropriately place the pins between their lips while securing the scarf on the head. Bronchoscopy is the treatment modality of choice, and surgery is rarely required. An 11-year-old girl was admitted as a case of accidental aspiration of headscarf pin. X-ray chest showed a radiopaque object in the left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma. Computed tomography (CT) chest confirmed the diagnosis. The headscarf pin was removed by flexible bronchoscopy as the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon failed to remove it by rigid bronchoscopy. The FB was removed successfully and the patient was discharged home. Removal of a sharp pin by bronchoscopy is difficult, especially if it pierces the lung parenchyma. In our case, the pin was bent by forceps and then removed by a flexible bronchoscope, which requires a highly skilled professional. PMID:27578937

  18. Accidental aspiration of head scarf pin in left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma: A rare case in a child.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Yusuf; Kandath, Mohammed Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) aspiration is commonly seen in children but less commonly in adolescents. Headscarf pin aspiration is common in Muslim girls, who inappropriately place the pins between their lips while securing the scarf on the head. Bronchoscopy is the treatment modality of choice, and surgery is rarely required. An 11-year-old girl was admitted as a case of accidental aspiration of headscarf pin. X-ray chest showed a radiopaque object in the left bronchus piercing the lung parenchyma. Computed tomography (CT) chest confirmed the diagnosis. The headscarf pin was removed by flexible bronchoscopy as the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon failed to remove it by rigid bronchoscopy. The FB was removed successfully and the patient was discharged home. Removal of a sharp pin by bronchoscopy is difficult, especially if it pierces the lung parenchyma. In our case, the pin was bent by forceps and then removed by a flexible bronchoscope, which requires a highly skilled professional.

  19. Diffuse renal parenchyma uptake with bone scintigraphy in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and normal kidney function.

    PubMed

    Balink, Hans; Hoogendoorn, Mels; Hemmelder, Marc

    2014-03-01

    A 41-year-old woman with a Harrington spondylodesis presented with lower back pain. Bone scintigraphy showed diffusely increased parenchymal uptake in both kidneys. She reported 2 previous periods of dark, almost black, urine. Additional flow cytometric analysis confirmed the diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. The increased renal parenchyma uptake is very probably due to paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria-related renal hemosiderosis. Remarkably, the patient did not develop any abnormality of renal function.

  20. Quantitative computed tomography of lung parenchyma in patients with emphysema: analysis of higher-density lung regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K.; Zheng, Bin; Sciurba, Frank C.; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (CT) has been widely used to detect and evaluate the presence (or absence) of emphysema applying the density masks at specific thresholds, e.g., -910 or -950 Hounsfield Unit (HU). However, it has also been observed that subjects with similar density-mask based emphysema scores could have varying lung function, possibly indicating differences of disease severity. To assess this possible discrepancy, we investigated whether density distribution of "viable" lung parenchyma regions with pixel values > -910 HU correlates with lung function. A dataset of 38 subjects, who underwent both pulmonary function testing and CT examinations in a COPD SCCOR study, was assembled. After the lung regions depicted on CT images were automatically segmented by a computerized scheme, we systematically divided the lung parenchyma into different density groups (bins) and computed a number of statistical features (i.e., mean, standard deviation (STD), skewness of the pixel value distributions) in these density bins. We then analyzed the correlations between each feature and lung function. The correlation between diffusion lung capacity (DLCO) and STD of pixel values in the bin of -910HU <= PV < -750HU was -0.43, as compared with a correlation of -0.49 obtained between the post-bronchodilator ratio (FEV1/FVC) measured by the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) dividing the forced vital capacity (FVC) and the STD of pixel values in the bin of -1024HU <= PV < -910HU. The results showed an association between the distribution of pixel values in "viable" lung parenchyma and lung function, which indicates that similar to the conventional density mask method, the pixel value distribution features in "viable" lung parenchyma areas may also provide clinically useful information to improve assessments of lung disease severity as measured by lung functional tests.

  1. Expression of albumin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 in tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shi-Min; Tan, Wei-Min; Deng, Wei-Xiong; Zhuang, Si-Min; Luo, Jian-Wei

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression of albumin (ALB), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Twenty-four HCC patients with cirrhosis who underwent hepatectomy were studied. ALB mRNA, IGF-1 mRNA, and IGFBP-3 mRNA in liver tissues (including tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues) were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Liver Ki67 immunohistochemistry staining was studied. At the same time, 12 patients with cholelithiasis or liver angioma who underwent operation were segregated as normal control. RESULTS: In HCC patients with cirrhosis, hepatic ALB mRNA, IGF-1 mRNA, and IGFBP-3 mRNA of tumor tissues or adjacent non-tumor tissues were lower than the normal liver tissues, while in tumor tissues, hepatic ALB mRNA and IGFBP-3 mRNA were lower, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA was higher than in adjacent non-tumor tissues. Liver Ki67 labeling index (Ki67 LI) in tumor tissues or adjacent non-tumor tissues were higher than that in the normal liver tissues, while in tumor tissues it was higher than that in adjacent non-tumor tissues. CONCLUSION: Imbalance of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 may play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor development of liver cirrhosis patients. PMID:16015705

  2. Fractal analysis of two-dimensional vascularity in primary prostate cancer and surrounding non-tumoral parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Taverna, Gianluigi; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Grizzi, Fabio; Franceschini, Barbara; Ceva-Grimaldi, Giorgia; Seveso, Mauro; Giusti, Guido; Piccinelli, Alessandro; Graziotti, Pierpaolo

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer in the world. However, none of the actual prognostic factors provide a valid index for predicting patient outcome. Here, we evaluate the two-dimensional vascularity in primary prostate tumors and surrounding non-tumoral parenchyma by means of fractal geometry, and assess any correlations between the results and some clinical and pathological parameters of prostate carcinoma. Prostate sections from 27 carcinoma patients were treated with CD34 antibodies. Two >10mm(2) areas of tumoral and surrounding non-tumoral parenchyma were digitized using an image analysis system that automatically quantified the fractal dimension of the vascular surface. Data were correlated with patient's age, PSA level, clinical and pathological stage, Gleason score, tumor volume, vascular invasion, surgical margins, and biochemical relapse. Two groups of patients were distinguished on the basis of whether the fractal dimension of their tumoral vascular surface was higher (group 1) or lower (group 2) than that of the surrounding non-tumoral parenchyma. Statistically significant between-group differences were found in terms of serum PSA levels (p=0.0061), tumor volume (p=0.0017), and biochemical relapse (p=0.031). The patients in group 2 had a poorer outcome. Our findings suggest a group of prostate cancer patients with a poor outcome, and the vascular surface fractal dimension as a helpful geometrical index in clinical practice.

  3. Isolation of rice dwarf mutants with ectopic deposition of phenolic components including lignin in parenchyma cell walls of internodes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kanna; Kawamura, Asuka; Obara, Tsukasa; Kawai, Shinya; Kajita, Shinya; Kitano, Hidemi; Katayama, Yoshihiro

    2011-12-01

    Rice internodes must have the proper shape to support high-yielding panicles. The shape of internodes is controlled by various factors involved in their formation, such as developmental patterns, cell division, cell elongation, and cell wall biosynthesis. To understand the regulation of internode development, we screened dwarf mutants to identify those with a phenotype of ectopic deposits of phenolic components in parenchyma cell walls of internodes. We named these mutants ectopic deposition of phenolic components1 (edp1). Two alleles were identified, edp1-1 and edp1-2. Furthermore, these mutants showed disordered cell files in internode parenchyma. These abnormal phenotypes were very similar to that of a previously reported dwarf50 (d50) mutant. Genetic analyses of edp1 mutants revealed that the edp1 loci are distinct from d50. Our results indicate that analyses of edp1 mutants as well as the d50 mutant will be useful for understanding the molecular mechanisms behind ectopic deposition of cell wall phenolic components in internode parenchyma cells and the regulation of internode development.

  4. [Liver in children with prior intrathoracic tuberculosis during long-term observation period after chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Mitinskaia, L A; Iukhimenko, N V; Elufimova, V F; Ergeshov, A E

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the liver and biliary tract revealed both nonspecific (chronic persistent hepatitis) and paraspecific changes in 93.8% of children with local forms of primary tuberculosis in the phase of infiltration, including 17.3% in whom the changes appeared as biliary dyskinesia. Late outcomes indicated that antituberculous chemotherapy had no negative effect on the liver. The ultrasonographic studies detected abnormal changes of the hepatic parenchyma only in 7.8%, mainly in those with chronic persistent hepatitis.

  5. Study of fibrotic complications and hydroxyproline content in mouse liver at different stages of generalized BCG-induced granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Shkurupii, V A; Kim, L B; Potapova, O V; Sharkova, T V; Putyatina, A N; Nikonova, I K

    2014-08-01

    Generalized BCG-induced granulomatous was simulated in BALB/c male mice. The number of tuberculous granulomas in the liver and their size as well as the number of hepatocytes showing vacuolar degeneration increased from day 3 to 180 postinfection. Necrotic changes in hepatocytes were most pronounced at the acute phase of inflammation (days 3 to 30). Proliferative processes in the liver parenchyma in the experimental group were less marked than in the control. Increased content of collagen fibers in the liver was determined by excessive collagen synthesis in necrotic areas as well as increased amount of granulomas and fibroblasts. Enhanced proliferative and fibroplastic activity of fibroblasts in granulomas and liver parenchyma was evidently determined by activated granuloma macrophages. These shifts determined changes in the liver content of hydroxyproline during the acute and chronic periods of the disease.

  6. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging for Noninvasive Evaluation of Renal Parenchyma Elasticity: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui-Xiong; Peng, Ai; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Liu, Lin-Na

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) to test the elasticity of renal parenchyma by measuring the shear wave velocity (SWV) which might be used to detect chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods 327 healthy volunteers and 64 CKD patients were enrolled in the study. The potential influencing factors and measurement reproducibility were evaluated in the healthy volunteers. Correlations between SWV and laboratory tests were analyzed in CKD patients.?Receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were performed to assess the diagnostic performance of ARFI. Results The SWV of healthy volunteers correlated significantly to age (r = −0.22, P<0.001, n = 327) and differed significantly between men and women (2.06±0.48 m/s vs. 2.2±0.52 m/s, P = 0.018, n = 327). However, it did not correlate significantly to height, weight, body mass index, waistline, kidney dimension and the depth for SWV measurement (n = 30). Inter- and intraobserver agreement expressed as intraclass coefficient correlation were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.13 to 0.82, P = 0.011) and 0.6 (95% CI: 0.31 to 0.81, P = 0.001) (n = 40). The mean SWV in healthy volunteers was 2.15±0.51 m/s, while was 1.81±0.43 m/s, 1.79±0.29 m/s, 1.81±0.44 m/s, 1.64±0.55 m/s, and 1.36±0.17 m/s for stage 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in CKD patients respectively. The SWV was significantly higher for healthy volunteers compared with each stage in CKD patients. ARFI could not predict the different stages of CKD except stage 5. In CKD patients, SWV correlated to e-GFR (r = 0.3, P = 0.018), to urea nitrogen (r =  −0.3, P = 0.016), and to creatinine (r =  −0.41, P = 0.001). ROC analyses indicated that the area under the ROC curve was 0.752 (95% CI: 0.704 to 0.797) (P<0.001). The cut-off value for predicting CKD was 1.88 m/s (sensitivity 71.87% and specificity 69.69%). Conclusion ARFI may be a potentially useful tool in detecting CKD. PMID

  7. Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy: From technical evolution to oncological benefit

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Ewald, Florian; Gulati, Amit; Nashan, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) is a novel approach in liver surgery that allows for extensive resection of liver parenchyma by inducing a rapid hypertrophy of the future remnant liver. However, recent reports indicate that not all patients eligible for ALPPS will benefit from this procedure. Therefore, careful patient selection will be necessary to fully exploit possible benefits of ALPPS. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the technical evolution of ALPPS with a special emphasis on safety and oncologic efficacy. Furthermore, we review the contemporary literature regarding indication and benefits, but also limitations of ALPPS. PMID:26981186

  8. Nutritional lipid liver disease of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idullus (C. et V.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ding; Mao, Yongqing; Cai, Fasheng

    1990-12-01

    The inadequate nutrient content of pellet feeds widely used in recent years in China for grass carp farming led to lipid liver degeneration in the fish. The present studies show that the pathological features of lipid liver disease are anaemia and hepatic ceroidosis. Other clinical features are; the ratio of liver to body weight exceeds 3% and lipid content exceeds 5%. Extreme infiltration of hepaiocytes by lipid results in the following deteriorative effects: swelling of the liver cells, increase of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and dislocation of the nucleus, loss of cytoplasm staining affinity, and increased activities of GOT and GPT in serum. Lipid liver degeneration of grass carp can be divided into three stages: 1) deposition of liver lipid; 2) lipid infiltration of hepatic parenchyma; 3) atrophy of liver nucleus. The causes of lipid liver degeneration are complicated, but the main cause is assumed to be an imbalance of nutrients in daily feed and the lock of some lipotropic substances.

  9. Membranous Nephropathy Associated With Immunological Disorder-Related Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dauvergne, Maxime; Moktefi, Anissa; Rabant, Marion; Vigneau, Cécile; Kofman, Tomek; Burtey, Stephane; Corpechot, Christophe; Stehlé, Thomas; Desvaux, Dominique; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Rouvier, Philippe; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Frouget, Thierry; Daugas, Eric; Jablonski, Mathieu; Dahan, Karine; Brocheriou, Isabelle; Remy, Philippe; Grimbert, Philippe; Lang, Philippe; Chazouilleres, Oliver; Sahali, Dil; Audard, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The association between membranous nephropathy (MN) and immunological disorder-related liver disease has not been extensively investigated, and the specific features of this uncommon association, if any, remain to be determined. We retrospectively identified 10 patients with this association. We aimed to describe the clinical, biological, and pathological characteristics of these patients and their therapeutic management. The possible involvement of the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) in these apparent secondary forms of MN was assessed by immunohistochemistry with renal and liver biopsy specimens. The mean delay between MN and liver disease diagnoses was 3.9 years and the interval between the diagnosis of the glomerular and liver diseases was <1.5 years in 5 patients. MN was associated with a broad spectrum of liver diseases including primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). AIH whether isolated (n = 3) or associated with PBC (n = 2) or PSC (n = 2) was the most frequent autoimmune liver disease. Circulating PLA2R antibodies were detected in 4 out of 9 patients but the test was performed under specific immunosuppressive treatment in 3 out of 9 patients. Seven of the 9 patients with available renal tissue specimens displayed enhanced expression of PLA2R in glomeruli whereas PLA2R was not expressed in liver parenchyma from these patients or in normal liver tissue. The study of immunoglobulin (Ig) subclasses of deposits in glomeruli revealed that the most frequent pattern was the coexistence of IgG1 and IgG4 immune deposits with IgG4 predominating. Detection of PLA2R antibodies in glomeruli but not in liver parenchyma is a common finding in patients with MN associated with autoimmune liver disease, suggesting that these autoantibodies are not exclusively detected in idiopathic MN. PMID:26222864

  10. Liver Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  11. A South Indian Cadaveric Study About the Relationship of Hepatic Segment of Inferior Vena Cava with the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Surendran, Sudarshan; Nelluri, Venu Madhav; Kumar, Naveen; Aithal, Ashwini P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) is the largest vein of the body. It runs vertically upwards in the abdomen, behind the liver. Its course is very constant in relation to liver. However, the amount of liver parenchyma related to it can vary from person to person. The data regarding its course and relations may be very useful to radiologists and surgeons during surgical treatment procedures for Budd-Chiari syndrome, liver carcinoma, liver transplant, venous cannulations and many other clinical procedures. Aim Aim of this study was to document the incidence of straight and curved course of IVC in relation to liver and also to note the pattern in which the liver tissue was related to the IVC. Materials and Methods In the current study, 95 adult cadaveric livers were observed; specifically to study the course/direction of the hepatic segment of IVC in relation to the liver. The extent of liver tissue related to various aspects of IVC was also studied. The course of the IVC was classified as straight and curved; and the relationship of liver parenchyma to the IVC was classified into 6 categories. The data was expressed as percentage incidence. Results In 78.94% cases, the IVC had a straight course in relation to the liver; whereas in 21.06% cases, it had a left sided curve (concavity of the curve towards the caudate lobe) in its course. In 6.31% cases, IVC travelled in a tunnel, being encircled by the liver parenchyma all around; in 36.84% cases, it was covered by liver parenchyma on front and sides so that only posterior surface of IVC was visible; in 3.15% cases it was covered by liver tissue on front, sides and also partly on posterior aspect; in 50.52% of cases, its anterior surface, sides and left edge of the posterior surface was covered by liver tissue; and in 3.15% cases it was covered only from the front by the liver tissue. Conclusion The data being reported here might be useful for surgeons while planning and executing various hepatic surgeries and also

  12. Enlarged Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to the patient with liver disease. In: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, ... DL, et al., eds. Alcoholic liver disease. In: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, ...

  13. Liver scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nuclear scan - technetium; Nuclear scan - liver or spleen Images Liver scan References Lidofsky S. Jaundice. In: Feldman M, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  14. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis ...

  15. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the ...

  16. Improving parenchyma segmentation by simultaneous estimation of tissue property T1 map and group-wise registration of inversion recovery MR breast images.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ye; Xue, Zhong; Englander, Sarah; Schnall, Mitchell; Shen, Dinggang

    2008-01-01

    The parenchyma tissue in the breast has a strong relation with predictive biomarkers of breast cancer. To better segment parenchyma, we perform segmentation on estimated tissue property T1 map. To improve the estimation of tissue property (T1) which is the basis for parenchyma segmentation, we present an integrated algorithm for simultaneous T1 map estimation, T1 map based parenchyma segmentation and group-wise registration on series of inversion recovery magnetic resonance (MR) breast images. The advantage of using this integrated algorithm is that the simultaneous T1 map estimation (E-step) and group-wise registration (R-step) could benefit each other and jointly improve parenchyma segmentation. In particular, in E-step, T1 map based segmentation could help perform an edge-preserving smoothing on the tentatively estimated noisy T1 map, and could also help provide tissue probability maps to be robustly registered in R-step. Meanwhile, the improved estimation of T1 map could help segment parenchyma in a more accurate way. In R-step, for robust registration, the group-wise registration is performed on the tissue probability maps produced in E-step, rather than the original inversion recovery MR images, since tissue probability maps are the intrinsic tissue property which is invariant to the use of different imaging parameters. The better alignment of images achieved in R-step can help improve T1 map estimation and indirectly the T1 map based parenchyma segmentation. By iteratively performing E-step and R-step, we can simultaneously obtain better results for T1 map estimation, T1 map based segmentation, group-wise registration, and finally parenchyma segmentation.

  17. The effects of ductal ligation on the parenchyma of salivary glands of cat studied by enzyme histochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J D; Garrett, J R

    1976-01-01

    Submandibular, sublingual and parotid glands of cat have been studied following periods of ductal ligation ranging from 1 day to 1 year. An increased prominence of granules of acid phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase and E600-resistant esterase reaction products was sometimes seen in acinar cells and atropic striated ductal cells, and probably represents increased lysosomal enzymic activity, which may be of importance in the adapation of the parenchyma to the altered environment. Other reaction products often appeared to be at normal levels in parenchymal structures that were not very atrophic, and at reduced levels in those that were very atrophic, suggesting a reduction of functional activity in these structures.

  18. Liver transplantation☆

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M.; Mennini, G.; Lai, Q.; Ginanni Corradini, S.; Drudi, F.M.; Pugliese, F.; Berloco, P.B.

    2007-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) involves the substitution of a diseased native liver with a normal liver (or part of one) taken from a deceased or living donor. Considered an experimental procedure through the 1980s, OLT is now regarded as the treatment of choice for a number of otherwise irreversible forms of acute and chronic liver disease. The first human liver transplantation was performed in the United States in 1963 by Prof. T.E. Starzl of the University of Colorado. The first OLT to be performed in Italy was done in 1982 by Prof. R. Cortesini. The procedure was successfully performed at the Policlinico Umberto I of the University of Rome (La Sapienza). The paper reports the indications for liver transplantation, donor selection and organ allocation in our experience, surgical technique, immunosuppression, complications and results of liver transplantation in our center. PMID:23396075

  19. Nodular transformation of the liver associated with portal and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Portmann, B; Stewart, S; Higenbottam, T W; Clayton, P T; Lloyd, J K; Williams, R

    1993-02-01

    A case of multiple focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver associated with noncirrhotic portal hypertension and later complicated by pulmonary arterial hypertension leading to death from right heart failure is reported. In retrospect, the portal hypertension diagnosed in early life was most likely due to a congenital hypoplasia of portal vein branches and multiple FNH, a hyperplastic response of the liver parenchyma in association with anomalies of hepatic arterial branches as found within the lesions. This case may represent a form of multiple FNH syndrome restricted to the liver, because neither extrahepatic vascular malformation nor brain tumor was identified at autopsy. The FNH lesions had considerably expanded over the years, and the severe sinusoidal congestion due to chronic right-sided heart failure with subsequent prolonged parenchymal exposure to blood-borne hepatotrophic factors is a likely explanation for both the massive enlargement of FNH lesions and the nodular regenerative hyperplasia observed in the intervening parenchyma.

  20. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  1. Stereotactic body radiation therapy of liver tumors: post-treatment appearances and evaluation of treatment response: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Mustafa M; Merrell, Kenneth W; Hallemeier, Christopher L; Johnson, Geoffrey B; Mounajjed, Taofic; Olivier, Kenneth R; Fidler, Jeff L; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K

    2016-10-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a noninvasive treatment technique for selected patients with primary liver tumors and liver-confined oligometastatic disease. Recently, SBRT has emerged as an alternative treatment option in non-surgical candidates and in whom percutaneous treatment methods are not possible or contraindicated. The experience with SBRT continues to grow. There are currently no imaging guidelines for assessment of tumor response and follow-up schedule following SBRT. SBRT produces characteristic radiation-induced changes in the treated tumor and surrounding liver parenchyma. Knowledge of these changes is essential in the interpretation of follow-up imaging and assessment of treatment response. In this review, we will describe the CT, MRI, and PET imaging findings following SBRT of both the targeted liver tumor and surrounding hepatic parenchyma.

  2. In Vitro Platforms for Evaluating Liver Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Senutovitch, Nina; Jindal, Rohit; Hegde, Manjunath; Gough, Albert; McCarty, William J; Bakan, Ahmet; Bhushan, Abhinav; Shun, Tong Ying; Golberg, Inna; DeBiasio, Richard; Usta, Berk Osman; Taylor, D. Lansing; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a heterogeneous organ with many vital functions, including metabolism of pharmaceutical drugs and is highly susceptible to injury from these substances. The etiology of drug induced liver disease is still debated although generally regarded as a continuum between an activated immune response and hepatocyte metabolic dysfunction, most often resulting from an intermediate reactive metabolite. This debate stems from the fact that current animal and in vitro models provide limited physiologically relevant information and their shortcomings have resulted in ‘silent’ hepatotoxic drugs being introduced into clinical trials, garnering huge financial losses for drug companies through withdrawals and late stage clinical failures. As we advance our understanding into the molecular processes leading to liver injury, it is increasingly clear that a) the pathologic lesion is not only due to liver parenchyma but is also due to the interactions between the hepatocytes and the resident liver immune cells, stellate cells and endothelial cells; and, b) animal models do not reflect the human cell interactions. Therefore, a predictive human, in vitro model must address the interactions between the major human liver cell types and measure key determinants of injury such as the dosage and metabolism of the drug, the stress response, cholestatic effect, and the immune and fibrotic response. In this mini-review, we first discuss the current state of macro-scale in vitro liver culture systems with examples that have been commercialized. We then introduce the paradigm of microfluidic culture systems that aim to mimic the liver with physiologically relevant dimensions, cellular structure, perfusion and mass transport by taking advantage of micro and nanofabrication technologies. We review the most prominent liver-on-a-chip platforms in terms of their physiological relevance and drug response. We conclude with a commentary on other critical advances such as the deployment of

  3. Effect of Macerase, Oxalic Acid, and EGTA on Deep Supercooling and Pit Membrane Structure of Xylem Parenchyma of Peach

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Michael; Davis, Glen; Arora, Rajeev

    1991-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine if calcium cross-linking of pectin in the pit membrane of xylem parenchyma restricts water movement which results in deep supercooling. Current year shoots of `Loring' peach (Prunus persica) were infiltrated with oxalic acid or EGTA solutions for 24 or 48 hours and then either prepared for ultrastructural analysis or subjected to differential thermal analysis. The effect of 0.25 to 1.0% pectinase (weight/volume) on deep supercooling was also investigated. The use of 5 to 50 millimolar oxalic acid and pectinase resulted in a significant reduction (flattening) of the low temperature exotherm and a distinct swelling and partial degradation of the pit membrane. EGTA (10 millimolar) for 24 or 48 hours shifted the low temperature exotherm to warmer temperatures and effected the outermost layer of the pit membrane. A hypothesis is presented on pectin-mediated regulation of deep supercooling of xylem parenchyma. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:16668341

  4. Expression of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma from early postnatal development into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Clinton, Sarah M; Glover, Matthew E; Maltare, Astha; Laszczyk, Ann M; Mehi, Stephen J; Simmons, Rebecca K; King, Gwendalyn D

    2013-08-21

    Without the age-regulating protein klotho, mouse lifespan is shortened and the rapid onset of age-related disorders occurs. Conversely, overexpression of klotho extends mouse lifespan. Klotho is most abundant in kidney and expressed in a limited number of other organs, including the brain, where klotho levels are highest in choroid plexus. Reports vary on where klotho is expressed within the brain parenchyma, and no data is available as to whether klotho levels change across postnatal development. We used in situ hybridization to map klotho mRNA expression in the developing and adult rat brain and report moderate, widespread expression across grey matter regions. mRNA expression levels in cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, and amygdala decreased during the second week of life and then gradually rose to adult levels by postnatal day 21. Immunohistochemistry revealed a protein expression pattern similar to the mRNA results, with klotho protein expressed widely throughout the brain. Klotho protein co-localized with both the neuronal marker NeuN, as well as, oligodendrocyte marker olig2. These results provide the first anatomical localization of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma and demonstrate that klotho levels vary during early postnatal development.

  5. A Paravascular Pathway Facilitates CSF Flow Through the Brain Parenchyma and the Clearance of Interstitial Solutes, Including Amyloid β

    PubMed Central

    Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Wang, Minghuan; Liao, Yonghong; Plogg, Benjamin A.; Peng, Weiguo; Gundersen, Georg A.; Benveniste, Helene; Vates, G. Edward; Deane, Rashid; Goldman, Steven A.; Nagelhus, Erlend A.; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2013-01-01

    Because it lacks a lymphatic circulation, the brain must clear extracellular proteins by an alternative mechanism. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) functions as a sink for brain extracellular solutes, but it is not clear how solutes from the brain interstitium move from the parenchyma to the CSF. We demonstrate that a substantial portion of subarachnoid CSF cycles through the brain interstitial space. On the basis of in vivo two-photon imaging of small fluorescent tracers, we showed that CSF enters the parenchyma along paravascular spaces that surround penetrating arteries and that brain interstitial fluid is cleared along paravenous drainage pathways. Animals lacking the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in astrocytes exhibit slowed CSF influx through this system and a ~70% reduction in interstitial solute clearance, suggesting that the bulk fluid flow between these anatomical influx and efflux routes is supported by astrocytic water transport. Fluorescent-tagged amyloid β, a peptide thought to be pathogenic in Alzheimer’s disease, was transported along this route, and deletion of the Aqp4 gene suppressed the clearance of soluble amyloid β, suggesting that this pathway may remove amyloid β from the central nervous system. Clearance through paravenous flow may also regulate extracellular levels of proteins involved with neurodegenerative conditions, its impairment perhaps contributing to the mis-accumulation of soluble proteins. PMID:22896675

  6. Absence of fibromodulin affects matrix composition, collagen deposition and cell turnover in healthy and fibrotic lung parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Rydell-Törmänen, Kristina; Andréasson, Kristofer; Hesselstrand, Roger; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    The ECM exerts great effects on cells, and changed composition may therefore have profound impact. Small leucine-rich proteoglycans, e.g. fibromodulin, are essential in collagen assembly. Our aim was to investigate the role of fibromodulin in healthy and fibrotic lung parenchyma, theorizing that fibromodulin-deficient animals would be protected against fibrosis. Repeated subcutaneous bleomycin-injections were given to wild type and fibromodulin-deficient mice, inducing pulmonary fibrosis. Development of fibrosis, ECM composition, cell turnover and inflammatory responses were investigated. Fibromodulin-deficient animals were not protected from fibrosis, but the composition of the matrix was affected, with decreased Collagen I in fibromodulin-deficient animals, both in controls (0.07 ± 0.04% vs. 0.18 ± 0.07% tissue area) and after bleomycin (0.37 ± 0.16% vs. 0.61 ± 0.21% tissue area). Biglycan was increased in fibromodulin-deficient animals, whereas decorin was decreased. Furthermore, bleomycin increased cell turnover in wild type, but only proliferation in fibromodulin-deficient animals, resulting in hyperplasia. In addition, the bleomycin-induced immune response was affected in fibromodulin-deficient animals. We thus conclude that fibromodulin has a profound effect on ECM, both in healthy and fibrotic lung parenchyma, and may be providing a permissive microenvironment affecting cell turnover. Furthermore, this study highlights the need to acknowledge specific ECM components, when assessing tissue properties and ultimately cell behaviour. PMID:25230586

  7. Read-through transcripts in normal human lung parenchyma are down-regulated in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cotroneo, Chiara E.; Galvan, Antonella; Noci, Sara; Piazza, Rocco; Pirola, Alessandra; Spinelli, Roberta; Incarbone, Matteo; Palleschi, Alessandro; Rosso, Lorenzo; Santambrogio, Luigi; Dragani, Tommaso A.; Colombo, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Read-through transcripts result from the continuous transcription of adjacent, similarly oriented genes, with the splicing out of the intergenic region. They have been found in several neoplastic and normal tissues, but their pathophysiological significance is unclear. We used high-throughput sequencing of cDNA fragments (RNA-Seq) to identify read-through transcripts in the non-involved lung tissue of 64 surgically treated lung adenocarcinoma patients. A total of 52 distinct read-through species was identified, with 24 patients having at least one read-through event, up to a maximum of 17 such transcripts in one patient. Sanger sequencing validated 28 of these transcripts and identified an additional 15, for a total of 43 distinct read-through events involving 35 gene pairs. Expression levels of 10 validated read-through transcripts were measured by quantitative PCR in pairs of matched non-involved lung tissue and lung adenocarcinoma tissue from 45 patients. Higher expression levels were observed in normal lung tissue than in the tumor counterpart, with median relative quantification ratios between normal and tumor varying from 1.90 to 7.78; the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001, Wilcoxon's signed-rank test for paired samples) for eight transcripts: ELAVL1–TIMM44, FAM162B–ZUFSP, IFNAR2–IL10RB, INMT–FAM188B, KIAA1841–C2orf74, NFATC3–PLA2G15, SIRPB1–SIRPD, and SHANK3–ACR. This report documents the presence of read-through transcripts in apparently normal lung tissue, with inter-individual differences in patterns and abundance. It also shows their down-regulation in tumors, suggesting that these chimeric transcripts may function as tumor suppressors in lung tissue. PMID:27058892

  8. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > Liver Function Tests Liver Function Tests Explore this section to learn more ... including a description and diagnosis. Why is the liver important? The liver is the second largest organ ...

  9. What Is Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment? Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer What Is Liver Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... structure and function of the liver. About the liver The liver is the largest internal organ. It ...

  10. Efficient recellularisation of decellularised whole-liver grafts using biliary tree and foetal hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ogiso, Satoshi; Yasuchika, Kentaro; Fukumitsu, Ken; Ishii, Takamichi; Kojima, Hidenobu; Miyauchi, Yuya; Yamaoka, Ryoya; Komori, Junji; Katayama, Hokahiro; Kawai, Takayuki; Yoshitoshi, Elena Yukie; Kita, Sadahiko; Yasuda, Katsutaro; Uemoto, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    A whole-organ regeneration approach, using a decellularised xenogeneic liver as a scaffold for the construction of a transplantable liver was recently reported. Deriving suitable scaffolds was the first step towards clinical application; however, effective recellularisation remains to be achieved. This report presents a strategy for the improvement of the recellularisation process, using novel cell-seeding technique and cell source. We evaluated recellularised liver grafts repopulated through the portal vein or the biliary duct with mice adult hepatocytes or E14.5 foetal hepatocytes. More than 80% of the cells seeded through the biliary tree entered the parenchyma beyond the ductule-lining matrix barrier and distributed throughout the liver lobule. In contrast, about 20% of the cells seeded through the portal tree entered the parenchyma. The gene expression levels of foetal hepatocyte albumin, glucose 6-phosphatase, transferrin, cytokeratin 19, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were increased in three-dimensional cultures in the native liver-derived scaffolds, and the activation of liver detoxification enzymes and formation of biliary duct-like structures were supported. The metabolic functions of liver grafts recellularised with different cell types were similar. These results suggest that biliary tree cell-seeding approach is promising, and that liver progenitor cells represent a good cell source candidate. PMID:27767181

  11. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Meetings & Events Technology Advancement & Transfer Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  12. Whole-liver CT texture analysis in colorectal cancer: Does the presence of liver metastases affect the texture of the remaining liver?

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sheng-Xiang; Lambregts, Doenja MJ; Schnerr, Roald S; van Ommen, Wenzel; van Nijnatten, Thiemo JA; Martens, Milou H; Heijnen, Luc A; Backes, Walter H; Verhoef, Cornelis; Zeng, Meng-Su; Beets, Geerard L

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver metastases limit survival in colorectal cancer. Earlier detection of (occult) metastatic disease may benefit treatment and survival. Objective The objective of this article is to evaluate the potential of whole-liver CT texture analysis of apparently disease-free liver parenchyma for discriminating between colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with and without hepatic metastases. Methods The primary staging CT examinations of 29 CRC patients were retrospectively analysed. Patients were divided into three groups: patients without liver metastases (n = 15), with synchronous liver metastases (n = 10) and metachronous liver metastases within 18 months following primary staging (n = 4). Whole-liver texture analysis was performed by delineation of the apparently non-diseased liver parenchyma (excluding metastases or other focal liver lesions) on portal phase images. Mean grey-level intensity (M), entropy (E) and uniformity (U) were derived with no filtration and different filter widths (0.5 = fine, 1.5 = medium, 2.5 = coarse). Results Mean E1.5 and E2.5 for the whole liver in patients with synchronous metastases were significantly higher compared with the non-metastatic patients (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01). Mean U1.5 and U2.5 were significantly lower in the synchronous metastases group compared with the non-metastatic group (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02). Texture parameters for the metachronous metastases group were not significantly different from the non-metastatic group or synchronous metastases group (p > 0.05), although – similar to the synchronous metastases group – there was a subtle trend towards increased E1.5, E2.5 and decreased U1.5, U2.5 values. Areas under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of synchronous metastatic disease based on the texture parameters E1.5,2.5 and U1.5,2.5 ranged between 0.73 and 0.78. Conclusion Texture analysis of the apparently non-diseased liver holds promise to differentiate between CRC

  13. Bile Ducts in Regenerative Liver Nodules of Alagille Patients Are Not the Result of Genetic Mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Rougemont, Anne-Laure; Alvarez, Fernando; McLin, Valérie A; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Bouligand, Jérome; Clément, Sophie; Tonson La Tour, Aude; Wildhaber, Barbara E; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Sartelet, Hervé

    2015-07-01

    Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a complex, multisystem disease associated with mutations in the JAG1 gene. In the liver, ALGS is characterized by paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts. Gene dosage analysis performed on a large, central regenerative nodule with preserved interlobular bile ducts of 2 unrelated ALGS patients, and on surrounding cirrhotic and ductopenic liver parenchyma, showed in both cases complete JAG1 heterozygous deletion in the regenerative nodule and the ductopenic liver, with no differences in gene dosage. Thus, JAG1 mosaicism and differential haploinsufficiency do not explain the presence of bile ducts in centrally located regenerative nodules.

  14. Definition of contrast enhancement phases of the liver using a perfluoro-based microbubble agent, perflubutane microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Shunichi, Sasaki; Hiroko, Iijima; Fuminori, Moriyasu; Waki, Hidehiko

    2009-11-01

    To define the contrast enhancement phases in the liver with perflubutane microbubbles, the liver enhancement time-intensity curves were investigated in 14 healthy volunteers. The agent was injected intravenously as a bolus and the liver was imaged with an ultrasound scanner as long as 4h after the injection. Time-intensity curves from the hepatic artery, the intrahepatic portal vein, the hepatic vein and the parenchyma of the liver were obtained from the liver ultrasound images. The arrival of the agent in the hepatic artery, the portal vein and the hepatic vein were visually distinguishable and the mean arrival times were 19.2, 24.3 and 32.2 s after the injection, respectively. The signal intensity in these vessels increased rapidly after the arrival of the contrast and gradually reverted to baseline after the peak. In contrast, within 5 min after the injection, the intensity in the parenchyma increased and reached a plateau, which persisted for at least 2h. The contrast enhancement phases in the liver with perflubutane microbubbles could be defined as two major phases-a vascular phase, in which the vessels are enhanced between 15 s and 10 min after injection, and a Kupffer phase, in which the parenchyma is enhanced 10 min after injection. The vascular phase is divided into three subphases: the arterial phase (15 to 45 s after injection); the portal phase (45 s to 1 min after injection); and the vasculo-Kupffer phase (1 to 10 min after injection).

  15. Parenchymal-sparing liver surgery in patients with colorectal carcinoma liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Fernando A; Sanchez Claria, Rodrigo; Oggero, Sebastian; de Santibañes, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Liver resection is the treatment of choice for patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM). However, major resections are often required to achieve R0 resection, which are associated with substantial rates of morbidity and mortality. Maximizing the amount of residual liver gained increasing significance in modern liver surgery due to the high incidence of chemotherapy-associated parenchymal injury. This fact, along with the progressive expansion of resectability criteria, has led to the development of a surgical philosophy known as “parenchymal-sparing liver surgery” (PSLS). This philosophy includes a variety of resection strategies, either performed alone or in combination with ablative therapies. A profound knowledge of liver anatomy and expert intraoperative ultrasound skills are required to perform PSLS appropriately and safely. There is a clear trend toward PSLS in hepatobiliary centers worldwide as current evidence indicates that tumor biology is the most important predictor of intrahepatic recurrence and survival, rather than the extent of a negative resection margin. Tumor removal avoiding the unnecessary sacrifice of functional parenchyma has been associated with less surgical stress, fewer postoperative complications, uncompromised cancer-related outcomes and higher feasibility of future resections. The increasing evidence supporting PSLS prompts its consideration as the gold-standard surgical approach for CLM. PMID:27358673

  16. The role of focal liver ablation in the treatment of unresectable primary and secondary malignant liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Christopher J; Curley, Steven A

    2005-10-01

    Surgical resection is often the first-line treatment option for primary and select metastatic hepatic malignancies. A minority of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergo potentially curative resection. Similarly, patients with liver-only metastasis are candidates for resection less than 15% of the time because of bilobar disease in which resection would sacrifice too great a volume of hepatic parenchyma, tumor proximity to major vascular or biliary structures thus preventing adequate margins, or unfavorable tumor biology. Ablative techniques directed at tumor elimination while minimizing injury to the surrounding functional hepatic parenchyma may be offered to select patients with unresectable cancers. Radiofrequency ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection, transarterial chemoembolization, cryoablation, microwave coagulation, and laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy all offer potential local tumor control and occasionally achieve long-term disease-free survival. This review focuses on the indications, anticipated benefits, and limitations of these ablative techniques.

  17. Radiation-Induced Liver Damage: Correlation of Histopathology with Hepatobiliary Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Seidensticker, Max; Burak, Miroslaw; Kalinski, Thomas; Garlipp, Benjamin; Koelble, Konrad; Wust, Peter; Antweiler, Kai; Seidensticker, Ricarda; Mohnike, Konrad; Pech, Maciej; Ricke, Jens

    2015-02-15

    PurposeRadiotherapy of liver malignancies shows promising results (radioembolization, stereotactic irradiation, interstitial brachytherapy). Regardless of the route of application, a certain amount of nontumorous liver parenchyma will be collaterally damaged by radiation. The functional reserve may be significantly reduced with an impact on further treatment planning. Monitoring of radiation-induced liver damage by imaging is neither established nor validated. We performed an analysis to correlate the histopathological presence of radiation-induced liver damage with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizing hepatobiliary contrast media (Gd-BOPTA).MethodsPatients undergoing local high-dose-rate brachytherapy for whom a follow-up hepatobiliary MRI within 120 days after radiotherapy as well as an evaluable liver biopsy from radiation-exposed liver tissue within 7 days before MRI were retrospectively identified. Planning computed tomography (CT)/dosimetry was merged to the CT-documentation of the liver biopsy and to the MRI. Presence/absence of radiation-induced liver damage (histopathology) and Gd-BOPTA uptake (MRI) as well as the dose applied during brachytherapy at the site of tissue sampling was determined.ResultsFourteen biopsies from eight patients were evaluated. In all cases with histopathological evidence of radiation-induced liver damage (n = 11), no uptake of Gd-BOPTA was seen. In the remaining three, cases no radiation-induced liver damage but Gd-BOPTA uptake was seen. Presence of radiation-induced liver damage and absence of Gd-BOPTA uptake was correlated with a former high-dose exposition.ConclusionsAbsence of hepatobiliary MRI contrast media uptake in radiation-exposed liver parenchyma may indicate radiation-induced liver damage. Confirmatory studies are warranted.

  18. Oxidative stress promotes pathologic polyploidization in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Gentric, Géraldine; Maillet, Vanessa; Paradis, Valérie; Couton, Dominique; L’Hermitte, Antoine; Panasyuk, Ganna; Fromenty, Bernard; Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidization is one of the most dramatic changes that can occur in the genome. In the liver, physiological polyploidization events occur during both liver development and throughout adult life. Here, we determined that a pathological polyploidization takes place in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a widespread hepatic metabolic disorder that is believed to be a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In murine models of NAFLD, the parenchyma of fatty livers displayed alterations of the polyploidization process, including the presence of a large proportion of highly polyploid mononuclear cells, which are rarely observed in normal hepatic parenchyma. Biopsies from patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) revealed the presence of alterations in hepatocyte ploidy compared with tissue from control individuals. Hepatocytes from NAFLD mice revealed that progression through the S/G2 phases of the cell cycle was inefficient. This alteration was associated with activation of a G2/M DNA damage checkpoint, which prevented activation of the cyclin B1/CDK1 complex. Furthermore, we determined that oxidative stress promotes the appearance of highly polyploid cells, and antioxidant-treated NAFLD hepatocytes resumed normal cell division and returned to a physiological state of polyploidy. Collectively, these findings indicate that oxidative stress promotes pathological polyploidization and suggest that this is an early event in NAFLD that may contribute to HCC development. PMID:25621497

  19. Wood anatomical correlates with theoretical conductivity and wood density across China: evolutionary evidence of the functional differentiation of axial and radial parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jingming; Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In recent years considerable effort has focused on linking wood anatomy and key ecological traits. Studies analysing large databases have described how these ecological traits vary as a function of wood anatomical traits related to conduction and support, but have not considered how these functions interact with cells involved in storage of water and carbohydrates (i.e. parenchyma cells). Methods We analyzed, in a phylogenetic context, the functional relationship between cell types performing each of the three xylem functions (conduction, support and storage) and wood density and theoretical conductivity using a sample of approx. 800 tree species from China. Key Results Axial parenchyma and rays had distinct evolutionary correlation patterns. An evolutionary link was found between high conduction capacity and larger amounts of axial parenchyma that is probably related to water storage capacity and embolism repair, while larger amounts of ray tissue have evolved with increased mechanical support and reduced hydraulic capacity. In a phylogenetic principal component analysis this association of axial parenchyma with increased conduction capacity and rays with wood density represented orthogonal axes of variation. In multivariate space, however, the proportion of rays might be positively associated with conductance and negatively with wood density, indicating flexibility in these axes in species with wide rays. Conclusions The findings suggest that parenchyma types may differ in function. The functional axes represented by different cell types were conserved across lineages, suggesting a significant role in the ecological strategies of the angiosperms. PMID:23904446

  20. Fully automatized renal parenchyma volumetry using a support vector machine based recognition system for subject-specific probability map generation in native MR volume data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Mensel, Birger; Völzke, Henry

    2015-11-01

    In epidemiological studies as well as in clinical practice the amount of produced medical image data strongly increased in the last decade. In this context organ segmentation in MR volume data gained increasing attention for medical applications. Especially in large-scale population-based studies organ volumetry is highly relevant requiring exact organ segmentation. Since manual segmentation is time-consuming and prone to reader variability, large-scale studies need automatized methods to perform organ segmentation. Fully automatic organ segmentation in native MR image data has proven to be a very challenging task. Imaging artifacts as well as inter- and intrasubject MR-intensity differences complicate the application of supervised learning strategies. Thus, we propose a modularized framework of a two-stepped probabilistic approach that generates subject-specific probability maps for renal parenchyma tissue, which are refined subsequently by using several, extended segmentation strategies. We present a three class-based support vector machine recognition system that incorporates Fourier descriptors as shape features to recognize and segment characteristic parenchyma parts. Probabilistic methods use the segmented characteristic parenchyma parts to generate high quality subject-specific parenchyma probability maps. Several refinement strategies including a final shape-based 3D level set segmentation technique are used in subsequent processing modules to segment renal parenchyma. Furthermore, our framework recognizes and excludes renal cysts from parenchymal volume, which is important to analyze renal functions. Volume errors and Dice coefficients show that our presented framework outperforms existing approaches.

  1. Relationship of nuclease activity and synthesis to senescence of corn (Zea mays L.) stalk pith, cob parenchyma and first developed leaf tissues.

    PubMed

    BeMiller, J N; Liu TU, Y S; Liu, C R; Pappelis, A J

    1976-01-01

    An increase in total RNase activity was associated with three patterns of cell senescence in corn (Zea mays L.) (cv. WF9 X 38-11) cob parenchyma during the first two weeks following silking, stalk pith tissue after internode elongation and the first developed leaf of seedlings. Stalk pith tissue had two RNase activities, one inhibited by EDTA and one not. Both remained in approximately equal amounts in young to old pith tissue. In the first developed leaf of seedlings, the activity not inhibited by EDTA remained at a constant low level during the period studied, while the other activity varied. No inhibition by EDTA was found in cob parenchyma tissue. Incubation of sections of cob parenchyma and stalk pith tissues suggested that the total RNase activity of cob parenchyma is very stable and that of stalk pith tissue is relatively stable. An age-related increase in DNase activity was found in stalk pith tissue and in the first developed leaf of seedlings, but not in cob parenchyma tissue.

  2. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  3. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a liver biopsy by talking with a health care provider having blood tests arranging for a ride home fasting before the ... for a liver biopsy by talking with a health care provider having blood tests arranging for a ride home fasting before the ...

  4. Value of liver computed tomography with iodixanol 270, 80 kVp and iterative reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Botsikas, Diomidis; Barnaure, Isabelle; Terraz, Sylvain; Becker, Christoph D; Kalovidouri, Anastasia; Montet, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the image quality of hepatic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with dynamic contrast enhancement. METHODS It uses iodixanol 270 mg/mL (Visipaque 270) and 80 kVp acquisitions reconstructed with sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE®) in comparison with a standard MDCT protocol. Fifty-three consecutive patients with known or suspected hepatocellular carcinoma underwent 55 CT examinations, with two different four-phase CT protocols. The first group of 30 patients underwent a standard 120 kVp acquisition after injection of Iohexol 350 mg/mL (Accupaque 350®) and reconstructed with filtered back projection. The second group of 25 patients underwent a dual-energy CT at 80-140 kVp with iodixanol 270. The 80 kVp component of the second group was reconstructed iteratively (SAFIRE®-Siemens). All hyperdense and hypodense hepatic lesions ≥ 5 mm were identified with both protocols. Aorta and portal vessels/liver parenchyma contrast to noise ratio (CNR) in arterial phase, hypervascular lesion/liver parenchyma CNR in arterial phase, hypodense lesion/liver parenchyma CNR in portal and late phase were calculated in both groups. RESULTS Aorta/liver and focal lesions altogether/liver CNR were higher for the second protocol (P = 0.0078 and 0.0346). Hypervascular lesions/liver CNR was not statistically different (P = 0.86). Hypodense lesion/liver CNR in the portal phase was significantly higher for the second group (P = 0.0107). Hypodense lesion/liver CNR in the late phase was the same for both groups (P = 0.9926). CONCLUSION MDCT imaging with 80 kVp with iterative reconstruction and iodixanol 270 yields equal or even better image quality. PMID:27551339

  5. Detecting gas‐induced vasomotor changes via blood oxygenation level‐dependent contrast in healthy breast parenchyma and breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Tess E.; Patterson, Andrew J.; Abeyakoon, Oshaani; Bedair, Reem; Manavaki, Roido; McLean, Mary A.; O'Connor, James P.B.; Graves, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate blood oxygenation level‐dependent (BOLD) contrast changes in healthy breast parenchyma and breast carcinoma during administration of vasoactive gas stimuli. Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 3T in 19 healthy premenopausal female volunteers using a single‐shot fast spin echo sequence to acquire dynamic T 2‐weighted images. 2% (n = 9) and 5% (n = 10) carbogen gas mixtures were interleaved with either medical air or oxygen in 2‐minute blocks, for four complete cycles. A 12‐minute medical air breathing period was used to determine background physiological modulation. Pixel‐wise correlation analysis was applied to evaluate response to the stimuli in breast parenchyma and these results were compared to the all‐air control. The relative BOLD effect size was compared between two groups of volunteers scanned in different phases of the menstrual cycle. The optimal stimulus design was evaluated in five breast cancer patients. Results Of the four stimulus combinations tested, oxygen vs. 5% carbogen produced a response that was significantly stronger (P < 0.05) than air‐only breathing in volunteers. Subjects imaged during the follicular phase of their cycle when estrogen levels typically peak exhibited a significantly smaller BOLD response (P = 0.01). Results in malignant tissue were variable, with three out of five lesions exhibiting a diminished response to the gas stimulus. Conclusion Oxygen vs. 5% carbogen is the most robust stimulus for inducing BOLD contrast, consistent with the opposing vasomotor effects of these two gases. Measurements may be confounded by background physiological fluctuations and menstrual cycle changes. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:335–345. PMID:26898173

  6. The CD8 T-cell response during tolerance induction in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yik Chun; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Bowen, David G; Bertolino, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Both experimental and clinical studies have shown that the liver possesses unique tolerogenic properties. Liver allografts can be spontaneously accepted across complete major histocompatibility mismatch in some animal models. In addition, some liver transplant patients can be successfully withdrawn from immunosuppressive medications, developing ‘operational tolerance'. Multiple mechanisms have been shown to be involved in inducing and maintaining alloimmune tolerance associated with liver transplantation. Here, we focus on CD8 T-cell tolerance in this setting. We first discuss how alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell responses are generated against allografts, before reviewing how the liver parenchyma, donor passenger leucocytes and the host immune system function together to attenuate alloreactive CD8 T-cell responses to promote the long-term survival of liver transplants. PMID:27867515

  7. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  8. The plastic liver: differentiated cells, stem cells, every cell?

    PubMed Central

    Hindley, Christopher J.; Mastrogiovanni, Gianmarco; Huch, Meritxell

    2014-01-01

    The liver is capable of full regeneration following several types and rounds of injury, ranging from hepatectomy to toxin-mediated damage. The source of this regenerative capacity has long been a hotly debated topic. The damage response that occurs when hepatocyte proliferation is impaired is thought to be mediated by oval/dedifferentiated progenitor cells, which replenish the hepatocyte and ductal compartments of the liver. Recently, reports have questioned whether these oval/progenitor cells truly serve as the facultative stem cell of the liver following toxin-mediated damage. In this issue of the JCI, Kordes and colleagues use lineage tracing to follow transplanted rat hepatic stellate cells, a resident liver mesenchymal cell population, in hosts that have suffered liver damage. Transplanted stellate cells repopulated the damaged rat liver by contributing to the oval cell response. These data establish yet another cell type of mesenchymal origin as the progenitor for the oval/ductular response in the rat. The lack of uniformity between different damage models, the extent of the injury to the liver parenchyma, and potential species-specific differences might be at the core of the discrepancy between different studies. Taken together, these data imply a considerable degree of plasticity in the liver, whereby several cell types can contribute to regeneration. PMID:25401467

  9. Fatty liver in birds at the Zoological Society of London.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, P F; Jones, D M; Pugsley, S L

    1984-04-01

    The livers of 531 captive wild birds necropsied at the Zoological Society of London were examined histologically. Marked fatty infiltration of the liver was found in 13 cases. Seven of the 13 cases were from the order Psittaciformes indicating that some species (cockatoos, parakeets and parrots) in this order may be particularly susceptible to fatty infiltration of the liver. Affected livers were commonly swollen or enlarged, pale, white or yellow in colour and soft, friable or fatty at post mortem examination. Histologically, marked fatty infiltration of the liver was characterised by the presence of intracytoplasmic fat vacuoles within hepatocytes without zonal or lobular distribution throughout the sections examined. Reticulolysis and fibrosis of the hepatic parenchyma were found in association with marked fatty liver in a proportion of cases. Macroscopic or histological evidence of hepatic haemorrhages was not found in affected birds. In psittacine birds, obesity was frequently seen at post mortem examination and it was considered that nutritional and/or metabolic factors were important causes of fatty liver in this group. Fatty liver was found in association with chronic wasting diseases caused by mycotic infection in two cases.

  10. Prediction of liver cirrhosis, using diagnostic imaging tools

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Suk Keu; Lee, Chang Hee; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis is important. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. However, its invasiveness and sampling bias limit the applicability of the method. Basic imaging for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis has developed over the last few decades, enabling early detection of morphological changes of the liver by ultrasonography (US), computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They are also accurate diagnostic methods for advanced liver cirrhosis, for which early diagnosis is difficult. There are a number of ways to compensate for this difficulty, including texture analysis to more closely identify the homogeneity of hepatic parenchyma, elastography to measure the stiffness and elasticity of the liver, and perfusion studies to determine the blood flow volume, transit time, and velocity. Amongst these methods, elastography using US and MRI was found to be slightly easier, faster, and able to provide an accurate diagnosis. Early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis using MRI or US elastography is therefore a realistic alternative, but further research is still needed. PMID:26301049

  11. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Progression of Liver Disease The Progression of Liver Disease There are many different types of liver ... may put your life in danger. The Healthy Liver Your liver helps fight infections and cleans your ...

  12. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  13. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  14. Cytokines as potential biomarkers of liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lacour, Sandrine; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Pallardy, Marc; Roberts, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    Several important drug classes show pre-clinical hepatotoxicity or, in some cases hepatotoxicity in man in Phase III/IV not predicted by pre-clinical studies. This hepatotoxicity is associated with death of the parenchyma by both necrosis and apoptosis. Recent data have implicated molecular mediators of the immune response such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 1beta(1L-1beta) and interleukin 6 (IL6) in acute and chronic liver damage. These cytokines networks have been implicated in mediating the hepatic response to xenobiotics as diverse as PPAR ligands, acetaminophen and phenobarbitone. Thus, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFalpha, IL1 beta and IL6 are released into the bloodstream both from the liver and from distal sites during hepatic toxic injury. Probably due to differences in the responses of rodent and human hepatocytes to cytokines, some clinical hepatotoxicities are not predicted by rodent models. However, the cytokine changes implicated in this human hepatic cell death could be manifest in rodent models and thus could be detected at the molecular level. Here we review the role of cytokines in different types of drug-induced liver injury and discuss whether these cytokine fingerprints are potential biomarkers of so-called idiosyncratic human liver toxicity.

  15. Quantitative computed tomography of the liver in juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    Bonelli, Marília de Albuquerque; de Oliveira, Daniel Capucho; Costa, Lorena Adão Vescovi Séllos; Forattini, Jannine Garcia; Júnior, João Luiz Rossi; Leite, Flaviana Lima Guião; Costa, Fabiano Séllos

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) is a highly sensitive, applicable technique for determining the x-ray attenuation of organs. This technique reveals great precision in the detection of alterations in the x-ray attenuation of hepatic parenchyma, although the lack of studies establishing normal values limits its application in wild animals. The objective of this study was to establish mean hepatic attenuation values in four healthy juvenile sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) using QCT. Helical computed tomography scans were performed and regions of interest selected in the liver after multi-planar reconstruction images were obtained. The mean attenuation value for the hepatic parenchyma in these four turtles was 60.09 +/- 5.3 standard deviation Hounsfield units. Determining normal x-ray attenuation values of the liver increases knowledge of the computed tomographic anatomy of this species and may be useful in the investigation of hepatic diseases.

  16. Cryotherapy of Liver Tumours–A Practical Guide

    PubMed Central

    Ross, W. B.; Horton, M.; Bertolino, P.; Morris, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The use of cryotherapy for the treatment of some unresectable liver tumours has been clearly established as a therapeutic option. Intra-operative ultrasound has enhanced the process by enabling the surgeon to identify hepatic lesions and to allow visualisation of the freezing process to ensure that the cryolesion will include the tumour mass. The purpose of this paper is to provide a practical guide to surgeons who wish to perform cryotherapy of liver tumours. Patient selection and anaesthetic considerations are important. The surgeon should be able to deal with the complications of cryotherapy, particularly the intra-operative haemorrhage which may arise from cracking of the hepatic parenchyma as the iceball thaws. Follow-up is based on tumour marker assay and imaging of the liver and repeat cryotherapy can be considered for selected cases. PMID:7547619

  17. [Subcapsular hematoma and rupture of the liver graft].

    PubMed

    Görög, Dénes; Fehérvári, Imre; Doros, Attila; Nemes, Balázs; Máthé, Zoltán; Kóbori, László; Járay, Jeno

    2008-08-01

    Subcapsular hematoma and/or rupture of the graft is uncommon but serious complication of liver transplantation. It may develop spontaneously or following parenchymal injuries or percutaneous transhepatic invasive procedures. This report describes three cases of subcapsular hematoma and/or rupture of the graft with different courses among 350 liver transplantations. In the first case, the patient died due to graft rupture caused by a pseudoaneurysm after biopsy. In the second case, a small injury of the donor liver resulted in a deep rupture, which required partial resection of the graft. The patient died in sepsis later. The third patient presented with a large subcapsular haematoma during transplantation, which was successfully treated. The authors' strategies developed intraoperatively for the management of hematomas. These involve opening and removing of the haematoma, haemostasis with Argon coagulation, which resulted in an adherent Glisson's capsule to the parenchyma and covering with collagen fleece coated with fibrinogen and thrombin.

  18. Purpose-driven biomaterials research in liver-tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ananthanarayanan, Abhishek; Narmada, Balakrishnan Chakrapani; Mo, Xuejun; McMillian, Michael; Yu, Hanry

    2011-03-01

    Bottom-up engineering of microscale tissue ("microtissue") constructs to recapitulate partially the complex structure-function relationships of liver parenchyma has been realized through the development of sophisticated biomaterial scaffolds, liver-cell sources, and in vitro culture techniques. With regard to in vivo applications, the long-lived stem/progenitor cell constructs can improve cell engraftment, whereas the short-lived, but highly functional hepatocyte constructs stimulate host liver regeneration. With regard to in vitro applications, microtissue constructs are being adapted or custom-engineered into cell-based assays for testing acute, chronic and idiosyncratic toxicities of drugs or pathogens. Systems-level methods and computational models that represent quantitative relationships between biomaterial scaffolds, cells and microtissue constructs will further enable their rational design for optimal integration into specific biomedical applications.

  19. Adjacent-level arthroplasty following cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Deshpande V; Hari, Akshay; Krishna, Murali; Konar, Subhas; Sharma, Ankit

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Adjacent-level disc degeneration following cervical fusion has been well reported. This condition poses a major treatment dilemma when it becomes symptomatic. The potential application of cervical arthroplasty to preserve motion in the affected segment is not well documented, with few studies in the literature. The authors present their initial experience of analyzing clinical and radiological results in such patients who were treated with arthroplasty for new or persistent arm and/or neck symptoms related to neural compression due to adjacent-segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). METHODS During a 5-year period, 11 patients who had undergone ACDF anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and subsequently developed recurrent neck or arm pain related to adjacent-level cervical disc disease were treated with cervical arthroplasty at the authors' institution. A total of 15 devices were implanted (range of treated levels per patient: 1-3). Clinical evaluation was performed both before and after surgery, using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Radiological outcomes were analyzed using pre- and postoperative flexion/extension lateral radiographs measuring Cobb angle (overall C2-7 sagittal alignment), functional spinal unit (FSU) angle, and range of motion (ROM). RESULTS There were no major perioperative complications or device-related failures. Statistically significant results, obtained in all cases, were reflected by an improvement in VAS scores for neck/arm pain and NDI scores for neck pain. Radiologically, statistically significant increases in the overall lordosis (as measured by Cobb angle) and ROM at the treated disc level were observed. Three patients were lost to follow-up within the first year after arthroplasty. In the remaining 8 cases, the duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 3 years. None of these 8 patients required surgery for the same vertebral level during the follow

  20. Ultrastructural changes in the parenchymal liver cells of rats treated with high doses of rifampicin.

    PubMed Central

    Piriou, A.; Maissiat, R.; Jacqueson, A.; Warnet, J. M.; Claude, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of hepatic parenchyma was carried out in female Wistar rats after they had received high doses (400 mg X kg-1) of rifampicin for 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Morphological changes in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria were observed as early as day 1 of intoxication. These changes corroborate the biochemical data available regarding RFP-induced fatty liver. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 & 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:3580280

  1. Experimental COPD induced by solid combustible burn smoke in rats: a study of the emphysematous changes of the pulmonary parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Murărescu, Elena Doina; Eloae-Zugun, Fl; Mihailovici, Maria Sultana

    2008-01-01

    According to the GOLD 2006 definition, COPD is a preventable and treatable pathological situation characterized by the partially reversible airflow limitation determined by a variable proportion mixture of small airways disease (obliterative bronchiolitis) and parenchyma destruction (emphysema). A major impediment in the study of the COPD is represented by the fact the fundamental morphological changes that determine the major pulmonary dysfunction take place in the small, peripheral, airways, at the bronchiolo-alveolar attachments. That is why the experimental model of COPD developed progressively to the transgenic mouse. There are many experimental studies on the animal models that have obtained emphysema rapidly through intratraheal instillation of elastasis or bronchitis/bronchiolitis through intratraheal instillation of particles. It is accepted that the unnatural character of aggression, that does not permit the natural evolution of the inflammatory phenomenon, limits these models and tissue remodeling that take place in COPD patients. It is well known that cigarette smoking is a major cause of COPD. There have been reported some cases of COPD in never smoking patients exposed to air pollutants. We aimed to create an experimental model of COPD in rat through exposure to smoke resulted from solid combustibles burn for the same period and in the same conditions of cigarette smoke exposure and to compare the pulmonary morphological changes. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 10): (1) the control group (C), (2) the cigarette smoke group (CS), and (3) the solid combustible smoke group (SCS). Apart from the control group, these were treated with solid combustibles smoke (SCS group) or cigarette smoke (CS group) for six months. Morphological and morphometry studies have been assessed. We have established a rat COPD model based on natural cigarette smoke exposure versus solid combustible burn resulted smoke, usable for a further approach in human

  2. Liver resection in children, using a water-jet.

    PubMed

    Hata, Y; Sasaki, F; Takahashi, H; Ohkawa, Y; Taguchi, K; Une, Y; Uchino, J

    1994-05-01

    The water-jet method has been used during hepatic resection in children. The instrument cuts the hepatic tissue by means of a high-pressure fine water-jet, while the exposed intrahepatic vessels are spared injury. Physiological saline was used for the jet water, and pressure of 12 to 15 kilograms of force per square centimeter (kgf/cm2) through a 0.15-mm-diameter nozzle was found to be optimal for cutting the liver parenchyma. The authors evaluated the usefulness of the water-jet dissector (n = 8) during bisegmentectomy or trisegmentectomy in comparison to the Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator (CUSA) (n = 5). The mean operation time was 4.08 +/- 0.87 hours for the water-jet group and 5.08 +/- 1.33 hours for the CUSA group. The mean blood loss was 602 +/- 659 mL for the water-jet group and 1,036 +/- 521 mL for the CUSA group. Although there were no significant differences with respect to operation time, blood loss, or postoperative complications, the liver parenchyma was dissected more easily using the water-jet. The authors believe that the mechanical simplicity and safety of the water-jet method will lead to its more widespread use in liver resection in children.

  3. Reversal of liver cirrhosis: current evidence and expectations

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Young Kul; Yim, Hyung Joon

    2017-01-01

    In the past, liver cirrhosis was considered an irreversible phenomenon. However, many experimental data have provided evidence of the reversibility of liver fibrosis. Moreover, multiple clinical studies have also shown regression of fibrosis and reversal of cirrhosis on repeated biopsy samples. As various etiologies are associated with liver fibrosis via integrated signaling pathways, a comprehensive understanding of the pathobiology of hepatic fibrogenesis is critical for improving clinical outcomes. Hepatic stellate cells play a central role in hepatic fibrogenesis upon their activation from a quiescent state. Collagen and other extracellular material components from activated hepatic stellate cells are deposited on, and damage, the liver parenchyma and vascular structures. Hence, inactivation of hepatic stellate cells can lead to enhancement of fibrolytic activity and could be a potential target of antifibrotic therapy. In this regard, continued efforts have been made to develop better treatments for underlying liver diseases and antifibrotic agents in multiple clinical and therapeutic trials; the best results may be expected with the integration of such evidence. In this article, we present the underlying mechanisms of fibrosis, current experimental and clinical evidence of the reversibility of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis, and new agents with therapeutic potential for liver fibrosis. PMID:28171717

  4. Subcapsular hematoma after right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Mureo; Kozaki, Koichi; Yoshida, Toru; Yamamoto, Hidekazu; Ogawa, Kohei; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    Because right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation was introduced in adult-to-adult liver transplantation to mitigate the problems of small-for-size grafts, some technical controversies have been reported. This report describes a case of graft subcapsular hematoma due to parenchymal injury. A 53-year-old woman underwent a right-lobe living-donor liver transplantation for acute-on-chronic liver failure due to primary biliary cirrhosis. A huge subcapsular hematoma was discovered by routine Doppler echogram examination on the first posttransplantation day. Relaparotomy findings revealed that rotation of the graft for the hemostasis procedure during the transplant operation had induced a compression injury to the graft by the xiphoid process. It was speculated that a small laceration in the graft parenchyma led to the major subcapsular hematoma. This experience suggests that the graft liver must be handled with special care to prevent potential mechanical injury.

  5. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in the Field of Interventional Oncology of the Liver

    SciTech Connect

    Bapst, Blanche Lagadec, Matthieu; Breguet, Romain; Vilgrain, Valérie Ronot, Maxime

    2016-01-15

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an imaging modality that provides computed tomographic images using a rotational C-arm equipped with a flat panel detector as part of the Angiography suite. The aim of this technique is to provide additional information to conventional 2D imaging to improve the performance of interventional liver oncology procedures (intraarterial treatments such as chemoembolization or selective internal radiation therapy, and percutaneous tumor ablation). CBCT provides accurate tumor detection and targeting, periprocedural guidance, and post-procedural evaluation of treatment success. This technique can be performed during intraarterial or intravenous contrast agent administration with various acquisition protocols to highlight liver tumors, liver vessels, or the liver parenchyma. The purpose of this review is to present an extensive overview of published data on CBCT in interventional oncology of the liver, for both percutaneous ablation and intraarterial procedures.

  6. Evaluation of fatty proportion in fatty liver using least squares method with constraints.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingsong; Deng, Yinhui; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Shamdasani, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Backscatter and attenuation parameters are not easily measured in clinical applications due to tissue inhomogeneity in the region of interest (ROI). A least squares method(LSM) that fits the echo signal power spectra from a ROI to a 3-parameter tissue model was used to get attenuation coefficient imaging in fatty liver. Since fat's attenuation value is higher than normal liver parenchyma, a reasonable threshold was chosen to evaluate the fatty proportion in fatty liver. Experimental results using clinical data of fatty liver illustrate that the least squares method can get accurate attenuation estimates. It is proved that the attenuation values have a positive correlation with the fatty proportion, which can be used to evaluate the syndrome of fatty liver.

  7. Mannitol-enhanced, fluid-phase endocytosis in storage parenchyma cells of celery (Apium graveolens; Apiaceae) petioles.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, Ed; Gonzalez, Pedro; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2007-06-01

    We recently demonstrated the occurrence of a sucrose-enhanced, fluid-phase endocytic (FPE) mechanism of nutrient uptake in heterotrophic cells. In the present work, the possible enhancement/induction of FPE by photoassimilates other than sucrose was investigated by measuring the incorporation of the fluorescent endocytosis marker d-TR (dextran-Texas red, 3000 mw) into celery (Apium graveolens) petiole storage parenchyma (CSP), a tissue that transports and accumulates mannitol. Mannitol uptake in these cells is biphasic, with a hyperbolic phase at concentrations below 20 mM and a linear phase above 20 mM external solute concentration. In the absence of mannitol, or in its presence at concentrations within the hyperbolic phase, CSP cells accumulated low levels of d-TR. Conversely, d-TR accumulation by CSP cells was greatly enhanced in the presence of mannitol at concentrations within the linear phase. At high external mannitol concentration, d-TR accumulation was prevented by the endocytic inhibitors LY294002 and latrunculin B. In addition, d-TR uptake was temperature dependent under high mannitol concentration. Microscopic observations revealed that d-TR accumulated in the vacuole. These data support the occurrence of an FPE mechanism in CSP cells that participates in trapping and transport of photoassimilates to the vacuole. The FPE mechanism is enhanced by high mannitol concentrations.

  8. Phloem as capacitor: radial transfer of water into xylem of tree stems occurs via symplastic transport in ray parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Pfautsch, Sebastian; Renard, Justine; Tjoelker, Mark G; Salih, Anya

    2015-03-01

    The transfer of water from phloem into xylem is thought to mitigate increasing hydraulic tension in the vascular system of trees during the diel cycle of transpiration. Although a putative plant function, to date there is no direct evidence of such water transfer or the contributing pathways. Here, we trace the radial flow of water from the phloem into the xylem and investigate its diel variation. Introducing a fluorescent dye (0.1% [w/w] fluorescein) into the phloem water of the tree species Eucalyptus saligna allowed localization of the dye in phloem and xylem tissues using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Our results show that the majority of water transferred between the two tissues is facilitated via the symplast of horizontal ray parenchyma cells. The method also permitted assessment of the radial transfer of water during the diel cycle, where changes in water potential gradients between phloem and xylem determine the extent and direction of radial transfer. When injected during the morning, when xylem water potential rapidly declined, fluorescein was translocated, on average, farther into mature xylem (447 ± 188 µm) compared with nighttime, when xylem water potential was close to zero (155 ± 42 µm). These findings provide empirical evidence to support theoretical predictions of the role of phloem-xylem water transfer in the hydraulic functioning of plants. This method enables investigation of the role of phloem tissue as a dynamic capacitor for water storage and transfer and its contribution toward the maintenance of the functional integrity of xylem in trees.

  9. [A Case of Transorbital Penetrating Brain Injury Caused by a Steel Wire Entirely Embedded in the Brain Parenchyma].

    PubMed

    Kin, Kyohei; Ono, Yasuhiro; Fujimori, Takeshi; Kuramoto, Satoshi; Katsumata, Atsushi; Goda, Yuji; Kawauchi, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Penetrating brain injury(PBI)is very rare in Japan. Because there is a very wide variety of pathological condition of PBI, the guideline for the treatment of PBI has not been established yet. We report the unique case of PBI caused by a steel wire piece completely embedded in the brain parenchyma. A 75-year-old man was brought to the emergency department due to ocular injury caused by a steel wire piece. Neurological examination revealed only left visual disturbance. CT scan revealed a steel wire piece located intraparenchymally between the left frontal lobe and the ventricles, but digital subtraction angiography showed no significant vascular injury in the surrounding structures. We performed an open surgery and removed the steel wire piece. Because the steel wire piece was completely embedded in the brain, we used intraoperative X-ray fluoroscopy to choose a less invasive approach for the brain. The patient suffered no additional neurological deficit and no sign of cerebral infection or seizure after surgery. He was discharged after a 4-week administration of antibiotics. In most cases of PBI caused by low velocity injury, foreign bodies are not completely embedded in the brain except for remnants after surgical removal. This is the first report of low velocity PBI caused by a foreign body completely embedded in the brain.

  10. Presence of supercooling-facilitating (anti-ice nucleation) hydrolyzable tannins in deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells in Cercidiphyllum japonicum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donghui; Kasuga, Jun; Kuwabara, Chikako; Endoh, Keita; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Fujikawa, Seizo; Arakawa, Keita

    2012-04-01

    Xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in trees adapt to subzero temperatures by deep supercooling. Our previous study indicated the possibility of the presence of diverse kinds of supercooling-facilitating (SCF; anti-ice nucleation) substances in XPCs of katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum), all of which might have an important role in deep supercooling of XPCs. In the previous study, a few kinds of SCF flavonol glycosides were identified. Thus, in the present study, we tried to identify other kinds of SCF substances in XPCs of katsura tree. SCF substances were purified from xylem extracts by silica gel column chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Then, four SCF substances isolated were identified by UV, mass and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. The results showed that the four kinds of hydrolyzable gallotannins, 2,2',5-tri-O-galloyl-α,β-D-hamamelose (trigalloyl Ham or kurigalin), 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (trigalloyl Glc), 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (tetragalloyl Glc) and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pentagalloyl Glc), in XPCs exhibited supercooling capabilities in the range of 1.5-4.5°C, at a concentration of 1 mg mL⁻¹. These SCF substances, including flavonol glycosides and hydrolyzable gallotannins, may contribute to the supercooling in XPCs of katsura tree.

  11. Anti-ice nucleation activity in xylem extracts from trees that contain deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Jun; Mizuno, Kaoru; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2007-12-01

    Boreal hardwood species, including Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla Sukat. var. japonica Hara), Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc.), katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum Sieb. et Zucc.), Siebold's beech (Fagus crenata Blume), mulberry (Morus bombycis Koidz.), and Japanese rowan (Sorbus commixta Hedl.), had xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) that adapt to subfreezing temperatures by deep supercooling. Crude extracts from xylem in all these trees were found to have anti-ice nucleation activity that promoted supercooling capability of water as measured by a droplet freezing assay. The magnitude of increase in supercooling capability of water droplets in the presence of ice-nucleation bacteria, Erwinia ananas, was higher in the ranges from 0.1 to 1.7 degrees C on addition of crude xylem extracts than freezing temperature of water droplets on addition of glucose in the same concentration (100 mosmol/kg). Crude xylem extracts from C. japonicum provided the highest supercooling capability of water droplets. Our additional examination showed that crude xylem extracts from C. japonicum exhibited anti-ice nucleation activity toward water droplets containing a variety of heterogeneous ice nucleators, including ice-nucleation bacteria, not only E. ananas but also Pseudomonas syringae (NBRC3310) or Xanthomonas campestris, silver iodide or airborne impurities. However, crude xylem extracts from C. japonicum did not affect homogeneous ice nucleation temperature as analyzed by emulsified micro-water droplets. The possible role of such anti-ice nucleation activity in crude xylem extracts in deep supercooling of XPCs is discussed.

  12. Roles of cell walls and intracellular contents in supercooling capability of xylem parenchyma cells of boreal trees.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Jun; Endoh, Keita; Yoshiba, Megumi; Taido, Ippei; Arakawa, Keita; Uemura, Matsuo; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2013-05-01

    The supercooling capability of xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in boreal hardwood species differs depending not only on species, but also season. In this study, the roles of cell walls and intracellular contents in supercooling capability of XPCs were examined in three boreal hardwood species, Japanese beech, katsura tree and mulberry, whose supercooling capability differs largely depending on species and season. XPCs in these species harvested in winter and summer were treated by rapid freezing and thawing (RFT samples) or by RFT with further washing (RFTW samples) to remove intracellular contents from XPCs in order to examine the roles of cell walls in supercooling. RFT samples were also treated with glucose solution (RFTG samples) to examine roles of intracellular contents in supercooling. The supercooling capabilities of these samples were examined by differential thermal analysis after ultrastructural observation of XPCs by a cryo-scanning electron microscope to confirm effects of the above treatments. XPCs in RFTW samples showed a large reduction in supercooling capability to similar temperatures regardless of species or season. On the other hand, XPCs in RFTG samples showed a large increase in supercooling capability to similar temperatures regardless of species or season. These results indicate that although cell walls have an important role in maintenance of supercooling, change in supercooling capability of XPCs is induced by change in intracellular contents, but not by change in cell wall properties.

  13. Immunolocalization of solanaceous SUT1 proteins in companion cells and xylem parenchyma: new perspectives for phloem loading and transport.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Bianca; Stadler, Ruth; Sauer, Norbert

    2008-09-01

    Leaf sucrose (Suc) transporters are essential for phloem loading and long-distance partitioning of assimilates in plants that load their phloem from the apoplast. Suc loading into the phloem is indispensable for the generation of the osmotic potential difference that drives phloem bulk flow and is central for the long-distance movement of phloem sap compounds, including hormones and signaling molecules. In previous analyses, solanaceous SUT1 Suc transporters from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were immunolocalized in plasma membranes of enucleate sieve elements. Here, we present data that identify solanaceous SUT1 proteins with high specificity in phloem companion cells. Moreover, comparisons of SUT1 localization in the abaxial and adaxial phloem revealed higher levels of SUT1 protein in the abaxial phloem of all three solanaceous species, suggesting different physiological roles for these two types of phloem. Finally, SUT1 proteins were identified in files of xylem parenchyma cells, mainly in the bicollateral veins. Together, our data provide new insight into the role of SUT1 proteins in solanaceous species.

  14. Therapeutic Efficacy of Human Hepatocyte Transplantation in a SCID/uPA Mouse Model with Inducible Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Donna N.; Kawahara, Toshiyasu; Sis, Banu; Bond, David; Fischer, Karl P.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne J.; Lewis, Jamie T.; Kneteman, Norman M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Severe Combined Immune Deficient (SCID)/Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator (uPA) mice undergo liver failure and are useful hosts for the propagation of transplanted human hepatocytes (HH) which must compete with recipient-derived hepatocytes for replacement of the diseased liver parenchyma. While partial replacement by HH has proven useful for studies with Hepatitis C virus, complete replacement of SCID/uPA mouse liver by HH has never been achieved and limits the broader application of these mice for other areas of biomedical research. The herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSVtk)/ganciclovir (GCV) system is a powerful tool for cell-specific ablation in transgenic animals. The aim of this study was to selectively eliminate murine-derived parenchymal liver cells from humanized SCID/uPA mouse liver in order to achieve mice with completely humanized liver parenchyma. Thus, we reproduced the HSVtk (vTK)/GCV system of hepatic failure in SCID/uPA mice. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro experiments demonstrated efficient killing of vTK expressing hepatoma cells after GCV treatment. For in vivo experiments, expression of vTK was targeted to the livers of FVB/N and SCID/uPA mice. Hepatic sensitivity to GCV was first established in FVB/N mice since these mice do not undergo liver failure inherent to SCID/uPA mice. Hepatic vTK expression was found to be an integral component of GCV-induced pathologic and biochemical alterations and caused death due to liver dysfunction in vTK transgenic FVB/N and non-transplanted SCID/uPA mice. In SCID/uPA mice with humanized liver, vTK/GCV caused death despite extensive replacement of the mouse liver parenchyma with HH (ranging from 32–87%). Surprisingly, vTK/GCV-dependent apoptosis and mitochondrial aberrations were also localized to bystander vTK-negative HH. Conclusions/Significance Extensive replacement of mouse liver parenchyma by HH does not provide a secure therapeutic advantage against v

  15. [Baseline and contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the liver in tumor patients].

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, A; Albrecht, T

    2008-10-01

    In patients with known malignancy, correct detection and characterization of liver lesions has important therapeutic consequences. Conventional sonography is the most commonly used modality for liver imaging in tumor patients. However, it has a lower sensitivity for the detection of liver metastases compared to contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The majority of liver metastases are hypoechoic and well defined in baseline ultrasound (US), while detection of isoechoic or small liver metastases <1 cm is difficult and the differentiation of liver metastases from benign liver lesions and other malignant liver tumors can be impossible with baseline US. The use of microbubble-based ultrasound contrast agents and contrast-specific imaging techniques advanced the accuracy of ultrasound in liver imaging. Levovist and SonoVue are the US contrast agents approved for liver imaging in Europe. Compared to Levovist, SonoVue allows continuous imaging of the liver in real-time over a period of up to 5 minutes. As a result, SonoVue became the preferred contrast agent for liver imaging in the recent years, while Levovist became less important. Important for the detection of liver metastases are the portal venous and late phases in which metastases show a wash-out and can be detected as hypoechoic lesions in homogeneous enhanced liver parenchyma. The detection of hepatic metastases is substantially improved by CEUS compared to conventional B-mode sonography. Several studies showed sensitivity in detecting liver metastases comparable to that of contrast-enhanced CT and MRI. Furthermore, the typical enhancement patterns of the different benign and malignant liver lesions allow reliable characterization and differentiation from liver metastases in the majority of cases. This paper provides information about the advantages and expedient application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in tumor patients.

  16. Liver resections can be performed safely without Pringle maneuver: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Christoph A; Walensi, Mikolaj; Käser, Samuel A; Künzli, Beat M; Lötscher, René; Zuse, Anne

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate liver resections without Pringle maneuver, i.e., clamping of the portal triad. METHODS Between 9/2002 and 7/2013, 175 consecutive liver resections (n = 101 major anatomical and n = 74 large atypical > 5 cm) without Pringle maneuver were performed in 127 patients (143 surgeries). Accompanying, 37 wedge resections (specimens < 5 cm) and 43 radiofrequency ablations were performed. Preoperative volumetric calculation of the liver remnant preceeded all anatomical resections. The liver parenchyma was dissected by water-jet. The median central venous pressure was 4 mmHg (range: 5-14). Data was collected prospectively. RESULTS The median age of patients was 60 years (range: 16-85). Preoperative chemotherapy was used in 70 cases (49.0%). Liver cirrhosis was present in 6.3%, and liver steatosis of ≥ 10% in 28.0%. Blood loss was median 400 mL (range 50-5000 mL). Perioperative blood transfusions were given in 22/143 procedures (15%). The median weight of anatomically resected liver specimens was 525 g (range: 51-1850 g). One patient died postoperatively. Biliary leakages (n = 5) were treated conservatively. Temporary liver failure occurred in two patients. CONCLUSION Major liver resections without Pringle maneuver are feasible and safe. The avoidance of liver inflow clamping might reduce liver damage and failure, and shorten the hospital stay. PMID:27648156

  17. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  18. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  19. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  20. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  1. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  6. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  7. Membranous Nephropathy Associated With Immunological Disorder-Related Liver Disease: A Retrospective Study of 10 Cases.

    PubMed

    Dauvergne, Maxime; Moktefi, Anissa; Rabant, Marion; Vigneau, Cécile; Kofman, Tomek; Burtey, Stephane; Corpechot, Christophe; Stehlé, Thomas; Desvaux, Dominique; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Rouvier, Philippe; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Frouget, Thierry; Daugas, Eric; Jablonski, Mathieu; Dahan, Karine; Brocheriou, Isabelle; Remy, Philippe; Grimbert, Philippe; Lang, Philippe; Chazouilleres, Oliver; Sahali, Dil; Audard, Vincent

    2015-07-01

    The association between membranous nephropathy (MN) and immunological disorder-related liver disease has not been extensively investigated, and the specific features of this uncommon association, if any, remain to be determined.We retrospectively identified 10 patients with this association. We aimed to describe the clinical, biological, and pathological characteristics of these patients and their therapeutic management. The possible involvement of the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) in these apparent secondary forms of MN was assessed by immunohistochemistry with renal and liver biopsy specimens.The mean delay between MN and liver disease diagnoses was 3.9 years and the interval between the diagnosis of the glomerular and liver diseases was <1.5 years in 5 patients. MN was associated with a broad spectrum of liver diseases including primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). AIH whether isolated (n = 3) or associated with PBC (n = 2) or PSC (n = 2) was the most frequent autoimmune liver disease. Circulating PLA2R antibodies were detected in 4 out of 9 patients but the test was performed under specific immunosuppressive treatment in 3 out of 9 patients. Seven of the 9 patients with available renal tissue specimens displayed enhanced expression of PLA2R in glomeruli whereas PLA2R was not expressed in liver parenchyma from these patients or in normal liver tissue. The study of immunoglobulin (Ig) subclasses of deposits in glomeruli revealed that the most frequent pattern was the coexistence of IgG1 and IgG4 immune deposits with IgG4 predominating.Detection of PLA2R antibodies in glomeruli but not in liver parenchyma is a common finding in patients with MN associated with autoimmune liver disease, suggesting that these autoantibodies are not exclusively detected in idiopathic MN.

  8. Feature Learning Based Random Walk for Liver Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yongchang; Ai, Danni; Zhang, Pan; Gao, Yefei; Xia, Likun; Du, Shunda; Sang, Xinting; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Liver segmentation is a significant processing technique for computer-assisted diagnosis. This method has attracted considerable attention and achieved effective result. However, liver segmentation using computed tomography (CT) images remains a challenging task because of the low contrast between the liver and adjacent organs. This paper proposes a feature-learning-based random walk method for liver segmentation using CT images. Four texture features were extracted and then classified to determine the classification probability corresponding to the test images. Seed points on the original test image were automatically selected and further used in the random walk (RW) algorithm to achieve comparable results to previous segmentation methods. PMID:27846217

  9. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  10. Pregnancy Complications: Liver Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Liver disorders Liver disorders Now playing: E-mail to a friend ... have blood on them (razors, toothbrushes). Acute fatty liver of pregnancy What is acute fatty liver of ...

  11. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...

  12. Tests for Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Tests for Liver Cancer If you have some of the signs ... Health Care Team About Liver Cancer? More In Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  13. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services -- www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

  14. Global Proteome Changes in Liver Tissue 6 Weeks after FOLFOX Treatment of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Urdzik, Jozef; Vildhede, Anna; Wiśniewski, Jacek R.; Duraj, Frans; Haglund, Ulf; Artursson, Per; Norén, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    (1) Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for colorectal cancer liver metastasis is associated with sinusoidal injury of liver parenchyma. The effects of oxaliplatin-induced liver injury on the protein level remain unknown. (2) Protein expression in liver tissue was analyzed—from eight patients treated with FOLFOX (combination of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) and seven controls—by label-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Recursive feature elimination–support vector machine and Welch t-test were used to identify classifying and relevantly changed proteins, respectively. Resulting proteins were analyzed for associations with gene ontology categories and pathways. (3) A total of 5891 proteins were detected. A set of 184 (3.1%) proteins classified the groups with a 20% error rate, but relevant change was observed only in 55 (0.9%) proteins. The classifying proteins were associated with changes in DNA replication (p < 0.05) through upregulation of the minichromosome maintenance complex and with the innate immune response (p < 0.05). The importance of DNA replication changes was supported by the results of Welch t-test (p < 0.05). (4) Six weeks after FOLFOX treatment, less than 1% of identified proteins showed changes in expression associated with DNA replication, cell cycle entry, and innate immune response. We hypothesize that the changes remain after recovery from FOLFOX treatment injury. PMID:28248240

  15. A particle-based model to simulate the micromechanics of single-plant parenchyma cells and aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Liedekerke, P.; Ghysels, P.; Tijskens, E.; Samaey, G.; Smeedts, B.; Roose, D.; Ramon, H.

    2010-06-01

    This paper is concerned with addressing how plant tissue mechanics is related to the micromechanics of cells. To this end, we propose a mesh-free particle method to simulate the mechanics of both individual plant cells (parenchyma) and cell aggregates in response to external stresses. The model considers two important features in the plant cell: (1) the cell protoplasm, the interior liquid phase inducing hydrodynamic phenomena, and (2) the cell wall material, a viscoelastic solid material that contains the protoplasm. In this particle framework, the cell fluid is modeled by smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), a mesh-free method typically used to address problems with gas and fluid dynamics. In the solid phase (cell wall) on the other hand, the particles are connected by pairwise interactions holding them together and preventing the fluid to penetrate the cell wall. The cell wall hydraulic conductivity (permeability) is built in as well through the SPH formulation. Although this model is also meant to be able to deal with dynamic and even violent situations (leading to cell wall rupture or cell-cell debonding), we have concentrated on quasi-static conditions. The results of single-cell compression simulations show that the conclusions found by analytical models and experiments can be reproduced at least qualitatively. Relaxation tests revealed that plant cells have short relaxation times (1 µs-10 µs) compared to mammalian cells. Simulations performed on cell aggregates indicated an influence of the cellular organization to the tissue response, as was also observed in experiments done on tissues with a similar structure.

  16. Deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells of katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum) contain flavonol glycosides exhibiting high anti-ice nucleation activity.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Jun; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Nishioka, Atsushi; Yoshiba, Megumi; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2008-09-01

    Xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) of boreal hardwood species adapt to sub-freezing temperatures by deep supercooling to maintain a liquid state of intracellular water near -40 degrees C. Our previous study found that crude xylem extracts from such tree species exhibited anti-ice nucleation activity to promote supercooling of water. In the present study, thus, we attempted to identify the causative substances of supercooling. Crude xylem extracts from katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum), of which XPCs exhibited deep supercooling to -40 degrees C, were prepared by methanol extraction. The crude extracts were purified by liquid-liquid extraction and then by silica gel column chromatography. Although all the fractions obtained after each purification step exhibited some levels of anti-ice nucleation activity, only the most active fraction was retained to proceed to the subsequent level of purification. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of a fraction with the highest level of activity revealed four peaks with high levels of anti-ice nucleation activity in the range of 2.8-9.0 degrees C. Ultraviolet (UV), mass and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra revealed that these four peaks corresponded to quercetin-3-O-beta-glucoside (Q3G), kaempferol-7-O-beta-glucoside (K7G), 8-methoxykaempferol-3-O-beta-glucoside (8MK3G) and kaempferol-3-O-beta-glucoside (K3G). Microscopic observations confirmed the presence of flavonoids in cytoplasms of XPCs. These results suggest that diverse kinds of anti-ice nucleation substances, including flavonol glycosides, may have important roles in deep supercooling of XPCs.

  17. Sleep and rhythm changes at the time of Trypanosoma brucei invasion of the brain parenchyma in the rat.

    PubMed

    Seke Etet, Paul F; Palomba, Maria; Colavito, Valeria; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Bentivoglio, Marina; Bertini, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is a severe disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.). The disease hallmark is sleep alterations. Brain involvement in HAT is a crucial pathogenetic step for disease diagnosis and therapy. In this study, a rat model of African trypanosomiasis was used to assess changes of sleep-wake, rest-activity, and body temperature rhythms in the time window previously shown as crucial for brain parenchyma invasion by T.b. to determine potential biomarkers of this event. Chronic radiotelemetric monitoring in Sprague-Dawley rats was used to continuously record electroencephalogram, electromyogram, rest-activity, and body temperature in the same animals before (baseline recording) and after infection. Rats were infected with T.b. brucei. Data were acquired from 1 to 20 d after infection (parasite neuroinvasion initiates at 11-13 d post-infection in this model), and were compared to baseline values. Sleep parameters were manually scored from electroencephalographic-electromyographic tracings. Circadian rhythms of sleep time, slow-wave activity, rest-activity, and body temperature were studied using cosinor rhythmometry. Results revealed alterations of most of the analyzed parameters. In particular, sleep pattern and sleep-wake organization plus rest-activity and body temperature rhythms exhibited early quantitative and qualitative alterations, which became marked around the time interval crucial for parasite neuroinvasion or shortly after. Data derived from actigrams showed close correspondence with those from hypnograms, suggesting that rest-activity could be useful to monitor sleep-wake alterations in African trypanosomiasis.

  18. A particle-based model to simulate the micromechanics of single-plant parenchyma cells and aggregates.

    PubMed

    Van Liedekerke, P; Ghysels, P; Tijskens, E; Samaey, G; Smeedts, B; Roose, D; Ramon, H

    2010-05-26

    This paper is concerned with addressing how plant tissue mechanics is related to the micromechanics of cells. To this end, we propose a mesh-free particle method to simulate the mechanics of both individual plant cells (parenchyma) and cell aggregates in response to external stresses. The model considers two important features in the plant cell: (1) the cell protoplasm, the interior liquid phase inducing hydrodynamic phenomena, and (2) the cell wall material, a viscoelastic solid material that contains the protoplasm. In this particle framework, the cell fluid is modeled by smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), a mesh-free method typically used to address problems with gas and fluid dynamics. In the solid phase (cell wall) on the other hand, the particles are connected by pairwise interactions holding them together and preventing the fluid to penetrate the cell wall. The cell wall hydraulic conductivity (permeability) is built in as well through the SPH formulation. Although this model is also meant to be able to deal with dynamic and even violent situations (leading to cell wall rupture or cell-cell debonding), we have concentrated on quasi-static conditions. The results of single-cell compression simulations show that the conclusions found by analytical models and experiments can be reproduced at least qualitatively. Relaxation tests revealed that plant cells have short relaxation times (1 micros-10 micros) compared to mammalian cells. Simulations performed on cell aggregates indicated an influence of the cellular organization to the tissue response, as was also observed in experiments done on tissues with a similar structure.

  19. Incidental diagnosis of liver tuberculosis in a patient with jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Suthar, Pokhraj Prakashchandra; Bumiya, Raj G; Patel, Kimmyben; Patel, Ankitkumar Bipinbhai

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old afebrile woman presented with anorexia, yellowish discolouration of the sclera and bilateral pedal oedema. Blood investigations revealed severe anaemia, raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate and thrombocytopaenia. Liver function tests were abnormal with raised bilirubin, alanine transaminase and prothrombin time. Chest roentgenogram was negative for tuberculosis. Abdominal ultrasonography (USG) revealed coarsened echotexture of the liver with surface nodularity. Contrast-enhanced CT scan revealed heterogeneity with surface and parenchymal nodularity scattered throughout the liver parenchyma. USG-guided liver biopsy was performed, which showed changes in granulomatous hepatitis with positive Ziehl-Neelsen staining for acid-fast bacilli. The patient was started on antituberculous drugs. After completion of the antituberculous regimen, the patient made an uneventful recovery with normal range of aspartate aminotransferase, serum albumin and prothrombin time. In summary, isolated liver tuberculosis is rare and a high index of suspicion is required in a patient from an area where tuberculosis is endemic, after excluding other common diffuse liver pathologies. PMID:25733085

  20. LIVER FUNCTION AFTER IRRADIATION BASED UPON CT PORTAL VEIN PERFUSION IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yue; Pan, Charlie; Balter, James M.; Platt, Joel F.; Francis, Isaac R.; Knol, James A.; Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The role of radiation in the treatment of intrahepatic cancer is limited by the development of radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), which occurs weeks after the course of radiation is completed. We hypothesized that, as the pathophysiology of RILD is veno-occlusive disease, we could assess individual and regional liver sensitivity to radiation by measuring liver perfusion during a course of treatment using dynamic contrast enhanced CT (DCE-CT) scanning. Materials and Methods Patients with intrahepatic cancer undergoing conformal radiotherapy underwent DCE-CT (to measure perfusion distribution) and an indocyanine extraction study (to measure liver function) prior to, during, and one month after treatment. We wished to determine if the residual functioning liver (i.e. those regions showing portal vein perfusion) could be used to predict overall liver function after irradiation. Results Radiation doses from 45 to 84 Gy resulted in undectable regional portal vein perfusion one month after treatment. The volume of each liver with undectable portal vein perfusion ranged from 0% to 39% and depended both on the patient’s sensitivity and dose distribution. There was a significant correlation between indocyanine green clearance and the mean of the estimated portal vein perfusion in the functional liver parenchyma (P < .001). Conclusion This study reveals substantial individual variability in the sensitivity of the liver to irradiation. In addition, these findings suggest that hepatic perfusion imaging may be a marker for liver function, and has the potential to be a tool for individualizing therapy. PMID:17855011

  1. Imaging patterns and focal lesions in fatty liver: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Sudhakar K; Hennedige, Tiffany; Johnson, Geoffrey B; Hough, David M; Fletcher, Joel G

    2016-12-20

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and affects nearly one-third of US population. With the increasing trend of obesity in the population, associated fatty change in the liver will be a common feature observed in imaging studies. Fatty liver causes changes in liver parenchyma appearance on imaging modalities including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and may affect the imaging characteristics of focal liver lesions (FLLs). The imaging characteristics of FLLs were classically described in a non-fatty liver. In addition, focal fatty change and focal fat sparing may also simulate FLLs. Knowledge of characteristic patterns of fatty change in the liver (diffuse, geographical, focal, subcapsular, and perivascular) and their impact on the detection and characterization of FLL is therefore important. In general, fatty change may improve detection of FLLs on MRI using fat suppression sequences, but may reduce sensitivity on a single-phase (portal venous) CT and conventional ultrasound. In patients with fatty liver, MRI is generally superior to ultrasound and CT for detection and characterization of FLL. In this pictorial essay, we describe the imaging patterns of fatty change in the liver and its effect on detection and characterization of FLLs on ultrasound, CT, MRI, and PET.

  2. Liver segmentation for CT images using GVF snake

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Fan; Zhao Binsheng; Kijewski, Peter K.; Wang Liang; Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    2005-12-15

    Accurate liver segmentation on computed tomography (CT) images is a challenging task especially at sites where surrounding tissues (e.g., stomach, kidney) have densities similar to that of the liver and lesions reside at the liver edges. We have developed a method for semiautomatic delineation of the liver contours on contrast-enhanced CT images. The method utilizes a snake algorithm with a gradient vector flow (GVF) field as its external force. To improve the performance of the GVF snake in the segmentation of the liver contour, an edge map was obtained with a Canny edge detector, followed by modifications using a liver template and a concavity removal algorithm. With the modified edge map, for which unwanted edges inside the liver were eliminated, the GVF field was computed and an initial liver contour was formed. The snake algorithm was then applied to obtain the actual liver contour. This algorithm was extended to segment the liver volume in a slice-by-slice fashion, where the result of the preceding slice constrained the segmentation of the adjacent slice. 551 two-dimensional liver images from 20 volumetric images with colorectal metastases spreading throughout the livers were delineated using this method, and also manually by a radiologist for evaluation. The difference ratio, which is defined as the percentage ratio of mismatching volume between the computer and the radiologist's results, ranged from 2.9% to 7.6% with a median value of 5.3%.

  3. Rice sucrose transporter1 (OsSUT1) up-regulation in xylem parenchyma is caused by aphid feeding on rice leaf blade vascular bundles.

    PubMed

    Ibraheem, O; Botha, C E J; Bradley, G; Dealtry, G; Roux, S

    2014-07-01

    The role of the sucrose transporter OsSUT1 in assimilate retrieval via the xylem, as a result of damage to and leakage from punctured phloem was examined after rusty plum aphid (Hysteroneura setariae, Thomas) infestation on leaves from 3-week-old rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Nipponbare) plants. Leaves were examined over a 1- to 10-day infestation time course, using a combination of gene expression and β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene analyses. qPCR and Western blot analyses revealed differential expression of OsSUT1 during aphid infestation. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy was used to confirm the expression of OsSUT1-promoter::GUS reporter gene in vascular parenchyma associated with xylem elements, as well as in companion cells associated with phloem sieve tubes of large, intermediate and small vascular bundles within the leaf blade, in regions where the aphids had settled and were feeding. Of great interest was up-regulation of OsSUT1 expression associated with the xylem parenchyma cells, abutting the metaxylem vessels, which confirmed that OsSUT1 was not only involved in loading of sugars into the phloem under normal physiological conditions, but was apparently involved in the retrieval of sucrose leaked into the xylem conduits, which occurred as a direct result of aphid feeding, probing and puncturing of vascular bundles. The up-regulation of OsSUT1 in xylem vascular parenchyma thus provides evidence in support of the location within the xylem parenchyma cells of an efficient mechanism to ensure sucrose recovery after loss to the apoplast (xylem) after aphid-related feeding damage and its transfer back to the symplast (phloem) in O. sativa leaves.

  4. Heterogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma does not influence the detection of multi-focality in papillary thyroid carcinoma on preoperative ultrasound staging.

    PubMed

    Herh, Sun Jin; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Sung, Ji Min; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2014-05-01

    Heterogeneous echogenicity and micro-nodulations of diffuse thyroid disease on ultrasonography (US) might influence the diagnostic performance of pre-operative US staging, especially the detection of multi-focality. This study was designed to determine whether heterogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma influences the diagnostic performance of US in the detection of multi-focality in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Between December 2010 and April 2011, 811 patients underwent pre-operative staging US for papillary thyroid carcinoma and surgery. Twelve radiologists performed the pre-operative US for T and N staging. Underlying parenchymal echogenicity and unilateral and bilateral multi-focality of the thyroid nodules were also evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of the underlying echogenicity of the thyroid gland. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of US with respect to underlying echogenicity, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated and compared between the two groups. Among the 811 patients included, US revealed underlying heterogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma in 204 (25.2%) and underlying homogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma in 607 (74.8%). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the diagnostic performance of pre-operative staging US in predicting unilateral multi-focality and bilaterality. Underlying heterogeneous echogenicity in a thyroid gland with Hashimoto's thyroiditis does not significantly influence the detection of multi-focality in papillary thyroid cancer on pre-operative US staging.

  5. In vitro platforms for evaluating liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bale, Shyam Sundhar; Vernetti, Lawrence; Senutovitch, Nina; Jindal, Rohit; Hegde, Manjunath; Gough, Albert; McCarty, William J; Bakan, Ahmet; Bhushan, Abhinav; Shun, Tong Y; Golberg, Inna; DeBiasio, Richard; Usta, O Berk; Taylor, D Lansing; Yarmush, Martin L

    2014-09-01

    The liver is a heterogeneous organ with many vital functions, including metabolism of pharmaceutical drugs and is highly susceptible to injury from these substances. The etiology of drug-induced liver disease is still debated although generally regarded as a continuum between an activated immune response and hepatocyte metabolic dysfunction, most often resulting from an intermediate reactive metabolite. This debate stems from the fact that current animal and in vitro models provide limited physiologically relevant information, and their shortcomings have resulted in "silent" hepatotoxic drugs being introduced into clinical trials, garnering huge financial losses for drug companies through withdrawals and late stage clinical failures. As we advance our understanding into the molecular processes leading to liver injury, it is increasingly clear that (a) the pathologic lesion is not only due to liver parenchyma but is also due to the interactions between the hepatocytes and the resident liver immune cells, stellate cells, and endothelial cells; and (b) animal models do not reflect the human cell interactions. Therefore, a predictive human, in vitro model must address the interactions between the major human liver cell types and measure key determinants of injury such as the dosage and metabolism of the drug, the stress response, cholestatic effect, and the immune and fibrotic response. In this mini-review, we first discuss the current state of macro-scale in vitro liver culture systems with examples that have been commercialized. We then introduce the paradigm of microfluidic culture systems that aim to mimic the liver with physiologically relevant dimensions, cellular structure, perfusion, and mass transport by taking advantage of micro and nanofabrication technologies. We review the most prominent liver-on-a-chip platforms in terms of their physiological relevance and drug response. We conclude with a commentary on other critical advances such as the deployment of

  6. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  7. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  8. Drugs and the liver: advances in metabolism, toxicity, and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Silvia; Lavine, Joel E

    2002-10-01

    Biotransformation of drugs is one of the major functions of liver. Hepatic drug metabolism develops early in organogenesis and continues in postnatal life through puberty. Genetic and developmental studies on hepatic drug metabolism show that immaturity, polymorphisms, and altered balance of different hepatic enzymatic activities affect pharmacologic inactivation and alter the risk of toxic effects of drugs on the hepatic parenchyma. Although drug-induced liver disease is less common in children, several reports of hepatotoxicity are published every year. Furthermore, the increasing use of nonregulated remedies (eg, herbal preparations or recreational drugs) increases the risk of unpredictable and potentially severe reactions. Many significant advances in the treatment of hepatic diseases have been achieved recently. However, differences in clinical features, natural history, and response to treatment between children and adults require evaluation of new therapeutic options in focused pediatric clinical trials.

  9. Liver cell transplantation for Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I: Update and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lysy, Philippe A; Najimi, Mustapha; Stéphenne, Xavier; Bourgois, Annick; Smets, Françoise; Sokal, Etienne M

    2008-01-01

    Liver cell transplantation is an attractive technique to treat liver-based inborn errors of metabolism. The feasibility and efficacy of the procedure has been demonstrated, leading to medium term partial metabolic control of various diseases. Crigler-Najjar is the paradigm of such diseases in that the host liver is lacking one function with an otherwise normal parenchyma. The patient is at permanent risk for irreversible brain damage. The goal of liver cell transplantation is to reduce serum bilirubin levels within safe limits and to alleviate phototherapy requirements to improve quality of life. Preliminary data on Gunn rats, the rodent model of the disease, were encouraging and have led to successful clinical trials. Herein we report on two additional patients and describe the current limits of the technique in terms of durability of the response as compared to alternative therapeutic procedures. We discuss the future developments of the technique and new emerging perspectives. PMID:18567072

  10. Impact of NKT Cells and LFA-1 on Liver Regeneration under Subseptic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fehlner, Karin; Weisser, Tanja; Cheng, Zhangjun; Lu, Miao; Höchst, Bastian; Bolzer, Andreas; Wang, Baocai; Hartmann, Daniel; Assfalg, Volker; Sunami, Yoshiaki; Schlitter, Anna Melissa; Friess, Helmut; Hüser, Norbert; Laschinger, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Activation of the immune system in terms of subseptic conditions during liver regeneration is of paramount clinical importance. However, little is known about molecular mechanisms and their mediators that control hepatocyte proliferation. We sought to determine the functional role of immune cells, especially NKT cells, in response to partial hepatectomy (PH), and to uncover the impact of the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) on liver regeneration in a subseptic setting. Methods Wild-type (WT) and LFA-1-/- mice underwent a 2/3 PH and low-dose lipopolysaccharid (LPS) application. Hepatocyte proliferation, immune cell infiltration, and cytokine profile in the liver parenchyma were determined. Results Low-dose LPS application after PH results in a significant delay of liver regeneration between 48h and 72h, which is associated with a reduced number of CD3+ cells within the regenerating liver. In absence of LFA-1, an impaired regenerative capacity was observed under low-dose LPS application. Analysis of different leukocyte subpopulations showed less CD3+NK1.1+ NKT cells in the liver parenchyma of LFA-1-/- mice after PH and LPS application compared to WT controls, while CD3-NK1.1+ NK cells markedly increased. Concordantly with this observation, lower levels of NKT cell related cytokines IL-12 and IL-23 were expressed in the regenerating liver of LFA-1-/- mice, while the expression of NK cell-associated CCL5 and IL-10 was increased compared to WT mice. Conclusion A subseptic situation negatively alters hepatocyte proliferation. Within this scenario, we suggest an important impact of NKT cells and postulate a critical function for LFA-1 during processes of liver regeneration. PMID:27977747

  11. Hepatic stellate cell-expressed endosialin balances fibrogenesis and hepatocyte proliferation during liver damage

    PubMed Central

    Mogler, Carolin; Wieland, Matthias; König, Courtney; Hu, Junhao; Runge, Anja; Korn, Claudia; Besemfelder, Eva; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Komljenovic, Dorde; Dooley, Steven; Schirmacher, Peter; Longerich, Thomas; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to injury reflecting the critical balance between liver repair and scar formation. Chronic damage leads to progressive substitution of liver parenchyma by scar tissue and ultimately results in liver cirrhosis. Stromal cells (hepatic stellate cells [HSC] and endothelial cells) have been proposed to control the balance between liver fibrosis and regeneration. Here, we show that endosialin, a C-type lectin, expressed in the liver exclusively by HSC and portal fibroblasts, is upregulated in liver fibrosis in mouse and man. Chronic chemically induced liver damage resulted in reduced fibrosis and enhanced hepatocyte proliferation in endosialin-deficient (ENKO) mice. Correspondingly, acute-liver-damage-induced hepatocyte proliferation (partial hepatectomy) was increased in ENKO mice. A candidate-based screen of known regulators of hepatocyte proliferation identified insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) as selectively endosialin-dependent hepatocyte mitogen. Collectively, the study establishes a critical role of HSC in the reciprocal regulation of fibrogenesis vs. hepatocyte proliferation and identifies endosialin as a therapeutic target in non-neoplastic settings. PMID:25680861

  12. Proteome analysis of the liver in the Chinese fire-bellied newt Cynops orientalis.

    PubMed

    Zang, X Y; Guo, J L; Geng, X F; Li, P F; Sun, J Y; Wang, Q W; Xu, C S

    2016-08-12

    The Chinese fire-bellied newt, Cynops orientalis, belonging to Amphibia, Caudata, Salamandridae is a species endemic to China. The liver, which is an important digestive gland and the largest amphibian organ, has various functions, including detoxification, glycogen storage, protein synthesis, and hormone production. However, the newt liver has rarely been studied at the molecular level. We performed histomorphology and high-throughput proteomic analysis of the Chinese fire-bellied newt liver, using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. The H&E staining showed that the newt liver nuclei are large and round, are located in the lateral cytoplasm, and contain a large quantity of lipid droplets. Melanins were abundantly present throughout the hepatic parenchyma. The proteome analysis showed a total of 545 proteins detected in the newt liver. Furthermore, a gene ontology analysis suggested that these proteins were associated with metabolism, immune response, cellular homeostasis, etc. Among these, proteins with metabolic functions were found to be the most abundant and highly expressed. This supports the role of the liver as the metabolic center. The proteomic results provide new insights into the aspects of the liver proteomes of the Chinese fire-bellied newt. The identification of a more global liver proteome in the newt may provide a basis for characterizing and comparing the liver proteomes from other amphibian species.

  13. Diet and Your Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... the build up of fat in your liver (fatty liver), inflammation or swelling of your liver (alcoholic hepatitis), and/or scarring of your liver (cirrhosis). For people with liver disease, even a small amount of alcohol can make the disease worse. Talk to your ...

  14. Investigation of the hepatoprotective effects of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Nureddin; Kavak, Servet; Güzel, Ali; Ozbek, Hanefi; Bektaş, Hava; Him, Aydın; Erdoğan, Ender; Balahoroğlu, Ragıb

    2013-01-01

    More than 600 chemicals can cause damage in liver, one of which is carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄). Hepatoprotective agents could prevent tissue damage and reduce morbidity and mortality rates; such agents may include alternative or folkloric treatments. We investigated sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) for its hepatoprotective effect in CCl₄-induced experimental liver damage. To this end, 0.8 mg/kg of sesame fixed oil was provided intraperitoneally to rats whose livers were damaged by CCl₄. Tissue and blood samples were taken at the end of the experiments and evaluated histologically and biochemically. Ballooning degenerations and an increase in lipid droplets in liver parenchyma and increases in serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and bilirubin were found in the CCl₄ group. Biochemical and histopathological findings in the sesame fixed oil treated group were not significantly different from the CCl₄ group. Sesame did not show a hepatoprotective effect in CCl₄-induced liver toxicity.

  15. The histological changes in the liver, lung and kidney after scorpion poisoning (Buthus quinquestriatus).

    PubMed

    Nawar, N N; Shoukri, N A; Hanna, M M

    1979-06-01

    The effect of sublethal doses of Buthus quinquestriatus on the hepatic vascular bed and hepatic parenchyma were studied. The main effect of the venom was primarily on the vascular bed of the liver as manifested by dilatation of branches of the hepatic artery, portal vein together with intravascular thrombi and subcapsular haemorrhages. Apart from mild hydropic degeneration some cells of the hepatic parenchyma showed focal necrosis and Kupffer cells were frequently hypertrophied and contained pigment. In the lung, dilated thrombosed vessels were observed. In the kidney, the vessels showed the smae changes. The epithelial and endothelial cells of the glomeruli appeared normal except for slight swelling with intact basement membrane. The tubular cells were swollen with increased granularity and attenuation of their tubular lumen, a picture compatible with hydropic degeneration. The possible mechanisms in inducing such lesions were discussed.

  16. Liver transplant for cholestatic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Andres F; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram

    2013-05-01

    Cholestatic liver diseases include a group of diverse disorders with different epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Despite significant advances in the clinical care of patients with cholestatic liver diseases, liver transplant (LT) remains the only definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease, regardless of the underlying cause. As per the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the rate of cadaveric LT for cholestatic liver disease was 18% in 1991, 10% in 2000, and 7.8% in 2008. This review summarizes the available evidence on various common and rare cholestatic liver diseases, disease-specific issues, and pertinent aspects of LT.

  17. A case of hepatocolic fistula after percutaneous drainage for a gas-containing pyogenic liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Satoh, H; Matsuyama, S; Mashima, H; Imoto, A; Hidaka, K; Hisatsugu, T

    1994-12-01

    We describe a rare case of gas-containing pyogenic liver abscess which penetrated the adjacent colon, forming a hepatocolic fistula, after percutaneous transhepatic abscess drainage (PTAD) had been performed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of hepatocolic fistula associated with a gas-forming liver abscess in a diabetic patient, with radiological and surgical confirmation of the fistula.

  18. Trends in trace organic and metal concentrations in the Pechora and Kara Seas and adjacent rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.M.; Champ, M.A.; Wade, T.L.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Chambers, L.; Davis, T.

    1995-12-31

    Trace organic (pesticides, PCBs, PAHs and dioxin/furan) and trace metal concentrations have been measured in surficial sediment and tissue (i.e., clam, fish liver and flesh) samples from the Pechora and Kara Seas and their adjacent rivers -- Pechora, Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Total PAH, PCB and total DDT and chlordane concentrations ranged in surficial sediments from n.d. to 810 ppb, n.d.--8.7 ppb, n.d.--1.2 ppb, and n.d.--1.2 ppb, respectively, in a suite of 40 samples from the Kara Sea and its adjacent rivers. The highest concentrations of many of the trace organic and metal contaminants were found in the lower part of the Yenisey River below the salt wedge. Some trace metals (As for example) were elevated in the Pechora River dispositional plume region. Dioxin ranged from 1.36 to 413 ppt in a subset of 20 sediment samples. Higher trace organic contaminant concentrations compared to sediments were found in tissue samples from the region, especially fish liver samples. Concentrations as high as 1,114 ppb total PAHs, 89 ppb chlordane, 1,011 ppb for total DDT and 663 ppb PCBs were found in some fish liver samples. Dioxin concentrations in tissue samples ranged from 11.7 to 61 ppt. Concentrations of many trace organic and metal contaminants in these Russian marginal seas are influenced by inputs from these large Arctic rivers. Many organic contaminant concentrations in sediments are low, however detecting these compounds in tissue show they are bioavailable.

  19. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  20. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. A Study of the Pronunciation of Words Containing Adjacent Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Ivo P.

    To determine the usefulness of the commonly taught phonics rule, "only pronounce the first vowel in words that contain adjacent vowels" (the VV rule, with the first "v" pronounced with the long vowel sound), two new studies applied it to words with adjacent vowels in several lists and dictionaries. The first study analyzed words containing…

  2. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  3. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  4. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  5. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  6. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  7. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  10. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  11. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  12. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  14. LIVER INJURY, LIVER PROTECTION, AND SULFUR METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1942-01-01

    Protein-depleted dogs are very susceptible to injurious agents—in particular, chloroform. Methionine given shortly before chloroform anesthesia will give complete protection against chloroform. Methionine (or cysteine plus choline) given 3 or 4 hours after chloroform anesthesia will give significant protection against the liver injury of chloroform anesthesia. Methionine given more than 4 hours after chloroform anesthesia gives no protection against liver injury. Choline alone given before chloroform gives no protection against liver injury. The protein-depleted dogs have livers which are deficient in both nitrogen and sulfur, but sulfur is depleted more than is the nitrogen. The N/S ratio therefore rises. Methionine or cystine feeding promptly makes up this liver sulfur deficit. Viable liver cells are necessary for this uptake of sulfur. Livers of fetuses in utero or of newborn pups tolerate a chloroform anesthesia which will cause fatal liver injury in adults. The nitrogen and sulfur values of these fetus or pup livers are within the high normal values for adults. Blood-forming cells are present in the fetus or pup livers during this period. When these blood islands are eliminated during the 3rd or 4th week of life, the liver then becomes normally susceptible to chloroform liver injury. Methionine or methionine-rich protein digests (e.g. casein) or various proteins by mouth or by vein should prove useful to protect the liver against certain types of injury and to aid in organ repair. PMID:19871248

  15. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  16. Liver transplant - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100090.htm Liver transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The liver is in the right upper abdomen. The liver ...

  17. Pyogenic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many possible causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  18. Liver Disease and IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Resources > Liver Disease and IBD Go Back Liver Disease and IBD Email Print + Share Several complications ... be necessary to make the definitive diagnosis. FATTY LIVER DISEASE (HEPATCI STEATOSIS) This is the most common ...

  19. Liver function tests

    MedlinePlus

    Liver function tests are common tests that are used to see how well the liver is working. Tests include: ... M, Bowne WB, Bluth MH. Evaluation of liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  20. Human Liver Infection in a Dish: Easy-To-Build 3D Liver Models for Studying Microbial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Petropolis, Debora B.; Faust, Daniela M.; Tolle, Matthieu; Rivière, Lise; Valentin, Tanguy; Neuveut, Christine; Hernandez-Cuevas, Nora; Dufour, Alexandre; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Guillen, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Human liver infection is a major cause of death worldwide, but fundamental studies on infectious diseases affecting humans have been hampered by the lack of robust experimental models that accurately reproduce pathogen-host interactions in an environment relevant for the human disease. In the case of liver infection, one consequence of this absence of relevant models is a lack of understanding of how pathogens cross the sinusoidal endothelial barrier and parenchyma. To fill that gap we elaborated human 3D liver in vitro models, composed of human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and Huh-7 hepatoma cells as hepatocyte model, layered in a structure mimicking the hepatic sinusoid, which enable studies of key features of early steps of hepatic infection. Built with established cell lines and scaffold, these models provide a reproducible and easy-to-build cell culture approach of reduced complexity compared to animal models, while preserving higher physiological relevance compared to standard 2D systems. For proof-of-principle we challenged the models with two hepatotropic pathogens: the parasitic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica and hepatitis B virus (HBV). We constructed four distinct setups dedicated to investigating specific aspects of hepatic invasion: 1) pathogen 3D migration towards hepatocytes, 2) hepatocyte barrier crossing, 3) LSEC and subsequent hepatocyte crossing, and 4) quantification of human hepatic virus replication (HBV). Our methods comprise automated quantification of E. histolytica migration and hepatic cells layer crossing in the 3D liver models. Moreover, replication of HBV virus occurs in our virus infection 3D liver model, indicating that routine in vitro assays using HBV or others viruses can be performed in this easy-to-build but more physiological hepatic environment. These results illustrate that our new 3D liver infection models are simple but effective, enabling new investigations on infectious disease mechanisms. The better

  1. Human Liver Infection in a Dish: Easy-To-Build 3D Liver Models for Studying Microbial Infection.

    PubMed

    Petropolis, Debora B; Faust, Daniela M; Tolle, Matthieu; Rivière, Lise; Valentin, Tanguy; Neuveut, Christine; Hernandez-Cuevas, Nora; Dufour, Alexandre; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Guillen, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Human liver infection is a major cause of death worldwide, but fundamental studies on infectious diseases affecting humans have been hampered by the lack of robust experimental models that accurately reproduce pathogen-host interactions in an environment relevant for the human disease. In the case of liver infection, one consequence of this absence of relevant models is a lack of understanding of how pathogens cross the sinusoidal endothelial barrier and parenchyma. To fill that gap we elaborated human 3D liver in vitro models, composed of human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and Huh-7 hepatoma cells as hepatocyte model, layered in a structure mimicking the hepatic sinusoid, which enable studies of key features of early steps of hepatic infection. Built with established cell lines and scaffold, these models provide a reproducible and easy-to-build cell culture approach of reduced complexity compared to animal models, while preserving higher physiological relevance compared to standard 2D systems. For proof-of-principle we challenged the models with two hepatotropic pathogens: the parasitic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica and hepatitis B virus (HBV). We constructed four distinct setups dedicated to investigating specific aspects of hepatic invasion: 1) pathogen 3D migration towards hepatocytes, 2) hepatocyte barrier crossing, 3) LSEC and subsequent hepatocyte crossing, and 4) quantification of human hepatic virus replication (HBV). Our methods comprise automated quantification of E. histolytica migration and hepatic cells layer crossing in the 3D liver models. Moreover, replication of HBV virus occurs in our virus infection 3D liver model, indicating that routine in vitro assays using HBV or others viruses can be performed in this easy-to-build but more physiological hepatic environment. These results illustrate that our new 3D liver infection models are simple but effective, enabling new investigations on infectious disease mechanisms. The better

  2. Regional Radiation Pneumonitis After SIRT of a Subcapsular Liver Metastasis: What is the Effect of Direct Beta Irradiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrocky, Tomas; Fuerstner, Markus Klaeser, Bernd; Lopez-Benitez, Ruben; Wälti, Yara Banz; Kara, Levent

    2015-08-15

    We herein present a patient undergoing selective internal radiation therapy with an almost normal lung shunt fraction of 11.5 %, developing histologically proven radiation pneumonitis. Due to a predominance of pulmonary consolidations in the right lower lung and its proximity to a large liver metastases located in the dome of the right liver lobe a Monte Carlo simulation was performed to estimate the effect of direct irradiation of the lung parenchyma. According to our calculations direct irradiation seems negligible and RP is almost exclusively due to ectopic draining of radioactive spheres.

  3. Magnetic resonance elastography of the lung parenchyma in an in situ porcine model with a noninvasive mechanical driver: correlation of shear stiffness with trans-respiratory system pressures.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, Yogesh K; Kolipaka, Arunark; Manduca, Armando; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Ehman, Richard L; Araoz, Philip; McGee, Kiaran P

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of the mechanical properties of lung parenchyma is an active field of research due to the association of this metric with normal function, disease initiation and progression. A phase contrast MRI-based elasticity imaging technique known as magnetic resonance elastography is being investigated as a method for measuring the shear stiffness of lung parenchyma. Previous experiments performed with small animals using invasive drivers in direct contact with the lungs have indicated that the quantification of lung shear modulus with (1) H based magnetic resonance elastography is feasible. This technique has been extended to an in situ porcine model with a noninvasive mechanical driver placed on the chest wall. This approach was tested to measure the change in parenchymal stiffness as a function of airway opening pressure (P(ao) ) in 10 adult pigs. In all animals, shear stiffness was successfully quantified at four different P(ao) values. Mean (±STD error of mean) pulmonary parenchyma density corrected stiffness values were calculated to be 1.48 (±0.09), 1.68 (±0.10), 2.05 (±0.13), and 2.23 (±0.17) kPa for P(ao) values of 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm H2O, respectively. Shear stiffness increased with increasing P(ao) , in agreement with the literature. It is concluded that in an in situ porcine lung shear stiffness can be quantitated with (1) H magnetic resonance elastography using a noninvasive mechanical driver and that it is feasible to measure the change in shear stiffness due to change in P(ao) .

  4. Fatty liver - nonalcoholic

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight Eat a healthy diet Exercise regularly Limit alcohol consumption Use medicines properly Alternative Names Fatty liver; Steatosis; Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; NASH Images Liver References ...

  5. Amebic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection that is also called ...

  6. American Liver Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Give Join Our Mail List Search: Resources Liver Disease Information Select Info Center Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Benign ...

  7. The Parenchyma of Secondary Xylem and Its Critical Role in Tree Defense against Fungal Decay in Relation to the CODIT Model.

    PubMed

    Morris, Hugh; Brodersen, Craig; Schwarze, Francis W M R; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the roles that ray and axial parenchyma (RAP) plays against fungal pathogens in the secondary xylem of wood within the context of the CODIT model (Compartmentalization of Decay in Trees), a defense concept first conceived in the early 1970s by Alex Shigo. This model, simplistic in its design, shows how a large woody perennial is highly compartmented. Anatomical divisions in place at the time of infection or damage, (physical defense) alongside the 'active' response by the RAP during and after wounding work together in forming boundaries that function to restrict air or decay spread. The living parenchyma cells play a critical role in all of the four walls (differing anatomical constructs) that the model comprises. To understand how living cells in each of the walls of CODIT cooperate, we must have a clear vision of their complex interconnectivity from a three-dimensional perspective, along with knowledge of the huge variation in ray parenchyma (RP) and axial parenchyma (AP) abundance and patterns. Crucial patterns for defense encompass the symplastic continuum between both RP and AP and the dead tissues, with the latter including the vessel elements, libriform fibers, and imperforate tracheary elements (i.e., vasicentric and vascular tracheids). Also, the heartwood, a chemically altered antimicrobial non-living substance that forms the core of many trees, provides an integral part of the defense system. In the heartwood, dead RAP can play an important role in defense, depending on the genetic constitution of the species. Considering the array of functions that RAP are associated with, from capacitance, through to storage, and long-distance water transport, deciding how their role in defense fits into this suite of functions is a challenge for plant scientists, and likely depends on a range of factors. Here, we explore the important role of RAP in defense against fungal pathogens and the trade-offs involved from a viewpoint for structure

  8. The Parenchyma of Secondary Xylem and Its Critical Role in Tree Defense against Fungal Decay in Relation to the CODIT Model

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Hugh; Brodersen, Craig; Schwarze, Francis W. M. R.; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the roles that ray and axial parenchyma (RAP) plays against fungal pathogens in the secondary xylem of wood within the context of the CODIT model (Compartmentalization of Decay in Trees), a defense concept first conceived in the early 1970s by Alex Shigo. This model, simplistic in its design, shows how a large woody perennial is highly compartmented. Anatomical divisions in place at the time of infection or damage, (physical defense) alongside the ‘active’ response by the RAP during and after wounding work together in forming boundaries that function to restrict air or decay spread. The living parenchyma cells play a critical role in all of the four walls (differing anatomical constructs) that the model comprises. To understand how living cells in each of the walls of CODIT cooperate, we must have a clear vision of their complex interconnectivity from a three-dimensional perspective, along with knowledge of the huge variation in ray parenchyma (RP) and axial parenchyma (AP) abundance and patterns. Crucial patterns for defense encompass the symplastic continuum between both RP and AP and the dead tissues, with the latter including the vessel elements, libriform fibers, and imperforate tracheary elements (i.e., vasicentric and vascular tracheids). Also, the heartwood, a chemically altered antimicrobial non-living substance that forms the core of many trees, provides an integral part of the defense system. In the heartwood, dead RAP can play an important role in defense, depending on the genetic constitution of the species. Considering the array of functions that RAP are associated with, from capacitance, through to storage, and long-distance water transport, deciding how their role in defense fits into this suite of functions is a challenge for plant scientists, and likely depends on a range of factors. Here, we explore the important role of RAP in defense against fungal pathogens and the trade-offs involved from a viewpoint for structure

  9. Usefulness of basic renal function tests in decision-making in children with loss of renal parenchyma and/or dilation of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    García Nieto, Víctor M; Luis Yanes, Maria Isabel; Arango Sancho, Pedro; Sotoca Fernandez, Jorge V

    2016-01-01

    Basic renal function tests such as maximum urine osmolality and urinary elimination of albumin and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase often reveal abnormalities in clinical cases involving hyperpressure in the urinary tract or loss of renal parenchyma. However, in all the available algorithms dedicated to the study of children with urinary tract infection or dilation, the benefit of using these functional parameters is not mentioned. In this review, we provide information about the practical usefulness of assessing the basic renal function parameters. From these data, we propose an algorithm that combines morphological and functional parameters to make a reasoned case for voiding cystourethrography.

  10. Electrophysiological approach to determine kinetic parameters of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements or phloem parenchyma cells in intact Vicia faba plants

    PubMed Central

    Hafke, Jens B.; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Kühn, Christina; van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Apart from cut aphid stylets in combination with electrophysiology, no attempts have been made thus far to measure in vivo sucrose-uptake properties of sieve elements. We investigated the kinetics of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells in Vicia faba plants. To this end, microelectrodes were inserted into free-lying phloem cells in the main vein of the youngest fully-expanded leaf, half-way along the stem, in the transition zone between the autotrophic and heterotrophic part of the stem, and in the root axis. A top-to-bottom membrane potential gradient of sieve elements was observed along the stem (−130 mV to −110 mV), while the membrane potential of the phloem parenchyma cells was stable (approx. −100 mV). In roots, the membrane potential of sieve elements dropped abruptly to −55 mV. Bathing solutions having various sucrose concentrations were administered and sucrose/H+-induced depolarizations were recorded. Data analysis by non-linear least-square data fittings as well as by linear Eadie–Hofstee (EH) -transformations pointed at biphasic Michaelis–Menten kinetics (2 MM, EH: Km1 1.2–1.8 mM, Km2 6.6–9.0 mM) of sucrose uptake by sieve elements. However, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) favored single MM kinetics. Using single MM as the best-fitting model, Km values for sucrose uptake by sieve elements decreased along the plant axis from 1 to 7 mM. For phloem parenchyma cells, higher Km values (EH: Km1 10 mM, Km2 70 mM) as compared to sieve elements were found. In preliminary patch-clamp experiments with sieve-element protoplasts, small sucrose-coupled proton currents (−0.1 to −0.3 pA/pF) were detected in the whole-cell mode. In conclusion (a) Km values for sucrose uptake measured by electrophysiology are similar to those obtained with heterologous systems, (b) electrophysiology provides a useful tool for in situ determination of Km values, (c) As yet, it remains unclear if one or two uptake systems are involved

  11. Electrophysiological approach to determine kinetic parameters of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements or phloem parenchyma cells in intact Vicia faba plants.

    PubMed

    Hafke, Jens B; Höll, Sabina-Roxana; Kühn, Christina; van Bel, Aart J E

    2013-01-01

    Apart from cut aphid stylets in combination with electrophysiology, no attempts have been made thus far to measure in vivo sucrose-uptake properties of sieve elements. We investigated the kinetics of sucrose uptake by single sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells in Vicia faba plants. To this end, microelectrodes were inserted into free-lying phloem cells in the main vein of the youngest fully-expanded leaf, half-way along the stem, in the transition zone between the autotrophic and heterotrophic part of the stem, and in the root axis. A top-to-bottom membrane potential gradient of sieve elements was observed along the stem (-130 mV to -110 mV), while the membrane potential of the phloem parenchyma cells was stable (approx. -100 mV). In roots, the membrane potential of sieve elements dropped abruptly to -55 mV. Bathing solutions having various sucrose concentrations were administered and sucrose/H(+)-induced depolarizations were recorded. Data analysis by non-linear least-square data fittings as well as by linear Eadie-Hofstee (EH) -transformations pointed at biphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics (2 MM, EH: K m1 1.2-1.8 mM, K m2 6.6-9.0 mM) of sucrose uptake by sieve elements. However, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) favored single MM kinetics. Using single MM as the best-fitting model, K m values for sucrose uptake by sieve elements decreased along the plant axis from 1 to 7 mM. For phloem parenchyma cells, higher K m values (EH: K m1 10 mM, K m2 70 mM) as compared to sieve elements were found. In preliminary patch-clamp experiments with sieve-element protoplasts, small sucrose-coupled proton currents (-0.1 to -0.3 pA/pF) were detected in the whole-cell mode. In conclusion (a) K m values for sucrose uptake measured by electrophysiology are similar to those obtained with heterologous systems, (b) electrophysiology provides a useful tool for in situ determination of K m values, (c) As yet, it remains unclear if one or two uptake systems are involved in sucrose

  12. Repeated intratracheal instillation of PM10 induces lipid reshaping in lung parenchyma and in extra-pulmonary tissues.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Farina, Francesca; Montorfano, Gigliola; Pani, Giuseppe; Battaglia, Cristina; Sancini, Giulio; Palestini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Adverse health effects of air pollution attributed mainly to airborne particulate matter have been well documented in the last couple of decades. Short term exposure, referring to a few hours exposure, to high ambient PM10 concentration is linked to increased hospitalization rates for cardiovascular events, typically 24 h after air pollution peaks. Particulate matter exposure is related to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, with increased oxidative stress and inflammatory status. Previously, we have demonstrated that repeated intratracheal instillation of PM10sum in BALB/c mice leads to respiratory tract inflammation, creating in lung a condition which could potentially evolve in a systemic toxic reaction. Additionally, plasma membrane and tissue lipids are easily affected by oxidative stress and directly correlated with inflammatory products. With this aim, in the present investigation using the same model, we analyzed the toxic potential of PM10sum exposure on lipid plasma membrane composition, lipid peroxidation and the mechanisms of cells protection in multiple organs such as lung, heart, liver and brain. Obtained results indicated that PM10 exposure led to lung lipid reshaping, in particular phospholipid and cholesterol content increases; concomitantly, the generation of oxidative stress caused lipid peroxidation. In liver we found significant changes in lipid content, mainly due to an increase of phosphatidylcholine, and in total fatty acid composition with a more pronounced level of docosahexaenoic acid; these changes were statistically correlated to lung molecular markers. Heart and brain were similarly affected; heart was significantly enriched in triglycerides in half of the PM10sum treated mice. These results demonstrated a direct involvement of PM10sum in affecting lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in peripheral tissues that might be related to the serious systemic air-pollution effects on human health.

  13. Getting a New Liver: Facts about Liver Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2002 December 2006 March 2012 Getting A New Liver Facts About Liver Transplants American Society of Transplantation 1120 Route 73, ... views of the Society. _________________________________________________________________ 1 Getting a New Liver Facts About Liver Transplants A liver transplant is ...

  14. Liver cell adenoma and liver cell adenomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Barthelmes, Ludger

    2005-01-01

    During the last three decades liver cell adenoma and liver cell adenomatosis have emerged as new clinical entities in hepato-logical practice due to the widespread use of oral contraceptives and increased imaging of the liver. On review of published series there is evidence that 10% of liver cell adenomas progress to hepatocellular carcinoma, diagnosis is best made by open or laparoscopic excision biopsy, and the preferred treatment modality is resection of the liver cell adenoma to prevent bleeding and malignant transformation. In liver cell adenomatosis, the association with oral contraceptive use is not as high as in solitary liver cell adenomas. The risk of malignant transformation is not increased compared with solitary liver cell adenomas. Treatment consists of close monitoring and imaging, resection of superficially located, large (>4 cm) or growing liver cell adenomas. Liver transplantation is the last resort in case of substantive concern about malignant transformation or for large, painful adenomas in liver cell adenomatosis after treatment attempts by liver resection. PMID:18333188

  15. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic and prognostic approach in cattle and buffaloes with fatty infiltration of the liver.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether ultrasonographic evaluation of the hepatic parenchyma could be used as a diagnostic and prognostic approach in cows and buffaloes with hepatic lipidosis. For this purpose, cows (n=16) and buffaloes (n=10) with fatty infiltration of the liver were examined by ultrasonography. Treated cows and buffaloes were monitored for hepatic changes ultrasonographically, biochemically and histologically. Clinical findings were non-specific and included anorexia, recumbency, muzzle necrosis, and icteric mucosal membranes. Laboratory data revealed neutrophilia, hyper gamma-globulinemia, elevated activities of aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, and high concentrations of insulin, total bilirubin, non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxyl butyric acid. Laboratory results 7, and 21 days after treatment showed progressive improvement in the chemistry profile. On admission, ultrasonographic examination of the hepatic parenchyma in cows and buffaloes revealed either increased or decreased hepatic echogenicity; histologic examination revealed marked fatty infiltration of the hepatocytes. One week after treatment, the hepatic parenchyma was visualized easily, liver boundaries were clearly imaged, and histologic examination of hepatic specimen showed a moderate degree of fatty infiltration. Three weeks after treatment, the hepatic parenchyma was almost similar to normal, the hepatic and portal blood vessels could be easily imaged, and the histologic picture had greatly improved where the liver resembled the normal organ. Six cows and seven buffaloes made a full recovery while the remaining ten cows and three buffaloes were slaughtered and thoroughly examined postmortem. Ultrasonography showed a good correlation with histologic and laboratory findings.

  16. [Functional state of the liver at modeling hemodynamic effects of the weightlessness in human organism].

    PubMed

    Afonin, B V; Ermolenko, A E; Inozemtsev, S L

    2012-01-01

    The radioisotope researches (RR) ofcholeresis function of a liver, the ultrasonic researches (USR) of a liver, the contractile gallbladder function (GF) and the gastroduodenoscopy (GDS) were carried out at 8 men after 24 hour duration of stay in antiorthostatic position--12 degrees (AOP), simulating arising in weightlessness of hemodynamics changes in abdominal cavity. The dynamic difficulty of venous blood outflow from a liver at simulated in antiorthostatic position changes of activation choleresis on an empty stomach was produced, by increase of a zone central perfusion of a liver parenchyma, biliary ductules dilation and of a gallbladder reduction, and were accompanied by choleresis in duodenum. The activation choleresis in a liver was accompanied by of reduction of the area of radioactive marker distribution in a liver, the decrease of hepatocytes metabolic activity and concentration function ofbiliary excretion system. Specificity of a functional condition of a liver within AOP reflects reaction caused by plethoric changes induced by body position, which is negative to vector of gravity. The mechanism of the revealed changes includes occurrence dynamic venous plethora in a liver, centralization hepatic blood flow with activation choleresis activity against the background tissual blood flow depletion in peripheral zones, reduction of hepatocytes metabolic activity and concentration function biliary excretion system.

  17. PIXE analysis of elements in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qixin; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Lingnuo; Xu, Yongling; Ye, Simao

    1990-04-01

    The elemental regional distributions in 20 resected human stomach tissues were obtained using PIXE analysis. The samples were pathologically divided into four types: normal, adjacent mucosa A, adjacent mucosa B and cancer. The targets for PIXE analysis were prepared by wet digestion with a pressure bomb system. P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se were measured and statistically analysed. We found significantly higher concentrations of P, K, Cu, Zn and a higher ratio of Cu compared to Zn in cancer tissue as compared with normal tissue, but statistically no significant difference between adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue was found.

  18. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  19. The correlation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in rabbit VX2 liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhiming; Liang, Qianwen; Liang, Changhong; Zhong, Guimian

    2014-12-01

    Our objective is to explore the value of liver cancer contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in liver cancer and the correlation between these two analysis methods. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was established in this study. CEUS was applied. Sono Vue was applied in rabbits by ear vein to dynamically observe and record the blood perfusion and changes in the process of VX2 liver cancer and surrounding tissue. MRI perfusion quantitative analysis was used to analyze the mean enhancement time and change law of maximal slope increasing, which were further compared with the pathological examination results. Quantitative indicators of liver cancer CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were compared, and the correlation between them was analyzed by correlation analysis. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was successfully established. CEUS showed that time-intensity curve of rabbit VX2 liver cancer showed "fast in, fast out" model while MRI perfusion quantitative analysis showed that quantitative parameter MTE of tumor tissue increased and MSI decreased: the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The diagnostic results of CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, the quantitative parameter of them were significantly positively correlated (P < 0.05). CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis can both dynamically monitor the liver cancer lesion and surrounding liver parenchyma, and the quantitative parameters of them are correlated. The combined application of both is of importance in early diagnosis of liver cancer.

  20. Identifying Novel Targets for Treatment of Liver Fibrosis: What Can We Learn from Injured Tissues which Heal Without a Scar?

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Michele T.; McCracken, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The liver is unique in that it is able to regenerate. This regeneration occurs without formation of a scar in the case of non-iterative hepatic injury. However, when the liver is exposed to chronic liver injury, the purely regenerative process fails and excessive extracellular matrix proteins are deposited in place of normal liver parenchyma. While much has been discovered in the past three decades, insights into fibrotic mechanisms have not yet lead to effective therapies; liver transplant remains the only cure for advanced liver disease. In an effort to broaden the collection of possible therapeutic targets, this review will compare and contrast the liver wound healing response to that found in two types of wound healing: scarless wound healing of fetal skin and oral mucosa and scar-forming wound healing found in adult skin. This review will examine wound healing in the liver and the skin in relation to the role of humoral and cellular factors, as well as the extracellular matrix, in this process. While several therapeutic targets are similar between fibrotic liver and adult skin wound healing, others are unique and represent novel areas for hepatic anti-fibrotic research. In particular, investigations into the role of hyaluronan in liver fibrosis and fibrosis resolution are warranted. PMID:26302807

  1. Massive pneumatic expansion of lymphatic vessel resulting in cystic lesions in the pulmonary parenchyma: a rare case of persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema in a non-ventilated infant.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Jun; Komuro, Hiroaki; Ono, Kentaro; Urita, Yasuhisa; Shinkai, Toko; Minami, Yuko; Kawabata, Yoshinori; Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Masumoto, Kouji

    2012-12-01

    We report the case of 2-week-old female infant with cystic lung disease who presented with mild tachypnea and had no history of mechanical ventilation. Chest CT demonstrated multiple air-filled cystic lesions in right upper lobe, and the patient subsequently underwent a right upper lobectomy. Histology revealed cystic lesions located in the pulmonary parenchyma and showed that the lesions were lined by lymphatic endothelium and were communicating with dilated lymphatic vessels in the interstitium. Additionally, multinucleated foreign body giant cells were attached to the lumen of the cyst. On the basis of these findings, we considered this a case of persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema (PIPE) with massive pneumatic expansion of the lymphatic vessels, resulting in cystic lesions with lymphatic endothelium in the pulmonary parenchyma. While PIPE is extremely rare in term non-ventilated infants, our case demonstrated that this disease should be added to the differential diagnosis of cystic lung diseases with lymphatic endothelium even in infants without mechanical ventilation. When cystic lesions and symptoms persist despite conservative treatment, open or thoracoscopic resection is an appropriate option for diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-D texture analysis of lung parenchyma is better than 2-D for discrimination of lung pathology in stage 0 COPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye; Sonka, Milan; McLennan, Geoffrey; Guo, Junfeng; Hoffman, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Lung parenchyma evaluation via multidetector-row CT (MDCT), has significantly altered clinical practice in the early detection of lung disease. Our goal is to enhance our texture-based tissue classification ability to differentiate early pathologic processes by extending our 2-D Adaptive Multiple Feature Method (AMFM) to 3-D AMFM. We performed MDCT on 34 human volunteers in five categories: emphysema in severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as EC, emphysema in mild COPD (MC), normal appearing lung in COPD (NC), non-smokers with normal lung function (NN), smokers with normal function (NS). We volumetrically excluded the airway and vessel regions, calculated 24 volumetric texture features for each Volume of Interest (VOI); and used Bayesian rules for discrimination. Leave-one-out and half-half methods were used for testing. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the four-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: EC: 84.9%/70.7%, MC: 89.8%/82.7%; NC: 87.5.0%/49.6%; NN: 100.0%/60.0%. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the two-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: NN: 99.3%/71.6%; NS: 99.7%/74.5%. We conclude that 3-D AMFM analysis of the lung parenchyma improves discrimination compared to 2-D analysis of the same images.

  3. Cod Liver Oil

    MedlinePlus

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, ... ear infections (otitis media). Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed wound healing. ...

  4. Engineering Liver

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda G.; Wells, Alan; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2014-01-01

    Interest in “engineering liver” arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nano-fabrication, biomaterials, microfluidic, and other technologies potentially afford unprecedented opportunity to create microphysiological models of human liver, but engineering design principles for how to deploy these tools effectively towards specific applications, including how to define the essential constraints of any given application (including available sources of cells, acceptable cost, and user-friendliness) are still emerging. Arguably less appreciated is the parallel growth in computational systems biology approaches towards these same problems – particularly, in parsing complex disease processes from clinical material, building models of response networks, and in how to interpret the growing compendium of data on drug efficacy and toxicology in patient populations. Here, we provide insight into how the complementary paths of “engineering liver” – experimental and computational – are beginning to interplay towards greater illumination of human disease states and technologies for drug development. PMID:24668880

  5. Liver xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Marino, I R; Tzakis, A G; Fung, J J; Todo, S; Doyle, H R; Manez, R; Starzl, T E

    1993-10-01

    During the past 30 years orthotopic liver transplantation has become a highly successful form of surgical treatments. The significant advances achieved in this field have led to an increased demand for organs and created a wide gap between organ availability and organ supply. A wider availability of organs for transplantation would allow an expansions rather than a contraction of the indications for transplantation, and, at the same time a relaxation of the patient selection criteria. All these facts clearly justify the renewed interest observed in the last decade in xenotransplantation. The original concept of xenografting, meaning the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs between different species, is so ancient that it is easily recognizable in Greek and Roman mythology. The centaur Chiron, the teacher of Esculapius, and the Chimera are legendary examples of discordant xenogeneic creatures. However, it is only during this century that scientists have been able to bring this idea into the clinical arena. The early efforts were prompted by the shortage of humans organs at a time when there were few alternatives for treating end-stage organ failure.

  6. Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight line. View to east. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Guard Tower, Florida Street at Aircraft Shelters Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  7. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  8. 10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  9. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  10. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  11. 1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  12. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  13. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung; Kim, Seok Won

    2016-06-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature.

  15. 15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 5 and portion of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  16. 7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 1 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  17. 8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 2 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  18. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with soundproof walls and pedestal flooring - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  20. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  1. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  2. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  4. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  7. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  8. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example is located between Buildings 26 and 27. Facing northeast - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  11. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  12. 72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing engine house where water from furnaces was allowed to cool. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. Liver Failure in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bacak, Stephen J; Thornburg, Loralei L

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure is a rare but life-threatening medical emergency in pregnancy whose true incidence remains unknown. Many cases of acute liver failure are caused by pregnancy-related conditions such as acute fatty liver of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. However, acute deterioration in liver function can also be caused by drug overdose, viral infections, and an exacerbation of underlying chronic liver disease. This article provides an overview of the normal liver changes that occur during pregnancy, and summarizes the most common conditions and general management strategies of liver failure during pregnancy.

  14. Reversibility of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengxi; Kisseleva, Tatiana

    2015-09-01

    Liver fibrosis is a serious health problem worldwide, which can be induced by a wide spectrum of chronic liver injuries. However, until today, there is no effective therapy available for liver fibrosis except the removal of underlying etiology or liver transplantation. Recent studies indicate that liver fibrosis is reversible when the causative agent(s) is removed. Understanding of mechanisms of liver fibrosis regression will lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for liver fibrosis. This review summarizes recent research progress on mechanisms of reversibility of liver fibrosis. While most of the research has been focused on HSCs/myofibroblasts and inflammatory pathways, the crosstalk between different organs, various cell types and multiple signaling pathways should not be overlooked. Future studies that lead to fully understanding of the crosstalk between different cell types and the molecular mechanism underlying the reversibility of liver fibrosis will definitely give rise to new therapeutic strategies to treat liver fibrosis.

  15. Liver disease in menopause.

    PubMed

    Brady, Carla W

    2015-07-07

    There are numerous physiologic and biochemical changes in menopause that can affect the function of the liver and mediate the development of liver disease. Menopause represents a state of growing estrogen deficiency, and this loss of estrogen in the setting of physiologic aging increases the likelihood of mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, declining immune responses to injury, and disarray in the balance between antioxidant formation and oxidative stress. The sum effect of these changes can contribute to increased susceptibility to development of significant liver pathology, particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as accelerated progression of fibrosis in liver diseases, as has been particularly demonstrated in hepatitis C virus liver disease. Recognition of the unique nature of these mediating factors should raise suspicion for liver disease in perimenopausal and menopausal women and offer an opportunity for implementation of aggressive treatment measures so as to avoid progression of liver disease to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure.

  16. Metal content of biopsies adjacent to dental cast alloys.

    PubMed

    Garhammer, Pauline; Schmalz, G; Hiller, K-A; Reitinger, T

    2003-06-01

    Single case reports indicate that components of dental alloys accumulate in the adjacent soft tissue of the oral cavity. However, data on a wider range of dental alloys and patient groups are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the metal content of oral tissues adjacent to dental alloys showing persisting signs of inflammation or other discoloration (affected sites) and of healthy control sites with no adjacent metal restoration in 28 patients. The composition of the adjacent alloys was analyzed and compared to the alloy components in the affected sites. Tissue analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Alloy analysis was performed with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. In the affected sites, the metals Ag, Au, Cu, and Pd prevailed compared to control sites, reflecting the frequency distribution of single metals in the adjacent alloys. In most cases (84%), at least one of the analyzed metals was a component of the alloy and also detected in the tissue. Metal components from almost all dental cast alloys can be detected in adjacent tissue.

  17. Successful endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer adjacent to gastric cardia varix

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Ko; Hikichi, Takuto; Nakamura, Jun; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Waragai, Yuichi; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Konno, Naoki; Asama, Hiroyuki; Takasumi, Mika; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 58-year-old man with liver cirrhosis and renal failure was diagnosed with esophageal varices (EVs) and a gastric cardia varix (GCV) by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The patient also exhibited early gastric cancer (EGC) in the upper gastric body adjacent to the GCV. The EVs and GCV were treated using endoscopy before endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of the EGC to prevent variceal bleeding during ESD. Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) was performed to treat the EVs. In addition, extra-variceal polidocanol injection and argon plasma coagulation (APC) were performed after EVL. Follow-up EGD two months after APC revealed that the GCV had diminished in size. Then, ESD was performed with polidocanol injection into the submucosa around the GCV to prevent bleeding. During ESD, the EGC was resected en bloc without severe bleeding. Complications were not observed after ESD. Histopathological examination of the ESD specimens indicated that the resection was curative. PMID:27477990

  18. 67Gallium scanning in the diagnosis of liver disease

    PubMed Central

    James, Oliver; Wood, E. J.; Sherlock, Sheila

    1974-01-01

    67Gallium (67Ga) citrate liver scanning has been carried out on 60 selected patients following a scan with a radioactive colloid preparation. The 67Ga scan correctly identified the site of primary liver carcinoma in 14 of 16 patients, including nine of 10 patients in whom the carcinoma arose in a cirrhotic liver, whereas a colloid scan positively identified the site in only four of these 10 cirrhotic subjects. Alpha-1-fetoprotein estimation was positive in eight of the 16 patients, including the two in whom 67Ga scanning was negative. No positive 67Ga scans were seen in 15 patients with cirrhosis but no primary liver cell cancer in whom a space-occupying lesion could not be excluded on colloid scan. 67Ga citrate scanning appears to be the most reliable investigation available in the diagnosis of primary liver cell cancer. Uptake of 67Ga in secondary metastatic tumours within the liver was less frequent, and appears to have much less value in the detection of these lesions and of bile duct carcinoma than in primary liver cell carcinoma. The 67Ga scan was positive in six out of six patients with pyogenic abscess either in the liver or adjacent to it. In four of these patients a preceding colloid scan had shown no definite filling defect in the liver. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3 PMID:18668852

  19. Liver progenitor cells-mediated liver regeneration in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Shang, Haitao; Wang, Zhijun; Song, Yuhu

    2016-05-01

    Cirrhosis is defined as the histological development of regenerative nodules surrounded by fibrous bands in response to chronic liver injury. In cirrhotic liver where hepatocytes proliferation is compromised, liver progenitor cells (LPCs) are activated and then differentiated into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, leading to the generation of regenerative nodules and functional restoration. Here, we summarize and discuss recent findings on the mechanisms underlying LPCs-mediated regeneration in liver cirrhosis. Firstly, we provide recent research on the mechanism underlying LPCs activation in severe or chronic liver injury. Secondly, we present new and exciting data on exploring the origin of LPCs, which reveal that the hepatocytes give rise to duct-like progenitors that then differentiate back into hepatocytes in chronic liver injury or liver cirrhosis. Finally, we highlight recent findings from the literature exploring the role of LPCs niche in directing the behavior and fate of LPCs. This remarkable insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of LPCs-mediated regeneration in liver cirrhosis will provide a basis for translating this knowledge into clinical application.

  20. Computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in CT by means of geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kenji; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Epstein, Mark L.; Obajuluwa, Ademola M.; Xu Jianwu; Hori, Masatoshi

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Computerized liver extraction from hepatic CT images is challenging because the liver often abuts other organs of a similar density. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in hepatic CT. Methods: The authors developed a computerized liver extraction scheme based on geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set contour evolution. First, an anisotropic diffusion filter was applied to portal-venous-phase CT images for noise reduction while preserving the liver structure, followed by a scale-specific gradient magnitude filter to enhance the liver boundaries. Then, a nonlinear grayscale converter enhanced the contrast of the liver parenchyma. By using the liver-parenchyma-enhanced image as a speed function, a fast-marching level-set algorithm generated an initial contour that roughly estimated the liver shape. A geodesic active contour segmentation algorithm coupled with level-set contour evolution refined the initial contour to define the liver boundaries more precisely. The liver volume was then calculated using these refined boundaries. Hepatic CT scans of 15 prospective liver donors were obtained under a liver transplant protocol with a multidetector CT system. The liver volumes extracted by the computerized scheme were compared to those traced manually by a radiologist, used as ''gold standard.''Results: The mean liver volume obtained with our scheme was 1504 cc, whereas the mean gold standard manual volume was 1457 cc, resulting in a mean absolute difference of 105 cc (7.2%). The computer-estimated liver volumetrics agreed excellently with the gold-standard manual volumetrics (intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.95) with no statistically significant difference (F=0.77; p(F{<=}f)=0.32). The average accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and percent volume error were 98.4%, 91.1%, 99.1%, and 7.2%, respectively. Computerized CT liver volumetry would require substantially less completion time

  1. Self-renewing diploid Axin2+ cells fuel homeostatic renewal of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bruce; Zhao, Ludan; Fish, Matt; Logan, Catriona Y.; Nusse, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Summary The source of new hepatocytes in the uninjured liver has remained an open question. By lineage tracing using the Wnt-responsive gene Axin2, we identify a population of proliferating and self-renewing cells adjacent to the central vein in the liver lobule. These pericentral cells express the early liver progenitor marker Tbx3, are diploid, and thus differ from mature hepatocytes, which are mostly polyploid. The descendants of pericentral cells differentiate into Tbx3-negative, polyploid hepatocytes and can replace all hepatocytes along the liver lobule during homeostatic renewal. Adjacent central vein endothelial cells provide Wnt signals that maintain the pericentral cells, thereby constituting the niche. Thus, we identify a cell population in the liver that subserves homeostatic hepatocyte renewal, characterize its anatomical niche, and identify molecular signals that regulate its activity. PMID:26245375

  2. Self-renewing diploid Axin2(+) cells fuel homeostatic renewal of the liver.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bruce; Zhao, Ludan; Fish, Matt; Logan, Catriona Y; Nusse, Roel

    2015-08-13

    The source of new hepatocytes in the uninjured liver has remained an open question. By lineage tracing using the Wnt-responsive gene Axin2 in mice, we identify a population of proliferating and self-renewing cells adjacent to the central vein in the liver lobule. These pericentral cells express the early liver progenitor marker Tbx3, are diploid, and thereby differ from mature hepatocytes, which are mostly polyploid. The descendants of pericentral cells differentiate into Tbx3-negative, polyploid hepatocytes, and can replace all hepatocytes along the liver lobule during homeostatic renewal. Adjacent central vein endothelial cells provide Wnt signals that maintain the pericentral cells, thereby constituting the niche. Thus, we identify a cell population in the liver that subserves homeostatic hepatocyte renewal, characterize its anatomical niche, and identify molecular signals that regulate its activity.

  3. Pathologic response and microdosimetry of {sup 90}Y microspheres in man: Review of four explanted whole livers

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Andrew S. . E-mail: akennedy@wakerad.com; Nutting, Charles; Coldwell, Douglas; Gaiser, James; Drachenberg, Cinthia

    2004-12-01

    Introduction: Radioactive microsphere {sup 90}Y therapy is increasingly used for primary and metastatic solid tumors in the liver. We present an analysis of 4 explanted livers previously treated with {sup 90}Y microsphere agents (glass or resin). One tumor nodule was analyzed with submillimeter three-dimensional microdosimetry. Methods and materials: Four patients received hepatic artery delivery of {sup 90}Y microspheres for unresectable hepatocellular and colon cancers. Whole livers were explanted as part of lifesaving cadaveric transplant in 2 patients with hepatoma. These patients had received glass microspheres as a procedural bridge to transplant. Autopsy was performed on 2 patients with colon cancer who died of progressive metastatic disease and who had been treated with resin microspheres. Complete pathologic review was performed on each whole liver, including estimation of the response of the tumor to therapy, distribution of microspheres in the tumor and normal liver tissues, and normal-tissue radiation response. A biopsy taken from the edge of a tumor nodule was sectioned serially for three-dimensional radiation dosimetry analyses. Three-dimensional microsphere coordinates within the biopsy specimen were used to calculate dosage using a three-dimensional dose kernel. Isodose coverage of tumor and normal liver areas and total dose delivered were determined. Results: Preferential and heterogeneous deposition of microspheres was noted at the edge of tumor nodules compared with the center portion of the tumor or normal liver parenchyma. Both glass and resin microspheres delivered high cumulative doses to the tumor, which varied from 100 Gy to more than 3000 Gy. No veno-occlusive disease or widespread radiation hepatitis was seen. Conclusion: Microsphere ({sup 90}Y) therapy delivers high numbers of spheres with resulting high total doses of radiation, preferentially in the periphery of tumors. Normal liver parenchyma showed little radiation effect away from

  4. Contrast agent Gd-EOB-DTPA (EOB·Primovist®) for low-field magnetic resonance imaging of canine focal liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Yonetomi, Daisuke; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Nakao, Yukie; Homma, Emi; Hanazono, Kiwamu; Yamada, Eriko; Nakamura, Kozo; Ijiri, Atsuki; Minegishi, Noriyuki; Maetani, Shigeki; Hirayama, Kazuko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Nakade, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a new liver-specific contrast agent gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA; EOB·Primovist®) was studied in 14 normal beagles and 9 dogs with focal liver lesions. Gd-EOB-DTPA accumulates in normally functioning hepatocytes 20 min after injection. As with Gd-DTPA, it is also possible to perform a dynamic multiphasic examination of the liver with Gd-EOB-DTPA, including an arterial phase and a portal venous phase. First, a reliable protocol was developed and the appropriate timings for the dynamic study and the parenchymal phase in normal dogs using Gd-EOB-DTPA were determined. Second, the patterns of these images were evaluated in patient dogs with hepatic masses. The optimal time of arterial imaging was from 15 s after injection, and the optimal time for portal venous imaging was from 40 s after injection. Meanwhile, the optimal time to observe changes during the hepatobiliary phase was from 20 min after injection. In patient dogs, 11 lesions were diagnosed as malignant tumors; all were hypointense to the surrounding normal liver parenchyma during the hepatobiliary phase. Even with a low-field MR imaging unit, the sequences afforded images adequate to visualize the liver parenchyma and to detect tumors within an appropriate scan time. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging with Gd-EOB-DTPA provides good demarcation on low-field MR imaging for diagnosing canine focal liver lesions.

  5. Systematic extrahepatic Glissonean pedicle isolation for anatomical liver resection based on Laennec's capsule: proposal of a novel comprehensive surgical anatomy of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Sugioka, Atsushi; Kato, Yutaro; Tanahashi, Yoshinao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Anatomical liver resection with the Glissonean pedicle isolation is widely approved as an essential procedure for safety and curability. Especially, the extrahepatic Glissonean pedicle isolation without parenchymal destruction should be an ideal procedure. However, the surgical technique has not been standardized due to a lack of anatomical understanding. Herein, we proposed a novel comprehensive surgical anatomy of the liver based on Laennec's capsule that would give a theoretical background to the extrahepatic Glissonean pedicle isolation. Laennec's capsule is the proper membrane that covers not only the entire surface of the liver including the bare area but also the intrahepatic parenchyma surrounding the Glissonean pedicles. Consequently, there exists a gap between the Glissonean pedicle and Laennec's capsule that could be reached extrahepatically and allows us to isolate the extrahepatic Glissonean pedicle without parenchymal destruction systematically. For standardization, it is essential to approach the “six gates” indicated by the “four anatomical landmarks”: the Arantius plate, the umbilical plate, the cystic plate and the Glissonean pedicle of the caudate process (G1c). This novel anatomy would contribute to standardize the surgical techniques of the systematic extrahepatic Glissonean pedicle isolation for anatomical liver resection including laparoscopic or robotic liver resection and to bring innovative changes in hepatobiliary surgery for spreading safe and curable liver resection. PMID:28156078

  6. [A new technique of intrahepatic cholangiodigestive shunt in the right lobe of the liver].

    PubMed

    Machado, M C; da Cunha, J E; Bacchella, T; Penteado, S; Pinotti, H W

    1992-01-01

    Intra-hepatic cholangiojejunostomy in the left liver lobe is a well standardized procedure. For the right lobe however this procedure may be tedious, difficult and followed by early and late complications. A new technique is described based on two principles: minimal sacrifice of hepatic parenchyma and establishment of latero-lateral cholangio-intestinal anastomoses. Five patients were submitted to this procedure and one of them is alive without jaundice three years after the operation. It's concluded that this technique can be indicated in cases of biliary obstruction in which the anastomoses of the left duct cannot be performed because of local changes and in cases with cholangitis.

  7. The use of endo-GIA vascular staplers in liver surgery and their potential benefit: a review.

    PubMed

    Schemmer, Peter; Friess, Helmut; Dervenis, Christos; Schmidt, Jan; Weitz, Jürgen; Uhl, Waldemar; Büchler, Markus W

    2007-01-01

    Stapling devices have been introduced for safety and to reduce the overall operative time in many surgical procedures. In hepatobiliary surgery, i.e. liver resection, several types of staplers are in use. While transection of hepatic vessels with vascular staplers is well established, their use in dissecting hepatic parenchyma has only been assessed recently. Its advantages were especially a low rate of biliary complications (i.e., bile fistulas, bilioma) and reduced bleeding. As expected, the operative time was decreased dramatically while both the complication rate in general and the overall costs for stapler hepatectomy were comparable with other techniques used in high-volume centers. Thus, endo-GIA vascular staplers can be safely used to dissect the hepatic parenchyma in a routine clinical setting with low incidence of surgical complications.

  8. Biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Thein Aung; Wang, Zhuo; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Yoshikawa, Takamasa; Inaba, Tadashi; Kasai, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    Various biomechanical investigations have attempted to clarify the aetiology of adjacent segment disease (ASD). However, no biomechanical study has examined in detail the deformation behaviour of the adjacent segments when both pure torque and an angular displacement load are applied to the vertebrae along multiple segments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments. Ten cadaveric lumbar spines (L2-L5) of boars were used. Control and fusion models were prepared by disc damage and pedicle screw fixation of each specimen, and then, bending and rotation tests were performed using a six-axis material tester. In the biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, the range of motion (ROM) of the cranial and caudal adjacent segments in antero-posterior flexion and lateral bending was increased by about 20 % (p < 0.05), and the maximal torque in the fusion model was about threefold (p < 0.05) that in the control model. And in axial rotation, the ROM of cranial and caudal adjacent segments was increased by about 100 % (p < 0.001), and the maximal torque was about sixfold (p < 0.01) that in the control model. The ROM of adjacent segments was significantly increased after pedicle screw fixation as assessed by biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, but not in those regulated by torque. We present the results of biomechanical tests regulated by torque and angular displacement and show that the maximum torque of the fusion model was larger than that of the control model in the biomechanical test regulated by an angular displacement load, suggesting that mechanical stress on the segments adjacent to the fused segment is large. We think that ASD arises after spinal fusion surgery as a mechanism to compensate for the ROM lost due to excessive fusion by pedicle screw fixation, so that a large torque may be applied to adjacent segments within a physiologically

  9. Comparison of CT scanning and radionuclide imaging in liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.L.; Esposito, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    Early experience with body CT suggested its usefulness in many diagnostic problems; jaundice, renal and pancreatic masses, and in the evaluation of relatively inaccessible parts of the body, such as the retroperitineum, mediastinum, and pelvis. Investigation of hepatic disease by CT was not unexpectedly compared to radionuclide liver scanning, the major preexisting modality for imaging the liver. In the evaluation of the jaundiced patient, CT rapidly assumed a major role, providing more specific information about the liver than the RN liver scan, as well as demonstrating adjacent organs. CT differentiate obstructive from non-obstructive jaundice. With respect to mass lesions of the liver, the RN liver scan is more sensitive than CT but less specific. The abnormalities on an isotope image of the liver consist of normal variants in configuration, extrinsic compression by adjacent structures, cysts, hemangiomata, abscesses, and neoplasms. These suspected lesions may then be better delineated by the CT image, and a more precise diagnosis made. The physiologic information provided by the RN liver scan is an added facet which is helpful in the patient with diffuse hepatic disease. The CT image will be normal in many of these patients, however, hemochromatosis and fatty infiltration lend themselves especially to density evaluation by CT. The evaluation of lymphoma is more thorough with CT. Structures other than the liver, such as lymph nodes, are visualized. Gallium, however, provides additional isotopic information in patients with lymphoma, and in addition, is known to be useful in the investigation of a febrile patient with an abscess. Newer isotopic agents expand hepatic imaging in other directions, visualizing the biliary tree and evaluating the jaundiced patient.

  10. Biomarkers for liver fibrosis

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Orton, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Methods and systems for diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in a subject are provided. In some examples, such methods and systems can include detecting liver fibrosis-related molecules in a sample obtained from the subject, comparing expression of the molecules in the sample to controls representing expression values expected in a subject who does not have liver fibrosis or who has non-progressing fibrosis, and diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in the subject when differential expression of the molecules between the sample and the controls is detected. Kits for the diagnosis or prognosis of liver fibrosis in a subject are also provided which include reagents for detecting liver fibrosis related molecules.

  11. Viscoelastic Model for Lung Parenchyma for Multi-Scale Modeling of Respiratory System Phase I: Hypo-Elastic Model for CFD Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.

    2011-04-14

    An isotropic constitutive model for the parenchyma of lung has been derived from the theory of hypo-elasticity. The intent is to use it to represent the mechanical response of this soft tissue in sophisticated, computational, fluid-dynamic models of the lung. This demands that the continuum model be accurate, yet simple and effcient. An objective algorithm for its numeric integration is provided. The response of the model is determined for several boundary-value problems whose experiments are used for material characterization. The effective elastic, bulk, and shear moduli, and Poisson’s ratio, as tangent functions, are also derived. The model is characterized against published experimental data for lung. A bridge between this continuum model and a dodecahedral model of alveolar geometry is investigated, with preliminary findings being reported.

  12. Computed tomography and sonography of cavernous hemangioma of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Itai, Y.; Ohtomo, K.; Araki, T.; Furui, S.; Iio, M.; Atomi, Y.

    1983-08-01

    Accuracy and limitations of computed tomography (CT) and sonography in the detection and diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma of the liver were analyzed in 39 cases. In 35 of 38 lesions examined by CT before and after bolus contrast enhancement, findings were dense contrast enhancement spreading in all directions on subsequent scans and/or density (other than capsule or septa) higher than normal hepatic parenchyma after 2 min. Lesions smaller than 1 cm were not detected. Misregistration in sequential scane prevented diagnosis of three of nine lesions smaller than 2 cm. Sonography revealed various patterns of mass, but in the smaller lesions, an extremely hyperechoic pattern was dominant. The contributions of CT and sonography depend on the size of the lesions.

  13. [Extracorporeal liver support of liver failure].

    PubMed

    Gerth, Hans Ulrich; Pohlen, Michele; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Schmidt, Hartmut

    2017-03-14

    Extracorporeal liver support can be classified into cell-free, artificial methods (artificial liver support, ALS) and cell-based bioartificial methods (bioartificial liver support, BLS). ALS improves biochemical parameters of liver failure by the simultaneous removal of protein-bound and water-soluble substances. Here, the MARS therapy belongs to the most studied methods with a proved beneficial effect on hepatic encephalopathy (HE), hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) or hyperbilirubinemia. However, a general survival advantage of any liver support for liver failure has not been shown yet and is restricted to meta-analyses or patient subgroups. There are no prospective randomized studies on the treatment of liver failure by intoxication. However, several case series report positive treatment effects using the MARS system, particularly in mushroom poisoning or acetaminophen intoxication. In acute liver failure (ALF) studies, the usage of BLS showed no survival advantage. Using ALS systems, a positive effect on mortality could be demonstrated in patient subgroups after several consecutive MARS therapies. The first randomized controlled trial demonstrating a survival benefit used large-volume plasmapheresis. Apparently, immunomodulatory and hemodynamic effects of the treatment play a crucial role in this context. In patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) accompanied by hyperbilirubinemia without any further organ failure (singular hepatic dysfunction), prognostic favorable effects by using a BLS system have been shown. However, once other extrahepatic organ systems are affected, indicating a progressive transition to multi-organ failure, a survival advantage could be achieved with the MARS and Prometheus system. Decisive for a successful therapy is the exact indication of the respective liver dialysis procedure for this very heterogeneous disease. Future studies are needed to define more accurate patient selection criteria for each liver support.

  14. Trypanosoma brucei Invasion and T-Cell Infiltration of the Brain Parenchyma in Experimental Sleeping Sickness: Timing and Correlation with Functional Changes

    PubMed Central

    Laperchia, Claudia; Palomba, Maria; Seke Etet, Paul F.; Rodgers, Jean; Bradley, Barbara; Montague, Paul; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Bentivoglio, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background The timing of Trypanosoma brucei entry into the brain parenchyma to initiate the second, meningoencephalitic stage of human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is currently debated and even parasite invasion of the neuropil has been recently questioned. Furthermore, the relationship between neurological features and disease stage are unclear, despite the important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Methodology Using a rat model of chronic Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection we determined the timing of parasite and T-cell neuropil infiltration and its correlation with functional changes. Parasite DNA was detected using trypanosome-specific PCR. Body weight and sleep structure alterations represented by sleep-onset rapid eye movement (SOREM) periods, reported in human and experimental African trypanosomiasis, were monitored. The presence of parasites, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the neuropil was assessed over time in the brain of the same animals by immunocytochemistry and quantitative analyses. Principal findings Trypanosome DNA was present in the brain at day 6 post-infection and increased more than 15-fold by day 21. Parasites and T-cells were observed in the parenchyma from day 9 onwards. Parasites traversing blood vessel walls were observed in the hypothalamus and other brain regions. Body weight gain was reduced from day 7 onwards. SOREM episodes started in most cases early after infection, with an increase in number and duration after parasite neuroinvasion. Conclusion These findings demonstrate invasion of the neuropil over time, after an initial interval, by parasites and lymphocytes crossing the blood-brain barrier, and show that neurological features can precede this event. The data thus challenge the current clinical and cerebrospinal fluid criteria of disease staging. PMID:28002454

  15. Infusion of hypertonic saline into the lung parenchyma during radiofrequency ablation of the lungs with multitined expandable electrodes: results using a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Iishi, Tatsuhiko; Hiraki, Takao; Mimura, Hidefumi; Gobara, Hideo; Kurose, Taichi; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Sakurai, Jun; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Tadashi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2009-06-01

    The present study was performed to clarify the effect of hypertonic saline infusion into the lung parenchyma on radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the lungs. A total of 20 ablation zones were created in 3 pigs. The ablation zones were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 (n=6) consisted of ablation zones created by applying smaller radiofrequency (RF) power without saline infusion; group 2 (n=5) zones were created by applying greater RF power without saline infusion;and group 3 (n=9) zones were created by applying greater RF power with saline infusion. The techniques of saline infusion included administration of hypertonic saline 1 ml before RFA, followed by continuous administration at a rate of 1 ml/min during the first 2 min after the initiation of RFA. The ablation parameters and coagulation necrosis volumes were compared among the groups. Group 3 had a tendency toward smaller mean impedance than group 1 (p=0.059) and group 2 (p=0.053). Group 3 showed significantly longer RF application time than group 2 (p=0.004) and significantly greater maximum RF power than group 1 (p=0.001) and group 2 (p=0.004). Group 3 showed significantly larger coagulation necrosis volume (mean, 1,421mm3) than group 2 (mean, 858 mm3, p=0.039) and had a tendency toward larger necrosis volume than group 1 (mean, 878 mm3, p=0.077). Although this small study had limited statistical power, hypertonic saline infusion during RFA appeared to enlarge coagulation necrosis of the lung parenchyma.

  16. Bioartificial liver: current status.

    PubMed

    Pless, G; Sauer, I M

    2005-11-01

    Liver failure remains a life-threatening syndrome. With the growing disparity between the number of suitable donor organs and the number of patients awaiting transplantation, efforts have been made to optimize the allocation of organs, to find alternatives to cadaveric liver transplantation, and to develop extracorporeal methods to support or replace the function of the failing organ. An extracorporeal liver support system has to provide the main functions of the liver: detoxification, synthesis, and regulation. The understanding that the critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver led to the development of artificial filtration and adsorption devices (artificial liver support). Based on this hypothesis, the removal of lipophilic, albumin-bound substances, such as bilirubin, bile acids, metabolites of aromatic amino acids, medium-chain fatty acids, and cytokines, should be beneficial to the clinical course of a patient in liver failure. Artificial detoxification devices currently under clinical evaluation include the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS), Single-Pass Albumin Dialysis (SPAD), and the Prometheus system. The complex tasks of regulation and synthesis remain to be addressed by the use of liver cells (bioartificial liver support). The Extracorporeal Liver Assist Device (ELAD), HepatAssist, Modular Extracorporeal Liver Support system (MELS), and the Amsterdam Medical Center Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) are bioartificial systems. This article gives a brief overview on these artificial and bioartificial devices and discusses remaining obstacles.

  17. Liver disease in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Noel M; Brady, Carla W

    2009-01-01

    Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy. PMID:19248187

  18. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-10-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  19. Measurement of response to treatment in colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, M. J.; Burke, D.; Earlam, S.; Fordy, C.; Allen-Mersh, T. G.

    1995-01-01

    Assessment of tumour response to chemotherapy is important when assessing efficacy of treatment and comparing differing therapeutic regimens. Percentage hepatic replacement (PHR) is commonly used to assess response to treatment of colorectal hepatic metastases. PHR is dependent not only on tumour volume, but also on hepatic parenchymal volume. The effect of tumour growth on hepatic parenchymal volume is unclear but is of importance owing to its effect on PHR. We assessed tumour and hepatic parenchymal weights in an animal tumour model using dissection, and tumour and hepatic parenchymal volumes in patients with colorectal hepatic metastases using CT scanning, in order to establish how hepatic parenchyma varied with change in metastasis size. There was no significant correlation between tumour and liver parenchyma in either the animal model (r = -0.03, P > 0.05) or the patient study (r = 0.3, P < 0.05). This suggests that hepatic parenchymal volume was preserved in the presence of increasing tumour volume. In a further study of computerised tomographic (CT) scans before and after treatment in patients whose tumours either responded to chemotherapy or continued to grow, change in PHR (median proportion of PHR change = 0.40) significantly (P = 0.04) underestimated the change in tumour volume (median proportion of tumour volume change = 0.56), particularly at higher (> 400 ml) volumes. There was good correlation between change in tumour volume and WHO criteria in assigning patients to tumour growth, stable disease or tumour response categories. This study suggests that, in clinical trials comparing colorectal liver metastasis treatments, metastasis volume and not PHR should be used to assess extent of disease and the effect of treatment. PMID:7710957

  20. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-05-10

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation packages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on tile US Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama.

  1. Management of adjacent segment disease after cervical spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Hilibrand, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) was described after long-term follow-up of patients treated with cervical fusion. The term describes new-onset radiculopathy or myelopathy referable to a motion segment adjacent to previous arthrodesis and often attributed to alterations in the biomechanical environment after fusion. Evidence suggests that ASD affects between 2% and 3% of patients per year. Although prevention of ASD was one major impetus behind the development of motion-sparing surgery, the literature does not yet clearly distinguish a difference in the rate of ASD between fusion and disk replacement. Surgical techniques during index surgery may reduce the rate of ASD.

  2. Antioxidants in liver health

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Grajales, Sael; Muriel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are a worldwide medical problem because the liver is the principal detoxifying organ and maintains metabolic homeostasis. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals (FR). However, antioxidants scavenge FR and maintain the oxidative/antioxidative balance in the liver. When the liver oxidative/antioxidative balance is disrupted, the state is termed oxidative stress. Oxidative stress leads to deleterious processes in the liver and produces liver diseases. Therefore, restoring antioxidants is essential to maintain homeostasis. One method of restoring antioxidants is to consume natural compounds with antioxidant capacity. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to various antioxidants found in food that have demonstrated utility in improving liver diseases. PMID:26261734

  3. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... producing bile (which helps break down food during digestion), and storing energy in the form of a ... complete blood count , liver function panel , and blood chemistries can show how well the liver and other ...

  4. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  5. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider ...

  6. Diet - liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002441.htm Diet - liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some people with liver disease must eat a special diet. This diet ...

  7. Stages of Childhood Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Liver Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  8. Postoperative imaging in liver transplantation: what radiologists should know.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay K; Nachiappan, Arun C; Verma, Hetal A; Uppot, Raul N; Blake, Michael A; Saini, Sanjay; Boland, Giles W

    2010-03-01

    Liver transplantation is now frequently used in the treatment of end-stage liver disease. Therefore, it is important that radiologists be aware of common anastomotic techniques and expected postoperative imaging findings. Imaging is most useful in evaluating for posttransplantation complications, which are broadly classified into vascular, biliary, and other complications. Hepatic artery thrombosis is the most significant complication and is often associated with graft failure. Radiologists have multiple modalities at their disposal for optimal evaluation. Doppler ultrasonography (US) is the preliminary imaging modality for gross evaluation of the liver parenchyma, biliary tree, and vasculature for abnormalities. When US findings are indeterminate or there is persistent clinical suspicion for an abnormality, computed tomography (CT) is often performed. The major indications for CT are detection of bile leak, hemorrhage, and abscess, but CT is also useful in the assessment of the vasculature. T-tube cholangiography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography are the best noninvasive imaging tools for evaluating for biliary stricture. Some investigators would argue that endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a better diagnostic imaging modality; however, ERCP is invasive. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is optimal for the evaluation of biliary leakage. Early detection of posttransplantation complications will help lower morbidity rates and will likely allow graft salvage in selected cases.

  9. Benign Liver Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Month Personal Story - David Roncori Liver Disease - The Big Picture 13 Ways to a Healthy Liver In the Field Call to Action - Change Tomorrow, Give Today Liver Lowdown Sept 2013 Recovery Month Path to Wellness 5 Facts About Recovery Patient Story In the Field ...

  10. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Liver Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Liver Tumors Print A A A What's in this ... Malignant (Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  11. Structure, regulation and function of gap junctions in liver

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Michaël; Decrock, Elke; Wang, Nan; Leybaert, Luc; da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Veloso Alves Pereira, Isabel; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctions are a specialized group of cell-to-cell junctions that mediate direct intercellular communication between cells. They arise from the interaction of 2 hemichannels of adjacent cells, which in turn are composed of 6 connexin proteins. In liver, gap junctions are predominantly found in hepatocytes and play critical roles in virtually all phases of the hepatic life cycle, including cell growth, differentiation, liver-specific functionality and cell death. Liver gap junctions are directed through a broad variety of mechanisms ranging from epigenetic control of connexin expression to posttranslational regulation of gap junction activity. This paper reviews established and novel aspects regarding the architecture, control and functional relevance of liver gap junctions. PMID:27001459

  12. miR-493 induction during carcinogenesis blocks metastatic settlement of colon cancer cells in liver

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Koji; Ishiguro, Tatsuya; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Ohata, Hirokazu; Izumiya, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Naoto; Sato, Ai; Sakai, Hiroaki; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Liver metastasis is a major lethal complication associated with colon cancer, and post-intravasation steps of the metastasis are important for its clinical intervention. In order to identify inhibitory microRNAs (miRNAs) for these steps, we performed ‘dropout' screens of a miRNA library in a mouse model of liver metastasis. Functional analyses showed that miR-493 and to a lesser extent miR-493* were capable of inhibiting liver metastasis. miR-493 inhibited retention of metastasized cells in liver parenchyma and induced their cell death. IGF1R was identified as a direct target of miR-493, and its inhibition partially phenocopied the anti-metastatic effects. High levels of miR-493 and miR-493*, but not pri-miR-493, in primary colon cancer were inversely related to the presence of liver metastasis, and attributed to an increase of miR-493 expression during carcinogenesis. We propose that, in a subset of colon cancer, upregulation of miR-493 during carcinogenesis prevents liver metastasis via the induction of cell death of metastasized cells. PMID:22373578

  13. Comparative histological study of hepatic architecture in the three orders amphibian livers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This report presents a detailed description of hepatic architecture in 46 amphibian livers by light microscopy, and extensively discusses the phylogenetic viewpoint. Results The 46 amphibian livers showed a variety of histological features, but anurans were the same as in mammalian livers. The hepatocyte-sinusoidal structures of the amphibian livers were classified into three different types: (I) several-cell-thick plate type, (II) two-cell-thick plate type, and (III) one-cell-thick plate type, depending on the percentage extension of sinusoidal areas per unit area, measured by morphometry. Hematopoietic tissue structures were observed in the connective tissue of both the perihepatic subcapsular regions and portal triads in the order Caudata and Gymnophiona, but were not observed in the order Anura (except for the genus Bombina and Xenopus). As phylogenetic relationships are branched from urodeles to anurans, the parenchyma arrangement progressed from the combined several- and two-cell-thick plate type to one-cell-thick plate type as seen in the mammalian liver type. In contrast, hematopoietic tissue structures were exactly the opposite and did not involve anurans. Conclusions This study is the first to investigate amphibian livers phylogenically, and their architectural differences are shown in the route of hepatic ontogenesis. In this process, parenchymal arrangement formation is acquired phylogenically. The occurrence of hematopoietic cells may be related with the development of the systemic immune system in the spleen and bone marrow. PMID:22905994

  14. In Vitro Generation of Functional Liver Organoid-Like Structures Using Adult Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Sarada Devi; Schirmer, Katharina; Münst, Bernhard; Heinz, Stefan; Ghafoory, Shahrouz; Wölfl, Stefan; Simon-Keller, Katja; Marx, Alexander; Øie, Cristina Ionica; Ebert, Matthias P.; Walles, Heike

    2015-01-01

    In this study we used differentiated adult human upcyte® cells for the in vitro generation of liver organoids. Upcyte® cells are genetically engineered cell strains derived from primary human cells by lenti-viral transduction of genes or gene combinations inducing transient proliferation capacity (upcyte® process). Proliferating upcyte® cells undergo a finite number of cell divisions, i.e., 20 to 40 population doublings, but upon withdrawal of proliferation stimulating factors, they regain most of the cell specific characteristics of primary cells. When a defined mixture of differentiated human upcyte® cells (hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)) was cultured in vitro on a thick layer of Matrigel™, they self-organized to form liver organoid-like structures within 24 hours. When further cultured for 10 days in a bioreactor, these liver organoids show typical functional characteristics of liver parenchyma including activity of cytochromes P450, CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 as well as mRNA expression of several marker genes and other enzymes. In summary, we hereby describe that 3D functional hepatic structures composed of primary human cell strains can be generated in vitro. They can be cultured for a prolonged period of time and are potentially useful ex vivo models to study liver functions. PMID:26488607

  15. Sanguineous normothermic machine perfusion improves hemodynamics and biliary epithelial regeneration in DCD porcine livers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Nassar, Ahmed; Farias, Kevin; Buccini, Laura; Baldwin, William; Mangino, Martin; Bennett, Ana; O'Rourke, Colin; Okamoto, Toshiro; Uso, Teresa Diago; Fung, John; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Miller, Charles; Quintini, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    The effect of normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) on post-reperfusion hemodynamics and extrahepatic biliary duct histology of donors after cardiac death (DCD) livers after transplantation has not been addressed thoroughly and represented the object of this study. Ten livers (n=5/group) with 60’ of warm ischemia were preserved by cold storage (CS) or sanguineous NMP for 10 hours, and then reperfused for 24 hours with whole blood in an isolated perfusion system to simulate transplantation. In our experiment, arterial and portal venous flows were stable in NMP group during the entire simulated reperfusion, while decreased dramatically in CS group after 16 hours post-reperfusion (P<.05), findings consistent with severe parenchymal injury. Similarly, significant differences existed between CS and NMP group on hepatocellular enzyme release, bile volume produced, and enzyme released into bile (P<.05). On histology CS livers presented with diffuse hepatocyte congestion, necrosis, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, denudated biliary epithelium and submucosal bile duct necrosis, while NMP liver showed very mild injury in liver parenchyma and biliary architecture. Most importantly, Ki67 staining in extrahepatic bile duct showed biliary epithelial regeneration. Our findings advance the knowledge of post-reperfusion events that characterize DCD livers and propose NMP as a beneficial preservation modality able to improve biliary regeneration after a major ischemic event, which may prevent in clinical transplantation the development of ischemic cholangiopathy. PMID:24805852

  16. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  17. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  18. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  19. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Hult, Erin L.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Price, Phillip N.

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  20. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, WALL ON LEFT DIVIDING CLOTH ROOM ADDED LATER (PROBABLY C. 1970s). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  2. 11. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site, including Pier No. 4. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  3. 12. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site, including Pier No. 4. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  4. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  5. 47 CFR 73.810 - Third adjacent channel interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.810 Third adjacent channel... power FM, FM translator or FM booster station to such affected station and to the Commission. (ii) A full power FM, FM translator or FM booster station shall review all complaints it receives,...

  6. 47 CFR 73.810 - Third adjacent channel interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.810 Third adjacent channel... power FM, FM translator or FM booster station to such affected station and to the Commission. (ii) A full power FM, FM translator or FM booster station shall review all complaints it receives,...

  7. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  8. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 3. View of side of house facing north from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of side of house facing north from adjacent property. Original wood siding and trim is visible. Note: later addition to rear of house is shown in right side of photograph. - 322 South Fifteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  13. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  14. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  15. MTR COOLING TOWER. BASIN IS ADJACENT TO PUMP HOUSE. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR COOLING TOWER. BASIN IS ADJACENT TO PUMP HOUSE. CAMERA FACES SOUTHEAST TOWARD NORTH SIDE OF PUMP HOUSE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2690. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. 1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN BUILDING (BASSIN'S RESTAURANT) (HABS No. DC-357), 501-511 14TH STREET (THE LOCKER ROOM) HABS No. DC-356) ON CORNER, AND MUNSEY BUILDING (HABS No. DC-358) - William J. Stone Building, 1345 E Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. 2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  18. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  19. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for chronic liver disease: comparison with ultrasound-based scores of experienced radiologists, Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography provides better diagnostic performance for diagnosis of chronic liver disease and correlates better with Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests, compared with an ultrasound (US) scoring system based on visual assessment of conventional B-mode US images by experienced radiologists. Five hundred and twenty-one patients with clinically proven chronic liver disease (n = 293), fatty liver (n = 95) or normal liver (n = 133) were included in this study. B-mode liver US and ARFI elastography were performed in all patients. ARFI elastography was performed at least five times, with each measurement obtained at a different area of the right hepatic lobe; mean shear wave velocity (SWV) was calculated for each patient. The mean SWV was compared with US-based scores from two radiologists (based on liver surface nodularity, parenchyma echotexture and hepatic vein contour), Child-Pugh scores and liver function tests. The mean SWV of the normal liver group was 1.08 m/s ± 0.15; of the fatty liver group, 1.02 m/s ± 0.16; and of the chronic liver disease group, 1.66 m/s ± 0.60 (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of the mean SWV in ARFI elastography was significantly higher than that of the conventional B-mode US-based scores by two radiologists (0.89 vs. 0.74 and 0.77, p < 0.05), with a sensitivity of 75.4% and a specificity of 89.5% at the cut-off value of 1.22 m/s. The sensitivity of the mean SWV was significantly higher than the US-based scores (p < 0.001), although the specificity was not (p > 0.05). The mean SWV was better correlated with Child-Pugh scores and all liver function tests (except total protein) than the US-based scores from two radiologists. In conclusion, ARFI elastography showed better diagnostic performance than visual assessment of experienced radiologists for diagnosis of chronic liver disease, as well as for

  20. Liver Transplantation and Cirrhotomimetic Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Classification and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Erica F; Malik, Saloni; Bonnel, Alexander; Mu, Yifei; Olthoff, Kim; Shaked, Abraham; Abt, Peter L; Peterman, Heather; Reddy, K. Rajender; Ottmann, Shane; Furth, Emma E; Levine, Matthew H

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Liver transplantation has become the standard of care treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that falls within size and numeric criteria in cirrhotic patients. Cirrhotomimetic (CMM) hepatocellular carcinoma is an uncommon growth pattern that infiltrates cirrhotic parenchyma, can become extensive in size, and can evade detection via radiologic studies. Liver transplant outcomes for this type of HCC is not well reported but generally considered to be poor. We wished to better describe this variant of HCC in explanted livers, derive a classification system for this tumor type, and assess the outcomes of liver transplantation for this tumor variant. Methods Upon retrospective analysis of all patients transplanted at a single center for HCC in 1996–2009 (358 patients) a series of 26 patients exhibiting CMM growth pattern were identified. We developed a classification system for this tumor growth pattern variant and determined patient and tumor-specific outcomes. Results We derived a classification schema of CMM HCC based upon tumor extent and cellular histopathology with clear cell pathology being associated with favorable outcome. We note a 100% 3-year and 58.3% 5-year recurrence free survival after transplant in those with tumor confined to one lobe who have clear cell pathology versus 16.2% 3- and 5-year recurrence free survival in those who do not meet these criteria. Conclusion Cirrhotomimetic HCC features are noted in 7% of patients transplanted for HCC in our center with favorable outcomes inpatients with clear cell histology and growth involving less than 50% of the liver. PMID:24668931

  1. Effect of physical training on liver expression of activin A and follistatin in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model in rats

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R.N.; Bueno, P.G.; Avó, L.R.S.; Nonaka, K.O.; Selistre-Araújo, H.S.; Leal, A.M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat accumulation in the liver and is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Activin A is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF)-β superfamily and inhibits hepatocyte growth. Follistatin antagonizes the biological actions of activin. Exercise is an important therapeutic strategy to reduce the metabolic effects of obesity. We evaluated the pattern of activin A and follistatin liver expression in obese rats subjected to swimming exercise. Control rats (C) and high-fat (HF) diet-fed rats were randomly assigned to a swimming training group (C-Swim and HF-Swim) or a sedentary group (C-Sed and HF-Sed). Activin βA subunit mRNA expression was significantly higher in HF-Swim than in HF-Sed rats. Follistatin mRNA expression was significantly lower in C-Swim and HF-Swim than in either C-Sed or HF-Sed animals. There was no evidence of steatosis or inflammation in C rats. In contrast, in HF animals the severity of steatosis ranged from grade 1 to grade 3. The extent of liver parenchyma damage was less in HF-Swim animals, with the severity of steatosis ranging from grade 0 to grade 1. These data showed that exercise may reduce the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet on the liver, suggesting that the local expression of activin-follistatin may be involved. PMID:25075578

  2. Effect of physical training on liver expression of activin A and follistatin in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model in rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, R N; Bueno, P G; Avó, L R S; Nonaka, K O; Selistre-Araújo, H S; Leal, A M O

    2014-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat accumulation in the liver and is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Activin A is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF)-β superfamily and inhibits hepatocyte growth. Follistatin antagonizes the biological actions of activin. Exercise is an important therapeutic strategy to reduce the metabolic effects of obesity. We evaluated the pattern of activin A and follistatin liver expression in obese rats subjected to swimming exercise. Control rats (C) and high-fat (HF) diet-fed rats were randomly assigned to a swimming training group (C-Swim and HF-Swim) or a sedentary group (C-Sed and HF-Sed). Activin βA subunit mRNA expression was significantly higher in HF-Swim than in HF-Sed rats. Follistatin mRNA expression was significantly lower in C-Swim and HF-Swim than in either C-Sed or HF-Sed animals. There was no evidence of steatosis or inflammation in C rats. In contrast, in HF animals the severity of steatosis ranged from grade 1 to grade 3. The extent of liver parenchyma damage was less in HF-Swim animals, with the severity of steatosis ranging from grade 0 to grade 1. These data showed that exercise may reduce the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet on the liver, suggesting that the local expression of activin-follistatin may be involved.

  3. Pregnancy and liver disease.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Rachel H; Dusheiko, Geoffrey; Williamson, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy associated liver diseases affect up to 3% of pregnant women and are the most frequent cause of liver dysfunction in pregnancy. When severe, they are associated with significant morbidity and mortality for both mother and infant. A rapid evaluation to distinguish them from non-pregnancy related liver dysfunction is essential, in order to facilitate appropriate management. Liver disease unrelated to pregnancy can present de novo in pregnancy, or pregnancy can occur in women with preexisting liver pathology (Table 1). Research and subsequent advances in medical care have resulted in improved but still not satisfactory maternal and fetal outcomes. In this review we provide an overview of the liver diseases specific to the pregnant state and an update on their pathogenesis, treatment and outcomes. The risks of pregnancy in women with pre-existent liver pathology is detailed and recent advances in our understanding of specific risks and outcomes are discussed.

  4. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.

  5. Coffee and Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C.

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality. PMID:27194895

  6. A New Human 3D-Liver Model Unravels the Role of Galectins in Liver Infection by the Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Petropolis, Debora B.; Faust, Daniela M.; Deep Jhingan, Gagan; Guillen, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of human parasitic diseases depend on the availability of appropriate in vivo animal models and ex vivo experimental systems, and are particularly difficult for pathogens whose exclusive natural hosts are humans, such as Entamoeba histolytica, the protozoan parasite responsible for amoebiasis. This common infectious human disease affects the intestine and liver. In the liver sinusoids E. histolytica crosses the endothelium and penetrates into the parenchyma, with the concomitant initiation of inflammatory foci and subsequent abscess formation. Studying factors responsible for human liver infection is hampered by the complexity of the hepatic environment and by the restrictions inherent to the use of human samples. Therefore, we built a human 3D-liver in vitro model composed of cultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatocytes in a 3D collagen-I matrix sandwich. We determined the presence of important hepatic markers and demonstrated that the cell layers function as a biological barrier. E. histolytica invasion was assessed using wild-type strains and amoebae with altered virulence or different adhesive properties. We showed for the first time the dependence of endothelium crossing upon amoebic Gal/GalNAc lectin. The 3D-liver model enabled the molecular analysis of human cell responses, suggesting for the first time a crucial role of human galectins in parasite adhesion to the endothelial cells, which was confirmed by siRNA knockdown of galectin-1. Levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including galectin-1 and -3, were highly increased upon contact of E. histolytica with the 3D-liver model. The presence of galectin-1 and -3 in the extracellular medium stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine release, suggesting a further role for human galectins in the onset of the hepatic inflammatory response. These new findings are relevant for a better understanding of human liver infection by E. histolytica. PMID:25211477

  7. Co-delivery of small molecule hedgehog inhibitor and miRNA for treating liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virender; Mondal, Goutam; Dutta, Rinku; Mahato, Ram I

    2016-01-01

    In liver fibrosis, secretion of growth factors and hedgehog (Hh) ligands by hepatic parenchyma upon repeated insults results in transdifferentiation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into active myofibroblasts which secrete excessive amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. An Hh inhibitor GDC-0449 and miR-29b1 can play an important role in treating liver fibrosis by inhibiting several pro-fibrotic genes. Our in-silico analysis indicate that miR-29b1 targets several profibrotic genes like collagen type I & IV, c-MYC, PDGF-β and PI3K/AKT which are upregulated in liver fibrosis. Common bile duct ligation (CBDL) resulted in an increase in Ptch-1, Shh and Gli-1 expression. miR-29b1 and GDC-0449 were co-formulated into micelles using methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(2-methyl-2-carboxyl-propylene carbonate-graft-dodecanol-graft-tetraethylenepentamine) (mPEG-b-PCC-g-DC-g-TEPA) copolymer, and injected systemically into CBDL mice. High concentrations of GDC-0449 and miR-29b1 were delivered to liver cells as determined by in situ liver perfusion at 30 min post systemic administration of their micelle formulation. There was a significant decrease in collagen deposition in the liver and serum injury markers, leading to improvement in liver morphology. Combination therapy was more effective in providing hepatoprotection, lowering liver injury related serum enzyme levels, reducing fibrotic protein markers such as collagen, α-SMA, FN-1 and p-AKT compared to monotherapy. In conclusion, inhibition of Hh pathway and restoration of miR-29b1 have the potential to act synergistically in treating CBDL-induced liver fibrosis in mice.

  8. Biliary epithelium and liver B cells exposed to bacteria activate intrahepatic MAIT cells through MR1

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Hannah C.; van Wilgenburg, Bonnie; Kurioka, Ayako; Parekh, Krishan; Stirling, Kathryn; Roberts, Sheree; Dutton, Emma E.; Hunter, Stuart; Geh, Daniel; Braitch, Manjit K.; Rajanayagam, Jeremy; Iqbal, Tariq; Pinkney, Thomas; Brown, Rachel; Withers, David R.; Adams, David H.; Klenerman, Paul; Oo, Ye H.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells characterised by the invariant TCR-chain, Vα7.2-Jα33, and are restricted by MR1, which presents bacterial vitamin B metabolites. They are important for antibacterial immunity at mucosal sites; however, detailed characteristics of liver-infiltrating MAIT (LI-MAIT) and their role in biliary immune surveillance remain unexplored. Methods The phenotype and intrahepatic localisation of human LI-MAIT cells was examined in diseased and normal livers. MAIT cell activation in response to E. coli-exposed macrophages, biliary epithelial cells (BEC) and liver B cells was assessed with/without anti-MR1. Results Intrahepatic MAIT cells predominantly localised to bile ducts in the portal tracts. Consistent with this distribution, they expressed biliary tropic chemokine receptors CCR6, CXCR6, and integrin αEβ7. LI-MAIT cells were also present in the hepatic sinusoids and possessed tissue-homing chemokine receptor CXCR3 and integrins LFA-1 and VLA-4, suggesting their recruitment via hepatic sinusoids. LI-MAIT cells were enriched in the parenchyma of acute liver failure livers compared to chronic diseased livers. LI-MAIT cells had an activated, effector memory phenotype, expressed α4β7 and receptors for IL-12, IL-18, and IL-23. Importantly, in response to E. coli-exposed macrophages, liver B cells and BEC, MAIT cells upregulated IFN-γ and CD40 Ligand and degranulated in an MR1-dependent, cytokine-independent manner. In addition, diseased liver MAIT cells expressed T-bet and RORγt and the cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17. Conclusions Our findings provide the first evidence of an immune surveillance effector response for MAIT cells towards BEC in human liver; thus they could be manipulated for treatment of biliary disease in the future. PMID:26743076

  9. Vicarious liver visualization in solitary functioning kidney with technetium-99m ethylenedicysteine renal scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Phulsunga, Rohit Kumar; Gupta, Nitin; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of 3-year-old boy who was incidentally diagnosed to have single left kidney on ultrasonography. Dynamic technetium-99m ethylenedicysteine renal scintigraphy was acquired for assessing the existing kidney function showed the tracer localization in bilateral renal fossae during the entire study. The single-photon emission computerized tomography/computerized tomography study revealed activity in the right renal fossa to be in the enlarged right lobe of the liver, which was mimicking as impaired functioning right kidney in planar images. The hybrid imaging helped in accurate delineation of tracer uptake by confirming it to be the false appearance of the right kidney in planar imaging. This case report also highlights the possible mechanism of renal tracer uptake in the liver parenchyma. PMID:26170576

  10. [Liver diseases and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Guettrot-Imbert, G; Plessier, A; Hillaire, S; Delluc, C; Leroux, G; Le Guern, V; Costedoat-Chalumeau, N

    2015-03-01

    Liver disease can be observed in pregnant women whether or not related to pregnancy. Liver disorders can be revealed by pruritus, vomiting, jaundice or abnormal liver blood tests during pregnancy. These liver manifestations can lead to the diagnosis of liver disease specifically associated to pregnancy as intrahepatic pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, Hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver of pregnancy and preeclampsia-induced liver injury. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for other liver diseases coincident with pregnancy as viral hepatitis, thrombosis, drug toxicity or gallstone. Finally, pre-existing liver disease must be taken into account given the risk of fœto-maternal transmission risk as well as the risk of decompensation of underlying cirrhosis secondary to the hemodynamic changes caused by pregnancy. The aim of this revue is to perform an update on the various situations that can be observed, the principles of management of these liver diseases, in order to reduce the risk of complications and to ensure the best maternal and fetal prognosis.

  11. Pancreatitis following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Alexander, J A; Demetrius, A J; Gavaler, J S; Makowka, L; Starzl, T E; Van Thiel, D H

    1988-06-01

    Since 1981, when the liver transplantation program was initiated at the University of Pittsburgh, we have been impressed with the prevalence of pancreatitis occurring following liver transplantation in patients transplanted for hepatitis B-related liver disease. To either confirm this clinical impression or refute it, the records of the 27 HbsAg+ patients and those of an additional 24 HbsAg- but HbcAb and/or HbsAb+ patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation were reviewed to determine the prevalence of clinical pancreatitis and hyperamylasemia (biochemical pancreatitis) following liver transplantation (OLTx). Post-OLTx hyperamylasemia occurred significantly more frequently in HbsAg+ patients (6/27) than it did in the HbsAg- patients (0/24) (P less than 0.05). More importantly, clinical pancreatitis occurred in 14% (4/27) of the HbsAg+ patients and 0% (0/24) of the HbsAg- patients. Interestingly, in each case, the pancreatitis was associated with the occurrence of acute hepatitis B infection of the allograft. Based upon these data, we conclude that pancreatitis occurring after liver transplantation is more common in patients transplanted for active viral liver disease caused by hepatitis B than in those with inactive viral liver disease. These observations suggest that pancreatitis occurring in, at least some cases following liver transplantation for viral liver disease, may result from hepatitis B virus infection of the pancreas.

  12. Percutaneous Liver Biopsies Guided with Ultrasonography: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Cakmakci, Emin; Caliskan, Kosti Can; Tabakci, Omer Naci; Tahtabasi, Mehmet; Karpat, Zeki

    2013-01-01

    Background Although liver biopsy is an easy procedure for hospitalized patients and outpatients, some complications may occur. Objectives To evaluate the efficiency, complications, safety and clinicopathological utility of ultrasonographic-guided percutaneous liver biopsy in diffuse liver disease. Patients and Methods In our retrospective study, we evaluated ultrasound-assisted needle biopsies that were performed in outpatients from October 2006 to July 2010. The liver biopsies were performed following one-night fasting using the tru-cut biopsy gun (18-20 gauge) after marking the best seen and hypovascular part of the liver, distant enough from the adjacent organs. Results A total of 1018 patients were referred to our radiology department. Most of the patients had hepatitis B (60.6%). The biopsy specimens were recorded and sent to our pathology department for histopathological examination. Conclusion According to the results of our series, percutaneous liver biopsy using the tru-cut biopsy gun guided by ultrasonography can be performed safely. We resolve that routine ultrasound of the puncture site is a quick, effective and safe procedure. The complication rate is very low. The US-assisted percutaneous liver biopsy should be used for all cases. PMID:24348609

  13. Surgical treatment of complex axis fractures with adjacent segment instability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xia, Tian; Dong, Shuanghai; Zhao, Qinghua; Tian, Jiwei

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates the clinical and radiographic characteristics of complex axis fractures with adjacent segment instability and describes the outcome of surgical treatment. Twenty-one patients (14 male, seven female; mean age=34 years) with complex axis fractures and adjacent segment instability who were treated between August 2003 and June 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment selection was based on fracture type and stability of the upper cervical segments. All patients were immobilized with a hard collar for three months after surgery. The mean follow-up period was 12 months (range=6-36 months). No intraoperative surgery-related complications were observed and fusion was achieved in all patients. The outcome was excellent for 17 patients, good for two patients, fair for one patient, and poor for one patient. The upper cervical segments that can become unstable due to complex axis fractures include the atlantoaxial and C2-3 joints. Recommended surgical treatments produce good results.

  14. On the Circulation Manifold for Two Adjacent Lifting Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zannetti, Luca; Iollo, Angelo

    1998-01-01

    The circulation functional relative to two adjacent lifting sections is studied for two cases. In the first case we consider two adjacent circles. The circulation is computed as a function of the displacement of the secondary circle along the axis joining the two centers and of the angle of attack of the secondary circle, The gradient of such functional is computed by deriving a set of elliptic functions with respect both to their argument and to their Period. In the second case studied, we considered a wing-flap configuration. The circulation is computed by some implicit mappings, whose differentials with respect to the variation of the geometrical configuration in the physical space are found by divided differences. Configurations giving rise to local maxima and minima in the circulation manifold are presented.

  15. Osmium complex binding to mismatched methylcytosine: effect of adjacent bases.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Akiko; Tainaka, Kazuki; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of osmium complex formation at 5-methylcytosine in mismatched DNA duplexes. Osmium complexation was not observed in fully matched duplexes, whereas the complexation site and efficiency in mismatched duplexes depended on the 5'-neighboring base of the 5-methylcytosine. In particular, when the base adjacent to the 5' side of the mismatched base pair was thymine, a unique side reaction was observed. However, the mismatched base pairs did not influence the selectivity of osmium complexation with methylated DNA.

  16. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  17. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  18. Four-body central configurations with adjacent equal masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yiyang; Li, Bingyu; Zhang, Shiqing

    2017-04-01

    For any convex non-collinear central configuration of the planar Newtonian 4-body problem with adjacent equal masses m1 =m2 ≠m3 =m4, with equal lengths for the two diagonals, we prove it must possess a symmetry and must be an isosceles trapezoid; furthermore, which is also an isosceles trapezoid when the length between m1 and m4 equals the length between m2 and m3.

  19. Processing multiple non-adjacent dependencies: evidence from sequence learning.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Meinou H; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Geukes, Sebastian; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Christiansen, Morten H

    2012-07-19

    Processing non-adjacent dependencies is considered to be one of the hallmarks of human language. Assuming that sequence-learning tasks provide a useful way to tap natural-language-processing mechanisms, we cross-modally combined serial reaction time and artificial-grammar learning paradigms to investigate the processing of multiple nested (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(3)B(2)B(1)) and crossed dependencies (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(1)B(2)B(3)), containing either three or two dependencies. Both reaction times and prediction errors highlighted problems with processing the middle dependency in nested structures (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(3)_B(1)), reminiscent of the 'missing-verb effect' observed in English and French, but not with crossed structures (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(1)_B(3)). Prior linguistic experience did not play a major role: native speakers of German and Dutch-which permit nested and crossed dependencies, respectively-showed a similar pattern of results for sequences with three dependencies. As for sequences with two dependencies, reaction times and prediction errors were similar for both nested and crossed dependencies. The results suggest that constraints on the processing of multiple non-adjacent dependencies are determined by the specific ordering of the non-adjacent dependencies (i.e. nested or crossed), as well as the number of non-adjacent dependencies to be resolved (i.e. two or three). Furthermore, these constraints may not be specific to language but instead derive from limitations on structured sequence learning.

  20. 38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER. THIS UNIT GENERATED A MAGNETIC PULSE WHICH WAS TRANSMITTED TO THE COLLECTION PLATES IN THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. THESE PERIODIC PULSES VIBRATE THE PLATES AND CAUSE PRECIPITATED ARTICLES OF SMOKE AND FLY ASH TO FALL TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  1. Characterization of AgMaT2, a plasma membrane mannitol transporter from celery, expressed in phloem cells, including phloem parenchyma cells.

    PubMed

    Juchaux-Cachau, Marjorie; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Pichaut, Jean-Philippe; Campion, Claire; Porcheron, Benoit; Jeauffre, Julien; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Simoneau, Philippe; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi

    2007-09-01

    A second mannitol transporter, AgMaT2, was identified in celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce), a species that synthesizes and transports mannitol. This transporter was successfully expressed in two different heterologous expression systems: baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants (a non-mannitol-producing species). Data indicated that AgMaT2 works as an H(+)/mannitol cotransporter with a weak selectivity toward other polyol molecules. When expressed in tobacco, AgMaT2 decreased the sensitivity to the mannitol-secreting pathogenic fungi Alternaria longipes, suggesting a role for polyol transporters in defense mechanisms. In celery, in situ hybridization showed that AgMaT2 was expressed in the phloem of leaflets, petioles from young and mature leaves, floral stems, and roots. In the phloem of petioles and leaflets, AgMaT2, as localized with specific antibodies, was present in the plasma membrane of three ontologically related cell types: sieve elements, companion cells, and phloem parenchyma cells. These new data are discussed in relation to the physiological role of AgMaT2 in regulating mannitol fluxes in celery petioles.

  2. Characterization of AgMaT2, a Plasma Membrane Mannitol Transporter from Celery, Expressed in Phloem Cells, Including Phloem Parenchyma Cells[OA

    PubMed Central

    Juchaux-Cachau, Marjorie; Landouar-Arsivaud, Lucie; Pichaut, Jean-Philippe; Campion, Claire; Porcheron, Benoit; Jeauffre, Julien; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie; Simoneau, Philippe; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi

    2007-01-01

    A second mannitol transporter, AgMaT2, was identified in celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce), a species that synthesizes and transports mannitol. This transporter was successfully expressed in two different heterologous expression systems: baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants (a non-mannitol-producing species). Data indicated that AgMaT2 works as an H+/mannitol cotransporter with a weak selectivity toward other polyol molecules. When expressed in tobacco, AgMaT2 decreased the sensitivity to the mannitol-secreting pathogenic fungi Alternaria longipes, suggesting a role for polyol transporters in defense mechanisms. In celery, in situ hybridization showed that AgMaT2 was expressed in the phloem of leaflets, petioles from young and mature leaves, floral stems, and roots. In the phloem of petioles and leaflets, AgMaT2, as localized with specific antibodies, was present in the plasma membrane of three ontologically related cell types: sieve elements, companion cells, and phloem parenchyma cells. These new data are discussed in relation to the physiological role of AgMaT2 in regulating mannitol fluxes in celery petioles. PMID:17631523

  3. Immunolocalization of Solanaceous SUT1 Proteins in Companion Cells and Xylem Parenchyma: New Perspectives for Phloem Loading and Transport1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Bianca; Stadler, Ruth; Sauer, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Leaf sucrose (Suc) transporters are essential for phloem loading and long-distance partitioning of assimilates in plants that load their phloem from the apoplast. Suc loading into the phloem is indispensable for the generation of the osmotic potential difference that drives phloem bulk flow and is central for the long-distance movement of phloem sap compounds, including hormones and signaling molecules. In previous analyses, solanaceous SUT1 Suc transporters from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were immunolocalized in plasma membranes of enucleate sieve elements. Here, we present data that identify solanaceous SUT1 proteins with high specificity in phloem companion cells. Moreover, comparisons of SUT1 localization in the abaxial and adaxial phloem revealed higher levels of SUT1 protein in the abaxial phloem of all three solanaceous species, suggesting different physiological roles for these two types of phloem. Finally, SUT1 proteins were identified in files of xylem parenchyma cells, mainly in the bicollateral veins. Together, our data provide new insight into the role of SUT1 proteins in solanaceous species. PMID:18614713

  4. Phloem as Capacitor: Radial Transfer of Water into Xylem of Tree Stems Occurs via Symplastic Transport in Ray Parenchyma[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Justine; Tjoelker, Mark G.; Salih, Anya

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of water from phloem into xylem is thought to mitigate increasing hydraulic tension in the vascular system of trees during the diel cycle of transpiration. Although a putative plant function, to date there is no direct evidence of such water transfer or the contributing pathways. Here, we trace the radial flow of water from the phloem into the xylem and investigate its diel variation. Introducing a fluorescent dye (0.1% [w/w] fluorescein) into the phloem water of the tree species Eucalyptus saligna allowed localization of the dye in phloem and xylem tissues using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Our results show that the majority of water transferred between the two tissues is facilitated via the symplast of horizontal ray parenchyma cells. The method also permitted assessment of the radial transfer of water during the diel cycle, where changes in water potential gradients between phloem and xylem determine the extent and direction of radial transfer. When injected during the morning, when xylem water potential rapidly declined, fluorescein was translocated, on average, farther into mature xylem (447 ± 188 µm) compared with nighttime, when xylem water potential was close to zero (155 ± 42 µm). These findings provide empirical evidence to support theoretical predictions of the role of phloem-xylem water transfer in the hydraulic functioning of plants. This method enables investigation of the role of phloem tissue as a dynamic capacitor for water storage and transfer and its contribution toward the maintenance of the functional integrity of xylem in trees. PMID:25588734

  5. Xylem ray parenchyma cells in boreal hardwood species respond to subfreezing temperatures by deep supercooling that is accompanied by incomplete desiccation.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Kasuga, Jun; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2003-02-01

    It has been accepted that xylem ray parenchyma cells (XRPCs) in hardwood species respond to subfreezing temperatures either by deep supercooling or by extracellular freezing. Present study by cryo-scanning electron microscopy examined the freezing responses of XRPCs in five boreal hardwoods: Salix sachalinensis Fr. Schmit, Populus sieboldii Miq., Betula platyphylla Sukat. var japonica Hara, Betula pubescens Ehrh., and red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), in which XRPCs have been reported to respond by extracellular freezing. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that slow cooling of xylem to -80 degrees C resulted in intracellular freezing in the majority of XRPCs in S. sachalinensis, an indication that these XRPCs had been deep supercooled. In contrast, in the majority of XRPCs in P. sieboldii, B. platyphylla, B. pubescens, and red osier dogwood, slow cooling to -80 degrees C produced slight cytorrhysis without clear evidence of intracellular freezing, suggesting that these XRPCs might respond by extracellular freezing. In these XRPCs exhibited putative extracellular freezing; however, deep etching revealed the apparent formation of intracellular ice crystals in restricted local areas. To confirm the occurrence of intracellular freezing, we rewarmed these XRPCs after cooling and observed very large intracellular ice crystals as a result of the recrystallization. Thus, the XRPCs in all the boreal hardwoods that we examined responded by deep supercooling that was accompanied with incomplete desiccation. From these results, it seems possible that limitations to the deep-supercooling ability of XRPCs might be a limiting factor for adaptation of hardwoods to cold climates.

  6. The delivery of salts to the xylem. Three types of anion conductance in the plasmalemma of the xylem parenchyma of roots of barley.

    PubMed

    Köhler, B; Raschke, K

    2000-01-01

    To explore possible pathways for anions to enter the xylem in the root during the transport of salts to the shoot, we used the patch-clamp method on protoplasts prepared from the xylem parenchyma of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants. K(+) currents were suppressed by tetraethylammonium or N-methylglucamine in the solutions in the pipette and the bath, and the permeating anions were Cl(-) or NO(3)(-). We recorded the activities of three distinct anion conductances: (a) an inwardly rectifying anion channel (X-IRAC), characterized by activation at hyperpolarization and open times of up to several seconds; (b) a quickly activating anion conductance (X-QUAC), important for anion efflux at voltages between -50 mV and the equilibrium potential of the prevailing anion; and (c) a slowly activating anion conductance (X-SLAC), activating above -100 mV. Both X-IRAC and X-QUAC were permeable for Cl(-) and NO(3)(-); X-QUAC was also permeable for malate. The occurrence of X-IRAC became more frequent with an increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), while the occurrence of X-QUAC decreased. Anion currents through X-SLAC, and particularly through X-QUAC, were estimated to be large enough to account for reported rates of xylem loading, which is in accordance with the notion that xylem loading is a passive process.

  7. Predicting Agenesis of the Mandibular Second Premolar from Adjacent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of agenesis of the mandibular second premolar (P2) enhances management of the dental arch in the growing child. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship in the development of the mandibular first molar (M1) and first premolar (P1) at early stages of P2 (second premolar). Specifically, we ask if the likelihood of P2 agenesis can be predicted from adjacent developing teeth. We selected archived dental panoramic radiographs with P2 at crown formation stages (N = 212) and calculated the likelihood of P2 at initial mineralisation stage ‘Ci’ given the tooth stage of adjacent teeth. Our results show that the probability of observing mandibular P2 at initial mineralisation stage ‘Ci’ decreased as both the adjacent P1 and M1 matured. The modal stage at P2 ‘Ci’ was P1 ‘Coc’ (cusp outline complete) and M1 ‘Crc’ (crown complete). Initial mineralisation of P2 was observed up to P1 ‘Crc’ and M1 stage ‘R½’ (root half). The chance of observing P2 at least ‘Coc’ (coalescence of cusps) was considerably greater prior to these threshold stages compared to later stages of P1 and M1. These findings suggest that P2 is highly unlikely to develop if P1 is beyond ‘Crc’ and M1 is beyond ‘R½’. PMID:26673218

  8. Adjacent Segment Disease in the Cervical and Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Tobert, Daniel G; Antoci, Valentin; Patel, Shaun P; Saadat, Ehsan; Bono, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is disappointing long-term outcome for both the patient and clinician. In contrast to adjacent segment degeneration, which is a common radiographic finding, ASD is less common. The incidence of ASD in both the cervical and lumbar spine is between 2% and 4% per year, and ASD is a significant contributor to reoperation rates after spinal arthrodesis. The etiology of ASD is multifactorial, stemming from existing spondylosis at adjacent levels, predisposed risk to degenerative changes, and altered biomechanical forces near a previous fusion site. Numerous studies have sought to identify both patient and surgical risk factors for ASD, but a consistent, sole predictor has yet to be found. Spinal arthroplasty techniques seek to preserve physiological biomechanics, thereby minimizing the risk of ASD, and long-term clinical outcome studies will help quantify its efficacy. Treatment strategies for ASD are initially nonoperative, provided a progressive neurological deficit is not present. The spine surgeon is afforded many surgical strategies once operative treatment is elected. The goal of this manuscript is to consider the etiologies of ASD, review its manifestations, and offer an approach to treatment.

  9. Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsson, Dan; Malm, Torleif

    2008-09-01

    A significant expansion of offshore wind power is expected in the near future, with thousands of turbines in coastal waters, and various aspects of how this may influence the coastal ecology including disturbance effects from noise, shadows, electromagnetic fields, and changed hydrological conditions are accordingly of concern. Further, wind power plants constitute habitats for a number of organisms, and may locally alter assemblage composition and biomass of invertebrates, algae and fish. In this study, fouling assemblages on offshore wind turbines were compared to adjacent hard substrate. Influences of the structures on the seabed were also investigated. The turbines differed significantly from adjacent boulders in terms of assemblage composition of epibiota and motile invertebrates. Species number and Shannon-Wiener diversity were, also, significantly lower on the wind power plants. It was also indicated that the turbines might have affected assemblages of invertebrates and algae on adjacent boulders. Off shore wind power plant offer atypical substrates for fouling assemblages in terms of orientation, depth range, structure, and surface texture. Some potential ecological implications of the addition of these non-natural habitats for coastal ecology are discussed.

  10. Perceptual processing of adjacent and nonadjacent tactile nontargets.

    PubMed

    Evans, P M; Craig, J C; Rinker, M A

    1992-11-01

    Previous research has shown that subjects appear unable to restrict processing to a single finger and ignore a stimulus presented to an adjacent finger. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that, at least for moving stimuli, an adjacent nontarget is fully processed to the level of incipient response activation. The present study replicated and expanded upon these original findings. The results of Experiment 1 showed that an equally large response-competition effect occurred when the nontarget was presented to adjacent and nonadjacent fingers (on the same hand). The results of Experiment 2 showed that the effects observed in Experiment 1 (and in previous studies) were also obtained with stationary stimuli. Although small, there was some indication in the results of Experiment 2 that interference may dissipate more rapidly with distance with stationary stimuli. An additional finding was that interference effects were observed in both experiments with temporal separations between the target and nontarget of up to 100 msec. In Experiment 3, target and nontarget stimuli were presented to opposite hands. Although reduced, interference was still evident with target and nontarget stimuli presented to opposite hands. Varying the physical distance between hands did not produce any change in the amount of interference. The results suggest that the focus of attention on the skin extends nearly undiminished across the fingers of one hand and is not dependent upon the physical distance between sites of stimulation.

  11. Using BRDFs for accurate albedo calculations and adjacency effect corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the authors discuss two uses of BRDFs in remote sensing: (1) in determining the clear sky top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo, (2) in quantifying the effect of the BRDF on the adjacency point-spread function and on atmospheric corrections. The TOA spectral albedo is an important parameter retrieved by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR). Its accuracy depends mainly on how well one can model the surface BRDF for many different situations. The authors present results from an algorithm which matches several semi-empirical functions to the nine MISR measured BRFs that are then numerically integrated to yield the clear sky TOA spectral albedo in four spectral channels. They show that absolute accuracies in the albedo of better than 1% are possible for the visible and better than 2% in the near infrared channels. Using a simplified extensive radiosity model, the authors show that the shape of the adjacency point-spread function (PSF) depends on the underlying surface BRDFs. The adjacency point-spread function at a given offset (x,y) from the center pixel is given by the integral of transmission-weighted products of BRDF and scattering phase function along the line of sight.

  12. Orchestrating liver development

    PubMed Central

    Gordillo, Miriam; Evans, Todd; Gouon-Evans, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a central regulator of metabolism, and liver failure thus constitutes a major health burden. Understanding how this complex organ develops during embryogenesis will yield insights into how liver regeneration can be promoted and how functional liver replacement tissue can be engineered. Recent studies of animal models have identified key signaling pathways and complex tissue interactions that progressively generate liver progenitor cells, differentiated lineages and functional tissues. In addition, progress in understanding how these cells interact, and how transcriptional and signaling programs precisely coordinate liver development, has begun to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this complexity. Here, we review the lineage relationships, signaling pathways and transcriptional programs that orchestrate hepatogenesis. PMID:26081571

  13. Liver cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sell, Stewart; Leffert, Hyam L

    2008-06-10

    In an effort to review the evidence that liver cancer stem cells exist, two fundamental questions must be addressed. First, do hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) arise from liver stem cells? Second, do HCCs contain cells that possess properties of cancer stem cells? For many years the finding of preneoplastic nodules in the liver during experimental induction of HCCs by chemicals was interpreted to support the hypothesis that HCC arose by dedifferentiation of mature liver cells. More recently, recognition of the role of small oval cells in the carcinogenic process led to a new hypothesis that HCC arises by maturation arrest of liver stem cells. Analysis of the cells in HCC supports the presence of cells with stem-cell properties (ie, immortality, transplantability, and resistance to therapy). However, definitive markers for these putative cancer stem cells have not yet been found and a liver cancer stem cell has not been isolated.

  14. Targeting of liver tumour in rats by selective delivery of holmium-166 loaded microspheres: a biodistribution study.

    PubMed

    Nijsen, F; Rook, D; Brandt, C; Meijer, R; Dullens, H; Zonnenberg, B; de Klerk, J; van Rijk, P; Hennink, W; van het Schip, F

    2001-06-01

    Intra-arterial administration of beta-emitting particles that become trapped in the vascular bed of a tumour and remain there while delivering high doses, represents a unique approach in the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumours. Studies on selective internal radiation therapy of colorectal liver metastases using yttrium-90 glass microspheres have shown encouraging results. This study describes the biodistribution of 40-microm poly lactic acid microspheres loaded with radioactive holmium-166, after intra-arterial administration into the hepatic artery of rats with implanted liver tumours. Radioactivity measurements showed >95% retention of injected activity in the liver and its resident tumour. The average activity detected in other tissues was < or =0.1%ID/g, with incidental exceptions in the lungs and stomach. Very little 166Ho activity was detected in kidneys (<0.1%ID/g), thereby indicating the stability of the microspheres in vivo. Tumour targeting was very effective, with a mean tumour to liver ratio of 6. 1+/-2.9 for rats with tumour (n=15) versus 0.7+/-0.5 for control rats (n=6; P<0.001). These ratios were not significantly affected by the use of adrenaline. Histological analysis showed that five times as many large (>10) and medium-sized (4-9) clusters of microspheres were present within tumour and peritumoural tissue, compared with normal liver. Single microspheres were equally dispersed throughout the tumour, as well as normal liver parenchyma.

  15. Cell transplantation after oxidative hepatic preconditioning with radiation and ischemia-reperfusion leads to extensive liver repopulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhi, Harmeet; Gorla, Giridhar R.; Irani, Adil N.; Annamaneni, Pallavi; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2002-10-01

    The inability of transplanted cells to proliferate in the normal liver hampers cell therapy. We considered that oxidative hepatic DNA damage would impair the survival of native cells and promote proliferation in transplanted cells. Dipeptidyl peptidase-deficient F344 rats were preconditioned with whole liver radiation and warm ischemia-reperfusion followed by intrasplenic transplantation of syngeneic F344 rat hepatocytes. The preconditioning was well tolerated, although serum aminotransferase levels rose transiently and hepatic injury was observed histologically, along with decreased catalase activity and 8-hydroxy adducts of guanine, indicating oxidative DNA damage. Transplanted cells did not proliferate in the liver over 3 months in control animals and animals preconditioned with ischemia-reperfusion alone. Animals treated with radiation alone showed some transplanted cell proliferation. In contrast, the liver of animals preconditioned with radiation plus ischemia-reperfusion was replaced virtually completely over 3 months. Transplanted cells integrated in the liver parenchyma and liver architecture were preserved normally. These findings offer a paradigm for repopulating the liver with transplanted cells. Progressive loss of cells experiencing oxidative DNA damage after radiation and ischemia-reperfusion injury could be of significance for epithelial renewal in additional organs.

  16. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  17. Alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as γ-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant.


Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280

  18. Increased iron deposition in rat liver fibrosis induced by a high-dose injection of dimethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Guo, Limei; Enzan, Hideaki; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Miyazaki, Eriko; Jin, Yulan; Toi, Makoto; Kuroda, Naoto; Hiroi, Makoto

    2006-12-01

    Using a developed rat model of hepatic necrosis and subsequent fibrosis induced by a high-dose intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), we studied iron deposition and expression of transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) during the development of persistent liver fibrosis. Rats were sacrificed at several timepoints from 6 h to 10 months post-injection and the livers were examined for iron content and distribution, and for expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, ED-1, TGF-beta(1), and collagen (alpha(2))I. Morphologic evidence of acute submassive hemorrhagic necrosis peaked at 36 h; on day 3 the residual parenchyma contained activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and necrotic areas contained numerous macrophages; and on day 5, necrotic tissues and erythrocytes had been phagocytosed and macrophages contained abundant iron deposits. From days 7 to 10, iron-laden macrophages and activated HSCs (myofibroblasts) populated the fibrous septa in parallel. From week 2 to month 10, closely arranged macrophages and myofibroblasts were found in central-to-central bridging fibrotic tissue. TGF-beta(1) was strongly detected in both macrophages and HSCs during development of liver fibrosis. Our data suggest that increased iron deposition may be involved in the initiation and perpetuation of rat liver fibrosis. Iron-laden macrophages may influence HSCs through the action of TGF-beta(1) in DMN-induced liver fibrosis.

  19. Histologic analysis of rabbit liver cancer treated by bulk ultrasound ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunakaran, Chandra Priya; Rudich, Steven M.; Alqadah, Amel; Burgess, Mark T.; Narmoneva, Daria A.; Mast, T. Douglas

    2012-10-01

    VX2 rabbit liver cancer, treated in vivo using bulk ultrasound ablation by miniaturized image-ablate arrays, was histologically analyzed using TTC vital stain and DAPI nucleic acid stain. VX2 cells were implanted into rabbit liver lobes and allowed to grow for 11-21 days. Liver lobes containing solid VX2 tumors were then treated with 4.8 MHz, 22.5-38.5 W/cm2 in situ intensity, unfocused ultrasound for exposure times of 20-120 s. After animal sacrifice, thermal lesions were bisected along the imaging/treatment plane, one face stained with TTC, and the other with DAPI. Levels of TTC uptake (no uptake, partial uptake, and complete uptake) in liver parenchyma corresponded to three discrete regions of tan, pink and red color. By processing images of DAPI-stained parenchymal tissue from these three regions, cellular damage was quantified. A viability index parameter incorporating the size and shape of DAPI-stained nuclei correlated significantly with levels of TTC uptake, and thus with local tissue viability. For ablation of normal liver, viability indices for parenchymal regions of no TTC uptake and partial TTC uptake were significantly different from those for viable tissue. For ablation of VX2 tumor, differences in viability index between regions of no TTC uptake and complete TTC uptake were smaller, but significant overall.

  20. Rectal carcinoma with metachronous metastasis to the extrahepatic bile duct without liver tumor.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Kobayashi, Ryu; Kato, Shingo; Watanabe, Seitaro; Uchiyama, Takashi; Shimamura, Takeshi; Kubota, Kensuke; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Oshiro, Hisashi; Endo, Itaru

    2011-08-01

    In July 2003, a 63-year-old man received a low anterior resection for rectal cancer. In February 2006, he underwent a right hepatectomy for a solitary metastatic liver tumor; the liver tumor had not invaded the bile duct, and a curative resection was performed. In August 2008, an enhanced computed tomography examination revealed a massive focal lesion at the point of the common bile duct. Endoscopic ultrasonography clearly revealed a hyperechoic polypoid lesion that had spread laterally on the surface of the slightly dilated bile duct and had a smooth outer hyperechoic layer. No lymph nodes were present in this region. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed an irregular stricture, and a biopsy was performed through the scope. Microscopic examination revealed a tumor characterized as a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma resembling the liver tumor. We diagnosed the intrabiliary tumor as a metachronous metastatic bile duct tumor from rectal cancer without involvement of the liver parenchyma. This is a very rare case, with recurrence only in an extrahepatic bile duct after the complete resection of a metastatic liver tumor. This is the first clinical, pathological, and radiological description of this rare condition.

  1. The ascending pathophysiology of cholestatic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Peter L M; Ghallab, Ahmed; Vartak, Nachiket; Reif, Raymond; Schaap, Frank G; Hampe, Jochen; Hengstler, Jan G

    2017-02-01

    In this review we develop the argument that cholestatic liver diseases, particularly primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), evolve over time with anatomically an ascending course of the disease process. The first and early lesions are in "downstream" bile ducts. This eventually leads to cholestasis, and this causes bile salt (BS)-mediated toxic injury of the "upstream" liver parenchyma. BS are toxic in high concentration. These concentrations are present in the canalicular network, bile ducts, and gallbladder. Leakage of bile from this network and ducts could be an important driver of toxicity. The liver has a great capacity to adapt to cholestasis, and this may contribute to a variable symptom-poor interval that is often observed. Current trials with drugs that target BS toxicity are effective in only about 50%-60% of primary biliary cholangitis patients, with no effective therapy in PSC. This motivated us to develop and propose a new view on the pathophysiology of primary biliary cholangitis and PSC in the hope that these new drugs can be used more effectively. These views may lead to better stratification of these diseases and to recommendations on a more "tailored" use of the new therapeutic agents that are currently tested in clinical trials. Apical sodium-dependent BS transporter inhibitors that reduce intestinal BS absorption lower the BS load and are best used in cholestatic patients. The effectiveness of BS synthesis-suppressing drugs, such as farnesoid X receptor agonists, is greatest when optimal adaptation is not yet established. By the time cytochrome P450 7A1 expression is reduced these drugs may be less effective. Anti-inflammatory agents are probably most effective in early disease, while drugs that antagonize BS toxicity, such as ursodeoxycholic acid and nor-ursodeoxycholic acid, may be effective at all disease stages. Endoscopic stenting in PSC should be reserved for situations of intercurrent cholestasis and

  2. Impact of myeloid-derived suppressor cell on Kupffer cells from mouse livers with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lacotte, Stéphanie; Slits, Florence; Orci, Lorenzo A.; Meyer, Jeremy; Oldani, Graziano; Gonelle-Gispert, Carmen; Morel, Philippe; Toso, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kupffer cells represent the first line of defense against tumor cells in the liver. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have recently been observed in the liver parenchyma of tumor-bearing animals. The present study investigates the function of the MDSC subsets, and their impact on Kupffer cell phenotype and function. RIL-175 mouse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells were injected into the median liver lobe of C57BL/6 mice. Three weeks later, the median lobe hosting the tumor nodule was removed, and Kupffer cells and MDSCs were sorted from the remaining liver. Mouse livers devoid of HCC served as control. Kupffer cells expressed less co-stimulatory CD86 and MHCII and more co-inhibitory CD274 molecules in HCC-bearing livers than in control livers. Corresponding to this phenotype, Kupffer cells from HCC-bearing mice were less efficient in their function as antigen-presenting cells. Three CD11b+ cell populations were identified and sorted from HCC-bearing mice. These cells had various phenotypes with different levels of MDSC-specific surface markers (Ly6Ghigh cells, Gr1high cells, and Ly6Clow cells), and may be considered as bonafide MDSCs given their suppression of antigen-specific T cell proliferation. Primary isolated Kupffer cells in co-culture with the three MDSC subsets showed a decrease in CCL2 and IL-18 secretion, and an increase in IL-10 and IL-1β secretion, and an increased expression of CD86, CD274, and MHCII. In conclusion, these data demonstrated the existence of three MDSC subsets in HCC-bearing animals. These cells altered Kupffer cell function and may decrease the migration and activation of anticancer effector cells in the liver. PMID:27999748

  3. Prediction of Liver Function by Using Magnetic Resonance-based Portal Venous Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yue; Wang, Hesheng; Johnson, Timothy D.; Pan, Charlie; Hussain, Hero; Balter, James M.; Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether liver function can be assessed globally and spatially by using volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging MRI (DCE-MRI) to potentially aid in adaptive treatment planning. Methods and Materials Seventeen patients with intrahepatic cancer undergoing focal radiation therapy (RT) were enrolled in institution review board-approved prospective studies to obtain DCE-MRI (to measure regional perfusion) and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance rates (to measure overall liver function) prior to, during, and at 1 and 2 months after treatment. The volumetric distribution of portal venous perfusion in the whole liver was estimated for each scan. We assessed the correlation between mean portal venous perfusion in the nontumor volume of the liver and overall liver function measured by ICG before, during, and after RT. The dose response for regional portal venous perfusion to RT was determined using a linear mixed effects model. Results There was a significant correlation between the ICG clearance rate and mean portal venous perfusion in the functioning liver parenchyma, suggesting that portal venous perfusion could be used as a surrogate for function. Reduction in regional venous perfusion 1 month after RT was predicted by the locally accumulated biologically corrected dose at the end of RT (P<.0007). Regional portal venous perfusion measured during RT was a significant predictor for regional venous perfusion assessed 1 month after RT (P<.00001). Global hypovenous perfusion pre-RT was observed in 4 patients (3 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis), 3 of whom had recovered from hypoperfusion, except in the highest dose regions, post-RT. In addition, 3 patients who had normal perfusion pre-RT had marked hypervenous perfusion or reperfusion in low-dose regions post-RT. Conclusions This study suggests that MR-based volumetric hepatic perfusion imaging may be a biomarker for spatial distribution of liver function, which

  4. Preoperative portal vein embolization in liver cancer: indications, techniques and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Favelier, Sylvain; Chevallier, Olivier; Estivalet, Louis; Genson, Pierre-Yves; Pottecher, Pierre; Gehin, Sophie; Krausé, Denis; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative liver failure is a severe complication of major hepatectomies, in particular in patients with a chronic underlying liver disease. Portal vein embolization (PVE) is an approach that is gaining increasing acceptance in the preoperative treatment of selected patients prior to major hepatic resection. Induction of selective hypertrophy of the non-diseased portion of the liver with PVE in patients with either primary or secondary hepatobiliary, malignancy with small estimated future liver remnants (FLR) may result in fewer complications and shorter hospital stays following resection. Additionally, PVE performed in patients initially considered unsuitable for resection due to lack of sufficient remaining normal parenchyma may add to the pool of candidates for surgical treatment. A thorough knowledge of hepatic segmentation and portal venous anatomy is essential before performing PVE. In addition, the indications and contraindications for PVE, the methods for assessing hepatic lobar hypertrophy, the means of determining optimal timing of resection, and the possible complications of PVE need to be fully understood before undertaking the procedure. Technique may vary among operators, but cyanoacrylate glue seems to be the best embolic agent with the highest expected rate of liver regeneration for PVE. The procedure is usually indicated when the remnant liver accounts for less than 25-40% of the total liver volume. Compensatory hypertrophy of the non-embolized segments is maximal during the first 2 weeks and persists, although to a lesser extent during approximately 6 weeks. Liver resection is performed 2 to 6 weeks after embolization. The goal of this article is to discuss the rationale, indications, techniques and outcomes of PVE before major hepatectomy. PMID:26682142

  5. Prediction of Liver Function by Using Magnetic Resonance-based Portal Venous Perfusion Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Yue; Wang Hesheng; Johnson, Timothy D.; Pan, Charlie; Hussain, Hero; Balter, James M.; Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether liver function can be assessed globally and spatially by using volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging MRI (DCE-MRI) to potentially aid in adaptive treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with intrahepatic cancer undergoing focal radiation therapy (RT) were enrolled in institution review board-approved prospective studies to obtain DCE-MRI (to measure regional perfusion) and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance rates (to measure overall liver function) prior to, during, and at 1 and 2 months after treatment. The volumetric distribution of portal venous perfusion in the whole liver was estimated for each scan. We assessed the correlation between mean portal venous perfusion in the nontumor volume of the liver and overall liver function measured by ICG before, during, and after RT. The dose response for regional portal venous perfusion to RT was determined using a linear mixed effects model. Results: There was a significant correlation between the ICG clearance rate and mean portal venous perfusion in the functioning liver parenchyma, suggesting that portal venous perfusion could be used as a surrogate for function. Reduction in regional venous perfusion 1 month after RT was predicted by the locally accumulated biologically corrected dose at the end of RT (P<.0007). Regional portal venous perfusion measured during RT was a significant predictor for regional venous perfusion assessed 1 month after RT (P<.00001). Global hypovenous perfusion pre-RT was observed in 4 patients (3 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis), 3 of whom had recovered from hypoperfusion, except in the highest dose regions, post-RT. In addition, 3 patients who had normal perfusion pre-RT had marked hypervenous perfusion or reperfusion in low-dose regions post-RT. Conclusions: This study suggests that MR-based volumetric hepatic perfusion imaging may be a biomarker for spatial distribution of liver function, which

  6. Glomus tumor of the liver in a cow

    PubMed Central

    HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; KOMAGATA, Makoto; SHITAMURA, Keiichi; CHIBA, Shiori; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; INOKUMA, Hisashi; MATSUI, Takane; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu

    2015-01-01

    An 11-year-old Holstein-Friesian cow exhibited anorexia and jaundice. A large mass was found in the liver during necropsy. Macroscopically, the mass was composed of dark red multilobular tissue and a centrally located abscess, which was connected to the hepatic duct. Histologically, the mass consisted of proliferation of small neoplastic cells and was demarcated from the hepatic parenchyma by a thick region of granulation tissue. The neoplastic cells were predominantly arranged in solid sheets, but they also formed blood-filled cancellous structures, and proliferating foci were seen around blood vessels. Periodic acid-Schiff reaction demonstrated that a fine basement membrane-like structure surrounded the neoplastic cells. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and alpha smooth muscle actin and negative for cytokeratin, factor VIII-related antigen, chromogranin and desmin. Based on its histopathological features, the hepatic neoplasm was diagnosed as a primary glomus tumor. This is the first report about a primary glomus tumor of the liver in a cow. PMID:25715802

  7. Primary Hepatic Osteosarcoma: A Rare Cause of Primary Liver Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Tsering Gyalpo Lama; Shuster, Marina; Chandra, Abhinav B.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Extraosseous osteosarcomas are rare, accounting for approximately 4% of all osteosarcomas. A literature review yields very few cases of osteosarcoma primarily arising from the hepatic parenchyma. CASE REPORT This report describes a case of a man in his 50s with a history of hepatitis C and cirrhosis who presented with 5 days of progressive right upper quadrant pain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a 4.4 cm × 4.8 cm × 4.8 cm right hepatic lobe mass with a large area of necrosis and peripheral enhancement. The subsequent liver biopsy showed few cores of tumor composed of fibroblastic malignant cells producing lace-like osteoid matrix. Osteosarcomatous foci in other parts of the body were excluded by performing extensive physical examination, radiologic imaging, and biopsy. Hence, a primary osteosarcoma was diagnosed. The patient underwent portal vein embolization in preparation for a surgical resection of the right liver lobe. He was admitted six weeks after the embolization for dyspnea and abdominal distension and expired due to abdominal hematoma and pulmonary embolism. CONCLUSION Based on the rarity, lack of consensus in treatment, and dismal prognosis, extraosseous osteosarcoma should be considered a separate entity from osseous osteosarcoma. More data and research are needed in this rare and understudied malignancy. PMID:27081321

  8. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccination Recommendations Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... critical for people with health conditions such as liver disease. If you have chronic liver disease, talk ...

  9. Liver Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Liver Disease Pulmonary & PH Hypertension Did you know that if you have liver disease, you are at risk for pulmonary hypertension? ... tissue diseases (scleroderma and lupus for example), chronic liver disease, congenital heart disease, or HIV infec- tion. ...

  10. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community Join the ... Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn more about ...

  11. Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Index A-Z Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) of Liver Tumors Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a treatment that ... of Liver Tumors? What is Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors? Radiofrequency ablation, sometimes referred to as RFA, ...

  12. About the Operation: Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Transplant There are two very different surgical approaches to liver transplantation: the orthotopic and the heterotopic approach, both ...

  13. Human liver nucleolar antigens.

    PubMed

    Busch, R K; Busch, H

    1981-10-01

    In an extension of previous studies on the antigens in rat liver nucleoli (R. K. Busch, R. C. Reddy, D. H. Henning, and H. Busch, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 160, 185 (1979); R. K. Busch and H. Busch, Tumori 63, 347 (1977); F. M. Davis, R. K. Busch, L. C. Yeoman, and H. Busch, Cancer Res. 38, 1906 (1978), rabbit antibodies were elicited to human liver nucleoli isolated by the sucrose--Mg2+ method (10). Fluorescent nucleoli were found in liver cryostat sections treated with rabbit anti-human liver nucleolar antibodies followed by fluorescein-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibodies. In HeLa cells, fluorescence was distributed throughout the nucleus and in a nuclear network but was not localized to the nucleolus. In placental cryostat sections, an overall nuclear fluorescence was observed with some localization to nucleoli. Immunodiffusion analysis revealed two immunoprecipitin bands which appeared to be liver specific. Other immunoprecipitin bands were common to liver, placenta, and HeLa nuclear extracts. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis revealed two liver-specific antigens, one migrating to the cathode and the other to the anode Other rockets exhibited identity to antigens of other nuclear extracts. These results demonstrate the presence of human liver nucleolar-specific antigens which were not found in the HeLa and placental cells.

  14. Investigations of initial airtightness after non-anatomic resection of lung parenchyma using a thulium-doped laser with different optical fibres.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Andreas; Höchsmann, N; Steinfeldt, T; Seyfer, P; Pehl, A; Bartsch, D K; Palade, E

    2016-08-01

    Lung metastases in healthy patients should be removed non-anatomically whenever possible. This can be done with a laser. Lung parenchyma can be cut very well, because of its high energy absorption at a wavelength of 1940 nm. A coagulation layer is created on the resected surface. It is not clear, whether this surface also needs to be sutured to ensure that it remains airtight even at higher ventilation pressures. It would be helpful, if suturing could be avoided, because the lung can become too puckered, especially with multiple resections, resulting in considerable restriction. We carried out our experiments on isolated and ventilated paracardiac lung lobes of pigs. Non-anatomic resection was carried out reproducibly using three different thulium laser fibres (230, 365 and 600 μm) at two different laser power levels (10 W, 30 W) and three different resection depths (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 cm). Initial airtightness was investigated while ventilating at normal frequency. We also investigated the bursting pressures of the resected areas by increasing the inspiratory pressure. When 230- and 365-μm fibres were used with a power of 10 W, 70 % of samples were initially airtight up to a resection depth of 1 cm. This rate fell at depths of up to 2 cm. All resected surfaces remained airtight during ventilation when 600-μm fibres were used at both laser power levels (10 and 30 W). The bursting pressures achieved with 600-μm fibres were higher than with the other fibres used: 0.5 cm, 41.6 ± 3.2 mbar; 1 cm, 38.2 ± 2.5 mbar; 2 cm, 33.7 ± 4.8 mbar. As laser power and thickness of laser fibre increased, so the coagulation zone became thicker. With a 600-μm fibre, it measured 145.0 ± 8.2 μm with 10 W power and 315.5 ± 6.4 μm with 30 W power. Closure with sutures after non-anatomic resection of lung parenchyma is not necessary when a thulium laser is used provided a 600-μm fibre and adequate laser power (30 W) are employed. At deeper

  15. Impact of adjacent land use on coastal wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Jurasinski, Gerald; Peticzka, Robert; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-15

    Coastal wetlands link terrestrial with marine ecosystems and are influenced from both land and sea. Therefore, they are ecotones with strong biogeochemical gradients. We analyzed sediment characteristics including macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Ni) of two coastal wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis at the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain, a lagoon system at the Southern Baltic Sea, to identify the impact of adjacent land use and to distinguish between influences from land or sea. In the wetland directly adjacent to cropland (study site Dabitz) heavy metal concentrations were significantly elevated. Fertilizer application led to heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of the adjacent wetland zones. In contrast, at the other study site (Michaelsdorf), where the hinterland has been used as pasture, heavy metal concentrations were low. While the amount of macronutrients was also influenced by vegetation characteristics (e.g. carbon) or water chemistry (e.g. sulfate), the accumulation of heavy metals is regarded as purely anthropogenic influence. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on the sediment data showed that the wetland fringes of the two study sites are not distinguishable, neither in their macronutrient status nor in their concentrations of heavy metals, whereas the interior zones exhibit large differences in terms of heavy metal concentrations. This suggests that seaside influences are minor compared to influences from land. Altogether, heavy metal concentrations were still below national precautionary and action values. However, if we regard the macronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the wetland fringes as the natural background values, an accumulation of trace elements from agricultural production in the hinterland is apparent. Thus, coastal wetlands bordering croplands may function as effective pollutant buffers today, but the future development has to be monitored closely to avoid

  16. Adjacent segment disease and C-ADR: promises fulfilled?

    PubMed Central

    Riew, K Daniel; Schenk-Kisser, Jeannette M.; Skelly, Andrea C.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Clinical question: Do the rates and timing of adjacent segment disease (ASD) differ between cervical total disc arthroplasty (C-ADR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in patients treated for cervical degenerative disc disease? Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed and bibliographies of key articles was done to identify studies with long-term follow-up for symptomatic and/or radiographic ASD comparing C-ADR with fusion for degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine. The focus was on studies with longer follow-up (48–60 months) of primary US Food and Drug Administration trials of Prestige ST, Prodisc-C, and Bryan devices as available. Trials of other discs with a minimum of 24 months follow-up were considered for inclusion. Studies evaluating lordosis/angle changes at adjacent segments and case series were excluded. Results: From 14 citations identified, four reports from three randomized controlled trials and four nonrandomized studies are summarized. Risk differences between C-ADR and ACF for symptomatic ASD were 1.5%–2.3% and were not significant across RCT reports. Time to development of ASD did not significantly differ between treatments. Rates of radiographic ASD were variable. No meaningful comparison of ASD rates based on disc design was possible. No statistical differences in adjacent segment range of motion were noted between treatment groups. Conclusion: Our analysis reveals that, to date, there is no evidence that arthroplasty decreases ASD compared with ACDF; the promise of arthroplasty decreasing ASD has not been fulfilled. PMID:23236312

  17. Change of supercooling capability in solutions containing different kinds of ice nucleators by flavonol glycosides from deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells in trees.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Kasuga, Jun; Wang, Donghui; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Arakawa, Keita; Koyama, Toshie; Inada, Takaaki; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2011-12-01

    Deep supercooling xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) in Katsura tree contain flavonol glycosides with high supercooling-facilitating capability in solutions containing the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, which is thought to have an important role in deep supercooling of XPCs. The present study, in order to further clarify the roles of these flavonol glycosides in deep supercooling of XPCs, the effects of these supercooling-facilitating (anti-ice nucleating) flavonol glycosides, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (K3Glc), kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (K7Glc) and quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (Q3Glc), in buffered Milli-Q water (BMQW) containing different kinds of ice nucleators, including INB Xanthomonas campestris, silver iodide and phloroglucinol, were examined by a droplet freezing assay. The results showed that all of the flavonol glycosides promoted supercooling in all solutions containing different kinds of ice nucleators, although the magnitudes of supercooling capability of each flavonol glycoside changed in solutions containing different kinds of ice nucleators. On the other hand, these flavonol glycosides exhibited complicated nucleating reactions in BMQW, which did not contain identified ice nucleators but contained only unidentified airborne impurities. Q3Glc exhibited both supercooling-facilitating and ice nucleating capabilities depending on the concentrations in such water. Both K3Glc and K7Glc exhibited only ice nucleation capability in such water. It was also shown by an emulsion freezing assay in BMQW that K3Glc and Q3Glc had no effect on homogeneous ice nucleation temperature, whereas K7Glc increased ice nucleation temperature. The results indicated that each flavonol glycoside affected ice nucleation by very complicated and varied reactions. More studies are necessary to determine the exact roles of these flavonol glycosides in deep supercooling of XPCs in which unidentified heterogeneous ice nucleators may exist.

  18. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  19. Stereoselective Organocatalytic Synthesis of Oxindoles with Adjacent Tetrasubstituted Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Engl, Oliver D; Fritz, Sven P; Wennemers, Helma

    2015-07-06

    Oxindoles with adjacent tetrasubstituted stereocenters were obtained in high yields and stereoselectivities by organocatalyzed conjugate addition reactions of monothiomalonates (MTMs) to isatin-derived N-Cbz ketimines. The method requires only a low catalyst loading (2 mol %) and proceeds under mild reaction conditions. Both enantiomers are accessible in good yields and excellent stereoselectivities by using either Takemoto's catalyst or a cinchona alkaloid derivative. The synthetic methodology allowed establishment of a straightforward route to derivatives of the gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist AG-041R.

  20. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  1. Astronaut Charles Duke stands at rock adjacent to 'House Rock'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Apollo 16 lunar module pilot, stands at a rock adjacent (south) to the huge 'House Rock' (barely out of view at right edge). Note shadow at extreme right center where the two moon-exploring crewmen of the mission sampled what they referred to as the 'eastwest split of House Rock' or the open space between this rock and 'House Rock'. Duke has a sample bag in his hand, and a lunar surface rake leans against the large boulder.

  2. Empires and percolation: stochastic merging of adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldous, D. J.; Ong, J. R.; Zhou, W.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a stochastic model in which adjacent planar regions A, B merge stochastically at some rate λ(A, B) and observe analogies with the well-studied topics of mean-field coagulation and of bond percolation. Do infinite regions appear in finite time? We give a simple condition on λ for this hegemony property to hold, and another simple condition for it to not hold, but there is a large gap between these conditions, which includes the case λ(A, B) ≡ 1. For this case, a non-rigorous analytic argument and simulations suggest hegemony.

  3. [Xenotransplantation of the liver].

    PubMed

    Winkler, M; Schlitt, H J

    1999-01-01

    The development of pigs transgenic for human regulators of complement activation resulted in the nearly total elimination of episodes of hyperacute rejection following discordant solid organ xenotransplantation. Following discordant heart or kidney transplantation, in subhuman primates, graft survival rates of up to several months can be observed. In contrast to these organs, the xenotransplantation of the liver is associated with the inherent problem of the immunological and metabolic compatibility of the large variety of xenoproteins generated. Based on a review of data mainly derived from experimental ex-vivo xenoliver perfusions in patients with hepatic coma, whole organ orthotopic or heterotopic liver xenotransplantation currently is not likely to become a relevant option for the treatment of patients with endstage liver failure. In contrast, clinical studies utilizing different forms of bioartificial liver assist devices are currently underway. Based on preliminary data published, this form of liver support therapy might enter the clinic in the near future.

  4. [Liver diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice.

  5. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  6. Coexistence Analysis of Adjacent Long Term Evolution (LTE) Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Olama, Mohammed M

    2013-01-01

    As the licensing and deployment of Long term evolution (LTE) systems are ramping up, the study of coexistence of LTE systems is an essential topic in civil and military applications. In this paper, we present a coexistence study of adjacent LTE systems aiming at evaluating the effect of inter-system interference on system capacity and performance as a function of some of the most common mitigation techniques: frequency guard band, base station (BS) antenna coupling loss, and user equipment (UE) antenna spacing. A system model is constructed for two collocated macro LTE networks. The developed model takes into consideration the RF propagation environment, power control scheme, and adjacent channel interference. Coexistence studies are performed for a different combination of time/frequency division duplex (TDD/FDD) systems under three different guard-bands of 0MHz, 5MHz, and 10MHz. Numerical results are presented to advice the minimum frequency guard band, BS coupling loss, and UE antenna isolation required for a healthy system operation.

  7. Mimicking liver sinusoidal structures and functions using a 3D-configured microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Du, Yu; Li, Ning; Yang, Hao; Luo, Chunhua; Gong, Yixin; Tong, Chunfang; Gao, Yuxin; Lü, Shouqin; Long, Mian

    2017-02-28

    Physiologically, four major types of hepatic cells - the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells, hepatic stellate cells, and hepatocytes - reside inside liver sinusoids and interact with flowing peripheral cells under blood flow. It is hard to mimic an in vivo liver sinusoid due to its complex multiple cell-cell interactions, spatiotemporal construction, and mechanical microenvironment. Here we developed an in vitro liver sinusoid chip by integrating the four types of primary murine hepatic cells into two adjacent fluid channels separated by a porous permeable membrane, replicating liver's key structures and configurations. Each type of cells was identified with its respective markers, and the assembled chip presented the liver-specific unique morphology of fenestration. The flow field in the liver chip was quantitatively analyzed by computational fluid dynamics simulations and particle tracking visualization tests. Intriguingly, co-culture and shear flow enhance albumin secretion independently or cooperatively, while shear flow alone enhances HGF production and CYP450 metabolism. Under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulations, the hepatic cell co-culture facilitated neutrophil recruitment in the liver chip. Thus, this 3D-configured in vitro liver chip integrates the two key factors of shear flow and the four types of primary hepatic cells to replicate key structures, hepatic functions, and primary immune responses and provides a new in vitro model to investigate the short-duration hepatic cellular interactions under a microenvironment mimicking the physiology of a liver.

  8. Pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Ce; Zhang, Quan-Bao; Qiao, Liang

    2014-06-21

    Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases, and fibrosis is the precursor of cirrhosis. Many types of cells, cytokines and miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in fibrosis. Defenestration and capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are major contributing factors to hepatic dysfunction in liver cirrhosis. Activated Kupffer cells destroy hepatocytes and stimulate the activation of HSCs. Repeated cycles of apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes contribute to pathogenesis of cirrhosis. At the molecular level, many cytokines are involved in mediation of signaling pathways that regulate activation of HSCs and fibrogenesis. Recently, miRNAs as a post-transcriptional regulator have been found to play a key role in fibrosis and cirrhosis. Robust animal models of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, as well as the recently identified critical cellular and molecular factors involved in the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis will facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for these conditions.

  9. Proteoglycans in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baghy, Kornélia; Tátrai, Péter; Regős, Eszter; Kovalszky, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycans are a group of molecules that contain at least one glycosaminoglycan chain, such as a heparan, dermatan, chondroitin, or keratan sulfate, covalently attached to the protein core. These molecules are categorized based on their structure, localization, and function, and can be found in the extracellular matrix, on the cell surface, and in the cytoplasm. Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as syndecans, are the primary type present in healthy liver tissue. However, deterioration of the liver results in overproduction of other proteoglycan types. The purpose of this article is to provide a current summary of the most relevant data implicating proteoglycans in the development and progression of human and experimental liver cancer. A review of our work and other studies in the literature indicate that deterioration of liver function is accompanied by an increase in the amount of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. The alteration of proteoglycan composition interferes with the physiologic function of the liver on several levels. This article details and discusses the roles of syndecan-1, glypicans, agrin, perlecan, collagen XVIII/endostatin, endocan, serglycin, decorin, biglycan, asporin, fibromodulin, lumican, and versican in liver function. Specifically, glypicans, agrin, and versican play significant roles in the development of liver cancer. Conversely, the presence of decorin could potentially provide protective effects. PMID:26755884

  10. Elastin in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Kanta, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    A characteristic feature of liver cirrhosis is the accumulation of large amounts of connective tissue with the prevailing content of type I collagen. Elastin is a minor connective tissue component in normal liver but it is actively synthesized by hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts in diseased liver. The accumulation of elastic fibers in later stages of liver fibrosis may contribute to the decreasing reversibility of the disease with advancing time. Elastin is formed by polymerization of tropoelastin monomers. It is an amorphous protein highly resistant to the action of proteases that forms the core of elastic fibers. Microfibrils surrounding the core are composed of fibrillins that bind a number of proteins involved in fiber formation. They include microfibril-associated glycoproteins (MAGPs), microfibrillar-associated proteins (MFAPs) and fibulins. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) and lysyl oxidase-like proteins (LOXLs) are responsible for tropoelastin cross-linking and polymerization. TGF-β complexes attached to microfibrils release this cytokine and influence the behavior of the cells in the neighborhood. The role of TGF-β as the main profibrotic cytokine in the liver is well-known and the release of the cytokines of TGF-β superfamily from their storage in elastic fibers may affect the course of fibrosis. Elastic fibers are often studied in the tissues where they provide elasticity and resilience but their role is no longer viewed as purely mechanical. Tropoelastin, elastin polymer and elastin peptides resulting from partial elastin degradation influence fibroblastic and inflammatory cells as well as angiogenesis. A similar role may be performed by elastin in the liver. This article reviews the results of the research of liver elastic fibers on the background of the present knowledge of elastin biochemistry and physiology. The regulation of liver elastin synthesis and degradation may be important for the outcome of liver fibrosis. PMID:27826254

  11. SU-D-BRF-04: Digital Tomosynthesis for Improved Daily Setup in Treatment of Liver Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, H; Jones, B; Miften, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Daily localization of liver lesions with cone-beam CT (CBCT) is difficult due to poor image quality caused by scatter, respiratory motion, and the lack of radiographic contrast between the liver parenchyma and the lesion(s). Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is investigated as a modality to improve liver visualization and lesion/parenchyma contrast for daily setup. Methods: An in-house tool was developed to generate DTS images using a point-by-point filtered back-projection method from on-board CBCT projection data. DTS image planes are generated in a user defined orientation to visualize the anatomy at various depths. Reference DTS images are obtained from forward projection of the planning CT dataset at each projection angle. The CBCT DTS image set can then be registered to the reference DTS image set as a means for localization. Contour data from the planning CT's associate RT Structure file and forward projected similarly to the planning CT data. DTS images are created for each contoured structure, which can then be overlaid onto the DTS images for organ volume visualization. Results: High resolution DTS images generated from CBCT projections show fine anatomical detail, including small blood vessels, within the patient. However, the reference DTS images generated from forward projection of the planning CT lacks this level of detail due to the low resolution of the CT voxels as compared to the pixel size in the projection images; typically 1mm-by-1mm-by-3mm (lat, vrt, lng) for the planning CT vs. 0.4mm-by-0.4mm for CBCT projections. Overlaying of the contours onto the DTS image allows for visualization of structures of interest. Conclusion: The ability to generate DTS images over a limited range of projection angles allows for reduction in the amount of respiratory motion within each acquisition. DTS may provide improved visualization of structures and lesions as compared to CBCT for highly mobile tumors.

  12. Ion Channels in the Xylem Parenchyma of Barley Roots (A Procedure to Isolate Protoplasts from This Tissue and a Patch-Clamp Exploration of Salt Passageways into Xylem Vessels.

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, L. H.; Raschke, K.

    1994-01-01

    To identify mechanisms for the simultaneous release of anions and cations into the xylem sap in roots, we investigated voltage-dependent ion conductances in the plasmalemma of xylem parenchyma cells. We applied the patch-clamp technique to protoplasts isolated from the xylem parenchyma by differential enzymic digestion of steles of barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Apex). In the whole-cell configuration, three types of cation-selective rectifiers could be identified: (a) one activated at membrane potentials above about -50 mV; (b) a second type of outward current appeared at membrane potentials above +20 to +40 mV; (c) below a membrane potential of approximately -110 mV, an inward rectifier could be distinguished. In addition, an anion-specific conductance manifested itself in single-channel activity in a voltage range extending from about -100 to +30 mV, with remarkably slow gating. In excised patches, K+ channels activated at hyperpolarization as well as at depolarization. We suggest that salt is released from the xylem parenchyma into the xylem apoplast by simultaneous flow of cations and anions through channels, following electrochemical gradients set up by the ion uptake processes in the cortex and, possibly, the release and reabsorption of ions on their way to the xylem. PMID:12232243

  13. Liver Transplantation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Handouts Liver transplant (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Liver Transplantation updates ... ENCYCLOPEDIA Liver transplant Liver transplant - slideshow Related Health Topics Cirrhosis Hepatitis Liver Diseases Organ Transplantation National Institutes ...

  14. General Information about Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  15. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  16. Morphological and biochemical characterization of a human liver in a uPA-SCID mouse chimera.

    PubMed

    Meuleman, Philip; Libbrecht, Louis; De Vos, Rita; de Hemptinne, Bernard; Gevaert, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Roskams, Tania; Leroux-Roels, Geert

    2005-04-01

    A small animal model harboring a functional human liver cell xenograft would be a useful tool to study human liver cell biology, drug metabolism, and infections with hepatotropic viruses. Here we describe the repopulation, organization, and function of human hepatocytes in a mouse recipient and the infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) of the transplanted cells. Homozygous urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-SCID mice underwent transplantation with primary human hepatocytes, and at different times animals were bled and sacrificed to analyze plasma and liver tissue, respectively. The plasma of mice that were successfully transplanted contained albumin and an additional 21 human proteins. Liver histology showed progressive and massive replacement of diseased mouse tissue by human hepatocytes. These cells were accumulating glycogen but appeared otherwise normal and showed no signs of damage or death. They formed functional bile canaliculi that connected to mouse canaliculi. Besides mature hepatocytes, human hepatic progenitor cells that were differentiating into mature hepatocytes could be identified within liver parenchyma. Infection of chimeric mice with HBV or HCV resulted in an active infection that did not alter the liver function and architecture. Electron microscopy showed the presence of viral and subviral structures in HBV infected hepatocytes. In conclusion, human hepatocytes repopulate the uPA(+/+)-SCID mouse liver in a very organized fashion with preservation of normal cell function. The presence of human hepatic progenitor cells in these chimeric animals necessitates a critical review of the observations and conclusions made in experiments with isolated "mature" hepatocytes. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the HEPATOLOGY website (http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0270-9139/suppmat/index.html).

  17. Statistical modeling of human liver incorporating the variations in shape, size, and material properties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan-Chiao; Kemper, Andrew R; Gayzik, Scott; Untaroiu, Costin D; Beillas, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    The liver is one of the most frequently injured abdominal organs during motor vehicle crashes. Realistic numerical assessments of liver injury risk for the entire occupant population require incorporating inter-subject variations into numerical models. The main objective of this study was to quantify the shape variations of human liver in a seated posture and the statistical distributions of its material properties. Statistical shape analysis was applied to construct shape models of the livers of 15 adult human subjects, recorded in a typical seated (occupant) posture. The principal component analysis was then utilized to obtain the modes of variation, the mean model, and 95% statistical boundary shape models. In addition, a total of 52 tensile tests were performed on the parenchyma of three fresh human livers at four loading rates (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 s^-1) to characterize the rate-dependent and failure properties of the human liver. A FE-based optimization approach was employed to identify the material parameters of an Ogden material model for each specimen. The mean material parameters were then determined for each loading rate from the characteristic averages of the stress-strain curves, and a stochastic optimization approach was utilized to determine the standard deviations of the material parameters. Results showed that the first five modes of the human liver shape models account for more than 60% of the overall anatomical variations. The distributions of the material parameters combined with the mean and statistical boundary shape models could be used to develop probabilistic finite element (FE) models, which may help to better understand the variability in biomechanical responses and injuries to the abdominal organs under impact loading.

  18. Expression and localization of rat NBC4c in liver and renal uroepithelium.

    PubMed

    Abuladze, Natalia; Pushkin, Alexander; Tatishchev, Sergei; Newman, Debra; Sassani, Pakan; Kurtz, Ira

    2004-09-01

    Previous studies provided functional evidence for electrogenic Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransport in hepatocytes and in intrahepatic bile duct cholangiocytes. The molecular identity of the transporters mediating electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransport in the liver is currently unknown. Of the known electrogenic Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransporters (NBC1 and NBC4), we previously showed that NBC4 mRNA is highly expressed in the liver. In the present study, we performed RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry to characterize the expression pattern of NBC4 in rat liver and kidney. For immunodetection, a polyclonal antibody against rat NBC4 was generated and affinity purified. Of the known human NBC4 variants, only the rat NBC4c ortholog was detected by RT-PCR in rat liver, and the molecular mass of the NBC4c protein was approximately 145 kDa. NBC4c protein was expressed in hepatocytes and in the cholangiocytes lining the intrahepatic bile ducts. In hepatocytes, NBC4c was localized to the basolateral plasma membrane, whereas intrahepatic cholangiocytes stained apically. The NBC1 electrogenic sodium cotransporter variants kNBC1 and pNBC1 were not detected by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry in rat liver. The pattern of localization of NBC4c in the liver suggests that the cotransporter plays a role in mediating Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransport in hepatocytes and intrahepatic cholangiocytes. Unlike the liver, the rat kidney expressed electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter proteins kNBC1 and NBC4c. In kidney, NBC4c also had a molecular mass of approximately 145 kDa and was immunolocalized to uroepithelial cells lining the renal pelvis, where the cotransporter may play an important role in protecting the renal parenchyma from alterations in urine pH.

  19. Th2-Associated Alternative Kupffer Cell Activation Promotes Liver Fibrosis without Inducing Local Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    López-Navarrete, Giuliana; Ramos-Martínez, Espiridión; Suárez-Álvarez, Karina; Aguirre-García, Jesús; Ledezma-Soto, Yadira; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Gudiño-Zayas, Marco; Guzmán, Carolina; Gutiérrez-Reyes, Gabriela; Hernández-Ruíz, Joselín; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Kershenobich, David; Terrazas, Luis I.; Escobedo, Galileo

    2011-01-01

    Cirrhosis is the final outcome of liver fibrosis. Kupffer cell-mediated hepatic inflammation is considered to aggravate liver injury and fibrosis. Alternatively-activated macrophages are able to control chronic inflammatory events and trigger wound healing processes. Nevertheless, the role of alternative Kupffer cell activation in liver harm is largely unclear. Thus, we evaluated the participation of alternatively-activated Kupffer cells during liver inflammation and fibrosis in the murine model of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage. To stimulate alternative activation in Kupffer cells, 20 Taenia crassiceps (Tc) larvae were inoculated into BALBc/AnN female mice. Six weeks post-inoculation, carbon tetrachloride or olive oil were orally administered to Tc-inoculated and non-inoculated mice twice per week during other six weeks. The initial exposure of animals to T. crassiceps resulted in high serum concentrations of IL-4 accompanied by a significant increase in the hepatic mRNA levels of Ym-1, with no alteration in iNOS expression. In response to carbon tetrachloride, recruitment of inflammatory cell populations into the hepatic parenchyma was 5-fold higher in non-inoculated animals than Tc-inoculated mice. In contrast, carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis was significantly less in non-inoculated animals than in the Tc-inoculated group. The latter showed elevated IL-4 serum levels and low IFN-γ concentrations during the whole experiment, associated with hepatic expression of IL-4, TGF-β, desmin and α-sma, as well as increased mRNA levels of Arg-1, Ym-1, FIZZ-1 and MMR in Kupffer cells. These results suggest that alternative Kupffer cell activation is favored in a Th2 microenvironment, whereby such liver resident macrophages could exhibit a dichotomic role during chronic hepatic damage, being involved in attenuation of the inflammatory response but at the same time exacerbation of liver fibrosis. PMID:22110380

  20. Crude extract of cyanobacteria (Radiocystis fernandoi, strain R28) induces liver impairments in fish.

    PubMed

    Paulino, M G; Tavares, D; Bieczynski, F; Pedrão, P G; Souza, N E S; Sakuragui, M M; Luquet, C M; Terezan, A P; Fernandes, J B; Giani, A; Fernandes, M N

    2017-01-01

    Radiocystis fernandoi R28 strain is a cyanobacterium which produces mostly the RR and YR microcystin variants (MC-RR and MC-YR, respectively). The effects of crude extract of the R. fernandoi strain R28 were evaluated on the protein phosphatases and on the structure and ultrastructure of the liver of the Neotropical fish, Hoplias malabaricus, after acute and subchronic exposure. Concomitantly, the accumulation of the majority of MCs was determined in the liver and muscle. The fish were exposed to 120.60 MC-RR+MC-LR kg-fish(-1) (=100μg MC-LReq kg-fish(-1)) for 12 and 96h (one single dose, acute exposure) and 30days (one similar dose every 72h, subchronic exposure). MCs did not accumulate in the muscle but, in the liver, MC-YR accumulated after acute exposure and MC-RR and MC-YR accumulation occurred after subchronic exposure. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity was inhibited only after subchronic exposure. Acute exposure induced liver hyperemia, hemorrhage, changes in hepatocytes and cord-like disorganization. At the ultrastructural level, the decreasing of glycogen and lipid levels, the swelling of mitochondria and whirling of endoplasmic reticulum suggested hepatocyte necrosis. Subchronic exposure resulted in a complete disarrangement of cord-like hepatocytes, some recovery of mitochondria and whirling endoplasmic reticulum and extensive connective tissues containing fibrous materials in the liver parenchyma. Despite microcystin toxicity and liver alterations, no tumor was induced by MCs. In conclusion, the increased algal mass of R. fernandoi in tropical freshwater, producing mainly MC-RR and MC-YR variants, results in fish liver impairments.

  1. Morphological aspects of angiogenesis in experimental liver metastases.

    PubMed Central

    Paku, S.; Lapis, K.

    1993-01-01

    the perimetastatic zone (up to 100 mu) and in the normal liver parenchyma showed neither dilatation of the vessels nor sprouting of new vessels in the former region. There was no difference in the neovascularization of the liver metastases of the high- and low-metastatic carcinoma lines. The dominant type of angiogenesis in liver metastases can be determined by the unique basement membrane architecture of the liver and by the high affinity of 3LL tumor cells to the endothelial side of basement membrane during invasion. Images Figure 1 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 11 Figure 16 PMID:7689793

  2. Isolated IgG4-related cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Wook; Kim, Yongsoo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Jinoo; Kim, Min Yeong; Oh, Young Ha; Pyo, Ju Yeon

    2013-01-01

    A 58-year-old man with right upper quadrant pain was referred to the radiology department. The patient underwent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, which suggested the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer invading the liver. After surgical removal of the gallbladder, and the adjacent liver parenchyma was performed, the histologic diagnosis of IgG4-related cholecystitis was made.

  3. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  4. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  5. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  6. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  7. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  8. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  9. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  10. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  11. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  12. 38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A MOVABLE TIRE BENDER FOR SHAPING ELI WINDMILL WHEEL RIMS. AT THE CENTER IS A FLOOR-MOUNTED CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER OF THE TYPE USED FOR SMOOTHING ROUGH CASTINGS. ON THE WHEELED WORK STATION IS A SUNNEN BUSHING GRINDER, BEHIND WHICH IS A TRIPOD CHAIN VICE. IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND IS A WOODEN CHEST OF DRAWERS WHICH CONTAINS A 'RAG DRAWER' STILL FILLED WITH CLOTH RAGS PLACED IN THE FACTORY BUILDING AT THE INSISTENCE OF LOUISE (MRS. ARTHUR) KREGEL FOR THE CONVENIENCE AND CLEANLINESS OF WORKERS. IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND IS A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  13. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  14. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  15. Scolopendromorpha of New Guinea and adjacent islands (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A; Stoev, Pavel E

    2016-08-04

    The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20th century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings. The old and doubtful record of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844 from New Guinea is referred to S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and the species is here excluded from the present day list of New Guinean scolopendromorphs. Cryptops nepalensis Lewis, 1999 is here recorded from New Guinea for the first time. An annotated list and an identification key to the scolopendromorphs of the studied region are presented.

  16. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  17. Reconnaissance geologic map of Kodiak Island and adjacent islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2013-01-01

    Kodiak Island and its adjacent islands, located on the west side of the Gulf of Alaska, contain one of the largest areas of exposure of the flysch and melange of the Chugach terrane of southern Alaska. However, in the past 25 years, only detailed mapping covering small areas in the archipelago has been done. This map and its associated digital files (Wilson and others, 2005) present the best available mapping compiled in an integrated fashion. The map and associated digital files represent part of a systematic effort to release geologic map data for the United States in a uniform manner. The geologic data have been compiled from a wide variety of sources, ranging from state and regional geologic maps to large-scale field mapping. The map data are presented for use at a nominal scale of 1:500,000, although individual datasets (see Wilson and others, 2005) may contain data suitable for use at larger scales.

  18. Primary sinusoidal lymphoma of the liver revealed by autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Pouderoux, P; Gris, J C; Pignodel, C; Joujoux, J M; Schved, J F; Balmes, J L

    1997-01-01

    Primary liver lymphomas usually present with the clinical picture of a liver tumor, and are characterized by a predominantly portal invasion by lymphoid cells of the B-cell phenotype. We report a case of primary sinusoidal lymphoma of the liver, in a 36 year-old male patient, revealed by homogeneous hepatosplenomegaly and infiltration of liver sinusoids by morphologically normal lymphocytes, without destruction of the parenchyma. Immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissue sections was positive for the pan T-cell marker MTI, weakly positive for UCHLI, and negative for CD3, and B-cell markers were negative; these findings were consistent with the diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma. The clinical, histological and immunological presentation of this lymphoma was similar to that of hepatosplenic gamma delta T-cell lymphoma. Autoimmune hemolytic anaemia preceded the lymphoma. Despite chemotherapy, the patient died 24 months after the initial presentation in the leukemic phase. A better understanding of this exceptional but characteristic entity is required for an accurate and early diagnosis.

  19. Long Term Liver Engraftment of Functional Hepatocytes Obtained from Germline Cell-Derived Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fagoonee, Sharmila; Famulari, Elvira Smeralda; Silengo, Lorenzo; Tolosano, Emanuela; Altruda, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    One of the major hurdles in liver gene and cell therapy is availability of ex vivo-expanded hepatocytes. Pluripotent stem cells are an attractive alternative. Here, we show that hepatocyte precursors can be isolated from male germline cell-derived pluripotent stem cells (GPSCs) using the hepatoblast marker, Liv2, and induced to differentiate into hepatocytes in vitro. These cells expressed hepatic-specific genes and were functional as demonstrated by their ability to secrete albumin and produce urea. When transplanted in the liver parenchyma of partially hepatectomised mice, Liv2-sorted cells showed regional and heterogeneous engraftment in the injected lobe. Moreover, approximately 50% of Y chromosome-positive, GPSC-derived cells were found in the female livers, in the region of engraftment, even one month after cell injection. This is the first study showing that Liv2-sorted GPSCs-derived hepatocytes can undergo long lasting engraftment in the mouse liver. Thus, GPSCs might offer promise for regenerative medicine. PMID:26323094

  20. Fibrosis assessment: impact on current management of chronic liver disease and application of quantitative invasive tools.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Hou, Jin-Lin

    2016-05-01

    Fibrosis, a common pathogenic pathway of chronic liver disease (CLD), has long been indicated to be significantly and most importantly associated with severe prognosis. Nowadays, with remarkable advances in understanding and/or treatment of major CLDs such as hepatitis C, B, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, there is an unprecedented requirement for the diagnosis and assessment of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis in various clinical settings. Among the available approaches, liver biopsy remains the one which possibly provides the most direct and reliable information regarding fibrosis patterns and changes in the parenchyma at different clinical stages and with different etiologies. Thus, many endeavors have been undertaken for developing methodologies based on the strategy of quantitation for the invasive assessment. Here, we analyze the impact of fibrosis assessment on the CLD patient care based on the data of recent clinical studies. We discuss and update the current invasive tools regarding their technological features and potentials for the particular clinical applications. Furthermore, we propose the potential resolutions with application of quantitative invasive tools for some major issues in fibrosis assessment, which appear to be obstacles against the nowadays rapid progress in CLD medicine.